Science.gov

Sample records for dual-reservoir remote loading

  1. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, Lauren; Skolnik, Edward G.; Marchionini, Brian; Fall, Ndeye K.

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  2. Engineering a Segmented Dual-Reservoir Polyurethane Intravaginal Ring for Simultaneous Prevention of HIV Transmission and Unwanted Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Justin T.; Clark, Meredith R.; Shelke, Namdev B.; Johnson, Todd J.; Smith, Eric M.; Andreasen, Andrew K.; Nebeker, Joel S.; Fabian, Judit; Friend, David R.; Kiser, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic and its impact on women prompt the investigation of prevention strategies to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV. Long-acting drug delivery systems that simultaneously protect womenfrom sexual transmission of HIV and unwanted pregnancy could be important tools in combating the pandemic. We describe the design, in silico, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dual-reservoir intravaginal ring that delivers the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir and the contraceptive levonorgestrel for 90 days. Two polyether urethanes with two different hard segment volume fractions were used to make coaxial extruded reservoir segments with a 100 µm thick rate controlling membrane and a diameter of 5.5 mm that contain 1.3 wt% levonorgestrel. A new mechanistic diffusion model accurately described the levonorgestrel burst release in early time points and pseudo-steady state behavior at later time points. As previously described, tenofovir was formulated as a glycerol paste and filled into a hydrophilic polyurethane, hollow tube reservoir that was melt-sealed by induction welding. These tenofovir-eluting segments and 2 cm long coaxially extruded levonorgestrel eluting segments were joined by induction welding to form rings that released an average of 7.5 mg tenofovir and 21 µg levonorgestrel per day in vitro for 90 days. Levonorgestrel segments placed intravaginally in rabbits resulted in sustained, dose-dependent levels of levonorgestrel in plasma and cervical tissue for 90 days. Polyurethane caps placed between segments successfully prevented diffusion of levonorgestrel into the tenofovir-releasing segment during storage.Hydrated rings endured between 152 N and 354 N tensile load before failure during uniaxial extension testing. In summary, this system represents a significant advance in vaginal drug delivery technology, and is the first in a new class of long-acting multipurpose prevention drug delivery systems. PMID:24599325

  3. Optimization and modeling of the remote loading of luciferin into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Lomholt, Michael A; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Mouritsen, Ole G; Arouri, Ahmad

    2016-07-11

    We carried out a mechanistic study to characterize and optimize the remote loading of luciferin into preformed liposomes of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPC/DPPG) 7:3 mixtures. The influence of the loading agent (acetate, propionate, butyrate), the metal counterion (Na(+), K(+), Ca(+2), Mg(+2)), and the initial extra-liposomal amount of luciferin (nL(add)) on the luciferin Loading Efficiency (LE%) and luciferin-to-lipid weight ratio, i.e., Loading Capacity (LC), in the final formulation was determined. In addition, the effect of the loading process on the colloidal stability and phase behavior of the liposomes was monitored. Based on our experimental results, a theoretical model was developed to describe the course of luciferin remote loading. It was found that the highest luciferin loading was obtained with magnesium acetate. The use of longer aliphatic carboxylates or inorganic proton donors pronouncedly reduced luciferin loading, whereas the effect of the counterion was modest. The remote-loading process barely affected the colloidal stability and drug retention of the liposomes, albeit with moderate luciferin-induced membrane perturbations. The correlation between luciferin loading, expressed as LE% and LC, and nL(add) was established, and under our conditions the maximum LC was attained using an nL(add) of around 2.6μmol. Higher amounts of luciferin tend to pronouncedly perturb the liposome stability and luciferin retention. Our theoretical model furnishes a fair quantitative description of the correlation between nL(add) and luciferin loading, and a membrane permeability coefficient for uncharged luciferin of 1×10(-8)cm/s could be determined. We believe that our study will prove very useful to optimize the remote-loading strategies of moderately polar carboxylic acid drugs in general. PMID:27163524

  4. Optimization and modeling of the remote loading of luciferin into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Lomholt, Michael A; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Mouritsen, Ole G; Arouri, Ahmad

    2016-07-11

    We carried out a mechanistic study to characterize and optimize the remote loading of luciferin into preformed liposomes of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPC/DPPG) 7:3 mixtures. The influence of the loading agent (acetate, propionate, butyrate), the metal counterion (Na(+), K(+), Ca(+2), Mg(+2)), and the initial extra-liposomal amount of luciferin (nL(add)) on the luciferin Loading Efficiency (LE%) and luciferin-to-lipid weight ratio, i.e., Loading Capacity (LC), in the final formulation was determined. In addition, the effect of the loading process on the colloidal stability and phase behavior of the liposomes was monitored. Based on our experimental results, a theoretical model was developed to describe the course of luciferin remote loading. It was found that the highest luciferin loading was obtained with magnesium acetate. The use of longer aliphatic carboxylates or inorganic proton donors pronouncedly reduced luciferin loading, whereas the effect of the counterion was modest. The remote-loading process barely affected the colloidal stability and drug retention of the liposomes, albeit with moderate luciferin-induced membrane perturbations. The correlation between luciferin loading, expressed as LE% and LC, and nL(add) was established, and under our conditions the maximum LC was attained using an nL(add) of around 2.6μmol. Higher amounts of luciferin tend to pronouncedly perturb the liposome stability and luciferin retention. Our theoretical model furnishes a fair quantitative description of the correlation between nL(add) and luciferin loading, and a membrane permeability coefficient for uncharged luciferin of 1×10(-8)cm/s could be determined. We believe that our study will prove very useful to optimize the remote-loading strategies of moderately polar carboxylic acid drugs in general.

  5. Estimation of Forest Fuel Load from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sassan; Despain, Don G.; Halligan, Kerry; Crabtree, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Understanding fire behavior characteristics and planning for fire management require maps showing the distribution of wildfire fuel loads at medium to fine spatial resolution across large landscapes. Radar sensors from airborne or spaceborne platforms have the potential of providing quantitative information about the forest structure and biomass components that can be readily translated to meaningful fuel load estimates for fire management. In this paper, we used multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar imagery acquired over a large area of the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) by the AIRSAR sensor, to estimate the distribution of forest biomass and canopy fuel loads. Semi-empirical algorithms were developed to estimate crown and stem biomass and three major fuel load parameters, canopy fuel weight, canopy bulk density, and foliage moisture content. These estimates when compared directly to measurements made at plot and stand levels, provided more than 70% accuracy, and when partitioned into fuel load classes, provided more than 85% accuracy. Specifically, the radar generated fuel parameters were in good agreement with the field-based fuel measurements, resulting in coefficients of determination of R(sup 2) = 85 for the canopy fuel weight, R(sup 2)=.84 for canopy bulk density and R(sup 2) = 0.78 for the foliage biomass.

  6. Estimation of forest fuel load from radar remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saatchi, S.; Halligan, K.; Despain, D.G.; Crabtree, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding fire behavior characteristics and planning for fire management require maps showing the distribution of wildfire fuel loads at medium to fine spatial resolution across large landscapes. Radar sensors from airborne or spaceborne platforms have the potential of providing quantitative information about the forest structure and biomass components that can be readily translated to meaningful fuel load estimates for fire management. In this paper, we used multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired over a large area of the Yellowstone National Park by the Airborne SAR sensor to estimate the distribution of forest biomass and canopy fuel loads. Semiempirical algorithms were developed to estimate crown and stem biomass and three major fuel load parameters, namely: 1) canopy fuel weight; 2) canopy bulk density; and 3) foliage moisture content. These estimates, when compared directly to measurements made at plot and stand levels, provided more than 70% accuracy and, when partitioned into fuel load classes, provided more than 85% accuracy. Specifically, the radar-generated fuel parameters were in good agreement with the field-based fuel measurements, resulting in coefficients of determination of R2 = 85 for the canopy fuel weight, R 2 = 0.84 for canopy bulk density, and R2 =0.78 for the foliage biomass. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  7. Quantitative structure-property relationship modeling of remote liposome loading of drugs.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Golbraikh, Alexander; Sedykh, Aleck; Tropsha, Alexander; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Goldblum, Amiram

    2012-06-10

    Remote loading of liposomes by trans-membrane gradients is used to achieve therapeutically efficacious intra-liposome concentrations of drugs. We have developed Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models of remote liposome loading for a data set including 60 drugs studied in 366 loading experiments internally or elsewhere. Both experimental conditions and computed chemical descriptors were employed as independent variables to predict the initial drug/lipid ratio (D/L) required to achieve high loading efficiency. Both binary (to distinguish high vs. low initial D/L) and continuous (to predict real D/L values) models were generated using advanced machine learning approaches and 5-fold external validation. The external prediction accuracy for binary models was as high as 91-96%; for continuous models the mean coefficient R(2) for regression between predicted versus observed values was 0.76-0.79. We conclude that QSPR models can be used to identify candidate drugs expected to have high remote loading capacity while simultaneously optimizing the design of formulation experiments.

  8. Quantitative Structure – Property Relationship Modeling of Remote Liposome Loading Of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cern, Ahuva; Golbraikh, Alexander; Sedykh, Aleck; Tropsha, Alexander; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Goldblum, Amiram

    2012-01-01

    Remote loading of liposomes by trans-membrane gradients is used to achieve therapeutically efficacious intra-liposome concentrations of drugs. We have developed Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models of remote liposome loading for a dataset including 60 drugs studied in 366 loading experiments internally or elsewhere. Both experimental conditions and computed chemical descriptors were employed as independent variables to predict the initial drug/lipid ratio (D/L) required to achieve high loading efficiency. Both binary (to distinguish high vs. low initial D/L) and continuous (to predict real D/L values) models were generated using advanced machine learning approaches and five-fold external validation. The external prediction accuracy for binary models was as high as 91–96%; for continuous models the mean coefficient R2 for regression between predicted versus observed values was 0.76–0.79. We conclude that QSPR models can be used to identify candidate drugs expected to have high remote loading capacity while simultaneously optimizing the design of formulation experiments. PMID:22154932

  9. Quantitative structure-property relationship modeling of remote liposome loading of drugs.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Golbraikh, Alexander; Sedykh, Aleck; Tropsha, Alexander; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Goldblum, Amiram

    2012-06-10

    Remote loading of liposomes by trans-membrane gradients is used to achieve therapeutically efficacious intra-liposome concentrations of drugs. We have developed Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models of remote liposome loading for a data set including 60 drugs studied in 366 loading experiments internally or elsewhere. Both experimental conditions and computed chemical descriptors were employed as independent variables to predict the initial drug/lipid ratio (D/L) required to achieve high loading efficiency. Both binary (to distinguish high vs. low initial D/L) and continuous (to predict real D/L values) models were generated using advanced machine learning approaches and 5-fold external validation. The external prediction accuracy for binary models was as high as 91-96%; for continuous models the mean coefficient R(2) for regression between predicted versus observed values was 0.76-0.79. We conclude that QSPR models can be used to identify candidate drugs expected to have high remote loading capacity while simultaneously optimizing the design of formulation experiments. PMID:22154932

  10. Evaluation of glycosylated docetaxel-encapsulated liposomes prepared by remote loading under solubility gradient.

    PubMed

    Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Zhai, Wenjia; Vaidyanath, Arun; Masuda, Junko; Mizutani, Akifumi; Kasai, Tomonari; Murakami, Hiroshi; Hamada, Hiroki; Salomon, David S; Mikuni, Katsuhiko; Seno, Yuhki; Mandai, Tadakatsu; Seno, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Docetaxel comprises one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs despite of serious side effects. Liposomes encapsulation is practically feasible to deliver the drug. However, due to the significant hydrophobicity, docetaxel will be integrated into the lipid bilayer resulting in poor encapsulation capacity. Here, we evaluated a remote loading strategy using a solubility gradient made between the two solvents for 7-glucosyloxyacetyldocetaxel, which has enhanced water solubility of docetaxel with a coupled glucose moiety. Therefore, 7-glucosyloxyacetyldocetaxel was more effectively encapsulated into liposomes with 71.0% of encapsulation efficiency than docetaxel. While 7-glucosyloxyacetyldocetaxel exhibited 90.9% of tubulin stabilisation activity of docetaxel, 7-glucosyloxyacetyldocetaxel encapsulated in liposomes significantly inhibited the growth of tumour in vivo with side effects less than unencapsulated drug. Collectively, the encapsulation of 7-glucosyloxyacetyldocetaxel into liposomes by remote loading under the solubility gradient is considered to be a promising application to prepare practical drug delivery system. PMID:26885749

  11. Remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes driven by a transmembrane phosphate gradient.

    PubMed

    Fritze, Andreas; Hens, Felicitas; Kimpfler, Andrea; Schubert, Rolf; Peschka-Süss, Regine

    2006-10-01

    This study examines a new method for the remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes. It was shown that doxorubicin can be loaded to a level of up to 98% into large unilamellar vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (7/3 mol/mol) with a transmembrane phosphate gradient. The different encapsulation efficiencies which were achieved with ammonium salts (citrate 100%, phosphate 98%, sulfate 95%, acetate 77%) were significantly higher as compared to the loading via sodium salts (citrate 54%, phosphate 52%, sulfate 44%, acetate 16%). Various factors, including pH-value, buffer capacity, solubility of doxorubicin in different salt solutions and base counter-flow, which likely has an influence on drug accumulation in the intraliposomal interior are taken into account. In contrast to other methods, the newly developed remote loading method exhibits a pH-dependent drug release property which may be effective in tumor tissues. At physiological pH-value doxorubicin is retained in the liposomes, whereas drug release is achieved by lowering the pH to 5.5 (approximately 25% release at 25 degrees C or 30% at 37 degrees C within two h). The DXR release of liposomes which were loaded via a sulfate gradient showed a maximum of 3% at pH 5.5.

