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Sample records for dual-cured resin luting

  1. The effect of curing light and chemical catalyst on the degree of conversion of two dual cured resin luting cements.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different curing lights and chemical catalysts on the degree of conversion of resin luting cements. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens of RelyX ARC or Panavia F of diameter 5 mm and thickness 0.5 mm were prepared and the respective chemical catalyst (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus or ED Primer) was added. The specimens were light-cured using different curing units (an argon ion laser, an LED or a quartz-tungsten-halogen light) through shade A2 composite disks of diameter 10 mm and thickness 2 mm. After 24 h of dry storage at 37°C, the degree of conversion of the resin luting cements was measured by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used, with p ≤ 0.05. Panavia F when used without catalyst and cured using the LED or the argon ion laser showed degree of conversion values significantly lower than RelyX ARC, with and without catalyst, and cured with any of the light sources. Therefore, the degree of conversion of Panavia F with ED Primer cured with the quartz-tungsten-halogen light was significantly different from that of RelyX ARC regardless of the use of the chemical catalyst and light curing source. In conclusion, RelyX ARC can be cured satisfactorily with the argon ion laser, LED or quartz-tungsten-halogen light with or without a chemical catalyst. To obtain a satisfactory degree of conversion, Panavia F luting cement should be used with ED Primer and cured with halogen light.

  2. Luting of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: direct composite versus dual-cure luting cement.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations.

  3. Changes on degree of conversion of dual-cure luting light-cured with blue LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandéca, M. C.; El-Mowafy, O.; Saade, E. G.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

    2009-05-01

    The indirect adhesive procedures constitute recently a substantial portion of contemporary esthetic restorative treatments. The resin cements have been used to bond tooth substrate and restorative materials. Due to recently introduction of the self-bonding resin luting cement based on a new monomer, filler and initiation technology has become important to study the degree of conversion of these new materials. In the present work the polymerization reaction and the filler content of dual-cured dental resin cements were studied by means of infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Twenty specimens were made in a metallic mold (8 mm diameter × 1 mm thick) from each of 2 cements, Panavia® F2.0 (Kuraray) and RelyX™ Unicem Applicap (3M/ESPE). Each specimen was cured with blue LED with power density of 500 mW/cm2 for 30 s. Immediately after curing, 24 and 48 h, and 7 days DC was determined. For each time interval 5 specimens were pulverized, pressed with KBr and analyzed with FT-IR. The TG measurements were performed in Netzsch TG 209 under oxygen atmosphere and heating rate of 10°C/min from 25 to 700°C. A two-way ANOVA showed DC (%) mean values statistically significance differences between two cements ( p < 0.05). The Tukey’s test showed no significant difference only for the 24 and 48 h after light irradiation for both resin cements ( p > 0.05). The Relx-Y™ Unicem mean values were significantly higher than Panavia® F 2.0. The degree of conversion means values increasing with the storage time and the filler content showed similar for both resin cements.

  4. Comparison of Apical Microleakage of Dual-Curing Resin Cements with Fluid-Filtration and Dye Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Sadullah; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Adigüzel, Özkan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Değer, Yalçın; Tümen, Emin Caner; Uysal, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure are frequently restored using fiber posts. In this in vitro study, the apical leakage of self- and dual-activated curing modes for dual-curing resins cementing a translucent fiber post was evaluated using computerized fluid filtration meter and dye extraction method. Material/Methods One hundred and four extracted human maxillary incisors with single root and canal were used. Experimental samples embedded in a closed system were divided into 4 groups (n=20) according to 2 dual-curing luting systems, with 2 different curing modes (either with self- or light-activation): (1) Panavia F 2.0 with self-cure, (2) Panavia F 2.0 with light-activation, (3) Clearfill SA with self-cure, and (4) Clearfill SA with light activation. Twenty-four teeth served as negative and positive controls. Translucent fiber posts were luted in the roots except in the control groups. Results Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in leakage among groups (p>0.05) with 4.12×10−4 (Panavia self-cure), 4.55×10−4 (Clearfill SA self-cure), 5.17×10−4 (Panavia dual-cure), and 5.59×10−4 (Clearfill SA dual-cure) in fluid-filtration method. Absorbance values for dye-extraction method were 266 nanometer (nm) (Panavia self-cure), 268 nm (Clearfill SA self-cure), 270 nm (Panavia dual-cure), and 271 nm (Clearfill SA dual-cure), in which difference among the groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When comparing the leakage, assessment methods results showed no statistically significant difference between the tested evaluation techniques (p>0.05). Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID:25824712

  5. Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Elif; Hickel, Reinhard; Bolay, Sükran; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite films of ca. 170 μm in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent; RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and a dual-cured luting resin (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent). The composites were cured by using a LED-unit (Bluephase®, Ivoclar Vivadent) with three different curing times (10, 20, and 30 s) under two ceramics (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent; IPS Empress® CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) of different thicknesses (0, 0.75, and 2 mm). Forty-five groups were included, each containing six thin films. The samples were stored after curing for 24 h at 37°C by maintaining moisture conditions with distilled water. Micromechanical properties of the composites were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). For each sample, ten indentations were made, thus totalizing 60 measurements per group. Micromechanical properties of the luting resins were statistically analyzed (SPSS 17.0). Significant differences were observed between the micromechanical properties of the luting resins (p < 0.05). Variolink II showed the highest values in modulus of elasticity (E = 11 ± 0.5)* and Vickers hardness (HV = 48.2 ± 3.2)* and the lowest values in creep (Cr = 4.3 ± 0.1)* and elastic-plastic deformation (We/Wtot = 38.6 ± 0.7)* followed by RelyX Veneer (E = 6.9 ± 0.3, HV = 33 ± 2.5, Cr = 4.6 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 41.8 ± 1.0)* and Variolink Veneer (E = 4.4 ± 0.4, HV = 20.1 ± 2.6, Cr = 5 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 43.7 ± 1.3)*. Dual-cured luting resin expressed higher values in the micro-mechanical properties compared to the light-cured luting resins. The effect of luting resin type on the micromechanical properties of the luting resins was higher than the effect of

  6. Effect of curing mode on the micro-mechanical properties of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Nicoleta; Simon, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Light supplying to luting resin cements is impeded in several clinical situations, causing us to question whether materials can properly be cured to achieve adequately (or adequate) mechanical properties. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the effect of light on the micro-mechanical properties of eight popular dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements by comparing them with two conventional, also dual-cured, resin cements. Four different curing procedures were applied: auto-polymerisation (dark curing) and light curing (LED unit, Freelight 2, 20 s) by applying the unit directly on the samples' surface, at a distance of 5 and 10 mm. Twenty minutes after curing, the samples were stored for 1 week at 37°C in a water-saturated atmosphere. The micro-mechanical properties-Vickers hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep and elastic/plastic deformation-were measured. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and partial eta-squared statistics (p < 0.05). A very strong influence of the material as well as filler volume and weight on the micro-mechanical properties was measured, whereas the influence of the curing procedure and type of cement-conventional or self-adhesive-was generally low. The influence of light on the polymerisation process was material dependent, with four different behaviour patterns to be distinguished. As a material category, significantly higher micro-mechanical properties were measured for the conventional compared to the self-adhesive resin cements, although this difference was low. Within the self-adhesive resin cements group, the variation in micro-mechanical properties was high. The selection of suitable resin cements should be done by considering, besides its adhesive properties, its micro-mechanical properties and curing behaviour also.

  7. Conventional dual-cure versus self-adhesive resin cements in dentin bond integrity

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Renata Andreza Talaveira; COUTINHO, Margareth; CARDOZO, Pedro Igor; da SILVA, Larissa Alves; ZORZATTO, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    During post preparation, the root canal is exposed to the oral cavity, and endodontic treatment may fail because of coronal leakage, bacterial infection and sealing inability of the luting cement. Objective this study quantified the interfacial continuity produced with conventional dual-cure and self-adhesive resin cements in the cervical (C), medium (M) and apical (A) thirds of the root. Material and methods Forty single-rooted human teeth were restored using Reforpost # 01 conical glass-fiber posts and different materials (N=10 per group): group AC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + AllCem; group ARC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + RelyX ARC; group U100=RelyX U100; and group MXC=Maxcem Elite. After being kept in 100% humidity at 37ºC for 72 hours, the samples were sectioned parallel to their longitudinal axis and positive epoxy resin replicas were made. The scanning electron micrographs of each third section of the teeth were combined using Image Analyst software and measured with AutoCAD-2002. We obtained percentage values of the interfacial continuity. Results Interfacial continuity was similar in the apical, medium and cervical thirds of the roots within the groups (Friedman test, p>0.05). Comparison of the different cements in a same root third showed that interfacial continuity was lower in MXC (C=45.5%; M=48.5%; A=47.3%) than in AC (C=85.9%, M=81.8% and A=76.0%), ARC (C=83.8%, M=82.4% and A=75.0%) and U100 (C=84.1%, M=82.4% and A=77.3%) (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05). Conclusions Allcem, Rely X ARC and U100 provide the best cementation; cementation was similar among root portions; in practical terms, U100 is the best resin because it combines good cementation and easy application and none of the cements provides complete interfacial continuity. PMID:21710099

  8. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Heba A.; Ghalab, Radwa M.; Elsayed Akah, Mai M.; Mobarak, Enas H.

    2015-01-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm2) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64–86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage. PMID:26966567

  9. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials.

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Heba A; Ghalab, Radwa M; Elsayed Akah, Mai M; Mobarak, Enas H

    2016-03-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers' instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm(2)) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64-86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage.

  10. Influence of energy density of different light sources on Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    Piva, Evandro; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Simonides; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Powers, John Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin-based luting cement irradiated with different light sources as well energy density through a ceramic sample. Three light-curing unit (LCUs) were tested: tungsten halogen light (HAL), light-emitting diode (LED) and xenon plasma-arc (PAC) lamp. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from a resin-based cement (Enforce). Three energy doses were used by modifying the irradiance (I) of each LCU and the irradiation time (T): 24 Jcm(-2) (I/2x2T), 24 Jcm(-2) (IxT) and 48 Jcm(-2) (Ix2T). Energy doses were applied through a 2.0-mm-thick ceramic sample (Duceram Plus). Three groups underwent direct irradiation over the resin cement with the different LCUs and a chemically-activated group served as a control. Thirteen groups were tested (n=10). Knoop hardness number (KHN) means were obtained from cross-sectional areas. Two-way ANOVA and the Holm-Sidak method were used for statistical comparisons of activation mode and energy doses (alpha=5%). Application of 48 J.cm(-2) energy dose through the ceramic using LED (50.5+/-2.8) and HAL (50.9+/-3.7) produced significantly higher KHN means (p<0.05) than the control (44.7+/-3.8). LED showed statistically similar performance to HAL. Only HAL showed a relationship between the increase of LCU energy dose and hardness increase.

  11. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    PubMed Central

    KİLİC, Kerem; ARSLAN, Soley; DEMETOGLU, Goknil Alkan; ZARARSIZ, Gokmen; KESİM, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods: Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results: There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences found between the control and the other groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination. PMID:23559118

  12. The influence of four dual-cure resin cements and surface treatment selection to bond strength of fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Hong; Qian, Yue-Tong; Zhu, Song; Zhao, Su-Qian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the influence of post surface pre-treatments on the bond strength of four different cements to glass fiber posts. Eighty extracted human maxillary central incisors and canines were endodontically treated and standardized post spaces were prepared. Four post pre-treatments were tested: (i) no pre-treatment (NS, control), (ii) sandblasting (SA), (iii) silanization (SI) and (iv) sandblasting followed by silanization (SS). Per pre-treatment, four dual-cure resin cements were used for luting posts: DMG LUXACORE Smartmix Dual, Multilink Automix, RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0. All the specimens were subjected to micro push-out test. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were performed (α=0.05) to analyze the data. Bond strength was significantly affected by the type of resin cement, and bond strengths of RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0 to the fiber posts were significantly higher than the other cement groups. Sandblasting significantly increased the bond strength of DMG group to the fiber posts. PMID:24177170

  13. A Twofold Comparison between Dual Cure Resin Modified Cement and Glass Ionomer Cement for Orthodontic Band Cementation

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Hanaa El; Elhiny, Omnia; Salem, Ghada; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Attia, Mazen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To test the solubility of dual cure resin modified resin cement in a food simulating solution and the shear bond strength compared to conventional Glass ionomer cement. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The materials tested were self-adhesive dual cure resin modified cement and Glass Ionomer (GIC). Twenty Teflon moulds were divided into two groups of tens. The first group was injected and packed with the modified resin cement, the second group was packed with GIC. To test the solubility, each mould was weighed before and after being placed in an analytical reagent for 30 days. The solubility was measured as the difference between the initial and final drying mass. To measure the Shear bond strength, 20 freshly extracted wisdom teeth were equally divided into two groups and embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Four mm sections of stainless steel bands were cemented to the exposed buccal surfaces of teeth under a constant load of 500 g. Shear bond strength was measured using a computer controlled materials testing machine and the load required to deband the samples was recorded in Newtons. RESULTS: GIC showed significantly higher mean weight loss and an insignificant lower Shear bond strength, compared to dual cure resin Cement. CONCLUSION: It was found that dual cure resin modified cement was less soluble than glass ionomer cement and of comparable bond strength rendering it more useful clinically for orthodontic band cementation. PMID:28028417

  14. Silver nanoparticles in resin luting cements: Antibacterial and physiochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Francine-Couto-Lima; Alves, Denise-Ramos-Silveira; Estrela, Cyntia-Rodrigues-Araújo; Estrela, Carlos; Carrião, Marcus-Santos; Bakuzis, Andris-Figueiroa; Lopes, Lawrence-Gonzaga

    2016-01-01

    Background Silver has a long history of use in medicine as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Silver nanoparticles (NAg) offer the possibility to control the formation oral biofilms through the use of nanoparticles with biocidal, anti-adhesive, and delivery abilities. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect of resin luting cements with and without NAg, and their influence on color, sorption and solubility. Material and Methods NAg were incorporated to two dual-cured resin cements (RelyX ARC (RA) color A1 and RelyX U200 (RU) color A2) in two concentrations (0.05% and 0.07%, in weight), obtaining six experimental groups. Disc specimens (1x6mm) were obtained to verify the antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans in BHI broth after immersion for 1min, 5min, 1h, 6h, and 24h (n=3), through optical density readings. Specimens were evaluated for color changes after addition of NAg with a spectrophotometer (n=10). Sorption and solubility tests were also performed, considering storage in water or 75% ethanol for 28 days (n=5), according to ISO 4049:2010. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Tukey (p=0.05). Results The optical density of the culture broths indicated bacterial growth, with and without NAg. NAg produced significant color change on the resin cements, especially in RA. Solubility values were very low for all groups, while sorption values raised with NAg. The cements with NAg did not show antibacterial activity against S. mutans. They also showed perceptible color change and higher sorption than the materials without NAg. Conclusions The resin luting cements with NAg addition did not show antibacterial activity against SS. mutans. They also showed perceptible color change and higher sorption than the materials without NAg. Key words:Silver, resin cements, products with antimicrobial action, solubility, color perception tests. PMID:27703610

  15. Evaluation of shear bond strength between dual cure resin cement and zirconia ceramic after thermocycling treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Kang, Cheol-Kyun; Oh, Ju-Won

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was performed to evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) between three dual-cured resin cements and silica coated zirconia, before and after thermocycling treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty specimens were cut in 15 × 2.75 mm discs using zirconia. After air blasting of 50 µm alumina, samples were prepared by tribochemical silica coating with Rocatec™ plus. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the dual-cure resin cement used: (1) Calibra silane+Calibra®, (2) Monobond S+Multilink® N and (3) ESPN sil+RelyX™ Unicem Clicker. After the resin cement was bonded to the zirconia using a Teflon mold, photopolymerization was carried out. Only 10 specimens in each group were thermocycled 6,000 times. Depending on thermocycling treatment, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=10) and SBS was measured by applying force at the speed of 1 mm/min using a universal testing machine. To find out the differences in SBS according to the types of cements and thermocycling using the SPSS, two-way ANOVA was conducted and post-hoc analysis was performed by Turkey's test. RESULTS In non-thermal aged groups, SBS of Multilink group (M1) was higher than that of Calibra (C1) and Unicem (U1) group (P<.05). Moreover, even after thermocycling treatment, SBS of Multilink group (M2) was higher than the other groups (C2 and U2). All three cements showed lower SBS after the thermocycling than before the treatments. But Multilink and Unicem had a significant difference (P<.05). CONCLUSION In this experiment, Multilink showed the highest SBS before and after thermocycling. Also, bond strengths of all three cements decreased after thermocycling. PMID:25722830

  16. The effect of simplified adhesives on the bond strength to dentin of dual-cure resin cements.

    PubMed

    Shade, A M; Wajdowicz, M N; Bailey, C W; Vandewalle, K S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths to dentin of two dual-cure resin cements, one with a unique initiator, NX3 (Kerr Corp), and the other with a traditional redox-initiator system, Calibra (Dentsply), when used in combination with simplified or nonsimplified adhesive agents. The two dual-cure resin cements, in either self- or dual-cure activation modes, were bonded to human dentin with four dental adhesives to create 16 subgroups of 10 specimens each. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the specimens were tested in shear in a universal testing machine. With both NX3 and Calibra, bond strengths significantly increased when the specimens were dual cured. In addition, with either cement in either mode, the nonsimplified adhesives performed significantly better than did the simplified adhesive bonding agents. When used specifically with simplified adhesives in either cure mode, NX3 did not produce significantly higher bond strengths than did Calibra. In general, lower dentin bond strengths were found with simplified adhesives or self-cure activation with either resin cement.

  17. Effect of Resin Bonded Luting Agents Influencing Marginal Discrepancy in All Ceramic Complete Veneer Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamoorthy, Anusha; Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Murthykumar, Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Marginal discrepancy severely affects the long term success of All ceramic complete veneer crowns. The precise role of resin luting agents influencing this phenomenon needs to be explored further. Aim To estimate and compare the marginal discrepancy in CAD/CAM processed All ceramic complete veneer crowns prior and following luting with resin bonded luting agents. Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary first premolars were randomly allocated into four groups of 27 samples each Viz., Group I-Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) (RelyX), Group II-Bis-GMA based dual cure resin cement (Variolink II), Group III-PMMA based resin cement (Superbond), Group IV- Urethane Dimethacrylate resin cement (Calibra). Following tooth preparation, CAD/CAM All ceramic complete veneer crowns were fabricated and sectioned and marginal discrepancy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN, Magnification power-1,00,000x) prior and after luting with the experimental resin cements. Results The vertical and horizontal discrepancy before and after cementation with Group I [270.08±103.10μm, 165.3±53.00μm and 270.86±102.70μm, 166.62±54.96μm respectively]; Group II [254.21±79.20μm, 117.75±24.29μm and 234.81±79μm, 116.89±18.22μm respectively]; Group III [272.47±86.25μm, 142.08±50.83μm and 251.82±62.69μm, 136.07±44.95μm respectively]; Group IV were [260.28±64.81μm, 116.98±17.71μm and 233.08±69.44μm, 116.58±21.13μm respectively]. ANOVA inferred a statistically significant difference between the four test specimen with regards to vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancy after cementation (F=9.092, p<0.001), (F=10.97, p<0.001). Tukey HSD Post-hoc test observed significant differences in vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancies between the resin modified glass ionomer and resin cements (p<0.05). Conclusion Resin cements exhibited a greater reduction in the marginal discrepancy than the resin modified glass ionomer

  18. In-depth polymerization of a self-adhesive dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    Puppin-Rontani, R M; Dinelli, R G; de Paula, A B; Fucio, S B P; Ambrosano, G M B; Pascon, F M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess Knoop hardness at different depths of a dual-cured self-adhesive resin cement through different thicknesses of Empress Esthetic® ceramic.Flattened bovine dentin was embedded in resin. The cement was inserted into a rubber mold (0.8 x 5 mm) that was placed between two polyvinyl chloride plastic films and placed over the flat dentin and light cured by Elipar Trilight-QTH (800 mW/cm2) or Ultra-Lumelight-emitting diode (LED 5; 1585 mW/cm2) over ceramic disks 1.4 or 2 mm thick. The specimens(n=6) were stored for 24 hours before Knoop hardness (KHN) was measured. The data were submitted to analysis of variance in a factorial split-plot design and Tukey's test (a=0.05).There was significant interaction among the study factors. In the groups cured by the QTHunit, an increase in ceramic thickness resulted in reduced cement hardness values at all depths, with the highest values always being found in the center (1.4 mm, 58.1; 2 mm, 50.1)and the lowest values at the bottom (1.4 mm,23.8; 2 mm, 20.2). When using the LED unit, the hardness values diminished with increased ceramic thickness only on the top (1.4 mm,51.5; 2 mm, 42.3). In the group with the 1.4-mm-thick disk, the LED curing unit resulted in similar values on the top (51.5) and center(51.9) and lower values on the bottom (24.2).However, when the cement was light cured through the 2-mm disk, the highest hardness value was obtained in the center (51.8), followed by the top (42.3) and bottom (19.9),results similar to those obtained with the QTH curing unit (center > top > bottom). The hardness values of the studied cement at different depths were dependent on the ceramic thickness but not on the light curing units used.

  19. Degree of conversion of two dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kim, Young-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks with different thicknesses using various light-curing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia ceramic disks (KT12) with three different thicknesses (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm) were prepared. The light transmittance of the disks was measured using ultraviolet visible near-infrared spectroscopy. Four different light-curing protocols were used by combining two curing light modes (Elipar TriLight (standard mode) and bluephase G2 (high power mode)) with light-exposure times of 40 and 120 seconds. The DCs of the two dual-cured resin cements (Duo-Link and Panavia F2.0) light-irradiated through the disks was analyzed at three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 minutes) by FTIR spectroscopy. The data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05).Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the 10 minute DC results. RESULTS The 1.0 mm thick disk exhibited low light transmittance (<25%), and the transmittance decreased considerably with increasing disk thickness. All groups exhibited significantly higher 10 minute DC values than the 3 or 7 minute values (P<.05), but some exceptions were observed in Duo-Link. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the influence of the zirconia disk thickness on the 10 minute DC was dependent on the light-curing methods (P<.001). This finding was still valid even at 4.0 mm thickness, where substantial light attenuation took place. CONCLUSION The curing of the dual-cured resin cements was affected significantly by the light-curing technique, even though the additional chemical polymerization mechanism worked effectively. PMID:24353887

  20. Influence of power density on polymerization behavior and bond strengths of dual-cured resin direct core foundation systems.

    PubMed

    Oto, Tatsuki; Yasuda, Genta; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of power density on dentin bond strength and polymerization behavior of dual-cured direct core foundation resin systems. Two commercially available dual-cured direct core foundation resin systems, Clearfil DC Core Automix with Clearfil DC Bond and UniFil Core with Self-Etching Bond, were studied. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in autopolymerizing resin and the facial dentin surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit SiC paper. Dentin surfaces were treated according to manufacturer's recommendations. The resin pastes were condensed into the mold and cured with the power densities of 0 (no irradiation), 100, 200, 400 and 600 mW/cm2. Ten specimens per group were stored in 37 degrees C water for 24 hours, then shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. An ultrasonic measurement device was used to measure the ultrasonic velocities through the core foundation resins. The power densities selected were 0 (no irradiation), 200, and 600 mW/cm2, and ultrasonic velocity was calculated. ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were performed at a level of 0.05. The highest bond strengths were obtained when the resin pastes were cured with the highest power density for both core foundation systems (16.8 +/- 1.9 MPa for Clearfil DC Core Automix, 15.6 +/- 2.9 MPa for UniFil Core). When polymerized with the power densities under 200 mW/cm2, significantly lower bond strengths were observed compared to those obtained with the power density of 600 mW/cm2. As the core foundation resins hardened, the sonic velocities increased and this tendency differed among the power density of the curing unit. When the sonic velocities at three minutes after the start of measurements were compared, there were no significant differences among different irradiation modes for UniFil Core, while a significant decrease in sonic velocity was obtained when the resin paste was chemically polymerized compared with dual-polymerization for Clearfil

  1. Resistance to bond degradation between dual-cure resin cements and pre-treated sintered CAD-CAM dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Raquel; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Estrella; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bond stability of resin cements when luted to glass-reinforced alumina and zirconia CAD/CAM dental ceramics. Study design: Eighteen glass-infiltrated alumina and eighteen densely sintered zirconia blocks were randomly conditioned as follows: Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: Sandblasting (125 µm Al2O3-particles); and Group 3: Silica-coating (50 µm silica-modified Al2O3-particles). Composite samples were randomly bonded to the pre-treated ceramic surfaces using different resin cements: Subgroup 1: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC); Subgroup 2: RelyX Unicem (RXU); and Subgroup 3: Calibra (CAL). After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into 1 ± 0.1 mm2 sticks. One-half of the beams were tested for microtensile bond strength (MTBS). The remaining one-half was immersed in 10 % NaOCl aqueous solution (NaOClaq) for 5 h before testing. The fracture pattern and morphology of the debonded surfaces were assessed with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). A multiple ANOVA was conducted to analyze the contributions of ceramic composition, surface treatment, resin cement type, and chemical challenging to MTBS. The Tukey test was run for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Results: After 24 h, CEC luted to pre-treated zirconia achieved the highest MTBS. Using RXU, alumina and zirconia registered comparable MTBS. CAL failed prematurely, except when luted to sandblasted zirconia. After NaOClaq storage, CEC significantly lowered MTBS when luted to zirconia or alumina. RXU decreased MTBS only when bonded to silica-coated alumina. CAL recorded 100 % of pre-testing failures. Micromorphological alterations were evident after NaOClaq immersion. Conclusions: Resin-ceramic interfacial longevity depended on cement selection rather than on surface pre-treatments. The MDP-containing and the self-adhesive resin cements were both suitable for luting CAD/CAM ceramics. Despite both cements being prone to degradation, RXU luted to zirconia or untreated or

  2. Effect of Different Thicknesses of Pressable Ceramic Veneers on Polymerization of Light-cured and Dual-cured Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Lopez, Arnaldo; Berzins, David W.; Prasad, Soni; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the effects of ceramic veneer thicknesses on the polymerization of two different resin cements. Materials and Methods A total of 80 ceramic veneer discs were fabricated by using a pressable ceramic material (e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) from a Low Translucency (LT) ingot (A1 shade). These discs were divided into light-cured (LC; NX3 Nexus LC; Kerr) and dual-cured (DC; NX3 Nexus DC; Kerr) and each group was further divided into 4 subgroups, based on ceramic disc thickness (0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.2 mm). The values of Vickers microhardness (MH) and degree of conversion (DOC) were obtained for each specimen after a 24-hour storage period. Association between ceramic thickness, resin cement type, and light intensity readings (mW/cm2) with respect to microhardness and degree of conversion was statistically evaluated by using ANOVA. Results For the DOC values, there was no significant difference observed among the LC resin cement subgroups, except in the 1.2 mm subgroup; only the DOC value (14.0 ± 7.4%) of 1.2 mm DC resin cement had significantly difference from that value (28.9 ± 7.5%) of 1.2 mm LC resin cement (P<.05). For the MH values between LC and DC resin cement groups, there was statistically significant difference (P<.05); overall, the MH values of LC resin cement groups demonstrated higher values than DC resin cement groups. On the other hands, among the DC resin cement subgroups, the MH values of 1.2 mm DC subgroup was significantly lower than the 0.3 mm and 0.6 mm subgroups (P<.05). However, among the LC subgroups, there was no statistically significant difference among them (P >.05). Conclusion The degree of conversion and hardness of the resin cement was unaffected with veneering thicknesses between 0.3 and 0.9 mm. However, the DC resin cement group resulted in a significantly lower DOC and MH values for the 1.2 mm subgroup. Clinical Significance While clinically adequate polymerization of LC resin cement can be achieved

  3. Evaluation of Adhesive Bonding of Lithium Disilicate Ceramic Material with Duel Cured Resin Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gundawar, Sham M.; Radke, Usha M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the adhesive bonding of dual cured resin luting agents with lithium disilicate ceramic material. Materials and Methods: Porcelain laminate veneers were prepared with lithium disilicate ceramic material i.e. IPS Empress II( E-Max Press). These laminates were bonded with RelyX ARC, Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II, Duolink and Nexus NX3.The porcelain laminates were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (Pulpdent Corporation) for one minute, washed for 15 sec with three way syringe and dried for 15 sec with air syringe. The silane (Ultradent) was applied with the help of applicator tip in a single coat and kept undisturbed for one minute. The prepared surfaces of the premolars were treated with 37% phosphoric acid (Prime dent) for 15 sec, thoroughly rinsed and dried as per manufactures instructions. The shear bond test was carried out on all samples with the Universal testing machine (Instron U.S.A.) The scanning electron microscopic study was performed at the fractured interface of representative samples from each group of luting agents. Result: In this study, the highest value of shear bond strength was obtained for NEXUS NX3 and the lowest for VARIOLINK II. Conclusion: The difference in bond strength can be interpreted as the difference in fracture resistance of luting agents, to which shearing load was applied during the shear bond strength test. It is inferred from this study that the composition of the luting agent determines the adhesive characteristics in addition to surface treatment and bonding surface area. PMID:25859514

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Bond Strength of Dual-Cured Resin Cements: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Poluri, Ramya Krishna; Nagaraj, Hema; Siddaruju, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare the microtensile bond strength of resin cements to enamel and dentin and to determine the type of bond failure using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study 40 teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and divided into two main groups i.e., Group A for enamel and Group B for dentin. Each group is again subdivided into four subgroups, which are as follows; Subgroup 1 for Calibra resin cement, Subgroup 2 for Paracem, Subgroup 3 for Variolink II and Subgroup 4 for Rely X ARC. These resin cements were applied on enamel and dentin according to manufacturer’s instructions followed by incremental build-up of composite resin on the top of resin cements. Each tooth was sectioned perpendicular to the resin-substrate interface with a slow speed diamond saw under water cooling yielding sections of approximately 1 mm2. On an average, three sections from each tooth were used for testing. The beams obtained after sectioning were stressed to failure under tension in a custom made stainless steel forceps held in a universal testing machine (Lloyd) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Results were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, independent t-test, and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test. Results: Cements bonded to enamel substrates showed higher mean bond strength compared to dentin, which is statistically significant. Rely X ARC showed highest mean bond strength to both the substrates. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength to enamel and dentin and, Rely X ARC resin cement showed higher bond strength compared with the other groups. PMID:26225104

  5. Shear bond strengths of self-adhesive luting resins fixing dentine to different restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congxiao; Degrange, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the bond strengths of three self-adhesive resin cements (Rely X Unicem, Maxcem and Multilink Sprint) fixing dentine to four different restorative substrates (Ni-Cr alloy, E-Max glass-ceramic, Y-TZP Zirconia and Adoro micro-filled composite) and to compare their performances with those of two conventional dual-cured luting cements (Variolink II + Total-etch Excite DSC and Multilink Automix + Self-etching Primer A + B). Cylindric specimens (5 x 5 mm) were prepared with the four restorative materials for bonding to human dentine. Three surface treatments were performed depending on the restorative material: (i) Al2O3 50 microm sandblasting (Ni-Cr, Adoro), (ii) #800 SiC polishing (Zirconia, E-Max), (iii) hydrofluoric acid (HF)-etching (E-Max). Twenty-five groups (n = 10) were designed according to luting cements, restorative materials and surface pre-treatments. In some experimental groups, Variolink II and Multilink Automix were coupled with, respectively, a silane primer (Monobond S) and an alloy/zirconia primer (Multilink A/Z primer). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then loaded in shear until failure. Variolink II and Multilink Automix showed the highest bond strengths, regardless of the restorative substrate, when used with dentine bonding systems and primers, while the weakest bonds were with Maxcem. The bond strength recorded with the two other self-adhesive cements depended on the nature of the restorative substrate. Increasing retention at the interfaces (i.e., HF ceramic etching) and using specific primers significantly improves the bond strength of luted restorative materials to dentine.

  6. Early hardness and shear bond strength of dual-cure resin cement light cured through resin overlays with different dentin-layer thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Chang, H-S; Kim, J-W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dentin-layer thickness of resin overlays could affect the early hardness and shear bond strength of dual-cure resin cement (DCRC, RelyX ARC) after light curing with light curing units (LCUs) of various power densities: Optilux 360 (360), Elipar Freelight 2 (FL2), and Elipar S10 (S10). Resin overlays were fabricated using an indirect composite resin (Sinfony) with a dentin layer, an enamel layer, and a translucent layer of 0.5 mm thickness each (0.5-0.5-0.5) or of 0.2 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.8 mm thickness (0.2-0.5-0.8), respectively. The DCRC was light cured for 40 seconds through the overlays, and surface hardness and shear bond strength to bovine dentin were tested 10 minutes after the start of light curing. Surface hardness was higher when the DCRC was light cured through the 0.2-0.5-0.8 combination than when the DCRC was light cured through the 0.5-0.5-0.5 combination with all LCUs. The ratio of upper surface hardness of DCRC light cured through resin overlays relative to the upper surface hardness of DCRC light cured directly was more than 90% only when the DCRC was light cured with S10 through the 0.2-0.5-0.8 combination. The shear bond strength value was higher when the DCRC was light cured with S10 through the 0.2-0.5-0.8 combination than when light cured with S10 through the 0.5-0.5-0.5 combination. This study indicates that reducing the dentin-layer thickness while increasing the translucent-layer thickness of resin inlays can increase the photopolymerization of DCRC, thereby increasing the early bond strength of resin inlays to dentin.

  7. Curing depth of a resin-modified glass ionomer and two resin-based luting agents.

    PubMed

    Sigemori, Ricardo Massao; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre M S

    2005-01-01

    The degree of conversion of resin-based luting agents used for retention of prefabricated posts has been questioned due to the difficulty of light penetration into the resin-filled root canal. This study evaluated the depth of cure of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely X--3M ESPE) and two resin-based luting agents (Rely X ARC--3M ESPE and Enforce-Dentsply). Twenty-four 14x2x2mm3 specimens were prepared in a Teflon split mold with the three luting agents (n=8). After preparation, the specimens were stored at 37 degrees C in a dark box for 24 hours prior to microhardness testing. Measurements of Knoop hardness were performed at three different depths: superficial, medium and deep thirds. The results (KHN) were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey test (0.05), which showed that resin-based luting agents presented the highest Knoop hardness values within the superficial third. Within the medium third, there were no significant differences among luting materials. However, within the deep third, Rely X presented the highest values. KHN values of resin-based luting agents decreased remarkably as depth increased.

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Porcelain Laminate Thickness on Degree of Conversion of Light Cure and Dual Cure Resin Cements Using FTIR

    PubMed Central

    Hoorizad Ganjkar, Maryam; Heshmat, Haleh; Hassan Ahangari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Increasing the thickness of the veneering porcelain may affect the polymerization of resin cements. Incomplete polymerization of resin cements can lead to compromised quality of restoration and decrease the longevity of indirect restorations. Purpose: This study sought to assess the effect of IPS Empress porcelain thickness on the degree of conversion of light-cure and dual-cure resin cements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, IPS Empress porcelain discs (A2 shade) with 10mm diameter and 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm thicknesses were fabricated. Choice2 (Bisco, USA) and Nexus3 (Kerr, USA) resin cements were light cured through the three porcelain thicknesses in two groups of 3 samples using a LED light-curing unit (LEDemetron II; Kerr, USA). The control group samples were cured individually with no porcelain disc. The degree of conversion of resin cements was determined using FTIR (Bruker; Equinox55, Germany). The data were analyzed using Dunn’s test. Results: The degree of conversion (in percent) beneath the 0.5, 1.5 and 2 mm thicknesses of IPS Empress was 68.67±0.88, 71.06±0.94 and 72.51±0.41 for Choice2 resin cement and 69.60±2.12, 69.64±1.63 and 69.24±2.12 for Nexus3, respectively. Porcelain thickness and type of resin cement had no significant effect on degree of conversion (p≥ 0.05). Conclusion: It seems that increasing the porcelain thickness by up to 1.5 mm has no adverse effect on degree of conversion of both dual cure and light cure resin cements evaluated in this study. PMID:28280757

  9. Marginal adaptation of dentin bonded ceramic inlays: effects of bonding systems and luting resin composites.

    PubMed

    Haller, Bernd; Hässner, Katrin; Moll, Karlheinz

    2003-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation of bonded inlays of lucite-reinforced glass ceramic (Empress) to dentin as influenced by different bonding systems and by luting resin composites (LRCs) with different curing modes. Forty-eight Empress inlays etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid and treated with a silane-coupling agent (Monobond-S) were bonded to two-surface Class II cavities. Two total-etch bonding systems (OptiBond FL, Nexus) and one bonding system with selective enamel etching and a self-conditioning dentin primer (ART Bond) were included in the study. ART Bond was tested with and without the pre-curing of a first layer of adhesive resin selectively applied to the cervical cavity floor (selective double-bond technique). Each bonding system was used in combination with a light-cured resin composite (Prodigy) and a dual-cured LRC (Nexus or Vita Cerec Duo Cement). Marginal integrity was evaluated before and after thermocycling (TC) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dye penetration tests were performed after TC was completed. The median percentages of continuous margin in dentin ranged from 80% to 100% before TC and from 53.5% to 96.1 % after TC. After TC, the influence of the bonding system was more pronounced than that of the LRC. In combination with the LC resin composite, ART Bond with precuring was significantly higher and the Nexus bonding system had significantly lower proportions of continuous margin than all the other bonding systems investigated. Swelling of the adhesive along the gingival margins was frequently found with the Nexus bonding system and with ART Bond without pre-curing. Microleakage was detected with all bonding system/LRC combinations, with somewhat lower rates in specimens completed using the selective double-bond technique. With the exception of the Nexus bonding system, post-TC marginal integrity was not influenced by the curing mode of the LRC (LC vs DC). In conclusion, the marginal quality of dentin bonded

  10. Effect of thickness of indirect restoration and distance from the light-curing unit tip on the hardness of a dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Knoop hardness and polymerization depth of a dual-cured resin cement, light-activated at different distances through different thicknesses of composite resin. One bovine incisor was embedded in resin and its buccal surface was flattened. Dentin was covered with PVC film where a mold (0.8-mm-thick and 5 mm diameter) was filled with cement and covered with another PVC film. Light curing (40 s) was carried out through resin discs (2, 3, 4 or 5 mm) with a halogen light positioned 0, 1, 2 or 3 mm from the resin surface. After storage, specimens were sectioned for hardness measurements (top, center, and bottom). Data were subjected to split-plot ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The increase in resin disc thickness decreased cement hardness. The increase in the distance of the light-curing tip decreased hardness at the top region. Specimens showed the lowest hardness values at the bottom, and the highest at the center. Resin cement hardness was influenced by the thickness of the indirect restoration and by the distance between the light-curing unit tip and the resin cement surface.

