Science.gov

Sample records for dual-cured resin luting

  1. Influence of ceramic thickness on mechanical properties and polymer structure of dual-cured resin luting agents.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Yoshida, Keiichi; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the influence of ceramic thickness on the mechanical properties and polymer structure (degree conversion and cross-linking density) of three dual-cured resin luting agents. Three dual-cured resin luting agents [Linkmax HV (GC), Nexus 2 (Kerr), and Variolink IIHV (Ivoclar-Vivadent)] were polymerized with or without 800 mW/cm2 irradiation through 0-3-mm-thick GN-I (GC) machinable ceramic. Bar-shape specimens were subjected to three-point bending to determine flexural strength (FS) and elastic modulus (EM) after dry storage at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Knoop hardness was measured on the irradiated surface of disk-shaped specimens before (KHN1) and after (KHN2) storage of 100% ethanol solution at 37 degrees C for 24 h. KHN1 and KHN2 were estimated as indirect indicators of degree of conversion (DC) and cross-linking density, respectively. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test for each luting agent, and four mechanical properties were subjected to regression analysis. For three resin luting agents with dual-cured mode, FS, EM, KHN1, and KHN2 decreased with the increase of ceramic thickness. FS except for Nexus 2 and EM for three resin luting agents had a positive linear relationship with both KHN1 and KHN2. The variables tested behaved differently. When the ceramic thickness increased, the chemical cured components of dual-cured resin luting agents did not produce significant compensation for all variables. Mechanical properties and polymer structure of dual-cured resin luting agents was dependent on the intensity of light irradiation.

  2. Influence of surface characteristics of four silica-based machinable ceramics on flexural strength and bond strength of a dual-curing resin luting agent.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Meng, Xiangfeng; Kamada, Kohji; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the crystalline phase and microstructure of 4 commercial machinable ceramic blocks--Cerec Vitablocs Mark II (Vita), ProCAD (Ivoclar/Vivadent), GN-I (GC), and GNCeram (GC)--and compare flexural strength and shear bond strength between a dual-curing resin luting agent and the ceramics treated with a silane coupling agent. Specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. Three-point bending tests were performed with polished specimens 20 mm long, 4 mm wide, and 1.2 mm thick. Two differently shaped specimens for each of the 4 machinable ceramics were treated with a silane coupling agent. The specimens were then cemented together with a dual-curing resin luting agent. Half of the specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and the other half were thermocycled 20,000 times. Chemical composition, crystalline phase, and crystallinity were significantly different between brands. The Vitablocs Mark II material had the significantly lowest flexural strength (101.7 +/- 15.3 MPa), while the GNCeram material had the highest (174.8 +/- 10.3 MPa). The use of a silane coupling agent yielded high shear bond strength after 20,000 thermocycles (Vitablocs Mark II: 37.7 +/- 3.7 MPa, ProCAD: 41.2 +/- 3.1 MPa, GNCeram: 50.2 +/- 2.1 MPa), except with the GN-I material (23.9 +/- 4.4 MPa). It appeared that crystal distribution and particle size of leucite crystal, not crystallinity, in the feldspar glass matrix of silica-based machinable ceramics might influence the flexural strength and efficacy of a silane coupling agent in bonding between a dual-curing resin luting agent and machinable ceramics.

  3. Morphological analysis of glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber posts and bonding to self or dual-cured resin luting agents.

    PubMed

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Carlini-Júnior, Bruno; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF), carbon (CF) and glass/carbon (G/CF) fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p<0.05) bond strength than the self-cured agent. For the dual agent, CF presented similar bond strength to GF (p>0.05), but higher than that of G/CF (p<0.05). For the self-cured agent, no significant differences (p>0.05) were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GLASS, CARBON AND GLASS/CARBON FIBER POSTS AND BONDING TO SELF OR DUAL-CURED RESIN LUTING AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Carlini, Bruno; Correr, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF), carbon (CF) and glass/carbon (G/CF) fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. Material and Methods: Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. Results: GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p<0.05) bond strength than the self-cured agent. For the dual agent, CF presented similar bond strength to GF (p>0.05), but higher than that of G/CF (p<0.05). For the self-cured agent, no significant differences (p>0.05) were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. Conclusion: The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable. PMID:19936529

  5. Knoop hardness and effectiveness of dual-cured luting systems and flowable resin to bond leucite-reinforced ceramic to enamel.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Souza, Eduardo José; Araújo, Cíntia Tereza Pimenta; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knoop microhardness and microshear bond strength (MSBS) of dual-cured luting systems and flowable resin bonded to leucite-reinforced ceramics and enamel. Eighty bovine incisors were randomly divided into four groups per test (microhardness and microshear; n = 10) according to the bonding procedure: Excite DSC/Variolink, Clearfil SE Bond/Panavia F, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus/RelyX ARC, and Adper Single Bond 2/Filtek Z350 Flow. For the KHN measurement, the cement was applied on the enamel surface and light-cured through a ceramic disk (5 mm diameter × 1.2 mm thick). Five indentations were performed in each specimen and measured at HMV-2. For the microshear test, two cylinders of a leucite-reinforced ceramic (1 mm diameter × 2 mm height) were bonded to the enamel substrate in accordance with the bonding procedures previously established. One cylinder was tested 24 hours after cementation, and the other was subjected to thermocycling (2000 cycles) and then submitted to an MSBS test. The data from the hardness and bond strength tests were subjected to one- and two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively, and to Tukey's test (α= 0.05). Scotchbond/RelyX ARC presented higher values of bond strength, while Single Bond/Z350 Flow showed lower values. The thermocycling promoted a reduction in the bond strength values for all groups. Panavia F presented higher values of KHN, and the flowable resin presented the lowest. RelyX ARC and Variolink presented intermediate values on hardness evaluation. For ceramic cementation, dual-cured resin luting systems promoted more reliable bonding and microhardness values than the flowable resin. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. The effect of curing light and chemical catalyst on the degree of conversion of two dual cured resin luting cements.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different curing lights and chemical catalysts on the degree of conversion of resin luting cements. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens of RelyX ARC or Panavia F of diameter 5 mm and thickness 0.5 mm were prepared and the respective chemical catalyst (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus or ED Primer) was added. The specimens were light-cured using different curing units (an argon ion laser, an LED or a quartz-tungsten-halogen light) through shade A2 composite disks of diameter 10 mm and thickness 2 mm. After 24 h of dry storage at 37°C, the degree of conversion of the resin luting cements was measured by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used, with p ≤ 0.05. Panavia F when used without catalyst and cured using the LED or the argon ion laser showed degree of conversion values significantly lower than RelyX ARC, with and without catalyst, and cured with any of the light sources. Therefore, the degree of conversion of Panavia F with ED Primer cured with the quartz-tungsten-halogen light was significantly different from that of RelyX ARC regardless of the use of the chemical catalyst and light curing source. In conclusion, RelyX ARC can be cured satisfactorily with the argon ion laser, LED or quartz-tungsten-halogen light with or without a chemical catalyst. To obtain a satisfactory degree of conversion, Panavia F luting cement should be used with ED Primer and cured with halogen light.

  7. Luting of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: direct composite versus dual-cure luting cement.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations.

  8. Effect of curing modes of dual-curing luting systems and root regions on retention of translucent fiber posts in root canals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Magni, Elisa; Radovic, Ivana; Wang, Ying-Jie; Chen, Ji-Hua; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of different curing modes of dual-curing luting systems and root regions on the push-out strength of fiber posts to intraradicular dentin. Forty-two extracted premolars with a single root canal were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the roots were endodontically treated. The roots were divided into two groups according to two dual-curing luting systems: (1) XP BOND-Dual Cure/Calibra resin cement; (2) XP BOND-Dual Cure/FluoroCore 2. For each luting system, three different curing modes were applied to the dentin adhesive and resin cement: "Self-cure and Self-cure (SC&SC)", "Self-cure and Dual-cure (SC&DC)", and "Dual-cure and Dual-cure (DC&DC)". Translucent Easy fiber posts (Dentsply Maillefer) were luted in the roots. A thin-slice push-out test was performed, and the data of push-out strength were analyzed using three-way ANOVA with luting system, curing mode, and root region (apical, middle and coronal) as factors. Tukey's test was used for post-hoc comparisons. The push-out strength of XP BOND-Dual Cure/Calibra was significantly lower when Calibra resin cement was self-cured than when it was dual-cured (SC&SC: 6.04 +/- 2.65 MPa; SC&DC: 10.69 +/- 3.01 MPa; DC&DC: 10.72 +/- 3.63 MPa; p < 0.05). The curing modes did not affect the push-out strength of XP BOND-Dual Cure/FluoroCore 2 (SC&SC: 7.90 +/- 3.94 MPa; SC&DC: 8.32 +/- 2.73 MPa; DC&DC: 9.27 +/- 4.12 MPa; p > 0.05). The coronal push-out strength was significantly higher than the apical push-out strength (p < 0.05). Retention of fiber posts in root canals was affected by the curing modes of dual-curing luting system and root regions.

  9. Influence of glazed zirconia on dual-cure luting agent bond strength.

    PubMed

    Valentino, T A; Borges, G A; Borges, L H; Platt, J A; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of a novel surface treatment that uses a low-fusing porcelain glaze for promoting a bond between zirconia-based ceramic and a dual-cure resin luting agent. Bond strengths were compared with those from airborne particle abrasion, hydrofluoric acid etching, and silanization-treated surfaces. Twenty-four yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Cercon Smart Ceramics, Degudent, Hanau, Germany) discs were fabricated and received eight surface treatments: group 1: 110 μm aluminum oxide air-borne particle abrasion; group 2: 110 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 3: 50 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; group 4: 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 5: glaze and hydrofluoric acid;group 6: glaze, hydrofluoric acid, and silane;group 7: glaze and 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; and group 8: glaze,50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane. After treatment, Enforce resin cement (Dentsply, Caulk, Milford, DE, USA) was used to fill an iris cut from microbore Tygontubing that was put on the ceramic surface to create 30 cylinders of resin cement in each treatment group (n=30). Micro shear bond test-ing was performed at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. One-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were made using Tukey's test (p<0.5). The bond strength was affected only by surface treatments other than silanization. The groups that utilized the low-fusing porcelain glaze with airborne particle abrasion or hydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to groups that utilized conventional airborne particle abrasion treatments with 50 or 110 pm aluminum oxide (p<0.001). The treatment that utilized low-fusing porcelain glaze and hydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to remaining groups (p<0.001). Treatment of zirconia ceramic surfaces with a glaze of low-fusing porcelain

  10. Comparison of Apical Microleakage of Dual-Curing Resin Cements with Fluid-Filtration and Dye Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Sadullah; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Adigüzel, Özkan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Değer, Yalçın; Tümen, Emin Caner; Uysal, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure are frequently restored using fiber posts. In this in vitro study, the apical leakage of self- and dual-activated curing modes for dual-curing resins cementing a translucent fiber post was evaluated using computerized fluid filtration meter and dye extraction method. Material/Methods One hundred and four extracted human maxillary incisors with single root and canal were used. Experimental samples embedded in a closed system were divided into 4 groups (n=20) according to 2 dual-curing luting systems, with 2 different curing modes (either with self- or light-activation): (1) Panavia F 2.0 with self-cure, (2) Panavia F 2.0 with light-activation, (3) Clearfill SA with self-cure, and (4) Clearfill SA with light activation. Twenty-four teeth served as negative and positive controls. Translucent fiber posts were luted in the roots except in the control groups. Results Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in leakage among groups (p>0.05) with 4.12×10−4 (Panavia self-cure), 4.55×10−4 (Clearfill SA self-cure), 5.17×10−4 (Panavia dual-cure), and 5.59×10−4 (Clearfill SA dual-cure) in fluid-filtration method. Absorbance values for dye-extraction method were 266 nanometer (nm) (Panavia self-cure), 268 nm (Clearfill SA self-cure), 270 nm (Panavia dual-cure), and 271 nm (Clearfill SA dual-cure), in which difference among the groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When comparing the leakage, assessment methods results showed no statistically significant difference between the tested evaluation techniques (p>0.05). Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID:25824712

  11. Cytotoxicity evaluation of five different dual-cured resin cements used for fiber posts cementation

    PubMed Central

    Dioguardi, M; Perrone, D; Troiano, G; Laino, L; Ardito, F; Lauritano, F; Cicciù, M; Muzio, L Lo

    2015-01-01

    Custom-cast posts and cores are usually used to treat endodontically treated teeth. However, several researches have underlined how these devices may be a much higher elastic modulus than the supporting dentine and the difference in the modulus could lead to stress concentrating in the cement lute, leading to failure. The role of the cement seems to play a fundamental role in order to transfer the strength during the chewing phases. Aim of this research is to record the rate of cytotoxicity of five different dual-cured resin cements used for fiber posts cementation. We tested the cytotoxicity of this five materials on MG63 osteoblast-like cells through two different methods: MTT ([3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide succinate) assay which tests for mitochondrial enzyme activity6 and xCELLigence® system. PMID:26309592

  12. Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Elif; Hickel, Reinhard; Bolay, Sükran; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite films of ca. 170 μm in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent; RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and a dual-cured luting resin (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent). The composites were cured by using a LED-unit (Bluephase®, Ivoclar Vivadent) with three different curing times (10, 20, and 30 s) under two ceramics (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent; IPS Empress® CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) of different thicknesses (0, 0.75, and 2 mm). Forty-five groups were included, each containing six thin films. The samples were stored after curing for 24 h at 37°C by maintaining moisture conditions with distilled water. Micromechanical properties of the composites were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). For each sample, ten indentations were made, thus totalizing 60 measurements per group. Micromechanical properties of the luting resins were statistically analyzed (SPSS 17.0). Significant differences were observed between the micromechanical properties of the luting resins (p < 0.05). Variolink II showed the highest values in modulus of elasticity (E = 11 ± 0.5)* and Vickers hardness (HV = 48.2 ± 3.2)* and the lowest values in creep (Cr = 4.3 ± 0.1)* and elastic-plastic deformation (We/Wtot = 38.6 ± 0.7)* followed by RelyX Veneer (E = 6.9 ± 0.3, HV = 33 ± 2.5, Cr = 4.6 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 41.8 ± 1.0)* and Variolink Veneer (E = 4.4 ± 0.4, HV = 20.1 ± 2.6, Cr = 5 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 43.7 ± 1.3)*. Dual-cured luting resin expressed higher values in the micro-mechanical properties compared to the light-cured luting resins. The effect of luting resin type on the micromechanical properties of the luting resins was higher than the effect of

  13. Effect of curing mode on the micro-mechanical properties of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Nicoleta; Simon, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Light supplying to luting resin cements is impeded in several clinical situations, causing us to question whether materials can properly be cured to achieve adequately (or adequate) mechanical properties. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the effect of light on the micro-mechanical properties of eight popular dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements by comparing them with two conventional, also dual-cured, resin cements. Four different curing procedures were applied: auto-polymerisation (dark curing) and light curing (LED unit, Freelight 2, 20 s) by applying the unit directly on the samples' surface, at a distance of 5 and 10 mm. Twenty minutes after curing, the samples were stored for 1 week at 37°C in a water-saturated atmosphere. The micro-mechanical properties-Vickers hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep and elastic/plastic deformation-were measured. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and partial eta-squared statistics (p < 0.05). A very strong influence of the material as well as filler volume and weight on the micro-mechanical properties was measured, whereas the influence of the curing procedure and type of cement-conventional or self-adhesive-was generally low. The influence of light on the polymerisation process was material dependent, with four different behaviour patterns to be distinguished. As a material category, significantly higher micro-mechanical properties were measured for the conventional compared to the self-adhesive resin cements, although this difference was low. Within the self-adhesive resin cements group, the variation in micro-mechanical properties was high. The selection of suitable resin cements should be done by considering, besides its adhesive properties, its micro-mechanical properties and curing behaviour also.

  14. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Heba A.; Ghalab, Radwa M.; Elsayed Akah, Mai M.; Mobarak, Enas H.

    2015-01-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm2) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64–86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage. PMID:26966567

  15. Mechanical properties and bond strength of dual-cure resin composites to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Aksornmuang, Juthatip; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the regional mechanical properties of dual-cure resin composites and their regional bond strengths to root canal dentin. One of the following dual-cure resin composites was placed in artificial post spaces: Unifil Core (UC), Clearfil DC Core (DC), Build-It FR (BI), Clearfil DC Core-automix (DCA), and photo-cured for 60s. After 24h storage, each specimen was serially sliced to harvest eight hour-glass shaped specimens for measurement of regional ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and the remaining eight semi-circular slabs were polished for the measurement of Knoop Hardness Number (KHN). For the microtensile bond strength (muTBS) test, post cavities were prepared in human premolar roots, and the cavity surfaces treated with Clearfil SE Bond and photo-cured for 10s. The post spaces were then filled with one of the above resin composites and photo-cured for 60s. After 24h storage, each specimen was serially sliced into 8, 0.6x0.6 mm-thick beams for the muTBS test. The data were divided into coronal and apical regions and analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc test (alpha=0.05). UTS and KHN were affected by the type of dual-cure resin composite and region (p<0.0001). There was no relationship between UTS and KHN for each material. The auto-mix type of resin composite possessed superior UTS to that of the hand-mix type. muTBS among the four composite materials were not significantly different at both apical and coronal regions (p>0.05). Regional differences in bond strengths were found for all materials (p<0.05). The UTS and KHN of the dual-cure resin composites varied among each material, however, differences in the mechanical properties of the resin core materials did not affect their adhesion to root canal dentin.

  16. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials.

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Heba A; Ghalab, Radwa M; Elsayed Akah, Mai M; Mobarak, Enas H

    2016-03-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers' instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm(2)) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64-86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage.

  17. Conventional dual-cure versus self-adhesive resin cements in dentin bond integrity

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Renata Andreza Talaveira; COUTINHO, Margareth; CARDOZO, Pedro Igor; da SILVA, Larissa Alves; ZORZATTO, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    During post preparation, the root canal is exposed to the oral cavity, and endodontic treatment may fail because of coronal leakage, bacterial infection and sealing inability of the luting cement. Objective this study quantified the interfacial continuity produced with conventional dual-cure and self-adhesive resin cements in the cervical (C), medium (M) and apical (A) thirds of the root. Material and methods Forty single-rooted human teeth were restored using Reforpost # 01 conical glass-fiber posts and different materials (N=10 per group): group AC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + AllCem; group ARC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + RelyX ARC; group U100=RelyX U100; and group MXC=Maxcem Elite. After being kept in 100% humidity at 37ºC for 72 hours, the samples were sectioned parallel to their longitudinal axis and positive epoxy resin replicas were made. The scanning electron micrographs of each third section of the teeth were combined using Image Analyst software and measured with AutoCAD-2002. We obtained percentage values of the interfacial continuity. Results Interfacial continuity was similar in the apical, medium and cervical thirds of the roots within the groups (Friedman test, p>0.05). Comparison of the different cements in a same root third showed that interfacial continuity was lower in MXC (C=45.5%; M=48.5%; A=47.3%) than in AC (C=85.9%, M=81.8% and A=76.0%), ARC (C=83.8%, M=82.4% and A=75.0%) and U100 (C=84.1%, M=82.4% and A=77.3%) (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05). Conclusions Allcem, Rely X ARC and U100 provide the best cementation; cementation was similar among root portions; in practical terms, U100 is the best resin because it combines good cementation and easy application and none of the cements provides complete interfacial continuity. PMID:21710099

  18. Flexural strength of glass fibre-reinforced posts bonded to dual-cure composite resin cements.

    PubMed

    Davis, Peter; Melo, Luciana S D; Foxton, Richard M; Sherriff, Martyn; Pilecki, Peter; Mannocci, Francesco; Watson, Timothy F

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the flexural strength of two different types of glass fibre-reinforced posts bonded to dual-cure composite resin cements. Forty glass methacrylate-based fibre posts (GC Fiber Post) and 20 glass fibre inter-polymerizing network posts (everStick POST) were divided into three groups. Group 1 contained 20 GC posts that were bonded to a dual-cure composite cement (UnifilCore). Group 2 contained 20 Stick Tech posts that had adhesive applied (Scotchbond Multipurpose resin) and were bonded to a dual-cure composite resin cement (RelyX Unicem). Group 3 contained 20 GC posts that were pretreated with a silane-coupling agent before being treated with resin and composite, as in group 1. A 4-point bend test was carried out to failure on all of the groups. Failure modes were determined using scanning electron microscopy. Pretreatment of the post surface with the silane-coupling agent did not increase the flexural strength. The flexural strength of the Stick Tech post was significantly lower than the flexural strength of the GC post. The mode of failure for the GC Posts was adhesive, whereas the Stick Tech posts failed cohesively. Different flexural strengths and failure modes were observed among the two fibre post-resin systems.

  19. Influence of energy density of different light sources on Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    Piva, Evandro; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Simonides; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Powers, John Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin-based luting cement irradiated with different light sources as well energy density through a ceramic sample. Three light-curing unit (LCUs) were tested: tungsten halogen light (HAL), light-emitting diode (LED) and xenon plasma-arc (PAC) lamp. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from a resin-based cement (Enforce). Three energy doses were used by modifying the irradiance (I) of each LCU and the irradiation time (T): 24 Jcm(-2) (I/2x2T), 24 Jcm(-2) (IxT) and 48 Jcm(-2) (Ix2T). Energy doses were applied through a 2.0-mm-thick ceramic sample (Duceram Plus). Three groups underwent direct irradiation over the resin cement with the different LCUs and a chemically-activated group served as a control. Thirteen groups were tested (n=10). Knoop hardness number (KHN) means were obtained from cross-sectional areas. Two-way ANOVA and the Holm-Sidak method were used for statistical comparisons of activation mode and energy doses (alpha=5%). Application of 48 J.cm(-2) energy dose through the ceramic using LED (50.5+/-2.8) and HAL (50.9+/-3.7) produced significantly higher KHN means (p<0.05) than the control (44.7+/-3.8). LED showed statistically similar performance to HAL. Only HAL showed a relationship between the increase of LCU energy dose and hardness increase.

  20. Effects of ceramic thickness and curing unit on light transmission through leucite-reinforced material and polymerization of dual-cured luting agent.

    PubMed

    Pazin, Milena C; Moraes, Rafael R; Gonçalves, Luciano S; Borges, Gilberto A; Sinhoreti, Mário A C; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of ceramic thickness and curing unit on light transmission through leucite-reinforced material and polymerization of a dual-cured resin luting agent. Discs of Empress Esthetic (Ivoclar Vivadent) of 0.7-, 1.4- and 2-mm thickness were prepared. Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) was placed in a 1-mm-thick cylindrical mold, and light-activated through ceramic for 40 s, using QTH or LED units. The samples were divided into dual, light, and chemically-polymerized control groups. Knoop hardness indentations were made on the top and bottom surfaces. Data were subjected to split-plot design three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). The light spectrum transmitted through ceramic was obtained using a spectrometer. Samples activated through 1.4-and 2-mm-thick discs showed lower hardness than all others groups, except for the chemical control group. Dual and light-polymerized control samples showed similar hardness to those activated through the 0.7-mm ceramic, whereas chemically polymerized control samples showed similar hardness to those activated through 1.4- and 2-mm ceramics. No significant differences in hardness were detected between the curing units or between the top and bottom layers. No significant alteration in the light spectrum profile was observed for both units, irrespective of the ceramic thickness.

  1. The influence of four dual-cure resin cements and surface treatment selection to bond strength of fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Hong; Qian, Yue-Tong; Zhu, Song; Zhao, Su-Qian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the influence of post surface pre-treatments on the bond strength of four different cements to glass fiber posts. Eighty extracted human maxillary central incisors and canines were endodontically treated and standardized post spaces were prepared. Four post pre-treatments were tested: (i) no pre-treatment (NS, control), (ii) sandblasting (SA), (iii) silanization (SI) and (iv) sandblasting followed by silanization (SS). Per pre-treatment, four dual-cure resin cements were used for luting posts: DMG LUXACORE Smartmix Dual, Multilink Automix, RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0. All the specimens were subjected to micro push-out test. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were performed (α=0.05) to analyze the data. Bond strength was significantly affected by the type of resin cement, and bond strengths of RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0 to the fiber posts were significantly higher than the other cement groups. Sandblasting significantly increased the bond strength of DMG group to the fiber posts. PMID:24177170

  2. The influence of four dual-cure resin cements and surface treatment selection to bond strength of fiber post.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Hong; Qian, Yue-Tong; Zhu, Song; Zhao, Su-Qian

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we evaluate the influence of post surface pre-treatments on the bond strength of four different cements to glass fiber posts. Eighty extracted human maxillary central incisors and canines were endodontically treated and standardized post spaces were prepared. Four post pre-treatments were tested: (i) no pre-treatment (NS, control), (ii) sandblasting (SA), (iii) silanization (SI) and (iv) sandblasting followed by silanization (SS). Per pre-treatment, four dual-cure resin cements were used for luting posts: DMG LUXACORE Smartmix Dual, Multilink Automix, RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0. All the specimens were subjected to micro push-out test. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were performed (α=0.05) to analyze the data. Bond strength was significantly affected by the type of resin cement, and bond strengths of RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0 to the fiber posts were significantly higher than the other cement groups. Sandblasting significantly increased the bond strength of DMG group to the fiber posts.

  3. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    PubMed Central

    KİLİC, Kerem; ARSLAN, Soley; DEMETOGLU, Goknil Alkan; ZARARSIZ, Gokmen; KESİM, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods: Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results: There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences found between the control and the other groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination. PMID:23559118

  4. Effect of curing mode on the hardness of dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials.

    PubMed

    Arrais, César Augusto Galvão; Kasaz, Aline de Cerqueira; Albino, Luís Gustavo Barrote; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Reis, Andre Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Knoop Hardness (KHN) values of two dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials and one resin cement exposed to different curing conditions. Two dual-cured core build-up composite resins (LuxaCore-Dual, DMG; and FluoroCore2, Dentsply Caulk), and one dual-cured resin cement (Rely X ARC, 3M ESPE) were used in the present study. The composite materials were placed into a cylindrical matrix (2 mm in height and 3 mm in diameter), and the specimens thus produced were either light-activated for 40 s (Optilux 501, Demetron Kerr) or were allowed to self-cure for 10 min in the dark (n = 5). All specimens were then stored in humidity at 37 degrees C for 24 h in the dark and were subjected to KHN analysis. The results were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test at a pre-set alpha of 5%. All the light-activated groups exhibited higher KHN values than the self-cured ones (p = 0.00001), regardless of product. Among the self-cured groups, both composite resin core build-up materials showed higher KHN values than the dual-cured resin cement (p = 0.00001). LuxaCore-Dual exhibited higher KHN values than FluoroCore2 (p = 0.00001) when they were allowed to self-cure, while no significant differences in KHN values were observed among the light-activated products. The results suggest that dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials may be more reliable than dual-cured resin cements when curing light is not available.

  5. Effect of solution temperature on the mechanical properties of dual-cure resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Kang, En-Sook; Jeon, Yeong-Chan; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was to evaluate the effect of the solution temperature on the mechanical properties of dualcure resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS For the study, five dual-cure resin cements were chosen and light cured. To evaluate the effect of temperature on the specimens, the light-cured specimens were immersed in deionized water at three different temperatures (4, 37 and 60℃) for 7 days. The control specimens were aged in a 37℃ dry and dark chamber for 24 hours. The mechanical properties of the light-cured specimens were evaluated using the Vickers hardness test, three-point bending test, and compression test, respectively. Both flexural and compressive properties were evaluated using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using a two way ANOVA with Tukey test to perform multiple comparisons (α=0.05). RESULTS After immersion, the specimens showed significantly different microhardness, flexural, and compressive properties compared to the control case regardless of solution temperatures. Depending on the resin brand, the microhardness difference between the top and bottom surfaces ranged approximately 3.3-12.2%. Among the specimens, BisCem and Calibra showed the highest and lowest decrease of flexural strength, respectively. Also, Calibra and Multilink Automix showed the highest and lowest decrease of compressive strength, respectively compared to the control case. CONCLUSION The examined dual-cure resin cements had compatible flexural and compressive properties with most methacrylate-based composite resins and the underlying dentin regardless of solution temperature. However, the effect of the solution temperature on the mechanical properties was not consistent and depended more on the resin brand. PMID:23755338

  6. Micromorphology of resin/dentin interfaces using 4th and 5th generation dual-curing adhesive/cement systems: a confocal laser scanning microscope analysis.

    PubMed

    Arrais, Cesar A G; Miyake, Katsuia; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Pashley, David H; Giannini, Marcelo

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the differential composition of resin/dentin interfaces of indirect restorations created by the application of 4th and 5th generation dual-curing luting systems (bonding agents/resin cements), when each material was either light cured or allowed to self-cure. Occlusal flat dentin surfaces of 60 human third molars were assigned into 12 groups (n = 5) according to curing mode and dual-curing cementing system: 4th generation All Bond2 (AB2)/Duolink (Bisco) and 5th generation (B1) Bond1/Lute-it (Pentron). Fluorescein-labeled dextran (FDx) was mixed with the bonding agents, while rhodamine-labeled dextran (RhDx) was incorporated into resin cements and Pre-Bond resin from AB2. Resin cements were applied to 2-mm-thick, precured resin composite disks (Z250, 3M ESPE), which were fixed to dentin surfaces containing adhesive resin in either cured (light cured; LC) or uncured (self-cured; SC) states. The restored teeth were light activated (XL3000, 3M ESPE) according to the manufacturers' instructions (LRC) or allowed to self-cure (SRC), were stored for 24 h, and then vertically, serially sectioned into l-mm-thick slabs, which were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fluorescent additives indicated where individual components of the bonding/cement systems were located. Additional specimens were prepared and analyzed using a conventional scanning electron microscope. AB2/LC and B1/LC exhibited nonuniform primer/adhesive layer thickness. AB2/SC showed adhesive resin penetration within the primed dentin, and resin cement penetration at the entrance of the dentin tubules. B1/SC/LRC demonstrated resin cement penetration within the hybrid layer and into the dentin tubules. More resin cement penetration was observed in B1/SC/SRC groups than in its LRC equivalent. The morphological features and component interactions among materials at resin/dentin interfaces are related to the activation modes of the primer/adhesive layer and of the resin cement

  7. Influence of nano-structured alumina coating on shear bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Choi, Jung-Yun; Seo, Jae-Min

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano-structured alumina surface coating on shear bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements. A total of 90 disk-shaped zirconia specimens (HASS CO., Gangneung, Korea) were divided into three groups by surface treatment method: (1) airborne particle abrasion, (2) tribochemicalsilica coating, and (3) nano-structured alumina coating. Each group was categorized into three subgroups of ten specimens and bonded with three different types of dual-cured resin cements. After thermocycling, shear bond strength was measured and failure modes were observed through FE-SEM. Two-way ANOVA and the Tukey's HSD test were performed to determine the effects of surface treatment method and type of cement on bond strength (P<.05). To confirm the correlation of surface treatment and failure mode, the Chi-square test was used. Groups treated with the nanostructured alumina coating showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to other groups treated with airborne particle abrasion or tribochemical silica coating. Clearfil SA Luting showed a significantly higher shear bond strength compared to RelyX ARC and RelyX Unicem. The cohesive failure mode was observed to be dominant in the groups treated with nano-structured alumina coating, while the adhesive failure mode was prevalent in the groups treated with either airborne particle abrasion or tribochemical silica coating. Nano-structured alumina coating is an effective zirconia surface treatment method for enhancing the bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements.

  8. A Twofold Comparison between Dual Cure Resin Modified Cement and Glass Ionomer Cement for Orthodontic Band Cementation

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Hanaa El; Elhiny, Omnia; Salem, Ghada; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Attia, Mazen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To test the solubility of dual cure resin modified resin cement in a food simulating solution and the shear bond strength compared to conventional Glass ionomer cement. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The materials tested were self-adhesive dual cure resin modified cement and Glass Ionomer (GIC). Twenty Teflon moulds were divided into two groups of tens. The first group was injected and packed with the modified resin cement, the second group was packed with GIC. To test the solubility, each mould was weighed before and after being placed in an analytical reagent for 30 days. The solubility was measured as the difference between the initial and final drying mass. To measure the Shear bond strength, 20 freshly extracted wisdom teeth were equally divided into two groups and embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Four mm sections of stainless steel bands were cemented to the exposed buccal surfaces of teeth under a constant load of 500 g. Shear bond strength was measured using a computer controlled materials testing machine and the load required to deband the samples was recorded in Newtons. RESULTS: GIC showed significantly higher mean weight loss and an insignificant lower Shear bond strength, compared to dual cure resin Cement. CONCLUSION: It was found that dual cure resin modified cement was less soluble than glass ionomer cement and of comparable bond strength rendering it more useful clinically for orthodontic band cementation. PMID:28028417

  9. Evaluation of shear bond strength between dual cure resin cement and zirconia ceramic after thermocycling treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Kang, Cheol-Kyun; Oh, Ju-Won

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was performed to evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) between three dual-cured resin cements and silica coated zirconia, before and after thermocycling treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty specimens were cut in 15 × 2.75 mm discs using zirconia. After air blasting of 50 µm alumina, samples were prepared by tribochemical silica coating with Rocatec™ plus. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the dual-cure resin cement used: (1) Calibra silane+Calibra®, (2) Monobond S+Multilink® N and (3) ESPN sil+RelyX™ Unicem Clicker. After the resin cement was bonded to the zirconia using a Teflon mold, photopolymerization was carried out. Only 10 specimens in each group were thermocycled 6,000 times. Depending on thermocycling treatment, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=10) and SBS was measured by applying force at the speed of 1 mm/min using a universal testing machine. To find out the differences in SBS according to the types of cements and thermocycling using the SPSS, two-way ANOVA was conducted and post-hoc analysis was performed by Turkey's test. RESULTS In non-thermal aged groups, SBS of Multilink group (M1) was higher than that of Calibra (C1) and Unicem (U1) group (P<.05). Moreover, even after thermocycling treatment, SBS of Multilink group (M2) was higher than the other groups (C2 and U2). All three cements showed lower SBS after the thermocycling than before the treatments. But Multilink and Unicem had a significant difference (P<.05). CONCLUSION In this experiment, Multilink showed the highest SBS before and after thermocycling. Also, bond strengths of all three cements decreased after thermocycling. PMID:25722830

  10. Influence of Different Curing Modes on Polymerization Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Dual-Cured Provisional Resins.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, S; Takamizawa, T; Suzuki, T; Nojiri, K; Tsujimoto, A; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    This study determined the influence of curing mode on polymerization behavior and mechanical properties of dual-cured provisional resins. Three dual-cured bisacryl-based provisional resins were used: Tempsmart (TS; GC Corp), Luxatemp Automix Solar (LX; DMG Chemisch Pharmazeutishe Fabrik GmbH), and Integrity Multi·Cure (IG; Dentsply Caulk). A self-cured bisacryl-based provisional resin, Protemp Plus (PP; 3M ESPE) and a conventional poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) provisional resin, Unifast III (UF; GC Corp) were used as controls. The inorganic filler content and coefficients of linear thermal expansion of the test materials were measured. Six specimens of each material were used to determine the flexural strength, elastic modulus, and resilience. The changes in ultrasound velocity during polymerization were measured. The average inorganic filler contents of the provisional resins, apart from UF, ranged from 24.4 to 39.3 wt%. The highest inorganic filler content was determined for LX, whereas TS showed the lowest value among the tested materials. The average coefficients of thermal expansion of the tested provisional resins ranged from 77.3 to 107.7 (×10(-6)/°C). TS and IG showed significantly lower thermal expansions than the other tested provisional resins. The mean flexural strengths of the provisional resins ranged from 70.4 to 122.6 MPa, the mean elastic moduli ranged from 1.8 to 3.7 GPa, and the mean resilience of the provisional resins ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 MJ/mm(3), respectively. Dual-cured provisional resins showed significantly higher flexural strengths than the PMMA resin. However, in all cases, the light-curing mode showed significantly higher flexural strengths than the self-curing mode. In the initial polymerization phase, dual-cured resins in the light-curing mode showed a rapid increase in the speed of sound (V) during light irradiation, followed by a slower increase. Conversely, the dual-cured resins in the self-curing mode showed a slower

  11. Nanoleakage evaluation of resin luting systems to dental enamel and leucite-reinforced ceramic.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Souza-Júnior, Eduardo José; Araújo, Cíntia Tereza Pimenta; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nanoleakage patterns between dental enamel and reinforced leucite ceramic, bonded with resin luting systems and a flowable composite resin. Twelve crowns of bovine incisors were randomly divided into four groups (n = 3) according to the luting procedure: Excite/Variolink II, Clearfil SE Bond/Panavia F, Scotchbond Multi-PURPOSE Plus/RelyX ARC, and Single Bond 2/Filtek Z350 Flow. To evaluate the nanoleakage patterns, IPS Empress Esthetic disks (5 mm Ø and 1.2-mm thick) were bonded to enamel, and, after 24 h, the specimens were immersed in a 50% (w/v) solution of silver nitrate (24 h), fixed, dehydrated, and processed scanning electron microscopy (SEM). None nanoleakage on interface of the groups that Single Bond 2 followed by the flowable composite were used. The highest percentage of nanoleakage was shown by the Excite/Variolink II protocol. Also, in all conditions tested, none silver nitrate uptake was observed between the leucite-reinforced ceramic and the resin luting cement. The use of a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive with flowable composite was able to promote an adequate seal of the bond interface at the enamel. Moreover, the conventional dual-cured resin cements associated with simplified and dual-cured adhesives tested are also indicated to bond thin ceramics to enamel, since all presented low silver nitrate uptake. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hardening of dual-cure resin cements and a resin composite restorative cured with QTH and LED curing units.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gildo Coelho; El-Mowafy, Omar; Rubo, Jose Henrique; Santos, Maria Jacinta Moreas Coelho

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of light intensity and type of light unit (quartztungsten-halogen [QTH] or light-emitting diode [LED]) on the hardening of various resin cements and a resin composite restorative. Disk specimens were prepared from 4 dual-cured resin cements (Variolink II, Calibra, Nexus 2 and RelyX ARC). Two QTH light-curing units (Visilux 2, at 550 mW/cm2, and Optilux 501, at 1,360 mW/cm2) and a LED unit (Elipar FreeLight, at 320 mW/cm2) were used for curing. Specimens were light-cured or dual-cured for 10, 30 or 40 seconds with 1 of the 3 light units (curing applied to upper surface only) and were tested 24 hours after curing. Additional cement specimens were self-cured and tested at 15, 30 and 60 minutes and at 24 hours. Testing consisted of measurement of Knoop hardness number (KHN) for each specimen. Six KHN values were obtained for the upper surface only of the various cement specimens in each test group. Disk specimens 2.5 mm thick were also prepared from a resin composite restorative (XRV Herculite). These were light-cured as above, and KHN measurements were obtained for both the upper and the lower surfaces. Mean KHNs were determined, and data were analyzed with analysis of variance. The groups were significantly different (p < 0.05). High-intensity light curing resulted in the highest KHN values for all materials with any of the 3 light-curing times. For the cements, LED light curing (with both dual-curing and light-curing modes) resulted in hardness values similar to those achieved with conventional QTH light curing, although there were some exceptions. However, both LED and conventional QTH light curing resulted in inferior hardening of lower surfaces of the XRV Herculite specimens at the 3 curing times. For all cements except Nexus 2, self-curing resulted in significantly lower hardness values than dual curing. The self-curing mechanism of Variolink II cement needed a longer time to activate than those of the other

  13. Degree of conversion of luting resins around ceramic inlays in natural deep cavities: a micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Pelka, Matthias; Belli, Renan; Schmitt, Johannes; Mocker, Eike; Jandt, Klaus D; Müller, Frank A

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of conversion (%DC) of luting agents around ceramic inlays placed in deep natural cavities. Thirty-six cylindrical Class I cavities (diameter = 4 mm, depth = 4 mm) were prepared in freshly extracted human teeth and randomly divided according to the luting materials used for luting CAD/CAM fabricated inlays (Empress CAD). The dual-cure resin cements Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Variolink II Low and the light-cure composites Grandio Flow and Grandio were luted using the total-etch technique. The self-adhesive dual-cure cements RelyX Unicem and Maxcem Elite were used as recommended by the manufacturer. All of the restorations were photo-activated using a quartz halogen unit (Elipar TriLight; 750 mW/cm2) for 40 seconds. After 24 hour dry-storage in the dark, all the teeth were vertically sectioned into two halves (n = 12 per group) using a slow-speed diamond-saw in the bucco-vestibular direction under constant water lubrication to avoid specimen heating. The DC of the luting materials was measured by vibrational spectroscopy using a micro-Raman spectrometer at depths of 1, 3 and 4 mm on each side of the tooth halves (n = 24). Disc-shaped samples were produced for measurement of the maximum %DC of each material. Two-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test were used in the statistical analysis (alpha = 0.05). All the materials showed no statistical differences in degree of conversion at all tested depths, except for Grandio Flow and Maxcem Elite. Dual-cure and light-cure luting materials showed polymerization homogeneity around ceramic inlays, although dual-cure conventional resin cements tended to show an overall higher conversion.

  14. Silver nanoparticles in resin luting cements: Antibacterial and physiochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Francine-Couto-Lima; Alves, Denise-Ramos-Silveira; Estrela, Cyntia-Rodrigues-Araújo; Estrela, Carlos; Carrião, Marcus-Santos; Bakuzis, Andris-Figueiroa; Lopes, Lawrence-Gonzaga

    2016-01-01

    Background Silver has a long history of use in medicine as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Silver nanoparticles (NAg) offer the possibility to control the formation oral biofilms through the use of nanoparticles with biocidal, anti-adhesive, and delivery abilities. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect of resin luting cements with and without NAg, and their influence on color, sorption and solubility. Material and Methods NAg were incorporated to two dual-cured resin cements (RelyX ARC (RA) color A1 and RelyX U200 (RU) color A2) in two concentrations (0.05% and 0.07%, in weight), obtaining six experimental groups. Disc specimens (1x6mm) were obtained to verify the antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans in BHI broth after immersion for 1min, 5min, 1h, 6h, and 24h (n=3), through optical density readings. Specimens were evaluated for color changes after addition of NAg with a spectrophotometer (n=10). Sorption and solubility tests were also performed, considering storage in water or 75% ethanol for 28 days (n=5), according to ISO 4049:2010. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Tukey (p=0.05). Results The optical density of the culture broths indicated bacterial growth, with and without NAg. NAg produced significant color change on the resin cements, especially in RA. Solubility values were very low for all groups, while sorption values raised with NAg. The cements with NAg did not show antibacterial activity against S. mutans. They also showed perceptible color change and higher sorption than the materials without NAg. Conclusions The resin luting cements with NAg addition did not show antibacterial activity against SS. mutans. They also showed perceptible color change and higher sorption than the materials without NAg. Key words:Silver, resin cements, products with antimicrobial action, solubility, color perception tests. PMID:27703610

  15. Relationship Between Simulated Gap Wear and Generalized Wear of Resin Luting Cements.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, A; Barkmeier, W W; Takamizawa, T; Latta, M A; Miayazaki, M

    The relationship between the simulated gap wear and generalized wear of resin luting cements was investigated. Five resin luting cements, G-Cem LinkForce (GL), Multilink Automix (MA), NX3 Nexus, Panavia V5 (PV), and RelyX Ultimate were evaluated and subsequently subjected to a wear challenge in a Leinfelder-Suzuki (Alabama) wear simulation device. Half of the specimens from each resin luting cement were photo-cured for 40 seconds and the other half were not photo-cured. The simulated gap and generalized wear were generated using a flat-ended stainless steel antagonist. Wear testing was performed in a water slurry of polymethyl methacrylate beads, and the simulated gap and generalized wear were determined using a noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2100) in conjunction with the Proscan and AnSur 3D software. A strong relationship was found between the gap wear and generalized wear simulation models. The simulated gap wear and generalized wear of the resin luting cements followed similar trends in terms of both volume loss and mean depth of wear facets with each curing method. Unlike the simulated gap wear and generalized wear of GL and PV, those of MA, NX, and RU were influenced by the curing method. The results of this study indicate that simulated gap wear of resin luting cements is very similar to simulated generalized wear. In most cases, dual curing appears to ensure greater wear resistance of resin luting cements than chemical curing alone. The wear resistance of some resin luting cements appears to be material dependent and is not influenced by the curing method.

  16. Dental Cements for Luting and Bonding Restorations: Self-Adhesive Resin Cements.

    PubMed

    Manso, Adriana P; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2017-10-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements combine easy application of conventional luting materials with improved mechanical properties and bonding capability of resin cements. The presence of functional acidic monomers, dual cure setting mechanism, and fillers capable of neutralizing the initial low pH of the cement are essential elements of the material and should be understood when selecting the ideal luting material for each clinical situation. This article addresses the most relevant aspects of self-adhesive resin cements and their potential impact on clinical performance. Although few clinical studies are available to establish solid clinical evidence, the information presented provides clinical guidance in the dynamic environment of material development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the flexural strength of dual-cure composite resin cements.

    PubMed

    Duymus, Zeynep Yesil; Yanikoğlu, Nuran Dinckal; Alkurt, Murat

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate of flexural strength of some adhesive resin cements. Three dual-cure composite resin cements (Nexus 3; Variolink II, Panavia F) were prepared. The manufacturer's mixing directions for the cements were followed. Adhesive resin cement was mixed, placed in the rectangular portion of the mold. Fifteen specimens were prepared for each cements. The cements were light-activated with light lamp for 40 s on both and top and bottom surfaces. The each cement specimens were divided into three groups according to time of storage and stored in distilled water for 24 h, 15, and 30 days. Total 45 specimens were stored at 37°C (98.6 0F) in distilled water for 24 h, 15, and 30 days prior to tests. The flexural strength was tested wıth a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (0.02 in.) The maximum load was recorded as MPa. The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance and Duncan test. The Panavia F resin cements content Bisphenol A was showed the highest flexural strength (80.80 MPa) (11.71 ksi) for 24 h. The lowest flexural strength was observed in Nexus 3 (51.00 MPa) (7.39 ksi). It was found significant interaction of material and time (p < 0.05). The types of cement and time of storage was statistically significant on the flexural strengths (p < 0.001). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Regional bond strength to lateral walls in class I and II ceramic inlays luted with four resin cements and glass-ionomer luting agent.

    PubMed

    Manso, Ana G; González-Lopez, Santiago; Bolaños-Carmona, Victoria; Maurício, Paulo J; Félix, Sergio A; Carvalho, Patricia A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate regional shear bond strength to lateral walls of ceramic inlays in occlusal and occlusoproximal cavities using etch-and-rinse and self-adhesive resin cements and a glass-ionomer luting agent. IPS e.max Press ceramic inlays were made in 50 Class I and 50 Class II standardized cavities in intact extracted human molars and divided into 5 luting agent subgroups (n = 10): Variolink II (VL); Multilink Sprint (MLS); Multilink Automix (MLA); RelyX Unicem (RLX), and Ketac Cem Aplicap (KC). Inlays were pre-etched with IPS Ceramic etching gel for 60s. After 48 h, two disks of ca 1.0 mm thickness, one of superficial and the other of deep dentin, were push-out tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mode of failure was determined under a stereomicroscope at 20X. Data were analyzed with one way ANOVA, and Scheffé's test was used for post-hoc comparisons (α = 0.05). There were no significant differences in shear bond strength between Class I and Class II cavities for the dual-curing system in light-curing mode (VL=MLS=RLX), except that RLX demonstrated greater bond strength to deep dentin in Class II cavities. Bond strength values were significantly higher on deep than on superficial dentin. KC showed the worst result. Failures were mixed (adhesive/cohesive) for the resin luting cements and solely adhesive (cement/ceramic) for the glass-ionomer luting agent. Dual-curing etch-and-rinse or self-etching self-adhesive resin luting cements achieved greater bond strength when light curing was applied, with no differences between Class I and Class II cavities but higher values for deep vs superficial dentin. The weakest adhesion was obtained with glass-ionomer luting agent in both cavity types.

  19. Post-irradiation hardening of dual-cured and light-cured resin cements through machinable ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the surface hardness (Knoop Hardness Number) of the thin layer in three light-cured and dual-cured resin cements irradiated through or not through 2.0 mm thick machinable ceramics. A piece of adhesive polyethylene tape with a circular hole was positioned on the surface of the ceramic plate to control the cement layer (approximately 50 microm). The cement paste was placed on the ceramic surface within the circle. The ceramic plate with resin cement paste was placed on a clear micro cover glass over a zirconia ceramic block to obtain a flat surface, and the material was polymerized using a visible-light-curing unit. The surface hardness was recorded at a series of time intervals up to 5 days, starting from the end of a light-irradiation period. The hardness steadily increased with post-irradiation time and tended towards a maximum, usually reached after 1 or 2 days. In all cases, the increase in hardness was relatively rapid over the first 30 minutes and continued at a lower rate thereafter. The dual-cured resin cement for each material showed a significantly higher hardness value than the light-cured resin cement irradiated either through or not through ceramics at all post-irradiation times. The resin cements cured through ceramic for each material were significantly less hard compared with those cured not through ceramics at all post-irradiation times.

  20. In-depth polymerization of a self-adhesive dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    Puppin-Rontani, R M; Dinelli, R G; de Paula, A B; Fucio, S B P; Ambrosano, G M B; Pascon, F M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess Knoop hardness at different depths of a dual-cured self-adhesive resin cement through different thicknesses of Empress Esthetic® ceramic.Flattened bovine dentin was embedded in resin. The cement was inserted into a rubber mold (0.8 x 5 mm) that was placed between two polyvinyl chloride plastic films and placed over the flat dentin and light cured by Elipar Trilight-QTH (800 mW/cm2) or Ultra-Lumelight-emitting diode (LED 5; 1585 mW/cm2) over ceramic disks 1.4 or 2 mm thick. The specimens(n=6) were stored for 24 hours before Knoop hardness (KHN) was measured. The data were submitted to analysis of variance in a factorial split-plot design and Tukey's test (a=0.05).There was significant interaction among the study factors. In the groups cured by the QTHunit, an increase in ceramic thickness resulted in reduced cement hardness values at all depths, with the highest values always being found in the center (1.4 mm, 58.1; 2 mm, 50.1)and the lowest values at the bottom (1.4 mm,23.8; 2 mm, 20.2). When using the LED unit, the hardness values diminished with increased ceramic thickness only on the top (1.4 mm,51.5; 2 mm, 42.3). In the group with the 1.4-mm-thick disk, the LED curing unit resulted in similar values on the top (51.5) and center(51.9) and lower values on the bottom (24.2).However, when the cement was light cured through the 2-mm disk, the highest hardness value was obtained in the center (51.8), followed by the top (42.3) and bottom (19.9),results similar to those obtained with the QTH curing unit (center > top > bottom). The hardness values of the studied cement at different depths were dependent on the ceramic thickness but not on the light curing units used.

  1. Effect of Resin Bonded Luting Agents Influencing Marginal Discrepancy in All Ceramic Complete Veneer Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamoorthy, Anusha; Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Murthykumar, Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Marginal discrepancy severely affects the long term success of All ceramic complete veneer crowns. The precise role of resin luting agents influencing this phenomenon needs to be explored further. Aim To estimate and compare the marginal discrepancy in CAD/CAM processed All ceramic complete veneer crowns prior and following luting with resin bonded luting agents. Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary first premolars were randomly allocated into four groups of 27 samples each Viz., Group I-Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) (RelyX), Group II-Bis-GMA based dual cure resin cement (Variolink II), Group III-PMMA based resin cement (Superbond), Group IV- Urethane Dimethacrylate resin cement (Calibra). Following tooth preparation, CAD/CAM All ceramic complete veneer crowns were fabricated and sectioned and marginal discrepancy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN, Magnification power-1,00,000x) prior and after luting with the experimental resin cements. Results The vertical and horizontal discrepancy before and after cementation with Group I [270.08±103.10μm, 165.3±53.00μm and 270.86±102.70μm, 166.62±54.96μm respectively]; Group II [254.21±79.20μm, 117.75±24.29μm and 234.81±79μm, 116.89±18.22μm respectively]; Group III [272.47±86.25μm, 142.08±50.83μm and 251.82±62.69μm, 136.07±44.95μm respectively]; Group IV were [260.28±64.81μm, 116.98±17.71μm and 233.08±69.44μm, 116.58±21.13μm respectively]. ANOVA inferred a statistically significant difference between the four test specimen with regards to vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancy after cementation (F=9.092, p<0.001), (F=10.97, p<0.001). Tukey HSD Post-hoc test observed significant differences in vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancies between the resin modified glass ionomer and resin cements (p<0.05). Conclusion Resin cements exhibited a greater reduction in the marginal discrepancy than the resin modified glass ionomer

  2. Effect of Resin Bonded Luting Agents Influencing Marginal Discrepancy in All Ceramic Complete Veneer Crowns.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Dhanraj; Sathyamoorthy, Anusha; Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Murthykumar, Karthikeyan

    2016-12-01

    Marginal discrepancy severely affects the long term success of All ceramic complete veneer crowns. The precise role of resin luting agents influencing this phenomenon needs to be explored further. To estimate and compare the marginal discrepancy in CAD/CAM processed All ceramic complete veneer crowns prior and following luting with resin bonded luting agents. Extracted human maxillary first premolars were randomly allocated into four groups of 27 samples each Viz., Group I-Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) (RelyX), Group II-Bis-GMA based dual cure resin cement (Variolink II), Group III-PMMA based resin cement (Superbond), Group IV- Urethane Dimethacrylate resin cement (Calibra). Following tooth preparation, CAD/CAM All ceramic complete veneer crowns were fabricated and sectioned and marginal discrepancy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN, Magnification power-1,00,000x) prior and after luting with the experimental resin cements. The vertical and horizontal discrepancy before and after cementation with Group I [270.08±103.10μm, 165.3±53.00μm and 270.86±102.70μm, 166.62±54.96μm respectively]; Group II [254.21±79.20μm, 117.75±24.29μm and 234.81±79μm, 116.89±18.22μm respectively]; Group III [272.47±86.25μm, 142.08±50.83μm and 251.82±62.69μm, 136.07±44.95μm respectively]; Group IV were [260.28±64.81μm, 116.98±17.71μm and 233.08±69.44μm, 116.58±21.13μm respectively]. ANOVA inferred a statistically significant difference between the four test specimen with regards to vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancy after cementation (F=9.092, p<0.001), (F=10.97, p<0.001). Tukey HSD Post-hoc test observed significant differences in vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancies between the resin modified glass ionomer and resin cements (p<0.05). Resin cements exhibited a greater reduction in the marginal discrepancy than the resin modified glass ionomer following luting in All ceramic complete veneer crowns. Hence

  3. Influence of power density on polymerization behavior and bond strengths of dual-cured resin direct core foundation systems.

    PubMed

    Oto, Tatsuki; Yasuda, Genta; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of power density on dentin bond strength and polymerization behavior of dual-cured direct core foundation resin systems. Two commercially available dual-cured direct core foundation resin systems, Clearfil DC Core Automix with Clearfil DC Bond and UniFil Core with Self-Etching Bond, were studied. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in autopolymerizing resin and the facial dentin surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit SiC paper. Dentin surfaces were treated according to manufacturer's recommendations. The resin pastes were condensed into the mold and cured with the power densities of 0 (no irradiation), 100, 200, 400 and 600 mW/cm2. Ten specimens per group were stored in 37 degrees C water for 24 hours, then shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. An ultrasonic measurement device was used to measure the ultrasonic velocities through the core foundation resins. The power densities selected were 0 (no irradiation), 200, and 600 mW/cm2, and ultrasonic velocity was calculated. ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were performed at a level of 0.05. The highest bond strengths were obtained when the resin pastes were cured with the highest power density for both core foundation systems (16.8 +/- 1.9 MPa for Clearfil DC Core Automix, 15.6 +/- 2.9 MPa for UniFil Core). When polymerized with the power densities under 200 mW/cm2, significantly lower bond strengths were observed compared to those obtained with the power density of 600 mW/cm2. As the core foundation resins hardened, the sonic velocities increased and this tendency differed among the power density of the curing unit. When the sonic velocities at three minutes after the start of measurements were compared, there were no significant differences among different irradiation modes for UniFil Core, while a significant decrease in sonic velocity was obtained when the resin paste was chemically polymerized compared with dual-polymerization for Clearfil

  4. Degree of conversion of two dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kim, Young-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks with different thicknesses using various light-curing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia ceramic disks (KT12) with three different thicknesses (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm) were prepared. The light transmittance of the disks was measured using ultraviolet visible near-infrared spectroscopy. Four different light-curing protocols were used by combining two curing light modes (Elipar TriLight (standard mode) and bluephase G2 (high power mode)) with light-exposure times of 40 and 120 seconds. The DCs of the two dual-cured resin cements (Duo-Link and Panavia F2.0) light-irradiated through the disks was analyzed at three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 minutes) by FTIR spectroscopy. The data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05).Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the 10 minute DC results. RESULTS The 1.0 mm thick disk exhibited low light transmittance (<25%), and the transmittance decreased considerably with increasing disk thickness. All groups exhibited significantly higher 10 minute DC values than the 3 or 7 minute values (P<.05), but some exceptions were observed in Duo-Link. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the influence of the zirconia disk thickness on the 10 minute DC was dependent on the light-curing methods (P<.001). This finding was still valid even at 4.0 mm thickness, where substantial light attenuation took place. CONCLUSION The curing of the dual-cured resin cements was affected significantly by the light-curing technique, even though the additional chemical polymerization mechanism worked effectively. PMID:24353887

  5. Comparison of bond stability between dual-cure resin cements and pretreated glass-infiltrated alumina ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oyagüe, Raquel C; Osorio, Raquel; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Toledano, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the bond stability of resin cements used for luting alumina-based all-ceramic dental restorations. Although different pretreatments may be applied on alumina to improve bond strengths, any previous study investigated the bond stability of resin-based cements luted to laser-irradiated alumina. 64 sintered, glass-infiltrated alumina blocks were sandblasted and randomly assigned to the following subgroups: 1. no additional treatment (NT); 2. Rocatec (Roc); 3. Nd:YAG laser (L); and 4. Nd:YAG laser plus Rocatec (LRoc). Composite samples were bonded to conditioned ceramics using two different resin based cements: a self-etching adhesive cement-Panavia F (PF) and a self-adhesive resin cement-RelyX Unicem (RXU). After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into microtensile sticks (1 ± 0.1 mm(2)). One-half of the beams were loaded in tension until failure. The remaining one-half was immersed in 10%-NaOCl aqueous solution (NaOCl(aq)) for 12 h before testing. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were run (P < 0.05). Failure mode was recorded. Ceramic topography was SEM-analyzed. After 24 h, L-sticks achieved the highest MTBS despite the cement type, whereas NT-samples recorded the lowest values. After NaOCl(aq) immersion bond strengths decreased except for RXU luted to NT-alumina. PF luted to L- and LRoc-samples, and RXU luted to L-sticks attained the highest bond strength. Nd:YAG laser irradiation improved bond strength between alumina ceramics and resin cements (PF or RXU). Chemical challenging impaired adhesion, mainly through resin matrixes and silane coupling degradation. Laser-treated specimens remained with the highest bond strength.

  6. Influence of ceramic thickness and curing mode on the polymerization shrinkage kinetics of dual-cured resin cements.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Bog; An, Woong; Chang, Juhea; Um, Chung Moon

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how ceramic disc thickness and curing mode (light or chemical) affects the polymerization shrinkage of dual-cured resin cements and to evaluate the effect of the ceramic discs on the curing speed of the cements during light exposure. Six commercial resin cements, RelyX ARC, Bistite II, Duolink, Panavia F, Variolink II and Choice were used. Filler weight contents were determined by the ash method. Four ceramic discs with thicknesses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4mm, respectively, were made. The attenuation of light intensity due to the ceramic discs was measured using a radiometer. The polymerization shrinkage kinetics of the resin cements by chemical or light cure through the different ceramic discs was measured using a bonded-disc method. There were differences in filler content among brands of resin cement. The polymerization shrinkage without ceramic disc was 2.61-4.59% by chemical cure and 2.93-4.66% by light cure. The polymerization shrinkage of RelyX ARC and Panavia F by chemical cure was statistically lower than by light cure (p<0.05). Polymerization shrinkage and filler weight were inversely related (R=-0.965). Both the transmitted light intensity and polymerization shrinkage decreased with increasing thickness of ceramic discs (p<0.05). The time to reach the maximum shrinkage rate of the resin cements increased with increasing ceramic thickness. The cure speed by light cure was 15-322 times faster than by chemical cure. The polymerization shrinkage kinetics of dual-cured resin cements significantly differed between brands under various curing conditions. Clinicians should be aware of the setting characteristics of the cements, so they can choose the optimal materials for different clinical situations.

  7. Efficiency of dual-cured resin cement polymerization induced by high-intensity LED curing units through ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Kazama, Re; Asai, T; Kanaya, F; Ishizaki, H; Fukushima, M; Okiji, T

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) and other curing units to cure dual-cured resin cement through ceramic material. A halogen curing unit (Jetlite 3000, Morita), a second-generation LED curing unit (Demi, Kerr), and two high-intensity LED curing units (PenCure 2000, Morita; Valo, Ultradent) were tested. Feldspathic ceramic plates (VITABLOCS Mark II, A3; Vita Zahnfabrik) with thicknesses of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm were prepared. Dual-cured resin cement samples (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray Noritake Dental) were irradiated directly or through one of the ceramic plates for different periods (5, 10, 15, or 20 seconds for the high-intensity LED units and 20, 40, 60, or 80 seconds for the others). The Knoop hardness test was used to determine the level of photopolymerization that had been induced in the resin cement. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's post-hoc test to identify test-control (maximum irradiation without a ceramic plate) differences for each curing unit (p<0.05). For all curing units, the curing conditions had a statistically significant effect on the Knoop hardness numbers (KHNs) of the irradiated cement samples (p<0.001). In general, the KHN decreased with increasing plate thickness and increased as the irradiation period was extended. Jetlite 3000 achieved control-level KHN values only when the plate thickness was 1.0 mm. At a plate thickness ≥2.0 mm, the LED units (except for PenCure 2000 at 3.0 mm) were able to achieve control-level KHN values when the irradiation time was extended. At a plate thickness of 3.0 mm, irradiation for 20 seconds with the Valo or for 80 seconds with the Demi were the only methods that produced KHN values equivalent to those produced by direct irradiation. Regardless of the type of curing unit used, indirect irradiation of dual-cured resin cement through a ceramic plate resulted in decreased KHN values compared with direct irradiation. When

  8. Resistance to bond degradation between dual-cure resin cements and pre-treated sintered CAD-CAM dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Raquel; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Estrella; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bond stability of resin cements when luted to glass-reinforced alumina and zirconia CAD/CAM dental ceramics. Study design: Eighteen glass-infiltrated alumina and eighteen densely sintered zirconia blocks were randomly conditioned as follows: Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: Sandblasting (125 µm Al2O3-particles); and Group 3: Silica-coating (50 µm silica-modified Al2O3-particles). Composite samples were randomly bonded to the pre-treated ceramic surfaces using different resin cements: Subgroup 1: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC); Subgroup 2: RelyX Unicem (RXU); and Subgroup 3: Calibra (CAL). After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into 1 ± 0.1 mm2 sticks. One-half of the beams were tested for microtensile bond strength (MTBS). The remaining one-half was immersed in 10 % NaOCl aqueous solution (NaOClaq) for 5 h before testing. The fracture pattern and morphology of the debonded surfaces were assessed with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). A multiple ANOVA was conducted to analyze the contributions of ceramic composition, surface treatment, resin cement type, and chemical challenging to MTBS. The Tukey test was run for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Results: After 24 h, CEC luted to pre-treated zirconia achieved the highest MTBS. Using RXU, alumina and zirconia registered comparable MTBS. CAL failed prematurely, except when luted to sandblasted zirconia. After NaOClaq storage, CEC significantly lowered MTBS when luted to zirconia or alumina. RXU decreased MTBS only when bonded to silica-coated alumina. CAL recorded 100 % of pre-testing failures. Micromorphological alterations were evident after NaOClaq immersion. Conclusions: Resin-ceramic interfacial longevity depended on cement selection rather than on surface pre-treatments. The MDP-containing and the self-adhesive resin cements were both suitable for luting CAD/CAM ceramics. Despite both cements being prone to degradation, RXU luted to zirconia or untreated or

  9. Effect of Different Thicknesses of Pressable Ceramic Veneers on Polymerization of Light-cured and Dual-cured Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Lopez, Arnaldo; Berzins, David W.; Prasad, Soni; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the effects of ceramic veneer thicknesses on the polymerization of two different resin cements. Materials and Methods A total of 80 ceramic veneer discs were fabricated by using a pressable ceramic material (e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) from a Low Translucency (LT) ingot (A1 shade). These discs were divided into light-cured (LC; NX3 Nexus LC; Kerr) and dual-cured (DC; NX3 Nexus DC; Kerr) and each group was further divided into 4 subgroups, based on ceramic disc thickness (0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.2 mm). The values of Vickers microhardness (MH) and degree of conversion (DOC) were obtained for each specimen after a 24-hour storage period. Association between ceramic thickness, resin cement type, and light intensity readings (mW/cm2) with respect to microhardness and degree of conversion was statistically evaluated by using ANOVA. Results For the DOC values, there was no significant difference observed among the LC resin cement subgroups, except in the 1.2 mm subgroup; only the DOC value (14.0 ± 7.4%) of 1.2 mm DC resin cement had significantly difference from that value (28.9 ± 7.5%) of 1.2 mm LC resin cement (P<.05). For the MH values between LC and DC resin cement groups, there was statistically significant difference (P<.05); overall, the MH values of LC resin cement groups demonstrated higher values than DC resin cement groups. On the other hands, among the DC resin cement subgroups, the MH values of 1.2 mm DC subgroup was significantly lower than the 0.3 mm and 0.6 mm subgroups (P<.05). However, among the LC subgroups, there was no statistically significant difference among them (P >.05). Conclusion The degree of conversion and hardness of the resin cement was unaffected with veneering thicknesses between 0.3 and 0.9 mm. However, the DC resin cement group resulted in a significantly lower DOC and MH values for the 1.2 mm subgroup. Clinical Significance While clinically adequate polymerization of LC resin cement can be achieved

  10. Sensitivity of catalyst/base ratio on curing of resin luting agents: polymerization exotherm analysis.

    PubMed

    Griggs, J A; Shen, C; Anusavice, K J

    1994-09-01

    Currently, the proposed test of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) for measuring working and setting times of resin luting agents is based on measurement of times to reach specified stages on the polymerization exotherm. The objective of this study was to use this test to investigate the influence of variations in the mass ratios of catalyst paste to base paste on the working and setting times of three dual-cured dental resin luting agents. The materials used were Dicor Light Activated Cement (Dentsply International Inc.), Palfique Inlay Resin Cement (Tokuyama Soda Co.), and Vivadent Dual Cement (Vivadent). Fifteen specimens of each material were tested for working time by spatulating mass ratios from 0.7 to 1.3 for 30s at 23 degrees C and recording the time from beginning of spatulation to the time at which a temperature increase occurs. Ten specimens of each material were tested for setting time by spatulating in a similar manner at 37 degrees C and recording the time at which the temperature reaches a maximum value. The data were fitted to the relation, In t = In A + Bm, where t is the time in seconds, m is the mass ratio, and A and B are regression coefficients. The results suggest that working and setting times of the specimens were independent of variations in mass ratio. A comparison among the materials was made by using a multiple linear regression with the relation, In t = In C + Dm + E gamma + Fm gamma, where gamma is a dummy variable to help distinguish between materials, and C, D, E, and F are regression coefficients. The results suggest that differences in materials influence the working time but not the setting time. These results infer that variations in mass ratio (+/- 20%) often observed in the clinical setting should not have a significant influence on the working and setting times of resin luting agents.