  12. Reversible fastener clamp load monitor with continuous visual or remote readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Malcolm H.; Kausel, Theodore C., Jr.; Begley, Matthew R.

    1998-03-01

    SIMS has developed a simple means for detecting and monitoring both absolute and relative clamp load, or bolt tension, in fastener systems. More than twenty-five percent of automotive failures are known to be due to undetected loss of fastener clamp load. While the equivalent aerospace maintenance statistics are not known, the average automobile has 3,500 fasteners while a Boeing 747 has closer to one million. It is therefore anticipated that the new SensaBolt clamp load tracking system could find wide applications in the aerospace arena. We describe a visually-evident and retrofitted clamp load monitoring design which is based on the differential joint substrate compression at, and immediately adjacent to, the fastener location. This intrinsically-accurate indicator does not necessarily require alteration in either the bolt or nut geometries, thereby facilitating product introduction and retrofit in aging aircraft applications. In addition, SensaBolt's sole reliance on substrate compression renders it more accurate then torque wrench or turn-of-nut techniques. Readout may be accomplished by any of three principal methods: for those applications with ease of access to the sensor, loss of tension can be determined by direct visual inspection. Application of a standard wrench can then be made to restore the fastener's proper tightness, per the SensaBolt indicators. In those instances where line-of-sight is unimpeded and more formal inspection is desired, the SensaBolt may be interrogated by a laser scanner bar code reader. Finally, SensaBolt may be addressed by the SIMS fiber optic harness for those instances where full-time remote interrogation is desired.

  13. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  14. Remote loading of diclofenac, insulin and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled insulin into liposomes by pH and acetate gradient methods.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S H; Maitani, Y; Qi, X R; Takayama, K; Nagai, T

    1999-03-01

    Remote loading of the model drugs diclofenac, insulin and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled insulin (FITC-insulin) into liposomes by formation of transmembrane gradients were examined. A trapping efficiency of almost 100% was obtained for liposomal diclofenac, by the calcium acetate gradient method, whereas liposomes prepared by the conventional reverse-phase evaporation vesicle method had 1-8% trapping efficiencies. Soybean-derived sterol was a better stabilizer of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane than cholesterol, as shown from trapping efficiencies and drug release. The pH gradient method resulted in a 5-50% of FITC-insulin liposomal trapping efficiency, while insulin could not be loaded by this method. Liposomes released calcein in response to insulin, showing insulin interacts with the liposomal membrane in the presence of a transmembrane gradient. The present work has demonstrated a remote loading method for weak acids such as diclofenac into liposomes by the acetate gradient method. From the result of remote loading of FITC-insulin into liposomes by the pH gradient method, this method may be available for the preparation of liposomal peptides.

  15. Computer-aided design of liposomal drugs: In silico prediction and experimental validation of drug candidates for liposomal remote loading.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tropsha, Alexander; Goldblum, Amiram

    2014-01-10

    Previously we have developed and statistically validated Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models that correlate drugs' structural, physical and chemical properties as well as experimental conditions with the relative efficiency of remote loading of drugs into liposomes (Cern et al., J. Control. Release 160 (2012) 147-157). Herein, these models have been used to virtually screen a large drug database to identify novel candidate molecules for liposomal drug delivery. Computational hits were considered for experimental validation based on their predicted remote loading efficiency as well as additional considerations such as availability, recommended dose and relevance to the disease. Three compounds were selected for experimental testing which were confirmed to be correctly classified by our previously reported QSPR models developed with Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) approaches. In addition, 10 new molecules with known liposome remote loading efficiency that were not used by us in QSPR model development were identified in the published literature and employed as an additional model validation set. The external accuracy of the models was found to be as high as 82% or 92%, depending on the model. This study presents the first successful application of QSPR models for the computer-model-driven design of liposomal drugs.

  16. Computer-aided design of liposomal drugs: in silico prediction and experimental validation of drug candidates for liposomal remote loading

    PubMed Central

    Cern, Ahuva; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tropsha, Alexander; Goldblum, Amiram

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have developed and statistically validated Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models that correlate drugs’ structural, physical and chemical properties as well as experimental conditions with the relative efficiency of remote loading of drugs into liposomes (Cern et al, Journal of Controlled Release, 160(2012) 14–157). Herein, these models have been used to virtually screen a large drug database to identify novel candidate molecules for liposomal drug delivery. Computational hits were considered for experimental validation based on their predicted remote loading efficiency as well as additional considerations such as availability, recommended dose and relevance to the disease. Three compounds were selected for experimental testing which were confirmed to be correctly classified by our previously reported QSPR models developed with Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN) approaches. In addition, 10 new molecules with known liposome remote loading efficiency that were not used in QSPR model development were identified in the published literature and employed as an additional model validation set. The external accuracy of the models was found to be as high as 82% or 92%, depending on the model. This study presents the first successful application of QSPR models for the computer-model-driven design of liposomal drugs. PMID:24184343

  17. Heavy aerosol loading over the Bohai Bay as revealed by ground and satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Chen, Jing; Xia, Xiangao; Che, Huizheng; Fan, Xuehua; Xie, Yiyang; Han, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongbin; Lu, Daren

    2016-01-01

    Heavy aerosol loading over the Bohai Bay, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea, was often recorded by the satellite observations. In order to understand aerosol optical properties and potential causes for the high aerosol loading there, a Cimel sunphotometer station (BH) was established on an offshore platform over the Bay for the first time in June 2012. The aerosol optical properties between July 2012 and July 2013 were employed to validate the satellite retrievals and to characterize temporal variability of aerosol optical properties. In particular, aerosol optical properties at BH were compared with those at Beijing (BJ), an urban station of the North China Plain (NCP), to discuss their potential difference during the same months of the same years. Mean aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD) retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements over the Bohai Bay was 0.79 ± 0.68 during 2004-2013, that even exceeded value over the NCP (0.50 ± 0.57). This fact was supported by the comparison of ground-based remote sensing AODs at BH and BJ. The annual mean Cimel AOD at BH was 0.76 ± 0.62, which was larger than that at BJ (0.64 ± 0.52). The MODIS AOD difference between the Bohai Bay and the NCP was 0.29, being more than two times larger than the Cimel AOD difference between BH and BJ (0.12). This strongly implied that the MODIS retrievals had significant biases over the Bohai Bay that was likely due to sediment in the water and also sea ice in winter. A distinct seasonal variation of AOD was revealed over ocean. The maxima Cimel AOD was observed in summer (1.02 ± 0.75), which was followed by spring (0.86 ± 0.61), autumn (0.54 ± 0.41), and winter (0.39 ± 0.24); this was in good agreement with that over the NCP. High AOD over the Bohai Bay was associated with the heavy exhaust emissions from the ships across the Bay and transport of aerosols from the NCP. Furthermore, a much strong hygroscopic growth of fine mode aerosols over

  18. Using remotely sensed imagery to estimate potential annual pollutant loads in river basins.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Oki, Kazuo; Wang, Yi; Oki, Taikan

    2009-01-01

    Land cover changes around river basins have caused serious environmental degradation in global surface water areas, in which the direct monitoring and numerical modeling is inherently difficult. Prediction of pollutant loads is therefore crucial to river environmental management under the impact of climate change and intensified human activities. This research analyzed the relationship between land cover types estimated from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery and the potential annual pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. Then an empirical approach, which estimates annual pollutant loads directly from satellite imagery and hydrological data, was investigated. Six water quality indicators were examined, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), suspended sediment (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The pollutant loads of TN, TP, SS, BOD, COD, and DO were then estimated for 30 river basins in Japan. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. These results may be useful in establishing total maximum annual pollutant loads and developing best management strategies for surface water pollution at river basin scale.

  19. Inferring nutrient loading of estuarine systems by remote sensing of aquatic vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    THe use of remote sensing to record algal and vascular aquatic plant growths in estuarine waters is discussed. A technique is proposed that uses a combination of data to hierarchically classify watersheds with regard to severity of potential pollution. Specific nonpoint sources of nutrients in tributaries of the watershed are identified with lower altitude photography of vegetation and selected ground sampling. It is concluded that excessive growths of some aquatic plants may be related to nutrient pollution.

  20. Remote Loading of (64)Cu(2+) into Liposomes without the Use of Ion Transport Enhancers.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Jonas R; Petersen, Anncatrine L; Hansen, Anders E; Frankær, Christian G; Harris, Pernille; Elema, Dennis R; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Kjær, Andreas; Andresen, Thomas L

    2015-10-21

    Due to low ion permeability of lipid bilayers, it has been and still is common practice to use transporter molecules such as ionophores or lipophilic chelators to increase transmembrane diffusion rates and loading efficiencies of radionuclides into liposomes. Here, we report a novel and very simple method for loading the positron emitter (64)Cu(2+) into liposomes, which is important for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. By this approach, copper is added to liposomes entrapping a chelator, which causes spontaneous diffusion of copper across the lipid bilayer where it is trapped. Using this method, we achieve highly efficient (64)Cu(2+) loading (>95%), high radionuclide retention (>95%), and favorable loading kinetics, excluding the use of transporter molecule additives. Therefore, clinically relevant activities of 200-400 MBq/patient can be loaded fast (60-75 min) and efficiently into preformed stealth liposomes avoiding subsequent purification steps. We investigate the molecular coordination of entrapped copper using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and demonstrate high adaptability of the loading method to pegylated, nonpegylated, gel- or fluid-like, cholesterol rich or cholesterol depleted, cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic lipid compositions. We demonstrate high in vivo stability of (64)Cu-liposomes in a large canine model observing a blood circulation half-life of 24 h and show a tumor accumulation of 6% ID/g in FaDu xenograft mice using PET imaging. With this work, it is demonstrated that copper ions are capable of crossing a lipid membrane unassisted. This method is highly valuable for characterizing the in vivo performance of liposome-based nanomedicine with great potential in diagnostic imaging applications.

  1. Primary reaction control system/remote manipulator system interaction with loaded arm. Space shuttle engineering and operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E. C.; Davis, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the interaction between the orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) and the remote manipulator system (RMS) with a loaded arm is documented. This analysis was performed with the Payload Deployment and Retrieval Systems Simulation (PDRSS) program with the passive arm bending option. The passive-arm model simulates the arm as massless elastic links with locked joints. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was the evaluation of the response of the arm to step inputs (i.e. constant jet torques) about each of the orbiter body axes. The second part of the study was the evaluation of the response of the arm to minimum impulse primary RCS jet firings with both single pulse and pulse train inputs.