  11. A comparison study on the flexural strength and compressive strength of four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, Xuehui; Xu, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in flexural strength and compressive strength between four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements that are commonly used in clinics. Furthermore, this study investigates the influence of curing mode on the flexural strength and compressive strength of dual-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Initially, flexural strength and compressive strength test specimens were prepared for RL, NR, GCP, and GCC. The RL group and NR group were cured by the light-curing mode and chemical-curing mode. Five specimens were prepared for each test group, and the flexural strength and compressive strength of each were measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with SPSS 13.0. Furthermore, the fracture morphology of the flexural specimens was observed by SEM. The result of the mean flexural strength of each group is as follows: the NR light-cured group > NR chemically-cured group > GCP > RL light-cured group > GCC > RL chemically-cured group. More specifically, the flexural strength of the NR light-cured group ((42.903±4.242) MPa) is significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the other groups, and in addition, the flexural strength of the light-curing mode is significantly higher (P<0. 05) than that of both the NR and RL chemically-cured groups. The result of the mean compressive strength of each group is as follows: GCP > NR chemically-cured group > NR light-cured group > GCC > RL light-cured group > RL chemically-cured group. Although the compressive strengths of the NR and GCP groups are higher than those of the GCC and RL groups, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between NR and GCP, and no significant differences between GCC and RL. Furthermore, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between the two curing modes on NR and RL. From the present study, it can be concluded that NR has superior flexural strength and compressive strength compared to the other three materials. Additionally, the

  12. Bonding of adhesive resin luting agents to metal and amalgam.

    PubMed

    Osman, Saad A; McCabe, John F; Walls, Angus W G

    2008-12-01

    The shear bond strength of three adhesives, Panavia 21, Superbond, All Bond C&B Cement, and a dual cure resin (Variolink), to Ni-Cr-Be (Rexillium III), Midigold (Type III gold) and Amalgam (Sybraloy) were determined. Fifteen samples were prepared using 800 grit abrasive papers for Ni-Cr and Midi-Gold, and 100 grit papers for amalgam. Ni-Cr-Be and Midi-Gold samples were sandblasted for 30 s and steam cleaned for 10 s. The adhesives were bonded to the samples using gelatine capsules and were matured for 24 h in water at 37 degrees C. The samples were debonded in shear using an Instron at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The data was analysed using ANOVA and a Tukey test. The bond strength of Superbond to both metal alloys was significantly higher (P<0.05) than any of the materials tested, with the exception Panavia 21 to gold. The bond strength of All Bond C&B cement had shown to be not significant difference from those of Panavia 21 and Variolink, when bonded to Rexillium and Midi-Gold, respectively. The bond strength of All Bond C&B Cement to amalgam was significantly greater (P<0.05) than those of the other materials tested. The shear bond strength to gold showed lower bonding for all adhesives when compared with Rexillium (P<.001). The ranking of bond strength to both alloys was as follows: Superbond>Panavia 21>All Bond C&B>Variolink. The nature of substrate to be used for bonding and the adhesive material itself are important factors in bonding which can be achieved between cast metals and prepared teeth with amalgam filling. Superbond should be successful as an adhesive for the attachment of all substrates tested, with the possible exception of amalgam, for which All Bond C&B Cement gives the best result.

  13. Indirect composite restorations luted with two different procedures: A ten years follow up clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Preti, Alessandro; Vano, Michele; Derchi, Giacomo; Mangani, Francesco; Cerutti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate posterior indirect composite resin restoration ten years after placement luted with two different procedures. Study Design: In 23 patients 22 inlays/onlays (Group A) were luted using a dual-cured resin composite cement and 26 inlays/onlays (Group B) were luted using a light cured resin composite for a total of 48 Class I and Class II indirect composite resin inlays and onlays. The restorations were evaluated at 2 time points: 1) one week after placement (baseline evaluation) and 2) ten years after placement using the modified USPHS criteria. The Mann-Whitney and the Wilcoxon tests were used to examine the difference between the results of the baseline and 10 years evaluation for each criteria. Results: Numerical but not statistically significant differences were noted on any of the recorded clinical parameters (p>0.05) between the inlay/onlays of Group A and Group B. 91% and 94 % of Group A and B respectively were rated as clinically acceptable in all the evaluated criteria ten years after clinical function. Conclusions: Within the limits of the study the results showed after ten years of function a comparable clinical performance of indirect composite resin inlays/onlays placed with a light cure or dual cure luting procedures. Key words:Light curing composite, dual curing composite, indirect composite restoration, inlays/onlays, clinical trial. PMID:25810842

  14. Radiopacity of different resin-based and conventional luting cements compared to human and bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Gürel; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-02-03

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of different resin-based luting materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disc specimens (N=130, n=10 per group) (diameter: 6 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared from 10 resin-based and 3 conventional luting cements. Human canine dentin (n=10), bovine enamel (n=10), bovine dentin (n=10) and Aluminium (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted and equivalent Al thickness values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The radiopacity values of conventional cements and two resin luting materials (Rely X Unicem and Variolink II), were significantly higher than that of bovine enamel that could be preferred for restorations cemented on enamel. Since all examined resin-based luting materials showed radiopacity values equivalent to or greater than that of human and bovine dentin, they could be considered suitable for the restorations cemented on dentin.

  15. Ultrasonic cleaning of silica-coated zirconia influences bond strength between zirconia and resin luting material.

    PubMed

    Nishigawa, Goro; Maruo, Yukinori; Irie, Masao; Oka, Morihiko; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuomi

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how ultrasonic cleaning of silica-coated zirconia surfaces would influence the latter's bond strength to resin luting material. Forty zirconia specimens were divided into four groups: one air abrasion group and three silica-coated groups. Silica-coated specimens were cleaned with distilled water using an ultrasonic cleaner after tribochemical silica coating and then divided into three groups according to cleaning durations: 1 minute, 5 minutes, or without cleaning. Following which, resin luting material was polymerized against the specimens. After storage in water for 24 hours, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test. Shear bond strength of silica-coated group without cleaning was significantly higher than the other three groups, but there were no statistically significant differences among the three latter groups. SEM images suggested visible differences among the treatment methods. With EDXS analysis, it was revealed that ultrasonic cleaning decreased the silica content on the treated surfaces. Therefore, results showed that ultrasonic cleaning of tribochemically silica-coated zirconia surfaces decreased the adhesion efficacy to resin luting material.

  16. Effect of adhesive luting on the fracture resistance of zirconia compared to that of composite resin and lithium disilicate glass ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Myung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adhesive luting on the fracture resistance of zirconia compared to that of a composite resin and a lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Materials and Methods The specimens (dimension: 2 mm × 2 mm × 25 mm) of the composite resin, lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) were prepared. These were then divided into nine groups: three non-luting groups, three non-adhesive luting groups, and three adhesive luting groups, for each restorative material. In the non-luting groups, specimens were placed on the bovine tooth without any luting agents. In the non-adhesive luting groups, only zinc phosphate cement was used for luting the specimen to the bovine tooth. In the adhesive luting groups, specimens were pretreated, and the adhesive luting procedure was performed using a self-adhesive resin cement. For all the groups, a flexural test was performed using universal testing machine, in which the fracture resistance was measured by recording the force at which the specimen was fractured. Results The fracture resistance after adhesive luting increased by approximately 29% in the case of the composite resin, 26% in the case of the lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and only 2% in the case of Y-TZP as compared to non-adhesive luting. Conclusions The fracture resistance of Y-TZP did not increased significantly after adhesive luting as compared to that of the composite resin and the lithium disilicate glass ceramic. PMID:28194358

  17. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  18. The Effect of Simplified Bonding Agents on the Bond Strength to Dentin of Self-Activated Dual-Cure Resin Cements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    barbituric acids , aromatic sulphonate amides and tert-butyl peroxymaleic acid in dental adhesive resin. J Polym Sci 1999;72:1655- 1668. Lee Ann...is the aim of this study to verify the accuracy of the claim so that clinicians can take advantage of its properties with the comfort of knowing it...the Incompatibilities between Simplified Dental Adhesives and Self-Cure Resin Cements……………..……30 I. Eliminate the Acid -Base Reaction…………..……………31

  19. The Comparison of Sorption and Solubility Behavior of Four Different Resin Luting Cements in Different Storage Media

    PubMed Central

    Giti, Rashin; Vojdani, Mahroo; Abduo, Jaafar; Bagheri, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Structural integrity and dimensional stability are the key factors that determine the clinical success and durability of luting cements in the oral cavity. Sorption and solubility of self-adhesive resin luting cements in food-simulating solutions has not been studied sufficiently. Purpose This study aimed to compare the sorption and solubility of 2 conventional and 2 self-adhesive resin-based luting cements immersed in four different storage media. Materials and Method A total of 32 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of four resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Clearfil SA Cement (Kuraray), and Choice 2 (Bisco). Eight specimens of each material were immersed in all tested solutions including n-heptane 97%, distilled water, apple juice, or Listerine mouth wash. Sorption and solubility were measured by weighing the specimens before and after immersion and desiccation. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test with p≤ 0.05 set as the level of significance. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the materials and solutions. The effect of media on the sorption and solubility was material-dependent. While seT showed the highest values of the sorption in almost all solutions, Choice 2 showed the least values of sorption and solubility. Immersion in apple juice caused more sorption than other solutions (p≤ 0.05). Conclusion The sorption and solubility behavior of the studied cements were significantly affected by their composition and the storage media. The more hydrophobic materials with higher filler content like Choice 2 resin cement showed the least sorption and solubility. Due to their lower sorption and solubility, these types of resin-based luting cements are recommended to be used clinically. PMID:27284553

  20. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of Luting Agents on the Resultant Shade of Ceramic Veneers: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Yogesh; Pustake, Swati; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Pustake, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dentistry has found practically the best available aesthetic answer, is ceramic restoration. There are various factors that contribute to the success of ceramic veneers, like colour of underlying tooth, thickness if ceramics and the type of underlying luting cement. Shade selection and matching remains still challenge, however the shade of luting agent used for cementation of veneers produces a change in resultant shade of veneers. Aim To compare and analyze the spectrophotometric effect of opaque and transparent luting agent on resultant shade of ceramic veneers made of 2L1.5 shade (Vitapan 3D-Masters) and B2 shade (Vitapan Classic). Materials and Methods Out of 15 ceramic veneers of 2L1.5 shade (VITAPAN 3D- Master), seven teeth cemented with opaque cement and eight teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Out of 10 ceramic veneers of B2 shade (VITAPAN Classic), five teeth were cemented with opaque cement and other five teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Spectrophotometric (Macbeth U.S.A.) analysis of all ceramic veneer crowns done with optiview software and readings were recorded in Commission Internationale de I’ Eclairge {CIELAB} system and dE value was calculated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Results Spectrophotometric analysis of all the veneers cemented with opaque luting agent were lighter in shade due to significant change in dL value. Veneers cemented with transparent luting agent were darker in shade due to significant change in the dL value. Conclusion Opaque luting agent gives lighter shade and transparent luting agent gives darker shade to ceramic veneers fabricated with 2L1.5 and B2 shades. PMID:26501014

  1. Effect of eugenol-based root canal sealers on retention of prefabricated metal posts luted with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ali, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of two different eugenol-based root canal sealers on the retention of prefabricated metal posts luted with adhesive resin cement. Materials and methods Thirty prefabricated ParaPosts randomly divided among three groups of 10 each were luted into extracted single-rooted teeth with adhesive resin cement. Two of the groups had been obturated with Gutta–Percha and one of two eugenol-based root canal sealers (Endofil and Tubli-Seal), respectively. The third group was not obturated and served as the control. The forces required for dislodgment of posts from their prepared post spaces were recorded using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple range test was used to determine the mean differences. Results Endofil and Tubli-Seal groups demonstrated significantly reduced retention compared to the unobturated (control) group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Eugenol-based sealers significantly reduced the retention of prefabricated posts luted with adhesive resin cement. PMID:23960462

  2. The effect of root canal sealers and timing of cementation on the microlekage of the parapost luted with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Al Kahtani, Ahmed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to study the effect of root canal sealers either eugenol or non-eugenol and timing of cementation on microleakage of the parapost luted with resin cement. Materials and methods Seventy extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using a crown-down technique. All teeth were instrumented up to a size 50 .04 taper ProFile followed by the use of Gates Glidden drills from size 2 up to 5. Following instrumentation, the teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups of fifteen teeth each, based on type of root canal sealer (eugenol or non-eugenol sealer) and timing of post cementation (immediate or delayed). The remaining ten teeth were divided into two control groups with five teeth per group. All teeth were tested for microleakage using a fluid filtration method. Results The microleakage of the paraposts luted with resin cement increased over time, irrespective of sealer type or timing of post cementation. Immediate post cementation following obturation with AH26 (non-eugenol sealer) produced the least microleakage at all three time periods at 24 h, 2 months and 3 months. Conclusions The microleakage paraposts luted with resin cement was not influenced by either sealer type or timing of post placement. All experimental groups demonstrated a significant increase in microleakage over time as well as the presence of voids at the resin–dentin interface. PMID:24109165

  3. Effect of surface treatments of laboratory-fabricated composites on the microtensile bond strength to a luting resin cement.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carlos José; Giannini, Marcelo; Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares de; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments on composite resin on the microtensile bond strength to a luting resin cement. Two laboratory composites for indirect restorations, Solidex and Targis, and a conventional composite, Filtek Z250, were tested. Forty-eight composite resin blocks (5.0 x 5.0 x 5.0mm) were incrementally manufactured, which were randomly divided into six groups, according to the surface treatments: 1- control, 600-grit SiC paper (C); 2- silane priming (SI); 3- sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 for 10s (SA); 4- etching with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s (HF); 5- HF + SI; 6 - SA + SI. Composite blocks submitted to similar surface treatments were bonded together with the resin adhesive Single Bond and Rely X luting composite. A 500-g load was applied for 5 minutes and the samples were light-cured for 40s. The bonded blocks were serially sectioned into 3 slabs with 0.9mm of thickness perpendicularly to the bonded interface (n = 12). Slabs were trimmed to a dumbbell shape and tested in tension at 0.5mm/min. For all composites tested, the application of a silane primer after sandblasting provided the highest bond strength means.

  4. Efficacy of various cleansing techniques on dentin wettability and its influence on shear bond strength of a resin luting agent

    PubMed Central

    Mohanaj, Dhivya; Beganam, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the shear bond strength of resin luting agent to dentin surfaces cleansed with different agents like pumice, ultrasonic scaler with chlorhexidine gluconate, EDTA and the influence of these cleansing methods on wetting properties of the dentin by Axisymmetric drop Shape Analysis - Contact Diameter technique (ADSA-CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty coronal portions of human third molar were prepared until dentin was exposed. Specimens were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B. Provisional restorations made with autopolymerizing resin were luted to dentin surface with zinc oxide eugenol in Group A and with freegenol cement in Group B. All specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hrs and provisional cements were mechanically removed with explorer and rinsed with water and cleansed using various methods (Control-air-water spray, Pumice prophylaxis, Ultrasonic scaler with 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate, 17% EDTA). Contact angle measurements were performed to assess wettability of various cleansing agents using the ADSA-CD technique. Bond strength of a resin luting agent bonded to the cleansed surface was assessed using Instron testing machine and the mode of failure noted. SEM was done to assess the surface cleanliness. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Specimens treated with EDTA showed the highest shear bond strength and the lowest contact angle for both groups. SEM showed that EDTA was the most effective solution to remove the smear layer. Also, mode of failure seen was predominantly cohesive for both EDTA and pumice prophylaxis. CONCLUSION EDTA was the most effective dentin cleansing agent among the compared groups. PMID:22977721

  5. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength and Estimation of Adhesive Remnant Index between Light-cure Composite and Dual-cure Composite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Sharma, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims and objectives: To measure and compare the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of light-cure composite. (Enlight, Ormco.) and dual-cure composite (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho). Materials and methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were divided into two groups: group I (blue): conventional light cure composite resin. (Enlight, Ormco.) and group II (green): dual cure composite resin. (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho.) with 30 teeth in each group. These samples were tested on the universal testing machine to measure the shear bond strength. Results: Student t-test showed that the mean shear bond strength of the conventional light cure group (8.54 MPa - 10.42 MPa) was significantly lower than dual cure group (10.45 MPa -12.17 MPa). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the shear bond strength of dual-cure composite resin (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho) is comparatively higher than conventional light-cure composite resin (Enlight, Ormco). In the majority of the samples, adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were 4 and 5 in both the groups whereas score 1 is attained by the least number of samples in both the groups. How to cite this article: Verma G, Trehan M, Sharma S. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength and Estimation of Adhesive Remnant Index between Light-cure Composite and Dual-cure Composite: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):166-170. PMID:25206216

  6. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Final technical report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    US EPA is implementing increasingly stringent environmental regulations on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which amount to about 7 {times} 10{sup 9} lb/year, largely from paints and other coating systems in industry. Objective of this project is to develop Dual Cure Photocatalyst coating technology for aerospace topcoats (urethane/acrylate), aerospace primers (epoxy/acrylate), and solventless tape backings. Some problems (moisture etc.) were encountered in the primer area. Cost, economic, and energy analyses were conducted. The dual cure technology has already been commercialized in 3M`s flexible diamond resin products. Tabs.

  7. Effect of endodontic sealer and resin luting strategies on pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo J; Bueno, Vanessa C P S; Dias, Carlos T S; Paulillo, Luís A M S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of eugenol-containing endodontic sealers and luting strategy on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin. Sixty-four bovine incisors were randomly assigned into two groups of 32 specimens each for obturation procedure with gutta-percha only, or with Pulp Canal Sealer EWT Subsequently, the roots were prepared for the fiber post Reforpost and all specimens of each endodontic sealing procedure were allocated to four groups (n = 8), according to the strategies for post cementation: A) Single Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; B) All Bond 2 and C&B cement; C) All Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; D) Single Bond 2 and C&B Cement. The posts were cemented immediately after the endodontic treatment. The pull-out test was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine (EMIC). Data (Kgf) were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p < or = 0.05). The eugenol-based sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength of fiber posts regardless of the luting strategy. RelyX ARC showed higher bond strength than C&B Cement when used with Single Bond 2 adhesive system, when the eugenol-based sealer was present. All Bond 2, when associated to all cements studied, promoted similar bond strength, regardless of the eugenol-containing endodontic sealer In conclusion, eugenol-containing sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength values of the resin luting systems for glass fiber post cementation. The bond system and resin cement association from the same manufacturer had similar bond strength values for dentin.

  8. Influence of alloy microstructure on the microshear bond strength of basic alloys to a resin luting cement.

    PubMed

    Bauer, José; Costa, José Ferreira; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Souza, Douglas Nesadal de; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microstructure and composition of basic alloys on their microshear bond strength (µSBS) to resin luting cement. The alloys used were: Supreme Cast-V (SC), Tilite Star (TS), Wiron 99 (W9), VeraBond II (VBII), VeraBond (VB), Remanium (RM) and IPS d.SIGN 30 (IPS). Five wax patterns (13 mm in diameter and 4mm height) were invested, and cast in a centrifugal casting machine for each basic alloy. The specimens were embedded in resin, polished with a SiC paper and sandblasted. After cleaning the metal surfaces, six tygon tubes (0.5 mm height and 0.75 mm in diameter) were placed on each alloy surface, the resin cement (Panavia F) was inserted, and the excess was removed before light-curing. After storage (24 h/37°C), the specimens were subjected to µSBS testing (0.5 mm/min). The data were subjected to a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Turkey's test (α=0.05). After polishing, their microstructures were revealed with specific conditioners. The highest µSBS (mean/standard deviation in MPa) were observed in the alloys with dendritic structure, eutectic formation or precipitation: VB (30.6/1.7), TS (29.8/0.9), SC (30.6/1.7), with the exception of IPS (31.1/0.9) which showed high µSBS but no eutectic formation. The W9 (28.1/1.5), VBII (25.9/2.0) and RM (25.9/0.9) showed the lowest µSBS and no eutectic formation. It seems that alloys with eutectic formation provide the highest µSBS values when bonded to a light-cured resin luting cement.

  9. Immediate and delayed micro-tensile bond strength of different luting resin cements to different regional dentin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdelraheem Mohamed; Hamouda, Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazy, Mohamed Hamed; Abo-Madina, Manal Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    We sought to evaluate immediate and delayed micro-tensile bond strength of Panavia F2.0 and Multilink Sprint resin cement to superficial, deep and cervical dentin. Thirty-six freshly extracted non-carious human molars were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction to expose three different dentin regions including superficial dentin (1 mm below the dentine-enamel junction), deep dentin (1 mm above the highest pulp horn) and cervical dentin (0.5 mm above the cemento-enamel junction and 0.5 mm below the dentine-enamel junction). Resin cements were applied on dentin surfaces and composite blocks were luted under constant seating pressure. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to time intervals. Specimens were sectioned to obtain sticks of 1 mm(2) in diameter and subjected to microtensile bond strength testing at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min. Both resin cements showed higher micro-tensile bond strength to superficial dentin than that to deep or cervical dentin (P < 0.001). Micro-tensile bond strengths of Panavia F2.0 were higher than those of Multilink Sprint at different dentin regions (P < 0.001). Immediate micro-tensile bond strengths were higher than those of delayed micro-tensile bond strengths for both resin cements (P < 0.001). It was concluded that resin cements with different chemical formulations and applications yield significantly different micro-tensile bond strengths to different dentin regions.

  10. Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    de MENDONÇA, Luana Menezes; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; LANZA, Marcos Daniel Septímio; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; de CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2014-01-01

    Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10) according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal) and R (resin)- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5) were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001) and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007). Conclusion The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the cement properties

  11. Adhesive bonding of a lithium disilicate ceramic material with resin-based luting agents.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Kawamoto, Y; Kakehashi, Y; Matsumura, H

    2005-08-01

    This study evaluates the bonding characteristics of a lithium disilicate-based ceramic material (IPS Empress 2). Two sizes of disk specimens of the material were made, and three groups of disk pairs were separately surface-prepared using three techniques; etching with phosphoric acid, etching with hydrofluoric acid, and air-abrasion with alumina. Each group was further divided into four sub-groups; group (i) was bonded with the Variolink II composite, (ii) was treated with the Monobond-S silane primer and bonded with the Variolink II composite, (iii) was bonded with the Super-Bond acrylic adhesive and (iv) was treated with the Porcelain Liner M silane primer and bonded with the Super-Bond acrylic adhesive. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 100 000 thermocycles. Bond strength varied from 10.6 to 71.5 MPa before thermocycling, whereas post-thermocycling bond strength ranged from 0 to 61.2 MPa. Among the three surface preparations, hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) was most effective in enhancing bond strength of both luting materials, especially for unsilanized specimens. Application of the silane primer elevated bond strength of both luting agents regardless of surface preparation method. It can be concluded, for both luting agents, that durable bond to the Empress 2 ceramic material can be achieved through the combined application of HF and the proprietary silane primer.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Restored with Glass Fiber Posts, Intracanal Composite Resin, and Experimental Dentine Posts

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Padmanabh; Aggarwal, Akarshak

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth restored with gutta-percha, glass fiber posts (GFP), experimental dentine posts (DP) or Intracanal composite Resin (ICR). Materials and Methods. Fifty maxillary canines were decoronated, standardized and enlarged until, number 5 Peeso reamers were allowed to simulate immature teeth. After placement of 5 mm of MTA, the canals were divided into 5 groups and filled as follows: Group 1: AH Plus + gutta-percha, lateral compaction; Group 2: GFP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 3: DP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 4: PARACORE dual cure resin. A standardized core was built in all groups except in Group 5. Each of the specimens was tested for fracture resistance by universal testing machine. Results. The mean fracture resistance were 817 ± 27.753, 1164.6 ± 21.624, 994.4 ± 96.8747, 873.8 ± 105.446 and 493.7 ± 6.945 newtons for Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Independent “t” test revealed statistically significant discrepancies, in the fracture resistance among the 4 groups except Group 1 and Group 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions. This study suggests that GFP and DP may be preferred for additional reinforcement of immature teeth. PMID:25629086

  13. Evaluation of the Bond Strength of Resin Cements Used to Lute Ceramics on Laser-Etched Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Duzdar, Lale; Oksuz, Mustafa; Tanboga, Ilknur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different adhesive resin cements used to lute ceramics on laser-etched dentin. Background data: Erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin, but results to date have been controversial, and its compatibility with existing adhesive resin cements has not been conclusively determined. Materials and methods: Two adhesive cements, one “etch-and-rinse” [Variolink II (V)] and one “self-etch” [Clearfil Esthetic Cement (C)] luting cement, were used to lute ceramic blocks (Vita Celay Blanks, Vita) onto dentin surfaces. In total, 80 dentin specimens were distributed randomly into eight experimental groups according to the dentin surface-etching technique used Er,Cr:YSGG laser and Er:YAG laser: (1) 37% orthophosphoric acid+V (control group), (2) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V, (3) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+acid+V, (4) Er:YAG laser+V, (5) Er:YAG laser+acid+V, (6) C, (7) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C, and (8) Er:YAG laser+C. Following these applications, the ceramic discs were bonded to prepared surfaces and were shear loaded in a universal testing machine until fracture. SBS was recorded for each group in MPa. Shear test values were evaluated statistically using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: No statistically significant differences were evident between the control group and the other groups (p>0.05). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+A+V group demonstrated significantly higher SBS than did the Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V group (p=0.034). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C and Er:YAG laser+C groups demonstrated significantly lower SBS than did the C group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Dentin surfaces prepared with lasers may provide comparable ceramic bond strengths, depending upon the adhesive cement used. PMID:24992276

  14. Effects of curing protocol and storage time on the micro-hardness of resin cements used to lute fiber-reinforced resin posts

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS, Marcelo Barbosa; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the micro-hardness profile of two dual cure resin cements (RelyX - U100®, 3M-ESPE and Panavia F 2.0®, Kuraray) used for cementing fiber-reinforced resin posts (Fibrekor® - Jeneric Pentron) under three different curing protocols and two water storage times. Material and methods Sixty 16mm long bovine incisor roots were endodontically treated and prepared for cementation of the Fibrekor posts. The cements were mixed as instructed, dispensed in the canal, the posts were seated and the curing performed as follows: a) no light activation; b) light-activation immediately after seating the post, and; c) light-activation delayed 5 minutes after seating the post. The teeth were stored in water and retrieved for analysis after 7 days and 3 months. The roots were longitudinally sectioned and the microhardness was determined at the cervical, middle and apical regions along the cement line. The data was analyzed by the three-way ANOVA test (curing mode, storage time and thirds) for each cement. The Tukey test was used for the post-hoc analysis. Results Light-activation resulted in a significant increase in the microhardness. This was more evident for the cervical region and for the Panavia cement. Storage in water for 3 months caused a reduction of the micro-hardness for both cements. The U100 cement showed less variation in the micro-hardness regardless of the curing protocol and storage time. Conclusions The micro-hardness of the cements was affected by the curing and storage variables and were material-dependent. PMID:23138743

  15. Inorganic composition and filler particles morphology of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements by SEM/EDX.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Di Francescantonio, Marina; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Giannini, Marcelo

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inorganic components and morphology of filler particles of conventional and self-adhesive, dual-curing, resin luting cements. The main components were identified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), and filler particles were morphologically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four resin cements were used in this study: two conventional resin cements (RelyX ARC/3M ESPE and Clearfil Esthetic Cement/Kuraray Medical) and two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem/3M ESPE and Clearfil SA Luting/Kuraray Medical). The materials (n = 5) were manipulated according to manufacturers' instructions, immersed in organic solvents to eliminate the organic phase and observed under SEM/EDX. Although EDX measurements showed high amount of silicon for all cements, differences in elemental composition of materials tested were identified. RelyX ARC showed spherical and irregular particles, whereas other cements presented only irregular filler shape. In general, self-adhesive cements contained higher filler size than conventional resin luting cements. The differences in inorganic components and filler particles were observed between categories of luting material and among them. All resin cements contain silicon, however, other components varied among them.

  16. Correlation between Microleakage and Absolute Marginal Discrepancy in Zirconia Crowns Cemented with Four Resin Luting Cements: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Martínez-Rus; Guillermo, Pradíes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate microleakage and absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) and to assess correlation between AMD and microleakage with four resin luting cements. Material and Methods. 20 extracted human third molars were prepared for full-coverage crowns. 20 zirconia copings were made (LAVA, 3M ESPE) and cemented. Specimens were randomly allocated for each used type of cement into 4 groups, RelyX® (Rx), Multilink® (Mk), PANAVIA 2.1® (P), and Maxcem® (Mx) and immersed in 10% safranin for 72 hours. 20x magnification lenses were used to observe microleakage areas (μm2) and images software was used to measure AMD areas (μm). Discrepancy and microleakage between the cements were compared with one-way ANOVA test with confidence interval of 95%. Results. Rx Group showed microleakage has lowest value and AMD has highest value. P Group showed microleakage has the highest value and Mk Group presented AMD has lowest value. There were no significative differences between the cements. There were no linear correlations between microleakage and AMD; however a complex regression statistical model obtained allowed formulating an association between both variables (microleakage = AMD0,896). Conclusions. No significative differences were found among 4 types of cements. No linear correlations between AMD and microleakage were found. Clinical Significance. AMD is not easily related to microleakage. Characteristics of cements are fundamental to decreasing of microleakage values. PMID:27721830

  17. Correlation between Microleakage and Absolute Marginal Discrepancy in Zirconia Crowns Cemented with Four Resin Luting Cements: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Abad-Coronel; Jeanette, Li; Francisco, Martínez-Rus; Guillermo, Pradíes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate microleakage and absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) and to assess correlation between AMD and microleakage with four resin luting cements. Material and Methods. 20 extracted human third molars were prepared for full-coverage crowns. 20 zirconia copings were made (LAVA, 3M ESPE) and cemented. Specimens were randomly allocated for each used type of cement into 4 groups, RelyX® (Rx), Multilink® (Mk), PANAVIA 2.1® (P), and Maxcem® (Mx) and immersed in 10% safranin for 72 hours. 20x magnification lenses were used to observe microleakage areas (μm(2)) and images software was used to measure AMD areas (μm). Discrepancy and microleakage between the cements were compared with one-way ANOVA test with confidence interval of 95%. Results. Rx Group showed microleakage has lowest value and AMD has highest value. P Group showed microleakage has the highest value and Mk Group presented AMD has lowest value. There were no significative differences between the cements. There were no linear correlations between microleakage and AMD; however a complex regression statistical model obtained allowed formulating an association between both variables (microleakage = AMD(0,896)). Conclusions. No significative differences were found among 4 types of cements. No linear correlations between AMD and microleakage were found. Clinical Significance. AMD is not easily related to microleakage. Characteristics of cements are fundamental to decreasing of microleakage values.

  18. Effect of root canal sealers and irrigation agents on retention of preformed posts luted with a resin cement.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J T; Windchy, A M; Goldsmith, L J; Gettleman, L

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the effect of three sealers and four irrigants on retention of Dentatus preformed posts luted with Panavia 21 resin cement. Gutta-percha with one of the following sealers--EWT, AH26, Nogenol, or no sealer (control)--was used to fill the root canals of 160 autoclaved incisor and premolar tooth roots. After 72 hr 8 mm post spaces were created with Dentatus Probos Pathfinders and Dentatus reamers. After irrigating the post spaces with saline, 5.25% NaOCl, 50% citric acid followed by NaOCl, or 40% H3PO4, followed by NaOCl, Panavia 21 TC cement was introduced into the canal on the Dentatus #4 stainless steel post's threads. An up-and-down and counterclockwise motion and then a forward twist seated the posts without engaging dentin. Mesiodistal and faciolingual radiographs visualized the chambers. After 72 hr posts were removed axially with an Instron at 5 mm/min. Surprisingly, using Nogenol sealer reduced post retention whereas EWT and AH26 increased retention compared with no sealer. Post retention improved after acid etchants, especially for AH26.

  19. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  20. Adhesion to root canal dentine using one and two-step adhesives with dual-cure composite core materials.

    PubMed

    Foxton, R M; Nakajima, M; Tagami, J; Miura, H

    2005-02-01

    The regional tensile bond strengths of two dual-cure composite resin core materials to root canal dentine using either a one or two-step self-etching adhesive were evaluated. Extracted premolar teeth were decoronated and their root canals prepared to a depth of 8 mm and a width of 1.4 mm. In one group, a one-step self-etching adhesive (Unifil Self-etching Bond) was applied to the walls of the post-space and light-cured for 10 s. After which, the post-spaces were filled with the a dual-cure composite resin (Unifil Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. In the second group, a self-etching primer (ED Primer II) was applied for 30 s, followed by an adhesive resin (Clearfil Photo Bond), which was light-cured for 10 s. The post-spaces were filled with a dual-cure composite resin (DC Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. Chemical-cure composite resin was placed on the outer surfaces of all the roots, which were then stored in water for 24 h. They were serially sliced perpendicular to the bonded interface into 8, 0.6 mm-thick slabs, and then transversely sectioned into beams, approximately 8 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm, for the microtensile bond strength test (muTBS). Data were divided into two (coronal/apical half of post-space) and analysed using three-way anova and Scheffe's test (P < 0.05). Failure modes were observed under an scanning electron microscope (SEM) and statistically analysed. Specimens for observation of the bonded interfaces were prepared in a similar manner as for bond strength testing, cut in half and embedded in epoxy resin. They were then polished to a high gloss, gold sputter coated, and after argon ion etching, observed under an SEM. For both dual-cure composite resins and curing strategies, there were no significant differences in muTBS between the coronal and apical regions (P > 0.05). In addition, both dual-cure

  1. Effects of resin luting agents and 1% NaOCl on the marginal fit of indirect composite restorations in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    BORGES, Ana Flávia Sanches; SIMONATO, Luciana Estevam; PASCON, Fernanda Miori; KANTOWITZ, Kamila Rosamiglia; RONTANI, Regina Maria Puppin

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the marginal adaptation of composite resin onlays in primary teeth previously treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (pulp irrigant) using two different resin luting agents. Material and Methods Forty extracted sound primary molars had their crowns prepared in a standardized machine and were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): G1 (1% NaOCl irrigation+EnForce); G2 (EnForce); G3 (1% NaOCl irrigation+Rely X); G4 (Rely X). The onlays were made with Z250 composite resin on plaster models. After luting, the tooth/restoration set was stored in 100% relative humidity at 37ºC for 24 h and finished with Soflex discs. Caries Detector solution was applied at the tooth/restoration interface for 5 s. The specimens were washed and four digital photos of each tooth were then taken. The extents of the gaps were measured with Image Tool 3.0 software. The percentage data were submitted to a Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). The Relative Risk test analyzed the chance of a gap presence correlated to each group. Results There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) among the groups. The relative risk test revealed that some groups were more apt to have a presence of gaps than others. Conclusion Neither the 1% NaOCl treatment nor the resin luting agents caused any alterations in the dental substrate that could have influenced the marginal adaptation of composite onlays in primary teeth. PMID:21986649

  2. The effect of dentin desensitizer on shear bond strength of conventional and self-adhesive resin luting cements after aging.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, B; Hartmann, R; Hartmann, L; Roos, M; Ozcan, M; Sailer, I; Hämmerle, C H F

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the impact of Gluma Desensitizer on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two conventional (RelyX ARC, Panavia 21) and two self-adhesive (RelyX Unicem, G-Cem) resin luting cements after water storage and thermocycling. Human third molars (N=880) were embedded in acrylic resin. The buccal dentin was exposed. Teeth were randomly divided into four main groups, and the following cements were adhered: 1) RelyX ARC, 2) Panavia 21, 3) RelyX Unicem, and 4) G-Cem. In half of the teeth in each group, dentin was treated with Gluma Desensitizer. In the conventional cement groups, the corresponding etchant and adhesive systems were applied. SBS of the cements was tested after 1 hour (initial); at 1, 4, 9, 16, and 25 days of water storage; and at 1, 4, 9, 16, and 25 days of thermocycling. SBS data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); this was followed by the post hoc Scheffé test and a t-test. Overall, the highest mean SBS (MPa) was obtained by RelyX ARC (ranging from 14.6 ± 3.9 to 17.6 ± 5.2) and the lowest by Panavia 21 in combination with Gluma Desensitizer (ranging from 0.0 to 2.9 ± 1.0). All tested groups with and without desensitizer showed no significant decrease after aging conditions compared with baseline values (p>0.05). Only the Panavia 21/Gluma Desensitizer combination showed a significant decrease after 4 days of thermocyling compared with initial values and 1 day thermocycling. Self-adhesive cements with Gluma Desensitizer showed increased SBS after aging conditions (ranging from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 15.2 ± 3) compared with groups without desensitizer (ranging from 2.6 ± 1.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9). No cohesive failures in dentin were observed in any of the test groups. Although self-adhesive cements with and without desensitizer presented mainly adhesive failures after water storage (95.8%) and thermocyling (100%), conventional cement (RelyX ARC) showed mainly mixed failures (90.8% and 89.2%, after water storage and thermocyling, respectively

  3. Early resin luting material damage around a circular fiber post in a root canal treated premolar by using micro-computerized tomographic and finite element sub-modeling analyses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Hao; Lin, Chun-Li

    2015-11-01

    This study utilizes micro-computerized tomographic (micro-CT) and finite element (FE) sub-modeling analyses to investigate the micro-mechanical behavior associated with voids/bubbles stress behavior at the luting material layer to understand the early damage in a root canal treated premolar. 3-dimensional finite element (FE) models of a macro-root canal treated premolar and two sub-models at the luting material layer to provide the void/bubble distribution and dimensions were constructed from micro-CT images and simulated to receive axial and lateral forces. The boundary conditions for the sub-models were determined from the macro-premolar model results and applied in sub-modeling analysis. The first principal stresses for the dentin, luting material layer and post in macro-premolar model and for luting material void/bubble in sub-models were recorded. The simulated results revealed that the macro-premolar model dramatically underestimated the luting material stress because the voids/bubbles at the adhesive layer cannot be captured due to coarse mesh and high stress gradient and the variations between sub- and macro-models ranging from 2.65 to 4.5 folds under lateral load at the mapping location. Stress concentrations were found at the edge of the voids/bubbles and values over 20 MPa in sub-modeling analysis immediately caused the luting material failure/micro-crack. This study establishes that micro-CT and FE sub-modeling techniques can be used to simulate the stress pattern at the micro-scale luting material layer in a root canal treated premolar, suggesting that attention must be paid to resin luting material initial failure/debonding when large voids/bubbles are generated during luting procedures.