  11. Hardening of a dual-cure resin cement using QTH and LED curing units.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; Passos, Sheila Pestana; da Encarnação, Monalisa Olga Lessa; Santos, Gildo Coelho; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC) photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal) disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light source. Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s) were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN) was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH) and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED). The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH) and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED). For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values.

  12. Hardening of a dual-cure resin cement using QTH and LED curing units

    PubMed Central

    SANTOS, Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; PASSOS, Sheila Pestana; da ENCARNAÇÃO, Monalisa Olga Lessa; SANTOS, Gildo Coelho; BOTTINO, Marco Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC) photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal) disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light source. Material and Methods Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s) were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN) was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. Results Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH) and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED). The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH) and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED). For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. Conclusions Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values. PMID:20485920

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Bond Strength of Dual-Cured Resin Cements: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Poluri, Ramya Krishna; Nagaraj, Hema; Siddaruju, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare the microtensile bond strength of resin cements to enamel and dentin and to determine the type of bond failure using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study 40 teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and divided into two main groups i.e., Group A for enamel and Group B for dentin. Each group is again subdivided into four subgroups, which are as follows; Subgroup 1 for Calibra resin cement, Subgroup 2 for Paracem, Subgroup 3 for Variolink II and Subgroup 4 for Rely X ARC. These resin cements were applied on enamel and dentin according to manufacturer’s instructions followed by incremental build-up of composite resin on the top of resin cements. Each tooth was sectioned perpendicular to the resin-substrate interface with a slow speed diamond saw under water cooling yielding sections of approximately 1 mm2. On an average, three sections from each tooth were used for testing. The beams obtained after sectioning were stressed to failure under tension in a custom made stainless steel forceps held in a universal testing machine (Lloyd) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Results were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, independent t-test, and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test. Results: Cements bonded to enamel substrates showed higher mean bond strength compared to dentin, which is statistically significant. Rely X ARC showed highest mean bond strength to both the substrates. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength to enamel and dentin and, Rely X ARC resin cement showed higher bond strength compared with the other groups. PMID:26225104

  14. Evaluation of Adhesive Bonding of Lithium Disilicate Ceramic Material with Duel Cured Resin Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gundawar, Sham M.; Radke, Usha M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the adhesive bonding of dual cured resin luting agents with lithium disilicate ceramic material. Materials and Methods: Porcelain laminate veneers were prepared with lithium disilicate ceramic material i.e. IPS Empress II( E-Max Press). These laminates were bonded with RelyX ARC, Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II, Duolink and Nexus NX3.The porcelain laminates were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (Pulpdent Corporation) for one minute, washed for 15 sec with three way syringe and dried for 15 sec with air syringe. The silane (Ultradent) was applied with the help of applicator tip in a single coat and kept undisturbed for one minute. The prepared surfaces of the premolars were treated with 37% phosphoric acid (Prime dent) for 15 sec, thoroughly rinsed and dried as per manufactures instructions. The shear bond test was carried out on all samples with the Universal testing machine (Instron U.S.A.) The scanning electron microscopic study was performed at the fractured interface of representative samples from each group of luting agents. Result: In this study, the highest value of shear bond strength was obtained for NEXUS NX3 and the lowest for VARIOLINK II. Conclusion: The difference in bond strength can be interpreted as the difference in fracture resistance of luting agents, to which shearing load was applied during the shear bond strength test. It is inferred from this study that the composition of the luting agent determines the adhesive characteristics in addition to surface treatment and bonding surface area. PMID:25859514

  15. Polymerization kinetics of dual-curing adhesive systems when used solely or in conjunction with chemically-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kyung; Chun, Ju-Na; Kwon, Pyung Cheol; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the chemical polymerization kinetics of commercial dual-curing adhesive systems when used solely or in conjunction with chemically-curing resin cement. Four adhesive systems comprising simplified-step adhesives and activators (Prime&Bond NT with Self Cure Activator, Excite DSC, AQ Bond Plus, All-Bond SE) were used. The pH values of the adhesives and adhesive/activator blends were measured. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the extent of the chemical polymerization of the adhesives when used alone or directly intermixed with a chemically-cured resin cement (C&B Cement) for 60 min (n = 5). The data derived from the DSC analysis were statistically compared using one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test (α = 0.05). All the adhesives were highly acidic; when they were blended with the respective activators, their pH values increased. Neither the adhesive/activator blends nor the adhesive alone/cement mixtures showed any detectable heat generation. The Prime&Bond NT/activator showed delayed heat generation only when intermixed with the catalyst/base paste. The other three adhesive systems produced similar exotherms when intermixed with the catalyst paste alone or with the catalyst/base paste (p > 0.05), but at significantly different maximum rates of polymerization (p < 0.05). Significantly shorter induction periods resulted when AQ Bond Plus and All- Bond SE were intermixed with the catalyst/base paste rather than with the catalyst paste alone (p = 0.004). The chemical polymerization occurring at the adhesive system/resin cement interface appears highly dependent on the adhesive system used and may be considerably delayed.

  16. Bonding efficacy of new self-etching, self-adhesive dual-curing resin cements to dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Paula; Fernandes, Virgílio Vilas; Torres, Carlos Rocha; Pagani, Clovis

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the union between two new self-etching self-adhesive resin cements and enamel using the microtensile bond strength test. Buccal enamel of 80 bovine teeth was submitted to finishing and polishing with metallographic paper to a refinement of #600, in order to obtain a 5-mm2 flat area. Blocks (2 x 4 x 4 mm) of laboratory composite resin were cemented to enamel according to different protocols: (1) untreated enamel + RelyX Unicem cement (RX group); (2) untreated enamel + Bifix SE cement (BF group); (3) enamel acid etching and application of resin adhesive Single Bond + RelyX Unicem (RXA group); (4) enamel acid etching and application of resin adhesive Solobond M + Bifix SE (BFA group). After 7 days of storage in distillated water at 37°C, the blocks were sectioned for obtaining microbar specimens with an adhesive area of 1 mm2 (n = 120). Specimens were submitted to the microtensile bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results (in MPa) were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Enamel pre-treatment with phosphoric acid and resin adhesive (27.9 and 30.3 for RXA and BFA groups) significantly improved (p ≤ 0.05) the adhesion of both cements to enamel compared to the union achieved with as-polished enamel (9.9 and 6.0 for RX and BF). Enamel pre-treatment with acid etching and the application of resin adhesive significantly improved the bond efficacy of both luting agents compared to the union achieved with as-polished enamel.

  17. Colour stability and opacity of resin cements and flowable composites for ceramic veneer luting after accelerated ageing.

    PubMed

    Archegas, Lucí Regina Panka; Freire, Andrea; Vieira, Sergio; Caldas, Danilo Biazzetto de Menezes; Souza, Evelise Machado

    2011-11-01

    Colour changes of the luting material can become clinically visible affecting the aesthetic appearance of thin ceramic laminates. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the colour stability and opacity of light- and dual-cured resin cements and flowable composites after accelerated ageing. The luting agents were bonded (0.2 mm thick) to ceramic disks (0.75 mm thick) built with the pressed-ceramic IPS Aesthetic Empress (n=7). Colour measurements were determined using a FTIR spectrophotometer before and after accelerated ageing in a weathering machine with a total energy of 150 kJ. Changes in colour (ΔE) and opacity (ΔO) were obtained using the CIE L*a*b* system. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test and Student's t test (α=5%). All the materials showed significant changes in colour and opacity. The ΔE of the materials ranged from 0.41 to 2.40. The highest colour changes were attributed to RelyX ARC and AllCem, whilst lower changes were found in Variolink Veneer, Tetric Flow and Filtek Z350 Flow. The opacity of the materials ranged from -0.01 to 1.16 and its variation was not significant only for Opallis Flow and RelyX ARC. The accelerated ageing led to colour changes in all the evaluated materials, although they were considered clinically acceptable (ΔE<3). Amongst the dual-cured resin cements, Variolink II demonstrated the highest colour stability. All the flowable composites showed proper colour stability for the luting of ceramic veneers. After ageing, an increase in opacity was observed for most of the materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of light energy density on conversion degree and hardness of dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    Komori, Paula Carolina de Paiva; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Martin, Airton Abrāo; Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different light energy densities on conversion degree (CD) and Knoop hardness number (KHN) of RelyX ARC (RLX) resin cement. After manipulation according to the manufacturer's instructions, RLX was inserted into a rubber mold (0.8 mm x 5 mm) and covered with a Mylar strip. The tip of the light-curing unit (LCU) was positioned in contact with the Mylar surface. Quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) LCUs with light densities of 10, 20 and 30 J/cm2 were used to light-cure the specimens. After light curing, the specimens were stored dry in lightproof containers at 37 degrees C. After 24 hours, the CD was analyzed by FT-Raman and, after an additional 24-hours, samples were submitted to Knoop hardness testing. The data of the CD (%) and KHN were submitted to two-way ANOVA and the Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). QTH and LED were effective light curing units. For QTH, there were no differences among the light energy densities for CD or KHN. For LED, there was a significant reduction in CD with the light energy density set at 10 J/cm2. KHN was not influenced by the light-curing unit and by its light energy density.

  19. Influence of Curing Units and Indirect Restorative Materials on the Hardness of Two Dual-curing Resin Cements Evaluated by the Nanoindentation Test.

    PubMed

    Kuguimiya, Rosiane Noqueira; Rode, Kátia Martins; Carneiro, Paula Mendes Acatauassú; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the hardness of a dual-curing self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200) and a conventional dual-curing resin cement (RelyX ARC) cured with different light curing units of different wavelengths (Elipar Freelight 2 LED [430 to 480 nm, conventional], Bluephase LED [380 to 515 nm, polywave], AccuCure 3000 Laser [488 nm]) by means of the nanoindentation test. Bovine incisors were cleaned and then sectioned at the cementoenamel junction to remove the crown. After embedding in acrylic, dentin surfaces of the specimens were exposed and ground flat to standardize the surfaces. To simulate clinically placing indirect restorations, ceramic (IPS e.maxPress/Ivoclar Vivadent) or indirect composite resin (SR Adoro/Ivoclar Vivadent) slabs were cemented on dentin surfaces. The specimens were sectioned longitudinally at low speed under constant irrigation and then polished. In the positive control group, the cement was light cured without the interposition of indirect restorative material; in the negative control group, after the indirect restorative material was cemented, no light curing was performed, allowing only chemical polymerization of the cement. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Nanoindentadion hardness of the cement layer was measured under a 100-mN load. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Although the self-adhesive cement is technically simple, conventional cement showed the best polymerization performance. The polywave LED technology did not differ significantly from other light-curing units. The hardness of the resin cements evaluated was negatively influenced by the interposition of an indirect restorative material; only the LEDs were able to maintain the same degree of cement polymerization when an indirect restorative material was used. The photoactivation step is required during the cementation of indirect restorations to ensure adequate polymerization of dual-curing resin cements.

  20. Shear bond strengths of self-adhesive luting resins fixing dentine to different restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congxiao; Degrange, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the bond strengths of three self-adhesive resin cements (Rely X Unicem, Maxcem and Multilink Sprint) fixing dentine to four different restorative substrates (Ni-Cr alloy, E-Max glass-ceramic, Y-TZP Zirconia and Adoro micro-filled composite) and to compare their performances with those of two conventional dual-cured luting cements (Variolink II + Total-etch Excite DSC and Multilink Automix + Self-etching Primer A + B). Cylindric specimens (5 x 5 mm) were prepared with the four restorative materials for bonding to human dentine. Three surface treatments were performed depending on the restorative material: (i) Al2O3 50 microm sandblasting (Ni-Cr, Adoro), (ii) #800 SiC polishing (Zirconia, E-Max), (iii) hydrofluoric acid (HF)-etching (E-Max). Twenty-five groups (n = 10) were designed according to luting cements, restorative materials and surface pre-treatments. In some experimental groups, Variolink II and Multilink Automix were coupled with, respectively, a silane primer (Monobond S) and an alloy/zirconia primer (Multilink A/Z primer). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then loaded in shear until failure. Variolink II and Multilink Automix showed the highest bond strengths, regardless of the restorative substrate, when used with dentine bonding systems and primers, while the weakest bonds were with Maxcem. The bond strength recorded with the two other self-adhesive cements depended on the nature of the restorative substrate. Increasing retention at the interfaces (i.e., HF ceramic etching) and using specific primers significantly improves the bond strength of luted restorative materials to dentine.

  1. Early hardness and shear bond strength of dual-cure resin cement light cured through resin overlays with different dentin-layer thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Chang, H-S; Kim, J-W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dentin-layer thickness of resin overlays could affect the early hardness and shear bond strength of dual-cure resin cement (DCRC, RelyX ARC) after light curing with light curing units (LCUs) of various power densities: Optilux 360 (360), Elipar Freelight 2 (FL2), and Elipar S10 (S10). Resin overlays were fabricated using an indirect composite resin (Sinfony) with a dentin layer, an enamel layer, and a translucent layer of 0.5 mm thickness each (0.5-0.5-0.5) or of 0.2 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.8 mm thickness (0.2-0.5-0.8), respectively. The DCRC was light cured for 40 seconds through the overlays, and surface hardness and shear bond strength to bovine dentin were tested 10 minutes after the start of light curing. Surface hardness was higher when the DCRC was light cured through the 0.2-0.5-0.8 combination than when the DCRC was light cured through the 0.5-0.5-0.5 combination with all LCUs. The ratio of upper surface hardness of DCRC light cured through resin overlays relative to the upper surface hardness of DCRC light cured directly was more than 90% only when the DCRC was light cured with S10 through the 0.2-0.5-0.8 combination. The shear bond strength value was higher when the DCRC was light cured with S10 through the 0.2-0.5-0.8 combination than when light cured with S10 through the 0.5-0.5-0.5 combination. This study indicates that reducing the dentin-layer thickness while increasing the translucent-layer thickness of resin inlays can increase the photopolymerization of DCRC, thereby increasing the early bond strength of resin inlays to dentin.

  2. Influence of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate on bond strength of a glass-fibre post luted with resin or glass-ionomer based cement.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Diana Ferreira Gadelha; Chaves, Larissa Pinceli; Bim, Odair; Pimentel Garcia, Fernanda Cristina; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Honório, Heitor Marques; Wang, Linda

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) on the bond strength (BS) of a glass-fibre post to the root canal, regarding the cements (dual-cured resin or resin-modified glass-ionomer cement), the root thirds and the time of storage. Eighty bovine roots were selected and endodontically treated, before being randomly assigned to the following groups according to the luting protocol: ARC (RelyX ARC); ARC+CHX; RL (RelyX Luting 2); and RL+CHX. After 24 h of luting, the roots were sliced to obtain 1 mm-thick slices. Half of each group was submitted to either 7-day or 6-month storage in artificial saliva (n=10). The specimens were subjected to push-out tests with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analysed with four-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P≤0.05). The failure modes were analysed with a digital microscope (50× and 200×). ARC yielded a significantly higher BS compared to RL (P<0.001). Despite CHX exerted a significant effect; it depends on the interaction with the luting cement and time (P<0.001). Thus, CHX decreased the values of BS to those of ARC after 6 months (P<0.001). On the 7th day of storage, the ARC+CHX presented higher BS to the cervical and middle thirds compared to RL+CHX (P=0.012). Time solely was not a significant factor (P=0.081). Adhesive cement-dentine type and mixed failures were predominant modes for the ARC groups. For the RL groups, the main failures were adhesive cement-post and mixed modes. Glass-fibre posts luted with RelyX ARC dual-cure resin cement exhibited higher BS than those luted with RelyX Luting 2 resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Furthermore, CHX was not effective to improve the BS and negatively affected the BS of RelyX ARC after 6 months of storage. The use of chlorhexidine solution seems not to improve the bond strength of fibre posts to root canals, disregarding the composition of the luting cement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Monkey pulpal response to adhesively luted indirect resin composite inlays.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, S; Shimada, Y; Fujitani, M; Otsuki, M; Shono, T; Onoe, N; Morigami, M; Takatsu, T

    1995-01-01

    Monkey pulpal responses to resin-bonded indirect resin composite inlays were histopathologically evaluated by placing them in either etched-enamel, total-etched, or adhesive-resin-lined cavities. Initial pulpal responses caused by re-exposure of the cut dentin surfaces and luting procedure subsided if a tight marginal seal was secured by final cementation of the inlay. The adhesive resin coating of freshly cut dentinal walls/floors seems to provide a new technique to protect the dentin and pulp in indirect restorations requiring temporary sealing.

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Porcelain Laminate Thickness on Degree of Conversion of Light Cure and Dual Cure Resin Cements Using FTIR

    PubMed Central

    Hoorizad Ganjkar, Maryam; Heshmat, Haleh; Hassan Ahangari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Increasing the thickness of the veneering porcelain may affect the polymerization of resin cements. Incomplete polymerization of resin cements can lead to compromised quality of restoration and decrease the longevity of indirect restorations. Purpose: This study sought to assess the effect of IPS Empress porcelain thickness on the degree of conversion of light-cure and dual-cure resin cements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, IPS Empress porcelain discs (A2 shade) with 10mm diameter and 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm thicknesses were fabricated. Choice2 (Bisco, USA) and Nexus3 (Kerr, USA) resin cements were light cured through the three porcelain thicknesses in two groups of 3 samples using a LED light-curing unit (LEDemetron II; Kerr, USA). The control group samples were cured individually with no porcelain disc. The degree of conversion of resin cements was determined using FTIR (Bruker; Equinox55, Germany). The data were analyzed using Dunn’s test. Results: The degree of conversion (in percent) beneath the 0.5, 1.5 and 2 mm thicknesses of IPS Empress was 68.67±0.88, 71.06±0.94 and 72.51±0.41 for Choice2 resin cement and 69.60±2.12, 69.64±1.63 and 69.24±2.12 for Nexus3, respectively. Porcelain thickness and type of resin cement had no significant effect on degree of conversion (p≥ 0.05). Conclusion: It seems that increasing the porcelain thickness by up to 1.5 mm has no adverse effect on degree of conversion of both dual cure and light cure resin cements evaluated in this study. PMID:28280757

  5. Curing depth of a resin-modified glass ionomer and two resin-based luting agents.

    PubMed

    Sigemori, Ricardo Massao; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre M S

    2005-01-01

    The degree of conversion of resin-based luting agents used for retention of prefabricated posts has been questioned due to the difficulty of light penetration into the resin-filled root canal. This study evaluated the depth of cure of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely X--3M ESPE) and two resin-based luting agents (Rely X ARC--3M ESPE and Enforce-Dentsply). Twenty-four 14x2x2mm3 specimens were prepared in a Teflon split mold with the three luting agents (n=8). After preparation, the specimens were stored at 37 degrees C in a dark box for 24 hours prior to microhardness testing. Measurements of Knoop hardness were performed at three different depths: superficial, medium and deep thirds. The results (KHN) were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey test (0.05), which showed that resin-based luting agents presented the highest Knoop hardness values within the superficial third. Within the medium third, there were no significant differences among luting materials. However, within the deep third, Rely X presented the highest values. KHN values of resin-based luting agents decreased remarkably as depth increased.

  6. Effect of thickness of indirect restoration and distance from the light-curing unit tip on the hardness of a dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Knoop hardness and polymerization depth of a dual-cured resin cement, light-activated at different distances through different thicknesses of composite resin. One bovine incisor was embedded in resin and its buccal surface was flattened. Dentin was covered with PVC film where a mold (0.8-mm-thick and 5 mm diameter) was filled with cement and covered with another PVC film. Light curing (40 s) was carried out through resin discs (2, 3, 4 or 5 mm) with a halogen light positioned 0, 1, 2 or 3 mm from the resin surface. After storage, specimens were sectioned for hardness measurements (top, center, and bottom). Data were subjected to split-plot ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The increase in resin disc thickness decreased cement hardness. The increase in the distance of the light-curing tip decreased hardness at the top region. Specimens showed the lowest hardness values at the bottom, and the highest at the center. Resin cement hardness was influenced by the thickness of the indirect restoration and by the distance between the light-curing unit tip and the resin cement surface.

  7. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of three resin based dual-cure core build-up materials: An In-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Narad, Aditi; Boruah, Lalit C; Rajkumar, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    The in-vitro study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of three recently introduced dual-cure resin based core build-up materials namely ParaCore, FluoroCore, and MultiCore. One hundred twenty extracted permanent human mandibular molar teeth were taken and sectioned horizontally beneath the dentinoenamel junction to expose the coronal dentin. The specimens obtained were divided into three main groups based on the materials used and then further divided into four sub-groups based on time interval with ten samples each. The dentin surface was treated with the respective adhesives of the groups and then bulk filled with core build-up materials. The attained samples were than subjected to shear loading in Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's HSD, and Levene's test. The mean SBS was highest in MultiCore at all time periods as compared to FluoroCore and ParaCore and was also higher at 48 h thermocycling in all three groups studied. MultiCore dual-cure resin based core build-up material showed the highest mean SBS as compared to FluoroCore and ParaCore. SBS was not negatively affected by thermocycling.

  8. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of three resin based dual-cure core build-up materials: An In-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gaurav; Narad, Aditi; Boruah, Lalit C.; Rajkumar, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The in-vitro study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of three recently introduced dual-cure resin based core build-up materials namely ParaCore, FluoroCore, and MultiCore. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty extracted permanent human mandibular molar teeth were taken and sectioned horizontally beneath the dentinoenamel junction to expose the coronal dentin. The specimens obtained were divided into three main groups based on the materials used and then further divided into four sub-groups based on time interval with ten samples each. The dentin surface was treated with the respective adhesives of the groups and then bulk filled with core build-up materials. The attained samples were than subjected to shear loading in Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's HSD, and Levene's test. Results: The mean SBS was highest in MultiCore at all time periods as compared to FluoroCore and ParaCore and was also higher at 48 h thermocycling in all three groups studied. Conclusion: MultiCore dual-cure resin based core build-up material showed the highest mean SBS as compared to FluoroCore and ParaCore. SBS was not negatively affected by thermocycling. PMID:26180422

  9. Marginal adaptation of dentin bonded ceramic inlays: effects of bonding systems and luting resin composites.

    PubMed

    Haller, Bernd; Hässner, Katrin; Moll, Karlheinz

    2003-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation of bonded inlays of lucite-reinforced glass ceramic (Empress) to dentin as influenced by different bonding systems and by luting resin composites (LRCs) with different curing modes. Forty-eight Empress inlays etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid and treated with a silane-coupling agent (Monobond-S) were bonded to two-surface Class II cavities. Two total-etch bonding systems (OptiBond FL, Nexus) and one bonding system with selective enamel etching and a self-conditioning dentin primer (ART Bond) were included in the study. ART Bond was tested with and without the pre-curing of a first layer of adhesive resin selectively applied to the cervical cavity floor (selective double-bond technique). Each bonding system was used in combination with a light-cured resin composite (Prodigy) and a dual-cured LRC (Nexus or Vita Cerec Duo Cement). Marginal integrity was evaluated before and after thermocycling (TC) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dye penetration tests were performed after TC was completed. The median percentages of continuous margin in dentin ranged from 80% to 100% before TC and from 53.5% to 96.1 % after TC. After TC, the influence of the bonding system was more pronounced than that of the LRC. In combination with the LC resin composite, ART Bond with precuring was significantly higher and the Nexus bonding system had significantly lower proportions of continuous margin than all the other bonding systems investigated. Swelling of the adhesive along the gingival margins was frequently found with the Nexus bonding system and with ART Bond without pre-curing. Microleakage was detected with all bonding system/LRC combinations, with somewhat lower rates in specimens completed using the selective double-bond technique. With the exception of the Nexus bonding system, post-TC marginal integrity was not influenced by the curing mode of the LRC (LC vs DC). In conclusion, the marginal quality of dentin bonded

  10. Comparison of immediate and delayed light-curing on nano-indentation creep and contraction stress of dual-cured resin cements.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Ghasemi, Maede; Abedinzadeh, Reza; Samimi, Pouran

    2016-12-01

    Polymerization protocol of dual-cured resin cements plays a great role in the success of restorations. Knowledge about the effect of light-curing protocol on the contraction stress value and the mechanical properties would assist in the development, selection and handling of the resin cement material. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two different light-curing protocols on the polymerization shrinkage stress and nano-creep of two current dual-cured resin cements. Twenty-four soda-lime glass disks, measuring 1mm in thickness, with a perforation in their center that measured 3mm in diameter, received four Vickers indentations at a distance of 500µ from the margin. The indent cracks were measured before and at 15-, 30- and 60-min intervals after restoration of the cavity with either CLEARFIL™ SA or RelyX™ Ultimate cement. Twelve specimens were prepared from each resin cement and divided into two groups according to the curing protocol used: immediate and delayed light-curing. Stresses at the indent impression were calculated by considering glass fracture toughness and the increase in crack length. Stress at the bonded interface was calculated using the Lame equation for thick-walled cylinder under an internal pressure. Nano-indentation hardness, modulus of elasticity and creep of each cement were measured under a 10-mN load for 20s holding time. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24h before the nano-indentation tests. Data were analyzed with two-way and repeated-measures ANOVA (α≤0.05). Curing protocol had a significant effect on both resin cements; higher stress values were recorded with the immediate curing mode (P=0.033). Curing mode did not exert a significant effect on the modulus of elasticity (P=0.595) and hardness (P=0.454) of resin cements. However, in relation to creep, it exhibited significant effects (P<0.0001). Immediate light-curing resulted in higher polymerization stress and lower nano-creep values

  11. Light Transmission of Novel CAD/CAM Materials and Their Influence on the Degree of Conversion of a Dual-curing Resin Cement.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    To evaluate the light transmission characteristics of different types, shades, and thicknesses of novel CAD/CAM materials and their effect on the degree of conversion (DC) of a dual-curing resin cement. Square specimens (12 × 12 mm2) of three CAD/CAM materials - GC Cerasmart, Lava Ultimate, Vita Enamic - of different thicknesses (1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 mm, n = 5 per thickness) were irradiated with an LED unit. The amount of transmitted light was quantified. Thereafter, the DC% of the dual-curing resin cement (RelyX Ultimate) was recorded after 15 min using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's HSD post-hoc test at a significance level of p < 0.05. Regression analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between the DC and radiant energy, and the DC and thickness. Although the type and shade of CAD/CAM material significantly affect transmitted light irradiation (p < 0.0001), degrees of conversion are similar when the CAD/CAM material or material shade were taken into consideration (p > 0.05). Conversely, material thickness significantly affected light transmission (p < 0.0001) and DC (p < 0.0001). Multiple effects of material, shade, and thickness did not significantly affect the evaluated parameters (p = 0.638 for light irradiation; p = 0.637 for DC). Linear regression analysis showed a correlation between delivered energy and DC% results of the Vita Enamic (R² = 0.4169, p < 0.0001). Reduced light transmission in 2-mm-thick specimens of all CAD/CAM materials indicates that proper curing of the cement beneath CAD/CAM materials should be ensured.

  12. Color difference of composite resins after cementation with different shades of resin luting cement.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Esra; Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Karakaya, Izgen; Aktore, Huseyin

    2017-07-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color difference of nanohybrid and ormocer-based composite resins with different thicknesses when 4 different shades of resin luting cement were used. 56 disc specimens of each composite resin (Aelite aesthetic enamel, Ceram-X mono) with 0.5 and 1 mm thicknesses were fabricated. Baseline color measurements were performed using a clinical spectrophotometer. The specimens of each thicknesses of each resin were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the shades of resin luting cement (white/A1, yellow/universal/A3, transparent and white opaque) (n = 7). Mixed resin cement was applied onto the resin specimens using a Teflon mold in 0.1 mm thickness. Color measurements of cemented composite resin specimens were repeated and color difference (∆E) between baseline and after cementation measurements was calculated. ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. The opaque shade had significantly increased ∆E values as compared to the other shades (p < 0.05). For all shades except white opaque in both thicknesses, ∆E values of aelite aesthetic enamel were higher as compared to Ceram-X mono. There is no significant difference between 2 thicknesses for both resins in terms of ∆E values. The shade of resin cement and the type of the resin affected the final color; however, the thickness of composite resin had no influence on the final color of restoration. Selecting the shade of resin luting cement before cementation of indirect composite laminate restoration is important to achieve final color match.

  13. A comparison study on the flexural strength and compressive strength of four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, Xuehui; Xu, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in flexural strength and compressive strength between four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements that are commonly used in clinics. Furthermore, this study investigates the influence of curing mode on the flexural strength and compressive strength of dual-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Initially, flexural strength and compressive strength test specimens were prepared for RL, NR, GCP, and GCC. The RL group and NR group were cured by the light-curing mode and chemical-curing mode. Five specimens were prepared for each test group, and the flexural strength and compressive strength of each were measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with SPSS 13.0. Furthermore, the fracture morphology of the flexural specimens was observed by SEM. The result of the mean flexural strength of each group is as follows: the NR light-cured group > NR chemically-cured group > GCP > RL light-cured group > GCC > RL chemically-cured group. More specifically, the flexural strength of the NR light-cured group ((42.903±4.242) MPa) is significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the other groups, and in addition, the flexural strength of the light-curing mode is significantly higher (P<0. 05) than that of both the NR and RL chemically-cured groups. The result of the mean compressive strength of each group is as follows: GCP > NR chemically-cured group > NR light-cured group > GCC > RL light-cured group > RL chemically-cured group. Although the compressive strengths of the NR and GCP groups are higher than those of the GCC and RL groups, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between NR and GCP, and no significant differences between GCC and RL. Furthermore, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between the two curing modes on NR and RL. From the present study, it can be concluded that NR has superior flexural strength and compressive strength compared to the other three materials. Additionally, the

  14. Microleakage in ceramic inlays luted with different resin cements.

    PubMed

    Mota, Cristiane Soares; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Camacho, Guilherme Brião; Powers, John M

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microleakage in ceramic inlays using different resin cements with margins in enamel and cementum/dentin interfaces. Standard Class II MOD inlay cavities were prepared in 32 noncarious human premolars. The cavities were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8): cavities were treated with Single Bond and incrementally filled with a composite resin (P60); Enforce group: feldspathic ceramic inlays were luted using Prime & Bond 2.1 and Enforce; RelyX group: inlays were cemented with Single Bond and RelyX ARC; Resin Cement group: ceramic inlays were bonded using Single Bond and Resin Cement. Ceramic inlays were previously treated with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 2 min, followed by silane application. After 7 days of storage in distilled water, teeth were submitted to thermocycling. After applying nail varnish, specimens were immersed in 2% aqueous solution of methylene blue for 8 h. After washing, teeth were cut into three sections through the restorations, and the leakage was assessed using a standardized score. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). Dye leakage at margins in enamel was statistically lower (p < 0.01) than at cementum/dentin interfaces. RelyX ARC performed better (p < 0.05) than resin cement (enamel) and composite restorations (cementum/dentin). No other statistical differences were observed. Both the material and the substrate interface influenced microleakage of the ceramic inlays.

  15. Bonding of adhesive resin luting agents to metal and amalgam.

    PubMed

    Osman, Saad A; McCabe, John F; Walls, Angus W G

    2008-12-01

    The shear bond strength of three adhesives, Panavia 21, Superbond, All Bond C&B Cement, and a dual cure resin (Variolink), to Ni-Cr-Be (Rexillium III), Midigold (Type III gold) and Amalgam (Sybraloy) were determined. Fifteen samples were prepared using 800 grit abrasive papers for Ni-Cr and Midi-Gold, and 100 grit papers for amalgam. Ni-Cr-Be and Midi-Gold samples were sandblasted for 30 s and steam cleaned for 10 s. The adhesives were bonded to the samples using gelatine capsules and were matured for 24 h in water at 37 degrees C. The samples were debonded in shear using an Instron at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The data was analysed using ANOVA and a Tukey test. The bond strength of Superbond to both metal alloys was significantly higher (P<0.05) than any of the materials tested, with the exception Panavia 21 to gold. The bond strength of All Bond C&B cement had shown to be not significant difference from those of Panavia 21 and Variolink, when bonded to Rexillium and Midi-Gold, respectively. The bond strength of All Bond C&B Cement to amalgam was significantly greater (P<0.05) than those of the other materials tested. The shear bond strength to gold showed lower bonding for all adhesives when compared with Rexillium (P<.001). The ranking of bond strength to both alloys was as follows: Superbond>Panavia 21>All Bond C&B>Variolink. The nature of substrate to be used for bonding and the adhesive material itself are important factors in bonding which can be achieved between cast metals and prepared teeth with amalgam filling. Superbond should be successful as an adhesive for the attachment of all substrates tested, with the possible exception of amalgam, for which All Bond C&B Cement gives the best result.

  16. Indirect composite restorations luted with two different procedures: A ten years follow up clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Preti, Alessandro; Vano, Michele; Derchi, Giacomo; Mangani, Francesco; Cerutti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate posterior indirect composite resin restoration ten years after placement luted with two different procedures. Study Design: In 23 patients 22 inlays/onlays (Group A) were luted using a dual-cured resin composite cement and 26 inlays/onlays (Group B) were luted using a light cured resin composite for a total of 48 Class I and Class II indirect composite resin inlays and onlays. The restorations were evaluated at 2 time points: 1) one week after placement (baseline evaluation) and 2) ten years after placement using the modified USPHS criteria. The Mann-Whitney and the Wilcoxon tests were used to examine the difference between the results of the baseline and 10 years evaluation for each criteria. Results: Numerical but not statistically significant differences were noted on any of the recorded clinical parameters (p>0.05) between the inlay/onlays of Group A and Group B. 91% and 94 % of Group A and B respectively were rated as clinically acceptable in all the evaluated criteria ten years after clinical function. Conclusions: Within the limits of the study the results showed after ten years of function a comparable clinical performance of indirect composite resin inlays/onlays placed with a light cure or dual cure luting procedures. Key words:Light curing composite, dual curing composite, indirect composite restoration, inlays/onlays, clinical trial. PMID:25810842

  17. Push-out strength of translucent fibre posts cemented using a dual-curing technique or a light-curing self-adhering material.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, L; Scaminaci Russo, D; Baldini, M; Bertini, F; Steier, L; Ferrari, M

    2012-03-01

    To compare by means of a push-out test the interfacial strength of a dual-curing resin cement and a light-curing self-adhering resin composite when used in translucent fibre post cementation. Thirty-four extracted human premolars with single canals were selected and root filled. Translucent fibre posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were luted into the root canal using two resinous luting systems (n = 17). Dual-Curing Technique (DC): the specimens were treated with Excite DSC and RelyX ARC, which were light-cured simultaneously through the post for 60 s. Light-Curing Self-Adhering Technique (LCSA): the specimens were treated with Vertise Flow, which was light-cured through the post for 60 s. The specimens were sectioned transversally into six slices to perform the push-out test at the coronal, middle and apical regions of the root canals. Data were analysed by two-way anova. All specimens were analysed by stereomicroscopy and SEM to determine fracture patterns. There were no significant differences between the DC and LCSA techniques (P = 0.703) in any of the canal regions. Root region was not a significant factor for push-out values (P = 0.255) and group-region interactions were not significant (P = 0.740). For the DC technique, the majority of the fracture patterns (73.3%) were adhesive at the interface between dual-curing resin cement and adhesive. For the LCSA technique, the majority of the fracture patterns (71.7%) were adhesive at the interface between light-curing self-adhering resin composite and dentine. The interfacial strength between light-curing self-adhering resin composite and root canal walls is equivalent to the interfacial strength between dual-curing cement and root canal walls. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  18. Influence of light-exposure methods and depths of cavity on the microhardness of dual-cured core build-up resin composites

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIDA, Keiichi; MENG, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness number (KHN) of dual-cured core build-up resin composites (DCBRCs) at 6 depths of cavity after 3 post-irradiation times by 4 light-exposure methods. Material and Methods Five specimens each of DCBRCs (Clearfil DC Core Plus [DCP] and Unifil Core EM [UCE]) were filled in acrylic resin blocks with a semi-cylindrical cavity and light-cured using an LED light unit (power density: 1,000 mW/cm2)at the top surface by irradiation for 20 seconds (20 s), 40 seconds (40 s), bonding agent plus 20 seconds (B+20 s), or 40 seconds plus light irradiation of both sides of each acrylic resin block for 40 seconds each (120 s). KHN was measured at depths of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mm at 0.5 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days post-irradiation. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's compromise post-hoc test with a significance level of p<0.05. Results For both DCBRCs, at 0.5 hours post-irradiation, the 20 s and 40 s methods showed the highest KHN at depth of 0.5 mm. The 40 s method showed significantly higher KHN than the 20 s method at all depths of cavity and post-irradiation times, except UCE at depth of 0.5 mm (p<0.05). The 120 s method did not result in significantly different KHN at all depths of cavity and post-irradiation times (p>0.05). In DCP, and not UCE, at 24 hours and 7 days post-irradiation, the B+20 s method showed significantly higher KHN at all depths of cavity, except the depth of 0.5 mm (p<0.05). Conclusion KHN depends on the light-exposure method, use of bonding agent, depth of cavity, post-irradiation time, and material brand. Based on the microhardness behavior, DCBRCs are preferably prepared by the effective exposure method, when used for a greater depth of cavity. PMID:24626248

  19. Effect of activation modes on the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and microhardness of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah-Rang; Jeon, Yong-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Choi, Jae Won; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and microhardnss of several selfadhesive resin cements (Rely-X U200, Clearfill SA Luting, G-CEM LinkAce, Maxcem Elite, PermaCem 2.0, and Zirconite) using different activation modes (self-cured, light-cured) and testing time (immediately, 24 h, thermocycling). Specimens were prepared for the compressive strength (Ø 4×6 mm) and diametral tensile strength and microhardness (Ø 6×3 mm) according to ISO standards. The strength after 24 h was higher than immediately after. In addition, G-CEM showed the highest values. In terms of the activation modes, Rely-X U200, PermaCem 2.0 had higher values in the light-curing than the self-curing. In conclusion, all cements demonstrated clinically available strength values and revealed differences in strength according to their composition, testing time and activation mode. Furthermore, correlation was found between the microhardness (degree of conversion) and mechanical strengths of the cements tested.

  20. Micro-tensile bond strength of three luting resins to human regional dentin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Ludwig, Klaus; Adelung, Rainer; Kern, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the micro-tensile bonding strength (muTBS) of three luting resins to human regional dentin. Dentin disks from non-carious third molars were prepared from different regions (s, superficial dentin; d, deep dentin; c, cervical dentin), and divided into groups based on anatomical locations and luting resins (Super-Bond C&B: SB; Panavia F 2.0: PF; RelyX Unicem: RU): SB-s, SB-d, SB-c; PF-s, PF-d, PF-c; RU-s, RU-d, RU-c. Luting resins were used according to the manufacturers' instructions, to bond 1-mm-diameter PMMA or composite rods to the exposed dentin specimens under a load of 7.5 N, in the self-curing mode. After storage for 1 or 3 days, muTBS was tested at a cross-head speed of 1mm/min. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test. The bonding interface and fractography analyses were performed with SEM and TEM. ANOVA results showed that muTBS to superficial dentin was significantly higher than to deep or cervical dentin for all three luting resins. SB-s and PF-s, with the highest muTBS, failed primarily cohesively in luting resin. muTBS of SB-d and SB-c were significantly higher than those of PF and RU. RU, with the lowest regional muTBS, failed mostly within demineralized dentin. SEM and TEM showed that adhesive failures in SB and PF occurred at the top of the hybrid layer (HL), but no obvious HL was observed in RU. Luting resins with different chemical formulations and applications yield significantly different bond strengths to different regions in human dentin.

  1. Radiopacity of different resin-based and conventional luting cements compared to human and bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Gürel; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-02-03

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of different resin-based luting materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disc specimens (N=130, n=10 per group) (diameter: 6 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared from 10 resin-based and 3 conventional luting cements. Human canine dentin (n=10), bovine enamel (n=10), bovine dentin (n=10) and Aluminium (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted and equivalent Al thickness values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The radiopacity values of conventional cements and two resin luting materials (Rely X Unicem and Variolink II), were significantly higher than that of bovine enamel that could be preferred for restorations cemented on enamel. Since all examined resin-based luting materials showed radiopacity values equivalent to or greater than that of human and bovine dentin, they could be considered suitable for the restorations cemented on dentin.

  2. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts luted with unfilled resin cement.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Carlos A; Monticelli, Francesca; Cantoro, Amerigo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Ferrari, Marco

    2009-02-01

    The study evaluates the behavior of different adhesive systems and resin cements in fiber post placement, with the intent to clarify the possible role of unfilled resin as a luting material for fiber posts. Two luting agents (Dual-Link and Unfilled Resin) for cementing fiber posts into root canals were applied either with All-Bond 2 or One-Step Plus, or without an adhesive system, and challenged with the push-out test. Slices of roots restored with posts were loaded until post segment extrusion in the apical-coronal direction. Failure modes were analyzed under SEM. Push-out strength was significantly influenced by the luting agent (p < 0.05), but not by the bonding strategy (p > 0.05). The best results were obtained in combination with Unfilled Resin with One-Step Plus. Dual-Link groups failed mainly cohesively within the cement, while Unfilled Resin demonstrated more adhesive fracture at the post interface. The results of this study support the hypothesis that adhesive unfilled resin application is essential for achieving high bond strength to radicular dentin.

  3. Aspects of bonding between resin luting cements and glass ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Tsoi, James Kit-Hon; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Burrow, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    The bonding interface of glass ceramics and resin luting cements plays an important role in the long-term durability of ceramic restorations. The purpose of this systematic review is to discuss the various factors involved with the bond between glass ceramics and resin luting cements. An electronic Pubmed, Medline and Embase search was conducted to obtain laboratory studies on resin-ceramic bonding published in English and Chinese between 1972 and 2012. Eighty-three articles were included in this review. Various factors that have a possible impact on the bond between glass ceramics and resin cements were discussed, including ceramic type, ceramic crystal structure, resin luting cements, light curing, surface treatments, and laboratory test methodology. Resin-ceramic bonding has been improved substantially in the past few years. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching followed by silanizaiton has become the most widely accepted surface treatment for glass ceramics. However, further studies need to be undertaken to improve surface preparations without HF because of its toxicity. Laboratory test methods are also required to better simulate the actual oral environment for more clinically compatible testing. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of ultrasound application on inlays luting with self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Cantoro, Amerigo; Goracci, Cecilia; Coniglio, Ivanovic; Magni, Elisa; Polimeni, Antonella; Ferrari, Marco

    2011-10-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the influence of the cement manipulation and ultrasounds application on the bonding potential of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin by microtensile bond strength testing and microscopic observations of the interface. Fifty-six standardized mesio-occlusal class II cavities were prepared in extracted third molars. Class II inlays were made using the nano-hybrid resin composite Gradia Forte (GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), following the manufacturer's instruction. The sample was randomly divided into two groups (n = 28) according to the luting technique. Half of the specimens were luted under a static seating pressure (P), while the other ones were cemented under vibration (V). The inlays were luted using the following self-adhesive resin cements: G-Cem (G, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan) Automix (GA) and Capsule (GC); RelyX Unicem (RU, 3 M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) Clicker (RUC) and Aplicap (RUA). Microtensile sticks and specimens for scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were obtained from the luted teeth. The interfacial strengths measured for the cements under static pressure or ultrasonic vibration were [median (interquartile range)]: GC/V 4 (2.3-7.9); GC/P 6.8 (4.1-10.1); GA/V 3 (1.9-6.7); GA/P 1.9 (0-5.1); RUC/V 6.6 (4.6-9.8); RUC/P 4.1 (1.8-6.4); RUA/V 6.2 (2.4-10.4); RUA/P 3.4 (0-5.4). The cement formulation influenced dentin bond strength of G. RU bond strength was affected by the luting technique. SEM analysis revealed a homogeneous structure and reduced porosities for both cements as a result of ultrasonic vibration. RU benefited from the application of ultrasounds, while GC achieved higher bond strengths than GA.

  5. Comparison of the Solubility of Conventional Luting Cements with that of the Polyacid Modified Composite Luting Cement and Resin-modified Glass lonomer Cement.

    PubMed

    Karkera, Reshma; Raj, A P Nirmal; Isaac, Lijo; Mustafa, Mohammed; Reddy, R Naveen; Thomas, Mathew

    2016-12-01

    This study was planned to find the solubility of the conventional luting cements in comparison with that of the polyacid-modified composite luting cement and recently introduced resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) with exposure to water at early stages of mixing. An in vitro study of the solubility of the following five commercially available luting cements, viz., glass ionomer cement (GIC) (Fuji I, GC), zinc phosphate (Elite 100, GC), polyacid-modified resin cement (PMCR) (Principle, Dentsply), polycarboxylate cement (PC) (Poly - F, Dentsply), RMGIC (Vitremer, 3M), was conducted. For each of these groups of cements, three resin holders were prepared containing two circular cavities of 5 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. All the cements to be studied were mixed in 30 seconds and then placed in the prepared cavities in the resin cement holder for 30 seconds. From all of the observed luting cements, PMCR cement had shown the lowest mean loss of substance at all immersion times and RMGIC showed the highest mean loss of substanceat all immersion times in water from 2 to 8 minutes. The solubility of cements decreased by 38% for GIC, 33% for ZnPO4, 50% for PMCR, 29% for PC, and 17% for RMGIC. The PMCR cement (Principle-Dentsply) had shown lowest solubility to water at the given time intervals of immersion. This was followed by PC, zinc phosphate, and GIC to various time intervals of immersion.

  6. Ultrasonic cleaning of silica-coated zirconia influences bond strength between zirconia and resin luting material.

    PubMed

    Nishigawa, Goro; Maruo, Yukinori; Irie, Masao; Oka, Morihiko; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuomi

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how ultrasonic cleaning of silica-coated zirconia surfaces would influence the latter's bond strength to resin luting material. Forty zirconia specimens were divided into four groups: one air abrasion group and three silica-coated groups. Silica-coated specimens were cleaned with distilled water using an ultrasonic cleaner after tribochemical silica coating and then divided into three groups according to cleaning durations: 1 minute, 5 minutes, or without cleaning. Following which, resin luting material was polymerized against the specimens. After storage in water for 24 hours, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test. Shear bond strength of silica-coated group without cleaning was significantly higher than the other three groups, but there were no statistically significant differences among the three latter groups. SEM images suggested visible differences among the treatment methods. With EDXS analysis, it was revealed that ultrasonic cleaning decreased the silica content on the treated surfaces. Therefore, results showed that ultrasonic cleaning of tribochemically silica-coated zirconia surfaces decreased the adhesion efficacy to resin luting material.

  7. Shear bond strength of four resin cements used to lute ceramic core material to human dentin.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Subutayhan; Eldeniz, Ayçe Unverdi; Usumez, Aslihan

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of four resin cements on the shear bond strength of a ceramic core material to dentin. One hundred twenty molar teeth were embedded in a self-curing acrylic resin. The occlusal third of the crowns were sectioned under water cooling. All specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 30 teeth each according to the resin cement used. One hundred twenty cylindrical-shaped, 2.7-mm wide, 3-mm high ceramic core materials were heat-pressed. The core cylinders were then luted with one of the four resin systems to dentin (Super-Bond C&B, Chemiace II, Variolink II, and Panavia F). Half of the specimens (n = 15) were tested after 24 hours; the other half (n = 15) were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 1 day and then thermocycled 1000 times between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C prior to testing. Shear bond strength of each specimen was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The bond strength values were calculated in MPa, and the results were statistically analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests. The shear bond strength varied significantly depending on the resin cement used (p < 0.05). The differences in the bond strengths after thermocycling were not remarkable as compared with the corresponding prethermal cycling groups (p > 0.05). Significant interactions were present between resin cement and thermocycling (p < 0.05). After 24 hours, the specimens luted with Variolink II (5.3 +/- 2.2 MPa) showed the highest shear bond strength, whereas the specimens luted with Chemiace II (1.6 +/- 0.4 MPa) showed the lowest. After thermocycling, the bond strength values of specimens luted with Chemiace II (1.1 +/- 0.1 MPa) and Super-Bond C&B (1.7 +/- 0.4 MPa) decreased; however, this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The increase in the shear bond strength values in the Panavia F (4.5 +/- 0.7 MPa) and Variolink II (5.5 +/- 2.1 MPa) groups after thermocycling

  8. Comparison of Film Thickness of Two Commercial Brands of Glass lonomer Cement and One Dual-cured Composite: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Rajat R; Singh, Rishav; Barua, Pranamee; Hajira, Nausheen; Gupta, Naveen; Thakkar, Rohit R

    2017-08-01

    The present study is undertaken to examine the film thickness of three most commonly used luting cements and to determine their usage as a luting agent. This study was carried out strictly according to the guidelines of American Dental Association (ADS) specification no. 8. Two glass slabs of 5 cm in length and 2 cm in width were used. One glass slab was kept over the other glass slab and the space between the two glass slabs was measured using metallurgical microscope at the power of 10*. Two brands of glass ionomer cement (GIC) and one dual-cured resin cement were used in this study. The test cement is sandwiched between two glass slabs. A static load of 15 kg was applied using universal testing machine on the glass slabs for 1 hour and the space present between the two glass slabs was measured using metallurgical microscope at the power of 10*. Greatest film thickness was found in group III (Paracore) followed by group II (micron) and lowest in group I (GC luting and lining cement). All the tested samples can be used for luting purposes. Greatest film thickness was observed in Paracore followed by micron and lowest in GC luting and lining cement. This suggests that the 25 to 27°C is ideal for mixing of the cement when used for luting consistency. The cement with film thickness more than 30 urn should never be used for luting purposes. The dentist should choose the luting cement with utmost care noting the film thickness and bond strength of the cement. The cement with low exothermic heat production and good bond strength should be encouraged.

  9. Relined Fiberglass Post: Effect of Luting Length, Resin Cement, and Cyclic Loading on the Bond to Weakened Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    de Souza, N C; Marcondes, M L; da Silva, Dff; Borges, G A; Júnior, Lh Burnett; Spohr, A M

    This study evaluated the effects of luting length of the post, the resin cement, and cyclic loading on pull-out bond strength of fiberglass posts relined with composite resin in weakened roots. The canals of 80 bovine incisors were endodontically treated and weakened with diamond burs. The teeth were randomly divided into eight groups (n=10) according to the luting procedures of the relined fiberglass post (RFP): In groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, the RFPs were luted with RelyX ARC, and in groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 they were luted with RelyX U200. In groups 1, 3, 5, and 7, the RFPs were luted at a length of 5 mm, and in groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 they were luted at a length of 10 mm. Specimens from groups 3, 4, 7, and 8 were submitted to cyclic loading. Specimens were subjected to a pull-out bond strength test in a universal testing machine. The results (MPa) were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test (α=0.05). Six human upper anterior teeth were used to analyze the bond interface by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The pull-out bond strength of RFPs luted with RelyX U200 was statistically higher than that of RelyX ARC. Cyclic loading influenced the bond strength only for the luting length of 5 mm. CLSM analysis revealed the formation of resin cement tags for both materials. Luting length is an important factor in retaining RFPs in weakened roots when they are subjected to cyclic loading, and RelyX U200 resulted in greater bond strengths to the root canal in comparison with RelyX ARC.

  10. Shear bond strengths of a two-paste system resin luting agent used to bond alloys to enamel.

    PubMed

    Dixon, D L; Breeding, L C

    1997-08-01

    Adhesive resin luting agents are used to successfully bond the metal surfaces of fixed prostheses to teeth. Panavia 21 luting agent is a new addition to the series of Panavia adhesive resin luting agents. This investigation measured the shear bond strengths of two types of alloy specimens (Olympia and Rexillium III) bonded to prepared human enamel (etched and unetched) with Panavia 21. After a simulated porcelain firing sequence, the alloy specimens were bonded to the teeth and subjected to shear testing after water storage for 2 weeks, thermocycling for 500 cycles, and water storage for an additional 2 weeks. Data were analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05). The shear bond strengths of Rexillium III and tinplated Olympia specimens bonded to prepared and unetched enamel were significantly lower than for specimens bonded to prepared and etched enamel with Panavia 21 luting agent.

  11. Luting glass ceramic restorations using a self-adhesive resin cement under different dentin conditions.

    PubMed

    Guarda, Guilherme B; Gonçalves, Luciano S; Correr, Américo B; Moraes, Rafael R; Sinhoreti, Mário A C; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bond strength of ceramic restorations luted using a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE) under different dentin conditions. In the experimental groups, ceramic restorations were luted to bovine incisors with RelyX Unicem under the following conditions: [Dry dentin]: surface was dried using air stream for 15 s; [Moist dentin]: excess dentin moisture was removed with absorbent paper; [Bonding agent]: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) self-etching adhesive system was previously applied to dentin. In the Control group, cementation was done using an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Excite DSC) and Variolink II resin cement (Ivoclar Vivadent). Photoactivation of the resin cements was performed with UltraLume LED 5 unit (Ultradent). The restorations (n=5 per group) were sectioned into beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Failure modes were classified under Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) (x120 magnification). The bond strength was dependent on the moisture status of the dentin. Bond strength in the "dry dentin group" was significantly lower than that of all other groups, which showed similar results. A predominance of mixed failures was detected for the control group, while a predominance of adhesive failures was observed for the "bonding agent" and "dry dentin" groups. The "moist dentin" group presented predominantly cohesive failures within the luting material. The previous application of a self-etching adhesive showed no significant effect. Only excess dentin moisture should be removed for the cementation of ceramic restorations with self-adhesive resin cements.

  12. Cuspal deflection during polymerisation of composite lutes of ceramic inlays.

    PubMed

    Martin, N; Jedynakiewicz, N M; Williams, D F

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the cuspal deflection that occurs in teeth as a result of the dimensional changes of resin-based lutes during polymerisation. Standardised MOD cavities were cut in 15 intact human premolar teeth using a custom paralleling device. A ceramic inlay was machined by the CEREC 2 system for each tooth ensuring an interface width of 50 microns (SD = 17.5) at the cavity margin. The 15 teeth were divided into three groups of five according to the cementation system employed: a microfilled hybrid posterior composite; a compomer restorative; a dual-cure luting composite. The inter-cuspal tooth dimension was recorded continuously with a laser micrometer assembly during a 2 min photoactivation period and a further 30 min post-activation period. A clear overall reduction in tooth dimension was detectable for the first 10 min of polymerisation. The mean changes ranged from -0.02% to -0.06% depending on the nature of the luting material. In addition, all samples exhibited a slight expansion of 0.03% during the time of light-activation. The dimensional changes that teeth experience during the polymerisation of resin-based lutes are clearly detectable. It can be postulated that an increase in the dimensions of the teeth during photoactivation occurs as a result of expansion of the lute due to the thermal energy delivered.

  13. Self-adhesive resin cement versus zinc phosphate luting material: a prospective clinical trial begun 2003.

    PubMed

    Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin; Wimmer, Jutta; Lang, Reinhold; Kolbeck, Carola; Bürgers, Ralf; Handel, Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    The literature demonstrates that conventional luting of metal-based restorations using zinc phosphate cements is clinically successful over 20 years. This study compared the clinical outcomes of metal-based fixed partial dentures luted conventionally with zinc phosphate and self-adhesive resin cement. Forty-nine patients (mean age 54+/-13 years) received 49 metal-based fixed partial dentures randomly luted using zinc phosphate (Richter & Hoffmann, Berlin, Germany) or self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem Aplicap, 3M ESPE, Germany) at the University Medical Center Regensburg. The core build-up material was highly viscous glass ionomer; the finishing line was in dentin. The study included 42 posterior, 5 anterior crowns and two onlays. Forty-seven restorations were made of precious alloys, 2 of non-precious alloys. The restorations were clinically examined every year. The clinical performance was checked for plaque (0-5; PI, Quigley-Hein), bleeding (0-4; PBI; Mühlemann) and attachment scores. The examination included pulp vitality and percussion tests. Means of scores, standard deviation, cumulative survival and complication rates were calculated using life tables. The mean observation time was 3.16+/-0.6 years (min: 2.0; max: 4.5 years). During that time no restoration was lost, no recementation became necessary. One endodontic treatment was performed in the self-adhesive composite group after 2.9 years. At study end bleeding (1.44 RelyX Unicem vs. 1.25 zinc phosphate) and plaque (1.64 RelyX Unicem vs. 1.0 zinc phosphate) scores showed no statistically significant difference. The self-adhesive resin cement performed clinically as well and can be used as easily as zinc phosphate cement to retain metal-based restorations over a 38-month observation period.

  14. Short-term clinical evaluation of a resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cement.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Sumie; Morigami, Makoto; Sugizaki, Jumpei; Yamada, Toshimoto

    2005-01-01

    Resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cements were developed by adding resin components to conventional glass-ionomer cement. This improved physical properties and bonding characteristics. FujiCEM is the first paste-paste-type resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cement that enables consistent mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term clinical performance of FujiCEM, which was used for final cementation of indirect restorations, such as inlays, crowns, and fixed partial dentures. A total of 290 restorations (165 crowns, 71 inlays, 15 onlays, 36 fixed partial dentures, 3 implant superstructures) were placed in 268 patients (137 males, 131 females) with a mean age of 54.4+/-13.0 years. Restorations were luted with FujiCEM mixed for 10 seconds after the teeth surfaces were treated with a conditioner containing 10% citric acid and 2% ferric chloride for 20 seconds, washed, and dried with gentle air flow. Out of the investigated 337 teeth, 99 (29%) teeth were vital, and 238 (71%) were nonvital. These restorations were followed up for a period of 21 months. All the restorations were evaluated for postoperative sensitivity, secondary caries, gingival condition, and pocket depth. No clinical failures (eg, dislodgment, secondary caries, irritation of soft tissue, and postoperative sensitivity) were observed. FujiCEM had promising clinical performance with inlays, crowns, onlays, fixed partial dentures, and implant superstructures at 21 months after service.

  15. Effect of adhesive luting on the fracture resistance of zirconia compared to that of composite resin and lithium disilicate glass ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Myung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adhesive luting on the fracture resistance of zirconia compared to that of a composite resin and a lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Materials and Methods The specimens (dimension: 2 mm × 2 mm × 25 mm) of the composite resin, lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) were prepared. These were then divided into nine groups: three non-luting groups, three non-adhesive luting groups, and three adhesive luting groups, for each restorative material. In the non-luting groups, specimens were placed on the bovine tooth without any luting agents. In the non-adhesive luting groups, only zinc phosphate cement was used for luting the specimen to the bovine tooth. In the adhesive luting groups, specimens were pretreated, and the adhesive luting procedure was performed using a self-adhesive resin cement. For all the groups, a flexural test was performed using universal testing machine, in which the fracture resistance was measured by recording the force at which the specimen was fractured. Results The fracture resistance after adhesive luting increased by approximately 29% in the case of the composite resin, 26% in the case of the lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and only 2% in the case of Y-TZP as compared to non-adhesive luting. Conclusions The fracture resistance of Y-TZP did not increased significantly after adhesive luting as compared to that of the composite resin and the lithium disilicate glass ceramic. PMID:28194358

  16. The Effect of Simplified Bonding Agents on the Bond Strength to Dentin of Self-Activated Dual-Cure Resin Cements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    barbituric acids , aromatic sulphonate amides and tert-butyl peroxymaleic acid in dental adhesive resin. J Polym Sci 1999;72:1655- 1668. Lee Ann...is the aim of this study to verify the accuracy of the claim so that clinicians can take advantage of its properties with the comfort of knowing it...the Incompatibilities between Simplified Dental Adhesives and Self-Cure Resin Cements……………..……30 I. Eliminate the Acid -Base Reaction…………..……………31

  17. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  18. Bonding effectiveness of a self-adhesive resin-based luting cement to dentin after provisional cement contamination.

    PubMed

    Bagis, Bora; Bagis, Yildirim H; Hasanreisoğlu, Ufuk

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of provisional luting cements on the bonding performance of a resin-based self-adhesive luting cement to dentin vs that of currently used resin-based luting agents with different adhesion strategies. Forty-five prepared human molars were randomly and equally divided into three main groups according to the type of provisional luting cement applied: eugenol-containing provisional cement (Temp Bond, Kerr), eugenol-free provisional cement (Temp Bond NE, Kerr), and control where the provisionalization step was omitted. Each group was further subdivided into 3 groups based on the category of adhesive systems/ luting materials used: a two-step etch-and-rinse system (Single Bond/RelyX ARC; 3M ESPE) (RX), a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V/ Panavia F; Kuraray) (PF), and a self-adhesive luting cement (Rely X Unicem; 3M ESPE) (RU). Finally, 9 groups of 5 teeth each were prepared for the microtensile test. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Bonferroni tests revealed that definitive luting cement, provisional luting cement, and the interactions of these two factors had significant influences on dentin bond strength. The highest bond strength was obtained for PF (32.05 MPa), followed by RX (26.57 MPa) and RU (16.56 MPa) for the controls. Contamination with either eugenol-containing or eugenol-free provisional cement significantly decreased the bonding effectiveness of RX (19.08 and 19.69 MPa, respectively) and PF (14.21 and 16.67 MPa respectively) to dentin (p < 0.05). RU showed comparable bond strength values before and after provisional cement (13.93 and 14.49 MPa, respectively) application (p > 0.05). Eugenol in provisional luting cement did not produce material-related alterations in the bonding performance of the resin luting cements tested (p > 0.05). Based on these results, the self-adhesive cement which was not influenced by the provisional cement application may be promising. However, long-term laboratory and

  19. Tensile bond strength of resin luting cement to a porcelain-fusing noble alloy.

    PubMed

    Stoknorm, R; Isidor, F; Ravnholt, G

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the tensile bond strength of resin composites to a noble alloy for ceramic bonding after various surface treatments. The flat end of bars cast in the alloy were used as test specimens. Eighteen clinically relevant combinations of luting agent, airborne particle abrasion, and surface treatment were applied. After surface treatment, two bars were bonded together. Resin cement, either dual-polymerizing (Twinlook) or chemically polymerizing (Panavia EX, Panavia 21, or RBBC), was used as a luting agent. The specimens were subjected to 1,000 thermal cycles between 15 degrees C and 60 degrees C before tensile bond strength testing. The highest median bond strengths were obtained using the Silicoater MD method/Twinlook (20.6 to 26.1 MPa) or with tin-plating/ Panavia EX (24.0 MPa), but more low values were recorded among the latter specimens. Tin-plating/Panavia 21 gave median tensile bond strengths (18.1 MPa) similar to tin-plating/Panavia EX. The Silicoater MD method resulted in similar bond strengths with or without the addition of a layer of Opaquer. The traditional Silicoater method (8.0 to 12.4 MPa) gave significantly lower median tensile bond strength values, and the lost sugar crystals method resulted in a tensile bond strength of 15.4 MPa.