  2. Shoreline change of Chongming Dongtan and response to river sediment load: A remote sensing assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xing; Zhou, Yunxuan; Zhang, Lianpeng; Kuang, Runyuan

    2014-04-01

    Chongming Dongtan, located in the center of the Yangtze estuary, is a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance and National Nature Reserve. The dramatic decrease in river sediment load has attracted considerable scientific interest to this area, but few studies have paid attention to the shoreline dynamics. This study uses Landsat images spanning from 1987 to 2010 and an orthogonal transect method, which was previously developed by the authors, to model the spatial and temporal characteristics of shoreline change and explore its relationship to reduced river sediment load by use of regression analysis on three different spatial scales. Results show a general decrease in the average rates of shoreline change throughout the entire study period. The maximum average shoreline change rate of +115.5 m/year occurred in the 1987-1990 interval and the minimum rate of +20.4 m/year occurred from 2006 to 2008. Based on average rates of shoreline change, the coast of Dongtan was divided into three segments: the erosion segment, eastern accretion segment, and northern accretion segment. The temporal pattern of the northern accretion segment is almost completely opposite to that of the eastern accretion segment. The strongest-correlation transects are located on the northern side of the eastern tip of Dongtan and the next strongest transects are located on the south side. Other transects have a very low correlation. Transect 19 near the easternmost tip of Dongtan has a near zero correlation (r2 = 0.0045) but has the fastest accretion rate, and in general an increase in the shoreline change rate. The average rate of shoreline change and the net accretion area in Dongtan as a whole are significantly associated with sediment discharge at Datong Station (r2 = 0.69 and 0.75, respectively). This implies that shoreline accretion in Dongtan will probably slow down gradually, if the river sediment load continues to decrease in the future. The shoreline change rates achieved using our

  3. Modified Release and Improved Stability of Unstable BCS II Drug by Using Cyclodextrin Complex as Carrier To Remotely Load Drug into Niosomes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Liandi; Wu, Delin; Li, Zhuo; Zhang, Minmin; Liu, Hongchun; Wang, Caifen; Gui, Shuangying; Geng, Meiyu; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    In answering to the challenge of enzymatic unstability of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drugs, an effective remote loading strategy was developed to successfully incorporate the drug-cyclodextrin (CD) complex into niosomes to modify the release and stability of a drug candidate, pseudolaric acid B (PAB). Judged by binding constants, and combined solubilization effects of pH and CD complexation on PAB at different pH, the complex internalization driven by a transmembrane pH gradient (from 2.0 to 7.4) and the dynamic shifting of PAB-CD complexation equilibrium at this gradient were introduced. The transfer of PAB-CD complex into the internal aqueous phase of niosomes at 60 °C was primarily verified by synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The remote loading samples behaved as retarded release at pH 5.8, 6.8, and 7.4, for which the stability of PAB in rat plasma was significantly enhanced (about 8.1-fold), in comparison with niosomes prepared by the passive and lipid bilayer loading of PAB. The drug-carrier interaction based release modeling was further fitted, and the convection rate constant (ks) and free energy difference between free and bound states (ΔG) indicated the strongest PAB-carrier interactions in remote loading niosomes. The remote loading strategy also reduced the CD-cholesterol interaction and provided better physical stability of the system. In conclusion, the remote loading of drug-CD complex into niosomes provides advantages to modify the release and enhance the stability of unstable BCS class II drug. PMID:26569615

  4. A Rigorous Theory of Remote Loading of Drugs into Liposomes: Transmembrane Potential and Induced pH-Gradient Loading and Leakage of Liposomes

    PubMed

    Ceh; Lasic

    1997-01-01

    Many drugs are successfully loaded into preformed liposomes by using various gradients and transmembrane potential. Several experimental breakthroughs, however, have not been paralleled by theoretical understanding of the processes. Recently, we have developed a rigorous treatment of loading of weak acids and bases into liposomes. The model is based on equilibration of chemical potentials of permeable neutral species. Charged molecules are not allowed to permeate the membrane. Although this assumption is quite reasonable and experimental data fit the theoretical predictions rather well, we have extended the model of liposome loading. In the expanded model, terms which allow leakage of protons, buildup of the transmembrane pH gradient, an antiport exchange of various cations with protons, and leakage of other molecules from or into liposomes are added to the basic model.

  5. On the modeling of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance of high-sediment-load waters in the visible to shortwave-infrared domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Zhongping; Shang, Shaoling; Lin, Gong; Chen, Jun; Doxaran, David

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated three key components in modeling hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance in the visible to shortwave-infrared (Vis-SWIR) domain of high-sediment-load (HSL) waters, which are the relationship between remote-sensing reflectance (R(rs)) and inherent optical properties (IOPs), the absorption coefficient spectrum of pure water (a(w)) in the IR-SWIR region, and the spectral variation of sediment absorption coefficient (a(sed)). Results from this study indicate that it is necessary to use a more generalized R(rs)-IOP model to describe the spectral variation of R(rs) of HSL waters from Vis to SWIR; otherwise it may result in a spectrally distorted R(rs) spectrum if a constant model parameter is used. For hyperspectral a(w) in the IR-SWIR domain, the values reported in Kou et al. (1993) provided a much better match with the spectral variation of R(rs) in this spectral range compared to that of Segelstein (1981). For a(sed) spectrum, an empirical a(sed) spectral shape derived from sample measurements is found working much better than the traditional exponential-decay function of wavelength in modeling the spectral variation of R(rs) in the visible domain. These results would improve our understanding of the spectral signatures of R(rs) of HSL waters in the Vis-SWIR domain and subsequently improve the retrieval of IOPs from ocean color remote sensing, which could further help the estimation of sediment loading of such waters. Limitations in estimating chlorophyll concentration in such waters are also discussed.

  6. A g-load display for remotely piloted vehicles and other aircraft that are subject to maneuvering constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The absence of kinesthetic cues deprives RPV pilots of essential feedback, particularly during high speed maneuvers. A display was designed to facilitate pilot control of g loads and to permit an immediate indication of g-load constraint violations. The display embodies all the motion vector components that contribute to maneuvering accelerations. In one mode of operation, the device displays the components of angular velocity as variable length pointers emanating from the center of a circle whose radius is determined by the linear velocity of the vehicle. An alternative mode of operation permits the pilot to select a display in which g loads are presented directly as variable length pointers emanating from the center of a circle whose radius is again determined by the linear velocity of the vehicle. Each circle defines a safe region of operation, and penetration of the circumference of the appropriate circle by a pointer implies that the structural design load was exceeded.

  7. Derivation of a Remotely Sensed Index for Predicting the Nutrient Loading Potential from Land to Lakes on the Canadian Boreal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolniewicz, M. B.; Arzandeh, S.; Creed, I. F.; Creed, I. F.

    2001-12-01

    On the Boreal Plain, the boreal mixed-wood forest is characterized by complex drainage basins, with hydrologically organized to disorganized drainage networks. Within these drainage basins, surface saturated areas (SSAs) have been shown to be important in regulating nutrient loading to lakes. For example, nutrient loading may be low when SSAs are small and hydrologically disconnected from the drainage network, but nutrient loading may increase when SSAs expand and hydrologically connect to the lake. We sought to derive an INDEX of the hydrological connectedness of SSAs to lakes within Moose Lake, an experimental drainage basin on the Boreal Plain. A hydrologic analysis was conducted to capture hydrologic dynamics at inter-annual (LANDSAT TM, bands 2 and 5, 25 m spatial resolution) and intra-annual (RADARSAT S1, C-band, 5.3 GHz, HH-polarized, 12.5 m spatial resolution) scales. Based on this analysis, remotely sensed images were selected representing conditions ranging from very dry (Antecedent Moisture Index [AMI]=0-10 mm), dry (11-20 mm), moist (21-30 mm), wet (31-40 mm), to very wet (41-50 mm). For LANDSAT analyses, TM band (5) and hybrid bands (5/2, 2/5) were classified to derive maps of the INDEX and change detection techniques were applied to determine the variability in the INDEX under different AMI conditions. For RADARSAT analyses, images were grouped into different AMI categories. Once the radar backscatter was calibrated, a principal component analysis was performed on all images within each AMI category. The SSAs extracted from the principal components were used to generate the INDEX with respect to the size and organization of these areas. For both remote sensing platforms, the results were corroborated using reference data including ground-based observations. Image analyses indicated that during dry periods, SSAs were small and hydrologically disconnected from Moose Lake. As AMI increased, the SSAs expanded, creating a larger area of hydrologically

  8. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  9. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  10. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  11. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  12. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  13. Preparing, Loading and Shipping Irradiated Metals in Canisters Classified as Remote-Handled (RH) Low-Level Waste (LLW) From Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, B.C.; Moore, T.D.

    2006-07-01

    Irradiated metals, classified as remote-handled low-level waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were containerised in various sized canisters for long-term storage. The legacy waste canisters were placed in below-grade wells located at the 7827 Facility until a pathway for final disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) could be identified and approved. Once the pathway was approved, WESKEM, LLC was selected by Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC to prepare, load, and ship these canisters from ORNL to the NTS. This paper details some of the technical challenges encountered during the retrieval process and solutions implemented to ensure the waste was safely and efficiently over-packed and shipped for final disposal. The technical challenges detailed in this paper include: 1) how to best perform canister/lanyard pre-lift inspections since some canisters had not been moved in {approx}10 years, so deterioration was a concern; 2) replacing or removing damaged canister lanyards; 3) correcting a mis-cut waste canister lanyard resulting in a shielded overpack lid not seating properly; 4) retrieving a stuck canister; and 5) developing a path forward after an overstrained lanyard failed causing a well shield plug to fall and come in contact with a waste canister. Several of these methods can serve as positive lessons learned for other projects encountering similar situations. (authors)

  14. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic loading on a 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Wind-tunnel measurements were made of the wing-surface static-pressure distributions on a 0.237 scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle equipped with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing. Data are presented for two model configurations (with and without a ventral pod) at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.92 at angles of attack from -4 deg to 8 deg. Large variations of wing-surface local pressure distributions were developed; however, the characteristic supercritical-wing pressure distribution occurred near the design condition of 0.80 Mach number and 2 deg angle of attack. The significant variations of the local pressure distributions indicated pronounced shock-wave movements that were highly sensitive to angle of attack and Mach number. The effect of the vertical pod varied with test conditions; however at the higher Mach numbers, the effects on wing flow characteristics were significant at semispan stations as far outboard as 0.815. There were large variations of the wing loading in the range of test conditions, both model configurations exhibited a well-defined peak value of normal-force coefficient at the cruise angle of attack (2 deg) and Mach number (0.80).

  15. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  16. Remote viewing.

    PubMed

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  17. Remote Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Kover, Allan W.

    1978-01-01

    The steady growth of the Landsat image data base continues to make this kind of remotely sensed data second only to aerial photographs in use by geoscientists who employ image data in their research. Article reviews data uses, meetings and symposia, publications, problems, and future trends. (Author/MA)

  18. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  19. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  20. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  1. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  2. Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management and development of water resources. Summary of computers and computer growth trends for hydrologic modeling and the input of ERTS image data processing load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of current computer usage by major water resources users was made to determine the trends of usage and costs for the principal hydrologic users/models. The laws and empirical relationships governing the growth of the data processing loads were described and applied to project the future data loads. Data loads for ERTS CCT image processing were computed and projected through the 1985 era. The analysis showns significant impact due to the utilization and processing of ERTS CCT's data.

  3. A miniature remote deadweight calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Tcheng, Ping

    A miniature, computer-controlled, deadweight calibrator was developed to remotely calibrate a force transducer mounted in a cryogenic chamber. This simple mechanism allows automatic loading and unloading of deadweights placed onto a skin friction balance during calibrations. Equipment for the calibrator includes a specially designed set of five interlocking 200-milligram weights, a motorized lifting platform, and a controller box taking commands from a microcomputer on an IEEE interface. The computer is also used to record and reduce the calibration data and control other calibration parameters. The full-scale load for this device is 1,000 milligrams; however, the concept can be extended to accommodate other calibration ranges.

  4. Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  5. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  6. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  7. An Inexpensive Remote Sequential Air Sampler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, George A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes a remote air sampling device constructed of a number of spring loaded syringes which are released sequentially by the motion of a rotary mechanical timer. The unit can take accurate samples automatically and contain the samples without leakage for periods up to 18 hours in an outdoor environment. (SLH)

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  9. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  10. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  12. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  13. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF fills the canister with a mixture of high level radioactive waste and glass for permanent storage. Due to the radiation, remote equipment must perform PIP operations in a contained environment.