  4. The effects of different shades of resin luting cement on the color of ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammed Q; Aljurais, Rana M; Alshaafi, Maan M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of different shades of light-polymerized resin cement on the color of two different thicknesses (0.5 mm and 0.7 mm) of three different ceramic materials (Esthetic, e.max, and ZirPress). A spectrophotometer (Color Eye 7000A - CIE (L*a*b*) was used to measure the color of specimens on the control substrate without cement, and then on (Translucent, White Opaque, B0.5, A1, and A3 of RelyX™ Veneer cement). The mean values of color difference (ΔE) were higher for Esthetic, followed by ZirPress, with the lowest values for e.max. The mean values of ΔE decreased when the thickness of ceramic increased from 0.5 mm to 0.7 mm. It was observed that the White Opaque had significantly increased ΔE values when compared with (TR, B0.5, A1, and A3), whereas no significant difference between B0.5 and TR, and between B0.5 and A3.

  5. Effect of long-term simulated pulpal pressure on the bond strength and nanoleakage of resin-luting agents with different bonding strategies.

    PubMed

    de Alexandre, R S; Santana, V B; Kasaz, A C; Arrais, C A G; Rodrigues, J A; Reis, A F

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of simulated hydrostatic pulpal pressure (SPP) on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin and nanoleakage patterns produced by self-adhesive luting agents after 12 months. Three self-adhesive luting agents (RelyX Unicem [UN], RelyX U100 [UC], and Clearfil SA Luting [SA]) and three conventional luting agents (Rely X ARC [RX], Panavia F [PF], and a two-step self-etching adhesive system [Clearfil SE Bond] associated with Panavia F [PS]) were evaluated. One hundred twenty-three human molars were abraded to expose occlusal surfaces. Resin cements were used to lute cylindrical composite blocks to the teeth either subjected or not to SPP. Sixty specimens were subjected to 15 cm H2O of SPP for 24 hours before and 24 hours or 12 months after cementation procedures. Afterward, restored teeth were serially sectioned into beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) at the bonded interface and were tested in tension (cross-head speed of 1 mm/min). Failure mode was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were statistically analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (p=0.05). Two additional teeth in each group were serially sectioned into 0.9-mm-thick slabs, which were submitted to a nanoleakage protocol with AgNO3 and analyzed with scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The μTBS values of the etch-and-rinse group (RX) were negatively influenced by SPP and long-term water storage with SPP. After 12 months, UC and SA presented premature failures in all specimens when submitted to SPP. SPP increased silver deposition in most groups in both evaluation times. The hydrostatic pulpal pressure effect was material dependent. The storage time without SPP did not affect bond strength. However, long-term SPP influenced the performance of the etch-and-rinse and self-adhesive cements regarding μTBS and nanoleakage pattern, except to UN.

  6. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    DE SOUZA, Grace; BRAGA, Roberto Ruggiero; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; LOPES, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used. PMID:26398507

  7. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Grace; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used.

  8. Influence of different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing resin nanoceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Pigozzo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin nanoceramic (RNC) material to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 disks were milled from RNC blocks (Lava Ultimate/3M ESPE) with CAD/CAM technology. The disks were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 recently extracted bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, disks were cemented using a total-etch protocol (Scotchbond™ Universal Etchant phosphoric acid + Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 2, disks were cemented using a self-etch protocol (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 3, disks were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol (RelyX™ Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive resin cement). All cemented specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Instron Universal Testing Machine 3343) and submitted to a shear bond strength test to check the strength of adhesion between the two substrates, dentin, and RNC disks. Specimens were stressed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test at a level of significance of 0.05. Results: Post-hoc Tukey testing showed that the highest shear strength values (P < 0.001) were reported in Group 2. The lowest data (P < 0.001) were recorded in Group 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, conventional resin cements (coupled with etch and rinse or self-etch adhesives) showed better shear strength values compared to self-adhesive resin cements. Furthermore, conventional resin cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values of adhesion. PMID:27076822

  9. The effects of tooth preparation cleansing protocols on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting cement to contaminated dentin.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabutr, Yada; Kois, John C

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of a self-adhesive luting cement after using four different techniques to remove surface contamination on dentin. Extracted human molars were flattened to expose the dentin surface and prepared for full crown preparation. Acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated and placed using temporary cement. The specimens were stored at room temperature with 100% relative humidity for seven days. Following removal of the temporary crowns, the specimens were randomly divided into four groups, and excess provisional cement was removed with (1) a hand instrument (excavator), (2) prophy with a mixture of flour pumice and water (3) aluminous oxide abrasion with a particle size of 27 microm at 40 psi and (4) aluminous oxide abrasion with a particle size of 50 microm at 40 psi. The microstructure morphology of the tooth surface was evaluated and residual materials were detected using SEM and EDS analysis of randomly selected specimens. The ceramics were treated with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid-etch and silanized to the prepared dentin prior to cementing with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE). The shear bond strength was determined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Particle abrasion treatment of dentin with an aluminous oxide particle provided the highest values of bond strength, while hand instrument excavation was the lowest (p < 0.05). Aluminous oxide particle size did not significantly influence the bond strength at 40 psi. The use of low pressure and small particle abrasion treated dentin as a mechanical cleansing protocol prior to definitive cementation increased the bond strength of self-adhesive resin-luting cement to dentin following eugenol-containing temporary cement.

  10. Dual cure low-VOC coating process: Phase 3. Semi-annual technical progress report, October 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    Objective of Phase 3 is to complete proof-of-principle testing in full-scale systems of the dual cure photocatalyst technology developed in earlier phases. Phase 3 commercial applications are aerospace topcoats, aerospace primers, and solventless manufacture of tape backings. Progress was made in improving urethane/acrylate formulation for aerospace topcoats, particularly in reverse impact, initial gloss, and loss retention during accelerated weathering. Formulations have now been developed which meet all initial criteria; the formulation was optimized. Aerospace primer formulations based on epoxy/flexibilizer systems were evaluated. Because of cure consistency problems and the increased need for non-chromated primers, work on aerospace primer system was de-emphasized to allow greater effort on development and commercialization of aerospace topcoat. Work on solventless backing saturants for electrical tape backings has been completed; optimal dual cure resin formulations have been used in preparing complete tape constructions.

  11. Interfacial ultramorphology evaluation of resin luting cements to dentin: a correlative scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Vermelho, Paulo Moreira; André, Carolina Bosso; Giannini, Marcelo

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the dentin-resin cements interfacial ultramorphologies using two different methods: scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four commercial products were evaluated: two conventional cementing system (RelyX ARC/Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose Plus, 3M ESPE and Clearfil Esthetic Cement/DC Bond, Kuraray) and two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE and Clearfil SA Cement, Kuraray). Prepolymerized resin disks (Sinfony, 3M ESPE) were cemented on oclusal dentin surfaces of 24 third human molars, simulating the indirect restorations. After 24 h, teeth were sectioned into 0.9-mm thick slabs and processed for microscopy analyses (SEM or TEM/ n = 3). Qualitative characterization of dentin-resin cement interface was performed. Hybrid layer formation with long and dense resin tags was observed only for RelyX ARC cementing system. Clearfil Esthetic Cement/DC Bond system revealed few and short resin tags formation, whereas no hybridization and resin tags were detected for self-adhesive resin cements. Some interfacial regions exhibited that the self-adhesive resin cements were not bonded to dentin, presenting bubbles or voids at the interfaces. In conclusion, TEM and SEM bonding interface analyses showed ultramorphological variations among resin cements, which are directly related to dental bonding strategies used for each resin cement tested.

  12. Retention of radicular posts varying the application technique of the adhesive system and luting agent.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Tabajara Sabbag; Alfredo, Edson; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; Silva, Ricardo Gariba; Sousa, Yara T Correa Silva; Saquy, Paulo César; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the retention of intracanal cast posts cemented with dual-cure resin varying the application method of the primer/adhesive solution and luting agent in the prosthetic space prepared to receive the posts. Sixty endodontically treated maxillary canines had their crowns discarded, and their roots were embedded in acrylic resin. The prosthetic spaces were prepared with Largo burs mounted on a low-speed handpiece coupled to a parallelometer in order to maintain length and diameter of intraradicular posts constant and to guarantee that the preparations were parallel after casting. Two groups (n = 30) were randomly formed according to the device used to apply the adhesive system: microbrush or standard bristle brush (control). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10) according to the technique used to place the luting agent into the root canal: using only a lentulo spiral before setting the post, applying it onto the post surface, or combining both methods. After 72 hours, the tensile force required to dislodge each post was determined by a universal testing machine (Instron 4444) set at a speed of 1 mm/min. The results indicated that the use of the microbrush yielded higher bond strength values (0.1740 +/- 0.04 kN) than those recorded for the bristle brush tip (0.1369 +/- 0.04 kN, p < 0.001). Bonferroni's test demonstrated a higher retention (p < 0.001) in radicular post cemented with the technique that combined both methods (lentulo + post: 0.1787 +/- 0.03 kN) than that obtained with lentulo (0.1461 +/- 0.065 kN) or post (0.1416 +/- 0.03 kN) alone. The interactions between the adhesive system and luting agent application techniques presented statistical difference (p < 0.001). It was concluded that the best performance in terms of tensile strength among the tested conditions was obtained when the adhesive system was applied with a microbrush and the luting agent was taken into the root canal with lentulo spirals alone (0.1961 +/- 0

  13. Curing units' ability to cure restorative composites and dual-cured composite cements under composite overlay.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Sun; Cho, Yong-Sik; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Noh, Byng-Duk

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of using conventional low-power density QTH (LQTH) units, high-power density QTH (HQTH) units, argon (Ar) laser and Plasma arc curing (PAC) units for curing dual-cured resin cements and restorative resin composites under a pre-cured resin composite overlay. The microhardness of the two types of restorative resins (Z100 and Tetric Ceram) and a dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II) were measured after they were light cured for 60 seconds in a 2 mm Teflon mold. The recorded microhardness was determined to be the optimum microhard-ness (OM). Either one of the two types of restorative resins (Z100, Tetric Ceram) or the dual cured resin cement (Variolink II) were placed under a 1.5-mm thick and 8 mm diameter pre-cured Targis (Vivadent/Ivoclar AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) overlay. The specimens that were prepared for each material were divided into four groups depending upon the curing units used (HQTH, PAC, Laser or LQTH) and were further subdi-vided into subgroups according to light curing time. The curing times used were 30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds for HQTH; 12, 24, 36 and 48 seconds for the PAC unit; 15, 30, 45 and 60 for the Laser and 60, 120 or 180 seconds for the LQTH unit. Fifteen specimens were assigned to each sub- group. The microhardness of the upper and and lower composite surfaces under the Targis overlay were measured using an Optidur Vickers hardness-measuring instrument (Göttfert Feinwerktechnik GmbH, Buchen, Germany). In each material, for each group, a three-way ANOVA with Tukey was used at the 0.05 level of significance to compare the microhardnesses of the upper and lower composite surfaces and the previously measured OM of the material. From the OM of each material, 80% OM was calculated and the time required for the microhardness of the upper and lower surface of the specimen to reach 100% and 80% of OM was determined. In Z100 and Tetric Ceram, when the composites were light cured for 120 seconds using the HQTH lamp

  14. Influence of eugenol on the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts cemented with different types of resin luting agents.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Erhan; Çetin, Ali Riza; Capar, İsmail Davut; Tunçdemir, Ali Riza; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the influence of eugenol on the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts cemented with different types of resin luting agents. Seventy-two extracted maxillary single-rooted canine teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 36 teeth. Group 1, the control group, was filled with gutta-percha only (i.e., did not receive eugenol), whereas group 2 was filled with a eugenol-containing sealer. All root canals were filled and each group was divided into three subgroups. The posts in each subgroup were cemented with the following materials: subgroup 1 with a 2-step self-etching adhesive system (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V + Panavia F); subgroup 2 with a 1-step self-etching adhesive (Panavia F); and subgroup 3 with a self-adhesive (Clearfil SA Cement). Dislodgement resistance was measured using a universal testing machine. All data were subjected to ANOVA using a factorial design and Tukey test (α = 0.05). The use of the eugenol-containing sealer significantly reduced the push-out bond strength of the fiber post (P < 0.05). The push-out bond strength of Panavia F was significantly higher than those of the other groups filled with the eugenol-containing sealer (P < 0.05). The Panavia F group was less susceptible to the inhibiting effect of eugenol than were the other evaluated groups when the fiber post was cemented in the canals filled with the eugenol-containing sealer.

  15. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of two fiber-reinforced composite posts systems using two luting cements in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Ajay; Pujar, Madhu; Patil, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of using a “post” for the restoration of teeth has been practiced to restore the endodontically treated tooth. Metallic posts have been commonly used, but their delirious effects have led to the development of fiber-reinforced materials that have overcome the limitations of metallic posts. The use of glass and quartz fibers was proposed as an alternative to the dark color of carbon fiber posts as far as esthetics was concerned. “Debonding” is the most common failure in fiber-reinforced composite type of posts. This study was aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive dual-cured luting agent (RelyX U100) with a total etch resin luting agent (Variolink II) used to cement two different FRC posts. Materials and Methods: Eighty human maxillary anterior single-rooted teeth were decoronated, endodontically treated, post space prepared and divided into four groups (n = 20); Group I: D.T. light post (RTD) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent), Group II: D.T. light post (RTD) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE), Group III: Glassix post (Nordin) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent) and Group IV: Glassix post (Nordin) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE). Each root was sectioned to get slices of 2 ± 0.05-mm thickness. Push-out tests were performed using a triaxial loading frame. To express bond strength in megapascals (Mpa), load value recorded in Newton (N) was divided by the area of the bonded interface. After testing the push-out strengths, the samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. Results: The mean values of the push-out bond strength show that Group I and Group III had significantly higher values than Group II and Group IV. The most common mode of failure observed was adhesive between dentin and luting material and between post and luting material. Conclusions: The mean push-out bond strengths were higher for Groups I and III where Variolink II resin cement was used for luting the fiber post, which is based on the total etch

  16. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

    2014-01-01

    The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

  17. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Phase 3, Semi-annual report, April 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-10-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of 3M`s contract with the US Department of Energy is to complete proof-of-principle testing in full-scale systems of the dual cure photocatalyst technology developed in earlier Phases of the program. The Phase 3 commercial applications to be demonstrated are aerospace topcoats, aerospace primers, and solventless manufacture of tape backings. This report details activities of Phase 3 during this reporting period. In the second six months of Phase 3, work has continued in all three applications. Significant progress has been made in improving the performance of the urethane/acrylate formulation being used for the aerospace topcoat application. Key improvements have been made in obtaining increased reverse impact, initial gloss and gloss retention during accelerated weathering. Technical challenges have continued with the aerospace primer formulation. Efforts in this six months have continued to focus on establishing a good baseline epoxy/acrylate formulation with reliable cure conditions. Work on the third demonstration application, development of solventless backing saturants for electrical tape backings, has essentially been completed. Optimal dual cure resin formulations have been identified and utilized in preparing complete tape constructions. These tapes have been evaluated and characterized in terms of benchmark UL and internal 3M specifications for electrical tape performance.

  18. Thio-urethanes improve properties of dual-cured composite cements.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, A; Dobson, A; Ferracane, J L; Consani, R; Pfeifer, C S

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at modifying dual-cure composite cements by adding thio-urethane oligomers to improve mechanical properties, especially fracture toughness, and reduce polymerization stress. Thiol-functionalized oligomers were synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate, at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol. Oligomer was added at 0, 10 or 20 wt% to BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2, with 25 wt% silanated inorganic fillers) or to one commercial composite cement (Relyx Ultimate, 3M Espe). Near-IR was used to measure methacrylate conversion after photoactivation (700 mW/cm(2) × 60s) and after 72 h. Flexural strength and modulus, toughness, and fracture toughness were evaluated in three-point bending. Polymerization stress was measured with the Bioman. The microtensile bond strength of an indirect composite and a glass ceramic to dentin was also evaluated. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). For BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA cements, conversion values were not affected by the addition of thio-urethanes. Flexural strength/modulus increased significantly for both oligomer concentrations, with a 3-fold increase in toughness at 20 wt%. Fracture toughness increased over 2-fold for the thio-urethane modified groups. Contraction stress was reduced by 40% to 50% with the addition of thio-urethanes. The addition of thio-urethane to the commercial cement led to similar flexural strength, toughness, and conversion at 72h compared to the control. Flexural modulus decreased for the 20 wt% group, due to the dilution of the overall filler volume, which also led to decreased stress. However, fracture toughness increased by up to 50%. The microtensile bond strength increased for the experimental composite cement with 20 wt% thio-urethane bonding for both an indirect composite and a glass ceramic. Novel dual-cured composite cements containing thio-urethanes showed increased toughness, fracture toughness and

  19. Thio-urethanes Improve Properties of Dual-cured Composite Cements

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, A.; Dobson, A.; Ferracane, J.L.; Consani, R.; Pfeifer, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at modifying dual-cure composite cements by adding thio-urethane oligomers to improve mechanical properties, especially fracture toughness, and reduce polymerization stress. Thiol-functionalized oligomers were synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate, at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol. Oligomer was added at 0, 10 or 20 wt% to BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2, with 25 wt% silanated inorganic fillers) or to one commercial composite cement (Relyx Ultimate, 3M Espe). Near-IR was used to measure methacrylate conversion after photoactivation (700 mW/cm2 × 60s) and after 72 h. Flexural strength and modulus, toughness, and fracture toughness were evaluated in three-point bending. Polymerization stress was measured with the Bioman. The microtensile bond strength of an indirect composite and a glass ceramic to dentin was also evaluated. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). For BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA cements, conversion values were not affected by the addition of thio-urethanes. Flexural strength/modulus increased significantly for both oligomer concentrations, with a 3-fold increase in toughness at 20 wt%. Fracture toughness increased over 2-fold for the thio-urethane modified groups. Contraction stress was reduced by 40% to 50% with the addition of thio-urethanes. The addition of thio-urethane to the commercial cement led to similar flexural strength, toughness, and conversion at 72h compared to the control. Flexural modulus decreased for the 20 wt% group, due to the dilution of the overall filler volume, which also led to decreased stress. However, fracture toughness increased by up to 50%. The microtensile bond strength increased for the experimental composite cement with 20 wt% thio-urethane bonding for both an indirect composite and a glass ceramic. Novel dual-cured composite cements containing thio-urethanes showed increased toughness, fracture toughness and

  20. Influence of immediate dentin sealing on the shear bond strength of pressed ceramic luted to dentin with self-etch resin cement.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Robert; Ellakwa, Ayman; Millar, Brian; Martin, F Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the effect of immediate dentin sealing (IDS), with dentin bonding agents (DBAs) applied to freshly cut dentin, on the shear bond strength of etched pressed ceramic luted to dentin with RelyX Unicem (RXU) cement. Method. Eighty extracted noncarious third molars were ground flat to expose the occlusal dentin surfaces. The teeth were randomly allocated to five groups (A to E) of sixteen teeth each. Groups A to D were allocated a dentin bonding agent (Optibond FL, One Coat Bond, Single Bond, or Go!) that was applied to the dentin surface to mimic the clinical procedure of IDS. These specimen groups then had etched glass ceramic discs (Authentic) luted to the sealed dentin surface using RXU. Group E (control) had etched glass ceramic discs luted to the dentin surface (without a dentin bonding agent) using RXU following the manufacturer's instructions. All specimens were stored for one week in distilled water at room temperature and then shear stressed at a constant cross-head speed of 1 mm per minute until failure. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey HSD method (P < 0.05) applied for multiple paired comparisons. Results. The shear bond strength results for group A to E ranged from 6.94 ± 1.53 to 10.03 ± 3.50 MPa. One-way ANOVA demonstrated a difference (P < 0.05) between the groups tested and the Tukey HSD demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) difference between the shear bond strength (SBS) of Optibond FL (Group A) and Go! (Group D). There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) in the SBS between the test groups (A-D) or the control (group E). Conclusion. IDS using the dentin bonding agents tested does not statistically (P > 0.05) affect the shear bond strength of etched pressed ceramic luted to dentin with RXU when compared to the control.

  1. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Belwalkar, Vaibhavi Ramkrishna; Gade, Jaykumar; Mankar, Nikhil Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25) using silane as a control (Group A) and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05). Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. PMID:27307666

  2. Bonding of restorative materials to dentin with various luting agents.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Flury, S

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to compare eight types of luting agents when used to bond six indirect, laboratory restorative materials to dentin. Cylinders of the six restorative materials (Esteticor Avenir [gold alloy], Tritan [titanium], NobelRondo [feldspathic porcelain], Finesse All-Ceramic [leucite-glass ceramic], Lava [zirconia], and Sinfony [resin composite]) were ground and air-abraded. Cylinders of feldspathic porcelain and glass ceramic were additionally etched with hydrofluoric acid and were silane-treated. The cylinders were luted to ground human dentin with eight luting agents (DeTrey Zinc [zinc phosphate cement], Fuji I [conventional glass ionomer cement], Fuji Plus [resin-modified glass ionomer cement], Variolink II [conventional etch-and-rinse resin cement], Panavia F2.0 and Multilink [self-etch resin cements], and RelyX Unicem Aplicap and Maxcem [self-adhesive resin cements]). After water storage at 37°C for one week, the shear bond strength of the specimens (n=8/group) was measured, and the fracture mode was stereomicroscopically examined. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls' Multiple Range Test (α=0.05). Both the restorative material and the luting agent had a significant effect on bond strength, and significant interaction was noted between the two variables. Zinc phosphate cement and glass ionomer cements produced the lowest bond strengths, whereas the highest bond strengths were found with the two self-etch and one of the self-adhesive resin cements. Generally, the fracture mode varied markedly with the restorative material. The luting agents had a bigger influence on bond strength between restorative materials and dentin than was seen with the restorative material.

  3. Radiopacity Evaluation of Contemporary Luting Cements by Digitization of Images

    PubMed Central

    Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Jorge, Érica Gouveia; Ribeiro, João Gustavo Rabelo; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of two conventional cements (Zinc Cement and Ketac Cem Easymix), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2) and six resin cements (Multilink, Bistite II DC, RelyX ARC, Fill Magic Dual Cement, Enforce and Panavia F) by digitization of images. Methods. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 × 1.0 mm) were made for each material, according to ISO 4049. After setting of the cements, radiographs were made using occlusal films and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1.0 to 16 mm in thickness. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of the cements was compared with the aluminum stepwedge using the software VIXWIN-2000. Data (mmAl) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results. The Zinc Cement was the most radiopaque material tested (P < 0.05). The resin cements presented higher radiopacity (P < 0.05) than the conventional (Ketac Cem Easymix) or resin-modified glass ionomer (RelyX Luting 2) cements, except for the Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce. The Multilink presented the highest radiopacity (P < 0.05) among the resin cements. Conclusion. The glass ionomer-based cements (Ketac Cem Easymix and RelyX Luting 2) and the resin cements (Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce) showed lower radiopacity values than the minimum recommended by the ISO standard. PMID:23008777

  4. Clinical applications of preheated hybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    Rickman, L J; Padipatvuthikul, P; Chee, B

    2011-07-22

    This clinical article describes and discusses the use of preheated nanohybrid resin composite for the placement of direct restorations and luting of porcelain laminate veneers. Two clinical cases are presented. Preheating hybrid composite decreases its viscosity and film thickness offering the clinician improved handling. Preheating also facilitates the use of nanohybrid composite as a veneer luting material with relatively low polymerisation shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion compared to currently available resin luting cements.

  5. The impact of endodontic irrigating solutions on the push-out shear bond strength of glass fiber posts luted with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Pelegrine, Rina Andrea; Silveira, Cláudia Fernandes de Magalhães; Bueno, Vanessa Castro Pestana da Silveira; Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pereira, Gisele Damiana da Silveira; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2016-01-01

    Resin-based restorative materials, widely used to cement posts, may be influenced by irrigants used during endodontic chemical-mechanical preparation. This study evaluated the impact of endodontic irrigating solutions and adhesive cement systems on the push-out shear bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin. Ninety-six bovine incisors were divided into 12 groups (4 irrigants × 3 resin cements; n = 8). Prepared canals were irrigated with saline solution, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 5.25% NaOCl, or 2% chlorhexidine gel, and posts were cemented with RelyX ARC, Panavia F, or RelyX U100. The bond strength was evaluated by means of the push-out test, and results were subjected to analysis of variance. The mean bond strength observed for the combination of 5.25% NaOCl irrigant and RelyX U100 cement was significantly lower (8.82 MPa) than the values found for the other groups (P < 0.05). The other combinations of irrigating solution and resin cement had no adverse effect on the bond strength of the glass fiber posts to dentin.

  6. Placing Anterior Lithium-Disilicate Restorations Using a Dual-Cure Resin Cement.

    PubMed

    Poss, Stephen D

    2016-10-01

    Depending on the case, predictably seating today's esthetic indirect restorations can be challenging. Ultimately, the cementation and adhesive materials selected, combined with the techniques used for their placement, can greatly affect the quality and efficient delivery of laboratory-fabricated restorations. New adhesive bonding and cementation materials have the potential to simplify the delivery of indirect restorations and simultaneously reduce and/or eliminate many of the challenges clinicians face during the placement process. This article reviews the requisite characteristics of these materials and presents a case demonstrating their use when seating anterior lithium-disilicate restorations.

  7. Guitars and Lutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Caldersmith, Graham

    Lute-type instruments have a long history. Various types of necked chordophones were in use in ancient Egyptian, Hittite, Greek, Roman, Turkish, Chinese, and other cultures. In the ninth century, Moors brought the oud (or ud) to Spain. In the fifteenth century, the vihuela became popular in Spain and Portugal. About the same time guitars with four double-strings became popular, and Italy became the center of the guitar world.

  8. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    PubMed

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Luting Cements to Different Core Buildup Materials in Lactic Acid Buffer Solution

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Siddharam M.; Desai, Raviraj G.; Arabbi, Kashinath C.; Prakash, Ved

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objectives The core buildup material is used to restore badly broken down tooth to provide better retention for fixed restorations. The shear bond strength of a luting agent to core buildup is one of the crucial factors in the success of the cast restoration. The aim of this invitro study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of luting cements with different core buildup materials in lactic acid buffer solution. Materials and Methods Two luting cements {Traditional Glass Ionomer luting cement (GIC) and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer luting cement (RMGIC)} and five core buildup materials {Silver Amalgam, Glass ionomer (GI), Glass Ionomer Silver Reinforced (GI Silver reinforced), Composite Resin and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer(RMGIC)} were selected for this study. Total 100 specimens were prepared with 20 specimens for each core buildup material using a stainless steel split metal die. Out of these 20 specimens, 10 specimens were bonded with each luting cement. All the bonded specimens were stored at 370c in a 0.01M lactic acid buffer solution at a pH of 4 for 7days. Shear bond strength was determined using a Universal Testing Machine at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. The peak load at fracture was recorded and shear bond strength was calculated. The data was statistically analysed using Two-way ANOVA followed by HOLM-SIDAK method for pair wise comparison at significance level of p<0.05. Results Two-Way ANOVA showed significant differences in bond strength of the luting cements (p<0.05) and core materials (p<0.05) and the interactions (p<0.05). Pairwise comparison of luting cements by HOLM-SIDAK test, showed that the RMGIC luting cement had higher shear bond strength values than Traditional GIC luting cement for all the core buildup materials. RMGIC core material showed higher bond strength values followed by Composite resin, GI silver reinforced, GI and silver amalgam core materials for both the luting agents. Conclusion Shear bond strength of

  10. Fracture mechanics analysis of the dentine-luting cement interface.

    PubMed

    Ryan, A K; Mitchell, C A; Orr, J F

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the fracture toughness of adhesive interfaces between dentine and clinically relevant, thin layers of dental luting cements. Cements tested included a conventional glass-ionomer, F (Fuji 1), a resin-modified glass-ionomer, FP (Fuji Plus) and a compomer cement, D (DyractCem). Ten miniature short-bar chevron notch specimens were manufactured for each cement, each comprising a 40 microm thick chevron of lute, between two 1.5 mm thick blocks of bovine dentine, encased in resin composite. The interfacial K(IC) results (MN/m3/2) were median (range): F; 0.152 (0.14-0.16), FP; 0.306 (0.27-0.37), D; 0.351 (0.31-0.37). Non-parametric statistical analysis showed that the fracture toughness of F was significantly lower (p <0.05) than those of FP or D, and all were significantly lower than values for monolithic cement specimens. Scanning electron microscopy of the specimens suggested crack propagation along the interface. However, energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that failure was cohesive within the cement. It is concluded that the fracture toughness of luting cement was lowered by cement-dentine interactions.

  11. Fracture load of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns luted with various cements.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yoo, Jeong-Min; Park, Sang-Won; Yang, Hong-So

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the fracture load and failure types of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns cemented with various luting agents. The ceramic frameworks were fabricated from a presintered yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide block using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing technology, and were then veneered with feldspathic porcelain. Three luting agents were used. Composite resin cement (1,560.78 +/- 39.43 N) showed the highest mean fracture load, followed by acrylic/urethane cement (1,116.20 +/- 77.32 N) and zinc oxide eugenol cement (741.21 +/- 41.95 N) (P < .05). The types of failure varied between groups.

  12. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBrayer, R. O.; Frazier, J.; Nein, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture telescope for imaging the stellar ultraviolet spectrum from the lunar surface. The aspects of Lute's educational value and the information it can provide on designing for the long-term exposure to the lunar environment are important considerations. This paper briefly summarizes the status of the phase A study by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) LUTE Task Team. The primary focus will be a discussion of the merits of LUTE as a small and relatively inexpensive project that benefits a wide spectrum of interests and could be operating on the lunar surface by the turn of the century.

  13. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Roots Restored with Fiber Posts Using Different Resin Cements- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Irodi, Sujatha; Mehta, Deepak; Subramanya, Shankar; Govindaraju, Vinay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The influence of the remaining coronal tooth structure along with intra-radicular esthetic posts increases fracture resistance of fractured teeth especially in the anterior region. The advent of resin based luting cements improves the adhesion of fiber posts. Aim To evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots restored with fiber posts using different resin cements – Calibra (etch and rinse), PermaFlo® DC (self-etch primer) and SmartCem2 (self-adhesive). Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary central incisors having similar dimensions were decoronated at the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) to create 16mm long specimens and endodontically treated. A total of 45 teeth were divided into three groups with 15 teeth each for cementation of easy fiber posts (size1, 0.8mm diameter). Post spaces were prepared to a depth of 10mm. Group 1 – Caulk 34% phosphoric acid gel, dual cure adhesive Prime and Bond NT followed by luting of post with Calibra cement. Group 2 – Ultra – etch then Primer A and Primer B, and PermaFlo® DC was used to cement the post. Group 3 – SmartCem2 [1:1 ratio] was used to cement the post. The excess lengths of posts were seared and teeth were mounted on acrylic blocks and loaded under compressive force to the long axis of the tooth which increased in periodic pattern of 1mm/min. The value of the force at which each root section gets fractured was noted. The data were statistically analysed using ANOVA and Tukey’s Test. Results The mean fracture load (and SD) were as follows Group 1 – 762.400 (251.490); Group 2 – 662.933 (206.709); Group 3 – 657.800 (57.372). No statistically significant differences were seen among all three Groups, p-value (0.228). Conclusion Posts cemented using self -adhesive resin cement SmartCem2 have highest fracture resistance and bonding efficacy of self-adhesive technique showed reliably better results but was comparable to total–etch and self–etch techniques. PMID

  14. Cytotoxicity of commonly used luting cements -An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Trumpaite-Vanagiene, Rita; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Puriene, Alina; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Rutkunas, Vygandas

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to 1) evaluate the cytotoxicity of luting cements: Hoffmann's Zinc Phosphate (Hoffmann's ZP), GC Fuji Plus Resin Modified Glass Ionomer (Fuji Plus RMGI) and 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem Resin Cement (RelyX Unicem RC) and 2) test if pre-washing reduces the cements' cytotoxicity. In vitro human gingival fibroblast (HGF) culture model was chosen. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test, the cell viability -by staining the cells with AO/EB dye mixture. The means±SD of Cell Survival Ratio (CSR%) were compared among different cement types under two testing conditions, with or without cement pre-washing. The CSR%s were compared by ANOVA and linear multiple regression (LMR). Hoffmann's ZPC was less cytotoxic, while Fuji Plus RMGIC and RelyX Unicem RC were more cytotoxic (ANOVA, p<0.001). The type of cement and cement pre-washing jointly explained 90% of cell survival (LMR, p<0.001, adjusted squared R=0.889). The commonly used luting cements such as Hoffmann's ZP, Fuji Plus RMGI and RelyX Unicem RC may have a cytotoxic potential.

  15. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE), phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum between 1,000 and 3,500 angstroms. There have been several endorsements of the scientific value of a LUTE. In addition to the scientific value of LUTE, its educational value and the information it can provide on the design of operating hardware for long-term exposure in the lunar environment are important considerations. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  16. Compressive strength and the effect of duration after photo-activation among dual-cure bulk fill composite core materials

    PubMed Central

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess compressive strength and effect of duration after photoactivation on the compressive strength of different dual cure bulk fill composites. Methods: Seventy-two disc shaped (4x10mm) specimens were prepared from three dual cure bulk fill materials, ZirconCore (ZC) (n=24), MulticCore Flow (MC) (n=24) and Luxacore Dual (LC) (n=24). Half of the specimens in each material were tested for failure loads after one hour [MC1 (n=12), LC1 (n=12) & ZC1 (n=12)] and the other half in 7 days [MC7 (n=12), LC7 (n=12), ZC7 (n=12)] from photo-polymerization using the universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 cm/minutes. Compressive strength was calculated using the formula UCS=4f/πd2. Compressive strengths among different groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Results: Maximum and minimum compressive strengths were observed in ZC7 (344.14±19.22) and LC1 (202.80±15.52) groups. Specimens in LC1 [202.80 (15.52)] showed significantly lower compressive strength as compared to MC1 [287.06 (15.03)] (p<0.01) and ZC1 [276.82 (11.51)] (p<0.01). ZC7 [344.14 (19.22)] specimens showed significantly higher (p<0.01) compressive strengths compared to LC7 [324.56 (19.47)] and MC7 [315.26 (12.36)]. Compressive strengths among all three materials were significantly higher (p<0.01) at 7 days as compared to one hour. Conclusions: Bulk fill material with Zr nano-hybrid filler (ZC) showed high compressive strength compared to MC and LC. Increasing the post photo-activation duration (from one hour to 7 days) significantly improves the compressive strengths of dual cure bulk fill material. PMID:27882021

  17. A Review of Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Pameijer, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the availability of a large number of luting agents (dental cements) proper selection can be a daunting task and is usually based on a practitioner's reliance on experience and preference and less on in depth knowledge of materials that are used for the restoration and luting agent properties. This review aims at presenting an overview of current cements and discusses physical properties, biocompatibility and other properties that make a particular cement the preferred choice depending on the clinical indication. Tables are provided that outline the different properties of the generic classification of cements. It should be noted that no recommendations are made to use a particular commercial cement for a hypothetical clinical situation. The choice is solely the responsibility of the practitioner. The appendix is intended as a guide for the practitioner towards a recommended choice under commonly encountered clinical scenarios. Again, no commercial brands are recommended although the author recognizes that some have better properties than others. Please note that this flowchart strictly presents the author's opinion and is based on research, clinical experience and the literature. PMID:22505909

  18. An Investigation of Dental Luting Cement Solubility as a Function of the Marginal Gap.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    be non-irritating to the dental pulp , and have low solubility. A critical property of luting cement is its solubility in oral fluids. If the cement...25 micron and 100 micron cement margins. In another investigation, hollow orthodontic tubing and the acid etch composite resin technique were used to...evaluate cement solubility. (lbbetson 1985) Hollow orthodontic tubing, with a 0.05 mm diameter, was filled with dental cement and attached to the

  19. Effect of Ceramic Thickness and Luting Agent Shade on the Color Masking Ability of Laminate Veneers.

    PubMed

    Begum, Zubeda; Chheda, Pratik; Shruthi, C S; Sonika, Radhika

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to recognize the effect of ceramic thickness and luting agent on the extent to which the restoration masks color variations that may be present in the underlying dental structure. Two pressable ceramics were used: Lithium disilicate reinforced (IPS e.max- Ivoclar Vivadent) and Leucite reinforced (Cergo- Dentsply). Fifteen ceramic discs were manufactured from each ceramic and divided into three groups, according to the thickness (0.5, 1, 1.5 mm). To simulate the color of a dark underlying dental structure, background discs, color C3, with 20 mm diameter, were made using resin composite. The ceramic discs with varying thicknesses were seated on the dark background of the resin composite with either resinous opaque cement or resinous cement. The color parameters were determined by the CIE Lab system of colors using a spectrophotometer and color differences (ΔE) were calculated. The results were then statistically analyzed, using ANOVA test and Tukey HSD test. The ΔE values of both ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P < 0.05). The use of an opaque luting agent resulted in an increase of the ΔE* values for all ceramics tested, regardless of the thickness. For the 1.5-mm thick veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for both ceramic materials. The color masking ability of ceramics used for laminate veneers is significantly affected by the thickness of the ceramic and the shade of the luting agent used.