  20. Microhardness of dual-polymerizing resin cements and foundation composite resins for luting fiber-reinforced posts.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2014-06-01

    The optimal luting material for fiber-reinforced posts to ensure the longevity of foundation restorations remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of 3 dual-polymerizing resin cements and 2 dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins for luting fiber-reinforced posts by assessing their Knoop hardness number. Five specimens of dual-polymerizing resin cements (SA Cement Automix, G-Cem LincAce, and Panavia F2.0) and 5 specimens of dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins (Clearfil DC Core Plus and Unifil Core EM) were polymerized from the top by irradiation for 40 seconds. Knoop hardness numbers were measured at depths of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mm at 0.5 hours and 7 days after irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey compromise post hoc test (α=.05). At both times after irradiation, the 5 resins materials showed the highest Knoop hardness numbers at the 0.5-mm depth. At 7 days after irradiation, the Knoop hardness numbers of the resin materials did not differ significantly between the 8.0-mm and 10.0-mm depths (P>.05). For all materials, the Knoop hardness numbers at 7 days after irradiation were significantly higher than those at 0.5 hours after irradiation at all depths (P<.05). At 7 days after irradiation, the Knoop hardness numbers of the 5 resin materials were found to decrease in the following order: DC Core Plus, Unifil Core EM, Panavia F2.0, SA Cement Automix, and G-Cem LincAce (P<.05). The Knoop hardness number depends on the depth of the cavity, the length of time after irradiation, and the material brand. Although the Knoop hardness numbers of the 2 dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins were higher than those of the 3 dual-polymerizing resin cements, notable differences were seen among the 5 materials at all depths and at both times after irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  1. Microhardness of light- and dual-polymerizable luting resins polymerized through 7.5-mm-thick endocrowns.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Ladislav; Bouillaguet, Serge; Onisor, Ioana; Ardu, Stefano; Krejci, Ivo; Rocca, Giovanni Tommaso

    2014-10-01

    The complete polymerization of luting resins through thick indirect restorations is still questioned. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of polymerization of light- and dual-polymerizable luting resins under thick indirect composite resin and ceramic endocrowns by means of Vickers microhardness measurements. The Vickers microhardness measurements of a light-polymerizable microhybrid composite resin and a dual-polymerizable luting cement directly polymerized in a natural tooth mold for 40 seconds with a high-power light-emitting diode lamp (control) were compared with measurements after indirect irradiation through 7.5-mm-thick composite resin and ceramic endocrowns for 3 × 90 seconds. A test-to-control microhardness values ratio of 0.80 at a depth of 0.5 mm below the surface was assumed as the criterion for adequate conversion. For the Vickers microhardness measurements of a dual-polymerizable luting cement, no differences (P>.05) were found between Vickers microhardness control values and values reported after polymerization through composite resin and ceramic endocrowns. For The Vickers microhardness measurements (±SD) of a light-polymerizable microhybrid composite resin, control values were significantly (P<.05) higher (111 ±3.3) than those reported after polymerization through composite resin (100.5 ±3.8) and ceramic (99.7 ±2.3) endocrowns. However, the hardness values of The Vickers microhardness measurements of a light-polymerizable microhybrid composite resin polymerized through the endocrowns were approximately 10% to 12% lower than those of the control values. Two-way ANOVA showed the influence of the luting material on the Vickers microhardness values (P<.05). The effect of endocrown material was not significant (P>.05). Under the conditions of this in vitro study, Vickers microhardness values of the dual-polymerizable resin cement and the light-polymerizable restorative composite resin irradiated for 3 × 90 seconds with a high

  2. Effect of pulpal pressure on the microtensile bond strength of luting resin cements to human dentin.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, N; Yiu, C K Y; King, N M; Tay, F R

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of pulpal pressure on the microtensile bond strength (mTBS) of luting resin cements to human dentin and the permeability of dentin surfaces pre-treated with an adhesive and a self-etching primer. Cylindrical composite blocks were luted with resin cements (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE: ARC; Panavia F, Kuraray Medical Inc.: PF; RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE: UN) in the absence or presence of simulated pulpal pressure. The application of Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE) and ED primer 2.0 (Kuraray) was performed under 0 cm H(2)O. After each resin cement was applied, the pulpal pressure group was subjected to 20 cm H(2)O of hydrostatic pressure for 10 min during the initial setting period. Testing for mTBS was performed on 0.9 mm x 0.9 mm sectioned beams after 24h water-storage. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate the fractured surfaces after mTBS testing and additional dentin surfaces that were treated by an etchant, ED primer 2.0 and UN. Fluid permeability was measured on dentin surfaces that were applied with Adper Single Bond 2 and ED primer 2.0. Application of pulpal pressure reduced mTBS significantly in groups ARC and PF. Porous bonding interfaces due to water permeability through the cured adhesive were observed on fractured surfaces. Dentin surfaces that were applied with the adhesive and the primer were more permeable than smear layer-covered dentin. The mTBS of UN was significantly lower than ARC and PF regardless of the absence/presence of pulpal pressure. Fluid permeation during the initial setting period deteriorated the bonding quality of resin cements.

  3. Microhardness of different resin cement shades inside the root canal.

    PubMed

    Vignolo, Valeria; Fuentes, Maria-Victoria; Garrido, Miguel-Angel; Rodríguez, Jesús; Ceballos, Laura

    2012-09-01

    To compare microhardness along the root canal post space of two resin cements in different shades and a dual-cure resin core material. Root canals of 21 bovine incisors were prepared for post space. Translucent posts (X∘Post, Dentsply DeTrey) were luted using one the following resin luting agent: Calibra (Dentsply DeTrey) in Translucent, Medium and Opaque shades, RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) in Translucent, A2 and A3 shades and the dual-cure resin core material Core∘X flow. All materials were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and were all photopolymerized (Bluephase LED unit, Ivoclar Vivadent, 40s). After 24 hours, roots were transversally cut into 9 slices 1 mm thick from the coronal to apical extremes, three corresponding to each root third. Then, VHNs were recorded (100gf, 30 s) on the resin luting materials along the adhesive interface in all sections. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and SNK tests (α=0.05). A significant influence on microhardness of resin luting material in their respective shades (p<0.0001), root third (p<0.0001) and interactions between them was detected (p<0.0001). RelyX Unicem cement showed the highest microhardness values and Calibra the lowest, regardless of the shade selected. All resin luting materials tested exhibited a significantly higher microhardness in the cervical third. Microhardness of resin luting agents tested inside the canal is dependent on material brand and resin cement shade seems to be a less relevant factor. Microhardness decreased along the root canal, regardless of the shade selected.

  4. The Comparison of Sorption and Solubility Behavior of Four Different Resin Luting Cements in Different Storage Media

    PubMed Central

    Giti, Rashin; Vojdani, Mahroo; Abduo, Jaafar; Bagheri, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Structural integrity and dimensional stability are the key factors that determine the clinical success and durability of luting cements in the oral cavity. Sorption and solubility of self-adhesive resin luting cements in food-simulating solutions has not been studied sufficiently. Purpose This study aimed to compare the sorption and solubility of 2 conventional and 2 self-adhesive resin-based luting cements immersed in four different storage media. Materials and Method A total of 32 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of four resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Clearfil SA Cement (Kuraray), and Choice 2 (Bisco). Eight specimens of each material were immersed in all tested solutions including n-heptane 97%, distilled water, apple juice, or Listerine mouth wash. Sorption and solubility were measured by weighing the specimens before and after immersion and desiccation. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test with p≤ 0.05 set as the level of significance. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the materials and solutions. The effect of media on the sorption and solubility was material-dependent. While seT showed the highest values of the sorption in almost all solutions, Choice 2 showed the least values of sorption and solubility. Immersion in apple juice caused more sorption than other solutions (p≤ 0.05). Conclusion The sorption and solubility behavior of the studied cements were significantly affected by their composition and the storage media. The more hydrophobic materials with higher filler content like Choice 2 resin cement showed the least sorption and solubility. Due to their lower sorption and solubility, these types of resin-based luting cements are recommended to be used clinically. PMID:27284553

  5. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of Luting Agents on the Resultant Shade of Ceramic Veneers: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Yogesh; Pustake, Swati; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Pustake, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dentistry has found practically the best available aesthetic answer, is ceramic restoration. There are various factors that contribute to the success of ceramic veneers, like colour of underlying tooth, thickness if ceramics and the type of underlying luting cement. Shade selection and matching remains still challenge, however the shade of luting agent used for cementation of veneers produces a change in resultant shade of veneers. Aim To compare and analyze the spectrophotometric effect of opaque and transparent luting agent on resultant shade of ceramic veneers made of 2L1.5 shade (Vitapan 3D-Masters) and B2 shade (Vitapan Classic). Materials and Methods Out of 15 ceramic veneers of 2L1.5 shade (VITAPAN 3D- Master), seven teeth cemented with opaque cement and eight teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Out of 10 ceramic veneers of B2 shade (VITAPAN Classic), five teeth were cemented with opaque cement and other five teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Spectrophotometric (Macbeth U.S.A.) analysis of all ceramic veneer crowns done with optiview software and readings were recorded in Commission Internationale de I’ Eclairge {CIELAB} system and dE value was calculated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Results Spectrophotometric analysis of all the veneers cemented with opaque luting agent were lighter in shade due to significant change in dL value. Veneers cemented with transparent luting agent were darker in shade due to significant change in the dL value. Conclusion Opaque luting agent gives lighter shade and transparent luting agent gives darker shade to ceramic veneers fabricated with 2L1.5 and B2 shades. PMID:26501014

  6. Filler content and gap width after luting of ceramic inlays, using the ultrasonic insertion technique and composite resin cements. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, G; Hedlund, S O

    1997-12-01

    The effect of ultrasonic insertion on the filler content and the gap width for two brands of composite resin luting agents, intended for luting with the ultrasonic insertion technique, were studied after MOD ceramic inlays (Cerec) had been placed. In addition, the internal and marginal gap widths were determined after MOD ceramic inlays (Celay) bad been luted on extracted premolars with this technique. No statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed for either brand between the filler content obtained from the internal surfaces, from the excess luting agent, or from the luting agent as delivered. There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the final internal and marginal gap widths when the two brands of luting agent were compared with each other. Except for the final occlusal and internal gap widths obtained for the inlays luted with the Sono-Cem luting agent, no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the gap widths at the different locations determined. Thus, the ultrasonic insertion technique used did not significantly influence the filler ratio of the hybrid luting agents studied. Judged by the findings in this study, the properties of luting agents seem to greatly influence the final marginal and internal gap widths.

  7. Effects of curing mode of resin cements on the bond strength of a titanium post: An intraradicular study.

    PubMed

    Reza, Fazal; Lim, Siau Peng

    2012-04-01

    To compare push-out bond strength between self-cured and dual-cured resin cement using a titanium post. Dual-cured resin cements have been found to be less polymerized in the absence of light; thus the bond strength of cements would be compromised due to the absence of light with a metallic post. Ten extracted teeth were prepared for cement titanium PARAPOST, of five specimens each, with Panavia F [dual-cured (PF)] and Rely×Luting 2 [self-cured resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement (RL)]; the push-out bond strength (PBS) at three different levels of the sectioned roots was measured. The failure modes were observed and the significance of the differences in bond strength of the two types of cement at each level and at different levels of the same type was analyzed with non-parametric tests. The push-out bond strength of the RL group was greater at all the three levels; with significant differences at the coronal and middle levels (P<0.05). No significant differences in PBS at different levels of the same group were observed. Cement material around the post was obvious in the PF group. The failure mode was mostly adhesive between the post and resin cement in the RL group. Bond strength was greater with self-cured, resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement, using titanium post.

  8. Effect of eugenol-based root canal sealers on retention of prefabricated metal posts luted with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ali, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of two different eugenol-based root canal sealers on the retention of prefabricated metal posts luted with adhesive resin cement. Materials and methods Thirty prefabricated ParaPosts randomly divided among three groups of 10 each were luted into extracted single-rooted teeth with adhesive resin cement. Two of the groups had been obturated with Gutta–Percha and one of two eugenol-based root canal sealers (Endofil and Tubli-Seal), respectively. The third group was not obturated and served as the control. The forces required for dislodgment of posts from their prepared post spaces were recorded using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple range test was used to determine the mean differences. Results Endofil and Tubli-Seal groups demonstrated significantly reduced retention compared to the unobturated (control) group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Eugenol-based sealers significantly reduced the retention of prefabricated posts luted with adhesive resin cement. PMID:23960462

  9. The effect of root canal sealers and timing of cementation on the microlekage of the parapost luted with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Al Kahtani, Ahmed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to study the effect of root canal sealers either eugenol or non-eugenol and timing of cementation on microleakage of the parapost luted with resin cement. Materials and methods Seventy extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using a crown-down technique. All teeth were instrumented up to a size 50 .04 taper ProFile followed by the use of Gates Glidden drills from size 2 up to 5. Following instrumentation, the teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups of fifteen teeth each, based on type of root canal sealer (eugenol or non-eugenol sealer) and timing of post cementation (immediate or delayed). The remaining ten teeth were divided into two control groups with five teeth per group. All teeth were tested for microleakage using a fluid filtration method. Results The microleakage of the paraposts luted with resin cement increased over time, irrespective of sealer type or timing of post cementation. Immediate post cementation following obturation with AH26 (non-eugenol sealer) produced the least microleakage at all three time periods at 24 h, 2 months and 3 months. Conclusions The microleakage paraposts luted with resin cement was not influenced by either sealer type or timing of post placement. All experimental groups demonstrated a significant increase in microleakage over time as well as the presence of voids at the resin–dentin interface. PMID:24109165

  10. Effect of resin cement system and root region on the push-out bond strength of a translucent fiber post.

    PubMed

    Calixto, L R; Bandéca, M C; Clavijo, V; Andrade, M F; Vaz, L Geraldo; Campos, E A

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of luting systems for bonding glass fiber posts to root canal dentin. The hypothesis tested was that there are no differences in bond strength of glass fiber posts luted with different cement systems. Forty bovine incisors were randomly assigned to five different resin cement groups (n=8). After endodontic treatment and crown removal, translucent glass fiber posts were bonded into the root canal using five different luting protocols (self-cured cement and etch-and-rinse adhesive system; dual-cured cement and etch-and-rinse adhesive system; self-cured cement and self-etch adhesive system; dual-cured cement and self-etch adhesive system; and dual-cured self-adhesive cement). Push-out bond strength was evaluated at three different radicular levels: cervical, middle, and apical. The interface between resinous cement and the post was observed using a stereoscopic microscope. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference among the cements (p<0.05) and the root canal thirds (p<0.05). The self-adhesive resinous cement had lower values of retention. The resin cements used with etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems seem to be adequate for glass fiber post cementation.

  11. Microleakage of ceramic inlays luted with different resin cements and dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Bulent; Ozturk, Ozge; Ozturk, A Nilgun

    2009-10-01

    Despite recent advances in adhesive dentistry, resin cement/dentin adhesive combinations are not able to prevent microleakage in ceramic inlays. Marginal quality of tooth-colored restorations in large Class II cavities is satisfactory in enamel margins, but microleakage in dentin margins remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of all-ceramic inlays luted with 2 dual-polymerizing resin cements or 1 autopolymerizing resin cement in combination with different dentin adhesives. One hundred and twenty extracted human mandibular third molars were used in this study. Teeth were prepared to receive Class II MOD inlays with enamel gingival margins on 1 proximal surface and dentin gingival margins on the other surface. One hundred and twenty prepared teeth were divided into 3 groups of 40; 1 group for each resin cement: RelyX ARC, Variolink II, or Panavia 21. Each of the 3 groups were further divided into 4 dentin adhesive groups; Single Bond, ExciTE DSC, ED Primer, or Admira Bond. Each of the resin cements were used in combination with the 4 dentin adhesives, and IPS Empress ceramic inlays were placed with 12 different cement/adhesive combinations. After 1000 thermal cycles in a 5 degrees -55 degrees C water bath with a dwell time of 30 seconds, all specimens were subjected to cyclic axial mechanical loading. Then the restored teeth were stored in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution for 24 hours. The extent of dye penetration along the margins was measured with a stereomicroscope at x40 magnification. The data were evaluated statistically using repeated-measures ANOVA and Duncan tests (alpha=.05). Microleakage at dentin margins was greater than that at enamel margins (P<.05) for all groups. Variolink II and RelyX ARC resin cements showed significantly lower microleakage results than Panavia 21 with all dentin adhesives in enamel margins. For dentin margins, Variolink II/Admira Bond combination showed the lowest microleakage value in dentin (P

  12. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength and Estimation of Adhesive Remnant Index between Light-cure Composite and Dual-cure Composite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Sharma, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims and objectives: To measure and compare the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of light-cure composite. (Enlight, Ormco.) and dual-cure composite (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho). Materials and methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were divided into two groups: group I (blue): conventional light cure composite resin. (Enlight, Ormco.) and group II (green): dual cure composite resin. (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho.) with 30 teeth in each group. These samples were tested on the universal testing machine to measure the shear bond strength. Results: Student t-test showed that the mean shear bond strength of the conventional light cure group (8.54 MPa - 10.42 MPa) was significantly lower than dual cure group (10.45 MPa -12.17 MPa). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the shear bond strength of dual-cure composite resin (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho) is comparatively higher than conventional light-cure composite resin (Enlight, Ormco). In the majority of the samples, adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were 4 and 5 in both the groups whereas score 1 is attained by the least number of samples in both the groups. How to cite this article: Verma G, Trehan M, Sharma S. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength and Estimation of Adhesive Remnant Index between Light-cure Composite and Dual-cure Composite: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):166-170. PMID:25206216

  13. Adhesion of conventional and simplified resin-based luting cements to superficial and deep dentin.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mutlu; Mese, Ayse

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the bond strengths of conventional (chemically and dual-polymerized) and simplified resin-based luting cements with their corresponding adhesives to superficial dentin (SD) and deep dentin (DD). Recently extracted third molars (N = 70, n = 10 per group) were obtained and prepared for testing procedures. After using their corresponding etchants, primers, and/or adhesive systems, the conventional and simplified cements (Variolink II [group A, conventional], Bifix QM [group B, conventional], Panavia F2.0 [group C, conventional], Multilink Automix [group D, simplified], Superbond C&B [group E, conventional], Clearfil Esthetic Cement [group F, simplified], Ketac-Fil [group G, conventional]) were adhered incrementally onto the dentin surfaces using polyethylene molds (inner diameter 3.5 mm, height 5 mm) and polymerized accordingly. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) acted as the control material. Shear bond strengths (1 mm/min) were determined after 500 times of thermocycling. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data (α = 0.05). Bond strength (MPa) results were significantly affected by the cement types and their corresponding adhesive systems (p ≤ 0.05). The shear bond strengths (MPa ± SD) for groups A-G were 14.6 ± 3.8, 18.9 ± 3.9, 5.5 ± 4.5, 3.1 ± 3.6, 1.1 ± 2.5, 15.5 ± 2.6, 7 ± 4.3 and 7.1 ± 5.8, 15.1 ± 7.8, 8.4 ± 7.3, 7.5 ± 7.3, 4.9 ± 5.1, 12.5 ± 2.1, 6 ± 2.6 for SD and DD, respectively. The level of dentin depth did not decrease the bond strength significantly (p > 0.05) for all cements, except for Variolink II (p < 0.05). On the SD, bond strength of resin cements with "etch-and-rinse" adhesive systems (Variolink II, Bifix QM, Super-Bond C&B) showed similar results being higher than those of the simplified ones. Simplified cements and RMGIC as control material showed inferior adhesion to superficial and deep dentin compared to conventional resin cements tested.

  14. Adhesion of indirect MOD resin composite inlays luted with self-adhesive and self-etching resin cements.

    PubMed

    Inukai, T; Abe, T; Ito, Y; Pilecki, P; Wilson, R F; Watson, T F; Foxton, R M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of loading on the bond strength to dentin and microleakage of MOD indirect composite restorations bonded with self-adhesive and self-etching resin cements with or without acid etching of the proximal enamel margins. Class II MOD cavities were prepared in 48 molar teeth into dentin and divided into three groups of 16 teeth. Impressions were taken and indirect composite inlays fabricated (Estenia C & B). The enamel margins of the proximal boxes of half the specimens were phosphoric acid etched, and the inlays were cemented with one of three cements (Panavia F 2.0, SA Cement, or Rely X Unicem). After luting, eight teeth in each cement group were mechanically loaded at 2.5 cycles/s for 250,000 cycles. Unloaded teeth acted as controls. Teeth were stored in Rhodamine B solution for 24 hours, sectioned buccolingually at the proximal boxes to examine microleakage using confocal microscopy, and further sectioned for μTBS testing of the resin-dentin interface. Analysis of variance was performed to assess the effect of loading and acid etching on microleakage and bond strength. Acid etching had no effect on microleakage. No significant difference in the dentin bond strengths between the three cements existed after loading. Panavia F 2.0 exhibited a significant reduction in bond strength. With regard to microleakage at the proximal boxes, loading had no effect on dye penetration at the cavity floor. However, at the axial walls, loading had a significant deleterious effect on Panavia F 2.0. No difference in microleakage existed between the three cements at both sites before and after loading. In conclusion, the two tested self-adhesive cements exhibited similar bond strengths before and after loading to the self-etching resin cement. Loading reduced dentin bond strengths and increased microleakage at the resin-dentin interface. However, acid etching of the enamel margins had no significant effect on microleakage in the approximal regions of

  15. Effect of surface treatments of laboratory-fabricated composites on the microtensile bond strength to a luting resin cement.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carlos José; Giannini, Marcelo; Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares de; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments on composite resin on the microtensile bond strength to a luting resin cement. Two laboratory composites for indirect restorations, Solidex and Targis, and a conventional composite, Filtek Z250, were tested. Forty-eight composite resin blocks (5.0 x 5.0 x 5.0mm) were incrementally manufactured, which were randomly divided into six groups, according to the surface treatments: 1- control, 600-grit SiC paper (C); 2- silane priming (SI); 3- sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 for 10s (SA); 4- etching with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s (HF); 5- HF + SI; 6 - SA + SI. Composite blocks submitted to similar surface treatments were bonded together with the resin adhesive Single Bond and Rely X luting composite. A 500-g load was applied for 5 minutes and the samples were light-cured for 40s. The bonded blocks were serially sectioned into 3 slabs with 0.9mm of thickness perpendicularly to the bonded interface (n = 12). Slabs were trimmed to a dumbbell shape and tested in tension at 0.5mm/min. For all composites tested, the application of a silane primer after sandblasting provided the highest bond strength means.

  16. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Final technical report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    US EPA is implementing increasingly stringent environmental regulations on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which amount to about 7 {times} 10{sup 9} lb/year, largely from paints and other coating systems in industry. Objective of this project is to develop Dual Cure Photocatalyst coating technology for aerospace topcoats (urethane/acrylate), aerospace primers (epoxy/acrylate), and solventless tape backings. Some problems (moisture etc.) were encountered in the primer area. Cost, economic, and energy analyses were conducted. The dual cure technology has already been commercialized in 3M`s flexible diamond resin products. Tabs.

  17. Efficacy of various cleansing techniques on dentin wettability and its influence on shear bond strength of a resin luting agent

    PubMed Central

    Mohanaj, Dhivya; Beganam, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the shear bond strength of resin luting agent to dentin surfaces cleansed with different agents like pumice, ultrasonic scaler with chlorhexidine gluconate, EDTA and the influence of these cleansing methods on wetting properties of the dentin by Axisymmetric drop Shape Analysis - Contact Diameter technique (ADSA-CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty coronal portions of human third molar were prepared until dentin was exposed. Specimens were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B. Provisional restorations made with autopolymerizing resin were luted to dentin surface with zinc oxide eugenol in Group A and with freegenol cement in Group B. All specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hrs and provisional cements were mechanically removed with explorer and rinsed with water and cleansed using various methods (Control-air-water spray, Pumice prophylaxis, Ultrasonic scaler with 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate, 17% EDTA). Contact angle measurements were performed to assess wettability of various cleansing agents using the ADSA-CD technique. Bond strength of a resin luting agent bonded to the cleansed surface was assessed using Instron testing machine and the mode of failure noted. SEM was done to assess the surface cleanliness. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Specimens treated with EDTA showed the highest shear bond strength and the lowest contact angle for both groups. SEM showed that EDTA was the most effective solution to remove the smear layer. Also, mode of failure seen was predominantly cohesive for both EDTA and pumice prophylaxis. CONCLUSION EDTA was the most effective dentin cleansing agent among the compared groups. PMID:22977721

  18. A Confocal Microscopic Evaluation of the Dehydration Effect on Conventional, Resin Reinforced Powder/Liquid and Paste to Paste Glass Ionomer Luting Cements.

    PubMed

    George, Liza; Kandaswamy, D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration of resin-modified glass ionomer powder/liquid system, resin-modified glass ionomer paste/paste luting cements in three different quantities and to compare them with a conventional glass ionomer luting cement using confocal laser scanning microscope. A conventional glass ionomer (Group I), a resin modified powder/liquid system (Group II), and a resin-modified paste/paste system (Group III) were selected for the study. In Group III, there were three subgroups based on the quantity of material dispensed. 50 premolar teeth were selected and randomly divided among the groups with 10 samples in each. The teeth were ground flat to expose a flat occlusal dentin. A device was made to standardize the thickness of cement placed on the teeth. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 h and then longitudinally sectioned to examine the tooth dentin interface under a confocal microscope. The specimens were allowed to dehydrate under the microscope for different time intervals. The width of the crack after dehydration near the dentinal interface was measured at definite intervals in all the groups and analyzed statistically using Student's t-test. Conventional glass ionomer cement showed the maximum width of the crack followed by resin modified paste/paste system during the dehydration period. Resin modified powder/liquid system did not show cohesive failure. Conventional glass ionomer luting cement is more susceptible to cohesive failure when subjected to dehydration compared to resin-modified glass ionomer paste/paste luting cement. Among the luting cements, resin-modified glass ionomer powder/liquid system showed the best results when subjected to dehydration.

  19. Effect of endodontic sealer and resin luting strategies on pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo J; Bueno, Vanessa C P S; Dias, Carlos T S; Paulillo, Luís A M S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of eugenol-containing endodontic sealers and luting strategy on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin. Sixty-four bovine incisors were randomly assigned into two groups of 32 specimens each for obturation procedure with gutta-percha only, or with Pulp Canal Sealer EWT Subsequently, the roots were prepared for the fiber post Reforpost and all specimens of each endodontic sealing procedure were allocated to four groups (n = 8), according to the strategies for post cementation: A) Single Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; B) All Bond 2 and C&B cement; C) All Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; D) Single Bond 2 and C&B Cement. The posts were cemented immediately after the endodontic treatment. The pull-out test was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine (EMIC). Data (Kgf) were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p < or = 0.05). The eugenol-based sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength of fiber posts regardless of the luting strategy. RelyX ARC showed higher bond strength than C&B Cement when used with Single Bond 2 adhesive system, when the eugenol-based sealer was present. All Bond 2, when associated to all cements studied, promoted similar bond strength, regardless of the eugenol-containing endodontic sealer In conclusion, eugenol-containing sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength values of the resin luting systems for glass fiber post cementation. The bond system and resin cement association from the same manufacturer had similar bond strength values for dentin.

  20. Leucite-reinforced glass ceramic inlays luted with self-adhesive resin cement: a 2-year in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Taschner, Michael; Krämer, Norbert; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Pelka, Matthias; Breschi, Lorenzo; Petschelt, Anselm; Frankenberger, Roland

    2012-05-01

    Aim of the present prospective controlled clinical study was to compare the clinical performances of two different cementation procedures to lute IPS Empress inlays and onlays. Eighty-three IPS Empress restorations (70 class-II inlays, 13 onlays/47 premolars, 36 molars) were placed in 30 patients (19 females/11 males, mean age=39 years). Two cementation procedures were tested: group 1: forty-three restorations were luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, RX, 3M ESPE); group 2: forty restorations were luted with an etch-and-rinse multistep adhesive (Syntac Classic, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and Variolink II low (SV, Ivoclar-Vivadent). All restorations were evaluated after 2 weeks (baseline=1st recall=R1, n=83), 6 months (R2, n=83), 1 year (R3, n=82), and 2 years (R4, n=82) by two independent blinded calibrated examiners using modified USPHS criteria. From R1 to R4, one failure occurred in the SV group (at R2) due to marginal enamel chipping. After 2 years of clinical service (R4), better marginal and tooth integrity (p<0.05) was found in group 2 (SV) compared to the use of the self-adhesive cement (RX, group 1), while no differences were found for all remaining investigated criteria (p>0.05). The absence of enamel in proximal boxes (10% with no enamel and 51% of the restorations with less than 0.5mm enamel width at the bottom of the proximal box) did not affect marginal performance (p>0.05). The self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem showed clinical outcomes similar to a conventional multi-step cementation procedure after 2 years of clinical service for most of the tested criteria. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of alloy microstructure on the microshear bond strength of basic alloys to a resin luting cement.

    PubMed

    Bauer, José; Costa, José Ferreira; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Souza, Douglas Nesadal de; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microstructure and composition of basic alloys on their microshear bond strength (µSBS) to resin luting cement. The alloys used were: Supreme Cast-V (SC), Tilite Star (TS), Wiron 99 (W9), VeraBond II (VBII), VeraBond (VB), Remanium (RM) and IPS d.SIGN 30 (IPS). Five wax patterns (13 mm in diameter and 4mm height) were invested, and cast in a centrifugal casting machine for each basic alloy. The specimens were embedded in resin, polished with a SiC paper and sandblasted. After cleaning the metal surfaces, six tygon tubes (0.5 mm height and 0.75 mm in diameter) were placed on each alloy surface, the resin cement (Panavia F) was inserted, and the excess was removed before light-curing. After storage (24 h/37°C), the specimens were subjected to µSBS testing (0.5 mm/min). The data were subjected to a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Turkey's test (α=0.05). After polishing, their microstructures were revealed with specific conditioners. The highest µSBS (mean/standard deviation in MPa) were observed in the alloys with dendritic structure, eutectic formation or precipitation: VB (30.6/1.7), TS (29.8/0.9), SC (30.6/1.7), with the exception of IPS (31.1/0.9) which showed high µSBS but no eutectic formation. The W9 (28.1/1.5), VBII (25.9/2.0) and RM (25.9/0.9) showed the lowest µSBS and no eutectic formation. It seems that alloys with eutectic formation provide the highest µSBS values when bonded to a light-cured resin luting cement.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Surface Treatments on Luting CAD/CAM Composite Resin Overlay Workpieces.

    PubMed

    Kassotakis, Emmanuel M; Stavridakis, Minos; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Ardu, Stefano; Krejci, Ivo

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on luting CAD/CAM composite resin workpieces. One-hundred eight (108) composite CAD/CAM block sections (Lava Ultimate) 3 mm in thickness were polished up to 4000 grit and then randomly assigned to 6 experimental groups according to the applied surface treatment (no treatment, sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO3], glycine, alumina [Al2O3], CoJet, and SilJet). After standardized sandblasting procedures, 2 block sections from each group were randomly chosen for the qualitative SEM evaluation of the sandblasted surfaces. The remaining 96 CAD/CAM block sections were luted in pairs using a bonding agent (Single Bond) and a restorative composite resin (Filtek Ultimate). Specimens were aged for 2 weeks in 37°C water with 3000 thermal cycles (5°C/55°C), the microtensile test was performed (n = 30), and the values were statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post-hoc test (p = 0.05). The qualitative SEM evaluation of the sandblasted surfaces showed that sodium bicarbonate and glycine had almost no conditioning effect on the CAD/CAM composite resin. In contrast, aluminum oxide, CoJet, and SilJet had a profound conditioning effect on the CAD/CAM composite resin. No treatment, sodium bicarbonate, and glycine specimens were debonded after thermal stressing (0 MPa), while aluminum oxide, CoJet, and SilJet showed high microtensile values (Al2O3: 104.45 ± 18.76 MPa; CoJet: 105.55 ± 11.88 MPa; SilJet: 105.02 ± 20.84 MPa), which were not statistically significantly different from each other. Aluminum oxide-based sandblasting powders are the best choice for the surface treatment of CAD/ CAM workpieces.

  3. Immediate and delayed micro-tensile bond strength of different luting resin cements to different regional dentin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdelraheem Mohamed; Hamouda, Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazy, Mohamed Hamed; Abo-Madina, Manal Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    We sought to evaluate immediate and delayed micro-tensile bond strength of Panavia F2.0 and Multilink Sprint resin cement to superficial, deep and cervical dentin. Thirty-six freshly extracted non-carious human molars were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction to expose three different dentin regions including superficial dentin (1 mm below the dentine-enamel junction), deep dentin (1 mm above the highest pulp horn) and cervical dentin (0.5 mm above the cemento-enamel junction and 0.5 mm below the dentine-enamel junction). Resin cements were applied on dentin surfaces and composite blocks were luted under constant seating pressure. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to time intervals. Specimens were sectioned to obtain sticks of 1 mm(2) in diameter and subjected to microtensile bond strength testing at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min. Both resin cements showed higher micro-tensile bond strength to superficial dentin than that to deep or cervical dentin (P < 0.001). Micro-tensile bond strengths of Panavia F2.0 were higher than those of Multilink Sprint at different dentin regions (P < 0.001). Immediate micro-tensile bond strengths were higher than those of delayed micro-tensile bond strengths for both resin cements (P < 0.001). It was concluded that resin cements with different chemical formulations and applications yield significantly different micro-tensile bond strengths to different dentin regions.

  4. Controlled, prospective, randomized, clinical split-mouth evaluation of partial ceramic crowns luted with a new, universal adhesive system/resin cement: results after 18 months.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Vanessa; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Federlin, Marianne; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2016-12-01

    A new universal adhesive with corresponding luting composite was recently marketed which can be used both, in a self-etch or in an etch-and-rinse mode. In this study, the clinical performance of partial ceramic crowns (PCCs) inserted with this adhesive and the corresponding luting material used in a self-etch or selective etch approach was compared with a self-adhesive universal luting material. Three PCCs were placed in a split-mouth design in 50 patients. Two PCCs were luted with a combination of a universal adhesive/resin cement (Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE) with (SB+E)/without (SB-E) selective enamel etching. Another PCC was luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem 2, 3M ESPE). Forty-eight patients were evaluated clinically according to FDI criteria at baseline and 6, 12 and 18 months. For statistical analyses, the chi-square test (α = 0.05) and Kaplan-Meier analysis were applied. Clinically, no statistically significant differences between groups were detected over time. Within groups, clinically significant increase for criterion "marginal staining" was detected for SB-E over 18 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly higher retention rates for SB+E (97.8 %) and SB-E (95.6 %) in comparison to RXU2 (75.6 %). The 18-month clinical performance of a new universal adhesive/composite combination showed no differences with respect to bonding strategy and may be recommended for luting PCCs. Longer-term evaluation is needed to confirm superiority of SB+E over SB-E. At 18 months, the new multi-mode adhesive, Scotchbond Universal, showed clinically reliable results when used for luting PCCs.

  5. Effect of reduced exposure times on the cytotoxicity of resin luting cements cured by high-power led

    PubMed Central

    ERGUN, Gulfem; EGILMEZ, Ferhan; YILMAZ, Sukran

    2011-01-01

    Objective Applications of resin luting agents and high-power light-emitting diodes (LED) light-curing units (LCUs) have increased considerably over the last few years. However, it is not clear whether the effect of reduced exposure time on cytotoxicity of such products have adequate biocompatibility to meet clinical success. This study aimed at assessing the effect of reduced curing time of five resin luting cements (RLCs) polymerized by high-power LED curing unit on the viability of a cell of L-929 fibroblast cells. Material and Methods Disc-shaped samples were prepared in polytetrafluoroethylene moulds with cylindrical cavities. The samples were irradiated from the top through the ceramic discs and acetate strips using LED LCU for 20 s (50% of the manufacturer's recommended exposure time) and 40 s (100% exposure time). After curing, the samples were transferred into a culture medium for 24 h. The eluates were obtained and pipetted onto L-929 fibroblast cultures (3x104 per well) and incubated for evaluating after 24 h. Measurements were performed by dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium assay. Statistical significance was determined by two-way ANOVA and two independent samples were compared by t-test. Results Results showed that eluates of most of the materials polymerized for 20 s (except Rely X Unicem and Illusion) reduced to a higher extent cell viability compared to samples of the same materials polymerized for 40 s. Illusion exhibited the least cytotoxicity for 20 s exposure time compared to the control (culture without samples) followed by Rely X Unicem and Rely X ARC (90.81%, 88.90%, and 83.11%, respectively). For Rely X ARC, Duolink and Lute-It 40 s exposure time was better (t=-1.262 p=0,276; t=-9.399 p=0.001; and t=-20.418 p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that reduction of curing time significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of the studied resin cement materials, therefore compromising their clinical performance. PMID

  6. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth restored with glass fiber posts, intracanal composite resin, and experimental dentine posts.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Jha, Padmanabh; Aggarwal, Akarshak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth restored with gutta-percha, glass fiber posts (GFP), experimental dentine posts (DP) or Intracanal composite Resin (ICR). Fifty maxillary canines were decoronated, standardized and enlarged until, number 5 Peeso reamers were allowed to simulate immature teeth. After placement of 5 mm of MTA, the canals were divided into 5 groups and filled as follows: Group 1: AH Plus + gutta-percha, lateral compaction; Group 2: GFP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 3: DP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 4: PARACORE dual cure resin. A standardized core was built in all groups except in Group 5. Each of the specimens was tested for fracture resistance by universal testing machine. The mean fracture resistance were 817 ± 27.753, 1164.6 ± 21.624, 994.4 ± 96.8747, 873.8 ± 105.446 and 493.7 ± 6.945 newtons for Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Independent "t" test revealed statistically significant discrepancies, in the fracture resistance among the 4 groups except Group 1 and Group 4 (P < 0.05). This study suggests that GFP and DP may be preferred for additional reinforcement of immature teeth.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Restored with Glass Fiber Posts, Intracanal Composite Resin, and Experimental Dentine Posts

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Padmanabh; Aggarwal, Akarshak

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth restored with gutta-percha, glass fiber posts (GFP), experimental dentine posts (DP) or Intracanal composite Resin (ICR). Materials and Methods. Fifty maxillary canines were decoronated, standardized and enlarged until, number 5 Peeso reamers were allowed to simulate immature teeth. After placement of 5 mm of MTA, the canals were divided into 5 groups and filled as follows: Group 1: AH Plus + gutta-percha, lateral compaction; Group 2: GFP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 3: DP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 4: PARACORE dual cure resin. A standardized core was built in all groups except in Group 5. Each of the specimens was tested for fracture resistance by universal testing machine. Results. The mean fracture resistance were 817 ± 27.753, 1164.6 ± 21.624, 994.4 ± 96.8747, 873.8 ± 105.446 and 493.7 ± 6.945 newtons for Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Independent “t” test revealed statistically significant discrepancies, in the fracture resistance among the 4 groups except Group 1 and Group 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions. This study suggests that GFP and DP may be preferred for additional reinforcement of immature teeth. PMID:25629086

  8. Bonding of photo and dual-cure adhesives to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Foxton, Richard M; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Tagami, Junji; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the regional tensile bond strength of a dual-cure resin composite core material to root canal dentin using photo and dual-cure adhesives and different modes of polymerization. Nineteen extracted premolars were decoronated and their root canals prepared to a depth of 8 mm and a width of 1.4 mm using Para Post drills. For the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) test, 15 roots were randomly divided into five groups and their canal walls treated with a dual-cure self-etching primer (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V Primer, Kuraray Medical Co, Japan). Adhesive resin (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V Bond A) was applied to two of the groups and light cured for 20 seconds. A dual-cure adhesive resin (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V Bond A+B, Kuraray Medical Co, Japan) was applied to the remaining three groups, one of which was light cured. The post spaces of all the groups were filled with a dual-cure resin composite (DC Core) and three were light cured for 60 seconds from a coronal direction. Chemical-cure resin composite was placed on the outer surfaces of the roots, which were then stored in water for 24 hours. They were serially sliced perpendicular to the bonded interface into eight 0.6 mm-thick slabs, then transversely sectioned into beams approximately 8 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm for the microTBS test. All of the failure modes were observed under SEM and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis Rank test. For Knoop hardness testing, four specimens were prepared in a similar manner, two were light-cured and the other two chemically-cured. The specimens were longitudinally sectioned into two pieces, and three indentations were made at 100 microm intervals from a coronal to an apical direction in the eight halves. Data were divided into two groups (coronal/apical halves of post space) and analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Scheffe's test (p<0.05). For each curing strategy, there were no significant differences in microTBS and Knoop hardness between the coronal and apical regions (p>0

  9. Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    de MENDONÇA, Luana Menezes; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; LANZA, Marcos Daniel Septímio; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; de CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2014-01-01

    Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10) according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal) and R (resin)- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5) were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001) and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007). Conclusion The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the cement properties

  10. Vertical misfit of laser-sintered and vacuum-cast implant-supported crown copings luted with definitive and temporary luting agents

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Turrión, Andrés; López-Lozano, José F.; Albaladejo, Alberto; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Montero, Javier; Suárez-García, Maria J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the vertical discrepancy of implant-supported crown structures constructed with vacuum-casting and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technologies, and luted with different cement types. Study Design. Crown copings were fabricated using: (1) direct metal laser sintered Co-Cr (LS); (2) vacuum-cast Co-Cr (CC); and (3) vacuum-cast Ti (CT). Frameworks were luted onto machined implant abutments under constant seating pressure. Each alloy group was randomly divided into 5 subgroups (n = 10 each) according to the cement system utilized: Subgroup 1 (KC) used resin-modified glass-ionomer Ketac Cem Plus; Subgroup 2 (PF) used Panavia F 2.0 dual-cure resin cement; Subgroup 3 (RXU) used RelyX Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive dual-cure resin cement; Subgroup 4 (PIC) used acrylic/urethane-based temporary Premier Implant Cement; and Subgroup 5 (DT) used acrylic/urethane-based temporary DentoTemp cement. Vertical misfit was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were run to investigate the effect of alloy/fabrication technique, and cement type on vertical misfit. The statistical significance was set at α = 0.05. Results. The alloy/manufacturing technique and the luting cement affected the vertical discrepancy (p < 0.001). For each cement type, LS samples exhibited the best fit (p < 0.01) whereas CC and CT frames were statistically similar. Within each alloy group, PF and RXU provided comparably greater discrepancies than KC, PIC, and DT, which showed no differences. Conclusions. Laser sintering may be an alternative to vacuum-casting of base metals to obtain passive-fitting implant-supported crown copings. The best marginal adaptation corresponded to laser sintered structures luted with glass-ionomer KC, or temporary PIC or DT cements. The highest discrepancies were recorded for Co-Cr and Ti cast frameworks bonded with PF or RXU resinous agents. All groups were within the clinically

  11. Vertical misfit of laser-sintered and vacuum-cast implant-supported crown copings luted with definitive and temporary luting agents.

    PubMed

    Castillo-de-Oyagüe, Raquel; Sánchez-Turrión, Andrés; López-Lozano, José-Francisco; Albaladejo, Alberto; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Montero, Javier; Suárez-García, Maria-Jesús

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the vertical discrepancy of implant-supported crown structures constructed with vacuum-casting and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technologies, and luted with different cement types. Crown copings were fabricated using: (1) direct metal laser sintered Co-Cr (LS); (2) vacuum-cast Co-Cr (CC); and (3) vacuum-cast Ti (CT). Frameworks were luted onto machined implant abutments under constant seating pressure. Each alloy group was randomly divided into 5 subgroups (n = 10 each) according to the cement system utilized: Subgroup 1 (KC) used resin-modified glass-ionomer Ketac Cem Plus; Subgroup 2 (PF) used Panavia F 2.0 dual-cure resin cement; Subgroup 3 (RXU) used RelyX Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive dual-cure resin cement; Subgroup 4 (PIC) used acrylic/urethane-based temporary Premier Implant Cement; and Subgroup 5 (DT) used acrylic/urethane-based temporary DentoTemp cement. Vertical misfit was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were run to investigate the effect of alloy/fabrication technique, and cement type on vertical misfit. The statistical significance was set at α = 0.05. The alloy/manufacturing technique and the luting cement affected the vertical discrepancy (p < 0.001). For each cement type, LS samples exhibited the best fit (p < 0.01) whereas CC and CT frames were statistically similar. Within each alloy group, PF and RXU provided comparably greater discrepancies than KC, PIC, and DT, which showed no differences. Laser sintering may be an alternative to vacuum-casting of base metals to obtain passive-fitting implant-supported crown copings. The best marginal adaptation corresponded to laser sintered structures luted with glass-ionomer KC, or temporary PIC or DT cements. The highest discrepancies were recorded for Co-Cr and Ti cast frameworks bonded with PF or RXU resinous agents. All groups were within the clinically acceptable misfit range.

  12. Evaluation of the Bond Strength of Resin Cements Used to Lute Ceramics on Laser-Etched Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Duzdar, Lale; Oksuz, Mustafa; Tanboga, Ilknur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different adhesive resin cements used to lute ceramics on laser-etched dentin. Background data: Erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin, but results to date have been controversial, and its compatibility with existing adhesive resin cements has not been conclusively determined. Materials and methods: Two adhesive cements, one “etch-and-rinse” [Variolink II (V)] and one “self-etch” [Clearfil Esthetic Cement (C)] luting cement, were used to lute ceramic blocks (Vita Celay Blanks, Vita) onto dentin surfaces. In total, 80 dentin specimens were distributed randomly into eight experimental groups according to the dentin surface-etching technique used Er,Cr:YSGG laser and Er:YAG laser: (1) 37% orthophosphoric acid+V (control group), (2) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V, (3) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+acid+V, (4) Er:YAG laser+V, (5) Er:YAG laser+acid+V, (6) C, (7) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C, and (8) Er:YAG laser+C. Following these applications, the ceramic discs were bonded to prepared surfaces and were shear loaded in a universal testing machine until fracture. SBS was recorded for each group in MPa. Shear test values were evaluated statistically using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: No statistically significant differences were evident between the control group and the other groups (p>0.05). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+A+V group demonstrated significantly higher SBS than did the Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V group (p=0.034). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C and Er:YAG laser+C groups demonstrated significantly lower SBS than did the C group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Dentin surfaces prepared with lasers may provide comparable ceramic bond strengths, depending upon the adhesive cement used. PMID:24992276

  13. Effect of dentin conditioning on retention of airborne-particle-abraded, adhesively luted glass fiber-reinforced resin posts.

    PubMed

    Albashaireh, Zakereyya S M; Ghazal, Muhamad; Kern, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    The smear layer covering root canal dentin as a result of post space preparation procedures may negatively affect the retention of adhesively cemented glass fiber-reinforced resin posts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention of airborne-particle-abraded glass fiber posts luted with 3 different bonding systems after conditioning the canal dentin with acidic conditioning methods. Post spaces were prepared in 6 groups of 8 endodontically treated single-rooted teeth. Glass fiber-reinforced resin posts were airborne-particle abraded and luted after etching the canal dentin with phosphoric acid and/or applying XP Bond, Clearfil New Bond, or ED Primer. The groups with their respective etching time, primer, and cement combinations were as follows: XP15: 15 seconds of phosphoric acid treatment, XP Bond and Calibra; XP30: 30 seconds of phosphoric acid treatment, XP Bond and Calibra; NB15: 15 seconds of phosphoric acid treatment, Clearfil New Bond and Panavia 21; NB30: 30 seconds of phosphoric acid treatment, Clearfil New Bond and Panavia 21; ED: ED Primer only and Panavia 21; ED15: 15 seconds phosphoric acid treatment, ED Primer and Panavia 21. Specimens were stored in water for 30 days and subjected to simulated aging conditions. Post retention was measured in tension at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by post hoc comparisons using Langley method (alpha =.05). The dislodged posts and canals were examined microscopically at x8 and x20 magnification to evaluate the mode of failure. For each group, the mean (SD) retention in N was: XP15: 376.8 (39); XP30: 305.5 (27); NB15: 370.3 (31); NB30: 297.6 (52); ED: 301.6 (43); ED15: 373.8 (46). The retention values of ED15, NB15, and XP15 were significantly higher than those of ED, NB30, and XP30 groups, respectively. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated that the failure mode was primarily mixed. Luting posts with Panavia 21 or Calibra after etching

  14. Effects of curing protocol and storage time on the micro-hardness of resin cements used to lute fiber-reinforced resin posts

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS, Marcelo Barbosa; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the micro-hardness profile of two dual cure resin cements (RelyX - U100®, 3M-ESPE and Panavia F 2.0®, Kuraray) used for cementing fiber-reinforced resin posts (Fibrekor® - Jeneric Pentron) under three different curing protocols and two water storage times. Material and methods Sixty 16mm long bovine incisor roots were endodontically treated and prepared for cementation of the Fibrekor posts. The cements were mixed as instructed, dispensed in the canal, the posts were seated and the curing performed as follows: a) no light activation; b) light-activation immediately after seating the post, and; c) light-activation delayed 5 minutes after seating the post. The teeth were stored in water and retrieved for analysis after 7 days and 3 months. The roots were longitudinally sectioned and the microhardness was determined at the cervical, middle and apical regions along the cement line. The data was analyzed by the three-way ANOVA test (curing mode, storage time and thirds) for each cement. The Tukey test was used for the post-hoc analysis. Results Light-activation resulted in a significant increase in the microhardness. This was more evident for the cervical region and for the Panavia cement. Storage in water for 3 months caused a reduction of the micro-hardness for both cements. The U100 cement showed less variation in the micro-hardness regardless of the curing protocol and storage time. Conclusions The micro-hardness of the cements was affected by the curing and storage variables and were material-dependent. PMID:23138743

  15. Effects of curing protocol and storage time on the micro-hardness of resin cements used to lute fiber-reinforced resin posts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Marcelo Barbosa; Pegoraro, Thiago Amadei; Pegoraro, Luiz Fernando; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins

    2012-01-01

    To determine the micro-hardness profile of two dual cure resin cements (RelyX-U100, 3M-eSPe and Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray) used for cementing fiberre inforced resin posts (Fibrekor-Jeneric Pentron) under three different curing protocols and two water storage times. Sixty 16 mm long bovine incisor roots were endodontically treated and prepared for cementation of the Fibrekor posts. The cements were mixed as instructed, dispensed in the canal, the posts were seated and the curing performed as follows: (a) no light activation; (b) light-activation immediately after seating the post, and; (c) light-activation delayed 5 minutes after seating the post. The teeth were stored in water and retrieved for analysis after 7 days and 3 months. The roots were longitudinally sectioned and the microhardness was determined at the cervical, middle and apical regions along the cement line. The data was analyzed by the three-way ANOVA test (curing mode, storage time and thirds) for each cement. The Tukey test was used for the post-hoc analysis. Light-activation resulted in a significant increase in the microhardness. This was more evident for the cervical region and for the Panavia cement. Storage in water for 3 months caused a reduction of the micro-hardness for both cements. The U100 cement showed less variation in the micro-hardness regardless of the curing protocol and storage time. The micro-hardness of the cements was affected by the curing and storage variables and were material-dependent.

  16. Effect of an adhesive resin luting agent on the dowel-head retention of three different core materials.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Gokhan; Cotert, H Serdar; Korkut, Levent

    2005-05-01

    A dowel-and-core restoration may fail due to failure at either the dowel-tooth or dowel head-core material interface. Long-term clinical success of a dowel-and-core restoration depends on retention of both the dowel to the tooth and the dowel head to the core material. Thus, strengthening of the dowel head-core interface is important. This study evaluated the retention between a prefabricated dowel and 3 different core materials with or without a dual-polymerized adhesive resin luting agent. Sixty prefabricated dowels (Gold Plated Anchorage Post) were divided into 3 groups (n=20) consisting of 1 of 3 core materials, amalgam (Standalloy F), light-polymerized resin composite (Clearfil Ray), or glass ionomer (Chelon-Silver). Each core group was divided into 2 subgroups (n=10), and a dual-polymerized adhesive resin luting agent (Panavia F) was applied to the dowel heads of 1 of these subgroups before application of the core material. The manufacturing procedure was standardized by using a plastic index (4.5-mm internal diameter and 5-mm height) and a custom-made dowel holder, which held the dowel head. Prepared specimens were stored in water at room temperature for 3 months and then loaded to fracture in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.05 mm/min until failure. Bond strengths were recorded (MPa). Data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in a 2 x 3 factorial randomized design (alpha=.05). Afterward, core material differences were computed with 1-way ANOVA for both of the bonded and nonbonded groups. Post hoc multiple comparisons were made with the Dunnett C multiple range test. Dowel-head retention values (MPa) of the tested core materials (mean +/- SD) from the highest to the lowest were as follows: bonded amalgam core, 296.1 +/- 108; bonded composite core, 284.3 +/- 38.3; nonbonded composite core, 177.0 +/- 53.7; nonbonded amalgam core, 128.5 +/- 35.0; bonded glass-ionomer core (GIC), 128.0 +/- 24.5; nonbonded GIC, 61.8 +/- 13

  17. Luting of ceramic inlays in vitro: marginal quality of self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesives versus self-etch cements.

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, Roland; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Schaible, Rainer B; Nikolaenko, Sergej A; Naumann, Michael

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate marginal integrity of IPS Empress inlays luted with different adhesives and cements before and after thermo-mechanical loading (TML). MOD cavities with one proximal box beneath the cementoenamel junction were prepared in 72 extracted human third molars. IPS Empress inlays were luted with nine combinations of adhesive and luting composite or self-etch cement alone (n=8): Prime&Bond NT Dual-Cure+Calibra (PC), XP BOND/SCA+Calibra (XC), XP BOND/SCA light-cured+Calibra (XL), Syntac+Variolink II (SV), Multilink Primer+Multilink (ML), AdhesSE DC+Variolink II (AV), ED Primer+Panavia F 2.0 (EP), RelyX Unicem (RU), and Maxcem (MC). Marginal quality was analyzed under an SEM using epoxy resin replicas before and after thermo-mechanical loading (100,000x50N and 2500 thermocylces between +5 and +55 degrees C). All systems involving the etch-and-rinse approach resulted in significantly higher percentages of gap-free margins in enamel than all other luting systems (p<0.05). ML and AV achieved higher percentages of gap-free margins in enamel than EP and RU (p<0.05), with EP and RU being significantly above MC (p<0.05). For dentine margins, XP Bond resulted in significantly higher percentages of gap-free margins than Prime&Bond NT, independent of a separate light-curing step (p<0.05). Between the luting systems XC, XL, SV, ML, AV, ED, EP, and RU, no significant differences were computed (p>0.05). MC ranged at the end of the statistical subsets with 62% gap-free margins (p<0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). Etch-and-rinse adhesives combined with conventional luting resin composites reveal still the best prognosis for adhesive luting of glass ceramic inlays.

  18. Comparison of shear bond strengths of two resin luting systems for a base and a high noble metal alloy bonded to enamel.

    PubMed

    Dixon, D L; Breeding, L C; Hughie, M L; Brown, J S

    1994-11-01

    Researchers are investigating the use of noble metals for the fabrication of resin-bonded prostheses because of concerns about health hazards of nickel and beryllium in base metal alloys. Tin-plating has been advocated to improve the bond of resin luting agents to noble metal alloys. Some manufacturers have suggested that tin-plating is unnecessary to bond noble metal alloys to etched enamel with their products. In this study, Rexillium base metal and Olympia noble metal alloy specimens were bonded to extracted human teeth with the use of two resin luting agents (F21 and Panavia OP). One third of the noble metal specimens were tin-plated, one third were oxidized, and one third were oxidized and sandblasted. Each of the bonded specimens were thermocycled and subjected to a shear force until bond failure. The base metal specimens bonded with Panavia OP luting agent exhibited the greatest mean shear bond strengths. The tin-plating surface treatment significantly increased the mean shear bond strengths of Olympia noble metal specimens.

  19. Post cementation sensitivity evaluation of glass Ionomer, zinc phosphate and resin modified glass Ionomer luting cements under class II inlays: An in vivo comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, V

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to compare the patient-perceived post-cementation sensitivity of class II metal restorations preoperatively, immediately after cementation, one week after cementation and one month after cementation with (1) Glass Ionomer luting cement (2) Zinc Phosphate cement and (3) Resin-modified Glass Ionomer luting cement. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients, irrespective of sex, in the age group of 15-50 years were selected and the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each. Twenty inlay cast restorations were cemented with three different luting cements. The criteria adapted to measure tooth sensitivity in the present study were objective examination for sensitivity. (1) Cold water test (2) Compressed air test and (3) Biting pressure test. Results: The patients with restorations cemented with Resin-modified Glass ionomer demonstrated the least postoperative sensitivity when compared with Glass Ionomer and zinc phosphate cement at all different intervals of time evaluated by different tests. Conclusion: The patients with restorations cemented with resin-modified Glass ionomer demonstrated the least postoperative sensitivity. PMID:20582215

  20. Adhesion to root canal dentine using one and two-step adhesives with dual-cure composite core materials.

    PubMed

    Foxton, R M; Nakajima, M; Tagami, J; Miura, H

    2005-02-01

    The regional tensile bond strengths of two dual-cure composite resin core materials to root canal dentine using either a one or two-step self-etching adhesive were evaluated. Extracted premolar teeth were decoronated and their root canals prepared to a depth of 8 mm and a width of 1.4 mm. In one group, a one-step self-etching adhesive (Unifil Self-etching Bond) was applied to the walls of the post-space and light-cured for 10 s. After which, the post-spaces were filled with the a dual-cure composite resin (Unifil Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. In the second group, a self-etching primer (ED Primer II) was applied for 30 s, followed by an adhesive resin (Clearfil Photo Bond), which was light-cured for 10 s. The post-spaces were filled with a dual-cure composite resin (DC Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. Chemical-cure composite resin was placed on the outer surfaces of all the roots, which were then stored in water for 24 h. They were serially sliced perpendicular to the bonded interface into 8, 0.6 mm-thick slabs, and then transversely sectioned into beams, approximately 8 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm, for the microtensile bond strength test (muTBS). Data were divided into two (coronal/apical half of post-space) and analysed using three-way anova and Scheffe's test (P < 0.05). Failure modes were observed under an scanning electron microscope (SEM) and statistically analysed. Specimens for observation of the bonded interfaces were prepared in a similar manner as for bond strength testing, cut in half and embedded in epoxy resin. They were then polished to a high gloss, gold sputter coated, and after argon ion etching, observed under an SEM. For both dual-cure composite resins and curing strategies, there were no significant differences in muTBS between the coronal and apical regions (P > 0.05). In addition, both dual-cure

  1. Inorganic composition and filler particles morphology of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements by SEM/EDX.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Di Francescantonio, Marina; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Giannini, Marcelo

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inorganic components and morphology of filler particles of conventional and self-adhesive, dual-curing, resin luting cements. The main components were identified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), and filler particles were morphologically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four resin cements were used in this study: two conventional resin cements (RelyX ARC/3M ESPE and Clearfil Esthetic Cement/Kuraray Medical) and two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem/3M ESPE and Clearfil SA Luting/Kuraray Medical). The materials (n = 5) were manipulated according to manufacturers' instructions, immersed in organic solvents to eliminate the organic phase and observed under SEM/EDX. Although EDX measurements showed high amount of silicon for all cements, differences in elemental composition of materials tested were identified. RelyX ARC showed spherical and irregular particles, whereas other cements presented only irregular filler shape. In general, self-adhesive cements contained higher filler size than conventional resin luting cements. The differences in inorganic components and filler particles were observed between categories of luting material and among them. All resin cements contain silicon, however, other components varied among them.

  2. Effect of root canal sealers and irrigation agents on retention of preformed posts luted with a resin cement.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J T; Windchy, A M; Goldsmith, L J; Gettleman, L

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the effect of three sealers and four irrigants on retention of Dentatus preformed posts luted with Panavia 21 resin cement. Gutta-percha with one of the following sealers--EWT, AH26, Nogenol, or no sealer (control)--was used to fill the root canals of 160 autoclaved incisor and premolar tooth roots. After 72 hr 8 mm post spaces were created with Dentatus Probos Pathfinders and Dentatus reamers. After irrigating the post spaces with saline, 5.25% NaOCl, 50% citric acid followed by NaOCl, or 40% H3PO4, followed by NaOCl, Panavia 21 TC cement was introduced into the canal on the Dentatus #4 stainless steel post's threads. An up-and-down and counterclockwise motion and then a forward twist seated the posts without engaging dentin. Mesiodistal and faciolingual radiographs visualized the chambers. After 72 hr posts were removed axially with an Instron at 5 mm/min. Surprisingly, using Nogenol sealer reduced post retention whereas EWT and AH26 increased retention compared with no sealer. Post retention improved after acid etchants, especially for AH26.

  3. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  4. Correlation between Microleakage and Absolute Marginal Discrepancy in Zirconia Crowns Cemented with Four Resin Luting Cements: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Martínez-Rus; Guillermo, Pradíes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate microleakage and absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) and to assess correlation between AMD and microleakage with four resin luting cements. Material and Methods. 20 extracted human third molars were prepared for full-coverage crowns. 20 zirconia copings were made (LAVA, 3M ESPE) and cemented. Specimens were randomly allocated for each used type of cement into 4 groups, RelyX® (Rx), Multilink® (Mk), PANAVIA 2.1® (P), and Maxcem® (Mx) and immersed in 10% safranin for 72 hours. 20x magnification lenses were used to observe microleakage areas (μm2) and images software was used to measure AMD areas (μm). Discrepancy and microleakage between the cements were compared with one-way ANOVA test with confidence interval of 95%. Results. Rx Group showed microleakage has lowest value and AMD has highest value. P Group showed microleakage has the highest value and Mk Group presented AMD has lowest value. There were no significative differences between the cements. There were no linear correlations between microleakage and AMD; however a complex regression statistical model obtained allowed formulating an association between both variables (microleakage = AMD0,896). Conclusions. No significative differences were found among 4 types of cements. No linear correlations between AMD and microleakage were found. Clinical Significance. AMD is not easily related to microleakage. Characteristics of cements are fundamental to decreasing of microleakage values. PMID:27721830

  5. Correlation between Microleakage and Absolute Marginal Discrepancy in Zirconia Crowns Cemented with Four Resin Luting Cements: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Abad-Coronel; Jeanette, Li; Francisco, Martínez-Rus; Guillermo, Pradíes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate microleakage and absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) and to assess correlation between AMD and microleakage with four resin luting cements. Material and Methods. 20 extracted human third molars were prepared for full-coverage crowns. 20 zirconia copings were made (LAVA, 3M ESPE) and cemented. Specimens were randomly allocated for each used type of cement into 4 groups, RelyX® (Rx), Multilink® (Mk), PANAVIA 2.1® (P), and Maxcem® (Mx) and immersed in 10% safranin for 72 hours. 20x magnification lenses were used to observe microleakage areas (μm(2)) and images software was used to measure AMD areas (μm). Discrepancy and microleakage between the cements were compared with one-way ANOVA test with confidence interval of 95%. Results. Rx Group showed microleakage has lowest value and AMD has highest value. P Group showed microleakage has the highest value and Mk Group presented AMD has lowest value. There were no significative differences between the cements. There were no linear correlations between microleakage and AMD; however a complex regression statistical model obtained allowed formulating an association between both variables (microleakage = AMD(0,896)). Conclusions. No significative differences were found among 4 types of cements. No linear correlations between AMD and microleakage were found. Clinical Significance. AMD is not easily related to microleakage. Characteristics of cements are fundamental to decreasing of microleakage values.

  6. The Influence of Sonic and Ultrasonic Vibration on the Shear Bond Strength of a Selected Resin Luting Cement.

    PubMed

    Marchan, Shivaughn M; White, Daniel; Smith, William; Dhuru, Virendra

    2015-03-01

    This study determined the effect of sonic and ultrasonic instrumentation on the shear bond strengths of Panavia 21, a popular cement for the luting of resin-bonded restorations. 84 Ni-Cr cylinders were cemented to randomly selected resin composite substrates using Panavia 21 following the manufacturer's instructions. The Ni-Cr-composite specimens were divided into 7 groups of 12 specimens each based upon the procedure used for removing the excess cement. For Group 1 (Co) specimens the excess cement was removed with microbrushes immediately after cementation. Groups 2 through 7 were based on the use of vibrating instrument and the time period after which the excess material was removed. These included the cement, Panavia 21, three vibrating instruments, Sonic with a universal tip (So), Piezoelectric ultrasonic with a USPIS tip (Pu), Magnetorestrive ultrasonic with a FS1-100 tip (Mu) and two different time periods, soon after cementation (9m) and one hour after cementation (1h). Once excess cement REMOVAL WAS COMPLETED, THE SPECIMENS WERE SUBJECTED TO SHEAR TESTING. Mean Shear Bond strengths ranged from 16.03 MPa (Co) to 19.91 MPa (So 1h). Statistical analysis demonstrated that interaction of the main effects were significant (F = 4.27, p = 0.042). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that the effect of timing was significant in all the instrumented groups. The majority of the tested specimens failed cohesively compared to mainly adhesive failures for the control group. The effect of type of instrumentation immediately following polymerization setting had no effect on the shear bond strengths however a delay of 1 hour for all types of instrumentation had a beneficial effect of improving observed shear bond strengths.