  14. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  15. Remote reset circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russell E.

    1987-01-01

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-alone monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients.

  16. Remote reset circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, R.E.

    1985-09-12

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-along monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients. 4 figs.

  17. Laser remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1987-01-01

    The properties and advantages of remote sensing lasers are discussed. The theory of nonresonant techniques, which is based on the lidar equation and elastic backscatter, and their applications to aerosol and meteorological parameters are examined. The characteristics and applications of the differential absorption lidar technique, the fluorescence technique, and Raman scattering are described. The use of a laser heterodyne radiometer and fiber optics for remote sensing is studied. Future developments in the field of remote sensing, in particular the improvement of laser sources, the fabrication of compact remote sensing instruments, and space-borne applications for lidar, are considered.

  18. Remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the major conclusions and recommendations developed by the panels on gaseous air pollution, water pollution, and particulate air pollution is presented. It becomes evident that many of the trace gases are amenable to remote sensing; that certain water pollutants can be measured by remote techniques, but their number is limited; and that a similar approach to the remote measurement of specific particulate pollutants will follow only after understanding of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties is improved. It is also clear that remote sensing can provide essential information in all three categories that can not be obtained by any other means.

  19. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  20. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  1. Blade Manufacturing Improvement: Remote Blade Manufacturing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate manufacturing improvements for wind turbine blades. The program included a series of test activities to evaluate the strength, deflection, performance, and loading characteristics of the prototype blades. The original contract was extended in order to continue development of several key blade technologies identified in the project. The objective of the remote build task was to demonstrate the concept of manufacturing wind turbine blades at a temporary manufacturing facility in a rural environment. TPI Composites successfully completed a remote manufacturing demonstration in which four blades were fabricated. The remote demonstration used a manufacturing approach which relied upon material ''kits'' that were organized in the factory and shipped to the site. Manufacturing blades at the wind plant site presents serious logistics difficulties and does not appear to be the best approach. A better method appears to be regional manufacturing facilities, which will eliminate most of the transportation cost, without incurring the logistical problems associated with fabrication directly onsite. With this approach the remote facilities would use commonly available industrial infrastructure such as enclosed workbays, overhead cranes, and paved staging areas. Additional fatigue testing of the M20 root stud design was completed with good results. This design provides adhesive bond strength under fatigue loading that exceeds that of the fastener. A new thru-stud bonding concept was developed for the M30 stud design. This approach offers several manufacturing advantages; however, the test results were inconclusive.

  2. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  3. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  4. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  5. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  6. Remote Learning: Technologies & Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turoff, Murray; Hiltz, Starr, Roxanne

    This discussion of the potential for computerized conferencing as the first cost effective technology for the delivery of a classroom environment in a remote learning situation begins by comparing remote learning modes and reviewing various educational experiments that have used the Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES) during the…

  7. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  8. APPLIED REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...

  9. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  10. Remote vehicle survey tool

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-05-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs.

  11. Remote vehicle survey tool

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L. ); Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs.

  12. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  13. Current limiting remote power control module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    The power source for the Space Station Freedom will be fully utilized nearly all of the time. As such, any loads on the system will need to operate within expected limits. Should any load draw an inordinate amount of power, the bus voltage for the system may sag and disrupt the operation of other loads. To protect the bus and loads some type of power interface between the bus and each load must be provided. This interface is most crucial when load faults occur. A possible system configuration is presented. The proposed interface is the Current Limiting Remote Power Controller (CL-RPC). Such an interface should provide the following power functions: limit overloading and resulting undervoltage; prevent catastrophic failure and still provide for redundancy management within the load; minimize cable heating; and provide accurate current measurement. A functional block diagram of the power processing stage of a CL-RPC is included. There are four functions that drive the circuit design: rate control of current; current sensing; the variable conductance switch (VCS) technology; and the algorithm used for current limiting. Each function is discussed separately.

  14. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.

  15. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  16. Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Loading Tool (MDMLT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Lenox Allen; Hale, Elizabeth; Martella, Robert; Gyorfi, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the MDMLT is to improve the reliability and speed of loading multiplexers/demultiplexers (MDMs) in the Software Development and Integration Laboratory (SDIL) by automating the configuration management (CM) of the loads in the MDMs, automating the loading procedure, and providing the capability to load multiple or all MDMs concurrently. This loading may be accomplished in parallel, or single MDMs (remote). The MDMLT is a Web-based tool that is capable of loading the entire International Space Station (ISS) MDM configuration in parallel. It is able to load Flight Equivalent Units (FEUs), enhanced, standard, and prototype MDMs as well as both EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) and SSMMU (Solid State Mass Memory Unit) (MASS Memory). This software has extensive configuration management to track loading history, and the performance improvement means of loading the entire ISS MDM configuration of 49 MDMs in approximately 30 minutes, as opposed to 36 hours, which is what it took previously utilizing the flight method of S-Band uplink. The laptop version recently added to the MDMLT suite allows remote lab loading with the CM of information entered into a common database when it is reconnected to the network. This allows the program to reconfigure the test rigs quickly between shifts, allowing the lab to support a variety of onboard configurations during a single day, based on upcoming or current missions. The MDMLT Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) supports a Web-based command and control interface to the user. An interface to the SDIL File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server is supported to import Integrated Flight Loads (IFLs) and Internal Product Release Notes (IPRNs) into the database. An interface to the Monitor and Control System (MCS) is supported to control the power state, and to enable or disable the debug port of the MDMs to be loaded. Two direct interfaces to the MDM are supported: a serial interface (debug port) to

  17. Applications of remote sensing to hydrologic planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loats, H., Jr.; Fowler, T.; Castruccio, P.

    1978-01-01

    The transfer of LANDSAT remote sensing technology from the research sector to user operational applications requires demonstration of the utility and accuracy of LANDSAT data in solving real problems. This report describes such a demonstration project in the area of water resources, specifically the estimation of non-point source pollutant loads. Non-point source pollutants were estimated from land cover data from LANDSAT images. Classification accuracies for three small watersheds were above 95%. Land cover was converted to pollutant loads for a fourth watershed through the use of coefficients relating significant pollutants to land use and storm runoff volume. These data were input into a simulator model which simulated runoff from average rainfall. The result was the estimation of monthly expected pollutant loads for the 17 subbasins comprising the Magothy watershed.

  18. Remote hydrogen sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Cortes L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate remote hydrogen sensing methodologies utilizing metal oxide semi-conductor field effect transistors (MOS-FET) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies and combinations thereof.

  19. Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Remotely sensed data allows archeologists and historic preservationists the ability to non-destructively detect phenomena previously unobservable to them. Archeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provides the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are radically altering survey, inventory, and modelling approaches.

  20. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  1. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  2. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  3. Remote Access Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Remote Access Astronomy Project, a computerized optical telescope and dial-in data distribution system that places high-quality images and image processing techniques into computer workstations in junior and high school classrooms. (PR)

  4. Energy and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    Effective implementation of the President's National Energy Plan and the Nuclear Power Policy Statement require application of the best remote sensing tools available. The potential contributions of remote sensing, particularly LANDSAT data, have yet to be clearly identified and exploited. These contributions investigated fall into the following categories: (1) exploration; (2) exploitation; (3) power plant siting; (4) environmental assessment and monitoring; and (5) transportation infrastructure.

  5. Thermal Remote Anemometer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Miller, William E.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Remote Anemometer Device developed for remote, noncontacting, passive measurement of thermal properties of sample. Model heated locally by scanning laser beam and cooled by wind in tunnel. Thermal image of model analyzed to deduce pattern of airflow around model. For materials applications, system used for evaluation of thin films and determination of thermal diffusivity and adhesive-layer contact. For medical applications, measures perfusion through skin to characterize blood flow and used to determine viabilities of grafts and to characterize tissues.

  6. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris; Larson, David

    1997-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  7. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  8. System for remotely servicing a top loading captive ball valve

    DOEpatents

    Berry, S.M.; Porter, M.L.

    1996-06-25

    An attachment for facilitating servicing of a valve is disclosed including: an assembly composed of a valve seat defining a flow path, a flow control member movable relative to the valve seat for blocking or unblocking the valve seat, and a control device including a stem coupled to the flow control member and operable for moving the flow control member relative to the valve seat; a housing for receiving the assembly, the housing having an opening via which the assembly can be removed from, and installed in, the housing, and the housing having a plurality of threaded studs which surround the opening and project away from the housing; a valve housing cover for closing and sealing the opening in the housing, the cover having a first bore for passage of the stem of the control device when the assembly is installed in the housing and a plurality of second bores each located for passage of a respective stud when the cover closes the opening in the housing. A plurality of threaded nuts are engageable with the studs for securing the cover to the housing when the cover closes the opening in the housing, wherein the attachment comprises: a plurality of nut guide devices removable from the housing and each operatively associated with a respective stud for retaining a respective nut and guiding the respective nut into alignment with the respective stud to enable the respective nut to be rotated into engagement with the respective stud; and aligning the nut guide devices with the studs. 7 figs.

  9. System for remotely servicing a top loading captive ball valve

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Stephen M.; Porter, Matthew L.

    1996-01-01

    An attachment for facilitating servicing of a valve, the valve including: an assembly composed of a valve seat defining a flow path, a flow control member movable relative to the valve seat for blocking or unblocking the valve seat, and a control device including a stem coupled to the flow control member and operable for moving the flow control member relative to the valve seat; a housing for receiving the assembly, the housing having an opening via which the assembly can be removed from, and installed in, the housing, and the housing having a plurality of threaded studs which surround the opening and project away from the housing; a valve housing cover for closing and sealing the opening in the housing, the cover having a first bore for passage of the stem of the control device when the assembly is installed in the housing and a plurality of second bores each located for passage of a respective stud when the cover closes the opening in the housing. A plurality of threaded nuts are engageable with the studs for securing the cover to the housing when the cover closes the opening in the housing, wherein the attachment comprises: a plurality of nut guide devices removable from the housing and each operatively associated with a respective stud for retaining a respective nut and guiding the respective nut into alignment with the respective stud to enable the respective nut to be rotated into engagement with the respective stud; and aligning the nut guide devices with the studs.

  10. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  11. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  12. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  13. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  14. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  15. "Jamaicanizing" the Mednick Remote Associates Test of Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marlene A.

    1982-01-01

    The validity of a culture-specific modification/adaptation of the Remote Associates Test (RAT) made for Jamaica was examined with other measures of creativity in 11th grade students. Factor analysis showed the Jamaican RAT loading with the Circles Test on an apparent fluency factor of creativity. (Author/CM)

  16. One-shot valve may be remotely actuated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kami, S.

    1965-01-01

    One-shot valve, with spring-loaded plunger and sealing diaphragm, incorporates an emergency release actuated by a remote sensor. The plunger is released by the electrical melting of a fuse link and pierces the valve seal. The valve lowers fluid pressure in a container without losing the contained fluid.

  17. LabVIEW Serial Driver Software for an Electronic Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scullin, Vincent; Garcia, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A LabVIEW-language computer program enables monitoring and control of a Transistor Devices, Inc., Dynaload WCL232 (or equivalent) electronic load via an RS-232 serial communication link between the electronic load and a remote personal computer. (The electronic load can operate at constant voltage, current, power consumption, or resistance.) The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) at the computer that looks and acts like the front panel of the electronic load. Once the electronic load has been placed in remote-control mode, this program first queries the electronic load for the present values of all its operational and limit settings, and then drops into a cycle in which it reports the instantaneous voltage, current, and power values in displays that resemble those on the electronic load while monitoring the GUI images of pushbuttons for control actions by the user. By means of the pushbutton images and associated prompts, the user can perform such operations as changing limit values, the operating mode, or the set point. The benefit of this software is that it relieves the user of the need to learn one method for operating the electronic load locally and another method for operating it remotely via a personal computer.

  18. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang; Hegland, Joel E.; Jones, Scott C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  19. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  20. Remote water monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Haynes, D. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A remote water monitoring system is described that integrates the functions of sampling, sample preservation, sample analysis, data transmission and remote operation. The system employs a floating buoy carrying an antenna connected by lines to one or more sampling units containing several sample chambers. Receipt of a command signal actuates a solenoid to open an intake valve outward from the sampling unit and communicates the water sample to an identifiable sample chamber. Such response to each signal receipt is repeated until all sample chambers are filled in a sample unit. Each sample taken is analyzed by an electrochemical sensor for a specific property and the data obtained is transmitted to a remote sending and receiving station. Thereafter, the samples remain isolated in the sample chambers until the sampling unit is recovered and the samples removed for further laboratory analysis.