  20. Bulk filling of Class II cavities with a dual-cure composite: Effect of curing mode and enamel etching on marginal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotto, Tissiana; Roig, Miguel; Krejci, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to find a simple adhesive restorative technique for class I and II cavities on posterior teeth. Study Design: The tested materials were a self-etching adhesive (Parabond, Coltène/Whaledent) and a dual-cure composite (Paracore, Coltène/Whaledent) used in bulk to restore the cavities. Class II MO cavities were performed and assigned to 4 groups depending on the orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) conditioning of enamel and polymerization method used (chemical or dual). Specimens were subjected to quantitative marginal analysis before and after thermo-mechanical loading. Results: Higher percentages of marginal adaptation at the total margin length, both before and after thermo-mechanical loading, were found in groups in which enamel was etched with phosphoric acid, without significant differences between the chemically and dual-cured modes. The restorations performance was similar on enamel and dentin, obtaining low results of adaptation on occlusal enamel in the groups without enamel etching, the lowest scores were on cervical dentin in the group with no ortophosphoric acid and self-cured. Conclusions: A dual-cure composite applied in bulk on acid etched enamel obtained acceptable marginal adaptation results, and may be an alternative technique for the restoration of class II cavities. Key words:Dual-cure composite, bulk technique, class II restoration, selective enamel etching, marginal adaptation. PMID:25674316

  1. In vivo disintegration of four different luting agents.

    PubMed

    Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P < 0.001). Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results.

  2. Influence of Two Desensitizer Agents on the Microleakage of Adhesively Luted Ceramic Inlays

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Esra Uzer; Kumbaraci, Nazli; Cal, Ebru; Turkun, Murat

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different desensitizers (Hemaseal & Cide and Aqua Prep F) on the microleakage of ceramic inlay restorations luted with adhesive resin cement. Methods: Cylindrical Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of thirty extracted human third molars. One of the desensitizers (either Hemaseal&Cide, Advantage Dental Products Inc. or Aqua-Prep F, Bisco) was applied to the cavities. Ten samples were used as controls. Ceramic inlays were fabricated using the heat-pressed glass ceramic technique (IPS Empress II). Inlay restorations were luted using adhesive cement (Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent). The restorations were properly finished, stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and subjected to 1000 thermal cycles. The microleakage scores were examined using a stereomicroscope at the 30x magnification after each sample was stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin. The data were analyzed using Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests (P=0.05). Results: Aqua-Prep F samples showed significantly higher microleakage scores at the enamel margins than did the Hemaseal & Cide and control groups (P<.05). Hemaseal & Cide application led to less microleakage than the other groups both at the enamel and dentin margins (P<.05). Conclusions: Hemaseal & Cide desensitizer decreased the microleakage process at the enamel and dentin margins of inlay restorations luted with adhesive luting cement, while Aqua-Prep F increased the leakage scores at the enamel margins. PMID:21228958

  3. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P < 0.05). In general, improvements in bond strength (MPa) were found in the following order: M10 > C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

  4. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of historical varnishes of ancient Italian lutes and violin.

    PubMed

    Echard, J P; Benoit, C; Peris-Vicente, J; Malecki, V; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Vaiedelich, S

    2007-02-12

    The organic constituents of historical vanishes from two ancient Italian lutes and a Stradivari violin, kept in the Musée de la musique in Paris, have been characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results have been compared with the chromatograms and mass spectra of recent as well as old naturally aged reference materials. The three historical varnishes analyzed have been shown to be oil varnishes, probably mixtures of linseed oil with resins. Identification of diterpenoids and triterpenoids compounds, and of the resins that may have been ingredients of the varnishes, are discussed in this paper.

  5. The Effect of Temperature on Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Commonly Used Luting Cements: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Suneel G; Sajjan, MC Suresh; Patil, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The luting cements must withstand masticatory and parafunctional stresses in the warm and wet oral environment. Mouth temperature and the temperature of the ingested foods may induce thermal variation and plastic deformation within the cements and might affect the strength properties. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of temperature on the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of two polycarboxylate, a conventional glass ionomer and a resin modified glass ionomer luting cements and, to compare the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength of the selected luting cements at varying temperatures. Materials and Methods: In this study, standardized specimens were prepared. The temperature of the specimens was regulated prior to testing them using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Six specimens each were tested at 23°C, 37°C and 50°C for both the compressive and diametral tensile strengths, for all the luting cements. Results: All the luting cements showed a marginal reduction in their compressive and diametral tensile strengths at raised temperatures. Fuji Plus was strongest in compression, followed by Fuji I > Poly F > Liv Carbo. Fuji Plus had the highest diametral tensile strength values, followed by Poly F = Fuji I = Liv Carbo, at all temperatures. Conclusion: An increase in the temperature caused no significant reduction in the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of the cements evaluated. The compressive strength of the luting cements differed significantly from one another at all temperatures. The diametral tensile strength of resin modified glass ionomers differed considerably from the other cements, whereas there was no significant difference between the other cements, at all the temperatures. PMID:25859100

  6. Microtensile Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Luting Cements to Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Abo, Tomoko; Uno, Shigeru; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Yamada, Toshimoto; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the bond strengths of the self-adhesive luting cements between ceramics and resin cores and examine their relation to the cement thickness. Three self-adhesive luting cements (Smartcem, Maxcem, and G-CEM) and a resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) for control were used in the paper. The thickness of the cements was controlled in approximately 25, 50, 100, or 200 μm. Each 10 specimens were made according to the manufacturers' instructions and stored in water at 37°C. After 24 hours, microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was measured. There were significant differences in cements. Three self-adhesive cements showed significantly lower μTBSs than control that required both etching and priming before cementation (Tukey, P < 0.05). The cement thickness of 50 or 100 μm tended to induce the highest μTBSs for each self-adhesive luting cements though no difference was found. PMID:22606202

  7. Comparative evaluation of marginal leakage of provisional crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sheen Juneja; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram; Jain, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    Background or Statement of Problem: As, the longevity of provisional restorations is related to, a perfect adaptation and a strong, long-term union between restoration and teeth structures, therefore, evaluation of marginal leakage of provisional restorative materials luted with cements using the standardized procedures is essential. Aims and Objectives: To compare the marginal leakage of the provisional crowns fabricated from Autopolymerizing acrylic resin crowns and bisphenol A-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) resin crowns. To compare the marginal leakage of the provisional crowns fabricated from autopolymerizing acrylic resin crowns and BIS-GMA resin crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements. To compare the marginal leakage of the provisional crowns fabricated from autopolymerizing acrylic resin (SC-10) crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements. To compare the marginal leakage of the provisional crowns fabricated from BIS-GMA resin crowns (Protemp 4) cemented with different temporary luting cements. Methodology: Freshly extracted 60 maxillary premolars of approximately similar dimensions were mounted in dental plaster. Tooth reduction with shoulder margin was planned to use a customized handpiece-holding jig. Provisional crowns were prepared using the wax pattern fabricated from computer aided designing/computer aided manufacturing milling machine following the tooth preparation. Sixty provisional crowns were made, thirty each of SC-10 and Protemp 4 and were then cemented with three different luting cements. Specimens were thermocycled, submerged in a 2% methylene blue solution, then sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope for the evaluation of marginal microleakage. A five-level scale was used to score dye penetration in the tooth/cement interface and the results of this study was analyzed using the Chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis H-test and the results were statistically significant P < 0.05 the

  8. Retention Strength after Compressive Cyclic Loading of Five Luting Agents Used in Implant-Supported Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Arenal, Angel; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; deLlanos-Lanchares, Hector; Pinés-Hueso, Javier; Ellakuria-Echebarria, Joseba

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the retention strength of five cement types commonly used in implant-retained fixed partial dentures, before and after compressive cyclic loading. In five solid abutments screwed to 5 implant analogs, 50 metal Cr-Ni alloy copings were cemented with five luting agents: resin-modified glass ionomer (RmGI), resin composite (RC), glass ionomer (GI), resin urethane-based (RUB), and compomer cement (CC). Two tensile tests were conducted with a universal testing machine, one after the first luting of the copings and the other after 100,000 cycles of 100 N loading at 0.72 Hz. The one way ANOVA test was applied for the statistical analysis using the post hoc Tukey test when required. Before and after applying the compressive load, RmGI and RC cement types showed the greatest retention strength. After compressive loading, RUB cement showed the highest percentage loss of retention (64.45%). GI cement recorded the lowest retention strength (50.35 N) and the resin composite cement recorded the highest (352.02 N). The type of cement influences the retention loss. The clinician should give preference to lower retention strength cement (RUB, CC, and GI) if he envisages any complications and a high retention strength one (RmGI, RC) for a specific clinical situation. PMID:27822468

  9. Nanoleakage of fiber posts luted with different adhesive strategies and the effect of chlorhexidine on the interface of dentin and self-adhesive cements.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Danielson Guedes; Araujo, Cintia Tereza Pimenta; Prieto, Lucia Trazzi; de Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles; Coppini, Erick Kamiya; Dias, Carlos Tadeu Santos; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the nanoleakage of fiber posts luted using different adhesive strategies and to investigate the effect of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) on nanoleakage at the resin-dentin interfaces of self-adhesive cements. The self-adhesive and etch-and-rinse adhesive groups tested demonstrated similar results with regard to nanoleakage. Pretreatment with CHX promoted an adequate seal at the resin-dentin interface for self-adhesive cements.

  10. Bonding Effectiveness of Two Adhesive Luting Cements to Glass Fiber Posts: Pull-Out Evaluation of Three Different Post Surface Conditioning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials. PMID:24987418

  11. Bonding All-Ceramic Restorations with Two Resins Cement Techniques: A Clinical Report of Three-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Junior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Martini, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Ceramics have been widely used for esthetic and functional improvements. The resin cement is the material of choice for bonding ceramics to dental substrate and it can also dictate the final esthetic appearance and strength of the restoration. The correct use of the wide spectrum of resin luting agents available depends on the dental tooth substrate. This article presents three-year clinical results of a 41 years old female patient B.H.C complaining about her unattractive smile. Two all-ceramic crowns and two laminates veneers were placed in the maxillary incisors and cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting cement and conventional resin luting cement, respectively. After a three-year follow-up, the restorations and cement/teeth interface were clinically perfect with no chipping, fractures or discoloration. Proper use of different resin luting cements shows clinical appropriate behavior after a three-year follow-up. Self-adhesive resin luting cement may be used for cementing all-ceramic crowns with high predictability of success, mainly if there is a large dentin surface available for bonding and no enamel at the finish line. Otherwise, conventional resin luting agent should be used for achieving an adequate bonding strength to enamel. PMID:21912505

  12. Versatility of Pyrylium Salt/Vinyl Ether Initiating System for Epoxide Dual-Cure Polymerization: Kick-Starting Effect of the Coinitiator.

    PubMed

    Lecompère, Maxime; Allonas, Xavier; Maréchal, David; Criqui, Adrien

    2017-01-24

    Pyrylium salts combined with vinyl ethers are shown to act as new versatile dual-cure initiating systems for both photochemical and thermal initiation of oxirane monomers. The combination of both possibilities allows the curing of thick samples through photoinduced frontal polymerization. On the basis of quantum calculations and photochemical experiments, some clues are given about the reaction mechanisms involved. Interestingly, a sequential kick-starting effect is observed in the presence of vinyl ether enabling the curing of oxetane monomers. Thereby, this communication presents a short overview of potential of pyrylium salts in cationic polymerization of oxiranes.

  13. Influence of temporary cement remnant and surface cleaning method on bond strength to dentin of a composite luting system.

    PubMed

    Kanakuri, Katsuhito; Kawamoto, Yoshikazu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of polycarboxylate temporary cement remaining on the dentin surface on the bond strength of a composite luting system. An acrylic resin plate was luted to bovine dentin with a polycarboxylate temporary cement (HY-Bond Temporary Cement Hard, HYB). The temporary cement was not used for the control groups. After removing the temporary cement with an excavator, dentin specimens were divided into five groups; 1) no subsequent treatment, 2) cleaning with a rotational brush (RTB), 3) cleaning with a rotational brush and non-fluoridated flour of pumice, 4) sweeping with an air scaler, and 5) treated with a sonic toothbrush. A silane-treated ceramic disk (IPS Empress) was bonded to each dentin specimen with a composite luting system (Panavia F). Shear testing results showed that the RTB groups exhibited the highest bond strength regardless of the use of temporary cement (P < 0.05). The use of a rotational brush with water coolant is recommended to achieve ideal bond strength between the Panavia F luting system and dentin to which HYB temporary cement was primarily applied.

  14. Evaluation of the bond strength between aged composite cores and luting agent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of different surface treatment methods on the bond strength between aged composite-resin core and luting agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy-five resin composites and also seventy-five zirconia ceramic discs were prepared. 60 composite samples were exposed to thermal aging (10,000 cycles, 5 to 55℃) and different surface treatment. All specimens were separated into 5 groups (n=15): 1) Intact specimens 2) Thermal aging-air polishing 3) Thermal aging- Er:YAG laser irradiation 4) Thermal aging- acid etching 5) Thermal-aging. All specimens were bonded to the zirconia discs with resin cement and fixed to universal testing machine and bond strength testing loaded to failure with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The fractured surface was classified as adhesive failure, cohesive failure and adhesive-cohesive failure. The bond strength data was statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis method complemented by the Bonferroni correction Mann-Whitney U test. The probability level for statistical significance was set at α=.05. RESULTS Thermal aging and different surface treatment methods have significant effect on the bond strength between composite-resin cores and luting-agent (P<.05). The mean baseline bond strength values ranged between 7.07 ± 2.11 and 26.05 ± 6.53 N. The highest bond strength of 26.05 ± 6.53 N was obtained with Group 3. Group 5 showed the lowest value of bond strength. CONCLUSION Appropriate surface treatment method should be applied to aged composite resin cores or aged-composites restorations should be replaced for the optimal bond strength and the clinical success. PMID:25932308

  15. Evaluation of TEGDMA leaching from four resin cements by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Usumez, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of TEGDMA from dual cured resin cements, used for bonding of ceramic restoration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Forty freshly extracted caries and restoration free molar teeth used in this study. Standardized Class I preparations were prepared in all teeth. Ceramic inlays were cemented with one of the dual cured resin cements (Variolink II, Rely X ARC, Rely X Unicem and Resilute). After cementation, specimens were stored in 75% ethanol solution. HPLC was used to analyze the amounts of TEGDMA in different time intervals. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to evaluate the results (P<.05). Results: The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Resilute was the highest and the amount of TEG-DMA eluted from Rely X Unicem was the lowest (P<.05). The total amount of monomers was the highest after 21 days (P<.05). Conclusion: In the case of resin cements, elution of TEGDMA was the highest in Resilute and lowest in Rely X Unicem. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from resin cements was influenced by the time. PMID:22904653

  16. Evaluation of ISO 4049: water sorption and water solubility of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Johannes A; Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the water sorption and solubility test design of ISO 4049 for resin cements. Sorption and solubility of six dual-curing resin cements [RelyX Unicem 2 Automix (RUN), Multilink Speed CEM (MLS), Panavia SA Plus (PSA), RelyX Ultimate (RUL), Multilink Automix (MLA), and Panavia V5 (PV5)] were analyzed by storage in distilled water after dual-curing. In addition, sorption and solubility during thermal cycling were assessed with self-cured and dual-cured specimens. After water storage, all cements revealed sorption in the range of 30 μg mm(-3) except for PV5, for which sorption was markedly lower (mean ± SD = 20.8 ± 0.4 μg mm(-3) ). Solubility values were negative for RUN and RUL (-2.1 ± 0.08 μg mm(-3) and -1.9 ± 0.13 μg mm(-3) , respectively). All other cements attained positive values in the range of 0.4-0.8 μg mm(-3) . Thermal cycling effects were more pronounced. The assessment of water sorption according to ISO 4049 provides reliable results. Solubility results must be interpreted with care because absorbed water may distort the values.

  17. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes

    PubMed Central

    NOVAIS, Veridiana Resende; RAPOSO, Luís Henrique Araújo; de MIRANDA, Rafael Resende; LOPES, Camila de Carvalho Almança; SIMAMOTO, Paulo Cézar; SOARES, Carlos José

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Resin cements have led to great advances in dental ceramic restoration techniques because of their ability to bond to both dental structures and restorative materials. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Material and Methods Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC) and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer). The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst) and light-activation mode (base paste only). For degree of conversion (DC) (n=5), a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for classifying the failure modes. Results Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. Conclusion The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick. PMID:28198977

  18. Effect of ceramic type, thickness, and time of irradiation on degree of polymerization of dual – cure resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Rashi; Taneja, Sonali; Kumari, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of ceramic type, thickness, and time of irradiation on degree of polymerization of dual-cure resin cement. Materials and Methods: Dual-cure resin cement (SoloCem) was used to prepare disk-shaped samples (0.5 mm thick × 5 mm diameter). Study group samples (n = 5) were light-cured for 40, 60, and 80 s through all ceramic leucite-reinforced (Cergo Kiss), lithium disilicate-reinforced (IPS e.max), and monolithic zirconia-reinforced (Ziecon) of three thicknesses (2, 3, and 4 mm). Negative control group samples were cured through metal disks and positive control samples were cured without the presence of ceramic. The degree of conversion (DC) was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The recorded data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc analysis (Tukey HSD). Results and Conclusion: Greatest light transmission and DC were seen through Cergo Kiss, followed by IPS e.max Press and Ziecon, with insignificant difference between the latter two. The attenuation of light irradiance increased with increasing thickness of ceramic disks, with statistically significant values between 3 and 4 mm. Increasing time of irradiation to cure dual-cure resin cement did not always result in greater degree of polymerization. PMID:27656058

  19. Light curing of resin-based composites in the LED era.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Norbert; Lohbauer, Ulrich; García-Godoy, Franklin; Frankenberger, Roland

    2008-06-01

    This review thoroughly accumulated information regarding new technologies for state-of-the-art light curing of resin composite materials. Visible light cured resin-based composites allow the dentist to navigate the initiation of the polymerization step for each layer being applied. Curing technology was regularly subjected to changes during the last decades, but meanwhile the LED era is fully established. Today, four main polymerization types are available, i.e. halogen bulbs, plasma are lamps, argon ion lasers, and light emitting diodes. Additionally, different curing protocols should help to improve photopolymerization in terms of less stress being generated. Conclusions were: (1) with high-power LED units of the latest generation, curing time of 2 mm thick increments of resin composite can be reduced to 20 seconds to obtain durable results; (2) curing depth is fundamentally dependent on the distance of the resin composite to the light source, but only decisive when exceeding 6 mm; (3) polymerization kinetics can be modified for better marginal adaptation by softstart polymerization; however, in the majority of cavities this may not be the case; (4) adhesives should be light-cured separately for at least 10 seconds when resin composite is applied directly; (5) photocuring through indirect restorations such as ceramics is still a problem, therefore, both dual-cured adhesives and dual-cured composites and resin coating in any way are recommended; and (6) heat generation with high-power photopolymerization units should not be underestimated as a biological problem for both gingival and pulpal tissues.

  20. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  1. Comparative study on the tensile bond strength and marginal fit of complete veneer cast metal crowns using various luting agents: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Parameswari, B. Devi; Rajakumar, M.; Lambodaran, G.; Sundar, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    bonding nature. The observation of results of marginal fit in this study is the increased gap found in zinc phosphate cement followed by resin cement, zinc polycarboxylate, and glass ionomer cement. It is agreeable to estimate the marginal fit of the restoration, which could be affected by the film thickness of the luting cement along with other factors. PMID:27829765

  2. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  3. Qualitative evaluation of the adesive interface between lithium disilicate, luting composite and natural tooth

    PubMed Central

    Mobilio, Nicola; Fasiol, Alberto; Catapano, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim of this work was to qualitatively evaluate the interface between tooth, luting composite and lithium disilicate surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An extracted restoration-free human molar was stored in physiological solution until it was embedded in an autopolimerysing acrylic resin. A standard preparation for overlay was completed and after preparation an anatomic overlay was waxed on the tooth and then hot pressed using lithium disilicate ceramic. After cementation the sample was dissected and the section was analysed using an Automatic Micromet (Remet s.a.s) and the section was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM evaluation of the tooth showed the three layers seamlessly; by increasing the enlargement the interface did not change. PMID:27486504

  4. Qualitative evaluation of the adesive interface between lithium disilicate, luting composite and natural tooth.

    PubMed

    Mobilio, Nicola; Fasiol, Alberto; Catapano, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this work was to qualitatively evaluate the interface between tooth, luting composite and lithium disilicate surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An extracted restoration-free human molar was stored in physiological solution until it was embedded in an autopolimerysing acrylic resin. A standard preparation for overlay was completed and after preparation an anatomic overlay was waxed on the tooth and then hot pressed using lithium disilicate ceramic. After cementation the sample was dissected and the section was analysed using an Automatic Micromet (Remet s.a.s) and the section was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM evaluation of the tooth showed the three layers seamlessly; by increasing the enlargement the interface did not change.

  5. Bond strength of three luting agents to zirconia ceramic - Influence of surface treatment and thermocycling

    PubMed Central

    ATTIA, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments, 3 luting agents and thermocycling on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) to zirconia ceramic. Material and Methods A total of 18 blocks (5x5x4 mm) were fabricated from zirconia ceramic (ICE Zirkonia) and duplicated into composite blocks (Alphadent). Ceramic blocks were divided into 3 groups (n=6) according to the following surface treatments: airborne-particle abrasion (AA), silica-coating, (SC) (CoJet) and silica coating followed by silane application (SCSI) (ESPE Sil). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (n=2) according to the 3 luting agents used. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC, Ketac Cem Plus), self-adhesive resin cement (UN, RelyX Unicem) and adhesive resin cement (ML, MultiLink Automix) were used for bonding composite and zirconia blocks. Each bonding assembly was cut into microbars (10 mm long and 1±0.1 mm2). Seven specimens of each subgroup were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 1 week. The o ther 7 specimens were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 30 days then thermocycled (TC) for 7,500 cycles. µTBS values were recorded for each specimen using a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses were performed using a 3-way ANOVA model followed by serial 1-way ANOVAs. Comparison of means was performed with Tukey's HSD test at (α=0.05). Results µTBS ranged from 16.8 to 31.8 MPa after 1 week and from 7.3 to 16.4 MPa after 30 days of storage in water and thermocycling. Artificial aging significantly decreased µTBS (p<0.05). Considering surface treatment, SCSI significantly increased µTBS (p<0.05) compared to SC and AA. Resin cements (UN and ML) demonstrated significantly higher µTBS (p<0.05) compared to RMGIC cement. Conclusions Silica coating followed by silane application together with adhesive resin cements significantly increased µTBS, while thermocycling significantly decreased µTBS. PMID:21710091

  6. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored with lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns or onlays and luted with two luting agents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiqiang; Guo, Kewu; Zhang, Baowei; Weng, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored using CAD/CAM onlays or crowns and luted with two types of resin cement. Forty all-ceramic crowns and twenty onlays were fabricated on maxillary premolars using the Cerec 3 system (n=10). The abutments were randomly subjected to two different procedures: Endodontic treatment was performed on forty teeth restored through a mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity preparation with composite resin fillings; twenty teeth without endodontic treatment served as control. In endodontically treated teeth restored using IPS e.max CAD crowns or onlays, the fracture loads were lower than those of the control. Endodontic treatment of teeth restored using CAD/CAM crowns does not impair the fracture load but shows more severe fractures than teeth restored using CAD/CAM onlays. This suggests that a CAD/CAM onlay might be an effective method for the restoration of endodontically treated premolars with MOD cavity defect.

  7. Bond strength evaluation of three self-adhesive luting systems used for cementing composite and porcelain.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, F; Minnoni, A; Vitalone, L M; Carluccio, F; Vadini, M; Paolantonio, M; D'Arcangelo, C

    2011-01-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements were recently introduced with the purpose of simplifying the cementation technique, as they combine the use of adhesive and cement in a single application, eliminating the need for pretreatment of the tooth. In the present study a microtensile bond strength test (μ-TBS) was used to compare three self-adhesives, an etch-and-rinse and a self-etch luting system, in the cementation of resin-based composite (RBC) and ceramic disks to dentin. Freshly extracted molars were transversally sectioned to expose flat, deep dentin surfaces. Cylindrical specimens (5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height), consisting of RBC disks and leucite-based glass ceramic disks, were produced. The RBC disks were sandblasted with 50-μm Al2O3. The ceramic disks were conditioned with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid gel and silane application. All of the disks were then bonded to dentin surfaces employing five different luting agents: iCEM Self Adhesive (Heraeus Kulzer), MaxCem (Kerr Corporation), RelyX UniCem (3M ESPE), EnaCem HF (Micerium), and Panavia F2.0 (Kuraray-Dental). The products were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. The specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce multiple beams measuring approximately 1 mm2 in cross section. For each experimental group 12 beams were tested. The preterm failures were also taken into account. All of the specimen preparations were performed by the same operator. The beams were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Mean μ-TBS values were calculated for each group. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were performed using a Tukey test (α=0.05). The UniCem group showed the lowest number of preterm failures among the tested self-adhesive systems. When premature debondings were included in the mean value calculation, bond strength values for the UniCem group were statistically equal to or even higher than those

  8. Film Thickness and Flow Properties of Resin-Based Cements at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, R

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: For a luting agent to allow complete seating of prosthetic restorations, it must obtain an appropriate flow rate maintaining a minimum film thickness. The performance of recently introduced luting agents in this regard has not been evaluated. Purpose: To measure and compare the film thickness and flow properties of seven resin-containing luting cements at different temperatures (37°C, 25°C and10°C). Material and Methods: Specimens were prepared from five resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Varioloink II (Ivoclar), Maxcem (Kerr), Nexus2 (Kerr) and two resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RM-GICs); GC Fuji Plus (GC Corporation), and RelyX Luting 2 (3 M/ESPE). The film thickness and flow rate of each cement (n=15) was determined using the test described in ISO at three different temperatures. Results: There was a linear correlation between film thickness and flow rate for most of the materials. Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials while the effect of temperature on film thickness was material dependent. At 37°C, all products revealed a film thickness of less than 25µm except for GC Fuji Plus. At 25°C, all cements produced a film thickness of less than 27 µm except for seT. At 10°C, apart from seT and Rely X Luting 2, the remaining cements showed a film thickness smaller than 20 µm. Conclusion: Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials, however. the film thickness did not exceed 35 µm in either condition, in spite of the lowest film thickness being demonstrated at the lowest temperature. PMID:24724120

  9. In vitro Evaluation of Stainless Steel Crowns cemented with Resin-modified Glass Ionomer and Two New Self-adhesive Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Shashibhushan, KK; Poornima, P; Reddy, VV Subba

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess and compare the retentive strength of two dual-polymerized self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE & SmartCem2, Dentsply Caulk) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; RelyX Luting 2, 3M ESPE) on stainless steel crown (SSC). Materials and methods Thirty extracted teeth were mounted on cold cured acrylic resin blocks exposing the crown till the cemento-enamel junction. Pretrimmed, precontoured SSC was selected for a particular tooth. Standardized tooth preparation for SSC was performed by single operator. The crowns were then luted with either RelyX U200 or SmartCem2 or RelyX Luting 2 cement. Retentive strength was tested using Instron universal testing machine. The retentive strength values were recorded and calculated by the formula: Load/Area. Statistical analysis One-way analysis of variance was used for multiple comparisons followed by post hoc Tukey’s test for groupwise comparisons. Unpaired t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results RelyX U200 showed significantly higher retentive strength than rest of the two cements (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the retentive strength of SmartCem2 and RelyX Luting 2 (p > 0.05). Conclusion The retentive strength of dual-polymerized self-adhesive resin cements was better than RMGIC, and RelyX U200 significantly improved crown retention when compared with SmartCem2 and RelyX Luting 2. How to cite this article Pathak S, Shashibhushan KK, Poornima P, Reddy VVS. In vitro Evaluation of Stainless Steel Crowns cemented with Resin-modified Glass Ionomer and Two New Self-adhesive Resin Cements. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):197-200. PMID:27843249

  10. Tooth sensitivity associated with the use of luting cements.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, H O

    1995-01-01

    Luting Cements are still a source of frustration to the dentist. None of the cements currently available satisfies everyone, including the patient. The problems encountered when trying to obtain adhesion to a wet substance such as dentin are well-known (Christensen, 1994). The cause of postcementation sensitivity continues to a perplexing problem.

  11. Analytical method to estimate resin cement diffusion into dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Ferraz, Larissa Cristina; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; de Oliveira, Bruna Medeiros Bertol; Neto, Antonio Medina; Sato, Fracielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the diffusion of two resin luting agents (resin cements) into dentin, with the aim of presenting an analytical method for estimating the thickness of the diffusion zone. Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars (n=9). Indirect composite inlays were luted into the cavities with either a self-adhesive or a self-etch resin cement. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and the cement-dentin interface was analyzed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy. Evolution of peak intensities of the Raman bands, collected from the functional groups corresponding to the resin monomer (C-O-C, 1113 cm-1) present in the cements, and the mineral content (P-O, 961 cm-1) in dentin were sigmoid shaped functions. A Boltzmann function (BF) was then fitted to the peaks encountered at 1113 cm-1 to estimate the resin cement diffusion into dentin. The BF identified a resin cement-dentin diffusion zone of 1.8±0.4 μm for the self-adhesive cement and 2.5±0.3 μm for the self-etch cement. This analysis allowed the authors to estimate the diffusion of the resin cements into the dentin. Fitting the MRS data to the BF contributed to and is relevant for future studies of the adhesive interface.

  12. Dental cements for definitive luting: a review and practical clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Edward E

    2007-07-01

    Dental cement used to attach an indirect restoration to a prepared tooth is called a luting agent. A clinically relevant discussion of conventional and contemporary definitive luting agents is presented in this article. Physical properties are listed in table form to assist in comparison and decision-making. Additional subtopics include luting agent requirements, classifications, retention and bonding, cement considerations for implant-supported teeth, and fatigue failure.

  13. Effect of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on hardness uniformity of resin cements after glass fiber post cementation

    PubMed Central

    Grande da Cruz, Fernanda Zander; Grande, Christiana Zander; Roderjan, Douglas Augusto; Galvão Arrais, César Augusto; Bührer Samra, Adriana Postiglione; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on Vickers hardness (VHN) uniformity of dual-cured resin cements after fiber post cementation. Methods: Fifty glass fiber posts were cemented into bovine roots using the following cementing systems: Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce with light-activation (PBDC-LCEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 and Enforce with light-activation (PB-CLEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce without light exposure (PBDC-SCEN); ED Primer and Panavia 21 (ED-SCPN); and Clearfil SE Bond and Panavia 21 (CF-SCPN). The roots were stored in distilled water for 72 h and transversely sectioned into thirds (coronal, medium, and apical). The VHN values of the resin cement layers were measured close to the post and to the dentin wall on the transversely sectioned flat surfaces. The results were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc test (pre-set alpha of 5%). Results: Most resin cements presented higher VHN values near the post than near the dentin wall. The ED-SCPN group showed the highest VHN values regardless of the root third, while the self-cured group PBDC-SCEN exhibited the lowest values. The resin cements from the light-activated groups PBDC-LCEN and PB-LCEN showed lower VHN values at the apical third than at the coronal third. The VHN values were not influenced by the root third in self-cured groups PBDC-SCEN, ED-SCPN, and ED-SCPN. Conclusion: Depending on the product, bonding agents might promote changes in hardness uniformity of resin cements after post cementation. PMID:22904652

  14. Conditioning of root canals prior to dowel cementation with composite luting cement and two dentine adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Liberman, R; Ben-Amar, A; Urstein, M; Gontar, G; Fitzig, S

    1989-11-01

    Two hundred and forty root canals of extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared to the same dimension, and Dentatus posts of equal size were cemented without screwing them into the dentine. Five cleansing solutions and two dentine adhesive systems were evaluated prior to post-cementation using chemical-cure composite resin. 'Pull-out' tests were then conducted in order to evaluate the bond strength of these intra-pulpal posts. The use of Conclude (composite luting cement) alone, with or without the cleansing solutions, resulted in significantly lower pull-out forces. Scotchbond Dental Adhesive gave significantly better results, regardless of the cleansing solution used. Gluma Dentine Adhesive significantly increased the pull-out forces only when used with its supplied cleanser or Tubulicid.

  15. A study on provisional cements, cementation techniques, and their effects on bonding of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G; Soorya Poduval, T; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P

    2014-03-01

    Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restoration. Determine the presence of cement debris on prepared tooth surface subsequent to the removal of provisional restoration. Determine the cement with the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Determine the effect of smear layer on the amount of residual luting cement. Eighty-four extracted natural anterior teeth were prepared for porcelain laminate veneers. For half of the teeth, the smear layer was removed before luting provisional restorations. Veneer provisional restorations were fabricated and luted to teeth with six bonding methods: varnish combined with glass ionomer cement (GIC), varnish combined with resin modified GIC, varnish, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement, adhesive combined with GIC, adhesive combined with resin modified GIC, and adhesive, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement. After removal of provisional restorations 1 week later, the tooth surface was examined for residual luting material with SEM. Traces of cement debris were found on all the prepared teeth surfaces for all six groups which were cemented with different methods. Cement debris was seen on teeth subsequent to the removal of provisional's. Dual-cure cement had the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Presence of smear layer had no statistical significance in comparison with cement residue. With the use of adhesive the cement debris was always found to be more than with the use of varnish. GIC showed maximum residual cement followed by dual-cure.

  16. Effect of modulated photo-activation on polymerization shrinkage behavior of dental restorative resin composites.

    PubMed

    Tauböck, Tobias T; Feilzer, Albert J; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Krejci, Ivo; Attin, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of modulated photo-activation on axial polymerization shrinkage, shrinkage force, and hardening of light- and dual-curing resin-based composites. Three light-curing resin composites (SDR bulk-fill, Esthet X flow, and Esthet X HD) and one dual-curing material (Rebilda DC) were subjected to different irradiation protocols with identical energy density (27 J cm(-2) ): high-intensity continuous light (HIC), low-intensity continuous light (LIC), soft-start (SS), and pulse-delay curing (PD). Axial shrinkage and shrinkage force of 1.5-mm-thick specimens were recorded in real time for 15 min using custom-made devices. Knoop hardness was determined at the end of the observation period. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences among the curing protocols for both Knoop hardness and axial shrinkage, irrespective of the composite material. Pulse-delay curing generated the significantly lowest shrinkage forces within the three light-curing materials SDR bulk-fill, Esthet X flow, and Esthet X HD. High-intensity continuous light created the significantly highest shrinkage forces within Esthet X HD and Rebilda DC, and caused significantly higher forces than LIC within Esthet X flow. In conclusion, both the composite material and the applied curing protocol control shrinkage force formation. Pulse-delay curing decreases shrinkage forces compared with high-intensity continuous irradiation without affecting hardening and axial polymerization shrinkage.

  17. Does inhibition of proteolytic activity improve adhesive luting?

    PubMed

    Lührs, Anne-Katrin; De Munck, Jan; Geurtsen, Werner; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2013-04-01

    Endogenous enzymes may be involved in the biodegradation of adhesive restoration-tooth interfaces. Inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to retard the bond-degradation process. Limited data are available on whether composite cements may also benefit from MMP inhibitors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of two MMP inhibitors--chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and galardin--on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of two self-adhesive composite cements to dentin. Ceramic specimens were cemented to bur-cut dentin surfaces using the self-adhesive composite cements RelyX Unicem 2 (3M ESPE) or Clearfil SA (Kuraray), or the etch-and-rinse composite cement Nexus 3 (Kerr) that served as the control. The surfaces were left untreated or were pretreated with MMP inhibitors (2% CHX or 0.2 mM galardin). The μTBS was determined 'immediately' and upon ageing (water storage for 6 months). Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of the factors 'composite cement' and 'storage', as well as all interactions, but no effect of the MMP inhibitors. After 6 months of ageing, the μTBS decreased for all cements, except for the multistep etch-and-rinse luting composite when it was applied without MMP inhibitors. The MMP inhibitors could not prevent the decrease in μTBS upon ageing and therefore do not improve the luting durability of the composite cements tested.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of surface preparation using phosphoric acid and luting cement on the flexural strength of porcelain laminate veneering material

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasada; Rivankar, N.; Dhiman, R.K.; Viswambaran, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventionally HF acid has been used for etching ceramic veneer restorations before their cementation. Studies are lacking regarding the effectiveness of phosphoric acid as a substitute for HF acid for etching the ceramic veneers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of surface preparation of porcelain laminate veneers using phosphoric acid, as compared to HF acid etching in providing the necessary surface roughness conducive to development of an effective bond between the ceramic laminate and the resin luting cement. Methods 210 porcelain discs of 15 mm diameter and 0.9 mm thickness were prepared. These study samples were divided into seven groups of thirty samples each. Surfaces of the first (control) and the second group of samples were not prepared. The surfaces of other five groups were prepared with different surface treatments. Further all the groups of specimens were coated with a layer of resin luting cement. Flexural strength of each specimen was determined using universal testing machine and the results were compared. Results The combination surface treatment using alumina surface abrasion followed by etching with phosphoric acid provided the highest flexural strength with the mean flexural strength of 101.11 MPa, followed by alumina surface abrasion (95.41 MPa), and phosphoric acid surface etching (81.68 MPa). Conclusion Laminate veneers surface treated using 50 μm alumina abrasion followed by etching with phosphoric acid showed the highest flexural strengths after resin coating compared to other groups. PMID:26843743

  19. In vitro evaluation of the bonding durability of self-adhesive resin cement to titanium using highly accelerated life test.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding durability of three self-adhesive resin cements to titanium using the Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT). The following self-adhesive resin cements were used to bond pairs of titanium blocks together according to manufacturers' instructions: RelyX Unicem, Breeze, and Clearfil SA Luting. After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, bonded specimens (n=15) immersed in 37°C water were subjected to cyclic shear load testing regimes of 20, 30, or 40 kg using a fatigue testing machine. Cyclic loading continued until failure occurred, and the number of cycles taken to reach failure was recorded. The bonding durability of a self-adhesive resin cement to titanium was largely influenced by the weight of impact load. HALT showed that Clearfil SA Luting, which contained MDP monomer, yielded the highest median bonding lifetime to titanium.