  7. A novel etching technique for surface treatment of zirconia ceramics to improve adhesion of resin-based luting cements

    PubMed Central

    Ruyter, Eystein Ivar; Vajeeston, Nalini; Knarvang, Torbjørn; Kvam, Ketil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Bonding of zirconia crowns and bridges to abutments is important, not only bonding of the thin resin layer to the abutment, but also bonding to the zirconia ceramic is crucial. Both mechanical and chemical adhesion are desired. Mechanical retention of dental porcelain achieved by etching with moderately concentrated hydrofluoric acid is not possible with zirconia ceramics. The purpose of this study was to show that etching is possible with relative low melting fluoride compounds such as ammonium hydrogen difluoride and potassium hydrogen difluoride. Materials and methods: Before melting, the fluorides can be introduced as powders or as aqueous slurries to the contact surfaces of the zirconia. After melting, the yttria-stabilized zirconia surface revealed a surface similar to an HF-etched dental feldspathic porcelain surface. Shear bond testing (n = 10) was performed with zirconia attached to zirconia with the Duo-Link composite luting cement (Bisco) after treatment of the etched zirconia surfaces with Bis-Silane (Bisco) and the Porcelain Bonding Resin (Bisco). Results: Values for adhesive strength (mean ± standard deviation) after melt etching of the surfaces with initially dry powders were for K[FHF], (31.2 ± 7.5) MPa and for NH4[FHF] (31.0 ± 11.8) MPa. When initially aqueous slurries were applied, the values were for K[FHF] (42.7 ± 12.7) MPa and for NH4[FHF] (40.3 ± 10.0) MPa. Conclusion: Good adhesion to zirconia can be achieved by a procedure including etching with selected melted fluoride compounds. PMID:28642930

  8. Influence of post pattern and resin cement curing mode on the retention of glass fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Poskus, L T; Sgura, R; Paragó, F E M; Silva, E M; Guimarães, J G A

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of post design and roughness and cement system (dual- or self-cured) on the retention of glass fibre posts. Two tapered and smooth posts (Exacto Cônico No. 2 and White Post No. 1) and two parallel-sided and serrated posts (Fibrekor 1.25 mm and Reforpost No. 2) were adhesively luted with two different resin cements--a dual-cured (Rely-X ARC) and a self-cured (Cement Post)--in 40 single-rooted teeth. The teeth were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 5): PFD--Parallel-serrated-Fibrekor/dual-cured; PRD--Parallel-serrated-Reforpost/dual-cured; TED--Tapered-smooth-Exacto Cônico/dual-cured; TWD--Tapered-smooth-White Post/dual-cured; PFS--Parallel-serrated-Fibrekor/self-cured; PRS--Parallel-serrated-Reforpost/self-cured; TES--Tapered-smooth-Exacto Cônico/self-cured; TWS--Tapered-smooth-White Post/self-cured. The specimens were submitted to a pull-out test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). Data were analysed using analysis of variance and Bonferroni's multiple comparison test (alpha = 0.05). Pull-out results (MPa) were: PFD = 8.13 (+/-1.71); PRD = 8.30 (+/-0.46); TED = 8.68 (+/-1.71); TWD = 9.35 (+/-1.99); PFS = 8.54 (+/-2.23); PRS = 7.09 (+/-1.96); TES = 8.27 (+/-3.92); TWS = 7.57 (+/-2.35). No statistical significant difference was detected for posts and cement factors and their interaction. The retention of glass fibre posts was not affected by post design or surface roughness nor by resin cement-curing mode. These results imply that the choice for serrated posts and self-cured cements is not related to an improvement in retention.

  9. Effects of resin luting agents and 1% NaOCl on the marginal fit of indirect composite restorations in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    BORGES, Ana Flávia Sanches; SIMONATO, Luciana Estevam; PASCON, Fernanda Miori; KANTOWITZ, Kamila Rosamiglia; RONTANI, Regina Maria Puppin

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the marginal adaptation of composite resin onlays in primary teeth previously treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (pulp irrigant) using two different resin luting agents. Material and Methods Forty extracted sound primary molars had their crowns prepared in a standardized machine and were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): G1 (1% NaOCl irrigation+EnForce); G2 (EnForce); G3 (1% NaOCl irrigation+Rely X); G4 (Rely X). The onlays were made with Z250 composite resin on plaster models. After luting, the tooth/restoration set was stored in 100% relative humidity at 37ºC for 24 h and finished with Soflex discs. Caries Detector solution was applied at the tooth/restoration interface for 5 s. The specimens were washed and four digital photos of each tooth were then taken. The extents of the gaps were measured with Image Tool 3.0 software. The percentage data were submitted to a Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). The Relative Risk test analyzed the chance of a gap presence correlated to each group. Results There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) among the groups. The relative risk test revealed that some groups were more apt to have a presence of gaps than others. Conclusion Neither the 1% NaOCl treatment nor the resin luting agents caused any alterations in the dental substrate that could have influenced the marginal adaptation of composite onlays in primary teeth. PMID:21986649

  10. Microleakage of inlay ceramic systems luted with self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Bulent; Yucedag, Elif; Sahin, Volkan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the microleakage of Cerec 3, IPS e.max Press, and Turkom-Cera inlays cemented with three self-adhesive resin cements. Ninety standardized class III MOD cavities were prepared in intact human mandibular third molars. Ceramic inlays were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions and were cemented using three self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Smartcem 2, and SpeedCEM). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and subjected to 1000 thermocycles in water between 5°C and 55°C with a dwell time of 30 s. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to 100,000 cycles of mechanical loading of 50 N at 1.6 Hz in 37°C water. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 h and were sectioned using a low-speed diamond blade. The percentage of dye leakage at the tooth/restoration interface was measured and compared by Kruskal-Wallis tests with Bonferonni correction and Mann-Whitney U-tests at a significance level of p<0.05. Microleakage at the RelyX Unicem interface was lower than that with Smartcem 2 and SpeedCEM resin cements (p<0.05). Microleakage of the Turkom-Cera system was higher than Cerec 3 and IPS e.max Press ceramic inlays (p<0.05). Regardless of the ceramic system and self-adhesive resin cement used, dentin margins were associated with higher microleakage than enamel margins.

  11. Influence of Eugenol-based Sealers on Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Post Luted with Resin Cement: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Aline Segatto Pires; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear in the literature if the presence of eugenol in root dentin impairs the retention of a fiber post luted with resin cements. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature and perform meta-analysis on the influence of eugenol on the bond strength of posts luted to root canals. A systematic electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, and Web of Science databases. No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Eligible studies were those that assessed the immediate push-out bond strength of posts cemented to root dentin after the removal of eugenol-based sealer and compared it with a eugenol-free group. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria although 2 were excluded after full-text reading and 1 study was identified by cross-reference. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. Global analysis showed a significant influence of eugenol, which lowered the bond strength of fiber posts cemented to root canals (P < .001). The subgroup analysis carried out related to the different types of hybridization processes also indicated a negative effect of eugenol on bond strength in all subgroups assessed (P < .001). Eugenol-based sealer reduces the immediate push-out bond strength of fiber posts luted to root canal with resin cement, regardless of the type of adhesive system or resin cement used. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of surface conditioning with airborne-particle abrasion on the tensile strength of polymeric CAD/CAM crowns luted with self-adhesive and conventional resin cements.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Basler, Tobias; Ender, Andreas; Roos, Malgorzata; Ozcan, Mutlu; Hämmerle, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Adhesively bonded, industrially polymerized resins have been suggested as definitive restorative materials. It is claimed that such resins present similar mechanical properties to glass ceramic. The purpose of this study was to assess the tensile strength of polymeric crowns after conditioning with 2 different protocols: luted with self-adhesive or with conventional resin cements to dental abutments. Human teeth were prepared for crowns and divided into 13 groups (N=312, n=24 per group). Polymeric crowns were CAD/CAM fabricated and divided into 3 groups depending on different surface conditioning methods: A) No treatment, B) airborne-particle abrasion with 50 μm alumina, and C) airborne-particle abrasion with 110 μm alumina. Thereafter, the crowns were luted on dentin abutments with the following cements: 1) RXU (RelyX Unicem, self-adhesive), 2) GCM (G-Cem, self-adhesive), 3) ACG (artCem GI, conventional), and 4) VAR (Variolink II, conventional). Glass ceramic crowns milled and cemented with dual-polymerized resin cement (Variolink II) served as the control group. The tensile strength was measured initially (n=12) and after aging by mechanical thermocycling loading (1 200 000 cycles, 49 N, 5°C to 50°C) (n=12). The tensile strength (MPa) of all crowns was determined by the pull-off test (Zwick/Roell Z010; Ulm, Germany, 1mm/min). Subsequently, the failure types were classified. Data were analyzed with 2-way and 1-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Scheffé test and t test (α=.05). No adhesion of the tested cements was observed on unconditioned polymeric CAD/CAM crowns and those luted with VAR. Among the tested cements, GCM showed significantly higher values after airborne-particle abrasion with 110 μm (initial: 2.8 MPa; after aging: 1 MPa) than 50 μm alumina (initial: 1.4 MPa; after aging: 0 MPa). No significant effect was found between 50 and 110 μm particle size alumina in combination with the other 2 cements. After aging, the tensile strength of the crowns

  13. Early resin luting material damage around a circular fiber post in a root canal treated premolar by using micro-computerized tomographic and finite element sub-modeling analyses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Hao; Lin, Chun-Li

    2015-11-01

    This study utilizes micro-computerized tomographic (micro-CT) and finite element (FE) sub-modeling analyses to investigate the micro-mechanical behavior associated with voids/bubbles stress behavior at the luting material layer to understand the early damage in a root canal treated premolar. 3-dimensional finite element (FE) models of a macro-root canal treated premolar and two sub-models at the luting material layer to provide the void/bubble distribution and dimensions were constructed from micro-CT images and simulated to receive axial and lateral forces. The boundary conditions for the sub-models were determined from the macro-premolar model results and applied in sub-modeling analysis. The first principal stresses for the dentin, luting material layer and post in macro-premolar model and for luting material void/bubble in sub-models were recorded. The simulated results revealed that the macro-premolar model dramatically underestimated the luting material stress because the voids/bubbles at the adhesive layer cannot be captured due to coarse mesh and high stress gradient and the variations between sub- and macro-models ranging from 2.65 to 4.5 folds under lateral load at the mapping location. Stress concentrations were found at the edge of the voids/bubbles and values over 20 MPa in sub-modeling analysis immediately caused the luting material failure/micro-crack. This study establishes that micro-CT and FE sub-modeling techniques can be used to simulate the stress pattern at the micro-scale luting material layer in a root canal treated premolar, suggesting that attention must be paid to resin luting material initial failure/debonding when large voids/bubbles are generated during luting procedures.

  14. The effects of different shades of resin luting cement on the color of ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammed Q; Aljurais, Rana M; Alshaafi, Maan M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of different shades of light-polymerized resin cement on the color of two different thicknesses (0.5 mm and 0.7 mm) of three different ceramic materials (Esthetic, e.max, and ZirPress). A spectrophotometer (Color Eye 7000A - CIE (L*a*b*) was used to measure the color of specimens on the control substrate without cement, and then on (Translucent, White Opaque, B0.5, A1, and A3 of RelyX™ Veneer cement). The mean values of color difference (ΔE) were higher for Esthetic, followed by ZirPress, with the lowest values for e.max. The mean values of ΔE decreased when the thickness of ceramic increased from 0.5 mm to 0.7 mm. It was observed that the White Opaque had significantly increased ΔE values when compared with (TR, B0.5, A1, and A3), whereas no significant difference between B0.5 and TR, and between B0.5 and A3.

  15. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Grace; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used.

  16. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    DE SOUZA, Grace; BRAGA, Roberto Ruggiero; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; LOPES, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used. PMID:26398507

  17. Effect of long-term simulated pulpal pressure on the bond strength and nanoleakage of resin-luting agents with different bonding strategies.

    PubMed

    de Alexandre, R S; Santana, V B; Kasaz, A C; Arrais, C A G; Rodrigues, J A; Reis, A F

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of simulated hydrostatic pulpal pressure (SPP) on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin and nanoleakage patterns produced by self-adhesive luting agents after 12 months. Three self-adhesive luting agents (RelyX Unicem [UN], RelyX U100 [UC], and Clearfil SA Luting [SA]) and three conventional luting agents (Rely X ARC [RX], Panavia F [PF], and a two-step self-etching adhesive system [Clearfil SE Bond] associated with Panavia F [PS]) were evaluated. One hundred twenty-three human molars were abraded to expose occlusal surfaces. Resin cements were used to lute cylindrical composite blocks to the teeth either subjected or not to SPP. Sixty specimens were subjected to 15 cm H2O of SPP for 24 hours before and 24 hours or 12 months after cementation procedures. Afterward, restored teeth were serially sectioned into beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) at the bonded interface and were tested in tension (cross-head speed of 1 mm/min). Failure mode was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were statistically analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (p=0.05). Two additional teeth in each group were serially sectioned into 0.9-mm-thick slabs, which were submitted to a nanoleakage protocol with AgNO3 and analyzed with scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The μTBS values of the etch-and-rinse group (RX) were negatively influenced by SPP and long-term water storage with SPP. After 12 months, UC and SA presented premature failures in all specimens when submitted to SPP. SPP increased silver deposition in most groups in both evaluation times. The hydrostatic pulpal pressure effect was material dependent. The storage time without SPP did not affect bond strength. However, long-term SPP influenced the performance of the etch-and-rinse and self-adhesive cements regarding μTBS and nanoleakage pattern, except to UN.

  18. Dual cure low-VOC coating process: Phase 3. Semi-annual technical progress report, October 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    Objective of Phase 3 is to complete proof-of-principle testing in full-scale systems of the dual cure photocatalyst technology developed in earlier phases. Phase 3 commercial applications are aerospace topcoats, aerospace primers, and solventless manufacture of tape backings. Progress was made in improving urethane/acrylate formulation for aerospace topcoats, particularly in reverse impact, initial gloss, and loss retention during accelerated weathering. Formulations have now been developed which meet all initial criteria; the formulation was optimized. Aerospace primer formulations based on epoxy/flexibilizer systems were evaluated. Because of cure consistency problems and the increased need for non-chromated primers, work on aerospace primer system was de-emphasized to allow greater effort on development and commercialization of aerospace topcoat. Work on solventless backing saturants for electrical tape backings has been completed; optimal dual cure resin formulations have been used in preparing complete tape constructions.

  19. Marginal adaptation of three self-adhesive resin cements vs. a well-tried adhesive luting agent.

    PubMed

    Behr, M; Hansmann, M; Rosentritt, M; Handel, G

    2009-12-01

    This in vitro study compared the marginal adaptation of three self-adhesive composite cements with the clinically well-tried dentin adhesive system Panavia F 2.0. A total of 32 Empress 2 all-ceramic MOD-inlays (eight in each group) were luted using the self-adhesive composite cements Maxcem, Multilink Sprint, and RelyX Unicem Clicker; Panavia F 2.0 served as a clinically well-tried control. Each luted inlay underwent long-term water storage of 90 days as well as additional mechanical and thermal loading to simulate oral service. Marginal integrity was evaluated in both dentin and enamel finishing lines using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dye penetration tests. Dye penetration was lowest for Panavia followed by RelyX Unicem. Maxcem and Multilink showed a considerable dye penetration of up to 60%. After aging, SEM analysis revealed a reduction of "perfect margin" areas for Multilink Sprint and RelyX Unicem in enamel and for Maxcem and Multilink in dentin. Compared with the well-tried system Panavia--which was assumed as the golden standard of adhesive luting systems--only the self-adhesive luting agent RelyX Unicem showed similar results of marginal adaptation after long-term water storage.

  20. Influence of different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing resin nanoceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Pigozzo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin nanoceramic (RNC) material to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 disks were milled from RNC blocks (Lava Ultimate/3M ESPE) with CAD/CAM technology. The disks were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 recently extracted bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, disks were cemented using a total-etch protocol (Scotchbond™ Universal Etchant phosphoric acid + Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 2, disks were cemented using a self-etch protocol (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 3, disks were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol (RelyX™ Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive resin cement). All cemented specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Instron Universal Testing Machine 3343) and submitted to a shear bond strength test to check the strength of adhesion between the two substrates, dentin, and RNC disks. Specimens were stressed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test at a level of significance of 0.05. Results: Post-hoc Tukey testing showed that the highest shear strength values (P < 0.001) were reported in Group 2. The lowest data (P < 0.001) were recorded in Group 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, conventional resin cements (coupled with etch and rinse or self-etch adhesives) showed better shear strength values compared to self-adhesive resin cements. Furthermore, conventional resin cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values of adhesion. PMID:27076822

  1. The effects of tooth preparation cleansing protocols on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting cement to contaminated dentin.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabutr, Yada; Kois, John C

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of a self-adhesive luting cement after using four different techniques to remove surface contamination on dentin. Extracted human molars were flattened to expose the dentin surface and prepared for full crown preparation. Acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated and placed using temporary cement. The specimens were stored at room temperature with 100% relative humidity for seven days. Following removal of the temporary crowns, the specimens were randomly divided into four groups, and excess provisional cement was removed with (1) a hand instrument (excavator), (2) prophy with a mixture of flour pumice and water (3) aluminous oxide abrasion with a particle size of 27 microm at 40 psi and (4) aluminous oxide abrasion with a particle size of 50 microm at 40 psi. The microstructure morphology of the tooth surface was evaluated and residual materials were detected using SEM and EDS analysis of randomly selected specimens. The ceramics were treated with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid-etch and silanized to the prepared dentin prior to cementing with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE). The shear bond strength was determined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Particle abrasion treatment of dentin with an aluminous oxide particle provided the highest values of bond strength, while hand instrument excavation was the lowest (p < 0.05). Aluminous oxide particle size did not significantly influence the bond strength at 40 psi. The use of low pressure and small particle abrasion treated dentin as a mechanical cleansing protocol prior to definitive cementation increased the bond strength of self-adhesive resin-luting cement to dentin following eugenol-containing temporary cement.

  2. Monkey pulpal responses to conventional and adhesive luting cements.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, S; Fujitani, M; Otsuki, M; Sonoda, H; Kitasako, Y; Shimada, Y; Tagami, J

    1998-01-01

    Monkey pulpal responses to metal inlays luted with a combination of an adhesive resin and luting composite and conventional dental cements were histopathologically evaluated. Initial pulpal responses caused by re-exposure of the cut dentin surfaces and luting procedure under hydraulic pressure subsided at 90 days after final cementation. There was no significant difference among pulpal reactions to conventional dental cements and a combination of an adhesive resin and luting composite. The adhesive resin coating of freshly cut dentinal walls/floors immediately after cavity preparation seems to provide protection for the dentin and pulp in indirect restorations requiring temporary sealing.

  3. Interfacial ultramorphology evaluation of resin luting cements to dentin: a correlative scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Vermelho, Paulo Moreira; André, Carolina Bosso; Giannini, Marcelo

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the dentin-resin cements interfacial ultramorphologies using two different methods: scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four commercial products were evaluated: two conventional cementing system (RelyX ARC/Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose Plus, 3M ESPE and Clearfil Esthetic Cement/DC Bond, Kuraray) and two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE and Clearfil SA Cement, Kuraray). Prepolymerized resin disks (Sinfony, 3M ESPE) were cemented on oclusal dentin surfaces of 24 third human molars, simulating the indirect restorations. After 24 h, teeth were sectioned into 0.9-mm thick slabs and processed for microscopy analyses (SEM or TEM/ n = 3). Qualitative characterization of dentin-resin cement interface was performed. Hybrid layer formation with long and dense resin tags was observed only for RelyX ARC cementing system. Clearfil Esthetic Cement/DC Bond system revealed few and short resin tags formation, whereas no hybridization and resin tags were detected for self-adhesive resin cements. Some interfacial regions exhibited that the self-adhesive resin cements were not bonded to dentin, presenting bubbles or voids at the interfaces. In conclusion, TEM and SEM bonding interface analyses showed ultramorphological variations among resin cements, which are directly related to dental bonding strategies used for each resin cement tested.

  4. Curing units' ability to cure restorative composites and dual-cured composite cements under composite overlay.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Sun; Cho, Yong-Sik; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Noh, Byng-Duk

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of using conventional low-power density QTH (LQTH) units, high-power density QTH (HQTH) units, argon (Ar) laser and Plasma arc curing (PAC) units for curing dual-cured resin cements and restorative resin composites under a pre-cured resin composite overlay. The microhardness of the two types of restorative resins (Z100 and Tetric Ceram) and a dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II) were measured after they were light cured for 60 seconds in a 2 mm Teflon mold. The recorded microhardness was determined to be the optimum microhard-ness (OM). Either one of the two types of restorative resins (Z100, Tetric Ceram) or the dual cured resin cement (Variolink II) were placed under a 1.5-mm thick and 8 mm diameter pre-cured Targis (Vivadent/Ivoclar AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) overlay. The specimens that were prepared for each material were divided into four groups depending upon the curing units used (HQTH, PAC, Laser or LQTH) and were further subdi-vided into subgroups according to light curing time. The curing times used were 30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds for HQTH; 12, 24, 36 and 48 seconds for the PAC unit; 15, 30, 45 and 60 for the Laser and 60, 120 or 180 seconds for the LQTH unit. Fifteen specimens were assigned to each sub- group. The microhardness of the upper and and lower composite surfaces under the Targis overlay were measured using an Optidur Vickers hardness-measuring instrument (Göttfert Feinwerktechnik GmbH, Buchen, Germany). In each material, for each group, a three-way ANOVA with Tukey was used at the 0.05 level of significance to compare the microhardnesses of the upper and lower composite surfaces and the previously measured OM of the material. From the OM of each material, 80% OM was calculated and the time required for the microhardness of the upper and lower surface of the specimen to reach 100% and 80% of OM was determined. In Z100 and Tetric Ceram, when the composites were light cured for 120 seconds using the HQTH lamp

  5. Retention of radicular posts varying the application technique of the adhesive system and luting agent.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Tabajara Sabbag; Alfredo, Edson; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; Silva, Ricardo Gariba; Sousa, Yara T Correa Silva; Saquy, Paulo César; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the retention of intracanal cast posts cemented with dual-cure resin varying the application method of the primer/adhesive solution and luting agent in the prosthetic space prepared to receive the posts. Sixty endodontically treated maxillary canines had their crowns discarded, and their roots were embedded in acrylic resin. The prosthetic spaces were prepared with Largo burs mounted on a low-speed handpiece coupled to a parallelometer in order to maintain length and diameter of intraradicular posts constant and to guarantee that the preparations were parallel after casting. Two groups (n = 30) were randomly formed according to the device used to apply the adhesive system: microbrush or standard bristle brush (control). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10) according to the technique used to place the luting agent into the root canal: using only a lentulo spiral before setting the post, applying it onto the post surface, or combining both methods. After 72 hours, the tensile force required to dislodge each post was determined by a universal testing machine (Instron 4444) set at a speed of 1 mm/min. The results indicated that the use of the microbrush yielded higher bond strength values (0.1740 +/- 0.04 kN) than those recorded for the bristle brush tip (0.1369 +/- 0.04 kN, p < 0.001). Bonferroni's test demonstrated a higher retention (p < 0.001) in radicular post cemented with the technique that combined both methods (lentulo + post: 0.1787 +/- 0.03 kN) than that obtained with lentulo (0.1461 +/- 0.065 kN) or post (0.1416 +/- 0.03 kN) alone. The interactions between the adhesive system and luting agent application techniques presented statistical difference (p < 0.001). It was concluded that the best performance in terms of tensile strength among the tested conditions was obtained when the adhesive system was applied with a microbrush and the luting agent was taken into the root canal with lentulo spirals alone (0.1961 +/- 0

  6. Bond strength of adhesively luted ceramic discs to different core materials.

    PubMed

    Bozogullari, Nalan; Inan, Ozgur; Usumez, Aslihan

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strengths of resin, glass-ionomer, and ceramic-based core materials to all ceramic discs. Five core materials (Core max, Sankin; Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray; Empress Cosmo, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Photocore, Kuraray; Dyract Extra, Dentsply) were prepared as discs 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height according to the manufacturer's instructions. Ten disc specimens per group were prepared, and dentin served as the control. All resin specimens were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, with one surface facing up. All ceramic discs (IPS Empress I, Ivoclar-Vivadent) 3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height were prepared and bonded to core specimens with a dual-curing luting resin cement (Variolink II, Vivadent). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Shear bond strength of each sample was measured after 24 h using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests (alpha = 0.05). Shear bond strength varied significantly depending on the core material used (p < 0.05). Clearfil AP-X and Photocore showed the highest shear bond strength value while Empress Cosmo provided the lowest (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences among Clearfil AP-X, Photocore, and Core-Max (p > 0.05). And also there were no statistically significant differences between Dyract Extra and the control group (p > 0.05). In vitro shear bond strengths of ceramic discs bonded to resin-based core materials showed higher bond strength values than ceramic-based core material.

  7. XP BOND in self-curing mode used for luting porcelain restorations. Part A: Microtensile test.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Ornella; Cagidiaco, Maria Crysanti; Goracci, Cecilia; Ferrari, Marco

    2007-01-01

    To assess the bond strength to dentin of an experimental adhesive and the proprietary resin cement used in different curing modes to lute ceramic disks of different thicknesses. Empress II disks (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were luted to dentin using XP BOND (Dentsply [XP]) in combination with the proprietary self-curing activator (SCA) and cement Calibra (Dentsply [C]). Curing of the adhesive was induced either by mixing with the activator (activator, groups 3 to 6) or by light irradiation for 20 s (group 2). The cement was either light cured for 40 s through the ceramic onlay (groups 1 to 5) or cured chemically (groups 6 and 7). Groups 2 and 4 were compared with group 1, in which Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply DeTrey) was tested as control. In groups 3 and 6, 2-mm-thick onlays were luted with XP+SCA, and the cement was light cured for 40 s or autocured for 5 min, respectively. These groups were compared with group 7, in which Syntac (Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied with C and, in order to reproduce the handling procedures of group 6 (although contrary to manufacturer's instructions), no light irradiation was provided for the adhesive or the cement. The influence of onlay thickness (2, 3, 4 mm) on the bond strength developed by XP+SCA/C was assessed by comparing groups 3, 4, 5. In these groups, C was light cured for 40 s through the onlay. Microtensile beams were obtained from the luted teeth. Bond strengths not including pretest failures (in parentheses: value including pretest failures as 0 MPa) were 21.0 (17.5) MPa in group 1, 24.9 (21.2) MPa in group 2, 23.7 (21.3) MPa in group 3, 29.9 (26.7) MPa in group 4, 30.3 (24.6) MPa in group 5, 28.6 (24.6) MPa in group 6, and 17.1 (9.2) MPa in group 7. Statistically significant differences were found between groups 1 and 4, groups 3 and 5, and groups 6 and 7. The bonding potential of XP BOND used with the activator or light cured in combination with Calibra in self- or dual-curing mode outperformed that of a control adhesive

  8. Effect of curing modes of dual-curing core systems on microtensile bond strength to dentin and formation of an acid-base resistant zone.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Waidyasekera, Kanchana; Ikeda, Masaomi; Chen, Jihua; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) of two dualcuring core systems to dentin using four curing modes. Sixty-four caries-free human molars were randomly divided into two groups according to two dual-curing resin core systems: (1) Clearfil DC Core Automix; (2) Estelite Core Quick. For each core system, four different curing modes were applied to the adhesive and core resin: (1) dual-cured and dual-cured (DD); (2) chemically cured and dual-cured (CD); (3) dual-cured and chemically cured (DC); (4) chemically cured and chemically cured (CC). The specimens were sectioned into sticks (n = 20 for each group) for the microtensile bond test. μTBS data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the Dunnett T3 test. Failure patterns were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the proportion of each mode. Dentin sandwiches were produced and subjected to an acid-base challenge. After argon-ion etching, the ultrastructure of ABRZ was observed using SEM. For Clearfil DC Core Automix, the μTBS values in MPa were as follows: DD: 29.1 ± 5.4, CD: 21.6 ± 5.6, DC: 17.9 ± 2.8, CC: 11.5 ± 3.2. For Estelite Core Quick, they were: DD: 48.9 ±5.7, CD: 20.5 ± 4.7, DC: 41.4 ± 8.3, CC: 19.1 ± 6.0. The bond strength was affected by both material and curing mode, and the interaction of the two factors was significant (p < 0.001). Within both systems, there were significant differences among groups, and the DD group showed the highest μTBS (p < 0.05). ABRZ morphology was not affected by curing mode, but it was highly adhesive-material dependent. The curing mode of dual-curing core systems affects bond strength to dentin, but has no significant effect on the formation of ABRZ.

  9. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Phase 3, Semi-annual report, April 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-10-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of 3M`s contract with the US Department of Energy is to complete proof-of-principle testing in full-scale systems of the dual cure photocatalyst technology developed in earlier Phases of the program. The Phase 3 commercial applications to be demonstrated are aerospace topcoats, aerospace primers, and solventless manufacture of tape backings. This report details activities of Phase 3 during this reporting period. In the second six months of Phase 3, work has continued in all three applications. Significant progress has been made in improving the performance of the urethane/acrylate formulation being used for the aerospace topcoat application. Key improvements have been made in obtaining increased reverse impact, initial gloss and gloss retention during accelerated weathering. Technical challenges have continued with the aerospace primer formulation. Efforts in this six months have continued to focus on establishing a good baseline epoxy/acrylate formulation with reliable cure conditions. Work on the third demonstration application, development of solventless backing saturants for electrical tape backings, has essentially been completed. Optimal dual cure resin formulations have been identified and utilized in preparing complete tape constructions. These tapes have been evaluated and characterized in terms of benchmark UL and internal 3M specifications for electrical tape performance.

  10. Influence of eugenol on the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts cemented with different types of resin luting agents.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Erhan; Çetin, Ali Riza; Capar, İsmail Davut; Tunçdemir, Ali Riza; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the influence of eugenol on the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts cemented with different types of resin luting agents. Seventy-two extracted maxillary single-rooted canine teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 36 teeth. Group 1, the control group, was filled with gutta-percha only (i.e., did not receive eugenol), whereas group 2 was filled with a eugenol-containing sealer. All root canals were filled and each group was divided into three subgroups. The posts in each subgroup were cemented with the following materials: subgroup 1 with a 2-step self-etching adhesive system (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V + Panavia F); subgroup 2 with a 1-step self-etching adhesive (Panavia F); and subgroup 3 with a self-adhesive (Clearfil SA Cement). Dislodgement resistance was measured using a universal testing machine. All data were subjected to ANOVA using a factorial design and Tukey test (α = 0.05). The use of the eugenol-containing sealer significantly reduced the push-out bond strength of the fiber post (P < 0.05). The push-out bond strength of Panavia F was significantly higher than those of the other groups filled with the eugenol-containing sealer (P < 0.05). The Panavia F group was less susceptible to the inhibiting effect of eugenol than were the other evaluated groups when the fiber post was cemented in the canals filled with the eugenol-containing sealer.

  11. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of two fiber-reinforced composite posts systems using two luting cements in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Ajay; Pujar, Madhu; Patil, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of using a “post” for the restoration of teeth has been practiced to restore the endodontically treated tooth. Metallic posts have been commonly used, but their delirious effects have led to the development of fiber-reinforced materials that have overcome the limitations of metallic posts. The use of glass and quartz fibers was proposed as an alternative to the dark color of carbon fiber posts as far as esthetics was concerned. “Debonding” is the most common failure in fiber-reinforced composite type of posts. This study was aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive dual-cured luting agent (RelyX U100) with a total etch resin luting agent (Variolink II) used to cement two different FRC posts. Materials and Methods: Eighty human maxillary anterior single-rooted teeth were decoronated, endodontically treated, post space prepared and divided into four groups (n = 20); Group I: D.T. light post (RTD) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent), Group II: D.T. light post (RTD) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE), Group III: Glassix post (Nordin) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent) and Group IV: Glassix post (Nordin) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE). Each root was sectioned to get slices of 2 ± 0.05-mm thickness. Push-out tests were performed using a triaxial loading frame. To express bond strength in megapascals (Mpa), load value recorded in Newton (N) was divided by the area of the bonded interface. After testing the push-out strengths, the samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. Results: The mean values of the push-out bond strength show that Group I and Group III had significantly higher values than Group II and Group IV. The most common mode of failure observed was adhesive between dentin and luting material and between post and luting material. Conclusions: The mean push-out bond strengths were higher for Groups I and III where Variolink II resin cement was used for luting the fiber post, which is based on the total etch

  12. Thio-urethanes improve properties of dual-cured composite cements.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, A; Dobson, A; Ferracane, J L; Consani, R; Pfeifer, C S

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at modifying dual-cure composite cements by adding thio-urethane oligomers to improve mechanical properties, especially fracture toughness, and reduce polymerization stress. Thiol-functionalized oligomers were synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate, at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol. Oligomer was added at 0, 10 or 20 wt% to BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2, with 25 wt% silanated inorganic fillers) or to one commercial composite cement (Relyx Ultimate, 3M Espe). Near-IR was used to measure methacrylate conversion after photoactivation (700 mW/cm(2) × 60s) and after 72 h. Flexural strength and modulus, toughness, and fracture toughness were evaluated in three-point bending. Polymerization stress was measured with the Bioman. The microtensile bond strength of an indirect composite and a glass ceramic to dentin was also evaluated. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). For BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA cements, conversion values were not affected by the addition of thio-urethanes. Flexural strength/modulus increased significantly for both oligomer concentrations, with a 3-fold increase in toughness at 20 wt%. Fracture toughness increased over 2-fold for the thio-urethane modified groups. Contraction stress was reduced by 40% to 50% with the addition of thio-urethanes. The addition of thio-urethane to the commercial cement led to similar flexural strength, toughness, and conversion at 72h compared to the control. Flexural modulus decreased for the 20 wt% group, due to the dilution of the overall filler volume, which also led to decreased stress. However, fracture toughness increased by up to 50%. The microtensile bond strength increased for the experimental composite cement with 20 wt% thio-urethane bonding for both an indirect composite and a glass ceramic. Novel dual-cured composite cements containing thio-urethanes showed increased toughness, fracture toughness and

  13. Thio-urethanes Improve Properties of Dual-cured Composite Cements

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, A.; Dobson, A.; Ferracane, J.L.; Consani, R.; Pfeifer, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at modifying dual-cure composite cements by adding thio-urethane oligomers to improve mechanical properties, especially fracture toughness, and reduce polymerization stress. Thiol-functionalized oligomers were synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate, at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol. Oligomer was added at 0, 10 or 20 wt% to BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2, with 25 wt% silanated inorganic fillers) or to one commercial composite cement (Relyx Ultimate, 3M Espe). Near-IR was used to measure methacrylate conversion after photoactivation (700 mW/cm2 × 60s) and after 72 h. Flexural strength and modulus, toughness, and fracture toughness were evaluated in three-point bending. Polymerization stress was measured with the Bioman. The microtensile bond strength of an indirect composite and a glass ceramic to dentin was also evaluated. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). For BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA cements, conversion values were not affected by the addition of thio-urethanes. Flexural strength/modulus increased significantly for both oligomer concentrations, with a 3-fold increase in toughness at 20 wt%. Fracture toughness increased over 2-fold for the thio-urethane modified groups. Contraction stress was reduced by 40% to 50% with the addition of thio-urethanes. The addition of thio-urethane to the commercial cement led to similar flexural strength, toughness, and conversion at 72h compared to the control. Flexural modulus decreased for the 20 wt% group, due to the dilution of the overall filler volume, which also led to decreased stress. However, fracture toughness increased by up to 50%. The microtensile bond strength increased for the experimental composite cement with 20 wt% thio-urethane bonding for both an indirect composite and a glass ceramic. Novel dual-cured composite cements containing thio-urethanes showed increased toughness, fracture toughness and

  14. Bonding durability of dual-curing composite core material with different self-etching adhesive systems in a model complete vertical root fracture reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Waidyasekera, Kanchana; Nikaido, Toru; Weerasinghe, Dinesh; Nurrohman, Hamid; Tagami, Junji

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated a dual-curing composite along with different dentin adhesive systems for 1 year under water storage, as a new bonding method of root fragments in complete vertical root fracture. Bovine root fragments were bonded with the dual-curing resin composite Clearfil DC Core Automix (DCA) and one of three adhesive systems: two-step self-etching adhesive Clearfil SE Bond (SE), one-step self-etching adhesive Tokuyama Bond Force (BF), one-step dual-curing self-etching adhesive Clearfil DC Bond (DC). Microtensile bond strength (µTBS)/ultimate tensile bond strength (UTS), FE-SEM ultramorphology of fracture modes, and adhesive dentin interface were observed after water storage for periods of up to one year. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. µTBS was influenced by "dentin adhesive system" (F = 324.455, p < 0.001) and "length of water storage" (F = 8.470, p < 0.001). SE yielded significantly higher µTBS, regardless of storage period (p < 0.05) and maintained the initial µTBS without a significant change after 1 year of water storage (p > 0.05). From 24 h to 1 month, BF showed significantly higher bond strength than DC. UTS of DCA was influenced only by the curing mode of the material (F = 5.051, p = 0.027), but not by the length of water storage (F = 0.053, p > 0.05). Two-step self-etching adhesive systems and dual-curing composite core material can be considered as a suitable bonding method for complete root fractures.

  15. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

    2014-01-01

    The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

  16. Film thicknesses of recently introduced luting cements.

    PubMed

    Kious, Andrew R; Roberts, Howard W; Brackett, William W

    2009-03-01

    A luting cement must maintain a minimum film thickness over a sufficient period of time to allow seating of indirect restorations. The performance of newer luting cements in this regard has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the film thicknesses of 6 luting cements, 2 resin-modified glass ionomer (FujiCEM and RelyX Luting Plus), 2 composite resin (Panavia 21 and RelyX ARC), and 2 self-adhesive resin (Maxcem and RelyX Unicem) cements, over 3 minutes. The film thickness (microm) of each cement (n=7) was determined at room temperature at 1, 2, and 3 minutes after the start of mixing, according to the testing method set forth in ISO Standard 9917. Means of all cements were compared at the 2-minute interval, and means at the 1- and 3-minute intervals for each were compared to the mean for the same cement at 2 minutes, using 1-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests (alpha=.05). Except for 1 resin-modified material at 3 minutes, a point beyond its specified working time, all materials produced film thicknesses under 30 microm at 3 minutes and under 26 microm at 2 minutes. All of the materials tested meet the ISO standard of 25-microm maximum film thickness for up to 2 minutes after mixing.

  17. UV-Assisted 3D Printing of Glass and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Dual-Cure Polymer Composites

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Marta; Natale, Gabriele; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano; Griffini, Gianmarco

    2016-01-01

    Glass (GFR) and carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR) dual-cure polymer composites fabricated by UV-assisted three-dimensional (UV-3D) printing are presented. The resin material combines an acrylic-based photocurable resin with a low temperature (140 °C) thermally-curable resin system based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether as base component, an aliphatic anhydride (hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride) as hardener and (2,4,6,-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol) as catalyst. A thorough rheological characterization of these formulations allowed us to define their 3D printability window. UV-3D printed macrostructures were successfully demonstrated, giving a clear indication of their potential use in real-life structural applications. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis highlighted the good thermal stability and mechanical properties of the printed parts. In addition, uniaxial tensile tests were used to assess the fiber reinforcing effect on the UV-3D printed objects. Finally, an initial study was conducted on the use of a sizing treatment on carbon fibers to improve the fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion, giving preliminary indications on the potential of this approach to improve the mechanical properties of the 3D printed CFR components. PMID:28773704

  18. UV-Assisted 3D Printing of Glass and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Dual-Cure Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Marta; Natale, Gabriele; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano; Griffini, Gianmarco

    2016-07-16

    Glass (GFR) and carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR) dual-cure polymer composites fabricated by UV-assisted three-dimensional (UV-3D) printing are presented. The resin material combines an acrylic-based photocurable resin with a low temperature (140 °C) thermally-curable resin system based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether as base component, an aliphatic anhydride (hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride) as hardener and (2,4,6,-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol) as catalyst. A thorough rheological characterization of these formulations allowed us to define their 3D printability window. UV-3D printed macrostructures were successfully demonstrated, giving a clear indication of their potential use in real-life structural applications. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis highlighted the good thermal stability and mechanical properties of the printed parts. In addition, uniaxial tensile tests were used to assess the fiber reinforcing effect on the UV-3D printed objects. Finally, an initial study was conducted on the use of a sizing treatment on carbon fibers to improve the fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion, giving preliminary indications on the potential of this approach to improve the mechanical properties of the 3D printed CFR components.

  19. Bond strength of luting cements to core foundation materials.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, Sandra; Wadenya, Rose O; Mante, Francis K

    2010-03-01

    The purpose was to compare the shear bond strength of luting cements to foundation materials and to determine the effect of storage in lactate buffer solution. Disks that were 8 mm in diameter and 2-mm thick were fabricated from foundation substrates: amalgam, composite resin, resin-modified glass ionomer, and glass ionomer (n = 20). Cylinders that were 2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in length of resin luting cement, resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement, and a glass ionomer luting cement were bonded to the foundation substrate materials. Shear bond strength of each foundation substrate material/cement pair was determined with a universal testing machine after 24 hours. A second set of specimens was tested after storage in a 0.01M lactate buffer solution for 24 hours. A three-way analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparisons was performed to compare bond strengths (P < .05). The resin cement provided the highest (P < .05) bond strengths to amalgam, composite resin, and resin-modified glass ionomer foundation materials while the glass ionomer cement showed the lowest bond strength (P < .05) to composite resin and glass ionomer foundation restoration materials. After immersion in a 0.01M lactate buffer solution, the shear bond strength of all the material combinations was significantly lower (P < .05) than nonimmersed specimens, except the bonds between composite resin foundation and resin luting cement, which significantly increased (P < .05) in strength. The resin cement had the highest bond strength to most foundation substrates investigated. The highest bond was observed between the composite resin foundation and resin cement. This bond was also the most durable on immersion in lactic acid.

  20. Effect of waiting interval on chemical activation mode of dual-cure one-step self-etching adhesives on bonding to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Thitthaweerat, Suppason; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of waiting interval on the chemical activation of dual-cure one-step self-etching adhesives before placing resin core materials on the regional bond strength to root canal dentin. Forty-eight post spaces prepared in human lower premolars were applied with four dual-cure one-step self-etching adhesives Estelite Core Quick: ECB/ECQ, Clearfil DC Core Automix: CDB/CDC, Unifil Core EM: UNB/UNC, BeautiCore: BTB/BTC as the manufacturers' instructions. These adhesives were cured with light activation for 10 s, or chemical activation with 0, 10, and 30 s waiting intervals prior to placing resin core material. Resin core materials were then placed into the post space and light-cured for 60 s. After 24h water storage, each specimen was serially sliced into 8, 0.6 mm × 0.6 mm thick beams for the μTBS test. The regional μTBS data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test (p < 0.05). For the chemical activation with 10 and 30 s waiting intervals, ECB and CDB exhibited significantly improved μTBS, whereas for UNB and BTB, the μTBS were not significantly different but increased with waiting interval. On the other hand, light-activation of all the adhesives produced significantly higher μTBS to root canal dentin than chemical activation (p < 0.05), except for the UNB group. For the chemical activation of dual-cure one-step self-etching adhesives, a waiting interval prior to placing resin core material improved μTBS to root canal dentin. Polymerising the adhesives before polymerisation reaction of resin core material would be effective for bonding to root canal dentin. For chemical activation mode as well as light activation mode, pre-curing of adhesive layer before proceeding polymerisation of resin filling material would produce higher bonding performance to dentin in the cavity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of immediate dentin sealing on the shear bond strength of pressed ceramic luted to dentin with self-etch resin cement.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Robert; Ellakwa, Ayman; Millar, Brian; Martin, F Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the effect of immediate dentin sealing (IDS), with dentin bonding agents (DBAs) applied to freshly cut dentin, on the shear bond strength of etched pressed ceramic luted to dentin with RelyX Unicem (RXU) cement. Method. Eighty extracted noncarious third molars were ground flat to expose the occlusal dentin surfaces. The teeth were randomly allocated to five groups (A to E) of sixteen teeth each. Groups A to D were allocated a dentin bonding agent (Optibond FL, One Coat Bond, Single Bond, or Go!) that was applied to the dentin surface to mimic the clinical procedure of IDS. These specimen groups then had etched glass ceramic discs (Authentic) luted to the sealed dentin surface using RXU. Group E (control) had etched glass ceramic discs luted to the dentin surface (without a dentin bonding agent) using RXU following the manufacturer's instructions. All specimens were stored for one week in distilled water at room temperature and then shear stressed at a constant cross-head speed of 1 mm per minute until failure. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey HSD method (P < 0.05) applied for multiple paired comparisons. Results. The shear bond strength results for group A to E ranged from 6.94 ± 1.53 to 10.03 ± 3.50 MPa. One-way ANOVA demonstrated a difference (P < 0.05) between the groups tested and the Tukey HSD demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) difference between the shear bond strength (SBS) of Optibond FL (Group A) and Go! (Group D). There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) in the SBS between the test groups (A-D) or the control (group E). Conclusion. IDS using the dentin bonding agents tested does not statistically (P > 0.05) affect the shear bond strength of etched pressed ceramic luted to dentin with RXU when compared to the control.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the regional micro-push-out bond strength of custom-made resin post system with a prefabricated resin post: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ranjithkumar, S; Velmurugan, N; Roy, Anna; Hemamalathi, S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the regional micro-push-out bond strength of custom-made resin post and a prefabricated resin post luted using self-etch adhesive and/or etch and rinse adhesive system at various regions. Forty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected for this study; 1.5-2-mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction was removed with a diamond disk using a slow speed handpiece under cooling water. Working lengths were established, root canals were sequentially enlarged upto the apex until ISO size 50-K-file and obturated using gutta-percha and AH plus sealer by cold lateral compaction. Post spaces were prepared to a depth of 10 mm using paeso-reamer upto size #3. After preparation, each specimen was embedded in chemically cured acrylic resin. The roots were randomly assigned to four groups: Group I: Custom-made resin post+Self-etch adhesive, Group II: Glass FRC post+Self-etch adhesive, Group III: Custom-made resin post+Etch and Rinse adhesive, Group IV: Glass FRC post+Etch and Rinse adhesive. Fabrication of custom-made resin post was done. All the posts were cemented using a dual cure resin luting cement. Each root was sectioned perpendicular to the long axis using a microtome and subjected to micro-push-out bond strength. The micro-push-out bond strength in the coronal region, in Group I 13.5 ± 1.66 MPa, Group II 12.08 ± 0.8 MPa, Group III 11.15 ± 1.06 MPa, Group IV 11.81 ± 1.11 MPa. In the middle third region: Group I 11.43 ± 0.740 MPa, Group II 10.584 ± 0.504 MPa, Group III 10.0582 ± 0.830 MPa, Group IV 10.35 ± 0772 MPa. In the apical third: Group I 10.38 ± 0.878 MPa, Group II 9.59 ± 1.06 MPa, Group III 9.34 ± 0.73o MPa, Group IV 8.77 ± 1.02 MPa. Within the limitations of the study, amongst all the four groups tested, custom-made resin post luted with self-etch system (CMPR-SE) showed higher micro-push-out bond strength values in all regions when compared to the other groups.

  3. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Belwalkar, Vaibhavi Ramkrishna; Gade, Jaykumar; Mankar, Nikhil Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25) using silane as a control (Group A) and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05). Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001). Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface.

  4. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Belwalkar, Vaibhavi Ramkrishna; Gade, Jaykumar; Mankar, Nikhil Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25) using silane as a control (Group A) and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05). Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. PMID:27307666

  5. Color stability of adhesive resin cements after immersion in coffee.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Maho; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Asakawa, Yuya; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2015-03-01

    Marginal discoloration of luting cement may affect the appearance of esthetic restorations. This study evaluated the color stability of current adhesive resin cements after immersion in coffee. Four dual-cured resin cements (Clearfil SA cement Automix Universal, Maxcem Elite Clear, Maxcem Elite Yellow, and RelyX Unicem2 Automix A2) and two chemical-cured resin cements (Super-Bond C&B Clear and Super-Bond C&B Esthetic) were examined. The CIE L*a*b* of 2.0-mm-thick disc-shaped specimens was measured using a spectrophotometer on a white background (n = 6). The color differences (∆E) after 1-day and 1-week immersion in 37 °C water or coffee were analyzed by two-way ANOVA by selecting immersion solution and product as main factors, followed by Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). Water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. The two-way ANOVA of the ∆Es suggested that the two main factors and their interaction were significant. The ∆Es after coffee immersion were significantly greater than those after water immersion, except for Super-Bond C&B Esthetic. The ∆Es after water immersion were not significantly different among the products; those of Maxcem Elite Clear and Maxcem Elite Yellow after coffee immersion were significantly greater than the others. The water sorption and solubility significantly correlated with the ∆Es. The ∆Es of the adhesive resin cements examined after 1-week coffee immersion were significantly different among the products. The product showing greater water sorption and solubility displayed greater color change. Adhesive resin cements should be carefully selected when the marginal appearance of the ceramic restoration is important.

  6. Vertical discrepancy and microleakage of laser-sintered and vacuum-cast implant-supported structures luted with different cement types.

    PubMed

    Oyagüe, Raquel Castillo; Sánchez-Turrión, Andrés; López-Lozano, José Francisco; Suárez-García, M Jesús

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the vertical misfit and microleakage of laser-sintered and vacuum-cast cement-retained implant-supported frameworks. Three-unit implant-fixed structures were constructed with: (1) laser-sintered Co-Cr (LS); (2) vacuum-cast Co-Cr (CC); and (3) vacuum-cast Pd-Au (CP). Every framework was luted onto 2 prefabricated abutments under constant seating pressure. Each alloy group was randomly divided into three subgroups (n=10) according to the cement used: (1) Ketac Cem Plus (KC); (2) Panavia F 2.0 (PF); and (3) RelyX Unicem 2 Automix (RXU). After 30 days of water ageing, vertical discrepancy was measured by SEM, and marginal microleakage was scored using a digital microscope. Three-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were run to investigate the effect of alloy/fabrication technique, FDP retainer, and cement type on vertical misfit. Data for marginal microleakage were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (α=0.05). Vertical discrepancy was affected by alloy/manufacturing technique and cement type (p<0.001). Despite the luting agent, LS structures showed the best marginal adaptation, followed by CP, and CC. Within each alloy group, KC provided the best fit, whilst the use of PF or RXU resulted in no significant differences. Regardless of the framework alloy, KC exhibited the highest microleakage scores, whilst PF and RXU showed values that were comparable to each other. Laser-sintered Co-Cr structures achieved the best fit in the study. Notwithstanding the framework alloy, resin-modified glass-ionomer demonstrated better marginal fit but greater microleakage than did MDP-based and self-adhesive dual-cure resin cements. All groups were within the clinically acceptable misfit range. Laser-sintered Co-Cr may be an alternative to cast base metal and noble alloys to obtain passive-fitting structures. Despite showing higher discrepancies, resin cements displayed lower microleakage than resin-modified glass-ionomer. Further research is

  7. Evaluation of the In Vitro Effects of Cervical Marginal Relocation Using Composite Resins on the Marginal Quality of CAD/CAM Crowns.

    PubMed

    Spreafico, Roberto; Marchesi, Giulio; Turco, Gianluca; Frassetto, Andrea; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo

    To evaluate the effect of cervical margin relocation (CMR) for crowns designed using CAD/CAM technology, and made of pre-cured resin or lithium disilicate, before and after thermomechanical loading. The test hypothesis was that the marginal quality of the crowns would not be influenced by the CMR with composite resins before or after thermomechanical loading. Standard crown preparations were created in 40 human molars. The margins were located in enamel, except for the mesial proximal box, where the cervical margin was 2.0 mm below the cementoenamel junction, with 4.0 mm in the buccolingual and 2.0 mm in the mesiodistal dimension. For the CMR technique, a 2-mm layer of conventional or flowable composite resin was applied to the mesial box. Using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, 40 standard crowns were prepared, and restorations were luted using a dual-curing adhesive cement. SEM analysis was performed using epoxy resin replicas before and after loading to assess the marginal quality of interfaces of the mesial proximal box with CMR/crown and the distal face of the tooth without CMR. Statistical differences between groups were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Bonferroni's post-hoc test. The null hypothesis was accepted, since no statistically significant differences were found in marginal quality before and after thermomechanical cycling (p > 0.05). The implementation of CMR before and after thermomechanical cycling had no effect on the quality of cervical margins. To establish whether CMR is a suitable procedure for the adhesive luting of composite resin crowns in deep proximal boxes, additional studies are required.

  8. LUTE telescope structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  9. Bonding of restorative materials to dentin with various luting agents.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Flury, S

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to compare eight types of luting agents when used to bond six indirect, laboratory restorative materials to dentin. Cylinders of the six restorative materials (Esteticor Avenir [gold alloy], Tritan [titanium], NobelRondo [feldspathic porcelain], Finesse All-Ceramic [leucite-glass ceramic], Lava [zirconia], and Sinfony [resin composite]) were ground and air-abraded. Cylinders of feldspathic porcelain and glass ceramic were additionally etched with hydrofluoric acid and were silane-treated. The cylinders were luted to ground human dentin with eight luting agents (DeTrey Zinc [zinc phosphate cement], Fuji I [conventional glass ionomer cement], Fuji Plus [resin-modified glass ionomer cement], Variolink II [conventional etch-and-rinse resin cement], Panavia F2.0 and Multilink [self-etch resin cements], and RelyX Unicem Aplicap and Maxcem [self-adhesive resin cements]). After water storage at 37°C for one week, the shear bond strength of the specimens (n=8/group) was measured, and the fracture mode was stereomicroscopically examined. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls' Multiple Range Test (α=0.05). Both the restorative material and the luting agent had a significant effect on bond strength, and significant interaction was noted between the two variables. Zinc phosphate cement and glass ionomer cements produced the lowest bond strengths, whereas the highest bond strengths were found with the two self-etch and one of the self-adhesive resin cements. Generally, the fracture mode varied markedly with the restorative material. The luting agents had a bigger influence on bond strength between restorative materials and dentin than was seen with the restorative material.

  10. Evaluation of fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars, restored with ceromer or heat-pressed ceramic inlays and fixed with dual-resin cements.

    PubMed

    Ortega, V L; Pegoraro, L F; Conti, P C R; do Valle, A L; Bonfante, G

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically maxillary premolars restored with mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) inlays made with ceramic (IPS-Empress 2) and ceromer (Targis) and luted with three different dual-cured resin cements (Enforce, Variolink II, Panavia F). Sixty maxillary premolars were randomly distributed into six groups, according to their mesio-distal and facio-lingual dimensions. The teeth were endodontically treated and MOD cavities prepared. After the restorations were cemented, the samples were thermocycled and submitted to an axial compressive load by the action of a rounded end steel cylinder contacting the incline planes of occlusal surfaces of the teeth. The mode of fracture was analysed with a microscope. The best results were found with the combinations (cement/restorative material) Enforce/Targis (107.57 kgf) and Enforce/Empress (90.21 kgf) followed by Variolink II/Targis (86.44 kgf)-Variolink II/Empress (84.07 kgf) and Panavia F/Targis (82.43 kgf)-Panavia F/Empress (76.73 kgf). Analysis of variance (P < 0.05) showed a significant difference between Enforce and Panavia cements regardless of the restorative material. Considering the same luting agent there was no statistically significant difference between the restorative materials. Fracture of lingual cusps occurred in 55 of the 60 teeth and most of them were of the cohesive type.

  11. Comparison of microleakage of three acid-base luting cements versus one resin-bonded cement for Class V direct composite inlays.

    PubMed

    Piemjai, Morakot; Miyasaka, Kumiko; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2002-12-01

    Demineralized dentin beneath set cement may adversely affect microleakage under fixed restorations. Microleakage of direct composite inlays cemented with acid-base cements and a methyl methacrylate resin cement were evaluated to determine their effect on the integrity of the underlying hybridized dentin. Sixty Class V box preparations (3 mm x 3 mm x 1.5 mm) were precisely prepared in previously frozen bovine teeth with one margin in enamel and another margin in dentin. Direct composite inlays (EPIC-TMPT) for each preparation were divided into 4 groups of 15 specimens each and cemented with 3 acid-base cements (control group): Elite, Ketac-Cem, Hy-Bond Carbo-Cem, and 1 adhesive resin cement: C&B Metabond. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37 degrees C before immersion in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours. The dye penetration was measured on the sectioned specimens at the tooth-cement interface of enamel and cementum margins and recorded with graded criteria under light microscopy (Olympus Vanox-T) at original magnification x 50, 100, and 200. A Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney test at P<.05 were used to analyze leakage score. All cementum margins of the 3 acid-base cements tested demonstrated significantly higher leakage scores than cementum margins for inlays cemented with the resin cement tested(P<.01). No leakage along the tooth-cement interface was found for inlays retained with the adhesive resin cement. Within the limitations of this study, the 3 acid-base cements tested exhibited greater microleakage at the cementum margins than did the adhesive resin cement that was tested.

  12. Clinical applications of preheated hybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    Rickman, L J; Padipatvuthikul, P; Chee, B

    2011-07-22

    This clinical article describes and discusses the use of preheated nanohybrid resin composite for the placement of direct restorations and luting of porcelain laminate veneers. Two clinical cases are presented. Preheating hybrid composite decreases its viscosity and film thickness offering the clinician improved handling. Preheating also facilitates the use of nanohybrid composite as a veneer luting material with relatively low polymerisation shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion compared to currently available resin luting cements.

  13. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    PubMed

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  14. The impact of endodontic irrigating solutions on the push-out shear bond strength of glass fiber posts luted with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Pelegrine, Rina Andrea; Silveira, Cláudia Fernandes de Magalhães; Bueno, Vanessa Castro Pestana da Silveira; Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pereira, Gisele Damiana da Silveira; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2016-01-01

    Resin-based restorative materials, widely used to cement posts, may be influenced by irrigants used during endodontic chemical-mechanical preparation. This study evaluated the impact of endodontic irrigating solutions and adhesive cement systems on the push-out shear bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin. Ninety-six bovine incisors were divided into 12 groups (4 irrigants × 3 resin cements; n = 8). Prepared canals were irrigated with saline solution, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 5.25% NaOCl, or 2% chlorhexidine gel, and posts were cemented with RelyX ARC, Panavia F, or RelyX U100. The bond strength was evaluated by means of the push-out test, and results were subjected to analysis of variance. The mean bond strength observed for the combination of 5.25% NaOCl irrigant and RelyX U100 cement was significantly lower (8.82 MPa) than the values found for the other groups (P < 0.05). The other combinations of irrigating solution and resin cement had no adverse effect on the bond strength of the glass fiber posts to dentin.

  15. Cytotoxicity evaluation of luting resin cements on bovine dental pulp-derived cells (bDPCs) by real-time cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Arslan Malkoç, Meral; Demir, Necla; Şengün, Abdulkadir; Bozkurt, Şerife Buket; Hakki, Sema Sezen

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity of resin cements on dental pulp-derived cells (bDPCs), Bifix QM (BQM), Choice 2(C2), RelyX U200(RU200), Maxcem Elite(ME), and Multilink Automix(MA) were tested. The materials were incubated in DMEM for 72 h. A real-time cell analyzer was used to evaluate cell survival. The statistical analyses used were one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests. BQM, RU200, and ME demonstrated a significant decrease in the bDPCs' index at 24 and 72 h (p≤0.001). These materials were found to be the most toxic resin cements, as compared to the control and other tested materials (C2 and MA). However, C2 and MA showed a better survival rate, compared to BQM, RU200, and ME, and had lower cell index than the control group. The cytotoxic effects of resin cements on pulpa should be evaluated during the selection of proper cements.

  16. Radiopacity Evaluation of Contemporary Luting Cements by Digitization of Images

    PubMed Central

    Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Jorge, Érica Gouveia; Ribeiro, João Gustavo Rabelo; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of two conventional cements (Zinc Cement and Ketac Cem Easymix), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2) and six resin cements (Multilink, Bistite II DC, RelyX ARC, Fill Magic Dual Cement, Enforce and Panavia F) by digitization of images. Methods. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 × 1.0 mm) were made for each material, according to ISO 4049. After setting of the cements, radiographs were made using occlusal films and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1.0 to 16 mm in thickness. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of the cements was compared with the aluminum stepwedge using the software VIXWIN-2000. Data (mmAl) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results. The Zinc Cement was the most radiopaque material tested (P < 0.05). The resin cements presented higher radiopacity (P < 0.05) than the conventional (Ketac Cem Easymix) or resin-modified glass ionomer (RelyX Luting 2) cements, except for the Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce. The Multilink presented the highest radiopacity (P < 0.05) among the resin cements. Conclusion. The glass ionomer-based cements (Ketac Cem Easymix and RelyX Luting 2) and the resin cements (Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce) showed lower radiopacity values than the minimum recommended by the ISO standard. PMID:23008777

  17. Composite Resin Core Buildups With and Without Post for the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Molars Without Ferrule.

    PubMed

    Magne, P; Goldberg, J; Edelhoff, D; Güth, J-F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the restoration of highly damaged, broken-down endodontically treated molars without the ferrule effect using glass ceramic crowns on different dual-cure composite resin core buildups. Thirty (N=30, n=15) decoronated, endodontically treated teeth (no ferrule) were restored without a ferrule with a direct buildup using the dual-curing composite Multicore HB (group MHB) or the dual-curing composite core buildup Multicore Flow in combination with glass-fiber-reinforced composite post (FRC post; group MFP). All teeth were prepared to receive bonded glass ceramic crowns (Empress CAD luted with Variolink II) and were subjected to accelerated fatigue testing. Cyclic isometric loading was applied to the palatal cusp at an angle of 30 degrees and a frequency of 5 Hz, beginning with a load of 200 N (×5000 cycles), followed by stages of 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 N at a maximum of 30,000 cycles each. Specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum of 185,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (log rank test at p=0.05). Average fracture loads and number of survived cycles were compared with one-way analysis of variance (Scheffé post hoc at p=0.05). Previously published data from the same authors about core buildups made of high-performance polymers (group HPP, n=15) and light-curing composite resin without FRC posts (group TEC, n=15) and with FRC posts (group TECP, n=15) using the same experimental setup were included for comparison. None of the tested specimen withstood all 185,000 load cycles. There was no significant difference in mean fracture load (p=0.376), survived cycles (p=0.422), and survival (p=0.613) between MHB (facture load 859.4 N±194.92) and MFP (796.13 N±156.34). Group HPP from a previous study appeared to have significantly higher performance than all other groups except MHB. All groups with posts were affected by an initial failure phenomenon (wide gap at the margin

  18. Guitars and Lutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Caldersmith, Graham

    Lute-type instruments have a long history. Various types of necked chordophones were in use in ancient Egyptian, Hittite, Greek, Roman, Turkish, Chinese, and other cultures. In the ninth century, Moors brought the oud (or ud) to Spain. In the fifteenth century, the vihuela became popular in Spain and Portugal. About the same time guitars with four double-strings became popular, and Italy became the center of the guitar world.

  19. Effect of pre-cure temperature on the bonding potential of self-etch and self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Cantoro, Amerigo; Goracci, Cecilia; Papacchini, Federica; Mazzitelli, Claudia; Fadda, Giovanni Maria; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-05-01

    To assess whether the pre-cure temperature of resin cements significantly influenced the bonding potential to dentin. Forty extracted molars were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=5): Groups (1-4) RelyX Unicem (RU, 3 M ESPE) and Groups (5-8) Panavia F 2.0 (PF, Kuraray Co.), at pre-cure temperatures of 4, 24, 37, and 60 degrees C, respectively. Cements were used in dual-cure mode for luting composite overlays (Paradigm MZ100, 3 M ESPE) to dentin. Microtensile bond strength testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of cement-dentin interfaces were performed. Group 4 had to be eliminated as RU at 60 degrees C underwent such an accelerated curing that was already set at the time of dispensing. The bond strengths (MPa) measured at refrigerator, room, and intraoral temperature were, respectively: RU 5.4+/-1.7, 11.4+/-6.1, 10.6+/-4.2; PF 7.4+/-3.7, 13.9+/-6.2, 12+/-5.2. The statistical analysis revealed that both luting agents developed a significantly weaker adhesion when used at refrigerator temperature (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in bond strength were recorded when either cement was used at 24 or 37 degrees C (p>0.05). Pre-heating of PF to 60 degrees C resulted in a significant increase in bond strength (20.7+/-9.4 MPa; p<0.05). SEM observations disclosed an enhanced potential of PF to form a hybrid layer as the temperature increased over 4 degrees C. RU exhibited a less porous and more homogeneous layer at intraoral than at refrigerated temperature. It is advisable to let refrigerator-stored resin cements warm up to at least room temperature prior to clinical use. Pre-heating to 60 degrees C enhances the bonding potential of PF.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Luting Cements to Different Core Buildup Materials in Lactic Acid Buffer Solution

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Siddharam M.; Desai, Raviraj G.; Arabbi, Kashinath C.; Prakash, Ved

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objectives The core buildup material is used to restore badly broken down tooth to provide better retention for fixed restorations. The shear bond strength of a luting agent to core buildup is one of the crucial factors in the success of the cast restoration. The aim of this invitro study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of luting cements with different core buildup materials in lactic acid buffer solution. Materials and Methods Two luting cements {Traditional Glass Ionomer luting cement (GIC) and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer luting cement (RMGIC)} and five core buildup materials {Silver Amalgam, Glass ionomer (GI), Glass Ionomer Silver Reinforced (GI Silver reinforced), Composite Resin and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer(RMGIC)} were selected for this study. Total 100 specimens were prepared with 20 specimens for each core buildup material using a stainless steel split metal die. Out of these 20 specimens, 10 specimens were bonded with each luting cement. All the bonded specimens were stored at 370c in a 0.01M lactic acid buffer solution at a pH of 4 for 7days. Shear bond strength was determined using a Universal Testing Machine at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. The peak load at fracture was recorded and shear bond strength was calculated. The data was statistically analysed using Two-way ANOVA followed by HOLM-SIDAK method for pair wise comparison at significance level of p<0.05. Results Two-Way ANOVA showed significant differences in bond strength of the luting cements (p<0.05) and core materials (p<0.05) and the interactions (p<0.05). Pairwise comparison of luting cements by HOLM-SIDAK test, showed that the RMGIC luting cement had higher shear bond strength values than Traditional GIC luting cement for all the core buildup materials. RMGIC core material showed higher bond strength values followed by Composite resin, GI silver reinforced, GI and silver amalgam core materials for both the luting agents. Conclusion Shear bond strength of

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Luting Cements to Different Core Buildup Materials in Lactic Acid Buffer Solution.