  1. Remote connector development study

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    Plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) connectors, the most common connectors used at the Hanford site, offer a certain level of flexibility in pipe routing, process system configuration, and remote equipment/instrument replacement. However, these desirable features have inherent shortcomings like leakage, high pressure drop through the right angle bends, and a limited range of available pipe diameters that can be connect by them. Costs for construction, maintenance, and operation of PUREX connectors seem to be very high. The PUREX connector designs include a 90{degree} bend in each connector. This increases the pressure drop and erosion effects. Thus, each jumper requires at least two 90{degree} bends. PUREX connectors have not been practically used beyond 100 (4 in.) inner diameter. This study represents the results of a survey on the use of remote pipe-connection systems in US and foreign plants. This study also describes the interdependence between connectors, remote handling equipment, and the necessary skills of the operators.

  2. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  3. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  4. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  5. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  6. Remote I/O : fast access to distant storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kohr, D., Jr.; Krishnaiyer, R.; Mogill, J.

    1997-12-17

    As high-speed networks make it easier to use distributed resources, it becomes increasingly common that applications and their data are not colocated. Users have traditionally addressed this problem by manually staging data to and from remote computers. We argue instead for a new remote I/O paradigm in which programs use familiar parallel I/O interfaces to access remote file systems. In addition to simplifying remote execution, remote I/O can improve performance relative to staging by overlapping computation and data transfer or by reducing communication requirements. However, remote I/O also introduces new technical challenges in the areas of portability, performance, and integration with distributed computing systems. We propose techniques designed to address these challenges and describe a remote I/O library called RIO that we have developed to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques. RIO addresses issues of portability by adopting the quasi-standard MPI-IO interface and by defining a RIO device and RIO server within the ADIO abstract I/O device architecture. It addresses performance issues by providing traditional I/O optimizations such as asynchronous operations and through implementation techniques such as buffering and message forwarding to off load communication overheads. RIO uses the Nexus communication library to obtain access to configuration and security mechanisms provided by the Globus wide area computing tool kit. Microbenchmarks and application experiments demonstrate that our techniques achieve acceptable performance in most situations and can improve turnaround time relative to staging.

  7. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  8. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  9. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  10. Remote Access Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul

    2003-01-01

    There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this…

  11. Remote systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R.; Schaefer, O.; Hussey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Potential space missions of the nineties and the next century require that we look at the broad category of remote systems as an important means to achieve cost-effective operations, exploration and colonization objectives. This paper addresses such missions, which can use remote systems technology as the basis for identifying required capabilities which must be provided. The relationship of the space-based tasks to similar tasks required for terrestrial applications is discussed. The development status of the required technology is assessed and major issues which must be addressed to meet future requirements are identified. This includes the proper mix of humans and machines, from pure teleoperation to full autonomy; the degree of worksite compatibility for a robotic system; and the required design parameters, such as degrees-of-freedom. Methods for resolution are discussed including analysis, graphical simulation and the use of laboratory test beds. Grumman experience in the application of these techniques to a variety of design issues are presented utilizing the Telerobotics Development Laboratory which includes a 17-DOF robot system, a variety of sensing elements, Deneb/IRIS graphics workstations and control stations. The use of task/worksite mockups, remote system development test beds and graphical analysis are discussed with examples of typical results such as estimates of task times, task feasibility and resulting recommendations for design changes. The relationship of this experience and lessons-learned to future development of remote systems is also discussed.

  12. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  13. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  14. Remote Inspection Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

  15. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  16. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  17. Remote Services, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    The Remote Services, Inc. (RSI) case is designed as an extensible, database design and implementation project. The case is designed in two primary components: design and implementation. The design component of the case allows students to evaluate a scenario that is similar to a real-world business situation and create an appropriate design…

  18. Remote Sensing and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.

  19. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  20. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  1. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  2. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  3. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  4. Interfacing with Legacy using Remote Method Invocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    The assignment described was enough to make a neophyte Java developer bolt for the door: provide a remote method for use by an applet which invokes a native method that wraps a function in an existing legacy library. The purpose of the remote method is to return an instance of a class object whose contents reflect the data structure returned by the legacy function. While embroiled in implementation, I would have spent the time wading through their JNI use group archive as well, but I couldn't seem to locate one. Subsequently, I made the decision to try to document my findings in order to assist others. Before we start on the class design, let's look at what the existing legacy code does. The C function to be called, Get-Legacy-Data, consists of two steps: an ASII file is read from the local disk and its contents are parsed into a Legacy_Type structure whose address is passed as an argument by the caller. The legacy code was compiled into a shared object library, legacy. so, using the IRIX 6.2 compiler and then loaded onto the Web server, a Silicon Graphics Indy station loaded with the IRIX 6.4 operating system. As far as the class design is concerned, the first thing required is a class to act as a template for the data structure returned by the legacy function. This class, JLegacy, declares a series of public instance variables which correspond to the members of Legacy_Type and provides a parameterless constructor. This constructor is never called, not even by the native method which allocates the object for return to the remote method. Next, the remote interface declaration for the remote object must be defined. In order for JLegacyRO to implement getJLegacy, JLegacyRO must interface with the existing legacy code through a native method, getn. getn is declared in the JLegacyRO class but implemented in C, just like the legacy code. getn returns a JLegacy instance and is declared static since its implementation is the same for all instances of the JLegacyRO class.

  5. Remote Ischemic Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Heusch, Gerd; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Przyklenk, Karin; Redington, Andrew; Yellon, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) brief, reversible episodes of ischemia with reperfusion in one vascular bed, tissue or organ confer a global protective phenotype and render remote tissues and organs resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The peripheral stimulus can be chemical, mechanical or electrical and involves activation of peripheral sensory nerves. The signal transfer to the heart or other organs is through neuronal and humoral communications. Protection can be transferred, even across species, with plasma-derived dialysate and involves nitric oxide, stromal derived factor-1α, microRNA-144, but also other, not yet identified factors. Intracardiac signal transduction involves: adenosine, bradykinin, cytokines, and chemokines, which activate specific receptors; intracellular kinases; and mitochondrial function. RIC by repeated brief inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff protects against endothelial dysfunction and myocardial injury in percutaneous coronary interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting and reperfused acute myocardial infarction. RIC is safe and effective, noninvasive, easily feasible and inexpensive. PMID:25593060

  6. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  7. Remote surface inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S.; Balaram, J.; Seraji, H.; Kim, W. S.; Tso, K.; Prasad, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going research and development effort in remote surface inspection of space platforms such as the Space Station Freedom (SSF). It describes the space environment and identifies the types of damage for which to search. This paper provides an overview of the Remote Surface Inspection System that was developed to conduct proof-of-concept demonstrations and to perform experiments in a laboratory environment. Specifically, the paper describes three technology areas: (1) manipulator control for sensor placement; (2) automated non-contact inspection to detect and classify flaws; and (3) an operator interface to command the system interactively and receive raw or processed sensor data. Initial findings for the automated and human visual inspection tests are reported.

  8. Evapotranspiration and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Gurney, R.

    1982-01-01

    There are three things required for evapotranspiration to occur: (1) energy (580 cal/gm) for the change of phase of the water; (2) a source of the water, i.e., adequate soil moisture in the surface layer or in the root zone of the plant; and (3) a sink for the water, i.e., a moisture deficit in the air above the ground. Remote sensing can contribute information to the first two of these conditions by providing estimates of solar insolation, surface albedo, surface temperature, vegetation cover, and soil moisture content. In addition there have been attempts to estimate precipitation and shelter air temperature from remotely sensed data. The problem remains to develop methods for effectively using these sources of information to make large area estimates of evapotranspiration.

  9. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  10. EVA assembly and release of highly loaded bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmstead, Jim; Barker, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The modification of a multi-jackbolt mechanism, Superbolt(TM), for on-orbit release of highly loaded bolts is described. Preload and release test data demonstrate that modification of a commercial product produced a solution for the deployment of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) that was less expensive, faster, and lighter than other alternatives. Using the Superbolt design, virtually unlimited bolt loads can be applied or released with a standard wrench.

  11. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Progress report on remote sensing of Earth terrain covering the period from Jan. to June 1993 is presented. Areas of research include: radiative transfer model for active and passive remote sensing of vegetation canopy; polarimetric thermal emission from rough ocean surfaces; polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors; polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces; layer model with tandom spheriodal scatterers for remote sensing of vegetation canopy; application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated mie scatterers with size distributions and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  12. REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

    2007-11-13

    Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

  13. Remote Maintenance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Richard C.; Simkins, Lorenz; Rochette, Donn

    1990-01-01

    Automated system gives new life to aging network of computers. Remote maintenance monitoring system developed to diagnose problems in large distributed computer network. Consists of data links, displays, controls, software, and more than 200 computers. Uses sensors to collect data on failures and expert system to examine data, diagnose causes of failures, and recommend cures. Designed to be retrofitted into launch processing system at Kennedy Space Center. Reduces downtime, lowers workload and expense of maintenance, and makes network less dependent on human expertise.

  14. Remote terminal system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. L.; Grams, H. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.; Schwingendorf, S. K.; Swain, P. H.; Simmons, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Earth Resources Data Processing System was developed to evaluate the system for training, technology transfer, and data processing. In addition to the five sites included in this project two other sites were connected to the system under separate agreements. The experience of these two sites is discussed. The results of the remote terminal project are documented in seven reports: one from each of the five project sites, Purdue University, and an overview report summarizing the other six reports.

  15. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects concerning the development and application of remote sensors are discussed. Some of the research projects conducted are as follows: (1) aerial photographic inventory of natural resources, (2) detection of buried river channels, (3) delineation of interconnected waterways, (4) plant indicators of atmospheric pollution, and (5) techniques for data transfer from photographs to base maps. On-going projects involving earth resources analyses are described.

  16. Internet Based Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James

    1999-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Internet Based Remote Operations Contract, has performed payload operations research support tasks March 1999 through September 1999. These tasks support the GSD goal of developing a secure, inexpensive data, voice, and video mission communications capability between remote payload investigators and the NASA payload operations team in the International Space Station (ISS) era. AZTek has provided feedback from the NASA payload community by utilizing its extensive payload development and operations experience to test and evaluate remote payload operations systems. AZTek has focused on use of the "public Internet" and inexpensive, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Internet-based tools that would most benefit "small" (e.g., $2 Million or less) payloads and small developers without permanent remote operations facilities. Such projects have limited budgets to support installation and development of high-speed dedicated communications links and high-end, custom ground support equipment and software. The primary conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The trend of using Internet technology for "live" collaborative applications such as telescience will continue. The GSD-developed data and voice capabilities continued to work well over the "public" Internet during this period. 2. Transmitting multiple voice streams from a voice-conferencing server to a client PC to be mixed and played on the PC is feasible. 3. There are two classes of voice vendors in the market: - Large traditional phone equipment vendors pursuing integration of PSTN with Internet, and Small Internet startups.The key to selecting a vendor will be to find a company sufficiently large and established to provide a base voice-conferencing software product line for the next several years.

  17. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  18. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, Frederick K.; Wilkinson, Jay C.; Wooding, David R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  19. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-12-16

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs.

  20. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  1. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  2. Remote instrument telemaintenance.

    PubMed

    Laugier, A; Allahwerdi, N; Baudin, J; Gaffney, P; Grimson, W; Groth, T; Schilders, L

    1996-07-01

    In the past decade, great technological progress has been made in telemaintenance of mainframe and mini computers. As hardware technology is now available at an acceptable cost, computer aided trouble-shooting can be adapted to laboratory instrumentation in order to significantly improve repair time, avoid instrument downtime by taking advantage of predictive methods, and provide general diagnostic assistance. Depending on the size of the instrument, the telemaintenance facility can be dedicated to a single instrument or alternatively a telemaintenance server can manage multiple distributed small instruments through a Local Area Network. As complex failures can occur, the local diagnosis capabilities may be exceeded and automatic dialing for connection to computerized Remote Maintenance Centers is needed. The main advantages of such a centre, as compared to local diagnosis systems, are the increased access to more information and experience of failures from instrument installations, and consequently the provision of training data updates for Artificial Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Systems in general. When an abnormal situation is detected or anticipated by a diagnosis module, an automatic alert is given to the user, local diagnosis is activated, and for simple solutions, instructions are given to the operator. In the last resort, a human expert can be alerted who, with remote control tools, can attend to the failures. For both local and remote trouble-shooting, the data provided by the instrument and connected workstation is of paramount importance for the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis. Equally, the importance of standardization of telemaintenance communication protocols is addressed.