  20. Evaluation of shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to alloy treated with sandblasting and electrolytic etching.

    PubMed

    Goswami, M M; Gupta, S H; Sandhu, H S

    2014-03-01

    Conservation of natural tooth structure precipitated the emergence of resin-retained fixed partial dentures. The weakest link in this modality is the bond between resin cement and alloy of the retainer. Various alloy surface treatment have been recommended to improve alloy-resin bond. This in vitro study was carried out to observe changes in the Nickel-Chromium alloy (Wiron 99, Bego) surface following sandblasting or electrolytic etching treatment by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and to evaluate the shear bond strength of a resin luting cement bonded to the surface treated alloy. 80 alloy blocks were cast and divided into four groups of 20 each. In groups-A & B, the test surfaces were treated by sandblasting with 50 and 250 μm sized aluminium oxide particles respectively. In groups-C & D, the test surfaces were first treated by sandblasting with 50 and 250 μm sized aluminium oxide particles respectively followed by electrolytic etching. Test surfaces were observed under SEM at 1,000× magnification. Two alloy blocks of each group were luted together by a resin luting cement (Rely X, 3M) and their shear bond strength was tested. The mean shear bond strength in MPa of groups-A to D were 6.44 (±0.74), 8.18 (±0.51), 14.45 (±0.59) and 17.43 (±1.20) respectively. Group-D showed bond strength that is more than clinically acceptable bond strength. It is recommended that before luting resin-retained fixed partial dentures, the fitting surface of the retainer should be electrolytically etched to achieve adequate micromechanical retention.

  1. Galileo's Lute and the Law of Falling Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Galileo's Lute and the Law of Falling Bodies is an excerpt from Galileo 1610. Galileo 1610 is a dramatic, musical and intellectual odyssey back to the life and times of Galileo Galilei, the famous 17th century Italian scientist and philosopher. It commemorates the 400th anniversary of Galileo's discoveries with his telescope in 1610. Dressed in authentic Renaissance attire as Galileo, the author-- a cantorial soloist and amateur astronomer-- tells the fascinating story of "The Father of Modern Science,” drawing from the actual correspondence and writings of Galileo, as well as those of his many biographers. Through his dialogue with the audience on a wide range of discoveries and opinions, "Galileo” shares his wisdom and his life experiences with pathos, wit and humor, lacing his narration with entertaining lute songs from the late Renaissance period, some of which were actually composed by Galileo's father, Vincenzo. Bridging the past to the present, the author breathes life into "Galileo” as he once again frolics and struggles among us. In bringing forth some of life's great issues, we learn something about our own inquisitive nature, as well as that of science and music. The author has appeared as Galileo for over a decade on radio, at community theatres and libraries, public schools, colleges and universities throughout the country. He has performed for civic organizations, astronomy association conventions, marketing and outreach programs as well as private events and parties. Galileo 1610 is suitable for a variety of educational and entertainment programs, for both children and adults. All presentations are tailored to fit the interest, experience and size of the audience.

  2. Retentive strength, disintegration, and marginal quality of luting cements.

    PubMed

    Gorodovsky, S; Zidan, O

    1992-08-01

    This study evaluated the retention of complete crowns by using five different methods of cementation. Complete crowns were prepared with standardized dimensions on extracted human molars. Metal crowns were cast with a high noble gold ceramic alloy and were cemented with zinc phosphate cement, glass ionomer cement, composite resin cement, composite resin cement with a dentinal bonding agent, and adhesive resin cement. The retention was measured by subjecting the specimens to tensile load until fracture occurred. The disintegration was measured according to American Dental Association Specification No. 8, and the condition of the cements at the margins of crowns was analyzed by use of a scanning electron microscope. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences between the mean retentive strengths. The retention of the zinc phosphate and the glass ionomer groups was significantly different from that of the adhesive resin group. The retention of the adhesive resin cement was 65% greater than the retention of the composite resin and the composite resin/dentinal bonding agent group, but the Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon rank sum test did not depict this difference as significant. The mean +/- SD of the disintegration for the zinc phosphate, the glass ionomer cement, and the composite resin cement was 0.025 +/- 0.013, 0.023 +/- 0.011, and 0.017 +/- 0.001, respectively. The scanning electron microscope analysis of the margins revealed that the composite resin cement was almost intact, the zinc phosphate was subjected to limited disintegration, and the glass ionomer displayed the worst marginal integrity.

  3. The efficiency of different light sources to polymerize resin cement beneath porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Usumez, A; Ozturk, A N; Usumez, S; Ozturk, B

    2004-02-01

    Plasma arc light units for curing resin composites have been introduced with the claim of relatively short curing times. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two different light sources to polymerize dual curing resin cement beneath porcelain laminate veneers. Twenty extracted healthy human maxillary centrals were used. Teeth were sectioned 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction and crown parts were embedded into self-cure acrylic resin, labial surface facing up. Cavity preparation was carried out on labial surfaces. These teeth were divided into two groups of 10 each. The resin cement/veneer combination was exposed to two different photo polymerization units. A conventional halogen light (Hilux 350, Express Dental Products) and a plasma arc light (Power PAC, ADT) were used to polymerize resin cement. Ten specimens were polymerized conventionally (40 s) and the other specimens by plasma arc curing (PAC) (6 s). Two samples from each tooth measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 5 mm were prepared. These sections were subjected to microshear testing and failure values were recorded. Statistically significant differences were found between the bond strength of veneers exposed to conventional light and PAC unit (P < 0.001). Samples polymerized with halogen light showed better bond strength. The results of this study suggest that the curing efficiency of PAC through ceramic was lower compared with conventional polymerization for the exposure durations tested in this study.

  4. Colour matching of composite resin cements with their corresponding try-in pastes.

    PubMed

    Kampouropoulos, D; Gaintantzopoulou, M; Papazoglou, E; Kakaboura, A

    2014-06-01

    Two shades of four resin cements (Calibra, Clearfil Esthetic, Insure, Variolink II), in light- and dual-curing modes, were tested for colour matching with their corresponding try-in pastes, immediately after photopolymerization and after 24-hour dry and dark storage. Colour measurements were performed for 0.8 mm-thick specimens through a 0.8mm-thick ceramic plate. For each resin cement, colour differences (deltaE) were calculated between the two curing modes, and between the corresponding try-in paste, at baseline and after 24h. deltaE>0 values were detected between all resin cements and their try-in pastes, which were brand/shade/curing mode depended. The try-in pastes of the Variolink II system demonstrated the best colour matching (deltaE<2). Try-in pastes of Calibra and Insure, at both curing modes, did not match at an acceptable value, the shade of their corresponding resin cements (deltaE>3.3). Calibra presented the highest colour differences. deltaE values of the Clearfil Esthetic system immediately after photo-activation ranged between 2 and 3 units. A ceramic restoration may fail aesthetically as a result of not acceptable colour match (deltaE>3.3) between the shade of certain resin cements and their relevant try-in pastes.

  5. Effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength of a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Matteo; Pigozzo, Marco; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength between dentin and a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material (LavaTM Ultimate Restorative), bonded together with adhesive cements using three different luting protocols (total-etch; self-etch; self-adhesive). Material and Methods Thirty cylinders were milled from resin nano ceramic blocks with CAD/CAM technology. The cylinders were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were assigned into six groups of five teeth each according to luting procedure and dentin pretreatment. In the first two groups (A1, A2) 10 cylinders were cemented using a total-etch protocol; in groups B1 and B2, 10 cylinders were cemented using a self-etch protocol; in groups C1 and C2, 10 cylinders were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol; in groups A1, B1 and C1 the dentinal surface was also treated with glycine powder. All cemented specimens were submitted to a shear bond strength test. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata 9.0 software. Results ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various groups (P <0.0001). Conclusions Glycine did not change the different bond strength demonstrated by the various luting protocols tested. Conventional resin composite cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values. However the use of glycine seems to increase the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements. Key words:Adhesive cements, CAD/CAM, glycine, luting system, resin nano ceramic, shear bond strength. PMID:27034754

  6. Bond strength of adhesive resin cement with different adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzoni e Silva, Fabrizio; Pamato, Saulo; Kuga, Milton-Carlos; Só, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Background To assess the immediate bond strength of a dual-cure adhesive resin cement to the hybridized dentin with different bonding systems. Material and Methods Fifty-six healthy human molars were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8). After 3 longitudinal sections, the central cuts were included in PVC matrix and were submitted to dentin hybridization according to the groups: G1 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Apder™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE), G2 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Optibond™ FL, Kerr), G3 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (All-Bond 3®, Bisco), G4 - etch & rinse simplified system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE), G5 - self-etching system with one step (Bond Force, Tokuyama), G6 - universal system in moist dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE), G7 - universal system in dry dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then all groups received the cementing of a self-adhesive resin cement cylinder (Duo-link, Bisco) made from a polypropylene matrix. In the evaluation of bond strength, the samples were subjected to the microshear test and evaluated according to the fracture pattern by optical microscopy. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test suggests a statistically significant difference between groups (p=0,039), and Tukey for multiple comparisons, indicating a statistically significant difference between G3 and G4 (p<0.05). It was verified high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed failure and cohesive in dentin. Conclusions The technique and the system used to dentin hybridization are able to affect the immediate bond strength of resin cement dual adhesive. Key words:Adhesion, adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:28149471

  7. Evaluation of bonding behavior of silver-tin-zinc-indium alloy to adhesive luting cements.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Kawaguchi, T; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2010-12-01

    The bond strengths of a silver-tin-zinc-indium alloy used with adhesive luting cements were investigated. The metal surfaces were primed with two metal conditioners designed for noble metal alloys or base metal alloys, or prepared using a Rocatec tribochemical coating unit. Two adhesive luting cements (Super-Bond C&B and Panavia F 2.0) were applied. It can be concluded that airborne-particle abrasion with alumina was effective, but the effects on the bond durability of both the metal conditioners and the tribochemical silica coating method were not clear Such bonding behavior seems to be particular to this kind of silver-rich dental casting alloy.

  8. Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

    2000-01-01

    Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion.

  9. Resin-bonded castings with a cingulum rest seat and a guide plane for a removable partial denture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka; McKinney, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical and laboratory procedures used to fabricate resin-bonded castings with cingulum rest seats and guide planes for a removable partial denture using a noble metal alloy (silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy), a metal conditioner (V-Primer, Sun Medical), and an adhesive resin-luting agent (Super-Bond C and B, Sun Medical). The castings have been functioning for more than 11 years. The use of resin-bonded castings with cingulum rest seats for support and a guide plane to brace removable partial dentures is a successful method of treatment.

  10. Effect of light-curing units on push-out fiber post bond strength in root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, L. R.; Bandéca, M. C.; Silva, F. B.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.; Andrade, M. F.

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different light-curing units on the bond strength (push-out) of glass fiber posts in the different thirds of the root (cervical, middle and apical) with different adhesive luting resin systems (dual-cure total-etch; dual-cured and self-etch bonding system; and dual-cure self-adhesive cements), Disks of the samples ( n = 144) were used, with approximately 1 mm of thickness of 48 bovine roots restored with glass fiber posts, that were luted with resin cements photo-activated by halogen LCU (QTH, Optilux 501) and blue LED (Ultraled), with power densities of 600 and 550 mW/cm2, respectively. A universal testing machine (MTS 810 Material Test System) was used with a 1 mm diameter steel rod at cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until post extrusion, with load cell of 50 kg, for evaluation of the push-out strength in the different thirds of each sample. The push-out strength values in kgf were converted to MPa and analyzed through Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s test, at significance level of 5%. The results showed that there were no statistical differences between the QTH and LED LCUs. The self-adhesive resin cement had lower values of retention. The total-etch and self-adhesive system resin cements seem to be a possible alternative for glass fiber posts cementation into the radicular canal and the LED LCU can be applied as an alternative to halogen light on photo-activation of dual-cured resin cements.

  11. Effect of High-Irradiance Light-Curing on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of light-curing at high irradiances on micromechanical properties of resin cements. Three dual-curing resin cements and a light-curing flowable resin composite were light-cured with an LED curing unit in Standard mode (SM), High Power mode (HPM), or Xtra Power mode (XPM). Maximum irradiances were determined using a MARC PS radiometer, and exposure duration was varied to obtain two or three levels of radiant exposure (SM: 13.2 and 27.2 J/cm(2); HPM: 15.0 and 30.4 J/cm(2); XPM: 9.5, 19.3, and 29.7 J/cm(2)) (n = 17). Vickers hardness (HV ) and indentation modulus (EIT) were measured at 15 min and 1 week. Data were analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlation analyses (α = 0.05). Irradiation protocol, resin-based material, and storage time and all interactions influenced HV and EIT significantly (p ≤ 0.0001). Statistically significant correlations between radiant exposure and HV or EIT were found, indicating that high-irradiance light-curing has no detrimental effect on the polymerization of resin-based materials (p ≤ 0.0021). However, one resin cement was sensitive to the combination of irradiance and exposure duration, with high-irradiance light-curing resulting in a 20% drop in micromechanical properties. The results highlight the importance of manufacturers issuing specific recommendations for the light-curing procedure of each resin cement.

  12. Effect of High-Irradiance Light-Curing on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of light-curing at high irradiances on micromechanical properties of resin cements. Three dual-curing resin cements and a light-curing flowable resin composite were light-cured with an LED curing unit in Standard mode (SM), High Power mode (HPM), or Xtra Power mode (XPM). Maximum irradiances were determined using a MARC PS radiometer, and exposure duration was varied to obtain two or three levels of radiant exposure (SM: 13.2 and 27.2 J/cm2; HPM: 15.0 and 30.4 J/cm2; XPM: 9.5, 19.3, and 29.7 J/cm2) (n = 17). Vickers hardness (HV) and indentation modulus (EIT) were measured at 15 min and 1 week. Data were analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlation analyses (α = 0.05). Irradiation protocol, resin-based material, and storage time and all interactions influenced HV and EIT significantly (p ≤ 0.0001). Statistically significant correlations between radiant exposure and HV or EIT were found, indicating that high-irradiance light-curing has no detrimental effect on the polymerization of resin-based materials (p ≤ 0.0021). However, one resin cement was sensitive to the combination of irradiance and exposure duration, with high-irradiance light-curing resulting in a 20% drop in micromechanical properties. The results highlight the importance of manufacturers issuing specific recommendations for the light-curing procedure of each resin cement. PMID:28044129

  13. Antimicrobial Effects of Dental Luting Glass Ionomer Cements on Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Altenburger, Markus; Spitzmüller, Bettina; Anderson, Annette; Hellwig, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To reduce secondary caries, glass ionomer luting cements are often used for cementing of indirect restorations. This is because of their well-known antimicrobial potential through the release of fluoride ions. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of five dental luting cements which were based on glass ionomer cement technology. Methods. Five different glass ionomer based luting cements were tested for their antimicrobial effects on Streptococcus mutans in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate-counting assay; (ii) live/dead staining (LDS) and fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were conducted with or without prior treatment of the materials using sterilized human saliva. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated for adherent and planktonic bacteria. Bovine enamel slabs (BES) were used as negative control. BES covered with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as positive control. Results. Each of the tested materials significantly reduced the number of initially adhered CFUs; this reduction was even more pronounced after prior incubation in saliva. Antimicrobial effects on adherent bacteria were confirmed by live-dead staining. Conclusion. All five luting cements showed an antimicrobial potential which was increased by prior incubation with human saliva, suggesting an enhanced effect in vivo. PMID:24795539

  14. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  15. Effect of veneering materials and curing methods on resin cement knoop hardness.

    PubMed

    Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the Knoop hardness of Enforce resin cement activated by the either chemical/physical or physical mode, and light cured directly and through ceramic (HeraCeram) or composite resin (Artglass). Light curing were performed with either conventional halogen light (QTH; XL2500) for 40 s or xenon plasma arc (PAC; Apollo 95E) for 3 s. Bovine incisors had their buccal surfaces flattened and hybridized. On these surfaces a mold was seated and filled with cement. A 1.5-mm-thick disc of the veneering material was seated over this set for light curing. After storage (24 h/37 masculineC), specimens (n=10) were sectioned for hardness (KHN) measurements in a micro-hardness tester (50 gf load/ 15 s). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). It was observed that the dual cure mode yielded higher hardness compared to the physical mode alone, except for direct light curing with the QTH unit and through Artglass. Higher hardness was observed with QTH compared to PAC, except for Artglass/dual groups, in which similar hardness means were obtained. Low KHN means were obtained with PAC for both Artglass and HeraCeram. It may be concluded that the hardness of resin cements may be influenced by the presence of an indirect restorative material and the type of light-curing unit.

  16. Bonding of crown and bridge adhesive resins to dentine.

    PubMed

    Osman, Saad A; McCabe, John F; Walls, Angus W G

    2008-12-01

    The shear bond strength of three adhesives, Panavia 21, Superbond, All Bond C&B Cement, and Variolink (a dual cure resin) to various dentine depths were determined. Fifteen human fully erupted permanent first and second molars were wet ground using 500 and then 800 grit abrasive papers to expose the superficial, middle and the deep dentine, for each adhesive tested. Five samples were prepared for each dentine depth. The adhesives were bonded to the samples using gelatine capsules and were matured for 24 h in water at 37 degrees C. The samples were debonded in shear using tensile testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey test. The fracture surfaces were examined by optical microscopy. The bond strength of Superbond to dentine was significantly higher (P<0.05) than any of the materials tested. The bond strength of all materials tested was shown to be affected by dentine depth, except for Superbond. Fractured dentine specimens showed that the samples of Superbond are almost cohesive (>90%), and the samples of other adhesives are mostly adhesive (>70%). These results confirm that Superbond is capable of forming a bond at various dentine depths.

  17. Resin Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    international treaties). Environmental testing is performed in a chemical laboratory setting, with the test compounds being exposed to environmental soil or......when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-SR-0323 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Resin

  18. Influence of dentin pretreatment with synthetic hydroxyapatite application on the bond strength of fiber posts luted with 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate-containing luting systems.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Nicola; Bergantin, Emanuele; Tempesta, Riccardo; Turco, Gianluca; Breschi, Lorenzo; Farina, Elena; Pasqualini, Damiano; Berutti, Elio

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was evaluate the effect of application of synthetic hydroxyapatite on fiber post bond strength to radicular dentine. Forty, single-root teeth were endodontically treated and an 8 mm post space was prepared. Specimens were randomly placed in four groups (n = 10 in each) and treated using the following fiber post luting procedures: group 1, 17% EDTA + Panavia SA; group 2, 17% EDTA + Teethmate Desensitizer + Panavia SA; group 3, All-Bond Universal + Duo-Link Universal; and group 4, All-Bond Universal + Teethmate Desensitizer + Duo-Link Universal. Fiber posts were luted in the post space and light-cured for 120 s using a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp. After 7 d of storage at 37°C, the teeth were cut into 1-mm-thick slices, which were subjected to a push-out test until failure using a universal testing machine. Two specimens per group were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. An energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector was used for elemental analysis of the specimen surface. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way anova. The fiber post bond strength was statistically significantly increased after the application of Teethmate Desensitizer to post space walls, either with a 10-MDP-containing self-adhesive cement or with a universal adhesive. Scanning electron microscopy and EDAX analysis showed that Teethmate Desensitizer created a calcium phosphate precipitate over post space dentinal tubules, which significantly improved the bond strength of the fiber post luted with 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP)-containing adhesive systems.

  19. Effect of composite surface treatment and aging on the bond strength between a core build-up composite and a luting agent

    PubMed Central

    COTES, Caroline; CARDOSO, Mayra; de MELO, Renata Marques; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe; BOTTINO, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between composite core and resin cement. Material and Methods Eighty blocks (8×8×4 mm) were prepared with core build-up composite. The cementation surface was roughened with 120-grit carbide paper and the blocks were thermocycled (5,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a 30 s dwell time in each bath). A layer of temporary luting agent was applied. After 24 h, the layer was removed, and the blocks were divided into five groups, according to surface treatment: (NT) No treatment (control); (SP) Grinding with 120-grit carbide paper; (AC) Etching with 37% phosphoric acid; (SC) Sandblasting with 30 mm SiO2 particles, silane application; (AO) Sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 particles, silane application. Two composite blocks were cemented to each other (n=8) and sectioned into sticks. Half of the specimens from each block were immediately tested for microtensile bond strength (µTBS), while the other half was subjected to storage for 6 months, thermocycling (12,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 s in each bath) and µTBS test in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05). Results The µTBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (p=0.007) and thermocycling (p=0.000). Before aging, the SP group presented higher bond strength when compared to NT and AC groups, whereas all the other groups were statistically similar. After aging, all the groups were statistically similar. SP submitted to thermocycling showed lower bond strength than SP without thermocycling. Conclusion Core composites should be roughened with a diamond bur before the luting process. Thermocycling tends to reduce the bond strength between composite and resin cement. PMID:25760269

  20. Effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pooran; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Shirban, Farinaz; Davoodi, Amin; Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dual-cured composite resins are similar to self-cured composite resins in some of their clinical applications due to inadequate irradiation, lack of irradiation, or delayed irradiation. Therefore, incompatibility with self-etch adhesives (SEAs) should be taken into account with their use. On the other, the extent of dentin dehydration has a great role in the quality of adhesion of these resin materials to dentin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two SEAs. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentinal specimens were prepared from extracted intact third molars. Half of the samples were dehydrated in ethanol with increasing concentrations. Then Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB) and Prompt L-Pop (PLP) adhesives were applied in the two groups. Cylindrical composite resin specimens were cured using three polymerization modes: (1) Immediate light-curing, (2) delayed light-curing after 20 min, and (3) self-curing. Bond strength was measured using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for CSEB subgroups with hydrated and dehydrated dentin samples between the three different curing modes (P > 0.05). PLP showed significant differences between subgroups with the lowest bond strength in hydrated dentin with delayed light-curing and self-cured mode of polymerization. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, a delay in composite resin light-curing or using chemically cured composite resin had a deleterious effect on dentin bond strength of single-step SEAs used in the study. PMID:27041894

  1. Effect of different light curing methods on mechanical and physical properties of resin-cements polymerized through ceramic discs

    PubMed Central

    CEKIC-NAGAS, Isil; ERGUN, Gulfem

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the polimerization ability of three different light-curing units (quartz tungsten halogen, light-emitting diodes and plasma arc) and their exposure modes (high-intensity and soft-start) by determination of microhardness, water sorption and solubility, and diametral tensile strength of 5 dual-curing resin cements. Material and methods A total of 720 disc-shaped samples (1 mm height and 5 mm diameter) were prepared from different dual-curing resin cements (Duolink, Nexus, Bifix-QM, Panavia F and RelyX Unicem). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen (high-power and soft-up modes), light-emitting diode (standard and exponential modes) and plasma arc (normal and ramp-curing modes) curing units through ceramic discs. Then the samples (n=8/per group) were stored dry in the dark at 37ºC for 24 h. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV). For sorption and solubility tests; the samples were stored in a desiccator at 37ºC and weighed to a constant mass. The samples were weighed both before and after being immersed in deionized water for different periods of time (24 h and 7 days) and being desiccated. The diametral tensile strength of the samples was tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at 5% significance level. Results Resin cement and light-curing unit had significant effects (p<0.05) on microhardness, diametral tensile strength, water solubility and sorption. However, no significant differences (p>0.05) were obtained with different modes of LCUs. Conclusion The study indicates that polymerization of resin cements with different light-curing units may result in various polymer structures, and consequently different mechanical and physical properties. PMID:21710093

  2. Bond strength of resin cement to CO2 and Er:YAG laser-treated zirconia ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Heidari, Bijan; Vafaee, Fariborz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is difficult to achieve adhesion between resin cement and zirconia ceramics using routine surface preparation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CO2 and Er:YAG laser treatment on the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods In this in-vitro study 45 zirconia disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) were assigned to 3 groups (n = 15). In control group (CNT) no laser treatment was used. In groups COL and EYL, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers were used for pretreatment of zirconia surface, respectively. Composite resin disks were cemented on zirconia disk using dual-curing resin cement. Shear bond strength tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min after 24 hr distilled water storage. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's HSD tests. Results The means and standard deviations of shear bond strength values in the EYL, COL and CNT groups were 8.65 ± 1.75, 12.12 ± 3.02, and 5.97 ± 1.14 MPa, respectively. Data showed that application of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers resulted in a significant higher shear bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics (p < 0.0001). The highest bond strength was recorded in the COL group (p < 0.0001). In the CNT group all the failures were adhesive. However, in the laser groups, 80% of the failures were of the adhesive type. Conclusions Pretreatment of zirconia ceramic via CO2 and Er:YAG laser improves the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, with higher bond strength values in the CO2 laser treated samples. PMID:25383349

  3. Diametral tensile strength and film thickness of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil

    PubMed Central

    CARMELLO, Juliana Cabrini; FAIS, Laiza Maria Grassi; RIBEIRO, Lígia Nunes de Moraes; CLARO NETO, Salvador; GUAGLIANONI, Dalton Geraldo; PINELLI, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The need to develop new dental luting agents in order to improve the success of treatments has greatly motivated research. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and film thickness (FT) of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil (COP) with or without addition of different quantities of filler (calcium carbonate - CaCO3). Material and Methods Eighty specimens were manufactured (DTS N=40; FT N=40) and divided into 4 groups: Pure COP; COP 10%; COP 50% and zinc phosphate (control). The cements were mixed according to the manufacturers' recommendations and submitted to the tests. The DTS test was performed in the MTS 810 testing machine (10 KN, 0.5 mm/min). For FT test, the cements were sandwiched between two glass plates (2 cm2) and a load of 15 kg was applied vertically on the top of the specimen for 10 min. The data were analyzed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The values of DTS (MPa) were: Pure COP- 10.94±1.30; COP 10%- 30.06±0.64; COP 50%- 29.87±0.27; zinc phosphate- 4.88±0.96. The values of FT (µm) were: Pure COP- 31.09±3.16; COP 10%- 17.05±4.83; COP 50%- 13.03±4.83; Zinc Phosphate- 20.00±0.12. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the groups (DTS - p=1.01E-40; FT - p=2.4E-10). Conclusion The experimental dental luting agent with 50% of filler showed the best diametral tensile strength and film thickness. PMID:22437672

  4. Scanning electron microscopic study of teeth restored with fiber posts and composite resin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sridhara, K. S.; Mankar, Sunil; Jayshankar, C. M.; Vinaya, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the thickness of resin dentin interface zones (RDIZ) obtained by luting carbon fiber post to intra-radicular dentin, either with All-Bond 2 bonding agent and C and B composite cement or Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted mandibular premolars of similar sizes were prepared for the carbon fiber post after biomechanical preparation and obturation. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 and 2 of 10 samples each. Carbon fiber posts used for Group 1 samples were luted using All-Bond 2 and C and B cement. For Group 2 carbon fiber posts were luted using Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. All the 20 samples were sectioned longitudinally and marked at three points on the length of the tooth from the dentin-core interface to the apex at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm to get coronal, middle, and apical areas, respectively. The formation and thickness (width) of the RDIZ at the marked areas was evaluated by scanning electron microscope using ×1000 magnification. The results were statistical analyzed. Results: Irrespective of the adhesive systems used all specimens showed a RDIZ formation. Microscopic examination of Group 1 showed significantly higher percentage of RDIZ (P < 0.05) than Group 2. RDIZ morphology was easily detectable at coronal and middle areas of all specimens. Conclusion: All-Bond 2 showed denser and wider RDIZ compared with the Panavia F. PMID:25210390

  5. Bonding of self-adhesive resin cements to enamel using different surface treatments: bond strength and etching pattern evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strengths and etching patterns of seven self-adhesive resin cements to human enamel specimens which were subjected to one of the following surface treatments: (1) Polishing with #600 polishing paper; (2) Phosphoric acid; (3) G-Bond one-step adhesive; or (4) Phosphoric acid and G-Bond. After surface treatment, the human incisor specimens were bonded to a resin composite using a self-adhesive resin cement [Maxcem (MA), RelyX Unicem (UN), Breeze (BR), BisCem (BI), seT (SE), Clearfil SA Luting (CL)] or a conventional resin cement [ResiCem (RE)]. Representative morphology formed with self-adhesive resin cements showed areas of etched enamel intermingled with areas of featureless enamel. In conclusion, etching efficacy influenced the bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive resin cements to unground enamel, and that a combined use of phosphoric acid and G-Bond for pretreatment of human enamel surfaces improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of an experimental luting glass ionomer cement to be used in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, M J; Zaghete, M A; Gimenes, R; Padovani, G C; Cruz, C A S

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the fluoride-releasing and mechanical properties of an experimental luting glass ionomer cement, which has a modified composition and a commercial luting cement. The experimental powder was obtained by sol-gel process and then, it was used to prepare the experimental cements. The properties of cement pastes, such as setting time and working time, microhardness and diametral tensile strength were determined. Fluoride release from GICs was evaluated at time intervals of 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in deionized water. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses showed that the surface of the experimental cements is more homogeneous than commercial GICs. The mechanical properties and the measure of liberation of fluoride of the two cements were influenced by ratio powder:liquid and chemical composition of the precursor powders. Experimental cements released less fluoride than commercial cements. However, this liberation was more constant during the analyzed period. Thus, the results obtained in this study indicated that the composition of the experimental powder modified by the niobium can lead the formation of the polysalt matrix with good mechanical properties. In other words, we can say that experimental powder offered considerable promise for exploitation in dental field.

  7. Effect of triturator speed variation on physical properties of encapsulated glass-ionomer luting cements.

    PubMed

    Rupp, D C; Hermesch, C B; Charlton, D G

    1996-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of variation of triturator mixing speed on the physical properties of two encapsulated glass-ionomer luting cements. Physical properties evaluated were working time, setting time, film thickness, and 24-hour and 7-day compressive strengths. Encapsulated glass-ionomer luting cements were mixed at 3000, 3500, 4000 (control), and 4500 cycles per minute (cpm). An oscillating rheometer was used to determine working and setting times. Film thickness and compressive strength were determined using methods described in ANSI/ADA Specification No 66 for dental glass-ionomer cements. Results of the study indicated that decreased mixing speed may prolong working and setting times for Ketac-Cem Maxicap and Fuji Cap I. Within the range of 3500 to 4500 cpm, variations in mixing speed do not significantly affect compressive strength or film thickness values for either cement. Excessively slow mixing speed (3000 cpm) often resulted in the presence of unmixed powder expressed from the capsule nozzle prior to the expression of mixed cement. The presence of this unmixed powder results in a decreased powder/liquid ratio, which may have an adverse effect on the physical properties of the set cement.

  8. Bonding of Resin Cement to Zirconia with High Pressure Primer Coating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-jie; Jiao, Kai; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Li-juan; Fang, Ming; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of air-drying pressure during ceramic primer coating on zirconia/resin bonding and the surface characteristics of the primed zirconia. Methods Two ceramic primers (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, CCP, Kuraray Medical Inc. and Z-Prime Plus, ZPP, Bisco Inc.) were applied on the surface of air-abraded zirconia (Katana zirconia, Noritake) and dried at 4 different air pressures (0.1–0.4 MPa). The primed zirconia ceramic specimens were bonded with a resin-based luting agent (SA Luting Cement, Kuraray). Micro-shear bond strengths of the bonded specimens were tested after 3 days of water storage or 5,000× thermocycling (n = 12). Failure modes of the fractured specimens were examined with scanning electron miscopy. The effects of air pressure on the thickness of the primer layers and the surface roughness (Sa) of primed zirconia were evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry (n = 6), optical profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (n = 6), respectively. Results Clearfil Ceramic Primer air-dried at 0.3 and 0.4 MPa, yielding significantly higher µSBS than gentle air-drying subgroups (p<0.05). Compared to vigorous drying conditions, Z-Prime Plus air-dried at 0.2 MPa exhibited significantly higher µSBS (p<0.05). Increasing air-drying pressure reduced the film thickness for both primers. Profilometry measurements and ESEM showed rougher surfaces in the high pressure subgroups of CCP and intermediate pressure subgroup of ZPP. Conclusion Air-drying pressure influences resin/zirconia bond strength and durability significantly. Higher air-drying pressure (0.3-0.4 MPa) for CCP and intermediate pressure (0.2 MPa) for ZPP are recommended to produce strong, durable bonds between resin cement and zirconia ceramics. PMID:24992678

  9. Comparison of micro push-out bond strengths of two fiber posts luted using simplified adhesive approaches.

    PubMed

    Mumcu, Emre; Erdemir, Ugur; Topcu, Fulya Toksoy

    2010-05-01

    By means of a micro push-out test, this study compared the bond strengths of two types of fiber-reinforced posts cemented with luting cements based on two currently available adhesive approaches as well as evaluated their failure modes. Sixty extracted single-rooted human maxillary central incisor and canine teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. Following standardized post space preparation, the roots were divided into two fiber post groups and then further into three subgroups of 10 specimens each according to the luting cements. A push-out test was performed to measure regional bond strengths, and the fracture modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. At the root section, there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in push-out bond strength among the tested luting cements. Nevertheless, the push-out bond strength values of glass fiber-reinforced posts were higher than those of carbon fiber-reinforced posts, irrespective of the adhesive approach used. On failure mode, the predominant failure mode was adhesive failure between dentin and the luting cement.

  10. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Accácio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

  11. Development of a ceramic primer with higher bond durability for resin cement.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui

    2010-07-01

    To increase the bond durability of resin to the CAD/CAM ceramic surface, two types of two-bottle type ceramic primers, consisting of Primer A1 or A2 and Primer B, were designed. Primer A1 was prepared by dissolving 25, 50, or 100 mg of gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane in 1 mL of ethanol. Primer A2 was prepared by dissolving 50 mg of mixed silanes, consisting of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, in 1 mL of ethanol. Mole fractions of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol%. Primer B was prepared after dissolving 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid in ethanol by 50 vol%. Ceramic surface was silanated with a mixture of Primers A1 and B or Primers A2 and B for 1 min, and then air-dried. Commercial GC ceramic primer and Porcelain Liner M were utilized. Thereafter, dual-curing type resin cement was bonded to silanated ceramic surface through visible-light irradiation. Shear bond strength of resin to the ceramic surface was measured, before and after thermo-cycling. Addition of 0.01 or 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid to the gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane allowed for significant increases in the bond strength. However, thermo-cycling resulted in significant decreases of approximately 5 MPa in the bond strength. Conversely, when the mixed silane, where 30 mol% of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane dissolved in gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, was utilized with 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, the reduction in the bond strength decreased to approximately 2 MPa. The designed ceramic primers exhibited higher ceramic bond durability than commercial ceramic primers.

  12. Cements for use in esthetic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Thiago A; da Silva, Nelson R F A; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2007-04-01

    Dental cements are designed to retain restorations, appliances, and post and cores in a stable and, presumably, long-lasting position in the oral environment. Conventional glass ionomer and zinc phosphate cements are among the most popular materials for luting metallic restorations and posts, whereas resin-based cements are preferred for esthetic applications. Successful cementation of esthetic restorations is largely dependent on the appropriate treatment and silane application to the internal surface of the restoration. Clinicians are frequently advised to use three-step total-etch or two-step self-etch adhesive for luting purposes to avoid problems of incompatibility between adhesives and chemical- or dual-cure cements. A reliable cementation procedure can only be achieved if the operator is aware of the mechanisms involved and the material limitations.

  13. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  14. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term.

  15. A study of self-adhesive resin cements for bonding to silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy -- effect of including primer components in cement base.

    PubMed

    Muraguchi, Koichi; Minami, Hiroyuki; Minesaki, Yoshito; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacies of adhesive resin cements (Clearfil SA Luting, Maxcem, G-CEM, RelyX Unicem Clicker, Vitremer Paste) for bonding to Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy not surface-pretreated with metal primer. For control, Panavia F 2.0 -developed for use with a proprietary metal primer, Alloy Primer- was tested with and without metal primer application. Pairs of alloy disks (10.0 and 8.0 mm in diameters, 3.0 mm thickness) were air-abraded with alumina and bonded with one of the cements. Shear bond strengths (SBSs) were measured before and after 50,000 times of thermocycling. Among Maxcem, RelyX Unicem Clicker and the control, there were no statistical differences in SBS before and after thermocycling. After thermocycling, Clearfil SA Luting exhibited the highest SBS among all the cements. Results showed that Clearfil SA Luting, Maxcem, and RelyX Unicem Clicker were efficacious for bonding to Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy after air abrasion surface treatment for the latter.