    PubMed

    Patil, Siddharam M; Kamble, Vikas B; Desai, Raviraj G; Arabbi, Kashinath C; Prakash, Ved

    2015-08-01

    The core buildup material is used to restore badly broken down tooth to provide better retention for fixed restorations. The shear bond strength of a luting agent to core buildup is one of the crucial factors in the success of the cast restoration. The aim of this invitro study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of luting cements with different core buildup materials in lactic acid buffer solution. Two luting cements {Traditional Glass Ionomer luting cement (GIC) and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer luting cement (RMGIC)} and five core buildup materials {Silver Amalgam, Glass ionomer (GI), Glass Ionomer Silver Reinforced (GI Silver reinforced), Composite Resin and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer(RMGIC)} were selected for this study. Total 100 specimens were prepared with 20 specimens for each core buildup material using a stainless steel split metal die. Out of these 20 specimens, 10 specimens were bonded with each luting cement. All the bonded specimens were stored at 37(0)c in a 0.01M lactic acid buffer solution at a pH of 4 for 7days. Shear bond strength was determined using a Universal Testing Machine at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. The peak load at fracture was recorded and shear bond strength was calculated. The data was statistically analysed using Two-way ANOVA followed by HOLM-SIDAK method for pair wise comparison at significance level of p<0.05. Two-Way ANOVA showed significant differences in bond strength of the luting cements (p<0.05) and core materials (p<0.05) and the interactions (p<0.05). Pairwise comparison of luting cements by HOLM-SIDAK test, showed that the RMGIC luting cement had higher shear bond strength values than Traditional GIC luting cement for all the core buildup materials. RMGIC core material showed higher bond strength values followed by Composite resin, GI silver reinforced, GI and silver amalgam core materials for both the luting agents. Shear bond strength of RMGIC luting cement was significantly higher than

  2. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Dentin Using New Universal Bonding Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    34Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Dentin Using New Universal Bonding Agents" Materials Repaired with Composite Resin " 7. Intended publication...incompatibilities with self-curing composite materials. Low bond strength between self-curing composite resins , such as resin cements and core materials...of self-cure composite materials or dual-cure materials that are not adequately light cured (Tay et al., 2003). Most resin cement systems that use

  3. Influence of endodontic post type (glass fiber, quartz fiber or gold) and luting material on push-out bond strength to dentin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kremeier, Karin; Fasen, Lutz; Klaiber, Bernd; Hofmann, Norbert

    2008-05-01

    To determine the influence of post type and luting material on bond strength to dentin. The root canals of extracted human upper central incisors were instrumented and post space was prepared using the respective drills for each post system. Glass fiber posts (Luscent Anchor, Dentatus [LA]) were luted using three dual-curing adhesive systems (Excite DSC/Variolink II, Vivadent [VL2]; EnaBond/EnaCem, Micerium [ENA]; Prime & Bond NT/Calibra, DentSply DeTrey [CAL]). A different brand of glass fiber post (EasyPost, DentSply Maillefer [EP]) and quartz fiber post (DT Light Post, VDW [DT]) were luted using CAL. Gold posts (Perma-dor, VDW) were luted either adhesively following tribo-chemical silicate coating (Rocatec, ESPE-Sil, 3M ESPE; CAL) or conventionally using glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem, 3M ESPE). Three slices of 2mm height were cut perpendicular to the post from each restored root. Bond strength was determined by pushing out the post using a universal testing machine (/1449, Zwick). For all experimental groups combined, bond strength increased from the coronal to the apical section (Friedman test: P<0.001). Significant differences were observed among the fiber posts (DT/CAL>LA/CAL; Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni-Holm adjustment: P<0.05; EP/CAL ranging in between) but not among luting materials (LA/VL2, LA/ENA, LA/CAL: n.s.). The gold posts were equivalent to DT/CAL with both luting procedures. Selection of post type may be more important for bond strength than luting material. Bond strength of fiber posts was equivalent but not superior to adhesively or conventionally luted gold posts.

  4. Effect of types of luting agent on push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Khalil I; Almufleh, Balqees S; Morgano, Steven M; Lynch, Christopher D

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different luting agents on the bond strength of zirconium oxide posts in root canals after artificial ageing. Thirty single-rooted extracted teeth were collected. Post spaces were prepared. Custom milled zirconium oxide posts (Cercon, Degudent) were fabricated. Specimens were divided into 3 groups (n=10), according to the luting agents used: group RA, conventional resin luting agent (RelyX ARC); group RU, self-adhesive resin luting agent (RelyX Unicem); and group Z, zinc phosphate luting agent (DeTrey). Specimens were subjected to thermocycling and water storage at 37°C. Specimens were horizontally sectioned into three sections and subjected to a push-out test with 0.5mm/min crosshead speed. The failure mode was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analysed by using 2-way ANOVA. The following bond strength values were obtained: group RA - 8.89 MPa, group RU - 10.30 MPa and group Z - 9.31 MPa. There was no significant difference in bond strength among the groups (P=0.500). Adhesive failure mode at the cement/post bonded interface was seen in 100%, 66.67% and 83.3% of examined sections in groups RA, RU and Z, respectively. There was no significant difference in bond strength among different root regions (P=0.367). The type of luting agent had no significant effect on the push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts after artificial ageing. Conventional luting agents, such as zinc phosphate cement, seem to provide comparable retention to resin luting agents for cementing custom milled zirconium oxide posts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical study of indirect composite resin inlays in posterior stress-bearing cavities placed by dental students: results after 4 years.

    PubMed

    Huth, Karin Christine; Chen, Hong Yan; Mehl, Albert; Hickel, Reinhard; Manhart, Juergen

    2011-07-01

    This longitudinal randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the longevity of composite resin inlays in single- or multi-surface cavities up to 4 years. 21 dental students placed 75 Artglass and 80 Charisma composite resin inlays in class I and II cavities in posterior teeth (89 adult patients) luted with dual-curing resin cements. Clinical evaluation was performed up to 4 years using modified USPHS criteria. 87.2% of Artglass and 76.6% of Charisma inlays were assessed to be clinically excellent or acceptable. Up to the 4-year recall 5 Artglass and 11 Charisma inlays failed mainly because of postoperative symptoms, bulk fracture, and loss of marginal integrity. No significant differences between both composite resin materials could be detected at 4 years for all clinical criteria (Mann-Whitney U-test, p>0.05). The comparison of restoration performance with time yielded a significant increase in marginal discolouration and postoperative symptoms (p<0.05), deterioration of surface texture quality, marginal and restoration integrity (p<0.05) for both inlay systems. However, the changes were mainly effects of scoring shifts from alfa to bravo. Small inlays compared to large inlays and premolar restorations compared to molar restorations showed significant better outcome for some of the tested clinical parameters for the Artglass inlays (p<0.05). For Charisma inlays no such influences were revealed. Clinical assessment of Artglass and Charisma composite resin inlays exhibited an annual failure rate of 3.2% and 5.9% that is within the range of published data. Within the limitations of this study indirect composite inlays are a competitive restorative procedure in stress-bearing preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of try-in paste and luting agent on the resultant color of all-ceramic veneers].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin-Ting; Li, Qing; Li, Rong; Wang, Yi-Ning

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this study was to investigate the effects of luting agents on the resultant color of IPS e.max all-ceramic veneer restorations, and to evaluate the similarity of try-in pastes and the corresponding luting agents on the final color. Disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and seated on four shades of resin specimens to mimic the complex of ceramic veneer laying on tooth substrates. Try-in pastes and luting agents (Shades of TR, B0.5, A1, A3, W0) were applied into the inter-layer of ceramic and resin specimens, respectively. The color of the combinations was measured using a spectrophotometer and subsequently converted to CIE L*a*b* values. Color changes after luting agent applied, and between try-in paste and corresponding luting agent were calculated and registered as DeltaEresin and DeltaEpaste-resin. DeltaEresin value of A2, A3 backgrounds was more than 1.0. DeltaEresin value of A4, A5 backgrounds was less than 1.0. The DeltaEpaste-resin value of A3 backgrounds was more than 1.0, whereas, A2 was less than 1.0 (except for shade W0). The DeltaEpaste-resin value of shade W0 was significantly different from other shades of luting agents. The color of ceramic veneer restorations were affected by luting agents with A2, and A3 background colors. The agreement of the try-in paste and the corresponding luting agent was excellent for A2 background (except for W0).

  7. Fracture mechanics analysis of the dentine-luting cement interface.

    PubMed

    Ryan, A K; Mitchell, C A; Orr, J F

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the fracture toughness of adhesive interfaces between dentine and clinically relevant, thin layers of dental luting cements. Cements tested included a conventional glass-ionomer, F (Fuji 1), a resin-modified glass-ionomer, FP (Fuji Plus) and a compomer cement, D (DyractCem). Ten miniature short-bar chevron notch specimens were manufactured for each cement, each comprising a 40 microm thick chevron of lute, between two 1.5 mm thick blocks of bovine dentine, encased in resin composite. The interfacial K(IC) results (MN/m3/2) were median (range): F; 0.152 (0.14-0.16), FP; 0.306 (0.27-0.37), D; 0.351 (0.31-0.37). Non-parametric statistical analysis showed that the fracture toughness of F was significantly lower (p <0.05) than those of FP or D, and all were significantly lower than values for monolithic cement specimens. Scanning electron microscopy of the specimens suggested crack propagation along the interface. However, energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that failure was cohesive within the cement. It is concluded that the fracture toughness of luting cement was lowered by cement-dentine interactions.

  8. Effect of electrical discharge machining on dental Y-TZP ceramic-resin bonding.

    PubMed

    Rona, Nergiz; Yenisey, Murat; Kucukturk, Gokhan; Gurun, Hakan; Cogun, Can; Esen, Ziya

    2017-04-01

    The study determined (i) the effects of electrical discharge machining (EDM) on the shear-bond strength (SBS) of the bond between luting resin and zirconia ceramic and (ii) zirconia ceramic's flexural strength with the three-point bending (TPB) test. Sixty 4.8mm×4.8mm×3.2mm zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into four groups (n=15): SBG: sandblasted+silane, TSCG: tribochemical silica coated+silane, LTG: Er:YAG laser treated+silane, EDMG: EDM+silane. The specimens were then bonded to a composite block with a dual-cure resin cement and thermal cycled (6000 times) prior to SBS testing. The SBS tests were performed in a universal testing machine. The SBS values were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. To determine flexural strength, sixty zirconia specimens were prepared and assigned to the same groups (n=15) mentioned earlier. After surface treatment TPB tests were performed in a universal testing machine (ISO 6872). The flexural strength values were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The bond strengths for the four test groups (mean±SD; MPa) were as follows: SBG (Control), 12.73±3.41, TSCG, 14.99±3.14, LTG, 7.93±2.07, EDMG, 17.05±2.71. The bond strength of the EDMG was significantly higher than those of the SBG and LTG (p<0.01). The average flexural strength values for the groups SBG (Control), TSCG, LTG and EDMG were 809.47, 800.47, 679.19 and 695.71MPa, respectively (p>0.05). The EDM process improved the SBS. In addition, there was no significant adverse effect of EDM on the flexural strength of zirconia. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compressive strength and the effect of duration after photo-activation among dual-cure bulk fill composite core materials.

    PubMed

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    To assess compressive strength and effect of duration after photoactivation on the compressive strength of different dual cure bulk fill composites. Seventy-two disc shaped (4x10mm) specimens were prepared from three dual cure bulk fill materials, ZirconCore (ZC) (n=24), MulticCore Flow (MC) (n=24) and Luxacore Dual (LC) (n=24). Half of the specimens in each material were tested for failure loads after one hour [MC1 (n=12), LC1 (n=12) & ZC1 (n=12)] and the other half in 7 days [MC7 (n=12), LC7 (n=12), ZC7 (n=12)] from photo-polymerization using the universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 cm/minutes. Compressive strength was calculated using the formula UCS=4f/πd(2). Compressive strengths among different groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Maximum and minimum compressive strengths were observed in ZC7 (344.14±19.22) and LC1 (202.80±15.52) groups. Specimens in LC1 [202.80 (15.52)] showed significantly lower compressive strength as compared to MC1 [287.06 (15.03)] (p<0.01) and ZC1 [276.82 (11.51)] (p<0.01). ZC7 [344.14 (19.22)] specimens showed significantly higher (p<0.01) compressive strengths compared to LC7 [324.56 (19.47)] and MC7 [315.26 (12.36)]. Compressive strengths among all three materials were significantly higher (p<0.01) at 7 days as compared to one hour. Bulk fill material with Zr nano-hybrid filler (ZC) showed high compressive strength compared to MC and LC. Increasing the post photo-activation duration (from one hour to 7 days) significantly improves the compressive strengths of dual cure bulk fill material.

  10. Quantitative comparison of the water permeable zone among four types of dental adhesives used with a dual-cured composite.

    PubMed

    Chang, Juhea; Platt, Jeffrey A; Yi, Keewook; Cochran, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    This study compared silver penetration in the adhesive interface among four versions of adhesives from the same manufacturer: OptiBond FL, OptiBond Solo Plus, OptiBond Solo Plus Dual Cure, and OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch, when coupled with dual-cured composite, CoreRestore 2 (Kerr). Twenty flat dentin surfaces were prepared using one of the adhesives and bonded with the composite, following the manufacturer's instructions. The surfaces were sectioned into 2-mm slabs and immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate for 24 hours. Each specimen was exposed to a photodeveloping solution for eight hours and examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The water permeable area occupied by the silver nitrate tracer was determined, and the relative weight of silver was analyzed by wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS). The OptiBond FL group had a significantly lower silver content than the other groups (p < 0.0001). Each group demonstrated different patterns of silver deposition within the adhesive layer and within various features of artifactual fracture from dehydration stress of the SEM. This may be indicative of weak links in the bonded interfaces. Simplified-step adhesives showed increased permeability, which can lead to disruption of coupling with composites.

  11. Bonding Effectiveness of Luting Composites to Different CAD/CAM Materials.

    PubMed

    Peumans, Marleen; Valjakova, Emilija Bajraktarova; De Munck, Jan; Mishevska, Cece Bajraktarova; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    To evaluate the influence of different surface treatments of six novel CAD/CAM materials on the bonding effectiveness of two luting composites. Six different CAD/CAM materials were tested: four ceramics - Vita Mark II; IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD; Celtra Duo - one hybrid ceramic, Vita Enamic, and one composite CAD/CAM block, Lava Ultimate. A total of 60 blocks (10 per material) received various mechanical surface treatments: 1. 600-grit SiC paper; 2. sandblasting with 30-μm Al2O3; 3. tribochemical silica coating (CoJet). Subsequent chemical surface treatments involved either no further treatment (control), HF acid etching (HF), silanization (S, or HF acid etching followed by silanization (HF+S). Two specimens with the same surface treatment were bonded together using two dual-curing luting composites: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (self-etching) or Panavia SA Cement (self-adhesive). After 1 week of water storage, the microtensile bond strength of the sectioned microspecimens was measured and the failure mode was evaluated. The bonding performance of the six CAD/CAM materials was significantly influenced by surface treatment (linear mixed models, p < 0.05). The luting cement had a significant influence on bond strength for Celtra Duo and Lava Ultimate (linear mixed models, p < 0.05). Mechanical surface treatment significantly influenced the bond strength for Celtra Duo (p = 0.0117), IPS e.max CAD (p = 0.0115), and Lava Ultimate (p < 0.0001). Different chemical surface treatments resulted in the highest bond strengths for the six CAD/CAM materials: Vita Mark II and IPS Empress CAD: S, HF+S; Celtra Duo: HF, HF+S; IPS e.max CAD: HF+S; Vita Enamic: HF+S, S. For Lava Ultimate, the highest bond strengths were obtained with HF, S, HF+S. Failure analysis showed a relation between bond strength and failure type: more mixed failures were observed with higher bond strengths. Mainly adhesive failures were noticed if no further surface treatment was done. The percentage of

  12. Fracture load of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns luted with various cements.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yoo, Jeong-Min; Park, Sang-Won; Yang, Hong-So

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the fracture load and failure types of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns cemented with various luting agents. The ceramic frameworks were fabricated from a presintered yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide block using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing technology, and were then veneered with feldspathic porcelain. Three luting agents were used. Composite resin cement (1,560.78 +/- 39.43 N) showed the highest mean fracture load, followed by acrylic/urethane cement (1,116.20 +/- 77.32 N) and zinc oxide eugenol cement (741.21 +/- 41.95 N) (P < .05). The types of failure varied between groups.

  13. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Roots Restored with Fiber Posts Using Different Resin Cements- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Irodi, Sujatha; Mehta, Deepak; Subramanya, Shankar; Govindaraju, Vinay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The influence of the remaining coronal tooth structure along with intra-radicular esthetic posts increases fracture resistance of fractured teeth especially in the anterior region. The advent of resin based luting cements improves the adhesion of fiber posts. Aim To evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots restored with fiber posts using different resin cements – Calibra (etch and rinse), PermaFlo® DC (self-etch primer) and SmartCem2 (self-adhesive). Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary central incisors having similar dimensions were decoronated at the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) to create 16mm long specimens and endodontically treated. A total of 45 teeth were divided into three groups with 15 teeth each for cementation of easy fiber posts (size1, 0.8mm diameter). Post spaces were prepared to a depth of 10mm. Group 1 – Caulk 34% phosphoric acid gel, dual cure adhesive Prime and Bond NT followed by luting of post with Calibra cement. Group 2 – Ultra – etch then Primer A and Primer B, and PermaFlo® DC was used to cement the post. Group 3 – SmartCem2 [1:1 ratio] was used to cement the post. The excess lengths of posts were seared and teeth were mounted on acrylic blocks and loaded under compressive force to the long axis of the tooth which increased in periodic pattern of 1mm/min. The value of the force at which each root section gets fractured was noted. The data were statistically analysed using ANOVA and Tukey’s Test. Results The mean fracture load (and SD) were as follows Group 1 – 762.400 (251.490); Group 2 – 662.933 (206.709); Group 3 – 657.800 (57.372). No statistically significant differences were seen among all three Groups, p-value (0.228). Conclusion Posts cemented using self -adhesive resin cement SmartCem2 have highest fracture resistance and bonding efficacy of self-adhesive technique showed reliably better results but was comparable to total–etch and self–etch techniques. PMID

  14. Influence of surface treatments and resin cement selection on bonding to densely-sintered zirconium-oxide ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Oyagüe, Raquel Castillo; Monticelli, Francesca; Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Estrella; Ferrari, Marco; Osorio, Raquel

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface conditioning on the microtensile bond strength of zirconium-oxide ceramic to dual-cured resin cements. Eighteen cylinder-shaped zirconium-oxide ceramic blocks (Cercon Zirconia, Dentsply) were treated as follows: (1) Sandblasting with 125 microm aluminum-oxide (Al(2)O(3)) particles; (2) tribochemical silica coating using 50 microm Al(2)O(3) particles modified by silica; (3) no treatment. Each ceramic cylinder was duplicated in composite resin (Tetric Evo Ceram, Ivoclar-Vivadent) using a silicon mold. Composite cylinders were bonded to conditioned ceramics using: (1) Calibra (Densply Caulk); (2) Clearfil Esthetic Cement (Kuraray); (3) Rely x Unicem (3M ESPE). After 24h bonded specimens were cut into microtensile sticks that were loaded in tension until failure. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons (p<0.05). Failure mode was recorded and the interfacial morphology of debonded specimens was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface topography and ceramic average surface roughness were analyzed under an atomic force microscope (AFM). Significant changes in zirconia surface roughness occurred after sandblasting (p<0.001). Bond strength of Clearfil cement to zirconia was significantly higher than that of Rely x Unicem and Calibra, regardless of the surface treatment (p<0.001). When using Calibra, premature failures occurred in non-treated and silica coated zirconia surfaces. The phosphate monomer-containing luting system (Clearfil Esthetic Cement) is recommended to bond zirconia ceramics and surface treatments are not necessary.

  15. Compressive strength and the effect of duration after photo-activation among dual-cure bulk fill composite core materials

    PubMed Central

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess compressive strength and effect of duration after photoactivation on the compressive strength of different dual cure bulk fill composites. Methods: Seventy-two disc shaped (4x10mm) specimens were prepared from three dual cure bulk fill materials, ZirconCore (ZC) (n=24), MulticCore Flow (MC) (n=24) and Luxacore Dual (LC) (n=24). Half of the specimens in each material were tested for failure loads after one hour [MC1 (n=12), LC1 (n=12) & ZC1 (n=12)] and the other half in 7 days [MC7 (n=12), LC7 (n=12), ZC7 (n=12)] from photo-polymerization using the universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 cm/minutes. Compressive strength was calculated using the formula UCS=4f/πd2. Compressive strengths among different groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Results: Maximum and minimum compressive strengths were observed in ZC7 (344.14±19.22) and LC1 (202.80±15.52) groups. Specimens in LC1 [202.80 (15.52)] showed significantly lower compressive strength as compared to MC1 [287.06 (15.03)] (p<0.01) and ZC1 [276.82 (11.51)] (p<0.01). ZC7 [344.14 (19.22)] specimens showed significantly higher (p<0.01) compressive strengths compared to LC7 [324.56 (19.47)] and MC7 [315.26 (12.36)]. Compressive strengths among all three materials were significantly higher (p<0.01) at 7 days as compared to one hour. Conclusions: Bulk fill material with Zr nano-hybrid filler (ZC) showed high compressive strength compared to MC and LC. Increasing the post photo-activation duration (from one hour to 7 days) significantly improves the compressive strengths of dual cure bulk fill material. PMID:27882021

  16. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBrayer, R. O.; Frazier, J.; Nein, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture telescope for imaging the stellar ultraviolet spectrum from the lunar surface. The aspects of Lute's educational value and the information it can provide on designing for the long-term exposure to the lunar environment are important considerations. This paper briefly summarizes the status of the phase A study by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) LUTE Task Team. The primary focus will be a discussion of the merits of LUTE as a small and relatively inexpensive project that benefits a wide spectrum of interests and could be operating on the lunar surface by the turn of the century.

  17. Assessment and comparison of retention of zirconia copings luted with different cements onto zirconia and titanium abutments: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Neelima Sreekumar; Kumar, G. P. Surendra; Jnanadev, K. R.; Satish Babu, C. L.; Shetty, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the retention of zirconia copings luted with different luting agents onto zirconia and titanium abutments. Materials and Methods: Titanium and zirconia abutments were torqued at 35 N/cm onto implant analogs. The samples were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of four titanium abutments and 32 zirconia copings and Group B consisted of four zirconia abutments and 32 zirconia copings and four luting agents were used. The cemented copings were subjected to tensile dislodgement forces and subjected to ANOVA test. Results: Zirconia abutments recorded a higher mean force compared to titanium. Among the luting agents, resin cement recorded the highest mean force followed by zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and noneugenol zinc oxide cement, respectively. Conclusion: Highest mean retention was recorded for zirconia implant abutments compared to titanium abutments when luted with zirconia copings. PMID:27141162

  18. [Haemotoxicity of dental luting cements].

    PubMed

    Anders, A; Welker, D

    1989-06-01

    A glass ionomer luting cement (AquaCem) shows a relatively low haemolytic activity in comparison with two zinc phosphate cements. Especially the initial irritation by this cement is smaller. Although it is possible that AquaCem particularly, in unfavourable cases, may damage the pulpa dentin system; this is due to the slowly decrease of the haemolytic activity with increasing of the probes. We found that Adhesor showed in dependence of the batches a varying quality.

  19. Marginal adaptation, fracture load and macroscopic failure mode of adhesively luted PMMA-based CAD/CAM inlays.

    PubMed

    Ender, Andreas; Bienz, Stefan; Mörmann, Werner; Mehl, Albert; Attin, Thomas; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate marginal adaptation, fracture load and failure types of CAD/CAM polymeric inlays. Standardized prepared human molars (48) were divided into four groups (n=12): (A) PCG (positive control group); adhesively luted glass-ceramic inlays, (B) TRX; CAD/CAM polymeric inlays luted using a self-adhesive resin cement, (C) TAC; CAD/CAM polymeric inlays luted using a conventional resin cement, and (D) NCG (negative control group); direct-filled resin-based composite restorations. All specimens were subjected to a chewing simulator. Before and after chewing fatigue, marginal adaptation was assessed at two interfaces: (1) between dental hard tissues and luting cement and (2) between luting cement and restoration. Thereafter, the specimens were loaded and the fracture loads, as well as the failure types, were determined. The data were analysed using three- and one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffé test, two sample Student's t-test (p<0.05). Before and after chewing fatigue, marginal adaptation for interface 1 showed significantly better results for TRX and PCG than for TAC (p=0.001-0.02) and NCG (p=0.001-0.047). For interface 2, marginal adaptation for TAC was significantly inferior to TRX (p<0.001) and PCG (p<0.001). Chewing fatigue had a negative impact on the marginal adaptation of TAC and NCG. No significant differences in fracture load were found between all tested groups. Self-adhesive luted polymeric CAD/CAM inlays showed similar marginal adaptation and fracture load values compared to adhesively luted glass-ceramic inlays. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bulk filling of Class II cavities with a dual-cure composite: Effect of curing mode and enamel etching on marginal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotto, Tissiana; Roig, Miguel; Krejci, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to find a simple adhesive restorative technique for class I and II cavities on posterior teeth. Study Design: The tested materials were a self-etching adhesive (Parabond, Coltène/Whaledent) and a dual-cure composite (Paracore, Coltène/Whaledent) used in bulk to restore the cavities. Class II MO cavities were performed and assigned to 4 groups depending on the orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) conditioning of enamel and polymerization method used (chemical or dual). Specimens were subjected to quantitative marginal analysis before and after thermo-mechanical loading. Results: Higher percentages of marginal adaptation at the total margin length, both before and after thermo-mechanical loading, were found in groups in which enamel was etched with phosphoric acid, without significant differences between the chemically and dual-cured modes. The restorations performance was similar on enamel and dentin, obtaining low results of adaptation on occlusal enamel in the groups without enamel etching, the lowest scores were on cervical dentin in the group with no ortophosphoric acid and self-cured. Conclusions: A dual-cure composite applied in bulk on acid etched enamel obtained acceptable marginal adaptation results, and may be an alternative technique for the restoration of class II cavities. Key words:Dual-cure composite, bulk technique, class II restoration, selective enamel etching, marginal adaptation. PMID:25674316

  1. Cytotoxicity of commonly used luting cements -An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Trumpaite-Vanagiene, Rita; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Puriene, Alina; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Rutkunas, Vygandas

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to 1) evaluate the cytotoxicity of luting cements: Hoffmann's Zinc Phosphate (Hoffmann's ZP), GC Fuji Plus Resin Modified Glass Ionomer (Fuji Plus RMGI) and 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem Resin Cement (RelyX Unicem RC) and 2) test if pre-washing reduces the cements' cytotoxicity. In vitro human gingival fibroblast (HGF) culture model was chosen. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test, the cell viability -by staining the cells with AO/EB dye mixture. The means±SD of Cell Survival Ratio (CSR%) were compared among different cement types under two testing conditions, with or without cement pre-washing. The CSR%s were compared by ANOVA and linear multiple regression (LMR). Hoffmann's ZPC was less cytotoxic, while Fuji Plus RMGIC and RelyX Unicem RC were more cytotoxic (ANOVA, p<0.001). The type of cement and cement pre-washing jointly explained 90% of cell survival (LMR, p<0.001, adjusted squared R=0.889). The commonly used luting cements such as Hoffmann's ZP, Fuji Plus RMGI and RelyX Unicem RC may have a cytotoxic potential.

  2. In vitro tensile strength of luting cements on metallic substrate.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Iara A; Varoli, Fernando K; Pieroni, Carlos H P; Ferreira, Marly C C G; Borie, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the tensile strength of crowns cemented on metallic substrate with four different types of luting agents. Twenty human maxillary molars with similar diameters were selected and prepared to receive metallic core castings (Cu-Al). After cementation and preparation the cores were measured and the area of crown's portion was calculated. The teeth were divided into four groups based on the luting agent used to cement the crowns: zinc phosphate cement; glass ionomer cement; resin cement Rely X; and resin cement Panavia F. The teeth with the crowns cemented were subjected to thermocycling and later to the tensile strength test using universal testing machine with a load cell of 200 kgf and a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The load required to dislodge the crowns was recorded and converted to MPa/mm(2). Data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis analysis with a significance level of 1%. Panavia F showed significantly higher retention in core casts (3.067 MPa/mm(2)), when compared with the other cements. Rely X showed a mean retention value of 1.877 MPa/mm(2) and the zinc phosphate cement with 1.155 MPa/mm(2). Glass ionomer cement (0.884 MPa/mm(2)) exhibited the lowest tensile strength value. Crowns cemented with Panavia F on cast metallic posts and cores presented higher tensile strength. The glass ionomer cement showed the lowest tensile strength among all the cements studied.

  3. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE), phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum between 1,000 and 3,500 angstroms. There have been several endorsements of the scientific value of a LUTE. In addition to the scientific value of LUTE, its educational value and the information it can provide on the design of operating hardware for long-term exposure in the lunar environment are important considerations. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  4. An in vitro radiographic analysis of the density of dental luting cements as measured by CCD-based digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Jevremovic, Danimir; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Obradovic-Djuricic, Kosovka

    2012-05-01

    According to the ISO, the radiopacity of luting cements should be equal to or greater than that of aluminum. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the radiopacity of 13 commercially available dental luting cements and compare them with human enamel and dentin. Five classes of luting cements were evaluated: zinc phosphate (Cegal N and Harvard Zinc Phosphate), zinc polycarboxylate (Harvard Polycarboxylate and Hoffmann's Carboxylate), glass ionomers (Ketac Cem Easymix, Ketac Cem Radiopaque, and Fuji I), resin-modified glass ionomer (Rely X Luting), and resin cements (Multilink Automix, Variolink II, Speed CEM, Rely X Unicem Automix, and three shades of Variolink Veneer). Tooth slices served as controls. Five specimens of each material measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick were prepared and radiographed alongside tooth slices and an aluminum stepwedge using a Trophy RVG sensor. The radiopacity values were expressed in mm Al and analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey tests (P < .05). All the cements examined except Variolink Veneer had significantly higher radiopacities than that of dentin. Rely X Unicem Automix, glass ionomer, and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements demonstrated radiopacities that were not significantly different with respect to enamel. Zinc phosphate, zinc polycarboxylate, and three of the resin cements presented radiopacity values that were significantly greater than that of enamel. Almost all the investigated materials presented an acceptable radiopacity. Radiopacity of dental cements seems to depend more on the presence of elements with high atomic numbers than on the type of the material.

  5. A Review of Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Pameijer, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the availability of a large number of luting agents (dental cements) proper selection can be a daunting task and is usually based on a practitioner's reliance on experience and preference and less on in depth knowledge of materials that are used for the restoration and luting agent properties. This review aims at presenting an overview of current cements and discusses physical properties, biocompatibility and other properties that make a particular cement the preferred choice depending on the clinical indication. Tables are provided that outline the different properties of the generic classification of cements. It should be noted that no recommendations are made to use a particular commercial cement for a hypothetical clinical situation. The choice is solely the responsibility of the practitioner. The appendix is intended as a guide for the practitioner towards a recommended choice under commonly encountered clinical scenarios. Again, no commercial brands are recommended although the author recognizes that some have better properties than others. Please note that this flowchart strictly presents the author's opinion and is based on research, clinical experience and the literature. PMID:22505909

  6. Effect of Ceramic Thickness and Luting Agent Shade on the Color Masking Ability of Laminate Veneers.

    PubMed

    Begum, Zubeda; Chheda, Pratik; Shruthi, C S; Sonika, Radhika

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to recognize the effect of ceramic thickness and luting agent on the extent to which the restoration masks color variations that may be present in the underlying dental structure. Two pressable ceramics were used: Lithium disilicate reinforced (IPS e.max- Ivoclar Vivadent) and Leucite reinforced (Cergo- Dentsply). Fifteen ceramic discs were manufactured from each ceramic and divided into three groups, according to the thickness (0.5, 1, 1.5 mm). To simulate the color of a dark underlying dental structure, background discs, color C3, with 20 mm diameter, were made using resin composite. The ceramic discs with varying thicknesses were seated on the dark background of the resin composite with either resinous opaque cement or resinous cement. The color parameters were determined by the CIE Lab system of colors using a spectrophotometer and color differences (ΔE) were calculated. The results were then statistically analyzed, using ANOVA test and Tukey HSD test. The ΔE values of both ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P < 0.05). The use of an opaque luting agent resulted in an increase of the ΔE* values for all ceramics tested, regardless of the thickness. For the 1.5-mm thick veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for both ceramic materials. The color masking ability of ceramics used for laminate veneers is significantly affected by the thickness of the ceramic and the shade of the luting agent used.

  7. An Investigation of Dental Luting Cement Solubility as a Function of the Marginal Gap.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    be non-irritating to the dental pulp , and have low solubility. A critical property of luting cement is its solubility in oral fluids. If the cement...25 micron and 100 micron cement margins. In another investigation, hollow orthodontic tubing and the acid etch composite resin technique were used to...evaluate cement solubility. (lbbetson 1985) Hollow orthodontic tubing, with a 0.05 mm diameter, was filled with dental cement and attached to the

  8. In Vivo Disintegration of Four Different Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P < 0.001). Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results. PMID:22007219

  9. In vivo disintegration of four different luting agents.

    PubMed

    Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P < 0.001). Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results.

  10. BOND STRENGTH DURABILITY OF SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVES AND RESIN CEMENTS TO DENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Carolina de Andrade Lima; de Melo, Renata Marques; Passos, Sheila Pestana; Camargo, Fernanda Pelógia; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Balducci, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of one- (Xeno III, Dentsply) and two-step (Tyrian-One Step Plus, Bisco) self-etching adhesive systems bonded to dentin and cemented to chemically cured (C&B Metabond) or light-cured paste of a dual-cure resin cement (Variolink II, Ivoclar) within a short (24 h) and long period of evaluation (90 days). Material and Methods: Forty recently extracted human molars had their roots removed and their occlusal dentin exposed and ground wet with 600-grit SiC paper. After application of one of the adhesives, the resin cement was applied to the bonded surface and a composite resin block was incrementally built up to a height of 5 mm (n=10). The restored teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. The teeth were then cut along two axes (x and y), producing beam-shaped specimens with 0.8 mm2 cross-sectional area, which were subjected to μTBS testing at a crosshead speed of 0.05 mm/min and stressed to failure after 24 h or 90 days of storage in water. The μTBS data in MPa were subjected to three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α= 0.05). Results: The interaction effect for all three factors was statistically significant (three-way ANOVA, p<0.001). All eight experimental means (MPa) were compared by the Tukey's test (p<0.05) and the following results were obtained: Tyrian-One Step Plus/C&B/24 h (22.4±7.3); Tyrian-One Step Plus/Variolink II/24 h (39.4±11.6); Xeno III/C&B/24 h (40.3±12.9); Xeno III/Variolink II/24 h (25.8±10.5); Tyrian-One Step Plus/C&B/90 d (22.1±12.8) Tyrian-One Step Plus/VariolinkII/90 d (24.2±14.2); Xeno III/C&B/90 d (27.0±13.5); Xeno III/Variolink II/ 90 d (33.0±8.9). Conclusions: Xeno III/Variolink II was the luting agent/adhesive combination that provided the most promising bond strength after 90 days of storage in water. PMID:19466243

  11. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P < 0.05). In general, improvements in bond strength (MPa) were found in the following order: M10 > C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

  12. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of historical varnishes of ancient Italian lutes and violin.

    PubMed

    Echard, J P; Benoit, C; Peris-Vicente, J; Malecki, V; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Vaiedelich, S

    2007-02-12

    The organic constituents of historical vanishes from two ancient Italian lutes and a Stradivari violin, kept in the Musée de la musique in Paris, have been characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results have been compared with the chromatograms and mass spectra of recent as well as old naturally aged reference materials. The three historical varnishes analyzed have been shown to be oil varnishes, probably mixtures of linseed oil with resins. Identification of diterpenoids and triterpenoids compounds, and of the resins that may have been ingredients of the varnishes, are discussed in this paper.

  13. Adhesion strategy and early bond strengths of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Mendonça, Adriano Augusto Melo; Garcez, Rosa Maria Viana de Bragança; Oliveira, Aline da Silva de; Moreira, Andressa Goicochea; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coinitiator solutions and self-adhesive resin cement on the early retention of glass-fiber posts. Cylindrical glass-fiber posts were luted into 40 incisor roots with different adhesion strategies (n = 10): SB2, Single Bond 2 + conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC); AP, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP) activator + primer + ARC; APC, SBMP activator + primer + catalyst + ARC; and UNI, self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem). Pull-out bond strength results at 10 min after cementation showed APC > UNI > SB2 = AP (P < 0.05). The adhesion strategy significantly affected early bonding to root canals.

  14. Tensile Strength of Resin Cements Used with Base Metals in a Simulating Passive Cementation Technique for Implant-Supported Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Hilmo Barreto Leite; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Souza, Raphael Freitas de; Macedo, Ana Paula; Almeida, Rossana Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the tensile strength of two different resin cements used in passive cementation technique for implant-supported prosthesis. Ninety-six plastic cylinders were waxed in standardized forms, cast in commercially pure titanium, nickel-chromium and nickel-chromium-titanium alloys. Specimens were cemented on titanium cylinders using self-adhesive resin cement or conventional dual-cured resin cement. Specimens were divided in 12 groups (n=8) in accordance to metal, cement and ageing process. Specimens were immersed in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h and half of them was thermocycled for 5,000 cycles. Specimens were submitted to bond strength test in a universal test machine EMIC-DL2000 at 5 mm/min speed. Statistical analysis evidenced higher tensile strength for self-adhesive resin cement than conventional dual-cured resin cement, whatever the used metal. Self-adhesive resin cement presented higher tensile strength compared to conventional dual-cured resin cement. In conclusion, metal type and ageing process did not influence the tensile strength results.

  15. Influence of Two Desensitizer Agents on the Microleakage of Adhesively Luted Ceramic Inlays

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Esra Uzer; Kumbaraci, Nazli; Cal, Ebru; Turkun, Murat

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different desensitizers (Hemaseal & Cide and Aqua Prep F) on the microleakage of ceramic inlay restorations luted with adhesive resin cement. Methods: Cylindrical Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of thirty extracted human third molars. One of the desensitizers (either Hemaseal&Cide, Advantage Dental Products Inc. or Aqua-Prep F, Bisco) was applied to the cavities. Ten samples were used as controls. Ceramic inlays were fabricated using the heat-pressed glass ceramic technique (IPS Empress II). Inlay restorations were luted using adhesive cement (Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent). The restorations were properly finished, stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and subjected to 1000 thermal cycles. The microleakage scores were examined using a stereomicroscope at the 30x magnification after each sample was stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin. The data were analyzed using Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests (P=0.05). Results: Aqua-Prep F samples showed significantly higher microleakage scores at the enamel margins than did the Hemaseal & Cide and control groups (P<.05). Hemaseal & Cide application led to less microleakage than the other groups both at the enamel and dentin margins (P<.05). Conclusions: Hemaseal & Cide desensitizer decreased the microleakage process at the enamel and dentin margins of inlay restorations luted with adhesive luting cement, while Aqua-Prep F increased the leakage scores at the enamel margins. PMID:21228958

  16. The Effect of Luting Agents and Ceramic Thickness on the Color Variation of Different Ceramics against a Chromatic Background

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Cubas, Gloria Beatriz; Camacho, Guilherme Brião; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various ceramic thicknesses and luting agents on color variation in five ceramic systems. Methods: Fifteen disc-shaped ceramic specimens (11 mm diameter; shade A3) were fabricated with each of the six veneering ceramics tested, with 1, 1.5, or 2 mm thickness (n=5). Resin composite discs (Z-250, shade C4) were used as bases to simulate a chromatic background. The cementation of the veneers was carried out with an opaque resin-based cement (Enforce, shade C4), a resin-based cement (Enforce, shade A3), or without cement (C4, control group). Color differences (ΔE*) were determined using a colorimeter. Three-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data, followed by a Tukey post-hoc test (α=.05). Results: The L*a*b* values of the ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P<.05). In general, there was no difference between the control group and the group using the resin-based cement. The use of an opaque luting agent resulted in an increase of the color coordinates a*, b*, L*, producing differences in ΔE* values for all ceramics tested, regardless of the thickness (P<.05). For the 2-mm thick veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for all ceramics and were independent of the luting agent used. Conclusions: The association of 2-mm thickness with opaque cement presented the strongest masking ability of a dark colored background when compared to a non- opaque luting agent and the other thicknesses tested. PMID:21769264

  17. The Effect of Luting Agents and Ceramic Thickness on the Color Variation of Different Ceramics against a Chromatic Background.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Cubas, Gloria Beatriz; Camacho, Guilherme Brião; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various ceramic thicknesses and luting agents on color variation in five ceramic systems. Fifteen disc-shaped ceramic specimens (11 mm diameter; shade A3) were fabricated with each of the six veneering ceramics tested, with 1, 1.5, or 2 mm thickness (n=5). Resin composite discs (Z-250, shade C4) were used as bases to simulate a chromatic background. The cementation of the veneers was carried out with an opaque resin-based cement (Enforce, shade C4), a resin-based cement (Enforce, shade A3), or without cement (C4, control group). Color differences (ΔE*) were determined using a colorimeter. Three-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data, followed by a Tukey post-hoc test (α=.05). The L*a*b* values of the ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P<.05). In general, there was no difference between the control group and the group using the resin-based cement. The use of an opaque luting agent resulted in an increase of the color coordinates a*, b*, L*, producing differences in ΔE* values for all ceramics tested, regardless of the thickness (P<.05). For the 2-mm thick veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for all ceramics and were independent of the luting agent used. The association of 2-mm thickness with opaque cement presented the strongest masking ability of a dark colored background when compared to a non- opaque luting agent and the other thicknesses tested.

  18. Retention of implant-supported zirconium oxide ceramic restorations using different luting agents.

    PubMed

    Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Savabi, Omid; Shahtoosi, Mojtaba

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention value of implant-supported zirconium oxide ceramic copings using different luting agents. Twenty ITI solid abutments of 5.5 mm height and ITI implant analogs were mounted vertically into autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks. Ninety zirconium oxide copings (Cercon, Degudent) with a loop on the occlusal portion were made. All samples were airborne particle abraded with 110 μm Al₂O₃ and luted using different types of luting agents: resin cements (Clearfil SA, Panavia F2.0, Fuji Plus), conventional cements (Fleck's, Poly F, Fuji I), and temporary cements (Temp Bond, GC free eugenol, TempSpan) with a load of 5 Kg. (N = 10) All copings were incubated at 37°C for 24 h and conditioned in artificial saliva for 1 week, and thermal cycled for 5000 cycles 5-55°C with a 30-s dwell time. The dislodging force of the copings along the long axis of the implant-abutment complex was recorded using universal testing machine with 5 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis (α = 0.05) and Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni step down correction (α = 0.001). There was significant difference between the mean rank retention values of different luting agents (P < 0.001). The resin cements showed the highest retention (Clearfil SA, 203.49 ± 52.86; Fuji Plus, 190.61 ± 48.00; Panavia F 2.0, 172.16 ± 70.76 N). The conventional cements had more retention than the temporary cements and glass ionomer cement (P < 0.001). The retention of zircona ceramic restorations, over ITI solid abutments may be influenced by the type of cement. The application of an MDP-containing resin and resin-modified glass ionomer luting agents increase the retentive value of implant-supported zirconium oxide restorations. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The Effect of Temperature on Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Commonly Used Luting Cements: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Suneel G; Sajjan, MC Suresh; Patil, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The luting cements must withstand masticatory and parafunctional stresses in the warm and wet oral environment. Mouth temperature and the temperature of the ingested foods may induce thermal variation and plastic deformation within the cements and might affect the strength properties. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of temperature on the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of two polycarboxylate, a conventional glass ionomer and a resin modified glass ionomer luting cements and, to compare the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength of the selected luting cements at varying temperatures. Materials and Methods: In this study, standardized specimens were prepared. The temperature of the specimens was regulated prior to testing them using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Six specimens each were tested at 23°C, 37°C and 50°C for both the compressive and diametral tensile strengths, for all the luting cements. Results: All the luting cements showed a marginal reduction in their compressive and diametral tensile strengths at raised temperatures. Fuji Plus was strongest in compression, followed by Fuji I > Poly F > Liv Carbo. Fuji Plus had the highest diametral tensile strength values, followed by Poly F = Fuji I = Liv Carbo, at all temperatures. Conclusion: An increase in the temperature caused no significant reduction in the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of the cements evaluated. The compressive strength of the luting cements differed significantly from one another at all temperatures. The diametral tensile strength of resin modified glass ionomers differed considerably from the other cements, whereas there was no significant difference between the other cements, at all the temperatures. PMID:25859100

  20. Microtensile Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Luting Cements to Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Abo, Tomoko; Uno, Shigeru; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Yamada, Toshimoto; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the bond strengths of the self-adhesive luting cements between ceramics and resin cores and examine their relation to the cement thickness. Three self-adhesive luting cements (Smartcem, Maxcem, and G-CEM) and a resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) for control were used in the paper. The thickness of the cements was controlled in approximately 25, 50, 100, or 200 μm. Each 10 specimens were made according to the manufacturers' instructions and stored in water at 37°C. After 24 hours, microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was measured. There were significant differences in cements. Three self-adhesive cements showed significantly lower μTBSs than control that required both etching and priming before cementation (Tukey, P < 0.05). The cement thickness of 50 or 100 μm tended to induce the highest μTBSs for each self-adhesive luting cements though no difference was found. PMID:22606202

  1. Comparative evaluation of marginal leakage of provisional crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sheen Juneja; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram; Jain, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    Background or Statement of Problem: As, the longevity of provisional restorations is related to, a perfect adaptation and a strong, long-term union between restoration and teeth structures, therefore, evaluation of marginal leakage of provisional restorative materials luted with cements using the standardized procedures is essential. Aims and Objectives: To compare the marginal leakage of the provisional crowns fabricated from Autopolymerizing acrylic resin crowns and bisphenol A-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) resin crowns. To compare the marginal leakage of the provisional crowns fabricated from autopolymerizing acrylic resin crowns and BIS-GMA resin crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements. To compare the marginal leakage of the provisional crowns fabricated from autopolymerizing acrylic resin (SC-10) crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements. To compare the marginal leakage of the provisional crowns fabricated from BIS-GMA resin crowns (Protemp 4) cemented with different temporary luting cements. Methodology: Freshly extracted 60 maxillary premolars of approximately similar dimensions were mounted in dental plaster. Tooth reduction with shoulder margin was planned to use a customized handpiece-holding jig. Provisional crowns were prepared using the wax pattern fabricated from computer aided designing/computer aided manufacturing milling machine following the tooth preparation. Sixty provisional crowns were made, thirty each of SC-10 and Protemp 4 and were then cemented with three different luting cements. Specimens were thermocycled, submerged in a 2% methylene blue solution, then sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope for the evaluation of marginal microleakage. A five-level scale was used to score dye penetration in the tooth/cement interface and the results of this study was analyzed using the Chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis H-test and the results were statistically significant P < 0.05 the

  2. Influence of Curing Light Attenuation Caused by Aesthetic Indirect Restorative Materials on Resin Cement Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Bárbara; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Junior, Washington Steagall; Kawano, Yoshio; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Cardoso, Paulo Eduardo Capel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To verify the effect of interposing different indirect restorative materials on degree of conversion (DC), hardness, and flexural strength of a dual-cure resin cement. Methods: Discs (2 mm-thick, n=5) of four indirect restorative materials were manufactured: a layered glass-ceramic (GC); a heat-pressed lithium disilicate-based glass-ceramic veneered with the layered glass-ceramic (LD); a micro-hybrid (MH); and a micro-filled (MF) indirect composite resin. The light transmittance of these materials was determined using a double-beam spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Bar-shaped specimens of a dual-cure resin cement (Nexus 2/SDS Kerr), with (dual-cure mode) and without the catalyst paste (light-cure mode), were photoactivated through the discs using either a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) or a light-emitting diode (LED) unit. As a control, specimens were photoactivated without the interposed discs. Specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24h before being submitted to FT-Raman spectrometry (n=3), Knoop microhardness (n=6) and three-point bending (n=6) tests. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: MH presented the highest transmittance. The DC was lower in light-cure mode than in dual-cure mode. All restorative materials reduced the cement microhardness in light-cure mode. GC and LD with QTH and GC with LED decreased the strength of the cement for both activation modes compared to the controls. Curing units did not affect DC or microhardness, except when the dual-cure cement was photoactivated through LD (LED>QTH). Flexural strength was higher with QTH compared to LED. Conclusions: Differences in transmittance among the restorative materials significantly influenced cement DC and flexural strength, regardless of the activation mode, as well as the microhardness of the resin cement tested in light-cure mode. Microhardness was not impaired by the interposed materials when the resin cement was used in dual-cure mode. PMID:20613921

  3. Retention Strength after Compressive Cyclic Loading of Five Luting Agents Used in Implant-Supported Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Arenal, Angel; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; deLlanos-Lanchares, Hector; Pinés-Hueso, Javier; Ellakuria-Echebarria, Joseba

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the retention strength of five cement types commonly used in implant-retained fixed partial dentures, before and after compressive cyclic loading. In five solid abutments screwed to 5 implant analogs, 50 metal Cr-Ni alloy copings were cemented with five luting agents: resin-modified glass ionomer (RmGI), resin composite (RC), glass ionomer (GI), resin urethane-based (RUB), and compomer cement (CC). Two tensile tests were conducted with a universal testing machine, one after the first luting of the copings and the other after 100,000 cycles of 100 N loading at 0.72 Hz. The one way ANOVA test was applied for the statistical analysis using the post hoc Tukey test when required. Before and after applying the compressive load, RmGI and RC cement types showed the greatest retention strength. After compressive loading, RUB cement showed the highest percentage loss of retention (64.45%). GI cement recorded the lowest retention strength (50.35 N) and the resin composite cement recorded the highest (352.02 N). The type of cement influences the retention loss. The clinician should give preference to lower retention strength cement (RUB, CC, and GI) if he envisages any complications and a high retention strength one (RmGI, RC) for a specific clinical situation. PMID:27822468

  4. Microtensile bond strength of new self-adhesive luting agents and conventional multistep systems.

    PubMed

    Viotti, Ronaldo G; Kasaz, Alline; Pena, Carlos E; Alexandre, Rodrigo S; Arrais, Cesar A; Reis, Andre F

    2009-11-01

    Several self-adhesive luting agents have recently been introduced on the market. It is crucial to know the effectiveness of such luting agents prior to their clinical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) produced by different self-adhesive cements and compare them with conventional luting agents. Six self-adhesive cements (RelyX Unicem (UN), RelyX U100 (UC), SmartCem 2 (SC), G-Cem (GC), Maxcem (MC), and SeT (SET), and 2 conventional luting agents, one that uses a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (RelyX ARC (RX)), and one that uses a 1-step self-etching adhesive (Panavia F (PF)), were used in this study. An additional group included the use of a 2-step self-etching primer adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond) prior to the application of Panavia F (PS). Fifty-four human molars were abraded to expose occlusal surfaces and were assigned to 9 groups according to the luting material (n=6). Five composite resin (Filtek Z250) discs (12 mm in diameter, 5 mm thick) were cemented on the teeth according to manufacturers' instructions. After 24 hours of water storage, restored teeth were serially sectioned into beams with a cross-sectional area of approximately 1 mm2 at the bonded interface and were tested in tension with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure mode was determined using scanning electron microscopy. Data were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's studentized range HSD test (alpha =.05). Mean bond strengths (SD) in MPa were: RX, 69.6 (16.6)A; PS, 49.2 (9.7)A; PF, 33.7 (13.9)AB; GC, 16.9 (10.3)BC; UC, 15.3 (3.4)BC; UN, 12.5 (2.4)C; MC 11.5 (6.8)CD; SC, 8.5 (4.9)CD; SET, 4.6 (0.5)D. Groups with different uppercase letters were significantly different from each other (P<.05). The predominant failure mode of the self-adhesive cements was adhesive between the resin cement and dentin. The bond strengths produced by the multistep luting agents were significantly higher than those observed for most self

  5. Four-year clinical evaluation of a self-adhesive luting agent for ceramic inlays.

    PubMed

    Peumans, Marleen; Voet, M; De Munck, J; Van Landuyt, K; Van Ende, A; Van Meerbeek, B

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the 4-year clinical performance of a self-adhesive resin cement, RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE), used for cementation of ceramic inlays. In addition, the influence of selectively acid-etching enamel prior to luting on the clinical performance of the restorations was assessed. Sixty-two IPS Empress 2 inlays/onlays were placed in 31 patients by two experienced clinicians. The restorations were luted with RelyX Unicem with (=experimental group: E) or without (=control group: NE) prior enamel etching with phosphoric acid. At baseline, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 4 years after placement, the restorations were assessed by two calibrated investigators using modified USPHS criteria. Ten selected samples of each group were investigated under SEM regarding morphological changes at the cement-inlay interface. The recall rate at 4 years was 97%. Two restorations (1 E, 1 NE) were lost, and one (E) had to be replaced due to inlay and tooth fracture resulting in a survival rate of 95%. No significant differences between the experimental and control group were noticed regarding all criteria (McNemar, p < 0.05). An obvious deterioration in marginal integrity was observed after 4 years as only 5% (E = 7%; NE = 3%) of the restorations exhibited an excellent marginal adaptation. In 90% of the restorations small, still clinically acceptable marginal deficiencies were observed. SEM of the luting gap showed an increased wear of the RelyX Unicem cement over the 4-year period. The self-adhesive luting cement RelyX Unicem can be recommended for bonding of ceramic inlays/onlays. Additional selective enamel etching does not improve the clinical performance of the restorations within the 4-year period. The self-adhesive resin composite RelyX Unicem showed acceptable clinical performance after 4 years of clinical service.

  6. Versatility of Pyrylium Salt/Vinyl Ether Initiating System for Epoxide Dual-Cure Polymerization: Kick-Starting Effect of the Coinitiator.

    PubMed

    Lecompère, Maxime; Allonas, Xavier; Maréchal, David; Criqui, Adrien

    2017-01-24

    Pyrylium salts combined with vinyl ethers are shown to act as new versatile dual-cure initiating systems for both photochemical and thermal initiation of oxirane monomers. The combination of both possibilities allows the curing of thick samples through photoinduced frontal polymerization. On the basis of quantum calculations and photochemical experiments, some clues are given about the reaction mechanisms involved. Interestingly, a sequential kick-starting effect is observed in the presence of vinyl ether enabling the curing of oxetane monomers. Thereby, this communication presents a short overview of potential of pyrylium salts in cationic polymerization of oxiranes.

  7. The effect of amine-free initiator system and the polymerization type on color stability of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Ural, Çağrı; Duran, İbrahim; Tatar, Numan; Öztürk, Özgür; Kaya, İsmail; Kavut, İdris

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the short-term (4 weeks) color stability of light-cure and dual-cure resin cements. Sixty disk-shaped test specimens of adhesive resin cement (10 × 1 mm) were prepared. One feldspathic porcelain test specimen (12 × 14 × 0.8 mm) was prepared from a prefabricated ceramic block. The feldspathic sample was placed on the resin cement disk and all the measurements were performed without cementation. Specific color coordinate differences (ΔL, Δa, and Δb), and the total color differences (ΔE) were calculated after immersion in distilled water for different periods. Data were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 0.05). The test results revealed that different chemical structures and curing modes affected the ΔE values (P < 0.05). The highest ΔE values were obtained for RelyX Unicem dual-cure cement (2.14 ± 0.40), and the lowest for NX3 light-cure cement (0.78 ± 0.34). Third generation adhesive resin cement free of tertiary amines and benzoyl peroxide showed relatively slight color change in both test groups (light-cure and dual-cure resin cement). (J Oral Sci 58, 157-161, 2016).

  8. Nanoleakage of fiber posts luted with different adhesive strategies and the effect of chlorhexidine on the interface of dentin and self-adhesive cements.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Danielson Guedes; Araujo, Cintia Tereza Pimenta; Prieto, Lucia Trazzi; de Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles; Coppini, Erick Kamiya; Dias, Carlos Tadeu Santos; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the nanoleakage of fiber posts luted using different adhesive strategies and to investigate the effect of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) on nanoleakage at the resin-dentin interfaces of self-adhesive cements. The self-adhesive and etch-and-rinse adhesive groups tested demonstrated similar results with regard to nanoleakage. Pretreatment with CHX promoted an adequate seal at the resin-dentin interface for self-adhesive cements.

  9. Bonding All-Ceramic Restorations with Two Resins Cement Techniques: A Clinical Report of Three-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Junior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Martini, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Ceramics have been widely used for esthetic and functional improvements. The resin cement is the material of choice for bonding ceramics to dental substrate and it can also dictate the final esthetic appearance and strength of the restoration. The correct use of the wide spectrum of resin luting agents available depends on the dental tooth substrate. This article presents three-year clinical results of a 41 years old female patient B.H.C complaining about her unattractive smile. Two all-ceramic crowns and two laminates veneers were placed in the maxillary incisors and cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting cement and conventional resin luting cement, respectively. After a three-year follow-up, the restorations and cement/teeth interface were clinically perfect with no chipping, fractures or discoloration. Proper use of different resin luting cements shows clinical appropriate behavior after a three-year follow-up. Self-adhesive resin luting cement may be used for cementing all-ceramic crowns with high predictability of success, mainly if there is a large dentin surface available for bonding and no enamel at the finish line. Otherwise, conventional resin luting agent should be used for achieving an adequate bonding strength to enamel. PMID:21912505

  10. Bonding all-ceramic restorations with two resins cement techniques: a clinical report of three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Junior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Martini, Ana Paula

    2011-08-01

    Ceramics have been widely used for esthetic and functional improvements. The resin cement is the material of choice for bonding ceramics to dental substrate and it can also dictate the final esthetic appearance and strength of the restoration. The correct use of the wide spectrum of resin luting agents available depends on the dental tooth substrate. This article presents three-year clinical results of a 41 years old female patient B.H.C complaining about her unattractive smile. Two all-ceramic crowns and two laminates veneers were placed in the maxillary incisors and cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting cement and conventional resin luting cement, respectively. After a three-year follow-up, the restorations and cement/teeth interface were clinically perfect with no chipping, fractures or discoloration. Proper use of different resin luting cements shows clinical appropriate behavior after a three-year follow-up. Self-adhesive resin luting cement may be used for cementing all-ceramic crowns with high predictability of success, mainly if there is a large dentin surface available for bonding and no enamel at the finish line. Otherwise, conventional resin luting agent should be used for achieving an adequate bonding strength to enamel.

  11. Effect of resin cements and aging on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays.

    PubMed

    Salaverry, Aurélio; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Burnett Júnior, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of resin cements and aging on cuspal deflection, fracture resistance, and mode of failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with composite resin inlays. Seventy-two maxillary premolars were divided into 6 groups: 1: sound teeth as control (C); 2: preparations without restoration (WR); 3: inlays luted with RelyX ARC (ARC); 4: inlays luted with RelyX Unicem (RLXU); 5: inlays luted with Maxcem Elite (MCE); 6: inlays luted with SeT (ST). Groups 2 to 6 received mesio-occlusal-distal preparations and endodontic treatment. Stone casts were made for groups 3 to 6. Composite resin inlays were built over each cast and luted with the resin cements. A 200-N load was applied on the occlusal aspect and the cuspal deflection was measured using a micrometer before and after 500,000 cycles of fatigue loading (200 N; 500,000 cycles). The specimens were then submitted to an axial load until failure. The median cuspal deflection (µm) and median fracture resistance (N) were calculated and statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p < 0.01). Values followed by the same letter represent no statistically significant difference. Cuspal deflection before cyclic loading: C = 3 µma; ARC = 4 µmab; RLXU= 5 µmab; MCE = 21 µmb; ST = 51 µmbc; WR = 69 µmc. Cuspal deflection after cyclic loading: ARC = 6 µma; RLXU = 19 µmab; MCE = 33 µmb; ST = 62 µmb. Fracture resistance in N: C = 1902a; ARC = 980b; RLXU = 670c; MCE = 533c; ST = 601c; WR = 526c. According to the Wilcoxon test, there was no statistical difference between the cuspal deflection before and after cyclic loading only for ARC (p = 0.015). There was a predominance of recovery fractures for the restored groups. Composite resin inlays luted with RelyX ARC maintained cuspal deflection stability and showed higher fracture resistance of the teeth than did inlays luted with the other cements tested.

  12. Correlation between flexural and indirect tensile strength of resin composite cements.

    PubMed

    Cassina, Gianluca; Fischer, Jens; Rohr, Nadja

    2016-11-04

    To evaluate a potential correlation between flexural strength and indirect tensile strength in assessing the mechanical strength of resin composite cements. Flexural strength (n = 5) and indirect tensile strength (n = 5) of 7 resin composite cements (RelyX Unicem 2 Automix [RXU], Panavia SA [PSA], Clearfil SA [CSA], Panavia F2.0 [PF2], Multilink Implant [MLI], DuoCem [DCM], Panavia 21 [P21]) were determined. Specimens were either auto-polymerized or dual-cured (except P21) and stored in water at 37 °C for 1 day prior to measurement. Flexural and indirect tensile strength of 4 cements (RXU, PSA, PF2, MLI) was additionally measured directly after curing and after 96 h water storage at 37 °C. Except for PF2, dual-cured specimens achieved higher flexural strength than auto-polymerized specimens. In the indirect tensile strength test differences in auto-polymerized and dual-cured specimens were only detected for RXU and DCM. A general non-linear correlation was found between flexural and indirect tensile strength values. However, strength values of auto-polymerized and dual-cured specimens did not generally correlate. Flexural strength and indirect tensile strength of resin composite cements are correlated. At high strength values the indirect tensile test is less sensitive than the flexural test. The results suggest that the indirect tensile test may only be recommended as a screening test especially for low or medium strength resin composite cements.

  13. Influence of core-finishing intervals on tensile strength of cast posts-and-cores luted with zinc phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Michele Andrea Lopes; Mesquita, Gabriela Campos; Pereira, Analice Giovani; Dantas, Lucas Costa de Medeiros; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Soares, Carlos José; Mota, Adérito Soares da

    2012-01-01

    The core finishing of cast posts-and-cores after luting is routine in dental practice. However, the effects of the vibrations produced by the rotary cutting instruments over the luting cements are not well-documented. This study evaluated the influence of the time intervals that elapsed between the cementation and the core-finishing procedures on the tensile strength of cast posts-and-cores luted with zinc phosphate cement. Forty-eight bovine incisor roots were selected, endodontically treated, and divided into four groups (n = 12): GA, control (without finishing); GB, GC, and GD, subjected to finishing at 20 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours after cementation, respectively. Root canals were molded, and the resin patterns were cast in copper-aluminum alloy. Cast posts-and-cores were luted with zinc phosphate cement, and the core-finishing procedures were applied according to the groups. The tensile tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min for all groups, 24 hours after the core-finishing procedures. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the tensile strengths between the control and experimental groups, regardless of the time interval that elapsed between the luting and finishing steps. Within the limitations of the present study, it was demonstrated that the core-finishing procedures and time intervals that elapsed after luting did not appear to affect the retention of cast posts-and-cores when zinc phosphate cement was used.

  14. Bonding effectiveness of two adhesive luting cements to glass fiber posts: pull-out evaluation of three different post surface conditioning methods.

    PubMed

    Graiff, Lorenzo; Rasera, Laura; Calabrese, Marco; Vigolo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials.

  15. Bonding Effectiveness of Two Adhesive Luting Cements to Glass Fiber Posts: Pull-Out Evaluation of Three Different Post Surface Conditioning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials. PMID:24987418

  16. Vertical marginal discrepancy of ceramic copings with different ceramic materials, finish lines, and luting agents: an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Quintas, Adriana Ferreira; Oliveira, Fabiano; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-01

    Prosthetic restorations that fit poorly may affect periodontal health and occlusion. Studies that have evaluated the accuracy of fit of ceramic restorations before and after cementation assessed primarily intracoronal restorations. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different finish lines, ceramic manufacturing techniques, and luting agents on the vertical discrepancy of ceramic copings. Two stainless steel molars were prepared for complete crowns with 2 different finish lines (heavy chamfer and rounded shoulder); each molar was duplicated to fabricate 90 copings. A total of 180 copings generated 18 groups (n=10 for each finish line-coping material-luting agent combination). Luting agents tested included zinc phosphate, resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and resin composite cements (Panavia F). A metal frame was developed on which to screw the stainless steel model and a ceramic coping; the distance (microm) between 2 predetermined points was measured before and after cementation by a profile projector under a torquing force. A 4-way ANOVA with repeated measurements was performed to assess the influence of each factor in the vertical marginal discrepancy: 3 between-coping factors (finish line-coping material-luting agent) and 1 within-coping factor (before and after cementation) (alpha=.05). Procera copings presented the lowest mean values ( P <.05) of vertical marginal discrepancy before and after cementation (25/44 microm) when compared to Empress 2 (68/110 microm) and InCeram Alumina copings (57/117 microm), regardless of any combinations among all finish lines and luting agents tested. Considering each factor separately, the ceramic manufacturing technique appeared to be the most important factor tested for the definitive vertical discrepancy of all-ceramic copings, with lower mean values for Procera copings.