  3. Remote Chemical Detection using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2006-02-01

    The Infrared Technologies Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. The program is focusing on the infrared detection of gaseous species including chemical warfare agents and gases associated with the production of chemical and nuclear weapons. Several sensors under development are based on miniature infrared quantum cascade (QC) lasers constructed of semiconductor material. The QC laser is unique in that by simply changing the thickness of the semiconductor layers, the laser's wavelength can be changed to target molecular absorption features of specific chemicals. For remote sensing over long optical paths, QC lasers are applied to remote areas using the differential-absorption LIDAR technique. Using a single laser, this technique can easily monitor large areas that would require a large network of point sensors. The original remote sensing configuration, suitable for laboratory applications, consisted of an optical table, laser, beam expander, telescope, mirror, and various supporting electronic and optical components. Recently, PNNL began development of a ruggedized version to conduct experiments in real-world conditions. To reduce the effects of thermal distortion, the system had to be operated from within a large, well insulated, temperature-controlled trailer. The optical breadboard was attached to 4 shock-mounts to reduce shock and vibrational loads to the optical set-up during transport. A custom jacking system using electromechanical actuators was designed to affix the optical table directly to the ground through penetrations in the trailer floor. The jacking system allows remote sensing at longer ranges (up to 5 km) by eliminating jitter caused by wind or personnel movement within the trailer. A computer-controlled gimbal-mounted mirror was added to allow the laser beam to be accurately pointed in both the

  4. Remote robotic countermine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Peter

    2010-04-01

    QinetiQ North America (QNA) has approximately 27 years experience in the mine/countermine mission area. Our expertise covers mine development, detection, and neutralization and has always been intertwined with deployment of remote robotic systems. Our countermine payload systems have been used to detect limpet mines on ship hulls, antiassault mines in shallow water and littoral zones and currently for clearance and render safe of land-based routes. In our talk, we will address the challenges encountered in addressing the ongoing countermine mission over a diverse range of operational scenarios, environmental conditions and strategic priorities.

  5. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R. A., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A syllabus and training materials prepared and used in a series of one-day workshops to introduce modern remote sensing technology to selected groups of professional personnel in Vermont are described. Success in using computer compatible tapes, LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs is reported for the following applications: (1) mapping defoliation of hardwood forests by tent caterpillar and gypsy moth; (2) differentiating conifer species; (3) mapping ground cover of major lake and pond watersheds; (4) inventorying and locating artificially regenerated conifer forest stands; (5) mapping water quality; (6) ascertaining the boat population to quantify recreational activity on lakes and waterways; and (7) identifying potential aquaculture sites.

  6. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  7. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  8. REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, J.C.

    1959-02-01

    An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

  9. Remote measurement of cognitive stress via heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    McDuff, Daniel; Gontarek, Sarah; Picard, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Remote detection of cognitive load has many powerful applications, such as measuring stress in the workplace. Cognitive tasks have an impact on breathing and heart rate variability (HRV). We show that changes in physiological parameters during cognitive stress can be captured remotely (at a distance of 3m) using a digital camera. A study (n=10) was conducted with participants at rest and under cognitive stress. A novel five band digital camera was used to capture videos of the face of the participant. Significantly higher normalized low frequency HRV components and breathing rates were measured in the stress condition when compared to the rest condition. Heart rates were not significantly different between the two conditions. We built a person-independent classifier to predict cognitive stress based on the remotely detected physiological parameters (heart rate, breathing rate and heart rate variability). The accuracy of the model was 85% (35% greater than chance). PMID:25570611

  10. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  11. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  12. Load forecasting by ANN

    SciTech Connect

    Highley, D.D.; Hilmes, T.J. )

    1993-07-01

    This article discusses the use and training of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for load forecasting. The topics of the article include a brief overview of neural networks, interest in ANNs, training of neural networks, a case study in load forecasting, and the potential for using an artificial neural network to perform short-term load forecasting.

  13. Discharge circuits and loads

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-10-15

    This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

  14. Solar maximum mission panel jettison analysis remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of the development of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) configurations for jettison of the solar panels on the Solar Maximum Mission/Multimission Satellite. A valid RMS maneuver between jettison configurations was developed. Arm and longeron loads and effector excursions due to the solar panel jettison were determined to see if they were within acceptable limits. These loads and end effector excursions were analyzed under two RMS modes, servos active in position hold submode, and in the brakes on mode.

  15. Managing Meetings...Remotely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Remote meetings are best for updates and information sharing, but it is possible to effectively facilitate decisions with a little planning. Generally, the meeting leader needs to clearly state the proposed decision and then separately poll each participant for concurrence. Normally, there will be a range of responses, requiring the facilitator to restate the proposal and repeat the process. Several iterations may be required before a consensus is achieved. I usually confirm decisions by restating the conclusion as it will appear in the meeting notes and asking the participants to express any objections. Gaining commitment to follow-up actions is never easy, of course, but tends to be particularly tricky in remote meetings. The ideal solution is to use collaboration software with a whiteboard as a means of recording the follow-up actions and responsibilities. (A Word or Excel document viewed through NetMeeting works equally well.) But if the meeting is being conducted without collaboration software, the leader must review each follow-up action explicitly, even painstakingly. I generally note follow-up actions throughout the meeting and use the last few minutes to confirm and finalize. I read each action and name the person I think owns the responsibility. When the person accepts, I validate by asking for a completion date. All the normal rules for assigning follow-up actions apply, of course. One, and only one, person must be responsible for each action, and assigning an action to somebody not present is akin to assigning it to nobody.

  16. Remotely operated pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Josefiak, Leonard J.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely assembling and disassembling a Graylock type coctor between a pipe and a closure for the pipe includes a base and a receptacle on the base for the closure. The pipe is moved into position vertically above the closure by a suitable positioning device such that the flange on the pipe is immediately adjacent and concentric with the flange on the closure. A moving device then moves two semicircular collars from a position free of the closure to a position such that the interior cam groove of each collar contacts the two flanges. Finally, a tensioning device automatically allows remote tightening and loosening of a nut and bolt assembly on each side of the collar to cause a seal ring located between the flanges to be compressed and to seal the closure. Release of the pipe and the connector is accomplished in the reverse order. Preferably, the nut and bolt assembly includes an elongate shaft portion on which a removable sleeve is located.

  17. Compact, Stiff, Remotely-Actuable Quick-Release Clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Ted W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a clamp that is compact and lightweight, yet provides high holding strength and stiffness or rigidity. The clamp uses a unique double slant interface design which provides mechanical advantages to resist forces applied to the clamp member as the load increases. The clamp allows for rapid and remote-activated release of the clamp jaws by applying only a small operating force to an over-center lock/release mechanism, such as by pulling a manual tether.

  18. Load Model Data Tool

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  19. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  20. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  1. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  2. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  3. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  4. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Shin, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts from 46 refereed journal and conference papers are presented for research on remote sensing of earth terrain. The topics covered related to remote sensing include the following: mathematical models, vegetation cover, sea ice, finite difference theory, electromagnetic waves, polarimetry, neural networks, random media, synthetic aperture radar, electromagnetic bias, and others.

  5. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  6. Remote Authentication: The Obvia Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckley, Tami-Jo

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on Obvia Corporation, a New York-based company that offers remote data access (RDA) through a server software system allowing for an easy, controllable, cost-effective management solution to the remote access problem. Using Obvia's RDA service, librarians can focus on administrative and professional decisions and spend more…

  7. Overview of the NASA tropospheric environmental quality remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allario, F.; Ayers, W. G.; Hoell, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper will summarize the current NASA Tropospheric Environmental Quality Remote Sensing Program for studying the global and regional troposphere from space, airborne and ground-based platforms. As part of the program to develop remote sensors for utilization from space, NASA has developed a series of passive and active remote sensors which have undergone field test measurements from airborne and ground platforms. Recent measurements with active lidar and passive gas filter correlation and infrared heterodyne techniques will be summarized for measurements of atmospheric aerosols, CO, SO2, O3, and NH3. These measurements provide the data base required to assess the sensitivity of remote sensors for applications to urban and regional field measurement programs. Studies of Earth Observation Satellite Systems are currently being performed by the scientific community to assess the capability of satellite imagery to detect regions of elevated pollution in the troposphere. The status of NASA sponsored research efforts in interpreting satellite imagery for determining aerosol loadings over land and inland bodies of water will be presented, and comments on the potential of these measurements to supplement in situ and airborne remote sensors in detecting regional haze will be made.

  8. Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management, and development of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the impact of remote data streams on hydrologic computer models. Analysis of responses demonstrated that: most water resources effort suitable to remote sensing inputs is conducted through federal agencies or through federally stimulated research; and, most hydrologic models suitable to remote sensing data are federally developed. Computer usage by major water resources users was analyzed to determine the trends of usage and costs for the principal hydrologic users/models. The laws and empirical relationships governing the growth of the data processing loads were described and applied to project the future data loads. Data loads for ERTS CCT image processing were computed and projected through the 1985 era.

  9. Remote diagnosis server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Somnath (Inventor); Ghoshal, Sudipto (Inventor); Malepati, Venkata N. (Inventor); Kleinman, David L. (Inventor); Cavanaugh, Kevin F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A network-based diagnosis server for monitoring and diagnosing a system, the server being remote from the system it is observing, comprises a sensor for generating signals indicative of a characteristic of a component of the system, a network-interfaced sensor agent coupled to the sensor for receiving signals therefrom, a broker module coupled to the network for sending signals to and receiving signals from the sensor agent, a handler application connected to the broker module for transmitting signals to and receiving signals therefrom, a reasoner application in communication with the handler application for processing, and responding to signals received from the handler application, wherein the sensor agent, broker module, handler application, and reasoner applications operate simultaneously relative to each other, such that the present invention diagnosis server performs continuous monitoring and diagnosing of said components of the system in real time. The diagnosis server is readily adaptable to various different systems.

  10. Medical Images Remote Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Maurizio; Frixione, Paolo; Squarcia, Sandro

    Teleconsultation of digital images among different medical centers is now a reality. The problem to be solved is how to interconnect all the clinical diagnostic devices in a hospital in order to allow physicians and health physicists, working in different places, to discuss on interesting clinical cases visualizing the same diagnostic images at the same time. Applying World Wide Web technologies, the proposed system can be easily used by people with no specific computer knowledge providing a verbose help to guide the user through the right steps of execution. Diagnostic images are retrieved from a relational database or from a standard DICOM-PACS through the DICOM-WWW gateway allowing connection of the usual Web browsers to DICOM applications via the HTTP protocol. The system, which is proposed for radiotherapy implementation, where radiographies play a fundamental role, can be easily converted to different field of medical applications where a remote access to secure data are compulsory.

  11. REMOTE CONTROL MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1962-11-27

    The patent covers a remote-control manipulator in which a tool is carried on a tube at an end thereof angularly related to the main portion of the tube and joined thereto by a curved section. The main portion of the tube is mounted for rotation and axial shifting in a wall separating safe and dangerous areas. The tool is actuated to grasp and release an object in the dangerous area by means of a compound shaft extending through the tube, the shaft having a flexible section extending through the curved section of the tube. The tool is moved about in the dangerous area by rotation and axial movement of the main portion of the tube. Additional movement of the tool is obtained through axial shifting of the shaft with respect to the tube through which it extends. (AEC)

  12. Remote sensing data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A digest of information on remote sensor data systems is given. It includes characteristics of spaceborne sensors and the supportive systems immediately associated therewith. It also includes end-to-end systems information that will assist the user in appraising total data system impact produced by a sensor. The objective is to provide a tool for anticipating the complexity of systems and potential data system problems as new user needs are generated. Materials in this handbook span sensor systems from the present to those planned for use in the 1990's. Sensor systems on all planned missions are presented in digest form, condensed from data as available at the time of compilation. Projections are made of anticipated systems.