  16. Microtensile bond strength and micromorphologic analysis of surface-treated resin nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to resin nanoceramic (RNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS RNC onlays (Lava Ultimate) (n=30) were treated using air abrasion with and without a universal adhesive, or HF etching followed by a universal adhesive with and without a silane coupling agent, or tribological silica coating with and without a universal adhesive, and divided into 6 groups. Onlays were luted with resin cement to dentin surfaces. A microtensile bond strength test was performed and evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). A nanoscratch test, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for micromorphologic analysis (α=.05). The roughness and elemental proportion were evaluated by Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. RESULTS Tribological silica coating showed the highest roughness, followed by air abrasion and HF etching. After HF etching, the RNC surface presented a decrease in oxygen, silicon, and zirconium ratio with increasing carbon ratio. Air abrasion with universal adhesive showed the highest bond strength followed by tribological silica coating with universal adhesive. HF etching with universal adhesive showed the lowest bond strength. CONCLUSION An improved understanding of the effect of surface treatment of RNC could enhance the durability of resin bonding when used for indirect restorations. When using RNC for restoration, effective and systemic surface roughening methods and an appropriate adhesive are required. PMID:27555896

  17. Effect of Self-adhesive Resin Cement and Tribochemical Treatment on Bond Strength to Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the interactive effects of different self-adhesive resin cements and tribochemical treatment on bond strength to zirconia. Methodology The following self-adhesive resin cements for bonding two zirconia blocks were evaluated: Maxcem (MA), Smartcem (SM), Rely X Unicem Aplicap (UN), Breeze (BR), Biscem (BI), Set (SE), and Clearfil SA luting (CL). The specimens were grouped according to conditioning as follows: Group 1, polishing with 600 grit polishing paper; Group 2, silica coating with 110 µm Al2O3 particles which modified with silica; and, Group 3, tribochemical treatment - silica coating + silanization. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours before testing shear bond strength. Results Silica coating and tribochemical treatment significantly increased the bond strength of the MA, UN, BR, BI, SE and CL to zirconia compared to #600 polishing. For both #600 polished and silica coating treatments, MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement CL had the highest bond strengths to zirconia. Conclusion Applying silica coating and tribochemical treatment improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia, especially for CL. PMID:20690416

  18. UV irradiation improves the bond strength of resin cement to fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Jianfeng; Chen, Li; Li, Deli; Tan, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the effect of UV irradiation on the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement. Twelve epoxy-based glass fiber posts were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (Cont.): No surface treatment. Group 2 (Low-UV): UV irradiation was conducted from a distance of 10 cm for 10 min. Group 3 (High-UV): UV irradiation was conducted from a distance of 1 cm for 3 min. A resin cement (CLEARFIL SA LUTING) was used for the post cementation to form resin slabs which contained fiber posts in the center. Microtensile bond strengths were tested and the mean bond strengths (MPa) were 18.81 for Cont. group, 23.65 for Low-UV group, 34.75 for High-UV group. UV irradiation had a significant effect on the bond strength (p<0.05). UV irradiation demonstrates its capability to improve the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement.

  19. Porcelain laminate veneer restorations bonded with a three-liquid silane bonding agent and a dual-activated luting composite.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hideo; Aida, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Yumi; Tanoue, Naomi

    2006-12-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication and bonding of porcelain laminate veneer restorations in a patient with anterior open spaces. Laminate veneer restorations made of feldspathic porcelain were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid, rinsed under tap water, ultrasonically cleaned with methanol, and primed with a chemically activated three-liquid silane bonding agent (Clearfil Porcelain Bond). The enamel surfaces were etched with 40% phosphoric acid, rinsed with water, and primed with a two-liquid bonding agent (Clearfil New Bond) that contained a hydrophobic phosphate (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate; MDP). The restorations were bonded with a dual-activated luting composite (Clapearl DC). The veneers have been functioning satisfactorily for an observation period of one year. Combined use of the Clearfil bonding agents and Clapearl DC luting composite is an alternative to conventional materials for seating porcelain laminate veneer restorations, although the system is inapplicable to dentin bonding.

  20. To evaluate and compare the effect of different Post Surface treatments on the Tensile Bond Strength between Fiber Posts and Composite Resin.

    PubMed Central

    Shori, Deepa; Pandey, Swapnil; Kubde, Rajesh; Rathod, Yogesh; Atara, Rahul; Rathi, Shravan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fiber posts are widely used for restoration of mutilated teeth that lack adequate coronal tooth structure to retain a core for definitive restoration, bond between the fiber post and composite material depends upon the chemical reaction between the post surface and the resin material used for building up the core. In attempt to maximize the resin bonding with fiber post, different post surface conditioning is advocated. Therefore the purpose of the study is to examine the interfacial strength between fiber post and composite, as core build-up material after different surface treatments of fiber posts. Materials & Methods:Twenty fiber posts were split into four groups off five each according to different surface treatments viz. Group I-(Negative Control), Group II-Silanization (Positive control), Group III-(37% Phosphoric Acid & Silanization) ,Group IV- (10% Hydrogen Peroxide and Silanization). With the preformed plastic mould, a core of dual cure composite resin around the fiber post having the uniform thickness was created. Tensile bond strength of each specimen was measured under Universal Testing Machine (UTM) at the cross head speed of 3mm/min. Results: The results achieved with 10% Hydrogen peroxide had a marked effect on micro tensile bond strength values between the tested materials. Conclusion: Immense enhancement in the silanization efficiency of quartz fiber phase was observed with different surface chemical treatment of the resin phase of fiber posts with the marked increase in the micro-tensile bond strength between fiber post and composite core. How to cite this article: Shori D, Pandey S, Kubde R, Rathod Y, Atara R, Rathi S. To evaluate and compare the effect of different Post Surface treatments on the Tensile Bond Strength between Fiber Posts and Composite Resin. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):27-32. PMID:24324301

  1. Polyester Resin Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

    1963-01-01

    Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images PMID:14014495

  2. Influence of resin cement shade on the color and translucency of ceramic veneers

    PubMed Central

    HERNANDES, Daiana Kelly Lopes; ARRAIS, Cesar Augusto Galvão; de LIMA, Erick; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; RODRIGUES, José Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. Material and Methods One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C* ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Conclusions Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable. PMID:27556211

  3. A bioactive dental luting cement--its retentive properties and 3-year clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Steven R; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Appleby, David C; Boston, Daniel; Lööf, Jesper

    2013-02-01

    -year recall. After periodic recalls up to 3 years, Ceramir C&B thus far has performed quite favorably as a luting agent for permanent cementation of permanent restorations. In-vitro crown-coping retention studies were also conducted using this cement and various control cementation materials. Mean laboratory retentive forces measured for Ceramir C&B were comparable to other currently available luting agents for both metal and all-ceramic indirect restorative materials.

  4. Effect of Steam Autoclaving on the Tensile Strength of Resin Cements Used for Bonding Two-Piece Zirconia Abutments.

    PubMed

    Fadanelli, Marcos Alexandre; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam autoclave sterilization on the tensile strength of two types of resin cements used to bond customized CAD/CAM zirconia abutments onto titanium bases. Forty sets of zirconia abutments cemented to screwed titanium bases of implants analogs were divided into 4 groups (n = 10). Two groups were treated with a conventional chemically activated resin cement (ML, Multilink Ivoclar Vivadent) and the other two groups with a self-adhesive dual resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). One group from each cement was submitted to steam autoclaving. The autoclave sterilization cycle was performed after 72 hours of cementation for 15 minutes at 121°C and 2.1 Kgf/cm(2). The samples were subjected to tensile strength testing in a universal testing machine (200 Kgf, 0.5 mm/min), from which the means and standard deviations were obtained in Newtons. Results showed (via ANOVA and Tukey's test; α = 0.05) that in the absence of steam autoclaving, no difference was observed in tensile strength between the cements tested: ML: 344.87 (93.79) and U200: 280 (92.42) (P = .314). Steam autoclaving, however, significantly increased tensile strength for the ML: 465.42 (87.87) compared to U200: 289.10 (49.02) (P < .001). Despite the significant increase in the ML samples (P = .013), autoclaving did not affect the tensile strength of the U200 samples (P > 0.05). The authors concluded that steam autoclaving increases the mean tensile strength of the chemically activated cement compared to the dual-cure self-adhesive cement. The performance of both cements evaluated was similar if the sterilization step was disconsidered.

  5. Haemostatic agents on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Akansha; Sekhar, Anand; Ginjupalli, Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin surface contaminated with haemostatic agents can interfere with the bonding of self-adhesive resin cement. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various haemostatic agents such as Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate and Tannic acid on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting agent. Material and Methods The buccal surfaces of extracted premolars were flattened to expose the dentine. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. In Group I Aluminium Chloride was applied on the flattened dentinal surface, in Group II Ferric Sulphate was applied to exposed dentin surface, in Group III tannic acid was applied on to the dentinal surface, and the control group, i.e. Group IV was rinsed with saline. After the surface treatment, all the teeth were air dried. Then a predetermined dimension of RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the pretreated dentin surfaces. The samples were then stored under 370C in distilled water for 24 hours under 100 % humidity. Following this each sample was tested for shear bond strength with an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Results There was significant difference in the shear bond strength of control and tannic acid contaminated group (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant differences between the shear bond strength between control and aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions The usage of haemostatic agent can negatively affect the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X) on to the dentin surface. As per the study Tannic acid significantly weakened the bond between the self-adhesive resin and dentin. Key words:Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate, haemostatic agent, self-adhesive resin cement, shear bond strength, Tannic acid. PMID:26330930

  6. Incombustible resin composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akima, T.

    1982-01-01

    Incombustible resin compositions composed of aromatic compounds were obtained through (1) combustion polymer material and (2) bisphenol A or halogenated bisphenol A and bisphenol A diglycidl ether or halogenated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The aromatic compound is an adduct of bifunctional phenols and bifunctional epoxy resins.

  7. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  8. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p<0.001). However, composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not significantly affect dentin bond strength (p>0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words

  9. Effect of metal type and surface treatment on shear bond strength of resin cement (in vitro study)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Helou, Hiba; Swed, Eyad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures appeared to prevent the excessive preparation of dental tissue. Investigation of surface treatments to improve the bond of resin cements to metals may contribute to the longevity of these restorations. Due to the potential lack of ideal preparation form, the type of alloy and its surface pretreatment may have clinically relevant correlations with the retentive strength of castings to minimally retentive preparations. Aim: The aim of this search is to study the bonding resin cement strength to different types of the metal alloy due to the surface treatment. Purpose: Evaluate the effects of two different surface treatments on shear bond strength (SBS) between a palladium-silver alloy (Pb-Ag) and commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) cast alloy with resin luting cements. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 cylinders having 5 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height were divided into two different main groups of metal type: 60 cylinders cast from CP Ti Grade I (Tritan - Reintitan - Germany-Dentaurum) as a base metal and 60 cylinders cast from Pb-Ag (Status-Yamakin, Japan) as a noble metal. 30 cylinders from each type were embedded in acrylic resin, and the rest were left without embedded in acrylic resin. All of the cylinders were smoothed with silicon carbide papers and sandblasting with 50-μm aluminum oxide. Specimens of each metal type were divided into two subgroups, which received one of the following luting techniques: (1) Multilink (Ivoclar Vivadent), (2) Multilink (Ivoclar Vivadent) plus metal zirconia primer (MZP). Every two cylinders from the same metal type and surface treatment were bonded to each other. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then thermal cycled (500 cycles, 5–55°C). After thermal cycling, the specimens were stored in 37°C distilled water for an additional 24 h before being tested in shear strength. Data (MPa) were analyzed using T-s tests to study the significance of

  10. Effects of surface treatment on bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Roudsari, Sareh Esmaeily Sabet; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Rahbar, Nima

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study to understand the dominant mechanism in bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic by investigating the effects of different surface treatments. Effects of two major mechanisms of chemical and micromechanical adhesion were evaluated on bond strength of zirconia to luting agent. Specimens of yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia blocks were fabricated. Seven groups of specimens with different surface treatment were prepared. 1) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion (SZ), 2) zirconia specimens after etching (ZH), 3) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion and simultaneous etching (HSZ), 4) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of a Fluorapatite-Leucite glaze (GZ), 5) GZ specimens with additional acid etching (HGZ), 6) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of salt glaze (SGZ) and 7) SGZ specimens after etching with 2% HCl (HSGZ). Composite cylinders were bonded to airborne-particle-abraded surfaces of ZirkonZahn specimens with Panavia F2 resin luting agent. Failure modes were examined under 30× magnification and the effect of surface treatments was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SZ and HSZ groups had the highest and GZ and SGZ groups had the lowest mean shear bond strengths among all groups. Mean shear bond strengths were significantly decreased by applying a glaze layer on zirconia surfaces in GZ and SGZ groups. However, bond strengths were improved after etching process. Airborne particle abrasion resulted in higher shear bond strengths compared to etching treatment. Modes of failure varied among different groups. Finally, it is concluded that micromechanical adhesion was a more effective mechanism than chemical adhesion and airborne particle abrasion significantly increased mean shear bond strengths compared with another surface treatments.

  11. Effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tae-Bong; Lee, Joo-Hee; Ahn, Kang-Min; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS The specimens were prepared to evaluate the bond strength of epoxy resin-based fiber posts (D.T. Light-Post) to dual-curing resin cement (RelyX U200). The specimens were divided into four groups (n=18) according to different surface treatments: group 1, no treatment; group 2, silanization; group 3, silanization after hydrogen peroxide etching; group 4, silanization with warm drying at 80℃ after hydrogen peroxide etching. After storage of the specimens in distilled water at 37℃ for 24 hours, the shear bond strength (in MPa) between the fiber post and resin cement was measured using a universal testing machine. The fractured surface of the fiber post was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis with Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). RESULTS Silanization of the fiber post (Group 2) significantly increased the bond strength in comparison with the non treated control (Group 1) (P<.05). Heat drying after silanization also significantly increased the bond strength (Group 3 and 4) (P<.05). However, no effect was determined for hydrogen peroxide etching before applying silane agent (Group 2 and 3) (P>.05). CONCLUSION Fiber post silanization and subsequent heat treatment (80℃) with warm air blower can be beneficial in clinical post cementation. However, hydrogen peroxide etching prior to silanization was not effective in this study. PMID:27141252

  12. Analysis of marginal adaptation and sealing to enamel and dentin of four self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Carina Maria; Lang, Reinhold; Handel, Gerhard; Behr, Michael

    2012-02-01

    This in vitro study compared the marginal adaptation of all-ceramic MOD-inlays luted to human molars with four self-adhesive resin cements. Thirty-two human third molars were randomly assigned to four test groups (n = 8 per group). MOD cavities were prepared with approximal finishing lines in dentin and enamel. All-ceramic Empress 2 inlays were luted with four self-adhesive cements (Clearfil SA, iCEM, Bifix SE, seT). Oral stress was simulated by 90 day storage in water as well as by thermal and mechanical loading (TCML, 1.2 × 10(6) × 50 N, 6,000 × 5°/55°, 1.6 Hz). The marginal fit was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dye penetration. Data were analyzed with the ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The SEM investigation of the gingival cement margins (cement-tooth interface) showed values of perfect margin [percent] (means ± SD) after simulated aging between 84 ± 9% and 95 ± 5% for enamel and 80 ± 9% and 92 ± 3% for dentin. In enamel, seT showed significantly higher marginal integrity than iCEM after water storage and TCML (post hoc; p = 0.011). Furthermore, the marginal adaptation of iCEM in enamel deteriorated by simulated aging (p = 0.014, ANOVA). Mean values of dye penetration (percentage of dye entry into dentin) at the investigated restorations margins ranged between 3% and 8% for enamel and 12% and 22% for dentin. Clearfil SA, iCEM, and seT showed lower dye penetration in enamel than in dentin (Clearfil SA: p = 0.013, iCEM: p = 0.044, seT: p = 0.003). The results suggest that the four self-adhesive luting agents investigated seem to successfully bond to dentin-restricted as well as to enamel-restricted cavities, predicting good clinical performance.

  13. Effect of type of luting agents on stress distribution in the bone surrounding implants supporting a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis: 3D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Ehsan; Abedian, Alireza; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Khazaei, Saber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osseointegration of dental implants is influenced by many biomechanical factors that may be related to stress distribution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of type of luting agent on stress distribution in the bone surrounding implants, which support a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) using finite element (FE) analysis. Materials and Methods: A 3D FE model of a three-unit FDP was designed replacing the maxillary first molar with maxillary second premolar and second molar as the abutments using CATIA V5R18 software and analyzed with ABAQUS/CAE 6.6 version. The model was consisted of 465108 nodes and 86296 elements and the luting agent thickness was considered 25 μm. Three load conditions were applied on eight points in each functional cusp in horizontal (57.0 N), vertical (200.0 N) and oblique (400.0 N, θ = 120°) directions. Five different luting agents were evaluated. All materials were assumed to be linear elastic, homogeneous, time independent and isotropic. Results: For all luting agent types, the stress distribution pattern in the cortical bone, connectors, implant and abutment regions was almost uniform among the three loads. Furthermore, the maximum von Mises stress of the cortical bone was at the palatal side of second premolar. Likewise, the maximum von Mises stress in the connector region was in the top and bottom of this part. Conclusion: Luting agents transfer the load to cortical bone and different types of luting agents do not affect the pattern of load transfer. PMID:25709676

  14. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  15. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

  16. The effect of repeated bonding on the shear bond strength of different resin cements to enamel and dentin

    PubMed Central

    Atsü, Saadet Sağlam

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE Cementation failures of restorations are frequently observed in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of initial and repeated bonding on the bond strengths of different resin cements to enamel and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety human maxillary central incisors were bisected longitudinally. The 180 tooth halves were divided into 2 groups (n = 90) for enamel and dentin bonding. The enamel and dentin groups were further divided into 3 groups (n = 30) for different resin cement types. Composite resin (Filtek Ultimate) cylinders (3 × 3 mm) were prepared and luted to enamel and dentin using Variolink II (Group V), RelyX ARC (Group R), or Panavia F 2.0 (Group P) resin cement. After 24 hours, initial shear bond strengths of the resin cements to enamel and dentin were measured. Using new cylinders, the specimens were de-bonded and re-bonded twice to measure the first and the second bond strengths to enamel and dentin. Failure modes and bonding interfaces were examined. Data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Initial and repeated bond strengths to enamel were similar for all the groups. The first (15.3 ± 2.2 MPa) and second (10.4 ± 2.2 MPa) bond strengths to dentin were significantly higher in Group V (P<.0001). Second bond strengths of dentin groups were significantly lower than initial and first bond strengths to dentin (P<.0001). CONCLUSION All resin cements have similar initial and repeated bond strengths to enamel. Variolink II has the highest first and second bond strength to dentin. Bond strength to dentin decreases after the first re-bonding for all resin cements. PMID:28243393

  17. The 24-year clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneer restorations bonded with a two-liquid silane primer and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2014-09-01

    This report describes the bonding technique and clinical course of porcelain laminate veneer restorations applied to discolored maxillary incisors and canines. The patient was an 18-year-old woman, and tooth reduction was limited to the enamel. Laminate veneer restorations were made with a feldspathic porcelain material (Cosmotech Porcelain). After try-in, enamel surfaces were etched with 65% phosphoric acid gel, and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated resin (Super-Bond C&B) was applied as a bonding agent. The inner surface of the restorations was etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid gel (HF Gel) and treated with a two-liquid silane primer (Porcelain Liner M), after which the Super-Bond resin was applied. Each restoration was seated with a dual-activated composite luting agent (Cosmotech Composite). After 24 years and 8 months, the restorations are functioning satisfactorily. The luting system and bonding technique described in this report are an option for seating laminate veneer restorations made of silica-based tooth-colored ceramics.

  18. Use of zinc phosphate cement as a luting agent for Denzir™ copings: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Söderholm, Karl-Johan M; Mondragon, Eduardo; Garcea, Ileana

    2003-01-01

    Background The clinical success rate with zinc phosphate cemented Procera crowns is high. The objective with this study was to determine whether CADCAM processed and zinc phosphate cemented Denzir copings would perform as well as zinc phosphate cemented Procera copings when tested in vitro in tension. Methods Twelve Procera copings and twenty-four Denzir copings were made. After the copings had been made, twelve of the Denzir copings were sandblasted on their internal surfaces. All copings were then cemented with zinc phosphate cement to carbon steel dies and transferred to water or artificial saliva. Two weeks after cementation, half of the samples were tested. The remaining samples were tested after one year in the storage medium. All tests were done in tension and evaluated with an ANOVA. Results Sandblasted and un-sandblasted Denzir copings performed as well as Procera copings. Storage in water or artificial saliva up to one year did not decrease the force needed to dislodge any of the coping groups. Three copings fractured during testing and one coping developed a crack during testing. The three complete fractures occurred in Procera copings, while the partly cracked coping was a Denzir coping. Conclusion No significant differences existed between the different material groups, and the retentive force increased rather than decreased with time. Fewer fractures occurred in Denzir copings, explained by the higher fracture toughness of the Denzir material. Based on good clinical results with zinc phosphate cemented Procera crowns, we foresee that zinc phosphate cement luted Denzir copings are likely to perform well clinically. PMID:12622874

  19. Thermally stable laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  20. Priming the tooth surface with chlorhexidine and antibacterial activity of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Monika; Singh, Yashpal; Garg, Rishabh; Pandey, Anita

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of priming the tooth surface with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on antibacterial activity of resin cement. METHODS: Ten patients in whom a single missing tooth was present on both the right and left side in the upper or lower arch were selected. Two fixed partial dentures (FPDs) in each patient on the right and left side were planned. Each FPD was assigned either to the control or test group. In the control group, FPD was luted with resin cement and in the test group, the tooth surface was primed with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate before luting with resin cement. Bacteriological samples were collected at base line level, as the patient came to the outpatient department before the start of any treatment, 5 wk prior to cementation of FPD and at 13 wk (8 wk after final cementation). Microbiological processing of all samples was done and the results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: In the test group, a predominance of aerobic/facultative gram positive cocci rod was seen which indicates a healthy periodontal site, whereas in the control group, a predominance of anaerobic gram negative rods was present which indicates an unhealthy periodontal condition. This is evident by the fact that the anaerobic bacteria percentage in the control sample is 57% and 15% in the test sample after 13 wk, whereas the aerobic/facultative bacteria percentage is 43% in the control sample and 85% in the test sample after 13 wk. The percentage of gram negative bacteria in the control sample is 61% and in the test sample is 20% after 13 wk, whereas the percentage of gram positive bacteria in the control sample is 39% and in the test sample is 80% after 13 wk. The shift from anaerobic gram negative bacteria to aerobic gram positive bacteria is clearly seen from the control to test sample after 13 wk. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that priming the tooth surface with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate may enhance antibacterial activity of the resin cement. PMID

  1. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  2. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Two metal bonding Resin Cements bonded to Cobalt Chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Musani, Smita; Musani, Iqbal; Dugal, Ramandeep; Habbu, Nitin; Madanshetty, Pallavi; Virani, Danish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the micro tensile bond strength of two metal bonding resin cements to sandblasted cobalt chromium alloy. Materials & Methods: Eight, Cobalt chromium alloy blocks of dimensions 10x5x5 mm were cast, finished and polished. One of the faces of each alloy block measuring 5x5mm was sandblasted with 50 μm grit alumina particles. The alloy blocks were then cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner for 1 min and then air dried with an air stream. The Sandblasted surfaces of the two alloy blocks were bonded together with 2 different metal bonding resin systems (Panavia F Kuraray and DTK Kleber – Bredent). The samples were divided into 2 groups (n=4). Group 1- Two Co-Cr blocks were luted with Panavia cement. Group 2- Two Co-Cr blocks were luted with DTK Kleber-Bredent cement. The bonded samples were cut with a diamond saw to prepare Microtensile bars of approximately 1mm x 1mm x 6mm. Thirty bars from each group were randomly separated into 2 subgroups (n=15) and left for 3hrs (baseline) as per manufacturer's instructions while the other group was aged for 24hrs in 370C water, prior to loading to failure under tension at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Failure modes were determined by means of stereomicroscopy (sm). Statistical analysis was performed through one way – ANOVA. Results: Significant variation in micro-tensile bond strength was observed between the two metal bonding resin systems. Conclusion: DTK showed higher mean bond strength values than Panavia F cement both at baseline and after aging. How to cite this article: Musani S, Musani I, Dugal R, Habbu N, Madanshetty P, Virani D. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Two metal bonding Resin Cements bonded to Cobalt Chromium alloy. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):73-8. PMID:24324308

  3. An in vitro evaluation of the integrity of stainless steel crown margins cemented with different luting agents.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, R L; Kambhu, P P; Asmussen, C M; Damiano, P C

    1998-01-01

    The elderly population is retaining more teeth which require extensive restorations. The purpose of this study was to identify a luting agent which had the least marginal breakdown when used with stainless steel crowns. Thirty-six caries-free molars were selected, prepared for stainless steel crowns, and embedded in acrylic to support the crown and tooth. The crowns (Unitek/3M) were cemented with 4 different luting agents: (A) Fleck's Cement, (B) Ketac-Cem, (C) All-Bond C & B Cement, and (D) Panavia EX Cement. All the restored teeth were thermocycled and divided into 3 experimental groups. Twelve teeth were stained. The remaining teeth were occlusally loaded and stained. The remaining 12 teeth were thermocycled and stained again. The stainless steel crowns were then sectioned and photographed at 7.5x mag. The dye penetration was evaluated by measurement of the percentage of dye penetration from the crown margin to the cusp tip on each side. Statistical analysis found that the least dye penetration was with All-Bond C & B Cement (p = 0.0001). The most extensive penetration was observed in Ketac-Cem Occlusal loading was a significant factor (p = 0.0001) increasing the dye penetration, but the crown-tooth gap was not.

  4. LUTE (Local Unpruned Tuple Expansion): Accurate Continuously Flexible Protein Design with General Energy Functions and Rigid Rotamer-Like Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hallen, Mark A; Jou, Jonathan D; Donald, Bruce R

    2016-09-28

    Most protein design algorithms search over discrete conformations and an energy function that is residue-pairwise, that is, a sum of terms that depend on the sequence and conformation of at most two residues. Although modeling of continuous flexibility and of non-residue-pairwise energies significantly increases the accuracy of protein design, previous methods to model these phenomena add a significant asymptotic cost to design calculations. We now remove this cost by modeling continuous flexibility and non-residue-pairwise energies in a form suitable for direct input to highly efficient, discrete combinatorial optimization algorithms such as DEE/A* or branch-width minimization. Our novel algorithm performs a local unpruned tuple expansion (LUTE), which can efficiently represent both continuous flexibility and general, possibly nonpairwise energy functions to an arbitrary level of accuracy using a discrete energy matrix. We show using 47 design calculation test cases that LUTE provides a dramatic speedup in both single-state and multistate continuously flexible designs.

  5. Retention force of secondary crowns to copings after temporary cementation: the effect of crown material and luting agent.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Torsten; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Golecki, Gudrun; Schwahn, Christian; Biffar, Reiner

    2010-12-01

    Tooth-implant supported restorations can be temporarily cemented if the natural abutments are protected by permanently cemented copings. This in vitro study investigated the retention forces of pure titanium crowns to milled titanium alloy copings and of cobalt-chromium crowns to copings made of electroplated gold after cementation with different luting agents. Five specimens per group were cemented with acrylic-urethane cement (inner crown surface preisolated with petroleum jelly) and provisional zinc oxide cement. The retention was measured using a universal testing machine and a dental device for crown removal. The differences between groups were compared using analysis of variance. The pull-off forces for the cobalt-chromium secondary crowns cemented on gold copings using zinc oxide cement were significantly higher (mean=144.5 N) than the other crown-cement combinations (32.2-54.4 N), which showed no significant differences in the retention force. The impulse number and magnitude of the dental device was usually low and showed no substantial differences between the crown-cement combinations. It can be concluded that the results of the clinical removal method for prostheses differ from the results of the pull-off test. The question which luting agent is the better choice for retrievable restorations remains unanswered without further clinical and laboratory studies.

  6. Comparison of in vitro tensile bond strengths of luting cements to metallic and tooth-colored posts.

    PubMed

    Sahmali, Sevil; Demirel, Figen; Saygili, Gülbin

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of tooth-colored ceramic and carbon-fiber post materials as well as titanium and stainless steel post materials luted with three different kinds of luting cements. Disks of alloy post materials were polished with 600-grit SiC paper, air abraded, and ultrasonically cleaned. Ceramic surfaces were pretreated with hydrofluoric acid and silanized. Panavia F, Vitremer, and ProTec Cem cements were bonded to the post specimens and placed in a humidor for 24 hours. Specimens were placed in a jig, and the debonding values were obtained using a universal testing machine. Means and standard deviations were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Panavia F provided the highest bond strengths for all types of post materials. ProTec Cem bonded more strongly to stainless steel and titanium than to zirconium oxide. Vitremer results were the lowest. Bonds to carbon-fiber post materials were weaker than to metallic post materials, but stronger than to zirconium oxide. In general, higher bond strengths resulted in a higher percentage of cohesive failures.

  7. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  8. Effects of the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on mechanical properties of luting and lining glass ionomer cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heravi, Farzin; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into glass ionomer cements (GICs) has attracted interest due to its remineralization of teeth and its antibacterial effects. However, it should be investigated to ensure that the incorporation of CPP-ACP does not have significant adverse effects on its mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC. The first step was to synthesize the CPP-ACP. Then the CPP-ACP at concentrations of 1%, 1.56% and 2% of CPP-ACP was added into a luting and lining GIC. GIC without CPP-ACP was used as a control group. The results revealed that the incorporation of CPP-ACP up to 1.56%(w/w) increased the flexural strength (29%), diametral tensile strength (36%) and microhardness (18%), followed by a reduction in these mechanical properties at 2%(w/w) CPP-ACP. The wear rate was significantly decreased (23%) in 1.56%(w/w) concentration of CPP-ACP and it was increased in 2%(w/w). Accordingly, the addition of 1.56%(w/w) CPP-ACP into luting and lining GIC had no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC and could be used in clinical practice.

  9. A comparative evaluation of dental luting cements by fracture toughness tests and fractography.

    PubMed

    Ryan, A K; Orr, J F; Mitchell, C A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been a shift from traditional methods of investigating dental materials to a fracture mechanics approach. Fracture toughness (KIC) is an intrinsic material property which can be considered to be a measure of a material's resistance to crack propagation. Glass-ionomer cements are biocompatible and bioactive dental restorative materials, but they suffer from poor fracture toughness and are extremely susceptible to dehydration. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the fracture toughness of three types of commercially available dental cements (polyacid-modified composite resin, resin-modified and conventional glass ionomer) using a short-rod chevron-notch test and to investigate and interpret the results by means of fractography using scanning electron microscopy. Ten specimens of each cement were fabricated according to manufacturers' instructions, coated in varnish, and stored at ambient laboratory humidity, 100 per cent relative humidity, or in water at 37 degrees C for 7 days prior to preparation for testing. Results indicated that significant differences existed between each group of materials and that the fracture toughness ranged from 0.27 to 0.72 MN/m3/2. It was concluded that the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement demonstrated the highest resistance to crack propagation. Fractographs clearly showed areas of stable and unstable crack growth along the fractured surfaces for the three materials examined.

  10. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  11. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  12. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  13. Imide Modified Epoxy Matrix Resin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    the bisimide amine cured epoxies (IME’s) were considerably lower than the state-of-the-art epoxies . The strain-to-failure of the control resin system ...nine epoxy resin systems which were prepared from tetraglycidyl methylenedianiline (MY 720) cured with a stoichiometric quantity of bisimide-amine and...graphite imide modified cured epoxy resin composites. The designation for each material is also listed in Table 1. The composition of each resin system

  14. The selection criteria of temporary or permanent luting agents in implant-supported prostheses: in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Brizuela-Velasco, Aritza; Ellacuria-Echebarria, Joseba

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The use of temporary or permanent cements in fixed implant-supported prostheses is under discussion. The objective was to compare the retentiveness of one temporary and two permanent cements after cyclic compressive loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS The working model was five solid abutments screwed to five implant analogs. Thirty Cr-Ni alloy copings were randomized and cemented to the abutments with one temporary (resin urethane-based) or two permanent (resin-modified glass ionomer, resin-composite) cements. The retention strength was measured twice: once after the copings were cemented and again after a compressive cyclic loading of 100 N at 0.72 Hz (100,000 cycles). RESULTS Before loading, the retention strength of resin composite was 75% higher than the resin-modified glass ionomer and 2.5 times higher than resin urethanebased cement. After loading, the retentiveness of the three cements decreased in a non-uniform manner. The greatest percentage of retention loss was shown by the temporary cement and the lowest by the permanent resin composite. However, the two permanent cements consistently show high retention values. CONCLUSION The higher the initial retention of each cement, the lower the percentage of retention loss after compressive cyclic loading. After loading, the resin urethane-based cement was the most favourable cement for retrieving the crowns and resin composite was the most favourable cement to keep them in place. PMID:27141259

  15. Tensile Bond Strength of Self Adhesive Resin Cement After Various Surface Treatment of Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Sahil; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In self adhesive resin cements adhesion is achieved to dental surface without surface pre-treatment, and requires only single step application. This makes the luting procedure less technique-sensitive and decreases postoperative sensitivity. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate bond strength of self adhesive resin after surface treatment of enamel for bonding base metal alloy. Materials and Methods On the labial surface of 64 central incisor rectangular base metal block of dimension 6 mm length, 5mm width and 1 mm height was cemented with RelyX U200 and Maxcem Elite self adhesive cements with and without surface treatment of enamel. Surface treatment of enamel was application of etchant, one step bonding agent and both. Tensile bond strength of specimen was measured with universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Results Least tensile bond strength (MPa) was in control group i.e. 1.33 (0.32) & 1.59 (0.299), Highest bond strength observed when enamel treated with both etchant and bonding agent i.e. 2.72 (0.43) & 2.97 (0.19) for Relyx U200 and Elite cement. When alone etchant and bonding agent were applied alone bond strength is 2.19 (0.18) & 2.24 (0.47) for Relyx U200, and 2.38 (0.27) 2.49 (0.16) for Max-cem elite. Mean bond strength was higher in case of Max-cem Elite as compared to RelyX U200 resin cement, although differences were non–significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Surface treatment of enamel increases the bond strength of self adhesive resin cement. PMID:26894165

  16. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    PubMed

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  17. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  18. Effect of light-cure initiation time on polymerization and orthodontic bond strength with a resin-modified glass-ionomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jess

    Introduction: The polymerization and acid-base reactions in resin-modified glass-ionomers (RMGI) are thought to compete with and inhibit one another. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of visible light-cure (VLC) delay on the polymerization efficiency and orthodontic bond strength of a dual-cured RMGI. Methods: An RMGI light-cured immediately, 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes after mixing comprised the experimental groups. Isothermal and dynamic temperature scan differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the RMGI was performed to determine extents of VLC polymerization and acid-base reaction exotherms. Human premolars (n = 18/group) were bonded with the RMGI. Shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined. Results: DSC results showed the 10 minute delay RMGI group experienced significantly (P <0.05) lower VLC polymerization compared to the other groups. Acid-base reaction exotherms were undetected in all groups except the 10 minute delay group. No significant differences (P >0.05) were noted among the groups for mean shear bond strength. A chi-square test showed no significant difference (P = 0.428) in ARI scores between groups. Conclusions: Delay in light-curing may reduce polymerization efficiency and alter the structure of the RMGI, but orthodontic shear bond strength does not appear to be compromised.

  19. Simulated Wear of Self-Adhesive Resin Cements.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Berry, T P; Tsujimoto, A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary areas of concern with luting agents is marginal gap erosion and attrition. The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate bulk and marginal slit (gap) generalized wear of self-adhesive resin cements. Three self-adhesive resin cements were used in this study: G-CEM LinkAce (LA), Maxcem Elite (ME), and RelyX Unicem2 Automix (RU). A custom stainless-steel fixture with a cavity 4.5 mm in diameter and 4 mm deep was used for simulated generalized (bulk) wear. For simulated marginal gap wear, a two-piece stainless-steel custom fixture was designed with a slit (gap) 300 μm wide and 3 mm in length. For both wear models, 20 specimens each for each of the three adhesive cements were made for both light-cure and chemical-cure techniques. The cured cements were polished with a series of carbide papers to a 4000-grit surface and subjected to 100,000 cycles using the slit (gap) wear model and 400,000 cycles for generalized (bulk) wear in a Leinfelder-Suzuki (Alabama machine) wear simulator (maximum load of 78.5 N). Flat-ended stainless-steel antagonists were used in a water slurry of poly(methylmethacrylate) beads for simulation of generalized contact-free area wear with both wear models. Before and after the wear challenges, the specimens were profiled with a Proscan 2100 noncontact profilometer, and wear (volume loss [VL] and mean facet depth [FD]) was determined using AnSur 3D software. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests were used for data analysis for the two wear models. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine polished surfaces of the resin cements and the worn surfaces after the wear challenges. The two-way ANOVA of VL using the generalized (bulk) wear model showed a significant effect among the three resin cement materials for the factor of resin cement (p<0.001) and the interaction of the cement and cure method (p<0.001), but not for the cure method (p=0.465). The two-way ANOVA for FD also found a

  20. Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

  1. New Low Cost Resin Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    difference between resins 1 and 2 was the type of phosphorous containing compound, where resin 3 was the same as resin 1 with the addition of melamine ...SBIR N03-120 New Low Cost Resin Systems Applied Poleramic, Inc. Final Report Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...Feb 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Low Cost Resin Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-03-M-0304 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. Influence of matrix metalloproteinase synthetic inhibitors on dentin microtensile bond strength of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Stape, T H S; Menezes, M S; Barreto, B C F; Aguiar, F H B; Martins, L R; Quagliatto, P S

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dentin pretreatment with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) or 24% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid gel (EDTA) on the dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of resin cements. Composite blocks were luted to superficial noncarious human dentin (n=10) using two resin cements (RelyX ARC [ARC] and RelyX U100 [U100]) and three dentin pretreatments (without pretreatment-control, CHX, and EDTA). CHX was applied for 60 seconds on the acid-etched dentin in the ARC/CHX group, and for the same time on smear layer-covered dentin in the U100/CHX group. EDTA was applied for 45 seconds on smear-covered dentin in the U100/EDTA group, and it replaced phosphoric acid conditioning in the ARC/EDTA group for 60 seconds. After storage in water for 24 hours, specimens were prepared for microtensile bond strength testing. The results were submitted to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. ARC produced significantly higher μTBS (p<0.05) compared to the U100, except when EDTA was used. For ARC, no pretreatment and CHX produced higher μTBS than EDTA. For U100, EDTA produced higher μTBS; no statistical difference occurred between CHX pretreatment and when no pretreatment was performed. While CHX did not affect immediate dentin bond strength of both cements, EDTA improved bond strength of U100, but it reduced dentin bond strength of ARC.