  17. Effect of surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of luting cement to ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2003-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of three different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA based luting cement to six commercial dental ceramics. Six disc shaped ceramic specimens (glass ceramics, glass infiltrated alumina, glass infiltrated zirconium dioxide reinforced alumina) were used for each test group yielding a total number of 216 specimens. The specimens in each group were randomly assigned to one of the each following treatment conditions: (1) hydrofluoric acid etching, (2) airborne particle abrasion, (3) tribochemical silica coating. The resin composite luting cement was bonded to the conditioned and silanized ceramics using polyethylene molds. All specimens were tested at dry and thermocycled (6.000, 5-55 degrees C, 30 s) conditions. The shear bond strength of luting cement to ceramics was measured in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). In dry conditions, acid etched glass ceramics exhibited significantly higher results (26.4-29.4 MPa) than those of glass infiltrated alumina ceramics (5.3-18.1 MPa) or zirconium dioxide (8.1 MPa) (ANOVA, P<0.001). Silica coating with silanization increased the bond strength significantly for high-alumina ceramics (8.5-21.8 MPa) and glass infiltrated zirconium dioxide ceramic (17.4 MPa) compared to that of airborne particle abrasion (ANOVA, P<0.001). Thermocycling decreased the bond strengths significantly after all of the conditioning methods tested. Bond strengths of the luting cement tested on the dental ceramics following surface conditioning methods varied in accordance with the ceramic types. Hydrofluoric acid gel was effective mostly on the ceramics having glassy matrix in their structures. Roughening the ceramic surfaces with air particle abrasion provided higher bond strengths for high-alumina ceramics and the values increased more significantly after silica coating/silanization.

  18. Marginal leakage in class II-restorations after use of ceramic-inserts luted with different materials.

    PubMed

    Hahn, P; Schaller, H G; Müllner, U; Hellwig, E

    1998-08-01

    The efficiency of using prefabricated ceramic inlays to prevent microleakage has been discussed in different investigations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of a new glass ceramic inlay system in combination with two different composite luting materials and one polyacid-modified composite, respectively. Standardized class II cavities (n = 60) were filled with (1) Empress inlays fixed with a highly viscous luting composite as a control group, and with glass ceramic inlays (Cerana) in combination with (2) a highly viscous luting composite, (3) a low-viscous luting composite and (4) a polyacid-modified composite, respectively. After thermocycling the marginal quality was analysed with scanning electron microscopy, and the dye penetration along the cavity walls was measured. The use of the Cerana inlays with a polyacid-modified composite resin did not reveal a good marginal adaptation. However, the combination of the Cerana and the Empress inlays with the highly viscous composite exhibited a comparable marginal fit. Within the limitations of an in vitro study it is concluded that the combination of the new glass ceramic inlays with a polyacid-modified composite cannot be recommended for clinical use.

  19. Influence of temporary cement remnant and surface cleaning method on bond strength to dentin of a composite luting system.

    PubMed

    Kanakuri, Katsuhito; Kawamoto, Yoshikazu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of polycarboxylate temporary cement remaining on the dentin surface on the bond strength of a composite luting system. An acrylic resin plate was luted to bovine dentin with a polycarboxylate temporary cement (HY-Bond Temporary Cement Hard, HYB). The temporary cement was not used for the control groups. After removing the temporary cement with an excavator, dentin specimens were divided into five groups; 1) no subsequent treatment, 2) cleaning with a rotational brush (RTB), 3) cleaning with a rotational brush and non-fluoridated flour of pumice, 4) sweeping with an air scaler, and 5) treated with a sonic toothbrush. A silane-treated ceramic disk (IPS Empress) was bonded to each dentin specimen with a composite luting system (Panavia F). Shear testing results showed that the RTB groups exhibited the highest bond strength regardless of the use of temporary cement (P < 0.05). The use of a rotational brush with water coolant is recommended to achieve ideal bond strength between the Panavia F luting system and dentin to which HYB temporary cement was primarily applied.

  20. Evaluation of TEGDMA leaching from four resin cements by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Usumez, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of TEGDMA from dual cured resin cements, used for bonding of ceramic restoration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Forty freshly extracted caries and restoration free molar teeth used in this study. Standardized Class I preparations were prepared in all teeth. Ceramic inlays were cemented with one of the dual cured resin cements (Variolink II, Rely X ARC, Rely X Unicem and Resilute). After cementation, specimens were stored in 75% ethanol solution. HPLC was used to analyze the amounts of TEGDMA in different time intervals. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to evaluate the results (P<.05). Results: The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Resilute was the highest and the amount of TEG-DMA eluted from Rely X Unicem was the lowest (P<.05). The total amount of monomers was the highest after 21 days (P<.05). Conclusion: In the case of resin cements, elution of TEGDMA was the highest in Resilute and lowest in Rely X Unicem. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from resin cements was influenced by the time. PMID:22904653

  1. Microshear Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Lithium Disilicate Substrates as a Function of Surface Preparation.

    PubMed

    Lise, D P; Perdigão, J; Van Ende, A; Zidan, O; Lopes, G C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching, silane solution, and adhesive system application on the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD) to three resin cements. Circular bonding areas were delimited on the lithium disilicate surfaces using a perforated adhesive tape. Specimens were assigned to 18 subgroups (n=12) according to surface treatment: NT = no treatment; HF = 4.8% HF for 20 seconds; silane solution: (1) no silane; (2) Monobond Plus, a silane/10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate solution for 60 seconds; (3) Monobond Plus+ExciTE F DSC, a dual-cure adhesive; and resin cement: (1) Variolink II, a bisphenol A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (bis-GMA)-based, hand-mixed, dual-cure resin cement; (2) Multilink Automix, a bis-GMA-based, auto-mixed, dual-cure resin cement; (3) RelyX Unicem 2, a self-adhesive, auto-mixed, dual-cure resin cement. Tygon tubes (Ø=0.8 mm) were used as cylinder matrices for resin cement application. After 24 hours of water storage, the specimens were submitted to the μSBS test. Mode of failure was evaluated under an optical microscope and classified as adhesive, mixed, cohesive in resin cement, or cohesive in ceramic. Data were statistically analyzed with three-way analysis of variance and Dunnett test (p<0.05). When means were pooled for the factor surface treatment, HF resulted in a significantly higher μSBS than did NT (p<0.0001). Regarding the use of a silane solution, the mean μSBS values obtained with Monobond Plus and Monobond Plus+ExciTE F DSC were not significantly different but were higher than those obtained with no silane (p<0.001). Considering the factor resin cement, Variolink II resulted in a significantly higher mean μSBS than did RelyX Unicem 2 (p<0.03). The mean μSBS for Multilink Automix was not significantly different from those of Variolink II and RelyX Unicem 2. According to Dunnett post hoc test (p<0.05), there was no significant difference in

  2. Evaluation of the bond strength between aged composite cores and luting agent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of different surface treatment methods on the bond strength between aged composite-resin core and luting agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy-five resin composites and also seventy-five zirconia ceramic discs were prepared. 60 composite samples were exposed to thermal aging (10,000 cycles, 5 to 55℃) and different surface treatment. All specimens were separated into 5 groups (n=15): 1) Intact specimens 2) Thermal aging-air polishing 3) Thermal aging- Er:YAG laser irradiation 4) Thermal aging- acid etching 5) Thermal-aging. All specimens were bonded to the zirconia discs with resin cement and fixed to universal testing machine and bond strength testing loaded to failure with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The fractured surface was classified as adhesive failure, cohesive failure and adhesive-cohesive failure. The bond strength data was statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis method complemented by the Bonferroni correction Mann-Whitney U test. The probability level for statistical significance was set at α=.05. RESULTS Thermal aging and different surface treatment methods have significant effect on the bond strength between composite-resin cores and luting-agent (P<.05). The mean baseline bond strength values ranged between 7.07 ± 2.11 and 26.05 ± 6.53 N. The highest bond strength of 26.05 ± 6.53 N was obtained with Group 3. Group 5 showed the lowest value of bond strength. CONCLUSION Appropriate surface treatment method should be applied to aged composite resin cores or aged-composites restorations should be replaced for the optimal bond strength and the clinical success. PMID:25932308

  3. Bond strength of a composite luting agent to alumina ceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Derand, Tore; Molin, Margareta; Kvam, Ketil

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of a dental luting agent to alumina ceramics after different surface pretreatment. Specimens (n=50) of pressed blocks (10 x 0 x 5 mm) of alumina ceramic (Procera AllCeram) were divided into untreated specimens (AF) as provided by the manufacturer and polished specimens (AP). Five groups of specimens (n=5 x 10) with different surface pretreatments were prepared. Groups 1 and 2: AF and AP without any pretreatment; Group 3: AF treated with silane, (AF-s); Group 4: AF treated with RF plasma spray (AF-RF); Group 5: AF treated with low fusing porcelain (AF-p) glass pearls. Composite cylinders (5 x 5 mm) were cemented to the test specimens with a resin luting agent. The specimens were loaded to failure in shear mode using a universal testing machine. Recorded loads were used to calculate SBS in MPa. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD multiple comparison test at alpha = 0.05. Scanning electron microscopic micrographs (SEM) were used to characterize surfaces of interest. Polished surfaces had significantly lower SBS (p < 0.05) compared with untreated specimens (AP vs AF). Silanated, non-polished surfaces (AF-s) revealed lower SBS, even though the result was not significantly different from that of AF-s without silane treatment. Plasma treatment improved SBS by a factor of 2 (p<0.05) and treatment with low-fusing porcelain micro pearls increased SBS by a factor of 3 compared to untreated surfaces (p<0.05). The layer of glass pearls did not exceed 5 microm (SEM). Within the limitation of the conditions of this study, treatment of alumina oxide ceramic surfaces with a plasma spray coating or a low-fusing porcelain pearl layer significantly increased the SBS of a resin luting agent to the ceramic surface.

  4. Bond strength of composite luting cement to zirconia ceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Derand, Tore; Molin, Margareta; Kvam, Ketil

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of dental resin agent to zirconia ceramic after surface pre-treatment with different techniques. Specimens of hot isostatic pressed yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia blocks (ZF) were fabricated (Procera Zircon, Nobel Biocare, Sweden) and compared to glossy dense zirconia blocks (ZG). Four groups of specimens with different surface treatment were prepared. Group I: ZF (n = 5) and ZG (n = 5) without any pre-treatment, Group II: ZF-s (n = 5) and ZG-s (n = 5) treated with silane solution, Group III: ZF-P (n = 10) and ZG-P (n = 10) treated with RF plasma spraying (hexamethyldisiloxane) using a reactor (Plasma Electronic, Germany), Group IV: ZF-p (n = 10) and ZG-p (n = 10) treated with micro pearls of low fusing porcelain (720 degrees C) on the surfaces. Composite cylinders (Charisma, Hereus Kulzer, Dormagen, Germany) were luted with Variolink II (Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) to the test specimens. The specimens were then stored in air for 1 h before shear loading in a universal testing machine (LRX, Lloyd Instruments, Farnham, England) until failure. No statistical difference was found between the untreated ZF and ZG specimens (Group I) neither between the specimens treated with silane (Group II). Plasma spraying treatment improved bond strength by a factor of three (p < 0.001). Treatment with low fusing porcelain micro pearls increased the bond strength by a factor of 10 compared to untreated surfaces (p < 0.001). No significant difference was seen between the surfaces treated ZF-p and ZG-p specimens. The thickness of the glass pearls layer did not exceed 5 microm. SEM showed dense grain borders of ZF and a flat glossy texture of ZG. Treatment of zirconia ceramic surfaces with plasma spraying or a low fusing porcelain pearl layer significantly increased the bond strength of resin cement to the ceramic surface.

  5. Stress analysis of different post-luting systems: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Romeed, S A; Dunne, S M

    2013-03-01

    The longevity of endodontically treated teeth is usually determined by the adequacy of root canal treatments, coronal seal and favourable stress distribution within the remaining tooth tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of post material and luting cement on the biomechanics of endodontically treated teeth using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3-D FEA). A 3 mm section of endodontically treated canine tooth was scanned and reconstructed for 3-D modelling and FE analyses. A metal post (MP) and a glass fibre post (GFP) were tested individually with four luting cements [zinc phosphate (ZPH), glass ionomer (GI), resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and resin based cements (RC)]. A push-out test was conducted by subjecting all models to 100 N perpendicular loading at the post. The maximum stresses generated along the MP-cement interface were significantly higher than corresponding stresses in the GFP-cement interface regardless of the cement type. GFP generated seven times higher stresses within the root dentine than metal posts when ZPH and GI were used, and three times higher when RMGI and RC were used. The displacement of GFP was double (50 μ) the displacement of MP (20 μ) in all groups. The low elastic modulus of GFP generated lower stresses along its interface and higher stresses within the root dentine, therefore the probability of debonding and root fracture in the GFP group was lower. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Evaluation of ISO 4049: water sorption and water solubility of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Johannes A; Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the water sorption and solubility test design of ISO 4049 for resin cements. Sorption and solubility of six dual-curing resin cements [RelyX Unicem 2 Automix (RUN), Multilink Speed CEM (MLS), Panavia SA Plus (PSA), RelyX Ultimate (RUL), Multilink Automix (MLA), and Panavia V5 (PV5)] were analyzed by storage in distilled water after dual-curing. In addition, sorption and solubility during thermal cycling were assessed with self-cured and dual-cured specimens. After water storage, all cements revealed sorption in the range of 30 μg mm(-3) except for PV5, for which sorption was markedly lower (mean ± SD = 20.8 ± 0.4 μg mm(-3) ). Solubility values were negative for RUN and RUL (-2.1 ± 0.08 μg mm(-3) and -1.9 ± 0.13 μg mm(-3) , respectively). All other cements attained positive values in the range of 0.4-0.8 μg mm(-3) . Thermal cycling effects were more pronounced. The assessment of water sorption according to ISO 4049 provides reliable results. Solubility results must be interpreted with care because absorbed water may distort the values.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanotubes addition to self-adhesive resin cement: Effect on physical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Tonello, Carla M; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo N; Arruda, Larisa B; Tokuhara, Cintia K; Oliveira, Rodrigo C; Furuse, Adilson Y; Rubo, José H; Borges, Ana Flávia S

    2017-07-01

    This study has investigated the influence of Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2-nt) addition to self-adhesive resin cement on the degree of conversion, water sorption, and water solubility, mechanical and biological properties. A commercially available auto-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200™, 3M ESPE) was reinforced with varying amounts of nanotubes (0.3, 0.6, 0.9wt%) and evaluated at different curing modes (self- and dual cure). The DC in different times (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15min), water sorption (Ws) and solubility (Sl), 3-point flexural strength (σf), elastic modulus (E), Knoop microhardness (H) and viability of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were performed to characterize the resin cement. Reinforced self-adhesive resin cement, regardless of concentration, increased the DC for the self- and dual-curing modes at all times studied. The concentration of the TiO2-nt and the curing mode did not influence the Ws and Sl. Regarding σf, concentrations of both 0.3 and 0.9wt% for self-curing mode resulted in data similar to that of dual-curing unreinforced cement. The E increased with the addition of 0.9wt% for self-cure mode and H increased with 0.6 and 0.9wt% for both curing modes. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that reinforced cements were biocompatible. TiO2-nt reinforced self-adhesive resin cement are promising materials for use in indirect dental restorations. Taken together, self-adhesive resin cement reinforced with TiO2-nt exhibited physicochemical and mechanical properties superior to those of unreinforced cements, without compromising their cellular viability. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes

    PubMed Central

    NOVAIS, Veridiana Resende; RAPOSO, Luís Henrique Araújo; de MIRANDA, Rafael Resende; LOPES, Camila de Carvalho Almança; SIMAMOTO, Paulo Cézar; SOARES, Carlos José

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Resin cements have led to great advances in dental ceramic restoration techniques because of their ability to bond to both dental structures and restorative materials. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Material and Methods Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC) and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer). The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst) and light-activation mode (base paste only). For degree of conversion (DC) (n=5), a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for classifying the failure modes. Results Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. Conclusion The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick. PMID:28198977

  9. Effect of ceramic type, thickness, and time of irradiation on degree of polymerization of dual – cure resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Rashi; Taneja, Sonali; Kumari, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of ceramic type, thickness, and time of irradiation on degree of polymerization of dual-cure resin cement. Materials and Methods: Dual-cure resin cement (SoloCem) was used to prepare disk-shaped samples (0.5 mm thick × 5 mm diameter). Study group samples (n = 5) were light-cured for 40, 60, and 80 s through all ceramic leucite-reinforced (Cergo Kiss), lithium disilicate-reinforced (IPS e.max), and monolithic zirconia-reinforced (Ziecon) of three thicknesses (2, 3, and 4 mm). Negative control group samples were cured through metal disks and positive control samples were cured without the presence of ceramic. The degree of conversion (DC) was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The recorded data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc analysis (Tukey HSD). Results and Conclusion: Greatest light transmission and DC were seen through Cergo Kiss, followed by IPS e.max Press and Ziecon, with insignificant difference between the latter two. The attenuation of light irradiance increased with increasing thickness of ceramic disks, with statistically significant values between 3 and 4 mm. Increasing time of irradiation to cure dual-cure resin cement did not always result in greater degree of polymerization. PMID:27656058

  10. Push-out Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Posts Cemented in Weakened Roots with Different Luting Agents.

    PubMed

    da Silveira-Pedrosa, Daniele M; Martins, Luis Rm; Sinhoreti, Mário Ac; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D; Costa, Edson D; de F Pedrosa-Filho, Celso; de Carvalho, Jacy Ribeiro

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the push-out bond strength (BS) of direct anatomic posts (DAPs) and conventional fiber posts (CFPs) cemented with different luting agents in different thirds of flared root canals. A total of 60 human single-rooted canine teeth were transversally sectioned 16 mm from the radicular apex. After endodontic treatment, canals were flared with diamond burs. Samples were divided into six groups according to post type and luting agent: DAP and RelyX U100 (RXU); DAP and RelyX ARC (RXA); DAP and RelyX Luting 2 (RXL); CFP and RXU; CFP and RXA; CFP and RXL. Roots were sectioned transversely into six 1-mm-thick slices. The push-out test was performed and failure modes were observed. The DAP groups (7.23 ± 2.05) showed highest BS values (p < 0.05) when compared with CFP (5.93 ± 1.76). RelyX U100 (8.17 ± 1.70) showed higher BS values (p < 0.05) than RXA (6.46 ± 1.38), and RXL (5.10 ± 1.65) showed the lowest values. Bond strength on the apical third was statistically lower (p < 0.05) than that on the other thirds of the root canals. There was a predominance of adhesive failure for all groups. The DAPs improved retention in flared root canals, and RXU was the most effective luting agent. The apical third showed the lowest BS values. The relining procedure of fiber posts with composite and the proper selection of luting resin cement are important for increasing bonding effectiveness in flared root canals.

  11. Effect of luting agents on the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Khalil; Al-Dwairi, Ziad N; Alghabban, Rawda; Goodacre, Charles J

    2013-09-01

    Fiber posts can fail because of loss of retention; and it is unknown which luting agent provides the highest bond strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts luted to premolar teeth with 6 resin composite luting agents. Ninety-six single-rooted extracted human mandibular premolars were sectioned 2 mm coronal to the most incisal point of the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented and obturated with laterally condensed gutta percha and root canal sealer (AH26). Gutta percha was removed from the canals to a depth of 8 mm and diameter post spaces with a 1.5 mm were prepared. The specimens were divided into the following 6 groups according to the luting agent used (n=16): Group V, Variolink II; Group A, RelyX ARC; Group N, Multilink N; Group U, RelyX Unicem; Group P, ParaCore; Group F, MultiCore Flow. Each specimen was secured in a universal testing machine and a separating load was applied at a rate of 0.5 mm/min. The forces required to dislodge the posts were recorded. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the mean retentive strengths of various cement materials (α=.05). Significant differences were recorded among the 6 cement types (P<.001). Three materials provided statistically equivalent mean bond strengths (RelyX Unicem, Paracore, and MultiCore Flow) that were significantly greater than for the other 3 materials. Fiber posts luted with RelyX Unicem, Paracore, and MultiCore Flow demonstrated significantly higher bond strengths. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Light curing of resin-based composites in the LED era.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Norbert; Lohbauer, Ulrich; García-Godoy, Franklin; Frankenberger, Roland

    2008-06-01

    This review thoroughly accumulated information regarding new technologies for state-of-the-art light curing of resin composite materials. Visible light cured resin-based composites allow the dentist to navigate the initiation of the polymerization step for each layer being applied. Curing technology was regularly subjected to changes during the last decades, but meanwhile the LED era is fully established. Today, four main polymerization types are available, i.e. halogen bulbs, plasma are lamps, argon ion lasers, and light emitting diodes. Additionally, different curing protocols should help to improve photopolymerization in terms of less stress being generated. Conclusions were: (1) with high-power LED units of the latest generation, curing time of 2 mm thick increments of resin composite can be reduced to 20 seconds to obtain durable results; (2) curing depth is fundamentally dependent on the distance of the resin composite to the light source, but only decisive when exceeding 6 mm; (3) polymerization kinetics can be modified for better marginal adaptation by softstart polymerization; however, in the majority of cavities this may not be the case; (4) adhesives should be light-cured separately for at least 10 seconds when resin composite is applied directly; (5) photocuring through indirect restorations such as ceramics is still a problem, therefore, both dual-cured adhesives and dual-cured composites and resin coating in any way are recommended; and (6) heat generation with high-power photopolymerization units should not be underestimated as a biological problem for both gingival and pulpal tissues.

  13. Effect of 2% chlorhexidine on dentin microtensile bond strengths and nanoleakage of luting cements.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, N; Yiu, C K Y; King, N M; Tay, F R

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment by chlorhexidine on the microtensile bond strength (mTBS) of resin cements and nanoleakage at the resin-dentine interfaces. Cylindrical composite blocks were luted to human dentine using resin cements (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE: ARC; Panavia F, Kuraray Medical Inc.: PF; RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE: UN) with/without pre-treatment by 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CAVITY CLEANSER, Bisco, Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA). CAVITY CLEANSER was applied on the acid etched dentine for 60s in the ARC group, and on smear layer-covered dentine in the PF and UN groups. After storage in water for 24h, the bonded teeth were sectioned into 1mm thick slabs and further into 0.9mm x 0.9mm beams. After immersion in water or ammoniacal silver nitrate for 24h, the beams were stressed to failure in tension. The fractured surfaces were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) using backscattered electron mode. The silver-stained slabs were used to examine nanoleakage within the bonded interface by FE-SEM. The resin cement and chlorhexidine treatment had significant effects (p<0.0001) on mTBS; while the storage media had no significant effect (p=0.435). The mTBS of ARC was significantly higher than the other cements. Chlorhexidine reduced mTBS and produced pronounced nanoleakage when PF and UC were luted to dentine. Pre-treatment with chlorhexidine affected the integrity of dentine bonding with PF and UC, while there was no adverse effect on coupling of ARC.

  14. Comparative evaluation of bond strength of all-metal crowns with different luting agents after undergoing various modes of surface treatments: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Shivam Singh; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Ghosh, Soumitra; Goel, Preeti; Das, Samiran; Chakarvarty, Kaplia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study includes a comparative evaluation of the various surface treatments of the intaglio surface of crowns in combination with various luting agents for maximal retention. Materials and Methods: Totally, 150 dies of a standard complete crown preparation were fabricated. Wax pattern with a loop on the occlusal surface was prepared on each die using standard procedures, and then crowns were cast with nickel-chromium alloy. These crowns were randomly divided into five groups as per the surface of the intaglio surface of the metal copings. The crowns in each group were again subdivided randomly into three groups as per the luting agents used resin-modified glass ionomer cement, glass ionomer cement, and zinc phosphate cement. Retention was measured (MPa) by separating the metal crowns from the metallic die under tension on a Universal testing machine. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were recorded and statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Results: The retention differed both with surface treatment and type of luting agents. Untreated group showed the least bond strengths < sandblasting with 50 µm alumina < sandblasting with 50 µm alumina with ultrasonic cleaning < sandblasting with 110 µm alumina < sandblasting with 110 µm alumina along with ultrasonic cleaning. For luting agents, glass ionomer cement showed least bond strength because there was no chemical bonding present between metal crown and metallic die, followed by zinc phosphate cement and maximum bond strength were found for resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Conclusion: Among all types of surface treatments used in this study, maximum bond strength was yielded by sandblasting with 110 µm alumina + ultrasonic cleaning and the best luting agent was resin-modified glass ionomer cement. PMID:26929534

  15. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  16. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes.

    PubMed

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Miranda, Rafael Resende de; Lopes, Camila de Carvalho Almança; Simamoto, Paulo Cézar; Soares, Carlos José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC) and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer). The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst) and light-activation mode (base paste only). For degree of conversion (DC) (n=5), a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for classifying the failure modes. Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick.

  17. Effect of hygroscopic expansion on the push-out resistance of glass ionomer-based cements used for the luting of glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Cury, Alvaro H; Goracci, Cecilia; de Lima Navarro, Maria Fidela; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Sadek, Fernanda T; Tay, Franklin R; Ferrari, Marco

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the contribution of hygroscopic expansion of glass-ionomer (GIC) and resin modified glass-ionomer (RMGIC) luting cements to the push-out resistance of fiber posts. Glass fiber posts were luted to post spaces using different cements. Experimental specimens were stored in water, while control specimens were desiccated and stored in mineral oil to eliminate water from intraradicular dentinal tubules and/or the external environment that could have contributed to hygroscopic expansion of the cements. Thin slice push-out tests revealed no difference in retention strengths of resin composite cements that were stored in water or oil. Conversely, GIC and RMGIC cements exhibited increased retention strengths after water sorption. As unfavorable cavity geometry is taxing to dentin bond integrity in root canals, a strategy that relies on increasing the frictional resistance to post dislodgement via delayed hygroscopic expansion of glass-ionomer based materials may be a more pragmatic approach to fiber post retention.

  18. Nanoleakage of luting agents for bonding fiber posts after thermomechanical fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Kerstin; Perdigão, Jorge; Hartwig, Christian; Neumann, Konrad; Kielbassa, Andrej M

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the depth of nanoleakage of four luting agents for bonding fiber posts after thermomechanical fatigue. Twenty-four extracted human anterior teeth were endodontically treated, sectioned at the cementoenamel junction, and restored with fiber posts using four commercially available resin cements with the corresponding core buildup materials (n = 6): Panavia F 2.0/Clearfil DC Core Automix (Kuraray), Variolink II/Multicore Flow (Ivoclar Vivadent), RelyX Unicem/Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE), and Multilink Sprint/Multicore Flow (Ivoclar Vivadent). The specimens received all-ceramic crowns and were subjected to thermomechanical fatigue (1.2 million cycles). After cutting off the crowns, the roots were isolated with nail polish except for a 1-mm rim around the root canal, and immersed in 50 wt% ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 24 h. The specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth into four slices, fixed, dehydrated, and processed for FE-SEM. Leakage was analyzed using backscattered FE-SEM and EDS. The depth of nanoleakage was significantly affected by the factor resin cement (p < 0.015; Kruskall-Wallis). Multilink Sprint resulted in significantly deeper penetration of silver particles than the other materials (p < 0.05; Mann Whitney U-Test). Hybridization of the root canal dentin created by self-etching or etch-and-rinse adhesive systems demonstrated distinctive nanoleakage up to 0.8 mm, whereas the self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem was able to prevent distinctive leakage at this penetration depth. However, none of the investigated luting systems would be able to hermetically seal the root canal if leakage occurred around the margins of the coronal restoration.

  19. Quantifying the strength of a resin-coated dental ceramic.

    PubMed

    Addison, O; Marquis, P M; Fleming, G J P

    2008-06-01

    Resin luting all-ceramic restorations increases clinical performance; however, the strengthening mechanisms are not fully understood. The authors have previously proposed the existence of a resin-ceramic hybrid layer, and the hypothesis tested was that ceramic strength enhancement was conferred by the characteristics of the resin-ceramic hybrid layer. Dentin porcelain discs were polished with a P4000-grade abrasive paper, and half were centrally indented at 9.8 N. Further discs were alumina-air-abraded. Groups of 30 specimens were coated with resin cement thicknesses varying from 0 to 250 +/- 20 microm before bi-axial flexure testing. Following investigation of residual stresses by annealing, regression analysis enabled us to calculate the magnitude of 'actual' strengthening for a theoretical 'zero' thickness of resin cement on each surface texture. Accounting for resin bulk strengthening, resin cement coating significantly increased the mean strength that was attributed to a resin-ceramic hybrid layer sensitive to surface texture.

  20. [Morphological and failure mode study of different fiber posts luted with different adhesive systems to root dentin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Jin-Le; Hao, Liang

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the correlation of morphological characteristics and failure modes of two types of glass-fiber posts luted with self-adhesive resin cement and etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Thirty-six intact single-rooted premolars were collected and removed the crown. After root canal therapy, teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group A: Self-adhesive with POPO fiber post. Group B: Etch-and-rinse with POPO fiber posts. Group C: Self-adhesive with Para Post. Group D: Etch-and-rinse with Para Post. Each root was sectioned into six 1 mm-thick serial slices and a push-out test was performed. The dentin-cement-post adhesive interface of each specimen and failure modes after fracture were evaluated by stereomicroscope observation. Interface morphology observe indicated that voids present in group B (64.2%) and D (66.7%) were significantly higher than group A (5.8%) and C (13.7%) (P < 0.001). Interface gaps appeared at the resin-dentine interface in group D (41.2%) were significantly higher than group A (13.5%) and C (11.8%) (P < 0.0083), and the failure modes in each group were significantly different (P < 0.0083) except for group A and B (P = 0.69). Voids present in cement layer were associated with the luting agent involved. Morphological characteristics of the fiber post-resin luting agent-root dentin adhesive interface were discrepant with failure modes in different root region. There were interaction between adhesive systems and fiber posts.

  1. The Effect of Luting Cement and Titanium Base on the Final Color of Zirconium Oxide Core Material.

    PubMed

    Capa, Nuray; Tuncel, Ilkin; Tak, Onjen; Usumez, Aslihan

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of different types of luting cements and different colors of zirconium cores on the final color of the restoration that simulates implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs) by using a titanium base on the bottom. One hundred and twenty zirconium oxide core plates (Zr-Zahn; 10 mm in width, 5 mm in length, 0.5 mm in height) were prepared in different shades (n = 20; noncolored, A2, A3, B1, C2, D2). The specimens were subdivided into two subgroups for the two types of luting cements (n = 10). The initial color measurements were made on zirconium oxide core plates using a spectrometer. To create the cement thicknesses, stretch strips with holes in the middle (5 mm in diameter, 70 μm in height) were used. The second measurement was done on the zirconium oxide core plates after the application of the resin cement (U-200, A2 Shade) or polycarboxylate cement (Lumicon). The final measurement was done after placing the titanium discs (5 mm in diameter, 3 mm in height) in the bottom. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant differences (HSD) tests (α = 0.05). The ∆E*ab value was higher in the resin cement-applied group than in the polycarboxylate cement-applied group (p < 0.001). The highest ∆E*ab value was recorded for the zirconium oxide core-resin cement-titanium base, and the lowest was recorded for the polycarboxylate cement-zirconium oxide core (p < 0.001). The luting cement, the presence of titanium, and the color of zirconium are all important factors that determine the final shade of zirconia cores in implant-supported FPDs. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  3. Comparative study on the tensile bond strength and marginal fit of complete veneer cast metal crowns using various luting agents: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Parameswari, B. Devi; Rajakumar, M.; Lambodaran, G.; Sundar, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    bonding nature. The observation of results of marginal fit in this study is the increased gap found in zinc phosphate cement followed by resin cement, zinc polycarboxylate, and glass ionomer cement. It is agreeable to estimate the marginal fit of the restoration, which could be affected by the film thickness of the luting cement along with other factors. PMID:27829765

  4. Bond strength of three luting agents to zirconia ceramic - Influence of surface treatment and thermocycling

    PubMed Central

    ATTIA, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments, 3 luting agents and thermocycling on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) to zirconia ceramic. Material and Methods A total of 18 blocks (5x5x4 mm) were fabricated from zirconia ceramic (ICE Zirkonia) and duplicated into composite blocks (Alphadent). Ceramic blocks were divided into 3 groups (n=6) according to the following surface treatments: airborne-particle abrasion (AA), silica-coating, (SC) (CoJet) and silica coating followed by silane application (SCSI) (ESPE Sil). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (n=2) according to the 3 luting agents used. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC, Ketac Cem Plus), self-adhesive resin cement (UN, RelyX Unicem) and adhesive resin cement (ML, MultiLink Automix) were used for bonding composite and zirconia blocks. Each bonding assembly was cut into microbars (10 mm long and 1±0.1 mm2). Seven specimens of each subgroup were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 1 week. The o ther 7 specimens were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 30 days then thermocycled (TC) for 7,500 cycles. µTBS values were recorded for each specimen using a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses were performed using a 3-way ANOVA model followed by serial 1-way ANOVAs. Comparison of means was performed with Tukey's HSD test at (α=0.05). Results µTBS ranged from 16.8 to 31.8 MPa after 1 week and from 7.3 to 16.4 MPa after 30 days of storage in water and thermocycling. Artificial aging significantly decreased µTBS (p<0.05). Considering surface treatment, SCSI significantly increased µTBS (p<0.05) compared to SC and AA. Resin cements (UN and ML) demonstrated significantly higher µTBS (p<0.05) compared to RMGIC cement. Conclusions Silica coating followed by silane application together with adhesive resin cements significantly increased µTBS, while thermocycling significantly decreased µTBS. PMID:21710091

  5. Qualitative evaluation of the adesive interface between lithium disilicate, luting composite and natural tooth

    PubMed Central

    Mobilio, Nicola; Fasiol, Alberto; Catapano, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim of this work was to qualitatively evaluate the interface between tooth, luting composite and lithium disilicate surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An extracted restoration-free human molar was stored in physiological solution until it was embedded in an autopolimerysing acrylic resin. A standard preparation for overlay was completed and after preparation an anatomic overlay was waxed on the tooth and then hot pressed using lithium disilicate ceramic. After cementation the sample was dissected and the section was analysed using an Automatic Micromet (Remet s.a.s) and the section was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM evaluation of the tooth showed the three layers seamlessly; by increasing the enlargement the interface did not change. PMID:27486504

  6. Effect of luting cement and thermomechanical loading on retention of glass fibre posts in root canals.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-jing; Zhao, San-jun; Niu, Li-na; Tay, Franklin R; Jiao, Kai; Gao, Yu; Chen, Ji-hua

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of luting cement and thermomechanical loading on the retention of glass fibre posts in root canals. One hundred and forty-four single-rooted human premolars were endodontically treated and restored with RelyX Fibre Posts. The teeth were divided into four groups according to the cements used (Fuji I, Fuji CEM, RelyX Unicem and RelyX ARC). Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to the method of ageing (immediately tested and after thermomechanical loading). Bond strength was evaluated using a pull-out test. Microleakage was examined quantitatively with dye penetration. The dentine-cement-post bonding interface was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analysed with two-way ANOVA (pull-out test) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis (microleakage). The pull-out bond strength and microleakage were significantly affected by the type of cement and ageing. Although RelyX ARC showed the highest bond strength before thermomechanical loading (p<0.05), the sealing ability of this cement was worse than those exhibited in Fuji CEM and RelyX Unicem (p<0.05). After thermomechanical loading, pull-out strengths of Fuji I and Fuji CEM were significantly increased, whereas that of RelyX ARC group significantly decreased (p<0.05). The sealing ability of Fuji CEM was significantly better than the two resin cement groups (p<0.05) after ageing. Fuji CEM demonstrates increased pull-out strength after thermomechanical loading and favourable sealing ability compared with the other cements. Resin-modified glass ionomer cements have the potential benefit of achieving long-term retention when used for luting glass fibre post to root canal dentine. So it may be recommended for the cementation of glass fibre post in clinics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored with lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns or onlays and luted with two luting agents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiqiang; Guo, Kewu; Zhang, Baowei; Weng, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored using CAD/CAM onlays or crowns and luted with two types of resin cement. Forty all-ceramic crowns and twenty onlays were fabricated on maxillary premolars using the Cerec 3 system (n=10). The abutments were randomly subjected to two different procedures: Endodontic treatment was performed on forty teeth restored through a mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity preparation with composite resin fillings; twenty teeth without endodontic treatment served as control. In endodontically treated teeth restored using IPS e.max CAD crowns or onlays, the fracture loads were lower than those of the control. Endodontic treatment of teeth restored using CAD/CAM crowns does not impair the fracture load but shows more severe fractures than teeth restored using CAD/CAM onlays. This suggests that a CAD/CAM onlay might be an effective method for the restoration of endodontically treated premolars with MOD cavity defect.

  8. Bond strength evaluation of three self-adhesive luting systems used for cementing composite and porcelain.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, F; Minnoni, A; Vitalone, L M; Carluccio, F; Vadini, M; Paolantonio, M; D'Arcangelo, C

    2011-01-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements were recently introduced with the purpose of simplifying the cementation technique, as they combine the use of adhesive and cement in a single application, eliminating the need for pretreatment of the tooth. In the present study a microtensile bond strength test (μ-TBS) was used to compare three self-adhesives, an etch-and-rinse and a self-etch luting system, in the cementation of resin-based composite (RBC) and ceramic disks to dentin. Freshly extracted molars were transversally sectioned to expose flat, deep dentin surfaces. Cylindrical specimens (5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height), consisting of RBC disks and leucite-based glass ceramic disks, were produced. The RBC disks were sandblasted with 50-μm Al2O3. The ceramic disks were conditioned with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid gel and silane application. All of the disks were then bonded to dentin surfaces employing five different luting agents: iCEM Self Adhesive (Heraeus Kulzer), MaxCem (Kerr Corporation), RelyX UniCem (3M ESPE), EnaCem HF (Micerium), and Panavia F2.0 (Kuraray-Dental). The products were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. The specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce multiple beams measuring approximately 1 mm2 in cross section. For each experimental group 12 beams were tested. The preterm failures were also taken into account. All of the specimen preparations were performed by the same operator. The beams were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Mean μ-TBS values were calculated for each group. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were performed using a Tukey test (α=0.05). The UniCem group showed the lowest number of preterm failures among the tested self-adhesive systems. When premature debondings were included in the mean value calculation, bond strength values for the UniCem group were statistically equal to or even higher than those

  9. [Microbeading resin-bonded retainers. 1. Tensile bond strengths and durability].

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Sakai, H; Nomura, H; Kondo, Y; Yatani, H; Yamashita, A

    1989-12-01

    With the development of adhesive luting resins that adheres both dental alloys and tooth enamel has been widely used the resin-bonded fixed partial denture recently. Since we experienced, however, that the metal retainers without mechanical retention such as channels were often dislodged with metal interface failure, the more durable bonding between a luting resin and a metal has been desired. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of microbeading onto the adherent metal surface on the tensile adhesive strength between an adhesive luting resin and a dental alloy. Maxgold equivalent to Type IV gold and Panavia EX were used as an adherent metal and a luting resin, respectively. The following conclusions were drawn: 1. Microbeading on the adherent metal surface made no contribution to an increase of the tensile adhesive strength, unless the adherent surface treatment was achieved. However, once 50 microns alumina blasting and tin plating were achieved on the microbeaded metal surface, the tensile adhesive strength was significantly increased. 2. Taking into account the fabrication technique and the tensile adhesive strength, the optimum diameter of microbeads seems to be 150 microns. 3. In the result of various accelerative durability tests (invasion tests in 70 and 100 degrees C water, thermal cycling between 4 and 60 degrees C water), the durability of 150 microns microbeaded metal surface on which 50 microns alumina blasting and tin plating were achieved was much better than that of the smooth metal surface.

  10. Wear and marginal adaptation of composite resin inlays.

    PubMed

    Krejci, I; Lutz, F; Gautschi, L

    1994-09-01

    MOD inlays were made with conventional, coarse hybrid, fine hybrid, and two microfilled composite resins. They were adhesively luted in six extracted human molars for each group and were subjected to longitudinal, in vitro testing. Final wear ranged from 46.8 +/- 18.6 microns for fine hybrid composite resin to 132.0 +/- 39.3 microns for conventional composite resin for the inlays and from 19.3 +/- 6.6 microns for homogeneous microfilled composite resin to 136.3 +/- 65.1 microns for coarse hybrid composite resin on enamel antagonists. The wear of the luting composite resins ranged from 11.2 +/- 11.2 microns to 20.0 +/- 23.6 microns. Marginal adaptation at the beginning of the test exceeded 88.7% of "continuous margin" for all groups in enamel. However, marginal gaps were evident in dentin without dentinal adhesives. Marginal adaptation of the microfilled composite resin inlays deteriorated during loads even when a dentinal adhesive and an inlay primer were used. The margins of the other composite resin inlays remained stable during load application.

  11. In vitro Evaluation of Stainless Steel Crowns cemented with Resin-modified Glass Ionomer and Two New Self-adhesive Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Shashibhushan, KK; Poornima, P; Reddy, VV Subba

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess and compare the retentive strength of two dual-polymerized self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE & SmartCem2, Dentsply Caulk) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; RelyX Luting 2, 3M ESPE) on stainless steel crown (SSC). Materials and methods Thirty extracted teeth were mounted on cold cured acrylic resin blocks exposing the crown till the cemento-enamel junction. Pretrimmed, precontoured SSC was selected for a particular tooth. Standardized tooth preparation for SSC was performed by single operator. The crowns were then luted with either RelyX U200 or SmartCem2 or RelyX Luting 2 cement. Retentive strength was tested using Instron universal testing machine. The retentive strength values were recorded and calculated by the formula: Load/Area. Statistical analysis One-way analysis of variance was used for multiple comparisons followed by post hoc Tukey’s test for groupwise comparisons. Unpaired t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results RelyX U200 showed significantly higher retentive strength than rest of the two cements (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the retentive strength of SmartCem2 and RelyX Luting 2 (p > 0.05). Conclusion The retentive strength of dual-polymerized self-adhesive resin cements was better than RMGIC, and RelyX U200 significantly improved crown retention when compared with SmartCem2 and RelyX Luting 2. How to cite this article Pathak S, Shashibhushan KK, Poornima P, Reddy VVS. In vitro Evaluation of Stainless Steel Crowns cemented with Resin-modified Glass Ionomer and Two New Self-adhesive Resin Cements. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):197-200. PMID:27843249

  12. Film Thickness and Flow Properties of Resin-Based Cements at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, R

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: For a luting agent to allow complete seating of prosthetic restorations, it must obtain an appropriate flow rate maintaining a minimum film thickness. The performance of recently introduced luting agents in this regard has not been evaluated. Purpose: To measure and compare the film thickness and flow properties of seven resin-containing luting cements at different temperatures (37°C, 25°C and10°C). Material and Methods: Specimens were prepared from five resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Varioloink II (Ivoclar), Maxcem (Kerr), Nexus2 (Kerr) and two resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RM-GICs); GC Fuji Plus (GC Corporation), and RelyX Luting 2 (3 M/ESPE). The film thickness and flow rate of each cement (n=15) was determined using the test described in ISO at three different temperatures. Results: There was a linear correlation between film thickness and flow rate for most of the materials. Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials while the effect of temperature on film thickness was material dependent. At 37°C, all products revealed a film thickness of less than 25µm except for GC Fuji Plus. At 25°C, all cements produced a film thickness of less than 27 µm except for seT. At 10°C, apart from seT and Rely X Luting 2, the remaining cements showed a film thickness smaller than 20 µm. Conclusion: Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials, however. the film thickness did not exceed 35 µm in either condition, in spite of the lowest film thickness being demonstrated at the lowest temperature. PMID:24724120

  13. Evaluation of removal forces of implant-supported zirconia copings depending on abutment geometry, luting agent and cleaning method during re-cementation

    PubMed Central

    Rödiger, Matthias; Rinke, Sven; Ehret-Kleinau, Fenja; Pohlmeyer, Franziska; Lange, Katharina; Bürgers, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of different abutment geometries in combination with varying luting agents and the effectiveness of different cleaning methods (prior to re-cementation) regarding the retentiveness of zirconia copings on implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implants were embedded in resin blocks. Three groups of titanium abutments (pre-fabricated, height: 7.5 mm, taper: 5.7°; customized-long, height: 6.79 mm, taper: 4.8°; customized-short, height: 4.31 mm, taper: 4.8°) were used for luting of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia copings with a semi-permanent (Telio CS) and a provisional cement (TempBond NE). Retention forces were evaluated using a universal testing machine. Furthermore, the influence of cleaning methods (manually, manually in combination with ultrasonic bath or sandblasting) prior to re-cementation with a provisional cement (TempBond NE) was investigated with the pre-fabricated titanium abutments (height: 7.5 mm, taper: 5.7°) and SEM-analysis of inner surfaces of the copings was performed. Significant differences were determined via two-way ANOVA. RESULTS Significant interactions between abutment geometry and luting agent were observed. TempBond NE showed the highest level of retentiveness on customized-long abutments, but was negatively affected by other abutment geometries. In contrast, luting with Telio CS demonstrated consistent results irrespective of the varying abutment geometries. Manual cleaning in combination with an ultrasonic bath was the only cleaning method tested prior to re-cementation that revealed retentiveness levels not inferior to primary cementation. CONCLUSION No superiority for one of the two cements could be demonstrated because their influences on retentive strength are also depending on abutment geometry. Only manual cleaning in combination with an ultrasonic bath offers retentiveness levels after re-cementation comparable to those of primary luting. PMID:25006388

  14. Evaluation of removal forces of implant-supported zirconia copings depending on abutment geometry, luting agent and cleaning method during re-cementation.

    PubMed

    Rödiger, Matthias; Rinke, Sven; Ehret-Kleinau, Fenja; Pohlmeyer, Franziska; Lange, Katharina; Bürgers, Ralf; Gersdorff, Nikolaus

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of different abutment geometries in combination with varying luting agents and the effectiveness of different cleaning methods (prior to re-cementation) regarding the retentiveness of zirconia copings on implants. Implants were embedded in resin blocks. Three groups of titanium abutments (pre-fabricated, height: 7.5 mm, taper: 5.7°; customized-long, height: 6.79 mm, taper: 4.8°; customized-short, height: 4.31 mm, taper: 4.8°) were used for luting of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia copings with a semi-permanent (Telio CS) and a provisional cement (TempBond NE). Retention forces were evaluated using a universal testing machine. Furthermore, the influence of cleaning methods (manually, manually in combination with ultrasonic bath or sandblasting) prior to re-cementation with a provisional cement (TempBond NE) was investigated with the pre-fabricated titanium abutments (height: 7.5 mm, taper: 5.7°) and SEM-analysis of inner surfaces of the copings was performed. Significant differences were determined via two-way ANOVA. Significant interactions between abutment geometry and luting agent were observed. TempBond NE showed the highest level of retentiveness on customized-long abutments, but was negatively affected by other abutment geometries. In contrast, luting with Telio CS demonstrated consistent results irrespective of the varying abutment geometries. Manual cleaning in combination with an ultrasonic bath was the only cleaning method tested prior to re-cementation that revealed retentiveness levels not inferior to primary cementation. No superiority for one of the two cements could be demonstrated because their influences on retentive strength are also depending on abutment geometry. Only manual cleaning in combination with an ultrasonic bath offers retentiveness levels after re-cementation comparable to those of primary luting.

  15. [Hardness development of self-adhesive resin cement in simulated root canal].

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Lan, Weidong; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2012-06-01

    To compare the hardness development of dual-cured self-adhesive and universal resin cement in simulated root canal. The light-proof half-cylinder steel slot with one end open were syringed and filled respectively by self-adhesive A (RelyX Unicem), B (BisCem) and universal C (DUOLINK) resin cements, then the open end of slot was irradiated directly by a light unit for 20 s. Specimens were stored in a light-proof box for 0.5 h, Knoop microhardness was measured along the vertical surfaces of specimens from 1 mm to 10mm depth at 1 mm intervals. The same measurements were taken at 24 h and 120 h after irradiation. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA. Hardness of each group decreased with the increase of simulated canal depth (P<0.001), however hardness showed no significant change between 5 mm and more depth of group A, between 4 mm and more depth of group B and C. The increase of hardness for each group was more rapid within 0.5 h after irradiation, thereafter the hardness increased gradually to maximum at 24 h. At 120 h after irradiation, hardness of group C was greater than that of other two groups at more than 1 mm depth (P<0.001). Under dual-cured condition, hardness has significant difference between self-adhesive and universal resin cements, however their hardness development is similar.

  16. Effect of proximal box elevation with resin composite on marginal quality of resin composite inlays in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, Matthias J; Krämer, Norbert; Dippold, Christoph; Vosen, Vera E; Naumann, Michael; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Frankenberger, Roland

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate marginal quality and resin-resin transition of lab made resin composite inlays in deep proximal cavities with and without 3 mm proximal box elevation (PBE) using resin composites before and after thermo-mechanical loading (TML). MOD cavities with one proximal box beneath the cementoenamel junction were prepared in 40 extracted human third molars. Proximal boxes ending in dentine were elevated 3 mm with different resin composites (G-Cem, Maxcem Elite as self-adhesive resin cements and Clearfil Majesty Posterior as restorative resin composite in one or three layers bonded with AdheSE), or left untreated. Clearfil Majesty Posterior inlays were luted with Syntac and Variolink II (n = 8). Marginal quality as well as the PBE-composite inlay interface was analyzed under an SEM using epoxy resin replicas before and after thermomechanical loading (100,000 × 50 N and 2500 thermocylces between +5 °C and +55 °C). Bonding resin composite inlays directly to dentine showed similar amounts of gap-free margins in dentine compared to PBE applied in three consecutive layers (p > 0.05). The groups with self-adhesive resin cements for PBE exhibited significantly more gaps in dentine (p < 0.05). With layered resin composite, PBE is effective in indirect resin composite bonding to deep proximal boxes. Self-adhesive resin cements are not suitable for this indication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lunar-Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) integrated program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Janice F. (Compiler); Forrest, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A detailed Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) program plan representing major decisions and tasks leading to those decisions for program execution are presented. The purpose of this task was to develop an integrated plan of project activities for the LUTE project, and to display the plan as an integrated network that shows the project activities, all critical interfaces, and schedules. The integrated network will provide the project manager with a frame work for strategic planning and risk management throughout the life of the project.

  18. Analytical method to estimate resin cement diffusion into dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Ferraz, Larissa Cristina; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; de Oliveira, Bruna Medeiros Bertol; Neto, Antonio Medina; Sato, Fracielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the diffusion of two resin luting agents (resin cements) into dentin, with the aim of presenting an analytical method for estimating the thickness of the diffusion zone. Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars (n=9). Indirect composite inlays were luted into the cavities with either a self-adhesive or a self-etch resin cement. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and the cement-dentin interface was analyzed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy. Evolution of peak intensities of the Raman bands, collected from the functional groups corresponding to the resin monomer (C-O-C, 1113 cm-1) present in the cements, and the mineral content (P-O, 961 cm-1) in dentin were sigmoid shaped functions. A Boltzmann function (BF) was then fitted to the peaks encountered at 1113 cm-1 to estimate the resin cement diffusion into dentin. The BF identified a resin cement-dentin diffusion zone of 1.8±0.4 μm for the self-adhesive cement and 2.5±0.3 μm for the self-etch cement. This analysis allowed the authors to estimate the diffusion of the resin cements into the dentin. Fitting the MRS data to the BF contributed to and is relevant for future studies of the adhesive interface.

  19. Effect of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on hardness uniformity of resin cements after glass fiber post cementation

    PubMed Central

    Grande da Cruz, Fernanda Zander; Grande, Christiana Zander; Roderjan, Douglas Augusto; Galvão Arrais, César Augusto; Bührer Samra, Adriana Postiglione; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on Vickers hardness (VHN) uniformity of dual-cured resin cements after fiber post cementation. Methods: Fifty glass fiber posts were cemented into bovine roots using the following cementing systems: Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce with light-activation (PBDC-LCEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 and Enforce with light-activation (PB-CLEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce without light exposure (PBDC-SCEN); ED Primer and Panavia 21 (ED-SCPN); and Clearfil SE Bond and Panavia 21 (CF-SCPN). The roots were stored in distilled water for 72 h and transversely sectioned into thirds (coronal, medium, and apical). The VHN values of the resin cement layers were measured close to the post and to the dentin wall on the transversely sectioned flat surfaces. The results were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc test (pre-set alpha of 5%). Results: Most resin cements presented higher VHN values near the post than near the dentin wall. The ED-SCPN group showed the highest VHN values regardless of the root third, while the self-cured group PBDC-SCEN exhibited the lowest values. The resin cements from the light-activated groups PBDC-LCEN and PB-LCEN showed lower VHN values at the apical third than at the coronal third. The VHN values were not influenced by the root third in self-cured groups PBDC-SCEN, ED-SCPN, and ED-SCPN. Conclusion: Depending on the product, bonding agents might promote changes in hardness uniformity of resin cements after post cementation. PMID:22904652

  20. Resistance against bacterial leakage of four luting agents used for cementation of complete cast crowns.

    PubMed

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Hernández, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    To assess the sealing properties of four luting materials used for cementation of full cast crowns. 40 human premolars were prepared with a chamfer finish line. Stone dies were fabricated and copings were waxed, invested and cast in gold. Ten samples (n = 10) were randomly assigned to four groups. In two groups, resin modified glass-ionomer cements were used, ACTIVA BioACTIVE-CEMENT/BASE/LINER and FujiCem2; the third group received the self-adhesive resin cement Embrace WetBond, while the fourth group served as control with a zinc phosphate cement. After cementation, excess cement was removed followed by bench-set for 10 minutes. All samples were stored in water at 37 degrees C and subjected to thermal cycling (x2000 between 5 and 55 degrees C). Subsequently the occlusal surface was reduced exposing the dentin. After sterilization the specimens were subjected to bacterial microleakage with E. faecalis in a dual chamber apparatus for a period of 60 days. Bacterial leakage was checked daily. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meyer survival test. Significant pairwise differences were analyzed using the Log Rank test and the Fishers' exact test at P < 0.05. ACTIVA BioACTIVE-CEMENT/BASE/LINER, FujiCem2 and Embrace WetBond showed the lowest microleakage scores and differed statistically significantly (P < 0.05) from zinc phosphate cement.

  1. Effect of temporary cements on the shear bond strength of luting cements

    PubMed Central

    FIORI-JÚNIOR, Marco; MATSUMOTO, Wilson; SILVA, Raquel Assed Bezerra; PORTO-NETO, Sizenando Toledo; SILVA, Jaciara Miranda Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by shear bond strength (SBS) testing, the influence of different types of temporary cements on the final cementation using conventional and self-etching resin-based luting cements. Material and Methods Forty human teeth divided in two halves were assigned to 8 groups (n=10): I and V (no temporary cementation); II and VI: Ca(OH)2-based cement; III and VII: zinc oxide (ZO)based cement; IV and VIII: ZO-eugenol (ZOE)-based cement. Final cementation was done with RelyX ARC cement (groups I to IV) and RelyX Unicem cement (groups V to VIII). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. Results Means were (MPa): I - 3.80 (±1.481); II - 5.24 (±2.297); III - 6.98 (±1.885); IV - 6.54 (±1.459); V - 5.22 (±2.465); VI - 4.48 (±1.705); VII - 6.29 (±2.280); VIII - 2.47 (±2.076). Comparison of the groups that had the same temporary cementation (Groups II and VI; III and VII; IV and VIII) showed statistically significant difference (p<0.001) only between Groups IV and VIII, in which ZOE-based cements were used. The use of either Ca(OH)2 based (Groups II and VI) or ZO-based (Groups III and VII) cements showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) for the different luting cements (RelyXTM ARC and RelyXTM Unicem). The groups that had no temporary cementation (Groups I and V) did not differ significantly from each other either (p>0.05). Conclusion When temporary cementation was done with ZO- or ZOE-based cements and final cementation was done with RelyX ARC, there was an increase in the SBS compared to the control. In the groups cemented with RelyX Unicem, however, the use of a ZOE-based temporary cement affected negatively the SBS of the luting agent used for final cementation. PMID:20379679

  2. Laboratory Performance of Universal Adhesive Systems for Luting CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Fabiana; Cardenas, Andres Millan; Gutierrez, Mario Felipe; Malaquias, Pâmela; Hass, Viviane; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Perdigão, Jorge

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of several universal adhesive systems applied on five different indirect restorative materials. Five CAD/CAM materials were selected: 1) indirect resin composite (LAV); 2) feldspathic glass ceramic (VTR); 3) leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic (EMP); 4) lithium disilicate ceramic (EMX); 5) yttrium-stabilized zirconium dioxide (CZI). For each material, 15 blocks were cut into 4 rectangular sections (6 × 6 × 6 mm) (n = 60 per group), and processed as recommended by the respective manufacturer. For each indirect material, the following adhesive systems were applied according to the respective manufacturer's instructions: 1) AdheSE Universal [ADU]; 2) All-Bond Universal (ABU); 3) Ambar Universal (AMB); 4) Clearfil Universal (CFU); 5) Futurabond U (FBU); 6) One Coat 7 Universal (OCU); 7) Peak Universal Bond (PUB); 8) Prime&Bond Elect (PBE); 9) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU); 10) Xeno Select (XEN, negative control). After the application of the adhesive system, cylinder-shaped transparent matrices were filled with a dual-curing resin cement (NX3) and light cured. Specimens were stored in water (37°C for 24 h) and tested in shear mode at 1.0 mm/min (mSBS). The failure pattern and μSBS were statistically evaluated (a = 0.05). LAV, VTR, and EMP showed a greater number of cohesive fractures than EMX and CZI (p < 0.0001). PUB was the only adhesive for which the mean μSBS reached the highest ranking of statistical significance for all five substrates. When each adhesive was compared across the five substrates, 8 out of 10 (ADU, ABU, AMB, CFU, OCU, PUB, PBE, and SBU) reached the statistically highest mean μSBS when applied on CZI. The specific chemical composition of universal adhesives was not the decisive factor in the bond strength values measured for different CAD/CAM indirect materials. There was a wide variability in mean μSBS when different universal adhesives were applied to the several CAD/CAM indirect materials

  3. The optical effect of composite luting cement on all ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Chang, John; Da Silva, John D; Sakai, Maiko; Kristiansen, Joshua; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the optical properties of resin-based composite cements and assess their effects on the color of all ceramic crowns. Optical properties of three cements (Variolink II, Esthetic, Nexus II) were analyzed using disk samples (100 microm and 1.0 mm diameter) based on CIELAB color coordinates L*a*b*C* and opacity index. Empress (Ivoclar) and Katana (Noritake) crowns were filled with four different shades of die material (IPS die material ST3, ST5, ST9 and Tetric Evo Ceram Bleach XL). The shade of the crowns was measured with each of three shades of composite cement (Chroma, Bleach and Opaque, Esthetic cement). ST3 and glycerin served as the control. Color differences were calculated in incisal, body and cervical regions. In the cervical and body regions, the color change caused by the bleach abutment could not be altered by using different colored cements for the Empress and Katana crowns. In the cervical region, the color changes effected by the dark brown abutment could be reversed with the bleach luting cement; in the body region this was true only for the Empress crown. Neither different abutment colors nor different luting cement shades resulted in perceptible color changes in the incisal regions. Mean DeltaE* values in the three areas (incisal, body, cervical) were significantly different (p-value<0.01); in the cervical and body regions Empress mean DeltaE* was significantly larger (p<0.01). The composite cements evaluated in this study created perceptible color differences with particular combinations of die material, cement and ceramic crown.

  4. Tooth sensitivity associated with the use of luting cements.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, H O

    1995-01-01

    Luting Cements are still a source of frustration to the dentist. None of the cements currently available satisfies everyone, including the patient. The problems encountered when trying to obtain adhesion to a wet substance such as dentin are well-known (Christensen, 1994). The cause of postcementation sensitivity continues to a perplexing problem.

  5. Metal-ceramic crowns cemented with two luting agents: short-term results of a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Andree; Schick, Karina; Lauer, Hans-Christoph

    2012-06-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled, split-mouth trial was performed to evaluate the cementation modes for metal-ceramic crowns. A total of 40 fully veneered metal-ceramic crowns were delivered in the posterior jaw segments of 20 patients using either a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem Aplicap, 3M ESPE; n = 20) or a zinc oxide phosphate cement (Hoffmann's Cement, Hoffmann; n = 20). Thirteen parameters related to the abutment teeth and their periodontal status were evaluated. A visual analog scale was used to assess the sensitivity of the abutment teeth by patient-based outcomes. Data were statistically analyzed by a single-classification ANOVA (α = 0.05) and logistic regression analysis. The results presented were obtained after a mean observation period of 1.8 years. The dropout rate was 0%. None of the abutment teeth exhibited secondary caries at the restoration margins. No significant differences were demonstrated between the luting agents based on visual analog scale (p > 0.05), hypersensitivity (OR = 1.31), abutment mobility (p > 0.05), or probing depths (p > 0.05). Based on the sulcus fluid flow rates, a significantly greater mean difference was obtained with zinc oxide phosphate cement than with self-adhesive resin cement (9.2 units; p = 0.0006). Significant differences between the baseline examination and the follow-up examinations for sulcus bleeding index (p = 0.0013) and plaque index (p < 0.0001) were observed regardless of the luting agent used. The two cement types showed scarcely any differences between the parameters investigated. The outcomes of cementing fully veneered metal-ceramic crowns were equally good with self-adhesive resin cement as with the clinically proven zinc oxide phosphate cement.

  6. A resin composite material containing an eugenol derivative for intracanal post cementation and core build-up restoration.

    PubMed

    Almaroof, A; Rojo, L; Mannocci, F; Deb, S

    2016-02-01

    To formulate and evaluate new dual cured resin composite based on the inclusion of eugenyl methacrylate monomer (EgMA) with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin systems for intracanal post cementation and core build-up restoration of endodontically treated teeth. EgMA was synthesized and incorporated at 5% (BTEg5) or 10% (BTEg10) into dual-cure formulations. Curing properties, viscosity, Tg, radiopacity, static and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were determined and compared with Clearfil™DC Core-Plus, a commercial dual-cure, two-component composite. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with ANOVA and the Tukey's post-hoc test. The experimental composites were successfully prepared, which exhibited excellent curing depths of 4.9, 4.7 and 4.2 mm for BTEg0, BTEg5 and BTEg10 respectively, which were significantly higher than Clearfil™DC. However, the inclusion of EgMA initially led to a lower degree of cure, which increased when measured at 24 h with values comparable to formulations without EgMA, indicating post-curing. The inclusion of EgMA also lowered the polymerization exotherm thereby reducing the potential of thermal damage to host tissue. Both thermal and viscoelastic analyses confirmed the ability of the monomer to reduce the stiffness of the composites by forming a branched network. The compressive strength of BTEg5 was significantly higher than the control whilst flexural strength increased significantly from 95.9 to 114.8 MPa (BTEg5) and 121.9 MPa (BTEg10). Radiopacity of the composites was equivalent to ∼3 mm Al allowing efficient diagnosis. The incorporation of EgMA within polymerizable formulations provides a novel approach to prepare reinforced resin composite material for intracanal post cementation and core build-up and the potential to impart antibacterial properties of eugenol to endodontic restorations. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of modulated photo-activation on polymerization shrinkage behavior of dental restorative resin composites.

    PubMed

    Tauböck, Tobias T; Feilzer, Albert J; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Krejci, Ivo; Attin, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of modulated photo-activation on axial polymerization shrinkage, shrinkage force, and hardening of light- and dual-curing resin-based composites. Three light-curing resin composites (SDR bulk-fill, Esthet X flow, and Esthet X HD) and one dual-curing material (Rebilda DC) were subjected to different irradiation protocols with identical energy density (27 J cm(-2) ): high-intensity continuous light (HIC), low-intensity continuous light (LIC), soft-start (SS), and pulse-delay curing (PD). Axial shrinkage and shrinkage force of 1.5-mm-thick specimens were recorded in real time for 15 min using custom-made devices. Knoop hardness was determined at the end of the observation period. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences among the curing protocols for both Knoop hardness and axial shrinkage, irrespective of the composite material. Pulse-delay curing generated the significantly lowest shrinkage forces within the three light-curing materials SDR bulk-fill, Esthet X flow, and Esthet X HD. High-intensity continuous light created the significantly highest shrinkage forces within Esthet X HD and Rebilda DC, and caused significantly higher forces than LIC within Esthet X flow. In conclusion, both the composite material and the applied curing protocol control shrinkage force formation. Pulse-delay curing decreases shrinkage forces compared with high-intensity continuous irradiation without affecting hardening and axial polymerization shrinkage. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Effects of barriers on chemical and biological properties of two dual resin cements.