  13. Polarization in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Walter G.

    1992-12-01

    A review of the experimental and theoretical aspects of optical polarization is presented with definitions of the observed polarization characteristics and relationship to the Stokes parameters. A typical terrestrial soil polarization curve is characterized and related to the current theoretical knowledge. This polarization relationship is extended to cover planetary surfaces, such as the Moon, and Mars and terrestrial surfaces composed of farm areas and water surfaces. Instrumentation for imaging and non-imaging polarimetry are described including the use of focal plane arrays. Recent Space Shuttle polarimetric observations of the region around the Island of Hawaii and New Madrid, Missouri are described, as well as concurrent cloud and haze observations. Polarization is a sensitive indicator of cloud particle size distributions, soil texture, farm crops, sea state and atmospheric aerosols and haze. Cloud particle size distributions are uniquely characterized by polarization, and this cannot be achieved with photometry. An extensive bibliography of polarization in remote sensing is appended.

  14. Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

  15. Commerical Remote Sensing Data Contract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.

  16. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  17. Remote welding equipment for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Silke, G.W.; Junge, R.

    1995-12-31

    Remote welding equipment and techniques are necessary for maintenance of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). The processes identified for this application includes inside diameter (i.d.) and outside diameter (o.d.) Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding of titanium and stainless steel alloys. Welding equipment developed for this application includes some unique features due to the specialized environment of the TPX vessel. Remote features of this equipment must include the ability to acquire and align the parts being welded, perform all welding operations and visually inspect the weld area. Designs for weld heads require the integration of industry proven hardware with the special features include compact size, remote manipulation, remote clamping and alignment, remote vision, full inert gas coverage, arc voltage control, wire feed, programmable weld schedules and failure recovery.

  18. Remote control for motor vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  19. Remote metrology by comparative digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbach, Torsten; Osten, Wolfgang; Kopylow, Christoph von; Jueptner, Werner

    2006-02-10

    A method for the remote comparison of objects with regard to their shape or response to a load is presented. The method allows interferometric sensitivity for comparing objects with different microstructure. In contrast to the well-known incoherent techniques based on inverse fringe projection this new approach uses the coherent optical wave field of the master object as a mask for the illumination of the sample object. The coherent mask is created by digital holography to allow instant access to the complete optical information of the master object at any place desired. The mask is reconstructed by a spatial light modulator (SLM). The optical reconstruction of digital holograms with SLM technology allows modification of reconstructed wavefronts with respect to improvement of image quality, the skilled introduction of additional information about the object (augmented reality), and the alignment of the master and test object.

  20. Case study for international remote machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Grier C. I.; Kao, Yung-Chou

    1995-08-01

    Owing to the more enhanced networking, the designed data for manufacturing can be transmitted internationally. Therefore, the production of the potential product at one side of the world according to the design requirement at the other side of the world is possible and quicker than ever before. The shipment can be eliminated by producing the product at the potential market place. This paper demonstrates the development of a machining system showing the manufacture of a product based on this idea. Unix, Microsoft Windows, and NFS under the LAN and Internet environment are adopted for data communication and message passing in the devised international remote machining system. The personal computer is the server of the machining center. A C program is developed for the direct control of the machining center through DNC2 interface. The command of machining process is issued from Sun Sparc station to the personal computer through Internet. The devised system structure can also be extended to link with an automatic workpiece loading system, e.g., robot an AGV, to form an automatic machining cell for CIM. The requirements of achieving such an international remote machining cell that links machining center and robot are also discussed.

  1. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  2. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  4. Remote Visualization and Remote Collaboration On Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new technology has been developed for remote visualization that provides remote, 3D, high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data (such as fluid dynamics simulations or measurements). Based on this technology, some World Wide Web sites on the Internet are providing fluid dynamics data for educational or testing purposes. This technology is also being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects in computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewer's local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit).

  5. Power management of remote microgrids considering battery lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Currently, 20% (1.3 billion) of the world's population still lacks access to electricity and many live in remote areas where connection to the grid is not economical or practical. Remote microgrids could be the solution to the problem because they are designed to provide power for small communities within clearly defined electrical boundaries. Reducing the cost of electricity for remote microgrids can help to increase access to electricity for populations in remote areas and developing countries. The integration of renewable energy and batteries in diesel based microgrids has shown to be effective in reducing fuel consumption. However, the operational cost remains high due to the low lifetime of batteries, which are heavily used to improve the system's efficiency. In microgrid operation, a battery can act as a source to augment the generator or a load to ensure full load operation. In addition, a battery increases the utilization of PV by storing extra energy. However, the battery has a limited energy throughput. Therefore, it is required to provide balance between fuel consumption and battery lifetime throughput in order to lower the cost of operation. This work presents a two-layer power management system for remote microgrids. First layer is day ahead scheduling, where power set points of dispatchable resources were calculated. Second layer is real time dispatch, where schedule set points from the first layer are accepted and resources are dispatched accordingly. A novel scheduling algorithm is proposed for a dispatch layer, which considers the battery lifetime in optimization and is expected to reduce the operational cost of the microgrid. This method is based on a goal programming approach which has the fuel and the battery wear cost as two objectives to achieve. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated through a simulation study of a PV-diesel hybrid microgrid using deterministic and stochastic approach of optimization.

  6. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  7. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  8. Remote detection of OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, I. Stuart; Laudenslager, James B.

    1986-01-01

    This is a remote measurement technique utilizing a XeCl excimer laser tuned to the Q sub 21 1 rotational transition of the 0-0, A-X band at 307.847 nm. A wavemeter is under development to monitor, on a pulse-to-pulse basis, both the laser lineshape and absolute wavelength. Fluorescence is detected with a multiple Fabry-Perot type filter with a spectral resolution on the order of 0.001 nm. This is tuned to the overlapping Q sub 2 2, Q sub 12 2, Q sub 2 3, and Q sub 12 3 rotational transitions at 308.986 nm. The fringe pattern from this filter is imaged using a discrete, multi-anode detector which has a photon gain of 10 to the 8th power. This permits the simultaneous monitoring of OH fluorescence, N2 and/or O2 rotational Raman scattering and broadband background levels. The use of three etalons in series provides sufficient rejection, approx. greater than 10 to the 10th power, against the laser radiation only 1.2 nm away.

  9. remote sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Unold, Georg; Junker, Astrid; Altmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    High-throughput (HT) plant phenotyping systems enable the quantitative analysis of a variety of plant features in a fully automated fashion. The comprehensive phenomics infrastructure at IPK comprises three LemnaTec conveyor belt-based (plant-to-sensor) systems for the simultaneous analysis of large numbers of individual plants of different sizes. For monitoring of environmental conditions within the plant growth area and soil conditions in individual pots, highly modular and flexible remote sensing devices are required. We present the architecture of a wireless sensor network implemented in the HT plant phenotyping systems at IPK in the frame of the German Plant Phenotyping Network (DPPN). This system comprises 350 soil monitoring modules, each measuring water content, water matrix potential, temperature and electric conductivity. Furthermore small and large sensor platforms enable the continuous monitoring of environmental parameters such as incident photosynthetic active radiation, total radiation balance, relative humidity and CO2 concentration and more. Finally we present an introduction into data management and maintenance."

  10. REMOTE HANDLING ARRANGEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Ginns, D.W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for handling remotely a sample pellet to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor is proposed. It is comprised essentially of an inlet tube extending through the outer shield of the reactor and being inclined so that its outer end is at a higher elevation than its inner end, an outlet tube extending through the outer shield being inclined so that its inner end is at a higher elevation than its outer end, the inner ends of these two tubes being interconnected, and a straight tube extending through the outer shield and into the reactor core between the inlet and outlet tubes and passing through the juncture of said inner ends. A rod-like member is rotatably and slidely operated within the central straight tube and has a receptacle on its inner end for receiving a sample pellet from the inlet tube. The rod member is operated to pick up a sample pellet from the inlet tube, carry the sample pellet into the irradiating position within the core, and return to the receiving position where it is rotated to dump the irradiated pellet into the outlet tube by which it is conveyed by gravity to the outside of the reactor. Stop members are provided in the inlet tube, and electrical operating devices are provided to control the sequence of the operation automatically.

  11. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  12. Remote maintenance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G. (Inventor); Owens, Richard C. (Inventor); Rochette, Donn A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A remote maintenance monitoring system retrofits to a given hardware device with a sensor implant which gathers and captures failure data from the hardware device, without interfering with its operation. Failure data is continuously obtained from predetermined critical points within the hardware device, and is analyzed with a diagnostic expert system, which isolates failure origin to a particular component within the hardware device. For example, monitoring of a computer-based device may include monitoring of parity error data therefrom, as well as monitoring power supply fluctuations therein, so that parity error and power supply anomaly data may be used to trace the failure origin to a particular plane or power supply within the computer-based device. A plurality of sensor implants may be rerofit to corresponding plural devices comprising a distributed large-scale system. Transparent interface of the sensors to the devices precludes operative interference with the distributed network. Retrofit capability of the sensors permits monitoring of even older devices having no built-in testing technology. Continuous real time monitoring of a distributed network of such devices, coupled with diagnostic expert system analysis thereof, permits capture and analysis of even intermittent failures, thereby facilitating maintenance of the monitored large-scale system.

  13. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  14. Combined Load Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    A test fixture has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center that has the capability of applying compression load and shear load simultaneously to a test specimen. The test specimen size is 24-inches by 28-inches. This report describes the test specimen design, test specimen preparation, fixture assembly in the test machine, and a test operation plan.

  15. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  16. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  17. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  18. Remote measurement of water color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper contains a discussion of the requirements and approaches which can be taken in the development of techniques for the analysis of remote multispectral imagery of natural bodies of water. There are two general approaches which can be used in the analysis of multispectral water color data collected by aircraft or satellite remote sensors. With the theoretical modeling approach, optically important constituents of natural waters are mathematically related to the upwelling radiance spectrum received by the remote sensor. With the empirical approach, the relationships are determined empirically by comparing remote sensing data with surface truth data. There are several levels of mathematical sophistication which can be applied to both approaches. The two approaches are discussed in some detail and it is concluded that the two approaches are closely related and should be pursued simultaneously for maximum utilization of the laboratory and field measurement data which will be needed. A set of minimum surface truth measurement parameters and techniques is suggested.

  19. Theory of microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrains is studied. Electromagnetic wave scattering and emission from stratified media and rough surfaces are considered with particular application to the remote sensing of soil moisture. Radiative transfer theory for both the random and discrete scatterer models is examined. Vector radiative transfer equations for nonspherical particles are developed for both active and passive remote sensing. Single and multiple scattering solutions are illustrated with applications to remote sensing problems. Analytical wave theory using the Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations is employed to treat scattering by random media. The backscattering enhancement effects, strong permittivity fluctuation theory, and modified radiative transfer equations are addressed. The electromagnetic wave scattering from a dense distribution of discrete scatterers is studied. The effective propagation constants and backscattering coefficients are calculated and illustrated for dense media.

  20. Remote Decommissioning Experiences at Sellafield

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, M.