  3. Regional bond strengths to root canal dentin of fiber posts luted with three cementation systems.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Giovana Mongruel; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Reis, Alessandra; Gomes, João Carlos; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the cementation system on the regional push-out bond strength and failure pattern of fiber posts to radicular dentin. The roots of 48 extracted human incisors were prepared and divided into 3 groups (n = 16), according to the cementation system: AdperScotchbond Multi-Purpose + resin cement RelyX ARC (SBMP+ARC); Adper SingleBond 2 + RelyX ARC (SB+ARC) and; RelyX U100 self-adhesive resin cement (U100). The posts were cemented as per manufacturer's instructions for each cementation system. After 1 week, the roots were sectioned transversely into 6 discs. Two discs were obtained from the cervical, middle and apical thirds and the push-out test was carried out. The failure pattern was examined on all debonded specimens. The data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. When U100 was used, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was observed among the different root regions. Statistically higher push-out bond strength values were detected in the cervical third for SBMP+ARC and SB+ARC (p<0.05). The U100 showed significantly more mixed failures than SBMP+ARC in the apical third (p<0.05). In conclusion, the self-adhesive cement RelyX U100 was the only cement not sensitive to the root canal region.

  4. Effect of sandblasting, silica coating, and laser treatment on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to resin cements.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Nasrin; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Heidari, Solmaz; Khoshro, Kimia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser irradiation as well as other surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to the two types of resin cements. Zirconia ceramic blocks (ICE Zirkon) were sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions and duplicated in resin composites. The ceramic specimens were divided into four groups according to the following surface treatments: no surface treatment (control), sandblasting with alumina, silica coating plus silanization, and Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The specimens were divided equally and then bonded with Panavia F2.0 (self-etching resin cement) and Clearfil SA Luting (self-adhesive resin cement) to the composite blocks. The bonded ceramic-composite blocks were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 72 h, cut to prepare bar-shaped specimens with a bonding area of approximately 1 mm(2), and thermocycled for 3000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C, and the microtensile bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed that the self-adhesive resin cement used in this study did not improve the microtensile bond strength when the zirconia surface was sandblasted by alumina. The use of the Nd:YAG laser did not enhance the bond strength between the zirconia and both types of resin cements. In addition, silica coating of the zirconia surfaces plus silane application significantly improved the bond strength regardless of the type of resin cement utilized.

  5. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  6. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  7. Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

  8. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  9. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  10. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Polyethylene *Polyethylene—Ethyl Acrylate Resins *Polyethylene—Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers Polyethylene Resin (HDPE) Polyethylene Resin (LPDE) Polyethylene Resin, Scrap Polyethylene Resin, Wax (Low M.W.) Polyethylene Resin, Latex Polyethylene Resins *Polyethylene Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene,...

  11. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Polyethylene *Polyethylene—Ethyl Acrylate Resins *Polyethylene—Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers Polyethylene Resin (HDPE) Polyethylene Resin (LPDE) Polyethylene Resin, Scrap Polyethylene Resin, Wax (Low M.W.) Polyethylene Resin, Latex Polyethylene Resins *Polyethylene Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene,...

  12. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Polyethylene *Polyethylene—Ethyl Acrylate Resins *Polyethylene—Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers Polyethylene Resin (HDPE) Polyethylene Resin (LPDE) Polyethylene Resin, Scrap Polyethylene Resin, Wax (Low M.W.) Polyethylene Resin, Latex Polyethylene Resins *Polyethylene Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene,...

  13. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Polyethylene *Polyethylene—Ethyl Acrylate Resins *Polyethylene—Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers Polyethylene Resin (HDPE) Polyethylene Resin (LPDE) Polyethylene Resin, Scrap Polyethylene Resin, Wax (Low M.W.) Polyethylene Resin, Latex Polyethylene Resins *Polyethylene Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene,...

  14. Phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The production of fire-resistant resins particularly useful for making laminates with inorganic fibers such as graphite fibers is discussed. The resins are by (1) condensation of an ethylenically unsaturated cyclic anhydride with a bis(diaminophenyl) phosphine oxide, and (2) by addition polymerization of the bisimide so obtained. Up to about 50%, on a molar basis, of benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid anhydride can be substituted for some of the cyclic anhydride to alter the properties of the products. Graphite cloth laminates made with these resins show 800 C char yields greater than 70% by weight in nitrogen. Limiting oxygen indexes of more than 100% are determined for these resins.

  15. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J. Brock

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  16. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  17. High performance phenolic pultrusion resin

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, S.P.; Ingram, W.H.; Smith, C.

    1996-11-01

    Today, Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) resins are the materials of choice for aerospace interior applications, primarily due to low FST (flame, smoke and toxicity). Since 1990, growth of PF resins has been steadily increasing in non-aerospace applications (which include mass transit, construction, marine, mine ducting and offshore oil) due to low FST and reasonable cost. This paper describes one component phenol-formaldehyde resin that was jointly developed with Morrison Molded Fiber Glass for their pultrusion process. Physical properties of the resin with flame/smoke/toxicity, chemical resistance and mechanical performance of the pultruded RP are discussed. Neat resin screening tests to identify high-temperature formulations are explored. Research continues at Georgia-Pacific to investigate the effect of formulation variables on processing and mechanical properties.

  18. [Influence of retainer design on fixation strength of resin-bonded glass fiber reinforced composite fixed cantilever dentures].

    PubMed

    Petrikas, O A; Voroshilin, Iu G; Petrikas, I V

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) fixed partial dentures (FPD) have become an accepted part of the restorative dentist's armamentarium. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of retainer design on the strength of two-unit cantilever resin-bonded glass FRC-FPDs. Four retainer designs were tested: a dual wing, a dual wing + horizontal groove, a dual wing + occlusal rest and a step-box. Of each design on 7 human mandibular molars, FRC-FPDs of a premolar size were produced. The FRC framework was made of resin Revolution (Kerr) impregnated glass fibers (GlasSpan, GlasSpan) and veneered with hybrid resin composite (Charisma, Kulzer). Revolution (Kerr) was used as resin luting cement. FRC-FPDs were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine. T (Student's)-test was used to evaluate the data. The four designs were analyzed with finite element analysis (FEA) to reveal the stress distribution within the tooth/restoration complex. Significantly lower fracture strengths were observed with inlay-retained FPDs (step-box: 172±11 N) compared to wing-retained FPDs (p<0.05) (a dual wing + horizontal groove 222±9 N). The highest fracture strengths were observed with dual wing + occlusal rest FPDs: 250±10 N compared to inlay-retained FPDs (p<0.001) and wing-retained FPDs (p<0.001). FEA showed more favorable stress distributions within the tooth/restoration complex for dual wing retainers+ occlusal rest FPDs. There was stress concentration around connectors and retainers near connectors. A dual-wing retainer with occlusal rest is the optimal design for replacement of a single premolar by means of a two-unit cantilever FRC-FPDs.

  19. Influence of the Resin Cement Thickness on the Push-Out Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Posts.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Regina Maria Helen-Cot; Kinder, Gustavo Ross; Alfredo, Edson; Quaranta, Tarcisio; Correr, Gisele Maria; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of resin cement thickness on the bond strength of prefabricated and customized glass fiber posts after storage in distilled water. Thirty human uniradicular roots were treated endodontically. The roots were divided into 3 groups: THIN (thin cement layer) - post space preparation with #0.5 drill and cementation of #0.5 post; THICK (thick cement layer) - post space preparation with #1 drill and cementation of #0.5 post; and CUSTOM (customized cement layer) - post space preparation with #1 drill and cementation of a customized post (#0.5 glass fiber posts customized with resin composite). All posts were luted with self-adhesive resin cement. The push-out test was carried out after storage for 24 h and 90 days in distilled water at 37 °C. The data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Bond strengths were significantly higher for CUSTOM (9.37 MPa), than for THIN (7.85 MPa) and THICK (7.07 MPa), which were statistically similar. Considering the thirds, the bond strength varied in the sequence: apical (7.13 MPa) < middle (8.22 MPa) = coronal (8.94 MPa). Bond strength for 24 h storage was significantly higher (8.80 MPa) than for 90-day storage (7.40 MPa). It may be concluded that the thickness of resin cement influenced the bond strength of glass fiber posts. The customized posts presented higher bond strength. Storage in water for 90 days affected negatively the values of bond strength, especially for thick cement layers in the apical third.

  20. Evaluation of two thione primers and composite luting agents used for bonding a silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Atsuta, M; Tanoue, N

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bond strength and durability of two metal adhesive systems bonded to a silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd) alloy. Disk specimens were cast from an Ag-Pd alloy (Castwell M.C. 12), air-abraded with 50 micro m grain-sized alumina, and they were bonded with two primer-cement bonding systems (Alloy Primer and Panavia Fluoro Cement; Metaltite and Bistite II). For each cement, unprimed specimens were also prepared as experimental controls. Shear bond strengths were determined both before and after thermocycling (4-60 degrees C, 1 min each, 100 000 cycles). The average post-thermocycling bond strengths in MPa (n=8) were: 39.0 for the Metaltite-Bistite II system, 32.2 for the Alloy Primer-Panavia Fluoro Cement system, 23.1 for the Bistite II material and 21.0 for the Panavia Fluoro Cement material. The use of proprietary primers, both of which contain thione functional monomer, enhanced the post-thermocycling bond strengths of both cements (P < 0.05). After thermocycling, however, the difference in bond strength between the two cements was not significant regardless of the use of the primers (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the combined use of the thione primer and the luting agent is necessary for bonding the Ag-Pd alloy examined.

  1. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  2. Chromatography resin support

    DOEpatents

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  3. Flammability screening tests of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

  4. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

  5. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  6. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1998-01-27

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

  7. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1997-01-01

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  9. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  10. Phthalonitrile Resins and Preparation Thereof.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention pertains generally to organic synthesis and in particular to a rapid synthesis of a diether-linked polyphthalonitrile resin by polymerizing a phthalonitrile monomer with a primary amine.

  11. Regenerating Water-Sterilizing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine-dispensing resin can be regenerated after iodine content has been depleted, without being removed from water system. Resin is used to make water potable by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Regeneration technique may be come basis of water purifier for very long space missions. Enough crystalline iodine for multiple regenerations during mission can be stored in one small cartridge. Cartridge could be inserted in waterline as necessary on signal from iodine monitor or timer.

  12. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOEpatents

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  13. FB-Line resin testing final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-01-23

    The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer`s specified ionic type and form, and the Dowex 50W resins have characteristic water retention capacities. These tests conclude that the ion exchange resins in use in FB-Line meet the approved safety document criteria for cross-linking, ionic form, and resin type.

  14. FB-Line resin testing final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-01-23

    The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer's specified ionic type and form, and the Dowex 50W resins have characteristic water retention capacities. These tests conclude that the ion exchange resins in use in FB-Line meet the approved safety document criteria for cross-linking, ionic form, and resin type.

  15. Influence of 2% chlorhexidine on pH, calcium release and setting time of a resinous MTA-based root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Linhares-Farina, Giane; Sposito, Otávio da Silva; Zanchi, César Henrique; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The addition of chlorhexidine (CHX) to a resinous experimental Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (E-MTA) based root-end filling material is an alternative to boost its antimicrobial activity. However, the influence of chlorhexidine on the properties of this material is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2% chlorhexidine on the pH, calcium ion release and setting time of a Bisphenol A Ethoxylate Dimethacrylate/Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (Bis-EMA/MTA) based dual-cure experimental root-end filling material (E-MTA), in comparison with E-MTA without the addition of CHX and with conventional white MTA (W-MTA). The materials were placed in polyethylene tubes, and immersed in deionized water to determine pH (digital pH meter) and calcium ion release (atomic absorption spectrometry technique). The setting time of each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles. The data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of 5%. E-MTA + CHX showed an alkaline pH in the 3 h period of evaluation, the alkalinity of which decreased but remained as such for 15 days. The pH of E-MTA + CHX was higher than the other two materials after 7 days, and lower after 30 days (p < 0.05). All of the materials were found to release calcium ions throughout the 30 days of the study. The addition of CHX increased the calcium ion release of E-MTA to levels statistically similar to W-MTA. E-MTA showed shorter initial and final setting time, compared with W-MTA (p < 0.05). The addition of 2% CHX to MTA prevented setting of the material. The addition of CHX to E-MTA increased its pH and calcium ion release. However, it also prevented setting of the material.

  16. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  17. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  18. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0.44 deciliter per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a...

  20. Method for loading resin beds

    DOEpatents

    Notz, Karl J.; Rainey, Robert H.; Greene, Charles W.; Shockley, William E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 10. (i) Polyestercarbonate resins, when extracted with distilled water at reflux temperature for 6... water at reflux temperature for 6 hours, shall yield total nonvolatile extractives not to exceed 0.005 percent by weight of the resins. (iii) Polyestercarbonate resins, when extracted with n-heptane at...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of...

  3. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used... polymer obtained by polymerizing terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood. It has a softening point of...

  4. SRM filament wound case resin characterization studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    The amine cured epoxy wet winding resin used in fabrication of the SRM filament wound case is analyzed. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPSC) is utilized extensively to study lot-to-lot variation in both resin and curing agent. The validity of quantitative hplc methodology currently under development in-process resin/catalyst assay is assessed.

  5. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  6. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  7. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  12. Fractionation and utilization of gossypol resin

    SciTech Connect

    Tursunov, A.K.; Dzhailov, A.T.; Fatkhullaev, E.; Sadykov, A.A.

    1985-10-01

    Gossypol resin is formed as a secondary waste product during distillation of fatty acides isolated from cottonseed oil soap stocks; it is insoluble in water but soluble in products of petroleum distillation. For fractionation, gossypol resin was saponified with caustic soda or caustic potash. Using this method, the resin was separated into unsaponifiable (21-24%) and saponifiable (76-79%) parts. Details of the individual fractions of gossypol resin are presented. The unsaponifiable fraction contains hydrocarbons, alcohols, beta-sito-sterol, beta-amyrin, and vitamin E. The fatty acid fraction of the resin is a mixture of fatty acids and lactones.

  13. A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

  14. Effect of a self-etching primer and phosphoric acid etching on the bond strength of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to human enamel.

    PubMed

    Nogawa, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Hiraba, Haruto; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength and durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to human enamel. A self-etching primer that contained 4-META (Teeth Primer, TP) and 35-45% or 60-65% concentrations of phosphoric acid (K-Etchant Gel, KE, and Super Bond C&B Red Activator, RA) were used as the surface treatment agents. A methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based self-polymerizing resin (Super-Bond C&B) was used as a luting agent. The shear bond strength was determined both pre and post thermocycling. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric procedure. The post-thermocycling shear bond strength of the TP group was significantly higher than that of other groups, and that of the KE group was significantly higher compared with the RA group. These results demonstrated that 4-META was effective. Furthermore, when the degree of tooth demineralization was compared, surface treatment with less demineralization using TP was the most effective treatment.

  15. Process for curing bismaleimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A. (Inventor); OTHY S.imides alone. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to vinyl pyridine group containing compounds and oligomers, their advantageous copolymerization with bismaleimide resins, and the formation of reinforced composites based on these copolymers. When vinyl pyridines including vinyl stilbazole materials and vinyl styrylpyridine oligomer materials are admixed with bismaleimides and cured to form copolymers the cure temperatures of the copolymers are substantially below the cure temperatures of the bismaleimides alone.

  16. Synthesis of improved phenolic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

  17. Fiber reinforced composite resin systems.

    PubMed

    Giordano, R

    2000-01-01

    The Targis/Vectris and Sculpture/FibreKor systems were devised to create a translucent maximally reinforced resin framework for fabrication of crowns, bridges, inlays, and onlays. These materials are esthetic, have translucency similar to castable glass-ceramics such as OPC and Empress, and have fits that are reported to be acceptable in clinical and laboratory trials. These restorations rely on proper bonding to the remaining tooth structure; therefore, careful attention to detail must be paid to this part of the procedure. Cementation procedures should involve silane treatment of the cleaned abraded internal restoration surface, application of bonding agent to the restoration as well as the etched/primed tooth, and finally use of a composite resin. Each manufacturer has a recommended system which has been tested for success with its resin system. These fiber reinforced resins are somewhat different than classical composites, so not all cementation systems will necessarily work with them. Polishing of the restoration can be accomplished using diamond or alumina impregnated rubber wheels followed by diamond paste. The glass fibers can pose a health risk. They are small enough to be inhaled and deposited in the lungs, resulting in a silicosis-type problem. Therefore, if fibers are exposed and ground on, it is extremely important to wear a mask. Also, the fibers can be a skin irritant, so gloves also should be worn. If the fibers become exposed intraorally, they can cause gingival inflammation and may attract plaque. The fibers should be covered with additional composite resin. If this cannot be accomplished, the restoration should be replaced. The bulk of these restorations are formed using a particulate filled resin, similar in structure to conventional composite resins. Therefore, concerns as to wear resistance, color stability, excessive expansion/contraction, and sensitivity remain until these materials are proven in long-term clinical trials. They do hold the

  18. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

  19. Effect of the crown design and interface lute parameters on the stress-state of a machined crown-tooth system: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Shahrbaf, Shirin; vanNoort, Richard; Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Ghassemieh, Elaheh; Martin, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    The effect of preparation design and the physical properties of the interface lute on the restored machined ceramic crown-tooth complex are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to determine, by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) the effect of the tooth preparation design and the elastic modulus of the cement on the stress state of the cemented machined ceramic crown-tooth complex. The three-dimensional structure of human premolar teeth, restored with adhesively cemented machined ceramic crowns, was digitized with a micro-CT scanner. An accurate, high resolution, digital replica model of a restored tooth was created. Two preparation designs, with different occlusal morphologies, were modeled with cements of 3 different elastic moduli. Interactive medical image processing software (mimics and professional CAD modeling software) was used to create sophisticated digital models that included the supporting structures; periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The generated models were imported into an FEA software program (hypermesh version 10.0, Altair Engineering Inc.) with all degrees of freedom constrained at the outer surface of the supporting cortical bone of the crown-tooth complex. Five different elastic moduli values were given to the adhesive cement interface 1.8GPa, 4GPa, 8GPa, 18.3GPa and 40GPa; the four lower values are representative of currently used cementing lutes and 40GPa is set as an extreme high value. The stress distribution under simulated applied loads was determined. The preparation design demonstrated an effect on the stress state of the restored tooth system. The cement elastic modulus affected the stress state in the cement and dentin structures but not in the crown, the pulp, the periodontal ligament or the cancellous and cortical bone. The results of this study suggest that both the choice of the preparation design and the cement elastic modulus can affect the stress state within the restored crown

  20. Effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of zirconia to three resin cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadjoo, Nisa

    strengths for all three cements were observed with Scotchbond Universal surface treatment (p=0.0041). Calibra in combination with aluminum oxide air abrasion resulted in statistically lowest bond strength at 12.0 +/- 3.9 MPa. The predominant mode of failure was cohesive with cement remaining principally on the zirconium oxide samples in 57.5% of the specimens, followed by cement found on both the zirconium oxide samples and composite rods (mixed) in 32.5% of the samples. Only 10% of the specimens were found with cement on the composite rods (adhesive failure). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the MDP-containing resin cement, Panavia SA, yielded the strongest bond to Y-TZP ceramic when compared to adhesive (RelyX Ultimate) or esthetic (Calibra) resin cements. Air abrasion particle + Scotchbond Universal surface treatment demonstrated the highest bond strength regardless of the cement. Significance: The variation of surface conditioning methods yielded different results in accordance with the cement types. Overall, Scotchbond Universal adhesive + air abrasion yielded the highest bond strengths among all three surface treatments. The phosphate monomer-containing luting system, Panavia SA, is acceptable for bonding to zirconia ceramics.

  1. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  2. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Anterior Two-Unit Cantilever Resin-Bonded Fixed Dental Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Akikazu; Lassila, Lippo V. J.; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J.; Feilzer, Albert J.; De Moor, Roeland J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different framework materials on biomechanical behaviour of anterior two-unit cantilever resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs). A three-dimensional finite element model of a two-unit cantilever RBFDP replacing a maxillary lateral incisor was created. Five framework materials were evaluated: direct fibre-reinforced composite (FRC-Z250), indirect fibre-reinforced composite (FRC-ES), gold alloy (M), glass ceramic (GC), and zirconia (ZI). Finite element analysis was performed and stress distribution was evaluated. A similar stress pattern, with stress concentrations in the connector area, was observed in RBFDPs for all materials. Maximal principal stress showed a decreasing order: ZI > M > GC > FRC-ES > FRC-Z250. The maximum displacement of RBFDPs was higher for FRC-Z250 and FRC-ES than for M, GC, and ZI. FE analysis depicted differences in location of the maximum stress at the luting cement interface between materials. For FRC-Z250 and FRC-ES, the maximum stress was located in the upper part of the proximal area of the retainer, whereas, for M, GC, and ZI, the maximum stress was located at the cervical outline of the retainer. The present study revealed differences in biomechanical behaviour between all RBFDPs. The general observation was that a RBFDP made of FRC provided a more favourable stress distribution. PMID:25879077

  3. Effects of surface treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Guarda, G B; Correr, A B; Gonçalves, L S; Costa, A R; Borges, G A; Sinhoreti, M A C; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives : The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of two surface treatments, fatigue and thermocycling, on the microtensile bond strength of a newly introduced lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-cured resin cement. Methods : A total of 18 ceramic blocks (10 mm long × 7 mm wide × 3.0 mm thick) were fabricated and divided into six groups (n=3): groups 1, 2, and 3-air particle abraded for five seconds with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles; groups 4, 5, and 6-acid etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds. A silane coupling agent was applied onto all specimens and allowed to dry for five seconds, and the ceramic blocks were bonded to a block of composite Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) resin cement and placed under a 500-g static load for two minutes. The cement excess was removed with a disposable microbrush, and four periods of light activation for 40 seconds each were performed at right angles using an LED curing unit (UltraLume LED 5, Ultradent) with a final 40 second light exposure from the top surface. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Groups 2 and 5 were submitted to 3,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, and groups 3 and 6 were submitted to a fatigue test of 100,000 cycles at 2 Hz. Specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the bonding area to obtain beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) (30 beams per group) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength test in a testing machine (EZ Test) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p≤0.05). Results : The microtensile bond strength values (MPa) were 26.9 ± 6.9, 22.2 ± 7.8, and 21.2 ± 9.1 for groups 1-3 and 35.0 ± 9.6, 24.3 ± 8.9, and 23.9 ± 6.3 for groups 4-6. For the control group, fatigue testing and thermocycling produced a predominance of adhesive failures. Fatigue and

  4. The influence of fatigue loading on the quality of the cement layer and retention strength of carbon fiber post-resin composite core restorations.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Peter; de Gee, Anton; Feilzer, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that endodontically treated teeth restored with short posts or deficient ferrules show a high failure risk. This study. evaluated the influence of fatigue loading on the quality of the cement layer between prefabricated quartz coated carbon fiber posts with restricted length and the root canal wall in maxillary pre-molars. Two adhesive resin composite cements, chemical-cured Panavia 21 (Group 1) and dual-cured RelyX-ARC (Group 2), and one resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, chemical-cured RelyX (Group 3), delta were selected for this study. Post- and-core restorations were made on single-rooted human maxillary premolars from which the coronal sections were removed at the level of the proximal cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Following endodontic treatment, a post-and-core restoration with 6-mm post length was prepared for each tooth. The posts were directly cemented into the root canal and, after applying an adhesive (Clearfil Photo Bond), they were built up with a core build-up composite (Clearfil Photo Core). For each group (n=8), half of the specimens were exposed to fatigue loading (10(6) load cycles) almost perpendicular to the axial axis (85 degrees), while the other half were used as the control. Three parallel, transverse root sections, 1.5-mm thick, were cut from each specimen at the apical, medial and coronal location. These sections were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the integrity of the cement layer, while the retention strength of the cemented post sections was determined with the push-out test. The multivariate results of MANOVA showed that the condition main effect (fatigue or control) was not significant (p=0.059); the two other main effects, type of cement and section location, were significant (p=0.001 and p=0.008). For both the push-out strength and SEM evaluation of the cement layer integrity, the results significantly improved from RelyX to RelyX-ARC to Panavia 21 and also from apical to

  5. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used... fluoride resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. (b)...

  6. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  7. Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. M.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.

    1991-01-01

    High temperature structural resins are required for use on advanced aerospace vehicles as adhesives and composite matrices. NASA-Langley developed polyimide resins were evaluated as high temperature structural adhesives for metal to metal bonding and as composite matrices. Adhesive tapes were prepared on glass scrim fabric from solutions of polyamide acids of the semicrystalline polyimide LARC-CPI, developed at the NASA-Langley Research Center. Using 6Al-4V titanium adherends, high lap shear bond strengths were obtained at ambient temperature (45.2 MPa, 6550 psi) and acceptable strengths were obtained at elevated temperature (14.0 MPa, 2030 psi) using the Pasa-Jell 107 conversion coating on the titanium and a bonding pressure of 1.38 MPa (200 psi). Average zero degree composite tensile and compressive strengths of 1290 MPa (187 ksi) and 883 MPa (128 ksi) respectively were obtained at ambient temperature with unsized AS-4 carbon fiber reinforcement.

  8. Petroleum resins and their production

    SciTech Connect

    Luvinh, Q.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

  9. Influence of immediate dentin sealing techniques on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L; Mota, E G; Borges, G A; Burnett, L H; Spohr, A M

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY This research evaluated the influence of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) techniques on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays. Forty-eight maxillary premolars were divided into four groups: G1, sound teeth (control); G2, without IDS; G3, IDS with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); and G4, IDS with CSE and Protect Liner F. The teeth from groups 2, 3, and 4 received mesio-distal-occlusal preparations. The impressions were made with vinyl polysiloxane, followed by provisional restoration and storage in water for seven days. The impressions were poured using type IV die stone, and inlays with Filtek Z250 composite resin were built over each cast. The inlays were luted with Panavia F. After storage in water for 72 hours, a 200-N load was applied on the occlusal surface using a metal sphere connected to a universal testing machine, and the cuspal deflection was measured with a micrometer. The specimens were then submitted to an axial load until failure. The following mean cuspal deflection (μm) and mean fracture resistance (N) followed by the same lowercase letter represent no statistical difference by analysis of variance and Tukey (p<0.05): cuspal deflection: G1, 3.1 ± 1.5(a); G2, 10.3 ± 4.6(b); G3, 5.5 ± 1.8(ac); and G4, 7.7 ± 5.1(bc); fracture resistance: G1, 1974 ± 708(a); G2, 1162 ± 474(b); G3, 700 ± 280(b); and G4, 810 ± 343(b). IDS with CSE allowed cuspal deflection comparable with that associated with sound teeth. The application of Protect Liner F did not contribute to a decrease in cuspal deflection. The IDS techniques did not influence the fracture resistance of teeth.

  10. Surface treatment with a fractional CO2 laser enhances shear bond strength of resin cement to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Alirezaei, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The present study investigated the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia. Materials and methods: Ninety zirconia blocks were prepared and divided into 6 groups of 15 by treatment. Group 1 served as the control group, whereas groups 2 and 3 were treated with air abrasion and a universal primer (Monobond plus), respectively. The remaining zirconia copings were treated with a fractional CO2 laser for 10 seconds using 10 W/10 mJ (group 4), 10 w/14 mJ (group 5) or 20 W/10 mJ (group 6). A luting cement (Clearfil SA) was bonded to the treated zirconia surfaces and cured for 40 seconds. SBS was measured with a universal testing machine and the type of bond failure was determined. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in SBS among the study groups (p<0.001). The highest SBS values were observed in the groups treated with the fractional CO2 laser at settings of 20 W/10 mJ (28.1 MPa) or 10 W/14 mJ (27.4 MPa), followed by the specimens treated with the universal primer (22.8 MPa). The control specimens exhibited the lowest SBS (9.4 MPa) among the study groups (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the distribution of failure modes among the groups (p=0.871). Conclusions: The application of fractional CO2 laser can improve bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, and thus it could be considered as an appropriate alternative to conventional methods of zirconia surface treatment. PMID:27141151

  11. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

  12. Synthesis of Improved Polyester Resins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-05

    peroxides as initiator. The peroxides used were benzoyl peroxide , cumene hydroperoxide, t-butyl peroxybenzoate and 2,5... benzoyl peroxide , while allyl type polyester resins require a higher temperature cure and use a peroxide such as dicumyl peroxide . Numerous other peroxides ...using MEKP (methylethylketone peroxide ) or BZP ( benzoyl peroxide ) catalysts. 47 01 "I 4 C C~ >~> .0 00 Q) . x> x (. C. a, 0 + 0) 0. 0 0 a,. E S- >0>

  13. ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN

    DOEpatents

    McLEan, D.C.

    1959-03-10

    A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

  14. Synthesis of improved polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, A. H.; Delano, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best resin system contained a polyester prepolymer of phthalic, fumaric and diphenic acids reacted with 2,7-naphthalene diol and 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene. This prepolymer is very soluble in styrene, divinyl benzene, triallyl cyanurate, diallyl isophthalate and methylvinylpyridine. It provided anaerobic char yields as high as 41 percent at 800 C. The combination of good solubility and char yield represents a significant improvement over state-of-the-art unsaturated polyester resins. The majority of the other prepolymers had only low or no solubility in vinyl monomers. Graphite composites from this prepolymer with styrene were investigated. The cause for the observed low shear strengths of the composites was not determined, however 12-week aging of the composites at 82 C showed that essentially no changes in the composites had occurred.

  15. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  16. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  17. Effect of different concentrations of specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Chaharom, Mohammad-Esmaeel; Abed-Kahnamoui, Mehdi; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Gharouni, Mahya

    2017-01-01

    Background Considering the probability of chemical and enzymatic reactions between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dentin structure and their specific inhibitors, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of specific inhibitor of MMPs (galardin) on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin. Material and Methods Forty-eight sound human premolars were mounted in self-cured acrylic resin after removal of the enamel on the buccal and lingual surfaces. The dentin surfaces achieved were polished and prepared with 600-grit silicon carbide paper. The samples were divided into 3 groups (n=16) based on the concentration of galardin used (with no galardin, galardin at a high concentration and galardin at a low concentration). In addition, 96 composite resin blocks, measuring 3 mm in height and diameter, were prepared. The composite resin blocks were bonded to the buccal and lingual surface dentin with Rely-X Unicem (RXC) and Speed CEM (SPC) self-adhesive resin cements, respectively, according to manufacturers’ instructions. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the shear bond strength values were determined in MPa and fracture modes were evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni test (α=0.05). Results The shear bond strength of galardin at high concentration was significantly higher than that in the control group and galardin at a low concentrations (P<0.001). In addition, galardin at a low concentration exhibited higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (P=0.005). Furthermore, higher shear bond strength values were reported with the use of RXC compared to SPC (P<0.001). Conclusions Irrigation with galardin increased the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin and this increase had a direct relationship with the concentration of galardin in the solution. Key words:N-(2(R)-2

  18. Comparative study of the radiopacity of resin cements used in aesthetic dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Monterde-Hernández, Manuel; Cabanillas-Casabella, Cristina; Pallares-Sabater, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the radiopacity of 6 modern resin cements with that of human enamel and dentine using the Digora digital radiography system, to verify whether they meet the requirements of ANSI/ADA specification no. 27/1993 and the ISO 4049/2000 standard and assess whether their radiopacity is influenced by the thickness of the cement employed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three 3-thickness samples (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm) were fabricated for each material. The individual cement samples were radiographed on the CCD sensor next to the aluminium wedge and the tooth samples. Five radiographs were made of each sample and therefore five readings of radiographic density were taken for each thickness of the materials. The radiopacity was measured in pixels using Digora 2.6 software. The calibration curve obtained from the mean values of each step of the wedge made it possible to obtain the equivalent in mm of aluminium for each mm of the luting material. RESULTS With the exception of Variolink Veneer Medium Value 0, all the cements studied were more radiopaque than enamel and dentin (P<.05) and complied with the ISO and ANSI/ADA requirements (P<.001). The radiopacity of all the cements examined depended on their thickness: the thicker the material, the greater its radiopacity. CONCLUSION All materials except Variolink Veneer Medium Value 0 yielded radiopacity values that complied with the recommendations of the ISO and ANSI/ADA. Variolink Veneer Medium Value 0 showed less radiopacity than enamel and dentin. PMID:27350854

  19. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  20. Sand control with resin and explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, J.M.; Begnaud, W.J.; Sahr, N.L.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid resin solution remaining in the wellbore after step (c) through the perforations with a displacing fluid; and injecting a chemical solution through the perforations to cause the resin to polymerize to form a consolidated permeable matrix.

  1. Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

  2. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  3. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to... include resins produced by the condensation of allyl ether of mono-, di-, or trimethylol phenol and...

  4. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  5. Dentine sealing provided by smear layer/smear plugs vs. adhesive resins/resin tags.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Sword, Jeremy; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sadek, Fernanda T; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of five experimental resins, which ranged from hydrophobic to hydrophilic blends, to seal acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents (100% resin) or as solutions solvated with absolute ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). Fluid conductance was measured at 20 cm H(2)O hydrostatic pressure after sound dentine surfaces were: (i) covered with a smear layer; (ii) acid-etched; or (iii) bonded with neat or solvated resins, which were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. In general, the fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine was significantly higher than that of smear layer-covered dentine. However, when the most hydrophobic neat resins (R1 and R2) were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with ethanol, the fluid conductance was as low as that produced by smear layers. The fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine saturated with ethanol was significantly lower than for resin bonded to water-saturated dentine, except for resin R4. Application of more hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentine if the substrate is saturated with ethanol instead of with water.

  6. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  7. Coupling Agents - HME Resin System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    and test results of the sized fiber impregnated with lIME 5803—53 resin and laminated are shown in Table 2. The slig htl y improved SBS strength of...inherent in the 9 - - -~~~~ . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~- % . - ~, - • - - - ~~~~~~~~~~~~ — — ~~~~~~~~ free radical—induced crosslink cures. As this shrinkage

  8. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

  9. Experience with NuResin, a mobile ion exchange resin reprocessing system

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzi, K.R.; Bell, M.J.; Concklin, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Ion exchange resin used in condensate polishing, steam generator blowdown, and radwaste systems is a major contributor to the volume of low-level waste (LLW) at operating nuclear plants. Plant regeneration systems for resins use large quantities of demineralized water for cleaning, separating, and regenerating resins. These systems generate a tremendous volume of LLW from boiling water reactors (BWRs) and those pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that have experienced steam generator tube leaks. At essentially all BWRs and those PWRs that replace rather than regenerate condensate polishing resin, the LLW volume contribution from the resin alone is significant. This report describes a process for the treatment of resins with the objective of returning the resin to service.

  10. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1993-07-27

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  11. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  12. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  13. VOLUMETRIC POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE OF CONTEMPORARY COMPOSITE RESINS

    PubMed Central

    Nagem, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire) to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (á=0.05) was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01) and Definite (1.89±0.01) shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06), Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03), and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02) presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation. PMID:19089177

  14. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Gene W.

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  15. TMI-2 purification demineralizer resin study

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J D; Osterhoudt, T R

    1984-05-01

    Study of the Makeup and Purification System demineralizers at TMI-2 has established that fuel quantities in the vessels are low, precluding criticality, that the high radioactive cesium concentration on the demineralizer resins can be chemically removed, and that the demineralizer resins can probably be removed from the vessels by sluicing through existing plant piping. Radiation measurements from outside the demineralizers establishing that there is between 1.5 and 5.1 (probably 3.3) lb of fuel in the A vessel and less than that amount in the B vessel. Dose rates up to 2780 R per hour were measured on contact with the A demineralizer. Remote visual observation of the A demineralizer showed a crystalline crust overlaying amber-colored resins. The cesium activity in solid resin samples ranged from 220 to 16,900 ..mu..Ci/g. Based on this information, researchers concluded that the resins cannot be removed through the normal pathway in their present condition. Studies do show that the resins will withstand chemical processing designed to rinse and elute cesium from the resins. The process developed should work on the TMI-2 resins.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Nylon resins Specific gravity Melting point(degrees Fahrenheit) Solubilityin boiling 4.2N HC1 Viscosity... by 100. (5) Viscosity number (VN). (i) The viscosity number (VN) for Nylon 6/12 resin in a 96 percent... ISO 307-1984(E), “Plastics-Polyamides-Determination of Viscosity Number,” which is incorporated...

  18. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A; Pant, Aditya B

    2012-09-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined.

  19. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

  20. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  1. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  2. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

  3. Terpenoid Oligomers of Dammar Resin.

    PubMed

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Di Girolamo, Francesca; Corsi, Iacopo; Degano, Ilaria; Tinè, Maria Rosaria; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2016-04-22

    Dammar is a triterpenoid resin containing a volatile fraction, a monomeric fraction, and a high-molecular weight fraction. Although the low-molecular-weight components comprising sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids have been extensively studied, the nature of the macromolecular components is still not fully understood, and different and sometimes contradictory theories have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to clarify the nature of the macromolecular components of dammar resin. A multianalytical approach was adopted based on thermoanalytical-thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA/FTIR)--and mass spectrometric techniques-direct exposure mass spectrometry (DE/MS), pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py/GC/MS), flow injection analysis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FIA/ESI/MS), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The data indicate that the oligomeric fraction comprises triterpenoids bound through ester bonds, and that these triterpenoids are the same as those found in the free terpenoid fraction. The oligomeric fraction also includes triterpenoids containing carbonyl moieties, such as formyl groups, thus suggesting that these are involved in the esters in their corresponding enolic form.