    PubMed

    Nocca, Giuseppina; Iori, Andrea; Rossini, Carlo; Martorana, Giuseppe E; Ciasca, Gabriele; Arcovito, Alessandro; Cordaro, Massimo; Lupi, Alessandro; Marigo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of conversion, monomer release, and cytotoxicity of two dual-cure resin cements (Cement-One and SmartCem2), light-cured across two indirect restorative materials in an attempt to simulate in vitro the clinical conditions. The results obtained show that the degree of conversion was influenced by both barriers, but the effect of the composite material was greater than that of the ceramic one. The amount of monomers released from the polymerized materials in the absence of barriers was significantly lower than that released in the presence of either the ceramic or the composite barrier. However, a higher amount of monomers was released in the presence of the ceramic barrier. All materials, in all the experimental conditions employed, induced slight cytotoxicity (5-10%) on human pulp cells. Our examinations showed that the two resin cements had similar chemical and biological properties. The decreased degree of conversion of the dual-curing self-adhesive composite showed that the light-curing component of these materials has an important role in the polymerization process. In clinical practice, it is therefore important to pay attention to the thickness of the material used for the reconstruction. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Effect of post length and type of luting agent on the dislodging time of metallic prefabricated posts by using ultrasonic vibration.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi Dastgurdi, Maziar; Khabiri, Masud; Khademi, Abbasali; Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Hosseini Dastnaei, Peimaneh

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the times needed to dislodge prefabricated titanium posts of different luting lengths with various cements. Eighty-one intact extracted, single-canal human teeth were selected and endodontically treated. Specimens were randomly divided into 9 groups, which were arranged according to the post space length (5, 7, and 9 mm) and cement type (zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and resin cement). Titanium posts were cemented into the post spaces, and after 1 week of storage they were subjected to ultrasonic vibration. The dislodging times were recorded and analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < .05). A significant difference was observed between the dislodging times on the basis of post length and luting agent (P < .001). There were also significant differences between different cements luted with the same length posts (P < .001). Significant differences were observed between the 5-mm posts and both the 7- and 9-mm posts for each cement, but the differences between the 7-mm and 9-mm posts were not significant (P < .05). Changes in the cement type and post length alter the time required to dislodge a post with an ultrasonic device. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A study on provisional cements, cementation techniques, and their effects on bonding of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G; Soorya Poduval, T; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P

    2014-03-01

    Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restoration. Determine the presence of cement debris on prepared tooth surface subsequent to the removal of provisional restoration. Determine the cement with the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Determine the effect of smear layer on the amount of residual luting cement. Eighty-four extracted natural anterior teeth were prepared for porcelain laminate veneers. For half of the teeth, the smear layer was removed before luting provisional restorations. Veneer provisional restorations were fabricated and luted to teeth with six bonding methods: varnish combined with glass ionomer cement (GIC), varnish combined with resin modified GIC, varnish, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement, adhesive combined with GIC, adhesive combined with resin modified GIC, and adhesive, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement. After removal of provisional restorations 1 week later, the tooth surface was examined for residual luting material with SEM. Traces of cement debris were found on all the prepared teeth surfaces for all six groups which were cemented with different methods. Cement debris was seen on teeth subsequent to the removal of provisional's. Dual-cure cement had the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Presence of smear layer had no statistical significance in comparison with cement residue. With the use of adhesive the cement debris was always found to be more than with the use of varnish. GIC showed maximum residual cement followed by dual-cure.

  11. Influence of Curing Mode on the Surface Energy and Sorption/Solubility of Dental Self-Adhesive Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Bagheri, Rafat; Kim, Young Kyung; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of curing mode (dual- or self-cure) on the surface energy and sorption/solubility of four self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) and one conventional resin cement. The degree of conversion (DC) and surface energy parameters including degree of hydrophilicity (DH) were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, respectively (n = 5). Sorption and solubility were assessed by mass gain or loss after storage in distilled water or lactic acid for 60 days (n = 5). A linear regression model was used to correlate between the results (%DC vs. DH and %DC/DH vs. sorption/solubility). For all materials, the dual-curing consistently produced significantly higher %DC values than the self-curing (p < 0.05). Significant negative linear regressions were established between the %DC and DH in both curing modes (p < 0.05). Overall, the SARCs showed higher sorption/solubility values, in particular when immersed in lactic acid, than the conventional resin cement. Linear regression revealed that %DC and DH were negatively and positively correlated with the sorption/solubility values, respectively. Dual-curing of SARCs seems to lower the sorption and/or solubility in comparison with self-curing by increased %DC and occasionally decreased hydrophilicity. PMID:28772489

  12. Cement selection for implant-supported crowns fabricated with different luting space settings.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Pinar; Gultekin, B Alper; Aydin, Murat; Yalcin, Serdar

    2013-02-01

    To measure and compare the retentive strength of cements specifically formulated for luting restorations onto implant abutments and to investigate the effect of varying cement gap on retention strength of implant-supported crowns. Standard titanium abutments were scanned by means of a 3D digital laser scanner. One hundred and sixty standard metal copings were designed by a Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system with two cement gap values (20 and 40 μm). The copings were cemented to the abutments using the following eight cements with one being the control, zinc oxide temporary cement, while the other seven were specifically formulated implant cements (n = 10): Premier Implant Cement, ImProv, Multilink Implant, EsTemp Implant, Cem-Implant, ImplaTemp, MIS Crown Set, and TempBond NE. The specimens were placed in 100% humidity for 24 hours, and subjected to a pull-out test using a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The test results were analyzed with two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, post hoc Tamhane' s T2, and student's t-tests at a significance level of 0.05. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in retention strength across the cement groups (p < 0.01). Resin-based cements showed significantly higher decementation loads than a noneugenol zinc oxide provisional cement (TempBond NE) (p < 0.01), with the highest tensile resistance seen with Multilink Implant, followed by Cem-Implant, MIS Crown Set, ImProv, Premier Implant Cement, EsTemp Implant, and ImplaTemp. Increasing the cement gap from 20 to 40 μm improved retention significantly for the higher strength cements: Multilink Implant, Premier Implant Cement, ImProv, Cem-Implant, and MIS Crown Set (p < 0.01), while it had no significant effect on retention for the lower strength cements: EsTemp Implant, ImplaTemp, and TempBond NE (p > 0.05). Resin cements specifically formulated for implant-supported restorations demonstrated significant differences in

  13. Dental cements for definitive luting: a review and practical clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Edward E

    2007-07-01

    Dental cement used to attach an indirect restoration to a prepared tooth is called a luting agent. A clinically relevant discussion of conventional and contemporary definitive luting agents is presented in this article. Physical properties are listed in table form to assist in comparison and decision-making. Additional subtopics include luting agent requirements, classifications, retention and bonding, cement considerations for implant-supported teeth, and fatigue failure.

  14. Conditioning of root canals prior to dowel cementation with composite luting cement and two dentine adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Liberman, R; Ben-Amar, A; Urstein, M; Gontar, G; Fitzig, S

    1989-11-01

    Two hundred and forty root canals of extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared to the same dimension, and Dentatus posts of equal size were cemented without screwing them into the dentine. Five cleansing solutions and two dentine adhesive systems were evaluated prior to post-cementation using chemical-cure composite resin. 'Pull-out' tests were then conducted in order to evaluate the bond strength of these intra-pulpal posts. The use of Conclude (composite luting cement) alone, with or without the cleansing solutions, resulted in significantly lower pull-out forces. Scotchbond Dental Adhesive gave significantly better results, regardless of the cleansing solution used. Gluma Dentine Adhesive significantly increased the pull-out forces only when used with its supplied cleanser or Tubulicid.

  15. Immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements and retention of glass-fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Peixoto, Aline Carvalho; Borges, Marcela Gonçalves; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) on the retention of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals. Bovine incisors were endodontically treated, and post holes of 9 mm in depth were prepared. Fiber posts were luted using one of two SARCs, BisCem (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, USA) or RelyX Unicem clicker (3M ESPE, Saint Paul, USA), or a regular (etch-and-rinse) resin cement (AllCem; FGM, Joinvile, Brazil). Photoactivation was performed immediately, or at 5 or 10 min after cementation. Root/post specimens were transversely sectioned 7 days after luting into 1-mm-thick slices, which were submitted to push-out testing in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' method (α = 0.05). Immediate photoactivation resulted in the highest bond strength for Unicem. BisCem demonstrated higher bond strength values when photoactivated after a 10-min delay. Immediate photoactivation yielded the lowest bond strengths for AllCem, although no differences in bond strength were observed between photoactivation delayed by 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, the moment of resin cement photoactivation may affect the intraradicular retention of fiber posts, depending upon the resin cement used for luting.

  16. The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE): Enabling technology for an early lunar surface payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, M. E.; Hilchey, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture, fixed declination, optical telescope to be operated on the surface of the Moon. This autonomous science payload will provide an unprecedented ultraviolet stellar survey even before manned lunar missions are resumed. This paper very briefly summarizes the LUTE concept analyzed by the LUTE Task Team of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Scientific capabilities and the Reference Design Concept are identified, and the expected system characteristics are summarized. Technologies which will be required to enable the early development, deployment, and operation of the LUTE are identified, and the principle goals and approaches for their advancement are described.

  17. Micro-tensile bond testing of resin cements to dentin and an indirect resin composite.

    PubMed

    Mak, Yiu-Fai; Lai, Shirley C N; Cheung, Gary S P; Chan, Alex W K; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2002-12-01

    Micro-tensile bond strength (microTBS) evaluation and fractographic analysis were used to compare four resin cement systems (AC: All-Bond 2/Choice; RX: Single Bond/RelyX ARC; SB: Super-Bond C & B; and PF: Panavia F) in indirect composite/dentin adhesive joints. Flat dentin surfaces were created on extracted human third molars. The resin cements were used according to the manufacturers' instructions for bonding silanized composite overlays to deep coronal dentin. 0.9x0.9 composite-dentin beams prepared from the luted specimens were stressed to failure in tension. Dentin sides of all fractured specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the failure modes. In group PF, morphologic features that could not be resolved at the SEM level were further validated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of the SEM specimens. Statistical analyses revealed significant difference (p<0.05) among microTBS and failure modes in the resin cement groups. The two groups (AC and RX) with highest microTBS failed predominantly along the composite overlay/cement interface. Cohesive failure in resin cement was primarily observed in group SB that exhibited intermediate microTBS values. In group PF with the lowest microTBS, failure occurred mostly along the dentin surface. Globular resin agglomerates seen by SEM on PF-treated dentin were distinguished from silica fillers by TEM. The bond between the processed composite and the luting resin cement was the weak link in indirect composite restorations cemented with AC or RX. Super-Bond C&B exhibited intermediate tensile strength and Panavia F is less reliable when used in conjunction with a self-etching primer for bonding indirect restorations to dentin.

  18. Effects of Immediate Dentin Sealing and Pulpal Pressure on Resin Cement Bond Strength and Nanoleakage.

    PubMed

    Santana, V B; de Alexandre, R S; Rodrigues, J A; Ely, C; Reis, A F

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the simulated pulpal pressure (SPP) and immediate dentin sealing technique (IDS) effects on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage of interfaces produced by different luting agents. Two self-adhesive luting agents (RelyX Unicem [UC] and Clearfil SA Luting [SA]) and two conventional luting agents (Rely X ARC [RX] and Panavia F [PF]) were evaluated. Eighty human molars were divided in four groups according to luting agents. Each group was subdivided according to SPP (with or without) and dentin sealing (immediate or delayed) using Clearfil SE Bond (n=5). After IDS was performed, specimens were stored in water for seven days before luting procedures. Composite blocks were luted according to the manufacturers' instructions. One half of the specimens were subjected to 15 cm H2O of hydrostatic pressure for 24 hours before cementation procedures and continued for 24 hours afterward. Then, restored teeth were sectioned into beams and tested in tension. Two additional teeth per group were prepared for nanoleakage evaluation with scanning electron microscopy. Bond strength data were statistically analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. μTBS of RX decreased when it was subjected to SPP without IDS. However, in the same conditions, μTBS of UC increased. The IDS prevented negative influence of SPP on μTBS of RX and PF; however, a decrease in μTBS of SA and UC was observed. Except for RX, IDS increased μTBS for all resin cements. Independent of SPP, the IDS technique obtained higher μTBS for PF, SA, and UC and did not influence RX μTBS.

  19. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to different treated indirect composites.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M Victoria; Ceballos, Laura; González-López, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin of three self-adhesive and a total-etch resin cements used for luting different treated indirect composites. Composite overlays (Filtek Z250) were prepared. Their intaglio surfaces were ground with 600-grit SiC papers and randomly assigned to three different surface treatments: no treatment, silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer), and silane agent followed by a bonding agent (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). The composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces of extracted human third molars using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, Maxcem Elite and G-Cem, and a total-etch resin cement, RelyX ARC. The bonded assemblies were stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) and subsequently prepared for μTBS testing. Beams of approximately 1 mm(2) were tested in tension at 1 mm/min in a universal tester (Instron 3345). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (α = 0.05). A significant influence of the resin cement used was detected. Composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not affect μTBS. Surface treatment of indirect resin composite did not improve the μTBS results of dentin/composite overlay complex. Self-adhesive resin cements tested obtained lower μTBS than the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. Specimens luted with Maxcem Elite exhibited the highest percentage of pretesting failures. Surface treatment of indirect resin composite with silane or silane followed by a bonding agent did not affect bond strength to dentin.

  20. The influence of temporary cements on dental adhesive systems for luting cementation.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José C V; Coelho, Paulo G; Janal, Malvin N; Silva, Nelson R F A; Monteiro, André J; Fernandes, Carlos A O

    2011-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that bond strength of total- and self-etching adhesive systems to dentine is not affected by the presence of remnants from either eugenol-containing (EC) or eugenol-free (EF) temporary cements after standardized cleaning procedures. Thirty non-carious human third molars were polished flat to expose dentine surfaces. Provisional acrylic plates were fabricated and cemented either with EC, EF or no temporary cements. All specimens were incubated for 7 days in water at 37°C. The restorations were then taken out and the remnants of temporary cements were mechanically removed with a dental instrument. The dentine surfaces were cleaned with pumice and treated with either total-etching (TE) or self-etching (SE) dental adhesive systems. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the presence of remnants of temporary cements before and after dentine cleaning procedures. Composite resin build-ups were fabricated and cemented to the bonded dentine surfaces with a resin luting cement. The specimens were then sectioned to obtain 0.9mm(2) beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Fractographic analysis was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. ANOVA showed lower mean microtensile bond strength in groups of specimens treated with EC temporary cement than in groups treated with either no cement or an EF cement (p<0.05). Mean microtensile bond strength was lower in groups employing the SE rather than the TE adhesive system (p<0.001). SE samples were also more likely to fail during initial processing of the samples. There was no evidence of interaction between cement and adhesive system effects on tensile strength. Fractographic analysis indicated different primary failure modes for SE and TE bonding systems, at the dentine-adhesive interface and at the resin cement-resin composite interface, respectively. The use of eugenol-containing temporary cements prior to indirect bonding restorations reduce, to a statistically similar

  1. Resin Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    resin system. 2.0 Scope This standard process description (SPD) provides a general guideline for evaluating and understanding composite resins in the...to all personnel developing and evaluating resins technology for composites applications in the Coatings, Corrosion, and Engineered Polymers Branch...relevant work within the branch. 5.0 Requirements All researchers performing composite resins development and evaluation work in the Coatings

  2. In vitro assessment of retention of four esthetic dowels to resin core foundation and teeth.

    PubMed

    Al-harbi, Fahad; Nathanson, Dan

    2003-12-01

    Several new esthetic dowel systems are currently available for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. These dowel systems enhance the esthetic quality of all-ceramic restorations better than metallic dowel systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retentive strength of composite and ceramic endodontic dowel systems to the tooth and to the core foundation. The following dowel systems were tested: resin dowels (Fibrekor [FR]; Luscent [LU]; Twin Luscent Anchor [TLU]); ceramic dowels (Cerapost [CR]; Cosmopost [CO]); and a titanium dowel (ParaPost XH [Ti]). In Part I of the study, core retention was tested by forming Bis-Core resin (n=12) cores around dowels followed by separation using a universal testing machine. In Part II, 60 (n=12) extracted human canines were endodontically treated, and dowel spaces were prepared using the corresponding drill for each dowel system. Nine-millimeter resin and ceramic dowels were cemented with C & B resin luting agent. Additionally, 2 groups (n=12) of Ti dowels cemented with C & B resin luting agent and zinc phosphate luting agent served as control groups. Retention was tested using a universal testing machine to separate the dowels from teeth. One-way analysis of variance and Student Newman-Keuls tests were conducted for statistical analysis (alpha=.05). Surface texture of all dowel systems tested was examined using SEM at original magnification x25 and x250. Core retention of Ti was higher than all esthetic dowels tested (alpha<.05), but FR had higher core retention than the other esthetic dowels tested. Resin dowels had better retention to teeth than ceramic dowels (alpha<.05). The esthetic dowel systems were less retentive for the resin core material than the titanium control. Resin dowel systems were more retentive in the root than the ceramic dowels but were similar to the titanium control.

  3. Effect of sulfuric acid etching of polyetheretherketone on the shear bond strength to resin cements.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Oliver; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Uhrenbacher, Julia; Roos, Malgorzata; Gernet, Wolfgang; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2014-10-01

    To examine the influence of etching duration on the bond strength of PEEK substrate in combination with different resin composite cements. In total, 448 PEEK specimens were fabricated, etched with sulfuric acid for 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 300 s and then luted with two conventional resin cements (RelyX ARC and Variolink II) and one self-adhesive resin cement (Clearfil SA Cement) (n = 18/subgroup). Non-etched specimens served as the control group. Specimens were stored in distilled water for 28 days at 37°C and shear bond strengths were measured. Data were analyzed nonparametrically using Kruskal-Wallis-H (p < 0.05). Non-etched PEEK demonstrated no bond strength to resin composite cements. The optimal etching duration varied with the type of resin composite: 60 s for RelyX ARC (15.3 ± 7.2 MPa), 90 s for Variolink II (15.2 ± 7.2 MPa), and 120 s for Clearfil SA Cement (6.4 ± 5.9 MPa). Regardless of etching duration, however, the self-etching resin composite cement showed significantly lower shear bond strength values when compared to groups luted with the conventional resin composites. Although sulfuric acid seems to be suitable and effective for PEEK surface pre-treatment, further investigations are required to examine the effect of other adhesive systems and cements.

  4. In vitro evaluation of the bonding durability of self-adhesive resin cement to titanium using highly accelerated life test.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding durability of three self-adhesive resin cements to titanium using the Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT). The following self-adhesive resin cements were used to bond pairs of titanium blocks together according to manufacturers' instructions: RelyX Unicem, Breeze, and Clearfil SA Luting. After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, bonded specimens (n=15) immersed in 37°C water were subjected to cyclic shear load testing regimes of 20, 30, or 40 kg using a fatigue testing machine. Cyclic loading continued until failure occurred, and the number of cycles taken to reach failure was recorded. The bonding durability of a self-adhesive resin cement to titanium was largely influenced by the weight of impact load. HALT showed that Clearfil SA Luting, which contained MDP monomer, yielded the highest median bonding lifetime to titanium.

  5. Hall versus conventional stainless steel crown techniques: in vitro investigation of marginal fit and microleakage using three different luting agents.

    PubMed

    Erdemci, Zeynep Yalçınkaya; Cehreli, S Burçak; Tirali, R Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate microleakage and marginal discrepancies in stainless steel crowns (SSCs) placed using conventional and Hall techniques and cemented with three different luting agents. Seventy-eight human primary maxillary second molars were randomly assigned to two groups (N=39), and SSCs were applied either with the Hall or conventional technique. These two groups were further subgrouped according to the material used for crown cementation (N=13 per group). Two specimens in each group were processed for scanning electron microscopy investigation. The extent of microleakage and marginal fit was quantified in millimeters on digitally photographed sections using image analysis software. The data were compared with a two-way independent and a two-way mixed analysis of variance (P=.05). The scores in the Hall group were significantly worse than those in the conventional technique group (P<.05). In both groups, resin cement displayed the lowest extent of microleakage, followed by glass ionomer and polycarboxylate cements (P<.05). Stainless steel crowns applied using the Hall technique displayed higher microleakage scores than those applied using the conventional technique, regardless of the cementation material. When the interaction of the material and technique was assessed, resin cement presented as the best choice for minimizing microleakage in both techniques.

  6. Does inhibition of proteolytic activity improve adhesive luting?

    PubMed

    Lührs, Anne-Katrin; De Munck, Jan; Geurtsen, Werner; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2013-04-01

    Endogenous enzymes may be involved in the biodegradation of adhesive restoration-tooth interfaces. Inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to retard the bond-degradation process. Limited data are available on whether composite cements may also benefit from MMP inhibitors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of two MMP inhibitors--chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and galardin--on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of two self-adhesive composite cements to dentin. Ceramic specimens were cemented to bur-cut dentin surfaces using the self-adhesive composite cements RelyX Unicem 2 (3M ESPE) or Clearfil SA (Kuraray), or the etch-and-rinse composite cement Nexus 3 (Kerr) that served as the control. The surfaces were left untreated or were pretreated with MMP inhibitors (2% CHX or 0.2 mM galardin). The μTBS was determined 'immediately' and upon ageing (water storage for 6 months). Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of the factors 'composite cement' and 'storage', as well as all interactions, but no effect of the MMP inhibitors. After 6 months of ageing, the μTBS decreased for all cements, except for the multistep etch-and-rinse luting composite when it was applied without MMP inhibitors. The MMP inhibitors could not prevent the decrease in μTBS upon ageing and therefore do not improve the luting durability of the composite cements tested.

  7. Evaluation of shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to alloy treated with sandblasting and electrolytic etching.

    PubMed

    Goswami, M M; Gupta, S H; Sandhu, H S

    2014-03-01

    Conservation of natural tooth structure precipitated the emergence of resin-retained fixed partial dentures. The weakest link in this modality is the bond between resin cement and alloy of the retainer. Various alloy surface treatment have been recommended to improve alloy-resin bond. This in vitro study was carried out to observe changes in the Nickel-Chromium alloy (Wiron 99, Bego) surface following sandblasting or electrolytic etching treatment by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and to evaluate the shear bond strength of a resin luting cement bonded to the surface treated alloy. 80 alloy blocks were cast and divided into four groups of 20 each. In groups-A & B, the test surfaces were treated by sandblasting with 50 and 250 μm sized aluminium oxide particles respectively. In groups-C & D, the test surfaces were first treated by sandblasting with 50 and 250 μm sized aluminium oxide particles respectively followed by electrolytic etching. Test surfaces were observed under SEM at 1,000× magnification. Two alloy blocks of each group were luted together by a resin luting cement (Rely X, 3M) and their shear bond strength was tested. The mean shear bond strength in MPa of groups-A to D were 6.44 (±0.74), 8.18 (±0.51), 14.45 (±0.59) and 17.43 (±1.20) respectively. Group-D showed bond strength that is more than clinically acceptable bond strength. It is recommended that before luting resin-retained fixed partial dentures, the fitting surface of the retainer should be electrolytically etched to achieve adequate micromechanical retention.

  8. Evaluation of the effect of surface preparation using phosphoric acid and luting cement on the flexural strength of porcelain laminate veneering material

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasada; Rivankar, N.; Dhiman, R.K.; Viswambaran, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventionally HF acid has been used for etching ceramic veneer restorations before their cementation. Studies are lacking regarding the effectiveness of phosphoric acid as a substitute for HF acid for etching the ceramic veneers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of surface preparation of porcelain laminate veneers using phosphoric acid, as compared to HF acid etching in providing the necessary surface roughness conducive to development of an effective bond between the ceramic laminate and the resin luting cement. Methods 210 porcelain discs of 15 mm diameter and 0.9 mm thickness were prepared. These study samples were divided into seven groups of thirty samples each. Surfaces of the first (control) and the second group of samples were not prepared. The surfaces of other five groups were prepared with different surface treatments. Further all the groups of specimens were coated with a layer of resin luting cement. Flexural strength of each specimen was determined using universal testing machine and the results were compared. Results The combination surface treatment using alumina surface abrasion followed by etching with phosphoric acid provided the highest flexural strength with the mean flexural strength of 101.11 MPa, followed by alumina surface abrasion (95.41 MPa), and phosphoric acid surface etching (81.68 MPa). Conclusion Laminate veneers surface treated using 50 μm alumina abrasion followed by etching with phosphoric acid showed the highest flexural strengths after resin coating compared to other groups. PMID:26843743

  9. The efficiency of different light sources to polymerize resin cement beneath porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Usumez, A; Ozturk, A N; Usumez, S; Ozturk, B

    2004-02-01

    Plasma arc light units for curing resin composites have been introduced with the claim of relatively short curing times. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two different light sources to polymerize dual curing resin cement beneath porcelain laminate veneers. Twenty extracted healthy human maxillary centrals were used. Teeth were sectioned 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction and crown parts were embedded into self-cure acrylic resin, labial surface facing up. Cavity preparation was carried out on labial surfaces. These teeth were divided into two groups of 10 each. The resin cement/veneer combination was exposed to two different photo polymerization units. A conventional halogen light (Hilux 350, Express Dental Products) and a plasma arc light (Power PAC, ADT) were used to polymerize resin cement. Ten specimens were polymerized conventionally (40 s) and the other specimens by plasma arc curing (PAC) (6 s). Two samples from each tooth measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 5 mm were prepared. These sections were subjected to microshear testing and failure values were recorded. Statistically significant differences were found between the bond strength of veneers exposed to conventional light and PAC unit (P < 0.001). Samples polymerized with halogen light showed better bond strength. The results of this study suggest that the curing efficiency of PAC through ceramic was lower compared with conventional polymerization for the exposure durations tested in this study.

  10. Colour matching of composite resin cements with their corresponding try-in pastes.

    PubMed

    Kampouropoulos, D; Gaintantzopoulou, M; Papazoglou, E; Kakaboura, A

    2014-06-01

    Two shades of four resin cements (Calibra, Clearfil Esthetic, Insure, Variolink II), in light- and dual-curing modes, were tested for colour matching with their corresponding try-in pastes, immediately after photopolymerization and after 24-hour dry and dark storage. Colour measurements were performed for 0.8 mm-thick specimens through a 0.8mm-thick ceramic plate. For each resin cement, colour differences (deltaE) were calculated between the two curing modes, and between the corresponding try-in paste, at baseline and after 24h. deltaE>0 values were detected between all resin cements and their try-in pastes, which were brand/shade/curing mode depended. The try-in pastes of the Variolink II system demonstrated the best colour matching (deltaE<2). Try-in pastes of Calibra and Insure, at both curing modes, did not match at an acceptable value, the shade of their corresponding resin cements (deltaE>3.3). Calibra presented the highest colour differences. deltaE values of the Clearfil Esthetic system immediately after photo-activation ranged between 2 and 3 units. A ceramic restoration may fail aesthetically as a result of not acceptable colour match (deltaE>3.3) between the shade of certain resin cements and their relevant try-in pastes.

  11. Shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers to enamel, dentine and enamel-dentine complex bonded with different adhesive luting systems.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Elif; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers to 3 different surfaces by means of enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine complex. One hundred thirty-five extracted human maxillary central teeth were used, and the teeth were randomly divided into 9 groups (n=15). The teeth were prepared with 3 different levels for bonding surfaces of enamel (E), dentine (D), and enamel-dentine complex (E-D). Porcelain discs (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) of 2mm in thickness and 4mm in diameter were luted to the tooth surfaces by using 2 light-curing (RelyX Veneer [RV], 3M ESPE; Variolink Veneer [VV], Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-curing (Variolink II [V2], Ivoclar Vivadent) adhesive systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine at 0.5mm/min until bonding failure. Failure modes were determined under a stereomicroscope, and fracture surfaces were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. The data were statistically analysed (SPSS 17.0) (p=0.05). Group RV-D exhibited the lowest bond strength value (5.42±6.6MPa). There was statistically no difference among RV-D, V2-D (13.78±8.8MPa) and VV-D (13.84±6.2MPa) groups (p>0.05). Group VV-E exhibited the highest bond strength value (24.76±8.8MPa). The type of tooth structure affected the shear bond strength of the porcelain laminate veneers to the 3 different types of tooth structures (enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine complex). When dentine exposure is necessary during preparation, enough sound enamel must be protected as much as possible to maintain a good bonding; to obtain maximum bond strength, preparation margins should be on sound enamel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of two abrasive systems on resin bonding to laboratory-processed indirect resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Bouschlicher, M R; Cobb, D S; Vargas, M A

    1999-01-01

    This study compared two methods of surface roughening or preparation, with or without the use of proprietary surface wetting agents, to evaluate their effect on resin cement adhesion to the following laboratory-processed, indirect restorations: Artglass (AG), belleGlass HP (BG), Concept (C), and Targis (T). Methods of surface roughening or preparation included microetching with aluminum oxide (AO): 50 microns at 34 psi and silanized silica coating, CoJet-Sand (CJ): 30 microns at 34 psi. Artglass and Concept were tested with and without the use of their respective surface wetting agents: Artglass Liquid (AGL) and Special Bond II (SB). One hundred twenty specimens, each consisting of a pair of cylinders (7.0 x 3 mm and 4.3 x 3 mm) were fabricated. The larger cylinder or base was embedded in self-curing resin in a phenolic ring, and bonding surfaces were finished with 320-grit silicon carbide paper. Specimen pairs for each restorative material were randomly assigned to treatment groups (n = 10) and received the following surface treatments prior to cementation: group 1 (AG/AO/+AGL), group 2 (AG/AO/-AGL), group 3 (AG/CJ/+AGL), group 4 (AG/CJ/-AGL), group 5 (BG/AO), group 6 (BG/CJ), group 7 (C/AO/+SB), group 8 (C/AO/-SB), group 9 (C/CJ/+SB), group 10 (C/CJ/-SB), group 11 (T/AO), and group 12 (T/CJ). Specimen pairs were cemented with a dual-cure resin cement (Dual) and a standardized force of 1 MPa. Specimens were light-cured 40 seconds per side (80 s total), then thermocycled 300 times at between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C. Shear bond strengths (MPa) were determined using a Zwick Materials Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm per minute. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (alpha = 0.05) by restoration type indicated no significant differences in shear bond strength between BG group 5 (29.8 +/- 5.8), BG group 6 (28.3 +/- 4.3), T group 11 (29.3 +/- 4.9), and T group 12 (29.0 +/- 4.4). Shear bond strength in AG group 3 (35.9 +/- 3

  13. Clinical comparison of postoperative sensitivity for a glass ionomer and a zinc phosphate luting cement.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Kleimeier, B; Schaller, H G; Strub, J R

    1996-02-01

    In 60 patients, 120 partial and full-coverage restorations were cemented on vital abutment teeth with either a glass ionomer or a zinc phosphate luting cement. A split-mouth design and a patient blind data acquisition protocol were used. During an average observation period of 17.3 months there were no differences between the two types of luting cements in regard to subjective and clinical parameters. A high incidence of postoperative hypersensitivity, which is often said to accompany the use of glass ionomer luting cements, was not observed. With the cementation method used in this study, the glass ionomer cement Ketac-Cem Maxicap was an acceptable alternative to conventional zinc phosphate cement. Capsule systems make the clinical handling of glass ionomer luting cements safe and easy and should be used routinely in dental practice.

  14. Galileo's Lute and the Law of Falling Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Galileo's Lute and the Law of Falling Bodies is an excerpt from Galileo 1610. Galileo 1610 is a dramatic, musical and intellectual odyssey back to the life and times of Galileo Galilei, the famous 17th century Italian scientist and philosopher. It commemorates the 400th anniversary of Galileo's discoveries with his telescope in 1610. Dressed in authentic Renaissance attire as Galileo, the author-- a cantorial soloist and amateur astronomer-- tells the fascinating story of "The Father of Modern Science,” drawing from the actual correspondence and writings of Galileo, as well as those of his many biographers. Through his dialogue with the audience on a wide range of discoveries and opinions, "Galileo” shares his wisdom and his life experiences with pathos, wit and humor, lacing his narration with entertaining lute songs from the late Renaissance period, some of which were actually composed by Galileo's father, Vincenzo. Bridging the past to the present, the author breathes life into "Galileo” as he once again frolics and struggles among us. In bringing forth some of life's great issues, we learn something about our own inquisitive nature, as well as that of science and music. The author has appeared as Galileo for over a decade on radio, at community theatres and libraries, public schools, colleges and universities throughout the country. He has performed for civic organizations, astronomy association conventions, marketing and outreach programs as well as private events and parties. Galileo 1610 is suitable for a variety of educational and entertainment programs, for both children and adults. All presentations are tailored to fit the interest, experience and size of the audience.

  15. Effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength of a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Matteo; Pigozzo, Marco; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength between dentin and a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material (LavaTM Ultimate Restorative), bonded together with adhesive cements using three different luting protocols (total-etch; self-etch; self-adhesive). Material and Methods Thirty cylinders were milled from resin nano ceramic blocks with CAD/CAM technology. The cylinders were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were assigned into six groups of five teeth each according to luting procedure and dentin pretreatment. In the first two groups (A1, A2) 10 cylinders were cemented using a total-etch protocol; in groups B1 and B2, 10 cylinders were cemented using a self-etch protocol; in groups C1 and C2, 10 cylinders were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol; in groups A1, B1 and C1 the dentinal surface was also treated with glycine powder. All cemented specimens were submitted to a shear bond strength test. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata 9.0 software. Results ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various groups (P <0.0001). Conclusions Glycine did not change the different bond strength demonstrated by the various luting protocols tested. Conventional resin composite cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values. However the use of glycine seems to increase the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements. Key words:Adhesive cements, CAD/CAM, glycine, luting system, resin nano ceramic, shear bond strength. PMID:27034754

  16. Retentive strength, disintegration, and marginal quality of luting cements.

    PubMed

    Gorodovsky, S; Zidan, O

    1992-08-01

    This study evaluated the retention of complete crowns by using five different methods of cementation. Complete crowns were prepared with standardized dimensions on extracted human molars. Metal crowns were cast with a high noble gold ceramic alloy and were cemented with zinc phosphate cement, glass ionomer cement, composite resin cement, composite resin cement with a dentinal bonding agent, and adhesive resin cement. The retention was measured by subjecting the specimens to tensile load until fracture occurred. The disintegration was measured according to American Dental Association Specification No. 8, and the condition of the cements at the margins of crowns was analyzed by use of a scanning electron microscope. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences between the mean retentive strengths. The retention of the zinc phosphate and the glass ionomer groups was significantly different from that of the adhesive resin group. The retention of the adhesive resin cement was 65% greater than the retention of the composite resin and the composite resin/dentinal bonding agent group, but the Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon rank sum test did not depict this difference as significant. The mean +/- SD of the disintegration for the zinc phosphate, the glass ionomer cement, and the composite resin cement was 0.025 +/- 0.013, 0.023 +/- 0.011, and 0.017 +/- 0.001, respectively. The scanning electron microscope analysis of the margins revealed that the composite resin cement was almost intact, the zinc phosphate was subjected to limited disintegration, and the glass ionomer displayed the worst marginal integrity.

  17. [Curing mode of universal adhesives affects the bond strength of resin cements to dentin].

    PubMed

    Fu, Z R; Tian, F C; Zhang, L; Han, B; Wang, X Y

    2017-02-18

    To determine the effects of curing mode of one-step and two-step universal adhesives on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of different dual-cure resin cements to dentin. One-step universal adhesive Single Bond Universal (SBU), and two-step universal adhesive OptiBond Versa (VSA) were chosen as the subjects, one-step self-etching adhesive OptiBond All in One (AIO) and two-step self-etching adhesive Clearfil SE Bond (SEB) were control groups, and two dual-cure resin cements RelyX Ultimate (RLX) and Nexus 3 Universal (NX3) were used in this study. In this study, 80 extracted human molars were selected and the dentin surface was exposed using diamond saw. The teeth were divided into 16 groups according to the adhesives (AIO, SBU, SEB, VSA), cure modes of adhesives (light cure, non-light cure) and resin cements (RLX, NX3). The adhesives were applied on the dentin surface following the instruction and whether light cured or not, then the resin cements were applied on the adhesives with 1 mm thickness and light cured (650 mW/cm(2) for 20 s. A resin was built up (5 mm) on the cements and light cured layer by layer. After water storage for 24 h, the specimens were cut into resin-cement-dentin strips with a cross sectional area of 1 mm×1 mm and the μTBS was measured. Regarding one-step universal adhesive (SBU) light cured, the μTBS with RLX [(35.45±7.04) MPa] or NX3 [(26.84±10.39) MPa] were higher than SBU non-light cured with RLX [(17.93±8.93) MPa)] or NX3 [(10.07±5.89) MPa, P<0.001]. Compared with AIO, light-cured SBU combined with RLX presented higher μTBS than AIO group [(35.45±7.04) MPa vs. (24.86±8.42) MPa, P<0.05]. When SBU was not lighted, the μTBS was lower than AIO [(17.93±8.93) MPa vs. (22.28±7.57) MPa, P<0.05]. For two-step universal adhesive (VSA) and control adhesive (SEB), curing mode did not affect the μTBS when used with either RLX or NX3 (25.98-32.24 MPa, P>0.05). Curing mode of one-step universal adhesive may affect the μTBS between

  18. Polymerization shrinkage kinetics of dimethacrylate resin-cements.

    PubMed

    Spinell, Thomas; Schedle, Andreas; Watts, David C

    2009-08-01

    To determine polymerization shrinkage-strain (S(Y)) and shrinkage-stress (S(Z)) of six resin-cements and to compare their performance with the aid of degree of conversion (DC) data. Variolink 2 (VL2), Multilink Automix (MA), Multilink Sprint (MS, all Ivoclar-Vivadent), Nexus 2 (NX2), Maxcem (MX, both Kerr) and RelyX Unicem (RX, 3M-Espe) were investigated. MS, MX and RX were self-adhesive; others require a bonding-agent. All measurements were conducted at 23 degrees C for 60min (n=5), except 80min for RX, with materials self-cured only (sc) and dual-cured (dc); NX2 and VL2 were additionally light-cured only (lc). S(Y) was measured by the bonded-disk method [Watts DC, Cash AJ. Determination of polymerization shrinkage kinetics in visible-light-cured materials: methods development. Dent Mater 1991;7(4):281-7; Watts DC, Marouf AS. Optimal specimen geometry in bonded-disk shrinkage-strain measurements on light-cured biomaterials. Dent Mater 2000;16(6):447-51]; S(Z) by the Bioman instrument [Watts DC, Satterthwaite JD. Axial shrinkage-stress depends upon both C-factor and composite mass. Dent Mater 2008;24(1):1-8 [Epub October 24, 2007]; Watts DC, Marouf AS, Al-Hindi AM. Photo-polymerization shrinkage-stress kinetics in resin-composites: methods development. Dent Mater 2003;19(1):1-11]. Light-cure was achieved by QTH at 500mW/cm(2). The respective DCs were measured under the same conditions by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Data were analyzed by One-Way ANOVA plus Bonferroni test, and by t-test, at p<0.05. DC by self-curing was less than the DC by dual-curing, for all cements. Shrinkage-strain ranged from 1.77 to 5.29% and shrinkage-stress from 3.36 to 10.37MPa. NX2 and VL2 were not significantly different, when light-cured only. Except for RX, sc and dc shrinkage-strain varied maximally by 0.4%. MX showed the highest S(Y), RX the lowest. When sc, RX initially expanded by <0.5% (t approximately 5min). For most materials, S(Y) correlated with their filler loading. The highest

  19. Bond strength of adhesive resin cement with different adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzoni e Silva, Fabrizio; Pamato, Saulo; Kuga, Milton-Carlos; Só, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Background To assess the immediate bond strength of a dual-cure adhesive resin cement to the hybridized dentin with different bonding systems. Material and Methods Fifty-six healthy human molars were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8). After 3 longitudinal sections, the central cuts were included in PVC matrix and were submitted to dentin hybridization according to the groups: G1 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Apder™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE), G2 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Optibond™ FL, Kerr), G3 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (All-Bond 3®, Bisco), G4 - etch & rinse simplified system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE), G5 - self-etching system with one step (Bond Force, Tokuyama), G6 - universal system in moist dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE), G7 - universal system in dry dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then all groups received the cementing of a self-adhesive resin cement cylinder (Duo-link, Bisco) made from a polypropylene matrix. In the evaluation of bond strength, the samples were subjected to the microshear test and evaluated according to the fracture pattern by optical microscopy. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test suggests a statistically significant difference between groups (p=0,039), and Tukey for multiple comparisons, indicating a statistically significant difference between G3 and G4 (p<0.05). It was verified high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed failure and cohesive in dentin. Conclusions The technique and the system used to dentin hybridization are able to affect the immediate bond strength of resin cement dual adhesive. Key words:Adhesion, adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:28149471

  20. Effect of composite surface treatment and aging on the bond strength between a core build-up composite and a luting agent.

    PubMed

    Cotes, Caroline; Cardoso, Mayra; Melo, Renata Marques de; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between composite core and resin cement. Eighty blocks (8×8×4 mm) were prepared with core build-up composite. The cementation surface was roughened with 120-grit carbide paper and the blocks were thermocycled (5,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a 30 s dwell time in each bath). A layer of temporary luting agent was applied. After 24 h, the layer was removed, and the blocks were divided into five groups, according to surface treatment: (NT) No treatment (control); (SP) Grinding with 120-grit carbide paper; (AC) Etching with 37% phosphoric acid; (SC) Sandblasting with 30 mm SiO2 particles, silane application; (AO) Sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 particles, silane application. Two composite blocks were cemented to each other (n=8) and sectioned into sticks. Half of the specimens from each block were immediately tested for microtensile bond strength (µTBS), while the other half was subjected to storage for 6 months, thermocycling (12,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 s in each bath) and µTBS test in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05). The µTBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (p=0.007) and thermocycling (p=0.000). Before aging, the SP group presented higher bond strength when compared to NT and AC groups, whereas all the other groups were statistically similar. After aging, all the groups were statistically similar. SP submitted to thermocycling showed lower bond strength than SP without thermocycling. Core composites should be roughened with a diamond bur before the luting process. Thermocycling tends to reduce the bond strength between composite and resin cement.

  1. Relined fiberglass post: an ex vivo study of the resin cement thickness and dentin-resin interface.

    PubMed

    Souza, Niélli Caetano de; Marcondes, Maurem Leitão; Breda, Ricardo Vaz; Weber, João Batista Blessmann; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2016-08-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of resin cements in the root thirds when using conventional fiberglass posts (CP) and relined fiberglass posts (RP) in weakened roots and to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the dentin-resin interface. Forty human maxillary anterior teeth had the crown sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction. The canals were endodontically treated and weakened with diamond burs. Teeth were divided into four groups (n = 10): Group 1 - CP + RelyX ARC; Group 2 - CP + RelyX U200; Group 3 - RP + RelyX ARC; and Group 4 - RP + RelyX U200. Prior to luting, 0.1% Fluorescein and 0.1% Rhodamine B dyes were added to an adhesive and resin cement, respectively. Slices were obtained from the apical, middle, and cervical thirds of the root. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images were recorded in four areas (buccal, lingual, mesial, distal) of each third. In each area, four equidistant measures of the resin cement were made and the mean value was calculated. The interface morphology was observed. The data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The interaction between fiberglass posts, resin cement, and root thirds was significant (p < 0.0001). The resin cement thicknesses were significantly lower for RP in comparison with CP, except in the apical third. There was no significant difference between the resin cements for RP. There was formation of resin cement tags and adhesive tags along the root for RP. RP favored the formation of thin and uniform resin cement films and resin tags in weakened roots.

  2. The evaluation of displacement resistance of glass FRC posts to root dentine using a thin slice push-out test.

    PubMed

    Toman, M; Toksavul, S; Sarikanat, M; Firidinoğlu, K; Akin, A

    2009-09-01

    To investigate and compare the displacement resistance of glass fibre reinforced composite (FRC) posts to root dentine after luting with different adhesive systems. A total of 32 noncarious extracted human mandibular premolars were prepared for post-cementation using the FRC Postec system (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and divided into four groups (n = 8). The posts in each group were luted with one or other of the following materials. Group 1: Variolink II/Excite DSC (etch-and-rinse, dual-curing), group 2: Clearfil Esthetic Cement/ED Primer II (self-etch, dual-curing), group 3: Multilink/Multilink Primer (self-etch, chemical-curing) and group 4: Multilink Sprint (self-adhesive, dual-curing). Specimens were sectioned to obtain slices with the post in the centre and with the root dentine overlaid by the autopolymerizing acrylic resin on each side. The displacement resistance was measured using a Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). The displacement resistance of the specimens were calculated and expressed in MPa. Data were analysed with one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Mean (SD) values of displacement resistance data in MPa are as follows: group 1, 12.08 (2.13); group 2, 12.39 (2); group 3, 11.3 (1.23); group 4, 14.29 (1.84). There were statistically significant differences amongst the groups (P = 0.021). A statistically significant difference was observed for the displacement resistance values between groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.015), that is between Multilink/Multilink Primer and Multilink Sprint. Glass FRC posts luted with self-adhesive luting system exhibited higher displacement resistance than when luted with chemical-curing self-etch luting system.

  3. Effect of High-Irradiance Light-Curing on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of light-curing at high irradiances on micromechanical properties of resin cements. Three dual-curing resin cements and a light-curing flowable resin composite were light-cured with an LED curing unit in Standard mode (SM), High Power mode (HPM), or Xtra Power mode (XPM). Maximum irradiances were determined using a MARC PS radiometer, and exposure duration was varied to obtain two or three levels of radiant exposure (SM: 13.2 and 27.2 J/cm2; HPM: 15.0 and 30.4 J/cm2; XPM: 9.5, 19.3, and 29.7 J/cm2) (n = 17). Vickers hardness (HV) and indentation modulus (EIT) were measured at 15 min and 1 week. Data were analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlation analyses (α = 0.05). Irradiation protocol, resin-based material, and storage time and all interactions influenced HV and EIT significantly (p ≤ 0.0001). Statistically significant correlations between radiant exposure and HV or EIT were found, indicating that high-irradiance light-curing has no detrimental effect on the polymerization of resin-based materials (p ≤ 0.0021). However, one resin cement was sensitive to the combination of irradiance and exposure duration, with high-irradiance light-curing resulting in a 20% drop in micromechanical properties. The results highlight the importance of manufacturers issuing specific recommendations for the light-curing procedure of each resin cement. PMID:28044129

  4. The effect of a "resin coating" on the interfacial adaptation of composite inlays.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Primali R; Pereira, Patricia N R; Nikaido, Toru; Burrow, Michael F; Tagami, Junji

    2003-01-01

    The relatively low bond strengths of resin cements to dentin may result in poor interfacial adaptation of composite inlays. This study determined whether the interfacial adaptation of composite inlays could be improved by applying an adhesive system and a low viscosity microfilled resin to the prepared cavity walls before making an impression. Ten MOD cavities were prepared on extracted human premolars with gingival margins located above and below the cemento-enamel junction. A "resin coat" consisting of a self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a low viscosity microfilled resin (Protect Liner F) was applied to the cavities of half of the prepared teeth, while the remaining teeth served as non-coated control specimens. All the teeth were restored with composite inlays (Estenia) fabricated by the indirect method and cemented with a dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F). After finishing the margins with superfine burs, the bonded inlays were thermocycled between 4 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 400 cycles. Specimens were sectioned with a diamond saw and the tooth-restoration interfaces were observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (p < 0.05). The percentage length of gap formation at the dentin-restoration interface of the "resin coated" teeth (7.1 +/- 3.5) was significantly less than that of the non-coated teeth (85.7 +/- 6.7) (p < 0.05). The concept of coating the prepared cavity with an adhesive system and a low viscosity microfilled resin resulted in observing fewer gaps at the internal dentin-restoration interface compared with the non-coated specimens.

  5. Effect of High-Irradiance Light-Curing on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of light-curing at high irradiances on micromechanical properties of resin cements. Three dual-curing resin cements and a light-curing flowable resin composite were light-cured with an LED curing unit in Standard mode (SM), High Power mode (HPM), or Xtra Power mode (XPM). Maximum irradiances were determined using a MARC PS radiometer, and exposure duration was varied to obtain two or three levels of radiant exposure (SM: 13.2 and 27.2 J/cm(2); HPM: 15.0 and 30.4 J/cm(2); XPM: 9.5, 19.3, and 29.7 J/cm(2)) (n = 17). Vickers hardness (HV ) and indentation modulus (EIT) were measured at 15 min and 1 week. Data were analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlation analyses (α = 0.05). Irradiation protocol, resin-based material, and storage time and all interactions influenced HV and EIT significantly (p ≤ 0.0001). Statistically significant correlations between radiant exposure and HV or EIT were found, indicating that high-irradiance light-curing has no detrimental effect on the polymerization of resin-based materials (p ≤ 0.0021). However, one resin cement was sensitive to the combination of irradiance and exposure duration, with high-irradiance light-curing resulting in a 20% drop in micromechanical properties. The results highlight the importance of manufacturers issuing specific recommendations for the light-curing procedure of each resin cement.

  6. The effect of a vital bleaching technique on enamel surface morphology and the bonding of composite resin to enamel.

    PubMed

    Josey, A L; Meyers, I A; Romaniuk, K; Symons, A L

    1996-04-01

    This study examined the effect of a nightguard vital bleaching procedure on enamel surface morphology and the shear bond strength of a composite resin luting cement to enamel. Extracted human teeth were bleached for 1 week using a vital bleaching product. Control teeth were brushed with a fluoride toothpaste and processed similarly to the bleached teeth, however the bleaching product was substituted with artificial saliva in the night guards. Teeth were stored in artificial saliva for 24 h, 1, 6 or 12 weeks and then examined for any surface changes using light and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of etching surfaces with 37% phosphoric acid was examined at the scanning electron microscope level. The shear bond strength of composite resin luting cement to both buccal and lingual surfaces of bleached and control teeth was determined. Light microscopy investigation suggested the bleaching process resulted in a loss of mineral from enamel which was evident 24 h after bleaching and was sustained following 12 weeks storage in artificial saliva. Scanning electron microscopy showed a definite change in the surface texture of the bleached enamel surface. Acid etching of the bleached enamel surface produced loss of prismatic form and the enamel appeared overetched. The mean shear bond strength between composite resin luting cement and etched enamel tended to be lower for bleached enamel surfaces, however no significant difference in shear bond strength was noted between control and experimental groups. The results of this study suggest that bleaching resulted in changes to the surface and subsurface layers of enamel. Although surface changes were observed in the etched enamel, the shear bond strength of composite resin luting cement to etched bleached enamel appeared to be clinically acceptable.

  7. Resin-bonded inlay retainer prostheses for posterior teeth. A 5-year clinical study.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, R; Isidor, F

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated posterior resin-bonded prostheses using inlays as retainers. Thirty-nine patients missing at least one premolar or first molar received 51 resin-bonded fixed partial dentures with high noble alloy inlay retainers and a metal ceramic pontic. Resin luting material bonding to the framework was secured by the Silicoating method (24 fixed partial dentures), lost sugar crystal method (13 fixed partial dentures), or tin plating (14 fixed partial dentures). Clinical examinations were performed 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years after cementation. None of the fixed partial dentures with silicoating or sugar crystal impressions lost retention, whereas two of the tin-plated fixed partial dentures required replacement. Resin-bonded inlay-retained prostheses appear to be a favorable alternative to other types of fixed partial dentures.

  8. Effect of light-curing units on push-out fiber post bond strength in root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, L. R.; Bandéca, M. C.; Silva, F. B.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.; Andrade, M. F.

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different light-curing units on the bond strength (push-out) of glass fiber posts in the different thirds of the root (cervical, middle and apical) with different adhesive luting resin systems (dual-cure total-etch; dual-cured and self-etch bonding system; and dual-cure self-adhesive cements), Disks of the samples ( n = 144) were used, with approximately 1 mm of thickness of 48 bovine roots restored with glass fiber posts, that were luted with resin cements photo-activated by halogen LCU (QTH, Optilux 501) and blue LED (Ultraled), with power densities of 600 and 550 mW/cm2, respectively. A universal testing machine (MTS 810 Material Test System) was used with a 1 mm diameter steel rod at cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until post extrusion, with load cell of 50 kg, for evaluation of the push-out strength in the different thirds of each sample. The push-out strength values in kgf were converted to MPa and analyzed through Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s test, at significance level of 5%. The results showed that there were no statistical differences between the QTH and LED LCUs. The self-adhesive resin cement had lower values of retention. The total-etch and self-adhesive system resin cements seem to be a possible alternative for glass fiber posts cementation into the radicular canal and the LED LCU can be applied as an alternative to halogen light on photo-activation of dual-cured resin cements.

  9. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  10. Resin-bonded castings with a cingulum rest seat and a guide plane for a removable partial denture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka; McKinney, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical and laboratory procedures used to fabricate resin-bonded castings with cingulum rest seats and guide planes for a removable partial denture using a noble metal alloy (silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy), a metal conditioner (V-Primer, Sun Medical), and an adhesive resin-luting agent (Super-Bond C and B, Sun Medical). The castings have been functioning for more than 11 years. The use of resin-bonded castings with cingulum rest seats for support and a guide plane to brace removable partial dentures is a successful method of treatment.

  11. Temperature rise during photo-polymerization for onlay luting.

    PubMed

    Onisor, Ioana; Asmussen, Erik; Krejci, Ivo

    2011-08-01

    (1) To measure the temperature rise during long-time irradiation needed to lute adhesive indirect restorations, with one halogen and five LED high-power lamps, in a simulated oral environment, and (2) to propose a technique to reduce heat. Temperature within the pulp chamber of an extracted human molar in a 35 degrees C water bath, before and after restoration with a ceramic onlay, was continuously recorded during 3 x 120 seconds of irradiation for different curing regimens, with and without cooling by compressed air, water and water spray. Temperature rise in a thermo-insulated well was also measured during 120 seconds of irradiation with LEDemetron II and TuTu. Maximal temperature rise of 6.2 degrees C/7.7 degrees C on intact/onlay restored tooth was found after 3 x 120 seconds of irradiation. Compressed air application reduced the temperature by 4 degrees C for LEDemetron II, while water spray increased the temperature by 15.1 degrees C for TuTu. Temperature decreased with irradiation distance, except for LEDemetron II. Air was heated up to 65 degrees C after 120 seconds of irradiation in an insulated well with TuTu.

  12. SEM analysis of microstructure of adhesive interface between resin cement and dentin treated with self-etching primer.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Shigeru; Yoshida, Eiji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the microstructure of the adhesive interface between resin cement and dentin treated with a self-etching primer by SEM in order to clarify the adhesive efficiencies of four self-etch type resin cement systems, Bistite II (BII), Linkmax (LM), Panavia F2.0 (PF), and ResiCem (RC) to dentin. The fluidity and inorganic filler content of these cements were also determined to examine their influences on the adhesion. A hybrid layer with 0.5-1.5 µm thickness and many resin tags could be confirmed clearly at the interface between BII cement and dentin, but was not observed distinctly for the other resin cements. It was suggested that the hybrid layer and resin tags might contribute to the high adhesive efficiency for BII. As the fluidity of cement had been adjusted to be suitable for luting in all cements, it did not significantly influence the adhesive efficiency of cement.

  13. Do resin cements influence the cuspal deflection of teeth restored with composite resin inlays?

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Helen C V; Marcondes, Maurem L; de Souza, Niélli C; Weber, João B B; Spohr, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different resin cements on the cuspal deflection of endodontically treated teeth restored with composite resin inlays. Sixty upper premolars were randomly divided into five groups (n=12): 1 - sound teeth; 2 - cavity; 3 - Rely X ARC; 4 - RelyX Unicem; 5 - SeT. The teeth from groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a MOD preparation and endodontic treatment. Impressions were made with vinyl polysiloxane and poured using type IV die stone in groups 3, 4 and 5. Inlays with composite resin were built over each cast and luted with the resin cements. A 200 N load was applied on the occlusal surface, and cuspal deflection was measured using a micrometer. After 24 h, cuspal deflection was measured again using a 300 N load. The Student t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the 200 N and 300 N occlusal loads only for the sound teeth group (p = 0.389) and the RelyX ARC group (p = 0.188). ANOVA and Tukey'test showed that the sound teeth had the lowest mean cuspal deflection, differing statistically from the other groups (p<0.05). The highest cuspal deflections were obtained in the SeT group and the cavity group, with no statistical difference between them. Intermediate values were obtained in RelyX ARC group and RelyX Unicem group, which differed statistically. The self-adhesive resin cements RelyX Unicem and SeT showed less capacity to maintain the stiffness of the tooth/restoration complex than the conventional resin cement RelyX ARC.

  14. Does adhesive resin application contribute to resin bond durability on etched and silanized feldspathic ceramic?

    PubMed

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu

    2008-12-01

    To assess the effect of adhesive application and aging on the bond durability of resin cement to etched and silanized feldspathic ceramic. Twenty blocks (6.4 x 6.4 x 4.8 mm) of feldspathic ceramic (Vita VM7) were produced. The ceramic surfaces were conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid gel for 60 s and silanized. They were then randomly divided into two groups. While half of the group received no adhesive, in the other half, a layer of adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) was applied. Each ceramic block was then placed in its silicone mold with the treated surface exposed. The dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II) was injected into the mold over the treated surface and polymerized. Specimens were sectioned to achieve nontrimmed bar specimens (approximately 12 sticks/block) that were randomly divided into 2 groups: a) non-aged--microtensile bond test immediately after sectioning; b) aged-thermocycling (TC) 12,000 times, 5 degrees C to 55 degrees C, and water storage (50 days). The microtensile bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed: 1 mm/min). The failure types were examined using an optical light microscope and SEM. Bond strength results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). The adhesive application affected the bond strength results significantly (p = 0.0001) (without adhesive > with adhesive). While aging conditions did not reduce the bond strength in the groups that received no adhesive (20 +/- 5.3 MPa non-aged and 21.5 +/- 5.6 aged) (p = 0.1698), it significantly affected the bond strength results of the group with adhesive application (18 +/- 4.4 MPa to 14.4 +/- 4.7 MPa) (p < 0.001). All groups showed mainly mixed type of failures between the ceramic and the resin cement (81% to 100%). The group in which no adhesive was applied presented a higher incidence of cohesive failure of ceramic after aging (18%) than those of the other groups. The use of adhesive did not improve resin cement

  15. Effect of thermocycling with or without 1 year of water storage on retentive strengths of luting cements for zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Vicky; Kampf, Gabriel; Stender, Elmar; Willershausen, Brita; Ernst, Claus-Peter

    2015-06-01

    Bond stability between zirconia crowns and luting cement and between cement and dentin is a main concern; however, only limited evidence is available as to its longevity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the retentive strengths of 7 self-adhesive cements (RelyX Unicem Aplicap, RelyX Unicem Clicker, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, iCEM, Maxcem Elite, Bifix SE, SpeedCem), 2 adhesive cements with self-etch primers (Panavia 21, SEcure), 1 glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), 1 resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Meron Plus), and 1 zinc phosphate cement for luting zirconia crowns (LAVA) to extracted teeth after thermocycling with or without 1 year of water storage. Two-hundred-forty extracted human molars (2 treatments; n=10 per cement) were prepared in a standardized manner. All cements were used according to the manufacturers' recommendations. The intaglios of the crowns were treated with airborne-particle abrasion. After thermocycling (×5000, 5°C/55°C) with or without 1 year of water storage, the cemented ceramic crowns were removed by using a Zwick universal testing device. Statistical analyses were done with the Wilcoxon rank sum and the 2-independent-samples Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Median retentive strengths [MPa] for specimens thermocycled only/thermocycled with 1 year of water storage were as follows: Panavia 21: 1.7/2.5, SEcure: 3.0/3.0, RelyX Unicem Aplicap: 3.1/3.4, RelyX Unicem Clicker: 4.1/4.2, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix: 3.8/3.1, iCEM: 2.3/2.7, Maxcem Elite: 3.0/3.2, Bifix SE: 1.7/1.7, SpeedCem: 1.3/1.6, Meron Plus: 3.1/2.7, Ketac Cem: 1.4/1.4, and zinc phosphate cement: 1.1/1.6. Statistically significant differences were found only among specimens thermocycled only or thermocycled with 1-year water storage (P<.001). Significant differences in retentive strengths were observed among cements after thermocycling only or thermocycling with 1 year of water storage, but not for the effect of the additional 1 year of water storage. Copyright © 2015

  16. Effect of veneering materials and curing methods on resin cement knoop hardness.

    PubMed

    Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the Knoop hardness of Enforce resin cement activated by the either chemical/physical or physical mode, and light cured directly and through ceramic (HeraCeram) or composite resin (Artglass). Light curing were performed with either conventional halogen light (QTH; XL2500) for 40 s or xenon plasma arc (PAC; Apollo 95E) for 3 s. Bovine incisors had their buccal surfaces flattened and hybridized. On these surfaces a mold was seated and filled with cement. A 1.5-mm-thick disc of the veneering material was seated over this set for light curing. After storage (24 h/37 masculineC), specimens (n=10) were sectioned for hardness (KHN) measurements in a micro-hardness tester (50 gf load/ 15 s). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). It was observed that the dual cure mode yielded higher hardness compared to the physical mode alone, except for direct light curing with the QTH unit and through Artglass. Higher hardness was observed with QTH compared to PAC, except for Artglass/dual groups, in which similar hardness means were obtained. Low KHN means were obtained with PAC for both Artglass and HeraCeram. It may be concluded that the hardness of resin cements may be influenced by the presence of an indirect restorative material and the type of light-curing unit.

  17. Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

    2000-01-01

    Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion.

  18. Influence of light intensity on surface free energy and dentin bond strength of core build-up resins.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Tsujimoto, A; Furuichi, T; Suzuki, T; Tsubota, K; Miyazaki, M; Platt, J A

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of light intensity on surface free energy characteristics and dentin bond strength of dual-cure direct core build-up resin systems. Two commercially available dual-cure direct core build-up resin systems, Clearfil DC Core Automix with Clearfil Bond SE One and UniFil Core EM with Self-Etching Bond, were studied. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in acrylic resin and the facial dentin surfaces were wet ground on 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Adhesives were applied to dentin surfaces and cured with light intensities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, 400, and 600 mW/cm(2). The surface free energy of the adhesives (five samples per group) was determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. To determine the strength of the dentin bond, the core build-up resin pastes were condensed into the mold on the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces according to the methods described for the surface free energy measurement. The resin pastes were cured with the same light intensities as those used for the adhesives. Ten specimens per group were stored in water maintained at 37°C for 24 hours, after which they were shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey-Kramer test were performed, with the significance level set at 0.05. The surface free energies of the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces decreased with an increase in the light intensity of the curing unit. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the type of core build-up system and the light intensity significantly influence the bond strength, although there was no significant interaction between the two factors. The highest bond strengths were achieved when the resin pastes were cured with the strongest light intensity for all the core build-up systems. When polymerized with a light intensity of 200 mW/cm(2) or less, significantly lower bond strengths were observed. CONClUSIONS: The

  19. Evaluation of bonding behavior of silver-tin-zinc-indium alloy to adhesive luting cements.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Kawaguchi, T; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2010-12-01

    The bond strengths of a silver-tin-zinc-indium alloy used with adhesive luting cements were investigated. The metal surfaces were primed with two metal conditioners designed for noble metal alloys or base metal alloys, or prepared using a Rocatec tribochemical coating unit. Two adhesive luting cements (Super-Bond C&B and Panavia F 2.0) were applied. It can be concluded that airborne-particle abrasion with alumina was effective, but the effects on the bond durability of both the metal conditioners and the tribochemical silica coating method were not clear Such bonding behavior seems to be particular to this kind of silver-rich dental casting alloy.

  20. Indirect resin composite restorations bonded to dentin using self-adhesive resin cements applied with an electric current-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Valeria Bisinoto; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Sauro, Salvatore; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Correr, Americo Bortolazzo

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of an electric current-assisted application on the bond strength and interfacial morphology of self-adhesive resin cements bonded to dentin. Indirect resin composite build-ups were luted to prepared dentin surfaces using two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem and BisCem) and an ElectroBond device under 0, 20, or 40 μA electrical current. All specimens were submitted to microtensile bond strength test and to interfacial SEM analysis. The electric current-assisted application induced no change (P > 0.05) on the overall bond strength, although RelyX Unicem showed significantly higher bond strength (P < 0.05) than BisCem. Similarly, no differences were observed in terms of interfacial integrity when using the electrical current applicator.

  1. Resin characterization

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Geimer; Robert A. Follensbee; Alfred W. Christiansen; James A. Koutsky; George E. Myers

    1990-01-01

    Currently, thermosetting adhesives are characterized by physical andchemical features such as viscosity, solids content, pH, and molecular distribution, and their reaction in simple gel tests. Synthesis of a new resin for a particular application is usually accompanied by a series of empirical laboratory and plant trials. The purpose of the research outlined in this...

  2. Bonding of crown and bridge adhesive resins to dentine.

    PubMed

    Osman, Saad A; McCabe, John F; Walls, Angus W G

    2008-12-01

    The shear bond strength of three adhesives, Panavia 21, Superbond, All Bond C&B Cement, and Variolink (a dual cure resin) to various dentine depths were determined. Fifteen human fully erupted permanent first and second molars were wet ground using 500 and then 800 grit abrasive papers to expose the superficial, middle and the deep dentine, for each adhesive tested. Five samples were prepared for each dentine depth. The adhesives were bonded to the samples using gelatine capsules and were matured for 24 h in water at 37 degrees C. The samples were debonded in shear using tensile testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey test. The fracture surfaces were examined by optical microscopy. The bond strength of Superbond to dentine was significantly higher (P<0.05) than any of the materials tested. The bond strength of all materials tested was shown to be affected by dentine depth, except for Superbond. Fractured dentine specimens showed that the samples of Superbond are almost cohesive (>90%), and the samples of other adhesives are mostly adhesive (>70%). These results confirm that Superbond is capable of forming a bond at various dentine depths.