  4. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

  5. Adsorption of pesticides on resins.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios; Hourdakis, Adamadia; Doulia, Danae

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the capability of organic hydrophobic polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 to remove the pesticides alachlor and amitrole from water. The pesticides adsorption on the two different adsorbents was measured by batch equilibrium technique and isotherm types and parameters were estimated. Two theoretical models were applied based on a Freundlich and a Langmuir isotherms. The effect of pesticides chemical composition and structure as well as the nature of solid surface on the efficiency of adsorption was evaluated. The influence of pH also was studied. In low pH solutions adsorption of amitrole was higher upon the nonionic aliphatic acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 in comparison to the nonionic, crosslinked macroreticular copolymer of styrene divinylbenzene XAD-4. In neutral and intermediate pH solutions the polar acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 was more effective to the retention of alachlor. The acrylic ester copolymer showed at pH 3 the lower effectiveness in alachlor removal from water. The data of the adsorption isotherms of pesticides upon the examined polymeric resins seemed to conform to both the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models.

  6. Structure Property Relationships of Biobased Epoxy Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorana, Anthony Surraht

    The thesis is about the synthesis, characterization, development, and application of epoxy resins derived from sustainable feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose, plant oils, and other non-food feedstocks. The thesis can be divided into two main topics 1) the synthesis and structure property relationship investigation of new biobased epoxy resin families and 2) mixing epoxy resins with reactive diluents, nanoparticles, toughening agents, and understanding co-curing reactions, filler/matrix interactions, and cured epoxy resin thermomechanical, viscoelastic, and dielectric properties. The thesis seeks to bridge the gap between new epoxy resin development, application for composites and advanced materials, processing and manufacturing, and end of life of thermoset polymers. The structures of uncured epoxy resins are characterized through traditional small molecule techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy. The structure of epoxy resin monomers are further understood through the process of curing the resins and cured resins' properties through rheology, chemorheology, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, fracture toughness, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and notched izod impact testing. It was found that diphenolate esters are viable alternatives to bisphenol A and that the structure of the ester side chain can have signifi-cant effects on monomer viscosity. The structure of the cured diphenolate based epoxy resins also influence glass transition temperature and dielectric properties. Incorporation of reactive diluents and flexible resins can lower viscosity, extend gel time, and enable processing of high filler content composites and increase fracture toughness. Incorpora-tion of high elastic modulus nanoparticles such as graphene can provide increases in physical properties such as elastic modulus and fracture toughness. The synthesis

  7. Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 μm) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 μm) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 μm) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 μm) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC.

  8. Influence of acid-base conditioning on the bond strength of five luting agents employing self-etching primer to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Yokomichi, Rie; Taira, Yohsuke; Soeno, Kohyoh; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multi-step conditioning (PA-AD conditioning) with phosphoric acid and sodium hypochlorite on the bond strength of five luting materials to enamel and dentin. Three commercial self-etching/priming systems (Panavia, Linkmax, and Multibond) and two experimental systems (ED/Super-Bond and EDFe/Super-Bond) were used. The surfaces of bovine enamel or dentin were bonded to a stainless steel rod. Tensile bond strength was determined after 24-hour immersion in water. PA-AD conditioning significantly improved the bond strength between enamel and three of the systems (Panavia, ED/Super-Bond, and EDFe/Super-Bond), but did not have any effect on Linkmax and Multibond. Likewise, PA-AD conditioning did not significantly improve the bond strength of Panavia, Linkmax, Multibond, and ED/Super-Bond to dentin. Highest bond strength to dentin (19.7 MPa) was obtained when self-etching primer containing ferric chloride (EDFe/Super-Bond) was used, but additional PA-AD conditioning significantly weakened the bonding (12.6 MPa).

  9. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  10. Restorative resins: abrasion vs. mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, K D

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to examine whether it is possible by simple and reliable laboratory tests to evaluate the abrasion by food of Class 1 restorative resins. The results point to the following main conclusions: for the smooth-surface resins, i.e. the micro-filled composite and the unfilled resins, the Wallace hardness test appears to be a valid parameter for abrasion; the greater the depth of penetration of the Vickers diamond of this apparatus, the more severe abrasion is to be expected. The mode of abrasion in this type of resin is scratching. Porosity in the resins strongly enhances the abrasion. For the rough-surface resins, i.e. the conventional composites, a dual effect of the filler particles was concluded. The filler particles on the one hand protect the matrix against abrasion, but cause, on the other hand, in time an increase of the surface roughness of the composite and thereby via increased friction an increase of the abrasion. Considerations on possible ways to improve the present-day restorative resins are presented. It is stressed that the results obtained refer only to abrasion of Class 1 fillings by food.

  11. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  12. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Processing techniques were developed for the fabrication of both polyphenylquinoxaline and polyimide composites by the in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on the graphite reinforcing fibers, rather than using previously prepared prepolymer varnishes. Void-free polyphenylquinoxaline composites were fabricated and evaluated for room and elevated flexure and shear properties. The technology of the polyimide system was advanced to the point where the material is ready for commercial exploitation. A reproducible processing cycle free of operator judgment factors was developed for fabrication of void-free composites exhibiting excellent mechanical properties and a long time isothermal life in the range of 288 C to 316 C. The effects of monomer reactant stoichiometry and process modification on resin flow were investigated. Demonstration of the utility and quality of this polyimide system was provided through the successful fabrication and evaluation of four complex high tip speed fan blades.

  13. Chemical Characterization of Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayden, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses tests of commercial phenol/formaldehyde resins to establish relationships among composition before use, behavior during curing, and strength after curing. Resin used in carbon/carbon laminates. In curing process, two molecules of phenol joined together in sequence of reactions involving molecule of formaldehyde. Last step of sequence, molecule of water released. Sequence repeats until one of ingredients used up, leaving solidified thermoset plastic. Issues to be resolved: number and relative abundances of ingredients, presence of certain chemical groups, heat-producing ability of resin, and range of molecular weights present.

  14. Improved microbial-check-valve resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Improved microbial-check-valve resins have been tested for their microbicidal effectiveness and long-term stability. Resins give more-stable iodine concentrations than previous preparations and do not impart objectionable odor or taste to treated water. Microbial check valve is small cylindrical device, packed with iodide-saturated resin, that is installed in water line where contamination by micro-organisms is to be prevented. Prototype microbial check valve was tested for stability and performance under harsh environmental conditions. Effectiveness was 100 percent at 35 deg, 70 deg, and 160 deg F (2 deg, 21 deg, and 71 deg C).

  15. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing

  16. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S. )

    1990-12-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use.

  17. Properties of a nanodielectric cryogenic resin

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; More, Karren Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Physical properties of a nanodielectric composed of in situ synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles ({le} 5 nm in diameter) and a cryogenic resin are reported. The dielectric losses were reduced by a factor of 2 in the nanocomposite, indicating that the presence of small TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles restricted the mobility of the polymer chains. Dielectric breakdown data of the nanodielectric was distributed over a narrower range than that of the unfilled resin. The nanodielectric had 1.56 times higher 1% breakdown probability than the resin, yielding 0.64 times thinner insulation thickness for the same voltage level, which is beneficial in high voltage engineering.

  18. Class II Resin Composites: Restorative Options.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir

    2015-10-01

    Tooth-coloured, resin composite restorations are amongst the most frequently prescribed forms of dental restoration to manage defects in posterior teeth. The attainment of a desirable outcome when placing posterior resin composite restorations requires the clinician to have a good understanding of the benefits (as well as the limitations) posed by this material, together with a sound knowledge of placement technique. Numerous protocols and materials have evolved to assist the dental operator with this type of demanding posterior restoration. With the use of case examples, four techniques available are reported here. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article explores varying techniques for the restoration of Class II cavities using resin composite.

  19. Optical characterization and applications of a dual-cure photopolymerizable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Quiroga, Reyna A.; Calixto, Sergio; Lougnot, Daniel J.

    2003-03-01

    The optical response of a photopolymerizable formulation consisting of a bisphenol A epoxy acrylate oligomer, a divinyl ether, and a photoinitiator system containing Rose Bengal was studied by recording holographic gratings. This blend is sensitive to blue-green light. Single- and double-exposure volume phase holograms were recorded. In addition to these examples, surface depth measurements were made by means of a holographic contour technique.

  20. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant...

  1. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant...

  2. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant...

  3. Development of a Cavity Disinfectant Containing Antibacterial Monomer MDPB.

    PubMed

    Hirose, N; Kitagawa, R; Kitagawa, H; Maezono, H; Mine, A; Hayashi, M; Haapasalo, M; Imazato, S

    2016-12-01

    An experimental cavity disinfectant (ACC) that is intended to be used for various direct and indirect restorations was prepared by adding an antibacterial monomer 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinum bromide (MDPB) at 5% into 80% ethanol. The antibacterial effectiveness of ACC and its influences on the bonding abilities of resin cements were investigated. To examine the antibacterial activity of unpolymerized MDPB, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were determined for Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces naeslundii, Parvimonas micra, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis Antibacterial activities of ACC and the commercial cavity disinfectant containing 2% chlorhexidine and ethanol (CPS) were evaluated by agar disk diffusion tests through 7 bacterial species and by MIC and MBC measurement for S. mutans The effects of ACC and CPS to kill bacteria in dentinal tubules were compared with an S. mutans-infected dentin model. Shear bond strength tests were used to examine the influences of ACC on the dentin-bonding abilities of a self-adhesive resin cement and a dual-cure resin cement used with a primer. Unpolymerized MDPB showed strong antibacterial activity against 7 oral bacteria. ACC produced inhibition zones against all bacterial species similar to CPS. For ACC and CPS, the MIC value for S. mutans was identical, and the MBC was similar with only a 1-step dilution difference (1:2). Treatment of infected dentin with ACC resulted in significantly greater bactericidal effects than CPS (P < 0.05, analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference test). ACC showed no negative influences on the bonding abilities to dentin for both resin cements, while CPS reduced the bond strength of the self-adhesive resin cement (P < 0.05). This study clarified that the experimental cavity disinfectant containing 5% MDPB is more effective in vitro than the commercially available

  4. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  5. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  6. Influence of remaining coronal structure and finish line on the fracture strength of roots restored with metallic posts.

    PubMed

    Carlini-Jr, Bruno; Cecchin, Doglas; Pereira, Gisele Damiana da Silveira; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength of roots that were prosthetically restored with metallic posts with or without any remaining coronal structure and with different finish lines. Sixty bovine incisors were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, endodontically treated, and randomly divided into six experimental groups (n = 10) containing teeth with or without any remaining coronal structure, and with a beveled shoulder, a bevel, or a shoulder finish line design. The metallic posts were luted with dual-cured resin cement. The cores were made with composite resin, and metal crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement. The specimens were subjected to a tangential compressive load (135º angle) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure, using a universal testing machine. The fracture strength data were analyzed using the ANOVA and LSMeans (least square means) tests (α= 0.05). The data indicated that the teeth with 2 mm of remaining coronal structure showed the highest fracture strength values when compared with the teeth without any remaining structure (p < 0.05). As to the different finish line designs, the highest fracture strength values were obtained for the beveled shoulder, followed by the bevel and then by the shoulder designs (p < 0.05). It may be concluded that, to increase fracture strength, a beveled shoulder and 2 mm of remaining coronal structure are the ideal conditions.

  7. Resin Flow Analysis in the Injection Cycle of a Resin Transfer Molded Radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Hossein; Poursina, Mehrdad

    2007-04-01

    Resin flow analysis in the injection cycle of an RTM process was investigated. Fiberglass and carbon fiber mats were used as reinforcements with EPON 826 epoxy resin. Numerical models were developed in ANSYS finite element software to simulate resin flow behavior into a mold of conical shape. Resin flow into the woven fiber mats is modeled as flow through porous media. The injection time for fiberglass/epoxy composite is found to be 4407 seconds. Required injection time for the carbon/epoxy composite is 27022 seconds. Higher injection time for carbon/epoxy part is due to lower permeability value of the carbon fibers compared to glass fiber mat.

  8. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins obtained therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking with the cure temperature being lowered by using a catalyst if desired but not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins and are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices and molding compounds.

  9. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  10. An update on resin-bonded bridges.

    PubMed

    Barber, M W; Preston, A J

    2008-03-01

    Since the introduction of the 'Rochette' bridge in the 1970s the resin-bonded bridge has undergone a number of developments to become a commonly used technique for replacement of a missing tooth, especially in a minimally restored dentition. One of the major advantages of the resin-bonded bridge is that it requires less tooth preparation than conventional bridgework, with some authorities advising no preparation at all. Some reports have suggested poor long-term success rates, however, if used in appropriate clinical situations, this treatment modality can be extremely successful. The aim of this paper is to review the literature relating to resin-bonded bridges and suggest recommendations for clinicalpractice concerning the provision of resin-bonded bridges.

  11. Determining resin/fiber content of laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, G. G.; Houston, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Article discusses procedure where hydrazine is used to extract graphite fibers from cured polyimide resin. Method does not attack graphite fibers and is faster than hot-concentrated-acid digestion process.

  12. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  13. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  19. Resins for Advanced Reentry Systems Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    strengths of 3,000 to 6,000 psi. The strength values increased to 7,000 to 10,000 psi after the samples were reimpregnated with a furfuryl alcohol resin and repyrolyzed. The pyrolysis results are discussed.

  20. Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

  1. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  2. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  3. Liquid Resins With Low VOC Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    titrated with the perchloric acid / peracetic acid solution (Aldrich) until the indicator, 0.1% crystal violet in acetic acid (Aldrich), changed color from...method of reducing styrene emissions from vinyl ester (VE) resins is to replace some or all of the styrene with fatty acid -based monomers. Fatty acid ...renewable resources. VE resins with no more than 20 wt% styrene were prepared using methacrylate terminated lauric acid . The viscosities of these

  4. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH/sub 2/BO/sub 3/-H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB.

  5. Resin characterization by electro-acoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Egbert; Mann, Christian

    2007-03-09

    The electro-acoustic effects, namely the ion vibration potential (IVP) and the colloidal vibration current (CVI), colloidal vibration potential (CVP) first described by P. Debye [P. Debye, J. Chem. Phys. 1 (1933) 13], are a result of charge separation of bound or free ions at different degrees by ultrasonic waves. Today commercial instruments are available to investigate liquid homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. In the present paper the application of this technique for the characterization of salts, protein solutions and resins for biochromatography is shown and valuable information about resins can be derived in a short time. Various resins were investigated with the following results: (1) the CVI magnitude is dependent of several parameters (such as particle size distribution, volume fraction, density difference); (2) the CVI is influenced by the surface modification of the resins. Polymeric modifications decrease the value of CVI. The CVI is generally lower for high capacity resins; (3) the measurement of the electro-acoustic effects can be used to detect small changes in resins. The CVI is dependent of the amount of adsorbed protein in "native" and denatured state.

  6. Preparation and cured properties of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Tokizawa, Makoto; Okada, Hiroyoshi; Wakabayashi, Nobukatsu; Kimura, Tomiaki . Research Center)

    1993-10-20

    Preparation and characterization of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins, which are derived from octadienyl compounds, were studied. From a model peracetic acid epoxidation reaction using 2,7-octadienyl acetate-1, the structure of the liquid resins is estimated to be mainly terminal epoxides and some amount of inner epoxide depending on the epoxide content. The epoxy resins offer lower toxicity and lower vapor pressure. The reactivity of the resin with acid anhydrides is moderate but faster than that of traditional cyclohexane epoxide-type resins and slower than that of the glycidyl ester-type resins. This reactivity was also examined using model compounds. The heat deflection temperature of the hexahydro-phthalic anhydride-cured resins is shown to be directly proportional to the number of epoxy groups in the molecules. The flexural strength of the cured resins is nearly equivalent to that of the commercial resins, although the flexural elongation of the resins is larger than that of the rigid cyclohexane epoxide-type resins. The thermal stability of the cured resins is compared to typical rigid cycloaliphatic resins; furthermore, high water resistance of the cured resins is suggested to be attributed to the hydrophobic character of the C[sub 8] chain by cross-linking.

  7. Improvement of enamel bond strengths for conventional and resin-modified glass ionomers: acid-etching vs. conditioning*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Tang, Tian; Zhang, Zhen-liang; Liang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-miao; Fu, Bai-ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study deals with the effect of phosphoric acid etching and conditioning on enamel micro-tensile bond strengths (μTBSs) of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs/RMGICs). Methods: Forty-eight bovine incisors were prepared into rectangular blocks. Highly-polished labial enamel surfaces were either acid-etched, conditioned with liquids of cements, or not further treated (control). Subsequently, two matching pre-treated enamel surfaces were cemented together with one of four cements [two GICs: Fuji I (GC), Ketac Cem Easymix (3M ESPE); two RMGICs: Fuji Plus (GC), RelyX Luting (3M ESPE)] in preparation for μTBS tests. Pre-treated enamel surfaces and cement-enamel interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased the enamel μTBS of GICs/RMGICs. Conditioning with the liquids of the cements produced significantly weaker or equivalent enamel μTBS compared to the control. Regardless of etching, RMGICs yielded stronger enamel μTBS than GICs. A visible hybrid layer was found at certain enamel-cement interfaces of the etched enamels. Conclusions: Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased the enamel μTBSs of GICs/RMGICs. Phosphoric acid etching should be recommended to etch the enamel margins before the cementation of the prostheses such as inlays and onlays, using GICs/RMGICs to improve the bond strengths. RMGICs provided stronger enamel bond strength than GICs and conditioning did not increase enamel bond strength. PMID:24190447

  8. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  9. Thermal rearrangement of novolak resins used in microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Ricky; Zampini, Anthony; Monaghan, Michael J.; O'Leary, Michael J.; Cardin, William J.; Eugster, Timothy J.

    1995-06-01

    Changes in phenolic-formaldehyde resin properties are described in terms of thermal exposure. At high temperature, resin molecular weight, dissolution properties and chemical composition change depending on the presence or absence of monomers. Without monomer in the resin melt at 220 degree(s)C, resin molecular weight increases with a corresponding decrease in dissolution rate. In the presence of monomer, molecular weight generally decreases. Dissolution rate may fluctuate depending on the monomer mixture. Three,five- Xylenol and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol co-monomers induced the most extreme changes in resin properties with thermal treatment. Resin degradation-recombination processes suggest a classical Friedel-Craft rearrangement mechanism.

  10. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  11. Resin flow monitoring in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using optical fiber distributed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Soohyun; Kageyama, Kazuro; Murayama, Hideaki; Ohsawa, Isamu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Kanai, Makoto; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we implemented resin flow monitoring by using an optical fiber sensor during vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM).We employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for distributed sensing. Especially, long gauge FBGs (about 100mm) which are 10 times longer than an ordinary FBG were employed for more effective distributed sensing. A long gauge FBG was embedded in GFRP laminates, and other two ones were located out of laminate for wavelength reference and temperature compensation, respectively. During VaRTM, the embedded FBG could measure how the preform affected the sensor with vacuum pressure and resin was flowed into the preform. In this study, we intended to detect the gradient of compressive strain between impregnated part and umimpregnated one within long gauge FBG. If resin is infused to preform, compressive strain which is generated on FBG is released by volume of resin. We could get the wavelength shift due to the change of compressive strain along gauge length of FBG by using short-time Fourier transformation for signal acquired from FBG. Therefore, we could know the resin flow front with the gradient of compressive strain of FBG. In this study, we used silicon oil which has same viscosity with resin substitute for resin in order to reuse FBG. In order to monitor resin flow, the silicon oil was infused from one edge of preform, the silicon oil was flowed from right to left. Then, we made dry spot within gauge length by infusing silicon oil to both sides of preform to prove the ability of dry spot monitoring with FBG. We could monitor resin flow condition and dry spot formation successfully using by FBG based on OFDR.

  12. Clinical evaluation of a flowable resin composite and flowable compomer for preventive resin restorations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Man; Liu, HongSheng

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated the retention and caries protection of a flowable resin composite (Flow Line) and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) used in preventive resin restorations as compared to the conventional preventive resin technique which uses a resin composite (Brilliant) and a sealant (Concise). This study observed 205 permanent molars with small carious cavities less than 1.5 mm in width, which were obtained from 165 children aged 7 to 15 years. Flowable resin composite was used to treat 75 teeth, and 71 teeth were treated with flowable compomer in both cavities and caries-free fissures. For the control group, 59 teeth were treated with resin composite in cavities and sealant in caries-free fissures. The teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24-month intervals. After three months, all 205 treated teeth were completely intact. After six months, 66 of the 71 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 65 of the 70 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 57 of the 58 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 12 months, 60 of the 67 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 61 of the 67 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 51 of the 55 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 18 months, 53 of the 61 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 54 of the 62 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 47 of the 53 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 24 months, 49 of the 58 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 45 of the 57 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 42 of the 52 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. There were no statistically significant differences in retention rates among all groups after 3, 6, 12, 18 or 24-months (p>0.05). One tooth treated with flowable resin composite and one tooth treated with flowable

  13. Treatment of chromium plating process effluents with ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Tenório, J A; Espinosa, D C

    2001-01-01

    The surface treatment industry deals with various heavy metals, including the elements Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Cu. Conventional treatments of effluents generate class I solid residue. The aim of this investigation was to study the viability of ion exchange as an alternative process for treatment of rinse water and to determine the efficacy of two ion exchange systems, System 1: "strong" cationic resin-"strong" anionic resin and System 2: "strong" cationic resin-"weak" anionic resin. Commercial resins and solutions taken from rinse tanks of chromium plating companies were used in this investigation. A two-column system, one for the cationic resin and another for the anionic resin, both with 150 ml capacity was mounted. The solution was percolated at a rate of 10 ml/min. The following solutions were used for regeneration of the resins: 2% H2SO4 for the cationic and 4% NaOH for the anionic. The percolated solutions revealed chromium contents of less than 0.25 mg/l, independent of the system used. The "strong" cationic resin-"weak" anionic resin gave excellent regeneration results. The "strong" cationic-"strong" anionic resin presented problems during regeneration, and did not release the retained ions after percolation of 2000 ml of 4% NaOH solution. It is concluded that for this type of treatment, the system composed of "strong" cationic resin and "weak" anionic resin is more appropriate.

  14. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  15. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  16. Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

  17. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone... thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50 Section 414.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The...

  18. Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

  19. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  20. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury....

  1. REDFORD CORE MAKING MACHINE. RESIN IMPREGNATED SAND IS BLOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REDFORD CORE MAKING MACHINE. RESIN IMPREGNATED SAND IS BLOWN INTO THE HEATED CORE BOX THAT SETS THE RESIN CREATING THE HARDENED CORE SHOWN HERE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) The modified polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not... polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified...

  3. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) The modified polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not... polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified...

  4. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) The modified polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not... polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified...

  5. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) The modified polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not... polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified...

  6. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent β....05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as a flocculent in...

  7. Try-in Pastes Versus Resin Cements: A Color Comparison.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Edenize Cristina; Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Rodrigues Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Beatriz; Takano, Alfa Emília; de Carvalho Cardoso, Paula; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Gonzaga Lopes, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the color of ceramic veneer restorations using different shades of try-in pastes and resin cement. Researchers found no differences between try-in pastes and resin cements after cementation.

  8. Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1980-01-01

    This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite composites utilizing graphite fabric and epoxy or other advanced resins as matrices are presented. Thermoset resin matrices studied were: aminecured polyfunctional glycidyl aminetype epoxy (baseline), phenolicnovolac resin based on condensation of dihydroxymethyl-xylene and phenol cured with hexamine, two types of polydismaleimide resins, phenolic resin, and benzyl resin. The thermoplastic matrices studied were polyethersulfone and polyphenylenesulfone. Properties evaluated in the study included anaerobic char yield, limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures including tensile, compressive, and short-beam shear strengths. Generally, it was determined that graphite composites with the highest char yield exhibited optimum fire-resistant properties.

  9. Resin injection in clays with high plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowamooz, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Regarding the injection process of polyurethane resins in clays with high plasticity, this paper presents the experimental results of the pressuremeter and cone penetration tests before and after injection. A very important increase in pressure limit or in soil resistance can be observed for all the studied depths close to the injection points. An analytical analysis for cylindrical pore cavity expansion in cohesive frictional soils obeying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was then used to reproduce the pressuremeter tests before and after injection. The model parameters were calibrated by maintaining constant the elasticity parameters as well as the friction angel before and after injection. A significant increase in cohesion was observed because of soil densification after resin expansion. The estimated undrained cohesions, derived from the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, were also compared with the cone penetration tests. Globally, the model predictions show the efficiency of resin injection in clay soils with high plasticity.

  10. Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

  11. Investigations of toughening mechanisms of epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, T.

    1986-01-01

    Composite material technology was applied to the solid rocket booster by the development of a carbon filament-epoxy resin case which yields a net increase of 4000 lbs. in payload in the shuttle. The question of reusability of the new composite tanks has not yet been answered and will depend on the toughness of the matrix resin. The present study was aimed at providing conditions whereby test specimens of the epoxy resin (EPON/85) and curing agents of systematically varied structures could be produced in a controlled manner. Three sets of conditions were found that might allow the isolation of the structural effects on toughness from the cure effects. The kinetic methods leading to the determination of these conditions are described.

  12. Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin coating for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Roopa S; Wang, Qinggang; Lee, Milton L

    2002-04-05

    Coating the interior surface of a fused-silica capillary with a polymeric material has long been used in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to reduce or eliminate electroosmotic flow and suppress adsorption. A cycloaliphatic epoxide-based resin was bonded to silane treated capillaries and crosslinked with a curing agent. The epoxy resin coating significantly reduced electroosmotic flow over a pH range of 3-10. This coating was sufficiently hydrophilic to suppress protein adsorption. The epoxy resin coated capillary was used to separate several acidic and basic proteins and peptides. Separation efficiencies greater than 400,000 theoretical plates were achieved. The relative standard deviations in migration times for proteins were <0.8%. Speed and simplicity are important advantages of the coating procedure compared to other published coating methods.

  13. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  14. Comparative study regarding friction coefficient for three epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihu, G.; Mihalache, I.; Graur, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Bria, V.

    2017-02-01

    Three commercial epoxy diglycidylether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) were used in this study namely Epiphen RE4020-DE 4020 (Bostik), Epoxy Resin C (R&G Gmbh Waldenbuch), and Epoxy Resin HT-2 (R&G Gmbh Waldenbuch). Epoxy resins are often used for the friction purpose but their friction resistance is quite low and it is thus necessary to enhance their friction resistance. In this paper it is shown how load, sliding velocity, and distance affect friction coefficient of epoxy resins.

  15. Medium temperature epoxy resin for immunocytochemistry: Quetol 651 with water.

    PubMed

    Abad, A R

    1992-02-01

    The addition of 1% water to the epoxy resin Quetol increased the labeling intensity of the sample. The significant decrease of the curing temperature of the epoxy resin may assist in preservation of antigens. Water may also reduce the cross-linkage of the resin allowing more antigen to be available to the antibodies. The modified Quetol resin is an option for use in immunocytochemistry studies.

  16. Investigation of Resin Systems for Improved Ablative Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-01

    carbon/oxygen atom ratio six times larger than phenol- formaldehyde currently employed as an ablative resin . Table VIII. Carbon Content of Various... Resins Empirical C atoms/- Weight % Weight % Resin System Formula 0 atoms Carbon Hydrocarbon Epoxide C 1 9 H 2 0 0 4 19/4 73. 1 79.5 Phenol- Formaldehyde C...AFSS-A Washington, D. C. 20546 . . . . . .. . . . -" . . . . . L NASA CR-54471 4176-6014-SOOOO FINAL REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RESIN SYSTEMS FOR

  17. The Fracture of Thermosetting Resins after Exposure to Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and melamine - formaldehyde resins , epoxides, unsaturated polyesters, diallyl phthalate resins , furanes and certain kinds...AO0-A099 975 KINGSTON POLYTECHNIC KINGSTON UPON THAMES (ENGLAND) F/G 11/9 THE FRACTURE OF THERMOSETTING RESINS AFTER EXPOSURE TO WATER.(U) SEP 80 6...PERIOD COVERED The Fracture of Thermosetting Resins after First Annual Tech Report Exposure to Water Oct 79 - Oct 80 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  18. PMR Resin Compositions For High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments to identify polymer matrix resins suitable for making graphite-fiber laminates used at 700 degree F (371 degree C) in such applications as aircraft engines to achieve higher thrust-to-weight ratios. Two particular high-molecular-weight formulations of PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) resins most promising. PMR compositions of higher FMW exhibit enhanced thermo-oxidative stability. Formation of high-quality laminates with these compositions requires use of curing pressures higher than those suitable for compositions of lower FMW.

  19. Resin transfer molding of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Dursch, Harry; Nelson, Karl; Avery, William

    1993-01-01

    The design and manufacture of textile composite panels, tubes, and angle sections that were provided to NASA for testing and evaluation are documented. The textile preform designs and requirements were established by NASA in collaboration with Boeing and several vendors of textile reinforcements. The following four types of preform architectures were used: stitched uniweave, 2D-braids, 3D-braids, and interlock weaves. The preforms consisted primarily of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber; Shell RSL-1895 resin was introduced using a resin transfer molding process. All the finished parts were inspected using ultrasonics.

  20. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  1. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  2. Technical assessment for quality control of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosnell, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Survey visits to companies involved in the manufacture and use of graphite-epoxy prepregs were conducted to assess the factors which may contribute to variability in the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy composites. In particular, the purpose was to assess the contributions of the epoxy resins to variability. Companies represented three segments of the composites industry - aircraft manufacturers, prepreg manufacturers, and epoxy resin manufacturers. Several important sources of performance variability were identified from among the complete spectrum of potential sources which ranged from raw materials to composite test data interpretation.

  3. Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

  4. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  15. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  16. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface of articles intended for use in contact...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  1. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A 60 kg batch of Resin M751 was produced in pilot plant scale. The resin was delivered to the prepreg company as an NMP solution. 100 kg of glass-fabric prepregs were fabricated. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication were provided. A new batch of Resin M756 (Code M756 - 2) was synthesized.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  5. Separation of fossil resin from northeast China coal

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, H.; Cao, J.; Huang, B.; Zhang, R.Z.; Xia, Q.

    1997-12-31

    Some coalfields in China contain macroscopic fossil resins. These fossil resins have not been recovered commercially. The distribution of fossil resin in coal from northeast China was characterized before recovering it by flotation and gravity separation. The fossil resin particles whose weight accounted for more than 99% of all fossil resin in the sample were larger than 0.125mm. A concentrate product that contained almost 100% fossil resin at a recovery of more than 88% was obtained from a feed containing 1.72% fossil resin using a shaking table followed by float-sink separation with a sodium chloride solution (1.1g/ml). By conventional single stage flotation, a fossil resin concentrate containing 48% fossil resin at a recovery of 95% was obtained from a feed containing 11.4% fossil resin. Adjusting the pH of the slurry with HCl or CaO before flotation did not improve the selectivity of flotation for fossil resin appreciably. Treating the feed with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution before flotation increased the grade of the concentrate to a certain extent, but decreased the recovery of fossil resin greatly.

  6. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  11. 21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ion-exchange resins. 173.25 Section 173.25 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.25 Ion-exchange resins. Ion-exchange resins may be safely used in the treatment of food under the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  12. 21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ion-exchange resins. 173.25 Section 173.25 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.25 Ion-exchange resins. Ion-exchange resins may be safely used in the treatment of food under the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  13. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  15. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  17. ELUTION OF URANIUM VALUES FROM ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, R.H.

    1959-11-24

    A process is described for eluting complex uranium ions absorbed on ion exchange resins. The resin is subjected to the action of an aqueous eluting solution contuining sulfuric acid and an alkali metal, ammonium, or magnesium chloride or nitrate, the elution being carried out until the desired amount of the uranium is removed from the resin.

  18. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gram of dry resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns. (b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in contact with food. (c) Molecular sieve resins are used as the gel filtration media in the...

  19. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gram of dry resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns. (b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in contact with food. (c) Molecular sieve resins are used as the gel filtration media in the...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  8. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins....

  9. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  13. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  14. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  15. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  16. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  17. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  18. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  19. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  20. Low-melt Viscosity Polyimide Resins for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    A series of polyimide resins with low-melt viscosities in the range of 10-30 poise and high glass transition temperatures (Tg s) of 330-370 C were developed for resin transfer molding (RTM) applications. These polyimide resins were formulated from 2,3,3 ,4 -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride endcaps along with either 3,4 - oxyaniline (3,4 -ODA), 3,4 -methylenedianiline, (3,4 -MDA) or 3,3 -methylenedianiline (3,3 -MDA). These polyimides had pot lives of 30-60 minutes at 260-280 C, enabling the successful fabrication of T650-35 carbon fiber reinforced composites via RTM process. The viscosity profiles of the polyimide resins and the mechanical properties of the polyimide carbon fiber composites will be discussed.

  1. Effect of resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ha; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of the resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites. Methods Four bulk-fill (Venus Bulk Fill, Heraeus Kulzer; SDR, Dentsply Caulk; Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar vivadent; SonicFill, Kerr) and two regular resin composites (Charisma flow, Heraeus Kulzer; Tetric N-Ceram, Ivoclar vivadent) were used. Sixty acrylic cylindrical molds were prepared for each thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm). The molds were divided into six groups for resin composites. The microhardness was measured on the top and bottom surfaces, and the colors were measured using Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system. Color differences according to the thickness and translucency parameters and the correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter were analyzed. The microhardness and color differences were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test, and a student t-test, respectively. The level of significance was set to α = 0.05. Results The microhardness decreased with increasing resin thickness. The bulk-fill resin composites showed a bottom/top hardness ratio of almost 80% or more in 4 mm thick specimens. The highest translucency parameter was observed in Venus Bulk Fill. All resin composites used in this study except for Venus Bulk Fill showed linear correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter according to the thickness. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the bulk-fill resin composites used in this study can be placed and cured properly in the 4 mm bulk. PMID:25984474

  2. Thermal expansion characteristics of light-cured dental resins and resin composites.

    PubMed

    Sideridou, Irini; Achilias, Dimitris S; Kyrikou, Eleni

    2004-07-01

    The thermal expansion characteristics of dental resins prepared by light-curing of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA, Bis-EMA(4) or PCDMA dimethacrylate monomers and of commercial light-cured resin composites (Z-100 MP, Filtek Z-250, Sculpt-It and Alert), the organic matrix resin of which is based on different combinations of the above monomers, were studied by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). This study showed the existence of a glass transition temperature at around 35-47 degrees C for the resins and 40-45 degrees C for the composites; then the coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE) was calculated at the temperature intervals 0-60 degrees C, 0-T(g) and T(g)-60 degrees C. The CLTE values of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA and UDMA resins are similar and lower than those of Bis-EMA (4) and PCDMA resins. The CLTE values of the composites indicated that the major factor that affects the CLTE of a composite is the filler content, but it also seems to be affected by the chemical structure of the matrix resin. TMA on water-saturated samples showed that water desorption takes place during the measurement and that the residual water acts as a plasticizer decreasing the T(g) and increasing the CLTE values. Furthermore, TMA on post-heated samples for 1, 3 or 6h showed, only for the resins, an initial decrease of CLTE and increase of the T(g) after 1h that was not significantly changed after 6h of heating.

  3. Resin film infusion mold tooling and molding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Roger (Inventor); Grossheim, Brian (Inventor); Mouradian, Karbis (Inventor); Thrash, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A mold apparatus and method for resin film infusion molding including an outer mold tool having a facing sheet adapted to support a resin film and preform assembly. The facing sheet includes attachment features extending therefrom. An inner mold tool is positioned on the facing sheet to enclose the resin film and preform assembly for resin film infusion molding. The inner mold tool includes a plurality of mandrels positioned for engagement with the resin film and preform assembly. Each mandrel includes a slot formed therein. A plurality of locating bars cooperate with the slots and with the attachment features for locating the mandrels longitudinally on the outer mold tool.

  4. Stability Of A Carbon-Dioxide-Removing Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Wood, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experiments determing long-term chemical stability of IRA-45, commerical ion-exchange resin candidate for use in removing CO2 from atmosphere of Space Station. In proposed system, cabin air passes through resin, and acidic CO2 absorbed by weakly-basic hydrated diethylenetriamine bonded to porous resin substrate. When resin absorbs all CO2, disconnects from airstream and heated with steam to desorb CO2. Resin reuseable. Removed by post-treating process air with phosphoric acid on charcoal. Other chemicals removed by trace-contaminant-control subsystem of Space Station.

  5. NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

    2012-05-29

    Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same

  6. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determined by weighing a 1-gram to 5-gram sample first in air and then in freshly boiled distilled water at... manufactured by the condensation of equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts. (4) Nylon 6/66 resins manufactured by the condensation and polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon-caprolactam....

  10. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determined by weighing a 1-gram to 5-gram sample first in air and then in freshly boiled distilled water at... manufactured by the condensation of equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts. (4) Nylon 6/66 resins manufactured by the condensation and polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon-caprolactam....

  11. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determined by weighing a 1-gram to 5-gram sample first in air and then in freshly boiled distilled water at... manufactured by the condensation of equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts. (4) Nylon 6/66 resins manufactured by the condensation and polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon-caprolactam....

  12. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determined by weighing a 1-gram to 5-gram sample first in air and then in freshly boiled distilled water at... manufactured by the condensation of equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts. (4) Nylon 6/66 resins manufactured by the condensation and polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon-caprolactam....

  13. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids §...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...