  3. Antimicrobial Effects of Dental Luting Glass Ionomer Cements on Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Altenburger, Markus; Spitzmüller, Bettina; Anderson, Annette; Hellwig, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To reduce secondary caries, glass ionomer luting cements are often used for cementing of indirect restorations. This is because of their well-known antimicrobial potential through the release of fluoride ions. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of five dental luting cements which were based on glass ionomer cement technology. Methods. Five different glass ionomer based luting cements were tested for their antimicrobial effects on Streptococcus mutans in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate-counting assay; (ii) live/dead staining (LDS) and fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were conducted with or without prior treatment of the materials using sterilized human saliva. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated for adherent and planktonic bacteria. Bovine enamel slabs (BES) were used as negative control. BES covered with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as positive control. Results. Each of the tested materials significantly reduced the number of initially adhered CFUs; this reduction was even more pronounced after prior incubation in saliva. Antimicrobial effects on adherent bacteria were confirmed by live-dead staining. Conclusion. All five luting cements showed an antimicrobial potential which was increased by prior incubation with human saliva, suggesting an enhanced effect in vivo. PMID:24795539

  4. Effect of different luting procedures on the seating of ceramic inlays.

    PubMed

    Hahn, P; Schaller, H; Hafner, P; Hellwig, E

    2000-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different luting procedures on the proper seating of ceramic inlays and on the marginal seal through microleakage testing. Sixty mesial-, occlusal-, distal- (MOD) cavities were prepared in third molars, and distributed among four groups. In the control group 1, the cavity surface was treated with dentin and enamel bonding agents; ceramic inlays were placed into the cavity and light cured. In group 2, the dentin and enamel bonding agents were cured prior to the placing of the inlays, and following the insertion. In group 3, the inlays were luted without enamel bonding. In group 4, the inlays were cemented using a one-bottle bonding and two times light curing. The groups with only one time light curing at the end of the luting process exhibited the smallest luting space following cementation. The smallest dye penetration values were obtained for the two groups with separate light curing of the dentin bonding agent. Reducing the film thickness of polymerized dentin bonding agents, i.e. by changing the composition of the bonding agents, could facilitate proper seating of ceramic inlays together with a better marginal seal.

  5. Effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Pooran; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Shirban, Farinaz; Davoodi, Amin; Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Dual-cured composite resins are similar to self-cured composite resins in some of their clinical applications due to inadequate irradiation, lack of irradiation, or delayed irradiation. Therefore, incompatibility with self-etch adhesives (SEAs) should be taken into account with their use. On the other, the extent of dentin dehydration has a great role in the quality of adhesion of these resin materials to dentin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two SEAs. A total of 120 dentinal specimens were prepared from extracted intact third molars. Half of the samples were dehydrated in ethanol with increasing concentrations. Then Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB) and Prompt L-Pop (PLP) adhesives were applied in the two groups. Cylindrical composite resin specimens were cured using three polymerization modes: (1) Immediate light-curing, (2) delayed light-curing after 20 min, and (3) self-curing. Bond strength was measured using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. There were no significant differences for CSEB subgroups with hydrated and dehydrated dentin samples between the three different curing modes (P > 0.05). PLP showed significant differences between subgroups with the lowest bond strength in hydrated dentin with delayed light-curing and self-cured mode of polymerization. Within the limitations of this study, a delay in composite resin light-curing or using chemically cured composite resin had a deleterious effect on dentin bond strength of single-step SEAs used in the study.

  6. Bonding effectiveness and multi-interfacial characterization of two direct buildup resin core systems bonded to post-space dentin.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Mine, Atsushi; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Iwashita, Taichi; Nakatani, Hayaki; Nishida, Tomoki; Takeshige, Fumio; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bonding effectiveness of two resin core buildup systems using conventional methods in the field of adhesive dentistry and a new non-destructive method. Twenty-four single-rooted human teeth were built up with dual-cure one-step self-etch adhesive and composite systems (SY1: Clearfil DC bond and Clearfil DC core automix, SY2: Clearfil bond SE one and Clearfil DC core automix one). The prepared samples were sectioned into approximately 1 × 1-mm-thick beams and subjected to micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) testing (n = 24). The fractured beams after μTBS testing were analyzed by SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry. The three teeth filled with each resin core system were sectioned and embedded in epoxy resin to observe the dentin-bonding interface under TEM (n = 6). Moreover, three of each resin core-filled teeth without any processing were examined using μCT (n = 6). Two-way ANOVA revealed that the two factors "root region" (p < 0.001, F = 15.22) and "system" (SY1 < SY2; p < 0.001, F = 22.52) had a significant influence. The μTBS gradually decreased from the coronal side to the apical side of the root canal. Morphological evaluation revealed that SY2 was superior in terms of resin curing at the apical side. μCT non-destructive evaluation clearly revealed gap formation in SY1. SY2, which included a new light-independent catalyst, showed better bonding effectiveness and adhesive interface to dentin compared to that of SY1. The new catalyst, which is activated by contact with adhesive and resin composite, can be used for resin core buildup restorations.

  7. Effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pooran; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Shirban, Farinaz; Davoodi, Amin; Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dual-cured composite resins are similar to self-cured composite resins in some of their clinical applications due to inadequate irradiation, lack of irradiation, or delayed irradiation. Therefore, incompatibility with self-etch adhesives (SEAs) should be taken into account with their use. On the other, the extent of dentin dehydration has a great role in the quality of adhesion of these resin materials to dentin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two SEAs. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentinal specimens were prepared from extracted intact third molars. Half of the samples were dehydrated in ethanol with increasing concentrations. Then Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB) and Prompt L-Pop (PLP) adhesives were applied in the two groups. Cylindrical composite resin specimens were cured using three polymerization modes: (1) Immediate light-curing, (2) delayed light-curing after 20 min, and (3) self-curing. Bond strength was measured using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for CSEB subgroups with hydrated and dehydrated dentin samples between the three different curing modes (P > 0.05). PLP showed significant differences between subgroups with the lowest bond strength in hydrated dentin with delayed light-curing and self-cured mode of polymerization. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, a delay in composite resin light-curing or using chemically cured composite resin had a deleterious effect on dentin bond strength of single-step SEAs used in the study. PMID:27041894

  8. Effect of different light curing methods on mechanical and physical properties of resin-cements polymerized through ceramic discs

    PubMed Central

    CEKIC-NAGAS, Isil; ERGUN, Gulfem

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the polimerization ability of three different light-curing units (quartz tungsten halogen, light-emitting diodes and plasma arc) and their exposure modes (high-intensity and soft-start) by determination of microhardness, water sorption and solubility, and diametral tensile strength of 5 dual-curing resin cements. Material and methods A total of 720 disc-shaped samples (1 mm height and 5 mm diameter) were prepared from different dual-curing resin cements (Duolink, Nexus, Bifix-QM, Panavia F and RelyX Unicem). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen (high-power and soft-up modes), light-emitting diode (standard and exponential modes) and plasma arc (normal and ramp-curing modes) curing units through ceramic discs. Then the samples (n=8/per group) were stored dry in the dark at 37ºC for 24 h. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV). For sorption and solubility tests; the samples were stored in a desiccator at 37ºC and weighed to a constant mass. The samples were weighed both before and after being immersed in deionized water for different periods of time (24 h and 7 days) and being desiccated. The diametral tensile strength of the samples was tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at 5% significance level. Results Resin cement and light-curing unit had significant effects (p<0.05) on microhardness, diametral tensile strength, water solubility and sorption. However, no significant differences (p>0.05) were obtained with different modes of LCUs. Conclusion The study indicates that polymerization of resin cements with different light-curing units may result in various polymer structures, and consequently different mechanical and physical properties. PMID:21710093

  9. Micro push-out bond strengths of 2 fiber post types luted using different adhesive strategies.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ugur; Mumcu, Emre; Topcu, Fulya Toksoy; Yildiz, Esra; Yamanel, Kivanc; Akyol, Mesut

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strengths of carbon and glass fiber posts adhesively luted with Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem luting cements, as well as a modified application procedure using RelyX Unicem cement in combination with a single-bottle total-etch adhesive in 3 segments of teeth. Sixty single-rooted human maxillary central incisors and canines were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. The roots were divided into 2 fiber-post groups, and then divided into 3 subgroups of 10 specimens each to test different luting strategies. Bonded specimens were cut (1-mm-thick sections) and push-out tests were performed (crosshead-speed, 0.5 mm/min). Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope at original magnification ×40. Micro push-out bond strengths were significantly affected by the type of luting agent and the type of post (P < .05). In all root sections, the push-out bond strength values of glass fiber posts were significantly higher than that of carbon fiber posts (P < .05). Moreover, the highest push-out bond strengths were measured for Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem cements. These values were significantly higher than that of modified application procedure in the medium section for both glass- and carbon-fiber posts, and in the apical root sections only for glass-fiber post (P < .05). In each region, the modified application procedure showed the lowest bond strength values. Adhesive failure between dentin and cement was the most frequent type of failure. In all root segments, the glass fiber post provided significantly increased post retention compared with the carbon fiber post, regardless of the luting strategy used. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatigue resistance and failure mode of CAD/CAM composite resin implant abutments restored with type III composite resin and porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal; Oderich, Elisa; Boff, Luís Leonildo; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Belser, Urs Christoph

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the fatigue resistance and failure mode of type III porcelain and composite resin veneers bonded to custom composite resin implant abutments. Using the CEREC 3 machine, 28 composite resin implant abutments (Paradigm MZ100) were fabricated along with non-retentive type III veneers, milled either in ceramic Paradigm C (n=14) or in composite resin Paradigm MZ100 (n=14). The intaglio surfaces of the veneers were hydrofluoric acid etched and silanated (Paradigm C) or airborne-particle abraded and silanated (MZ100). The fitting surface of the abutments was airborne-particle abraded, cleaned, silanated and inserted into a bone level implant (10 mm, BLI RC). All veneers were luted with adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a preheated light curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz, 30° angle) was simulated, starting with a load of 40 N, followed by stages of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 N (20,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 140,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (Log rank test at P=0.05). Previously published data using same-design zirconia abutments were included for comparison. Paradigm C and MZ100 specimens fractured at an average load of 243 and 206 N (survival rate of 21% and 0%), respectively, with a significant difference in survival probability (P=0.02). Fractured specimens presented mixed failure modes and solely adhesive failures were not observed. The survival of composite resin abutments was similar to that of identical zirconia abutments from a previous study (P=0.76). Non-retentive porcelain veneers bonded to custom composite resin implant abutments presented a higher survival rate when compared with composite resin veneers. Survival of composite resin abutment did not differ from zirconia ones. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. The impact of resin-coating on sub-critical crack extension in a porcelain laminate veneer material.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu; Fleming, Garry J P; Addison, Owen

    2017-05-01

    Characterisation of the interaction between crack extension, crack stabilisation and stress/strain relaxation in the polymeric matrix, the interplay between stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical response of a resin-based luting adhesive within a surface defect population could extend PLV restoration longevity by optimising cementation protocols. The aim was to investigate the influence of stress corrosion cracking and the viscoelastic behaviour of a resin-based luting adhesive independently by controlling the environmental conditions operative during test specimen fabrication. The effects of stress corrosion at ceramic crack tips and potential viscoelastic responses to loading of the resin-coated impregnating cracks were isolated. Resin-coated feldspathic ceramic test specimens were fabricated in ambient humidity or following moisture exclusion. Bi-axial flexure strengths of groups (n = 20) were determined at constant loading rates of 2.5, 10, 40, 160 or 640 N/min and data was compared with uncoated controls. Fractographic analyses were performed on all fractured test specimens. Resin-cement coating resulted in significant ceramic strengthening in all conditions tested (p < 0.01). A two-way ANOVA demonstrated that the exclusion of moisture during resin- coating significantly increased mean BFS (p<0.01) but post-hoc Tukey tests identified that moisture exclusion resulted in significant increases in BFS values only at intermediate loading rates with no significant differences observed at either the fastest or slowest loading rates (640 and 2.5 N/min, respectively). Mechanical reinforcement of PLV materials by resin-cement systems is yet to be optimized. The viscoelastic behavior of the resin-cement itself can influence the magnitude of reinforcement observed and sub-critical crack growth. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of proximal box elevation with resin composite on marginal quality of ceramic inlays in vitro.

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, Roland; Hehn, Julia; Hajtó, Jan; Krämer, Norbert; Naumann, Michael; Koch, Andreas; Roggendorf, Matthias J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the marginal quality and resin-resin transition of milled CAD/CAM glass-ceramic inlays in deep proximal cavities with and without 3-mm proximal box elevation (PBE) using resin composites before and after thermomechanical loading. MOD cavities with one proximal box beneath the cementoenamel junction were prepared in 48 extracted human third molars. Proximal boxes ending in dentin were elevated for 3 mm with different resin composites (RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, and Maxcem Elite as self-adhesive resin cements and Clearfil Majesty Posterior as restorative resin composite in one or three layers bonded with AdheSE) or left untreated. IPS Empress CAD inlays were luted with Syntac and Variolink II (n = 8). Marginal quality as well as the PBE-ceramic interface were analyzed under an SEM using epoxy resin replicas before and after thermomechanical loading (100,000 × 50 N and 2,500 thermocycles between +5°C and +55°C). Bonding glass-ceramic directly to dentin showed the highest amounts of gap-free margins in dentin (92%, p < 0.05). Bonded resin composite applied in three layers achieved 84% gap-free margins in dentin; PBE with self-adhesive resin cements exhibited significantly more gaps in dentin (p < 0.05). With a meticulous layering technique and bonded resin composite, PBE may be an alternative to ceramic bonding to dentin. Self-adhesive resin cements seem not suitable for this indication. For deep proximal boxes ending in dentin, a PBE may be an alternative to conventional techniques.

  13. Tensile bond strength of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement to microabraded and silica-coated or tin-plated high noble ceramic alloy.

    PubMed

    Swartz, J M; Davis, R D; Overton, J D

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of alloy surface microabrasion, silica coating, or microabrasion plus tin plating on the tensile bond strengths between a resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cement and a high-noble alloy. Bond strength between the microabraded alloy specimens and conventional glass-ionomer cement or resin cement were included for comparison. One hundred twenty uniform size, disk-shaped specimens were cast in a noble metal alloy and divided into 6 groups (n = 10 pairs/group). The metal surfaces of the specimens in each group were treated and cemented as follows. Group 1: No surface treatment (as cast, control), cemented with a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Group 2: Microabrasion with 50-microm aluminum oxide particles, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Group 3: A laboratory microabrasion and silica coating system, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Group 4: Microabrasion and tin-plating, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Group 5: Microabrasion only, conventional glass-ionomer cement. Group 6: Microabrasion and tin-plating, conventional resin cement. The uniaxial tensile bond strength for each specimen pair was determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp, Canton, MA). Results were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05) and a Tukey post-hoc analysis. Mean bond strength: Group 1: 3.6 (+/- 1.5) MPa. Group 2: 4.2 (+/-0.5) MPa. Group 3: 6.7 (+/- 0.9) MPa. Group 4: 10.6 (+/- 1.8) MPa. Group 5: 1.1 (+/- 0.4) MPa. Group 6: 14.6 (+/- 2.3) MPa. Group 6 was significantly stronger than Group 4. The bond strength of specimens cemented with the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement using microabrasion and tin-plating (Group 4) was significantly stronger than all other groups except the resin cement with microabrasion and tin-plating (Group 6). Microabraded and tin-plated alloy specimens luted with the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement resulted in the greatest mean tensile strengths

  14. Effect of composite surface treatment and aging on the bond strength between a core build-up composite and a luting agent

    PubMed Central

    COTES, Caroline; CARDOSO, Mayra; de MELO, Renata Marques; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe; BOTTINO, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between composite core and resin cement. Material and Methods Eighty blocks (8×8×4 mm) were prepared with core build-up composite. The cementation surface was roughened with 120-grit carbide paper and the blocks were thermocycled (5,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a 30 s dwell time in each bath). A layer of temporary luting agent was applied. After 24 h, the layer was removed, and the blocks were divided into five groups, according to surface treatment: (NT) No treatment (control); (SP) Grinding with 120-grit carbide paper; (AC) Etching with 37% phosphoric acid; (SC) Sandblasting with 30 mm SiO2 particles, silane application; (AO) Sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 particles, silane application. Two composite blocks were cemented to each other (n=8) and sectioned into sticks. Half of the specimens from each block were immediately tested for microtensile bond strength (µTBS), while the other half was subjected to storage for 6 months, thermocycling (12,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 s in each bath) and µTBS test in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05). Results The µTBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (p=0.007) and thermocycling (p=0.000). Before aging, the SP group presented higher bond strength when compared to NT and AC groups, whereas all the other groups were statistically similar. After aging, all the groups were statistically similar. SP submitted to thermocycling showed lower bond strength than SP without thermocycling. Conclusion Core composites should be roughened with a diamond bur before the luting process. Thermocycling tends to reduce the bond strength between composite and resin cement. PMID:25760269

  15. Bond strength of resin cement to CO2 and Er:YAG laser-treated zirconia ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Heidari, Bijan; Vafaee, Fariborz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is difficult to achieve adhesion between resin cement and zirconia ceramics using routine surface preparation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CO2 and Er:YAG laser treatment on the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods In this in-vitro study 45 zirconia disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) were assigned to 3 groups (n = 15). In control group (CNT) no laser treatment was used. In groups COL and EYL, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers were used for pretreatment of zirconia surface, respectively. Composite resin disks were cemented on zirconia disk using dual-curing resin cement. Shear bond strength tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min after 24 hr distilled water storage. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's HSD tests. Results The means and standard deviations of shear bond strength values in the EYL, COL and CNT groups were 8.65 ± 1.75, 12.12 ± 3.02, and 5.97 ± 1.14 MPa, respectively. Data showed that application of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers resulted in a significant higher shear bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics (p < 0.0001). The highest bond strength was recorded in the COL group (p < 0.0001). In the CNT group all the failures were adhesive. However, in the laser groups, 80% of the failures were of the adhesive type. Conclusions Pretreatment of zirconia ceramic via CO2 and Er:YAG laser improves the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, with higher bond strength values in the CO2 laser treated samples. PMID:25383349

  16. Influence of dentin pretreatment with synthetic hydroxyapatite application on the bond strength of fiber posts luted with 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate-containing luting systems.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Nicola; Bergantin, Emanuele; Tempesta, Riccardo; Turco, Gianluca; Breschi, Lorenzo; Farina, Elena; Pasqualini, Damiano; Berutti, Elio

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was evaluate the effect of application of synthetic hydroxyapatite on fiber post bond strength to radicular dentine. Forty, single-root teeth were endodontically treated and an 8 mm post space was prepared. Specimens were randomly placed in four groups (n = 10 in each) and treated using the following fiber post luting procedures: group 1, 17% EDTA + Panavia SA; group 2, 17% EDTA + Teethmate Desensitizer + Panavia SA; group 3, All-Bond Universal + Duo-Link Universal; and group 4, All-Bond Universal + Teethmate Desensitizer + Duo-Link Universal. Fiber posts were luted in the post space and light-cured for 120 s using a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp. After 7 d of storage at 37°C, the teeth were cut into 1-mm-thick slices, which were subjected to a push-out test until failure using a universal testing machine. Two specimens per group were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. An energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector was used for elemental analysis of the specimen surface. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way anova. The fiber post bond strength was statistically significantly increased after the application of Teethmate Desensitizer to post space walls, either with a 10-MDP-containing self-adhesive cement or with a universal adhesive. Scanning electron microscopy and EDAX analysis showed that Teethmate Desensitizer created a calcium phosphate precipitate over post space dentinal tubules, which significantly improved the bond strength of the fiber post luted with 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP)-containing adhesive systems.

  17. Influence of different drying methods on microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kyung; Min, Bong Ki; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying methods of dentin surface on the bonding efficacy of self-adhesive resin cements (SRCs). Three SRCs (RelyX U200, RU; Maxcem Elite, ME; and BisCem, BC) and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2, RL) were used. The characteristics of the materials were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis and surface roughness and contact angle measurements. Human dentin surfaces were finished with 600-grit silicon carbide paper and assigned to three groups according to these drying methods: ethanol dehydration, drying by waiting for 10 s after blot-drying and blot-drying. The four cements were used for luting composite overlays to the dried dentin. After 24 h storage at 37°C and 100% relative humidity, stick-shaped specimens with a cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm(2) were prepared and stressed to failure in tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (n = 27). Failure modes of fractured specimens were assessed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. RL was the most hydrophilic, followed by BC and ME and then RU. All the luting cements luted to ethanol-dehydrated dentin showed zero bond strengths. For the three SRCs, drying by waiting produced higher microtensile bond strengths than blot-drying. RU showed the best bonding performance in the above two dentin conditions. RL showed significantly higher bond strength in blot-drying condition than in drying-by-waiting (p < 0.001). This study suggests that dentin surface moisture has a crucial effect on the bond strength of SRCs.

  18. Effect of resin shades on opacity of ceramic veneers and polymerization efficiency through ceramics.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Elif; Chiang, Yu-Chih; Coşgun, Erdal; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different resin cement shades on the opacity and color difference of ceramics and to determine the polymerization efficiency of the resin cement at different shades after curing through ceramics. Two different ceramics (IPS e.max Press and IPS Empress(®)CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were used for this study. A light-cured veneer luting resin (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent) in four different shades of HV+1, HV+3, LV-1, and LV-3 was used for the colorimetric measurements. The color and spectral reflectance of the ceramics were measured according to the CIELab color scale relative to the standard illuminant D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer (ColorEye7000A, USA). Color differences (ΔE values) and the contrast ratios (CR) of the different groups of samples were calculated. In order to analyse the polymerization efficiency of the resin cements, the micromechanical properties of the resins were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests (SPSS 18.0). The one-way ANOVA test showed that the values of ΔE and CR of the different specimen groups were significantly different (p<0.05). Group 1 (20.7 ± 0.5) (IPS-CAD without resin cement) exhibited the highest and group 10 (14.8 ± 0.5) (e.max:HV+3) exhibited the lowest ΔE value. Significant differences in the micromechanical properties were identified among the tested resin cements in different shades (p<0.05). Resin cement shade is an important factor for the opacity of a restoration. Furthermore, the resin shade affects the micromechanical properties of the underlying resin cement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of strength and adhesion of composite resin versus ceramic inlays in molars.

    PubMed

    Dejak, Beata; Mlotkowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies on strength of teeth reconstructed with ceramic or composite resin inlays have not resolved which restoration material provides the highest strength and marginal integrity. The purpose of this study was to compare strength of mandibular molars restored with composite resin inlays to those restored with ceramic inlays, according to the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, and to analyze contact stresses in cement-tooth adhesive interfaces of these inlays. The investigation used a 3-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis with the use of contact elements. Seven 3-D models of first molars of the same shape and size were created: IT, intact tooth; UT, unrestored tooth with an MOD cavity preparation; CRIT, tooth restored with composite resin inlays (True Vitality) with an elastic modulus equal to 5.4 GPa; CRIH, tooth restored with composite resin inlays (Herculite XRV) (9.5 GPa); CRIC, tooth restored with composite resin inlays (Charisma) (14.5 GPa); CRIZ, tooth restored with composite resin inlays (Z100) (21 GPa); and CI, tooth restored with a ceramic (IPS Empress) inlay with an elastic modulus equal to 65 GPa. Each model was subjected to a force of 200 N directed to the occlusal surface. The stresses occurring in the tested inlays, composite resin cement layer, and tooth tissues were calculated. To evaluate the strength of materials, the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used. Contact stresses in the cement-tissue adhesive interface were calculated and compared to tensile and shear bond strength of the luting cement to enamel and dentin. In the teeth restored with composite resin and ceramic inlays, the values of the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion were lower than in the unrestored tooth with a preparation (UT), but still 2.5 times higher than in the intact tooth (IT). For the ceramic inlay (CI), the values of the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion were nearly 3 times higher than in the composite resin inlays. For the luting agent for the ceramic inlay model

  20. Effect of adhesive systems and surface treatment of methacrylate resin-based fiber posts on post-resin-dentin bonds.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Raquel; Albaladejo, Alberto; Aguilera, Fátima S; Tay, Franklin R; Ferrari, Marco; Toledano, Manuel

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of different fiber post surface treatments on bond strength. Extracted endodontically-treated premolars were prepared for the cementation of a methacrylate resin-based fiber post (FRC Postec). The posts received one of the three surface pre-treatments: silane application; hydrofluoric acid-etching and silane application or no treatment. A light-cured composite was used with one of the three dentin adhesives for luting: Single Bond; Clearfil Photo Bond and Clearfil New Bond, followed by a light-cured composite core build-up. Specimens were serially sliced into 0.8 x 0.8 mm-thick beams and loaded in tension until failure. Significant differences in bond strengths were recorded among the dentin adhesives (P< 0.05). However, post pre-treatment did not affect the bonding efficacy of the adhesives except for Clearfil New Bond.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Laser Etching on the Shear Bond Strength of Crowns Cemented with Two Different Luting Agents: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Ankur; Gandhi, Paresh; Baba, Nadim Z

    The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of crowns cemented on natural teeth after surface treatment of the enamel with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Crown preparation was done for 40 full-metal crowns, and wax patterns with loops were cast in a cobalt-chromium alloy. The Er:YAG laser was used for surface treatment of some teeth, and teeth without surface treatment acted as the control. Glass-ionomer and self-adhesive resin luting cements were used for cementation. Shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine, and statistical analysis was done using paired t test. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also carried out to study alterations of the enamel and dentin surfaces. Significant increase in shear strength was noted after laser etching the teeth with Er:YAG laser for both types of cement (P < .0001). The results showed that surface treatment using an Er:YAG laser resulted in significant increase in retention of crowns.

  2. Microleakage of Class II composite resin restorations with self-adhesive composite resin liners.

    PubMed

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the microleakage of Class II composite restorations with composite resin liners. Standardized box cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 84 extracted intact human molars. Proximal margins were located in enamel (occlusal) and 1.0 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction (gingival). The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 28 cavities) and restored with Filtek Z350 nanohybrid composite resin (FZ). The test groups were lined with a conventional flowable composite resin, Premise Flowable (PF), or 1 of 2 self-adhesive composites (SACs): Vertise Flow (VF) or Clearfil SA luting cement (CSA) with or without their respective self-etching adhesives: Optibond All-in-One (OB) or Clearfil SE Bond (CSE). The adhesive/lining procedure was performed as follows: OB/FZ (control), OB/PF/FZ, VF/FZ, OB/VF/FZ, CSA/FZ, or CSE/CSA/FZ. Microleakage was evaluated at the occlusal and gingival margins using a dye penetration technique and quantitative assessment. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data at the significance level of α = 0.05. None of the restorative techniques was capable of preventing microleakage completely. The greatest amount of microleakage was detected in the VF/FZ and CSA/FZ groups at both margins (P < 0.02). Among the groups placed with a bonding agent, OB/VF/FZ showed significantly greater values of microleakage at the occlusal margins than did OB/FZ, OB/PF/FZ, and CSE/CSA/FZ (P < 0.05). At the gingival margins, the OB/PF/FZ group exhibited the least leakage compared with the OB/VF/FZ and CSE/CSA/FZ groups (P < 0.001). The results indicated that the additional application of bonding agents improved the marginal sealing of SACs in Class II composite restorations.

  3. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Keith H. S.; Mai, Yanjie; Kim, Harry; Tong, Keith C. T.; Ng, Desmond; Hsiao, Jimmy C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  4. Polymerization degree and cementation methods of two different self-adhesive luting cements used for glass fiber postcementation.

    PubMed

    Barabanti, N; Madini, L; Krokidis, A; Acquaviva, P A; Cerutti, F; Cerutti, A

    2012-03-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate two different luting cements and how their clinical procedures influence the postcementation quality. Thirty-six freshly extracted mono-radicular teeth (N.=18) were treated endodontically and randomly divided into two groups. Posts were cemented respectively with two different self adhesive luting cements: Group A - RelyX Unicem (3M Espe) and Group B - Multilink Sprint (Ivoclar-Vivadent) following the manufacturers' instructions. Teeth were then thermocycled according to protocol ISO/TR 11405 and were immersed 24 hours in 2% methylene-blue solution. Each tooth was sectioned by a diamond-coated saw (Isomet-Buhler) from CEJ to apex. Each slice was examined for the presence or absence of gutta-percha remnants, voids, bubbles, dye infiltration degree and polymerization grade of the luting agent. Findings were evidenced by stereoscopic microscopy (30x) and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Mann-Whitney and ANOVA statistical analyses were performed for all results. No statistical significances were evidenced for gutta-percha presence, dye infiltration and polymerization degree. Voids were present mostly in Group B and bubbles in Group A. Both differences were statistically significant. Materials and protocols for glass fiber posts cementation are fundamental for the clinical success. Self adhesive luting cements, if used correctly, could be an acceptable and quick luting agent for postcementation.

  5. Scanning electron microscopic study of teeth restored with fiber posts and composite resin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sridhara, K. S.; Mankar, Sunil; Jayshankar, C. M.; Vinaya, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the thickness of resin dentin interface zones (RDIZ) obtained by luting carbon fiber post to intra-radicular dentin, either with All-Bond 2 bonding agent and C and B composite cement or Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted mandibular premolars of similar sizes were prepared for the carbon fiber post after biomechanical preparation and obturation. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 and 2 of 10 samples each. Carbon fiber posts used for Group 1 samples were luted using All-Bond 2 and C and B cement. For Group 2 carbon fiber posts were luted using Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. All the 20 samples were sectioned longitudinally and marked at three points on the length of the tooth from the dentin-core interface to the apex at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm to get coronal, middle, and apical areas, respectively. The formation and thickness (width) of the RDIZ at the marked areas was evaluated by scanning electron microscope using ×1000 magnification. The results were statistical analyzed. Results: Irrespective of the adhesive systems used all specimens showed a RDIZ formation. Microscopic examination of Group 1 showed significantly higher percentage of RDIZ (P < 0.05) than Group 2. RDIZ morphology was easily detectable at coronal and middle areas of all specimens. Conclusion: All-Bond 2 showed denser and wider RDIZ compared with the Panavia F. PMID:25210390

  6. Bonding of self-adhesive resin cements to enamel using different surface treatments: bond strength and etching pattern evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strengths and etching patterns of seven self-adhesive resin cements to human enamel specimens which were subjected to one of the following surface treatments: (1) Polishing with #600 polishing paper; (2) Phosphoric acid; (3) G-Bond one-step adhesive; or (4) Phosphoric acid and G-Bond. After surface treatment, the human incisor specimens were bonded to a resin composite using a self-adhesive resin cement [Maxcem (MA), RelyX Unicem (UN), Breeze (BR), BisCem (BI), seT (SE), Clearfil SA Luting (CL)] or a conventional resin cement [ResiCem (RE)]. Representative morphology formed with self-adhesive resin cements showed areas of etched enamel intermingled with areas of featureless enamel. In conclusion, etching efficacy influenced the bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive resin cements to unground enamel, and that a combined use of phosphoric acid and G-Bond for pretreatment of human enamel surfaces improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements.

  7. Development of a ceramic primer with higher bond durability for resin cement.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui

    2010-07-01

    To increase the bond durability of resin to the CAD/CAM ceramic surface, two types of two-bottle type ceramic primers, consisting of Primer A1 or A2 and Primer B, were designed. Primer A1 was prepared by dissolving 25, 50, or 100 mg of gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane in 1 mL of ethanol. Primer A2 was prepared by dissolving 50 mg of mixed silanes, consisting of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, in 1 mL of ethanol. Mole fractions of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol%. Primer B was prepared after dissolving 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid in ethanol by 50 vol%. Ceramic surface was silanated with a mixture of Primers A1 and B or Primers A2 and B for 1 min, and then air-dried. Commercial GC ceramic primer and Porcelain Liner M were utilized. Thereafter, dual-curing type resin cement was bonded to silanated ceramic surface through visible-light irradiation. Shear bond strength of resin to the ceramic surface was measured, before and after thermo-cycling. Addition of 0.01 or 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid to the gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane allowed for significant increases in the bond strength. However, thermo-cycling resulted in significant decreases of approximately 5 MPa in the bond strength. Conversely, when the mixed silane, where 30 mol% of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane dissolved in gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, was utilized with 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, the reduction in the bond strength decreased to approximately 2 MPa. The designed ceramic primers exhibited higher ceramic bond durability than commercial ceramic primers.

  8. Bonding of Resin Cement to Zirconia with High Pressure Primer Coating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-jie; Jiao, Kai; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Li-juan; Fang, Ming; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of air-drying pressure during ceramic primer coating on zirconia/resin bonding and the surface characteristics of the primed zirconia. Methods Two ceramic primers (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, CCP, Kuraray Medical Inc. and Z-Prime Plus, ZPP, Bisco Inc.) were applied on the surface of air-abraded zirconia (Katana zirconia, Noritake) and dried at 4 different air pressures (0.1–0.4 MPa). The primed zirconia ceramic specimens were bonded with a resin-based luting agent (SA Luting Cement, Kuraray). Micro-shear bond strengths of the bonded specimens were tested after 3 days of water storage or 5,000× thermocycling (n = 12). Failure modes of the fractured specimens were examined with scanning electron miscopy. The effects of air pressure on the thickness of the primer layers and the surface roughness (Sa) of primed zirconia were evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry (n = 6), optical profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (n = 6), respectively. Results Clearfil Ceramic Primer air-dried at 0.3 and 0.4 MPa, yielding significantly higher µSBS than gentle air-drying subgroups (p<0.05). Compared to vigorous drying conditions, Z-Prime Plus air-dried at 0.2 MPa exhibited significantly higher µSBS (p<0.05). Increasing air-drying pressure reduced the film thickness for both primers. Profilometry measurements and ESEM showed rougher surfaces in the high pressure subgroups of CCP and intermediate pressure subgroup of ZPP. Conclusion Air-drying pressure influences resin/zirconia bond strength and durability significantly. Higher air-drying pressure (0.3-0.4 MPa) for CCP and intermediate pressure (0.2 MPa) for ZPP are recommended to produce strong, durable bonds between resin cement and zirconia ceramics. PMID:24992678

  9. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  10. Retention of gold alloy crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Lilliam M; Frey, Gary N; Winkler, Mark M; Tate, William H; Burgess, John O; Powers, John M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure in vitro retention of cast gold crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements. Forty-eight human molars were prepared on a lathe to produce complete crown preparations with a consistent taper and split into six groups, eight crowns in each group. Crowns were cast in a high-gold alloy and then cemented. After 24 hours, the retention force (N) was recorded and mean values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the Fisher post-hoc least significant difference (PLSD) multiple comparisons test (a = .05). Failure sites were examined under 3100 magnification and recorded. Mean values (SD) for each group in increasing order of retention force were: Harvard Cement: 43 N (27), TempoCem: 59 N (16), PermaCem Dual: 130 N (42), RelyX Luting Cement: 279 N (26), Contax and PermaCem Dual: 286 N (38), and TempoCem with Contax and PermaCem Dual: 340 N (14). The Fisher PLSD interval (P = .05) for comparing cements was 29 N. Zinc-phosphate cement and provisional resin cements had the lowest retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent and the hybrid-ionomer cement had similar retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent applied after use of a provisional resin cement had a significantly higher retention force than the other cements tested.

  11. The effect of environmental pressure and resin cements on the push-out bond strength of a quartz fiber post to teeth root canals.

    PubMed

    Geramipanah, F; Sadighpour, L; Assadollahi, R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of environmental pressure changes on the bond strength between a fiber post and one of three resin cements using different mixing methods and modes of application. Sixty single-canal human teeth were divided into three groups (n = 20) and endodontically treated. Post spaces were prepared, and a quartz fiber post was secured with either a self-adhesive machine-mixed cement (RelyX Unicem, Aplicap), a self-adhesive hand-mixed cement (RelyX Unicem), or a self-etching dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F2). Half of each group was subjected to 24 pressure cycles from 0 to 5 atmospheres. The mean push-out bond strength of the posts was calculated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Regardless of the pressure, Unicem Aplicap achieved the highest bond strength (P < 0.05). The bond strengths of all groups were significantly lower after they were subjected to the pressure cycles (P < 0.003), and they were lower in the apical regions. Bond strengths between the fiber post and root canal can be affected by environmental pressure while the type of resin cements, their mixing methods and modes of application incorporated lower porosity, achieving higher bond strength.

  12. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with 2 Different Fiber-reinforced Composite and 2 Conventional Composite Resin Core Buildup Materials: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Ashly Mary; Amirtharaj, L Vijay; Sanjeev, Kavitha; Mahalaxmi, Sekar

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with 2 fiber-reinforced composite resins and 2 conventional composite resin core buildup materials. Sixty noncarious unrestored human maxillary premolars were collected, endodontically treated (except group 1, negative control), and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10). Group 2 was the positive control. The remaining 40 prepared teeth were restored with various direct core buildup materials as follows: group 3 teeth were restored with dual-cure composite resin, group 4 with posterior composite resin, group 5 with fiber-reinforced composite resin, and group 6 with short fiber-reinforced composite resin. Fracture strength testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The results were statistically analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey test. Fracture patterns for each sample were also examined under a light microscope to determine the level of fractures. The mean fracture resistance values (in newtons) were obtained as group 1 > group 6 > group 4 > group 3 > group 5 > group 2. Group 6 showed the highest mean fracture resistance value, which was significantly higher than the other experimental groups, and all the fractures occurred at the level of enamel. Within the limitations of this study, a short fiber-reinforced composite can be used as a direct core buildup material that can effectively resist heavy occlusal forces against fracture and may reinforce the remaining tooth structure in endodontically treated teeth. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diametral tensile strength and film thickness of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil

    PubMed Central

    CARMELLO, Juliana Cabrini; FAIS, Laiza Maria Grassi; RIBEIRO, Lígia Nunes de Moraes; CLARO NETO, Salvador; GUAGLIANONI, Dalton Geraldo; PINELLI, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The need to develop new dental luting agents in order to improve the success of treatments has greatly motivated research. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and film thickness (FT) of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil (COP) with or without addition of different quantities of filler (calcium carbonate - CaCO3). Material and Methods Eighty specimens were manufactured (DTS N=40; FT N=40) and divided into 4 groups: Pure COP; COP 10%; COP 50% and zinc phosphate (control). The cements were mixed according to the manufacturers' recommendations and submitted to the tests. The DTS test was performed in the MTS 810 testing machine (10 KN, 0.5 mm/min). For FT test, the cements were sandwiched between two glass plates (2 cm2) and a load of 15 kg was applied vertically on the top of the specimen for 10 min. The data were analyzed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The values of DTS (MPa) were: Pure COP- 10.94±1.30; COP 10%- 30.06±0.64; COP 50%- 29.87±0.27; zinc phosphate- 4.88±0.96. The values of FT (µm) were: Pure COP- 31.09±3.16; COP 10%- 17.05±4.83; COP 50%- 13.03±4.83; Zinc Phosphate- 20.00±0.12. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the groups (DTS - p=1.01E-40; FT - p=2.4E-10). Conclusion The experimental dental luting agent with 50% of filler showed the best diametral tensile strength and film thickness. PMID:22437672

  14. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Accácio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

  15. Light-activation through indirect ceramic restorations: does the overexposure compensate for the attenuation in light intensity during resin cement polymerization?

    PubMed

    Bueno, Albano Luis Novaes; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão; Jorge, Ana Carolina Tedesco; Reis, Andre Figueiredo; Amaral, Cristiane Mariote

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of light exposure through simulated indirect ceramic restorations (SICR) on hardness (KHN) of dual-cured resin cements (RCs), immediately after light-activation and 24 h later. Three dual-cured RCs were evaluated: Eco-Link (Ivoclar Vivadent), Rely X ARC (3M ESPE), and Panavia F (Kuraray Medical Inc.). The RCs were manipulated in accordance to the manufacturers' instructions and were placed into cylindrical acrylic matrixes (1-mm-thick and 4-mm diameter). The RC light-activation (Optilux 501; Demetron Kerr) was performed through a glass slide for 120 s (control group), or through 2-mm or 4-mm thick SICRs (IPS Empress II; Ivoclar Vivadent). The specimens were submitted to KHN analysis immediately and 24 h after light-activation. The data obtained at the 2 evaluation intervals were submitted to 2-way ANOVA repeated measures and post-hoc Tukey's test (pre-set alpha of 5%). Lower KHN was observed when light-activation was performed through SICRs for Eco-Link at all evaluation intervals and for Rely X ARC 24 h later. For Panavia F, no significant difference in KHN was observed between control and experimental groups, regardless of evaluation interval. Most groups exhibited higher KHN after 24 h than immediately after light-activation, with the exception of Rely X ARC light-activated through SICR, as no significant difference in KHN was found between evaluation intervals. Light overexposure did not compensate for light intensity attenuation due to the presence of SICR when Rely X and Eco-Link were used. Although hardness of such RCs increased over a 24-h interval, the RCs subjected to light overexposure did not reach the hardness values exhibited after direct light exposure.

  16. Light-activation through indirect ceramic restorations: does the overexposure compensate for the attenuation in light intensity during resin cement polymerization?

    PubMed Central

    BUENO, Albano Luis Novaes; ARRAIS, Cesar Augusto Galvão; JORGE, Ana Carolina Tedesco; REIS, Andre Figueiredo; AMARAL, Cristiane Mariote

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of light exposure through simulated indirect ceramic restorations (SICR) on hardness (KHN) of dual-cured resin cements (RCs), immediately after light-activation and 24 h later. Material and Methods Three dual-cured RCs were evaluated: eco-Link (Ivoclar Vivadent), Rely X ARC (3M eSPe), and Panavia F (Kuraray Medical Inc.). The RCs were manipulated in accordance to the manufacturers’ instructions and were placed into cylindrical acrylic matrixes (1-mm-thick and 4-mm diameter). The RC light-activation (Optilux 501; Demetron Kerr) was performed through a glass slide for 120 s (control group), or through 2-mm or 4-mm thick SICRs (IPS empress II; Ivoclar Vivadent). The specimens were submitted to KHN analysis immediately and 24 h after light-activation. The data obtained at the 2 evaluation intervals were submitted to 2-way ANOVA repeated measures and post-hoc Tukey’s test (pre-set alpha of 5%). Results Lower KHN was observed when light-activation was performed through SICRs for eco-Link at all evaluation intervals and for Rely X ARC 24 h later. For Panavia F, no significant difference in KHN was observed between control and experimental groups, regardless of evaluation interval. Most groups exhibited higher KHN after 24 h than immediately after light-activation, with the exception of Rely X ARC light-activated through SICR, as no significant difference in KHN was found between evaluation intervals. Conclusion Light overexposure did not compensate for light intensity attenuation due to the presence of SICR when Rely X and eco-Link were used. Although hardness of such RCs increased over a 24-h interval, the RCs subjected to light overexposure did not reach the hardness values exhibited after direct light exposure. PMID:21437465

  17. Direct composite resin crown fabrication on a custom formed root canal post - EverStick®POST.

    PubMed

    Vilkinis, Valdas; Žilinskas, Juozas

    2016-01-01

    EverStick glass fibre posts have been advocated for a new method of a direct post and core fabrication. The EverStick posts have adhesive surface and are flexible before curing therefore can be shaped individually. The purpose of this article is to describe a new technique of direct composite resin crown fabrication on a custom made EverStick root canal post. At first a rubber dam isolation was achieved and the EverStick post was fabricated following manufacturer's instructions. The crown fabrication started from the palatal layer of composite resin (Gaenial JE, GC) which was applied by means of a silicon index and light cured for 20 seconds (G-Light, GC).A dual cure self-adhesive resin cement (G-CEM Link Ace A2, GC) was used to cement the post and light cured for 40 seconds. Two further layers of Gaenial in AO2, A2 shades were placed to obtain the dentin shape and shade of the crown. For the enamel layer of the restoration Gaenial BW shade was used. Each layer was light cured separately for 20 seconds. The restoration was polished with diamonds (NTI-KAHLA GmbH, Germany) under water cooling. The final gloss was achieved by means of Soft-Lex discs (3M ESPE, USA) and a polishing paste (Gradia diapolisher, GC). The results achieved after 3 days and 12 months showed satisfactory aesthetics and marginal integrity of the restoration. Direct composite resin crown fabrication on a custom formed root canal post could be used as an economical and conservative treatment option.

  18. Effect of surface treatment and aging on bond strength of composite resin onlays.

    PubMed

    Cura, Maria; González-González, Inmaculada; Fuentes, Victoria; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Additional polymerization of indirect composite resins enhances their physical properties but lessens the potential for chemical bonding. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments and 6-month water storage on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of composite resin onlays. Composite resin onlays (Filtek Z250) randomly received 6 different surface treatments: (1) airborne-particle abrasion with 27-μm alumina particles+Adper Scotchbond 1XT adhesive application, (2) airborne-particle abrasion with alumina particles+silane application (ESPE SIL)+Adper Scotchbond 1XT, (3) airborne-particle abrasion with alumina particles+Scotchbond Universal adhesive, (4) tribochemical silica coating with 30-μm particles (CoJet Sand)+Adper Scotchbond 1XT adhesive, (5) tribochemical silica coating+silane application+Adper Scotchbond 1XT, and (6) tribochemical silica coating+Scotchbond Universal adhesive. Onlays were luted to fresh composite resin specimens with RelyX Ultimate resin cement. Bonded assemblies were stored in water for 24 hours or 6 months at 37°C and subjected to the μTBS test. Additional surface-treated composite resin onlays were analyzed with a contact profilometer to determine average roughness, and micromorphologic changes were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Airborne-particle abrasion with alumina followed by Adper Scotchbond 1XT or Scotchbond Universal adhesive application provided the highest bond strength values at 24 hours. Lower values were obtained after tribochemical silica coating. After 6 months of artificial aging, airborne-particle abrasion with alumina or silica-coated alumina particles followed by Scotchbond Universal application yielded the greatest bond strength results. Airborne-particle abrasion with alumina produced the highest roughness values and a more irregular surface. Adhesive selection seems to be relevant to the μTBS of luted composite resin onlays after 6 months of

  19. A comparison of stresses in molar teeth restored with inlays and direct restorations, including polymerization shrinkage of composite resin and tooth loading during mastication.

    PubMed

    Dejak, Beata; Młotkowski, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Polymerization shrinkage of composites is one of the main causes of leakage around dental restorations. Despite the large numbers of studies there is no consensus, what kind of teeth reconstruction--direct or indirect composite restorations are the most beneficial and the most durable. The aim was to compare equivalent stresses and contact adhesive stresses in molar teeth with class II MOD cavities, which were restored with inlays and direct restorations (taking into account polymerization shrinkage of composite resin) during simulated mastication. The study was conducted using the finite elements method with the application of contact elements. Three 3D models of first molars were created: model A was an intact tooth; model B--a tooth with a composite inlay, and model C--a tooth with a direct composite restoration. Polymerization linear shrinkage 0.7% of a direct composite restoration and resin luting cement was simulated (load 1). A computer simulation of mastication was performed (load 2). In these 2 situations, equivalent stresses according to the modified von Mises criterion (mvM) in the materials of mandibular first molar models with different restorations were calculated and compared. Contact stresses in the luting cement-tooth tissue adhesive interface around the restorations were also assessed and analyzed. Equivalent stresses in a tooth with a direct composite restoration (the entire volume of which was affected by polymerization shrinkage) were many times higher than in the tooth restored with a composite inlay (where shrinkage was present only in a thin layer of the luting cement). In dentin and enamel the stress values were 8-14 times higher, and were 13 times higher in the direct restoration than in the inlay. Likewise, contact stresses in the adhesive bond around the direct restoration were 6.5-7.7 times higher compared to an extraorally cured restoration. In the masticatory simulation, shear contact stresses in the adhesive bond around the direct

  20. Effect of triturator speed variation on physical properties of encapsulated glass-ionomer luting cements.

    PubMed

    Rupp, D C; Hermesch, C B; Charlton, D G

    1996-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of variation of triturator mixing speed on the physical properties of two encapsulated glass-ionomer luting cements. Physical properties evaluated were working time, setting time, film thickness, and 24-hour and 7-day compressive strengths. Encapsulated glass-ionomer luting cements were mixed at 3000, 3500, 4000 (control), and 4500 cycles per minute (cpm). An oscillating rheometer was used to determine working and setting times. Film thickness and compressive strength were determined using methods described in ANSI/ADA Specification No 66 for dental glass-ionomer cements. Results of the study indicated that decreased mixing speed may prolong working and setting times for Ketac-Cem Maxicap and Fuji Cap I. Within the range of 3500 to 4500 cpm, variations in mixing speed do not significantly affect compressive strength or film thickness values for either cement. Excessively slow mixing speed (3000 cpm) often resulted in the presence of unmixed powder expressed from the capsule nozzle prior to the expression of mixed cement. The presence of this unmixed powder results in a decreased powder/liquid ratio, which may have an adverse effect on the physical properties of the set cement.

  1. Cements for use in esthetic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Thiago A; da Silva, Nelson R F A; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2007-04-01

    Dental cements are designed to retain restorations, appliances, and post and cores in a stable and, presumably, long-lasting position in the oral environment. Conventional glass ionomer and zinc phosphate cements are among the most popular materials for luting metallic restorations and posts, whereas resin-based cements are preferred for esthetic applications. Successful cementation of esthetic restorations is largely dependent on the appropriate treatment and silane application to the internal surface of the restoration. Clinicians are frequently advised to use three-step total-etch or two-step self-etch adhesive for luting purposes to avoid problems of incompatibility between adhesives and chemical- or dual-cure cements. A reliable cementation procedure can only be achieved if the operator is aware of the mechanisms involved and the material limitations.

  2. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term.

  3. Comparison of micro push-out bond strengths of two fiber posts luted using simplified adhesive approaches.

    PubMed

    Mumcu, Emre; Erdemir, Ugur; Topcu, Fulya Toksoy

    2010-05-01

    By means of a micro push-out test, this study compared the bond strengths of two types of fiber-reinforced posts cemented with luting cements based on two currently available adhesive approaches as well as evaluated their failure modes. Sixty extracted single-rooted human maxillary central incisor and canine teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. Following standardized post space preparation, the roots were divided into two fiber post groups and then further into three subgroups of 10 specimens each according to the luting cements. A push-out test was performed to measure regional bond strengths, and the fracture modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. At the root section, there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in push-out bond strength among the tested luting cements. Nevertheless, the push-out bond strength values of glass fiber-reinforced posts were higher than those of carbon fiber-reinforced posts, irrespective of the adhesive approach used. On failure mode, the predominant failure mode was adhesive failure between dentin and the luting cement.

  4. Polyester Resin Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

    1963-01-01

    Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images PMID:14014495

  5. To evaluate and compare the effect of different Post Surface treatments on the Tensile Bond Strength between Fiber Posts and Composite Resin.

    PubMed Central

    Shori, Deepa; Pandey, Swapnil; Kubde, Rajesh; Rathod, Yogesh; Atara, Rahul; Rathi, Shravan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fiber posts are widely used for restoration of mutilated teeth that lack adequate coronal tooth structure to retain a core for definitive restoration, bond between the fiber post and composite material depends upon the chemical reaction between the post surface and the resin material used for building up the core. In attempt to maximize the resin bonding with fiber post, different post surface conditioning is advocated. Therefore the purpose of the study is to examine the interfacial strength between fiber post and composite, as core build-up material after different surface treatments of fiber posts. Materials & Methods:Twenty fiber posts were split into four groups off five each according to different surface treatments viz. Group I-(Negative Control), Group II-Silanization (Positive control), Group III-(37% Phosphoric Acid & Silanization) ,Group IV- (10% Hydrogen Peroxide and Silanization). With the preformed plastic mould, a core of dual cure composite resin around the fiber post having the uniform thickness was created. Tensile bond strength of each specimen was measured under Universal Testing Machine (UTM) at the cross head speed of 3mm/min. Results: The results achieved with 10% Hydrogen peroxide had a marked effect on micro tensile bond strength values between the tested materials. Conclusion: Immense enhancement in the silanization efficiency of quartz fiber phase was observed with different surface chemical treatment of the resin phase of fiber posts with the marked increase in the micro-tensile bond strength between fiber post and composite core. How to cite this article: Shori D, Pandey S, Kubde R, Rathod Y, Atara R, Rathi S. To evaluate and compare the effect of different Post Surface treatments on the Tensile Bond Strength between Fiber Posts and Composite Resin. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):27-32. PMID:24324301

  6. To evaluate and compare the effect of different Post Surface treatments on the Tensile Bond Strength between Fiber Posts and Composite Resin.

    PubMed

    Shori, Deepa; Pandey, Swapnil; Kubde, Rajesh; Rathod, Yogesh; Atara, Rahul; Rathi, Shravan

    2013-10-01

    Fiber posts are widely used for restoration of mutilated teeth that lack adequate coronal tooth structure to retain a core for definitive restoration, bond between the fiber post and composite material depends upon the chemical reaction between the post surface and the resin material used for building up the core. In attempt to maximize the resin bonding with fiber post, different post surface conditioning is advocated. Therefore the purpose of the study is to examine the interfacial strength between fiber post and composite, as core build-up material after different surface treatments of fiber posts. Twenty fiber posts were split into four groups off five each according to different surface treatments viz. Group I-(Negative Control), Group II-Silanization (Positive control), Group III-(37% Phosphoric Acid & Silanization) ,Group IV- (10% Hydrogen Peroxide and Silanization). With the preformed plastic mould, a core of dual cure composite resin around the fiber post having the uniform thickness was created. Tensile bond strength of each specimen was measured under Universal Testing Machine (UTM) at the cross head speed of 3mm/min. The results achieved with 10% Hydrogen peroxide had a marked effect on micro tensile bond strength values between the tested materials. Immense enhancement in the silanization efficiency of quartz fiber phase was observed with different surface chemical treatment of the resin phase of fiber posts with the marked increase in the micro-tensile bond strength between fiber post and composite core. Shori D, Pandey S, Kubde R, Rathod Y, Atara R, Rathi S. To evaluate and compare the effect of different Post Surface treatments on the Tensile Bond Strength between Fiber Posts and Composite Resin. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):27-32.

  7. Quantification of all-ceramic crown margin surface profile from try-in to 1-week post-cementation.

    PubMed

    Good, Melissa-L; Mitchell, Christina A; Pintado, Maria R; Douglas, William H

    2009-01-01

    To use profilometry to assess the margin surface profile of all-ceramic crowns (ACC's) at try-in and 1-week after cementation with dual-cured resin (DC, RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), self-adhesive dual-cured resin (SADC, RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE), light-cured resin (LC, RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) or chemically cured resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI, RelyX Luting Plus, 3M ESPE) luting cement. Forty, sound, extracted, human, premolar teeth underwent a standardised preparation for ACC's. IPS Empress (Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechtenstein) crowns of standard dimensions were fabricated and 10 luted with each cement and stored in water for 7 days. Three groups of serial profiles were taken, the first of the tooth preparation, the second of the crown margins at try-in and lastly of the crown margins after cementation and 7 days water storage. There were no significant differences in the crown margin surface profile between the four cement groups at try-in. The change in crown margin position between try-in and post-cementation was significantly greater for DC than for LC and RMGI. SADC was not significantly different to the other cements. There were no significant differences in the crown margin extensions between the four cement groups, however most of the IPS Empress ACC's in this study were underextended but this was not statistically significant. IPS Empress ACC's seated more fully with LC and RMGI than with DC cement.

  8. Stress distributions in adhesively cemented ceramic and resin-composite Class II inlay restorations: a 3D-FEA study.

    PubMed

    Ausiello, Pietro; Rengo, Sandro; Davidson, Carel L; Watts, David C

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of differences in the resin-cement elastic modulus on stress-transmission to ceramic or resin-based composite inlay-restored Class II MOD cavities during vertical occlusal loading. Three finite-element (FE) models of Class II MOD cavity restorations in an upper premolar were produced. Model A represented a glass-ceramic inlay in combination with an adhesive and a high Young's modulus resin-cement. Model B represented the same glass-ceramic inlay in combination with the same adhesive and a low Young's modulus resin-cement. Model C represented a heat-cured resin-composite inlay in combination with the same adhesive and the same low Young's modulus resin cement. Occlusal vertical loading of 400 N was simulated on the FE models of the restored teeth. Ansys FE software was used to compute the local von Mises stresses for each of the models and to compare the observed maximum intensities and distributions. Experimental validation of the FE models was conducted. Complex biomechanical behavior of the restored teeth became apparent, arising from the effects of the axial and lateral components of the constant occlusal vertical loading. In the ceramic-inlay models, the greatest von Mises stress was observed on the lateral walls, vestibular and lingual, of the cavity. Indirect resin-composite inlays performed better in terms of stress dissipation. Glass-ceramic inlays transferred stresses to the dental walls and, depending on its rigidity, to the resin-cement and the adhesive layers. For high cement layer modulus values, the ceramic restorations were not able to redistribute the stresses properly into the cavity. However, stress-redistribution did occur with the resin-composite inlays. Application of low modulus luting and restorative materials do partially absorb deformations under loading and limit the stress intensity, transmitted to the remaining tooth structures.

  9. UV irradiation improves the bond strength of resin cement to fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Jianfeng; Chen, Li; Li, Deli; Tan, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the effect of UV irradiation on the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement. Twelve epoxy-based glass fiber posts were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (Cont.): No surface treatment. Group 2 (Low-UV): UV irradiation was conducted from a distance of 10 cm for 10 min. Group 3 (High-UV): UV irradiation was conducted from a distance of 1 cm for 3 min. A resin cement (CLEARFIL SA LUTING) was used for the post cementation to form resin slabs which contained fiber posts in the center. Microtensile bond strengths were tested and the mean bond strengths (MPa) were 18.81 for Cont. group, 23.65 for Low-UV group, 34.75 for High-UV group. UV irradiation had a significant effect on the bond strength (p<0.05). UV irradiation demonstrates its capability to improve the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement.

  10. Microtensile bond strength and micromorphologic analysis of surface-treated resin nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to resin nanoceramic (RNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS RNC onlays (Lava Ultimate) (n=30) were treated using air abrasion with and without a universal adhesive, or HF etching followed by a universal adhesive with and without a silane coupling agent, or tribological silica coating with and without a universal adhesive, and divided into 6 groups. Onlays were luted with resin cement to dentin surfaces. A microtensile bond strength test was performed and evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). A nanoscratch test, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for micromorphologic analysis (α=.05). The roughness and elemental proportion were evaluated by Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. RESULTS Tribological silica coating showed the highest roughness, followed by air abrasion and HF etching. After HF etching, the RNC surface presented a decrease in oxygen, silicon, and zirconium ratio with increasing carbon ratio. Air abrasion with universal adhesive showed the highest bond strength followed by tribological silica coating with universal adhesive. HF etching with universal adhesive showed the lowest bond strength. CONCLUSION An improved understanding of the effect of surface treatment of RNC could enhance the durability of resin bonding when used for indirect restorations. When using RNC for restoration, effective and systemic surface roughening methods and an appropriate adhesive are required. PMID:27555896

  11. Effect of Self-adhesive Resin Cement and Tribochemical Treatment on Bond Strength to Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the interactive effects of different self-adhesive resin cements and tribochemical treatment on bond strength to zirconia. Methodology The following self-adhesive resin cements for bonding two zirconia blocks were evaluated: Maxcem (MA), Smartcem (SM), Rely X Unicem Aplicap (UN), Breeze (BR), Biscem (BI), Set (SE), and Clearfil SA luting (CL). The specimens were grouped according to conditioning as follows: Group 1, polishing with 600 grit polishing paper; Group 2, silica coating with 110 µm Al2O3 particles which modified with silica; and, Group 3, tribochemical treatment - silica coating + silanization. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours before testing shear bond strength. Results Silica coating and tribochemical treatment significantly increased the bond strength of the MA, UN, BR, BI, SE and CL to zirconia compared to #600 polishing. For both #600 polished and silica coating treatments, MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement CL had the highest bond strengths to zirconia. Conclusion Applying silica coating and tribochemical treatment improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia, especially for CL. PMID:20690416

  12. Microtensile bond strength and micromorphologic analysis of surface-treated resin nanoceramics.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Ho; Choi, Yu-Sung

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to resin nanoceramic (RNC). RNC onlays (Lava Ultimate) (n=30) were treated using air abrasion with and without a universal adhesive, or HF etching followed by a universal adhesive with and without a silane coupling agent, or tribological silica coating with and without a universal adhesive, and divided into 6 groups. Onlays were luted with resin cement to dentin surfaces. A microtensile bond strength test was performed and evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). A nanoscratch test, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for micromorphologic analysis (α=.05). The roughness and elemental proportion were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Tribological silica coating showed the highest roughness, followed by air abrasion and HF etching. After HF etching, the RNC surface presented a decrease in oxygen, silicon, and zirconium ratio with increasing carbon ratio. Air abrasion with universal adhesive showed the highest bond strength followed by tribological silica coating with universal adhesive. HF etching with universal adhesive showed the lowest bond strength. An improved understanding of the effect of surface treatment of RNC could enhance the durability of resin bonding when used for indirect restorations. When using RNC for restoration, effective and systemic surface roughening methods and an appropriate adhesive are required.

  13. Influence of resin cement shade on the color and translucency of ceramic veneers

    PubMed Central

    HERNANDES, Daiana Kelly Lopes; ARRAIS, Cesar Augusto Galvão; de LIMA, Erick; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; RODRIGUES, José Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. Material and Methods One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C* ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Conclusions Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable. PMID:27556211

  14. Influence of resin cement shade on the color and translucency of ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Daiana Kelly Lopes; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão; Lima, Erick de; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Rodrigues, José Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C*ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable.

  15. Retention of CAD/CAM all-ceramic crowns on prefabricated implant abutments: an in vitro comparative study of luting agents and abutment surface area.

    PubMed

    Carnaggio, Thomas V; Conrad, Robert; Engelmeier, Robert L; Gerngross, Peter; Paravina, Rade; Perezous, Leticia; Powers, John M

    2012-10-01

    . In addition, Fisher's PLSD multiple comparisons test found significant differences between Astra Tech Direct Abutments 4 and Astra Tech Direct Abutments 5 as well as Astra Tech Direct Abutments 4 and Astra Tech Direct Abutments 6 at a 0.05 level of significance. No significant difference was found between Astra Tech Direct Abutments 5 and Astra Tech Direct Abutments 6. Of the five cements tested, the most retrievable CAD/CAM restorations were luted with Temp Bond NE and Improv Temporary Cement. Resin-modified glass ionomer retentive forces were closer to those of the "temporary cements" than those of the permanent adhesive-resin cements. The abutment surface area became less important when using adhesive-resin cements. Retention of CAD/CAM all-ceramic restorations to prefabricated abutments has not been reported in the literature. This in vitro study demonstrated clinically significant variation among the selected cements used to retain all-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations to implant abutments. In addition, abutment size influenced the retention of all-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Influence of surface treatment on the resin-bonding of zirconia.

    PubMed

    Şanlı, Seda; Çömlekoğlu, Mine Dündar; Çömlekoğlu, Erhan; Sonugelen, Mehmet; Pamir, Tijen; Darvell, B W

    2015-06-01

    To compare the effect of various surface treatments on the bonding of luting resin cements to zirconia under four-point bending. Bar specimens (n = 200) (2 mm × 5 mm × 25 mm) were prepared from zirconia blocks (VITA In-Ceram YZ, Vita Zahnfabrik) with the cementation surface (2 mm × 5 mm) of groups of 40 treated in one of five ways: airborne particle abrasion with 50μm Al2O3 (GB), zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Bisco) (Z), glaze ceramic (Crystall.Glaze spray, Ivoclar Vivadent) + hydrofluoric acid (GHF), fusion glass-ceramic (Crystall.Connect, Ivoclar Vivadent) (CC), or left untreated as control (C). Within each treatment, bars were cleaned ultrasonically for 15 min in ethanol and then deionized water before bonding in pairs with one of two luting resins: Panavia F 2.0, (Kuraray) (P); RelyX U-200 (3M/Espe) (R), to form 10 test specimens for each treatment and lute combination. Mechanical tests were performed and bond strengths (MPa) were subject, after log transformation, to analysis of variance, Shapiro-Wilk and Holm-Sidak tests; also log-linear contingency analysis of failure mode distribution; all with α = 0.05. Fracture surfaces were examined under light and scanning electron microscopy. While the effect of surface treatment was significant (p = 1.27 × 10(-9)), there was no detected effect due to resin (p = 0.829). All treatments except CC (30.1 MPa ×/÷ 1.44)* were significantly better than the untreated control (24.8 MPa ×/÷ 1.35) (p = 3.28 × 10(-9)). While the effect of GB - which gave the highest mean strength (50.5 MPa ×/÷ 1.29) - was not distinguishable from that of GHF (39.9 MPa ×/÷ 1.29) (p = 0.082), it was significantly better than treatment with either CC or Z (33.1 MPa ×/÷ 1.48) (p < 0.05). (* After log transformation for analysis and back; asymmetric error bounds as s.d. in log values.) The novel test method design, which has good discriminatory power, confirmed the value of gritblasting as a simple and effective treatment with low

  17. A comparison of the survival of fibre posts cemented with two different composite resin systems.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S B; Millar, B J

    2008-12-13

    To evaluate the outcomes of a fibre post cemented with two different luting agents. A single type of tooth coloured fibre post (Fibre-White Parapost, Coltene Whaledent) was used along with two different types of luting cement. A total of 129 teeth were treated in this retrospective audit: 79 treated were luted with Calibra Aesthetic Dental Resin Cement (Dentsply) and 50 with Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray). All teeth were treated by the same operator and had a minimum ferrule of 2 mm and a ParaCore (Coltene Whaledent) composite core placed over the post. Where Calibra Aesthetic Dental Resin Cem