    2006-07-01

    British Nuclear Group has demonstrated through delivery of significant decommissioning projects the ability to effectively deploy innovative remote decommissioning technologies and deliver cost effective solutions. This has been achieved through deployment and development of off-the-shelf technologies and design of bespoke equipment. For example, the worlds first fully remotely operated Brokk was successfully deployed to enable fully remote dismantling, packaging and export of waste during the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing facility. British Nuclear Group has also successfully implemented remote decommissioning systems to enable the decommissioning of significant challenges, including dismantling of a Caesium Extraction Facility, Windscale Pile Chimney and retrieval of Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) from storage cells. The challenge for the future is to continue to innovate through utilization of the supply chain and deploy off-the-shelf technologies which have been demonstrated in other industry sectors, thus reducing implementation schedules, cost and maintenance. (authors)

  1. Robotics and remote systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling.

  2. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  3. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  4. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Research findings are summarized for projects dealing with the following: application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated Mie scatterers with size distribution and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; theoretical modeling for passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrain; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  5. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  6. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2009-05-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop tooling and equipment to remotely replace gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors to reduce personnel radiation exposure as compared to the current hands-on method. It is also expected that radiation levels will continually increase with future waste streams. The equipment is operated in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell (REDC), which is equipped with compressed air, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and an electro-mechanical manipulator (EMM) arm for operation of the remote tools. The REDC does not provide access to electrical power, so the equipment must be manually or pneumatically operated. The MSM's have a load limit at full extension of ten pounds, which limited the weight of the installation tool. In order to remotely replace Hanford connector gaskets several operations must be performed remotely, these include: removal of the spent gasket and retaining ring (retaining ring is also called snap ring), loading the new snap ring and gasket into the installation tool and installation of the new gasket into the Hanford connector. SRNL developed and tested tools that successfully perform all of the necessary tasks. Removal of snap rings from horizontal and vertical connectors is performed by separate air actuated retaining ring removal tools and is manipulated in the cell by the MSM. In order install a new gasket, the snap ring loader is used to load a new snap ring into a groove in the gasket installation tool. A new gasket is placed on the installation tool and retained by custom springs. An MSM lifts the installation tool and presses the mounted gasket against the connector block. Once the installation tool is in position, the gasket and snap ring are installed onto the connector by pneumatic actuation. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and

  8. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  9. Preparing for the New Remote Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William E.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated remote access servers support many different types of access. Remote access has been integrated as a strategic tool as application developers build remote access capabilities into their software. Discusses demands of using remote access as a strategic component and management matters. (AEF)

  10. Technology study of quantum remote sensing imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Lin, Xuling; Yang, Song; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-02-01

    According to remote sensing science and technology development and application requirements, quantum remote sensing is proposed. First on the background of quantum remote sensing, quantum remote sensing theory, information mechanism, imaging experiments and prototype principle prototype research situation, related research at home and abroad are briefly introduced. Then we expounds compress operator of the quantum remote sensing radiation field and the basic principles of single-mode compression operator, quantum quantum light field of remote sensing image compression experiment preparation and optical imaging, the quantum remote sensing imaging principle prototype, Quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging technology is brought forward, mainly including quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging system composition and working principle, preparation and injection compression light active imaging device and quantum noise amplification device. Finally, the summary of quantum remote sensing research in the past 15 years work and future development are introduced.

  11. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  12. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  13. Remote monitoring for international safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    Remote monitoring is not a new technology, and its application to safeguards relevant activities has been examined for a number of years. On behalf of the US Department of Energy and international partners, remote monitoring systems have been emplaced in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world. The experience gained from these field trials of remote monitoring systems has shown the viability of the concept of using integrated monitoring systems. Although a wide variety of sensors has been used in the remote monitoring field trials conducted to date, the possible range of instrumentation that might be used has scarcely been touched. As the technology becomes widespread, large amounts of data will become available to inspectors responsible for safeguards activities at the sites. Effective use of remote monitoring will require processing, archiving, presenting, and assessing of these data. To provide reasonable efficiency in the application of this technology, data processing should be done in a careful and organized manner. The problem will be not an issue of poring over scant records but of surviving under a deluge of information made possible by modern technology. Fortunately, modern technology, which created the problem of the data glut, is available to come to the assistance of those inundated by data. Apart from the technological problems, one of the most important aspects of remote monitoring is the potential constraint related to the transmission of data out of a facility or beyond national borders. Remote monitoring across national borders can be seriously considered only in the context of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime.

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design for 13 MT Case

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.

    2001-01-31

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading conceptual design for the 13 Metric Ton (MT) PIP throughput case. This report includes a process block diagram, process description, and preliminary equipment specifications and documents the changes to the original can loading concept documented in previous reports.

  15. Remote drill bit loader

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

  16. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, J.A.

    1997-12-30

    A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

  17. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  18. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  19. REMOTE SENSING, VISUALIZATION AND DECISION SUPPORT FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integration of satellite and airborne remote sensing, scientific visualization and decision support tools is discussed within the context of management techniques for minimizing the non-point source pollution load of inland waterways and the sustainability of food crop produc...

  20. Remote monitoring and nondestructive evaluation of wind turbine towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng; Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Ke, Ying-Tzu; Shih, Yi-Ru

    2014-03-01

    Wind turbine towers are in need of condition monitoring so as to lower the cost of unexpected maintenance. Wind loading from turbulence and gusts can cause damage in horizontal axis wind turbines even the supporting towers. Monitoring of wind turbines in service using embedded data sensor arrays usually is not targeted at the turbine-tower interaction from the perspective of structural dynamics. In this study the remote monitoring of the tower supporting a horizontal-axis wind turbine was attempted using a microwave interferometer. The dominant frequency of one tower was found to be decreased by more than 20% in 16 months. Numerical modeling using spectral finite elements is in progress and should provide further information regarding frequency shift due to stiffness variation and added mass. Expected outcome will contribute to remote monitoring procedures and nondestructive evaluation techniques for local wind turbine structures during operation.

  1. Remote Strain Sensing of CFRP Using Microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Project is investigating technologies that increase automated remote inspection of aircraft composite structures. Therefore, microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) is being investigated as a method of enabling rapid remote measurement of strain occurring at the first ply of a composite fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) structure using Radio Frequency (RF) Electro-Magnetic (EM) radiation. While microwave reflectometry has been used to detect disbonds in CFRP structures, its use in detecting strain has been limited. This work will present data demonstrating the measurement of the reactance changes due to loading conditions that are indicative of strain in a CFRP structure. In addition, the basic EM signature will be presented along with an analysis of temperature and humidity effects.

  2. Remote Welding, NDE and Repair of DOE Standardized Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Larsen; Art Watkins; Timothy R. McJunkin; Dave Pace; Rodney Bitsoi

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) to manage DOE’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF). One of the NSNFP’s tasks is to prepare spent nuclear fuel for storage, transportation, and disposal at the national repository. As part of this effort, the NSNFP developed a standardized canister for interim storage and transportation of SNF. These canisters will be built and sealed to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section III, Division 3 requirements. Packaging SNF usually is a three-step process: canister loading, closure welding, and closure weld verification. After loading SNF into the canisters, the canisters must be seal welded and the welds verified using a combination of visual, surface eddy current, and ultrasonic inspection or examination techniques. If unacceptable defects in the weld are detected, the defective sections of weld must be removed, re-welded, and re-inspected. Due to the high contamination and/or radiation fields involved with this process, all of these functions must be performed remotely in a hot cell. The prototype apparatus to perform these functions is a floor-mounted carousel that encircles the loaded canister; three stations perform the functions of welding, inspecting, and repairing the seal welds. A welding operator monitors and controls these functions remotely via a workstation located outside the hot cell. The discussion describes the hardware and software that have been developed and the results of testing that has been done to date.

  3. Development of the remote diagnosis system of the solar radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Susumu; Shinohara, Noriyuki; Sekiguchi, Hideaki

    2005-04-01

    "The remote diagnosis system" which we have developed is the one to monitor the operation conditions of two systems of solar radio observation (Nobeyama Radioheliograph and Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters) from the remote place. Under the condition of very limited human power, it is necessary to minimize the load of observers without degrading data quality. Thereupon, we have mulled measures to alleviate the load of observers, and worked out "the remote diagnosis system" which enables us to monitor the operation conditions and detect troubles, if any, in early stages, even if we are away from the observatory building where control system are concentrated. The plan was materialized by adopting an access through the INTERNET to the section where needed information for diagnosis is gathered.

  4. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  5. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  6. The future of remote ECG monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na; Liu, Hong-Wei; Si, Quan-Jin; Kong, De-Feng; Guo, Fu-Su

    2016-09-01

    Remote ECG monitoring systems are becoming commonplace medical devices for remote heart monitoring. In recent years, remote ECG monitoring systems have been applied in the monitoring of various kinds of heart diseases, and the quality of the transmission and reception of the ECG signals during remote process kept advancing. However, there remains accompanying challenges. This report focuses on the three components of the remote ECG monitoring system: patient (the end user), the doctor workstation, and the remote server, reviewing and evaluating the imminent challenges on the wearable systems, packet loss in remote transmission, portable ECG monitoring system, patient ECG data collection system, and ECG signals transmission including real-time processing ST segment, R wave, RR interval and QRS wave, etc. This paper tries to clarify the future developmental strategies of the ECG remote monitoring, which can be helpful in guiding the research and development of remote ECG monitoring. PMID:27582770

  7. The future of remote ECG monitoring systems

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na; Liu, Hong-Wei; Si, Quan-Jin; Kong, De-Feng; Guo, Fu-Su

    2016-01-01

    Remote ECG monitoring systems are becoming commonplace medical devices for remote heart monitoring. In recent years, remote ECG monitoring systems have been applied in the monitoring of various kinds of heart diseases, and the quality of the transmission and reception of the ECG signals during remote process kept advancing. However, there remains accompanying challenges. This report focuses on the three components of the remote ECG monitoring system: patient (the end user), the doctor workstation, and the remote server, reviewing and evaluating the imminent challenges on the wearable systems, packet loss in remote transmission, portable ECG monitoring system, patient ECG data collection system, and ECG signals transmission including real-time processing ST segment, R wave, RR interval and QRS wave, etc. This paper tries to clarify the future developmental strategies of the ECG remote monitoring, which can be helpful in guiding the research and development of remote ECG monitoring. PMID:27582770

  8. Remote Environmental Monitoring System CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, R.D.

    2000-03-30

    The goal of the project was to develop a wireless communications system, including communications, command, and control software, to remotely monitor the environmental state of a process or facility. Proof of performance would be tested and evaluated with a prototype demonstration in a functioning facility. AR Designs' participation provided access to software resources and products that enable network communications for real-time embedded systems to access remote workstation services such as Graphical User Interface (GUI), file I/O, Events, Video, Audio, etc. in a standardized manner. This industrial partner further provided knowledge and links with applications and current industry practices. FM and T's responsibility was primarily in hardware development in areas such as advanced sensors, wireless radios, communication interfaces, and monitoring and analysis of sensor data. This role included a capability to design, fabricate, and test prototypes and to provide a demonstration environment to test a proposed remote sensing system. A summary of technical accomplishments is given.

  9. [Remote radiation planning support system].

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shinoto, Makoto; Asai, Kaori; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We constructed a remote radiation planning support system between Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Fukuoka and Kyushu University Beppu Hospital (KBH) in Oita. Between two institutions, radiology information system for radiotherapy division (RT-RIS) and radiation planning system (RTPS) were connected by virtual private network (VPN). This system enables the radiation oncologists at KUH to perform radiotherapy planning for the patients at KBH. The detail of the remote radiation planning support system in our institutions is as follows: The radiation oncologist at KBH performs radiotherapy planning and the data of the patients are sent anonymously to the radiation oncologists at KUH. The radiation oncologists at KUH receive the patient's data, access to RTPS at KBH, verify or change the radiation planning at KBH: Radiation therapy is performed at KBH according to the confirmed plan by the radiation oncologists at KUH. Our remote radiation planning system is useful for providing radiation therapy with safety and accuracy.

  10. Remote sensing for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  11. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  12. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  13. Remote sensing of the asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    Knowledge of the compositions of the asteroids is obtained by the remote sensing of reflected and emitted radiation from what are essentially star-like points of light. Since asteroids are a remnant population of planetesimals that were never accreted into the larger planets, their compositions and properties can provide insight into the nature of planetary matter in early epochs, before most of it was physically and chemically modified by geological processes within the planets. The progress made during the past decade in learning about asteroids through remote sensing is reviewed.

  14. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today’s learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions. PMID:27738573

  15. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  17. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  18. Telerobotic ground-remote operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bon, Bruce; Zimmerman, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    The Telerobotic Ground-Remote Operations task consists of development of a demonstration local-site operator control station that includes a graphical user interface (GUI) for control of a remote robot, and development of operator-assisted perception algorithms and software that will provide flexible and accurate world modeling capabilities. The topics covered are presented in view graph form and include: (1) local site development configuration; (2) system design; (3) operator control station (local site) software block diagram; (4) operator-assisted perception; and (5) program status.

  19. Remote sensing and global competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Scott

    1994-03-01

    These remarks were given at the First Annual Symposium on Coupling Technology to National Needs as part of a panel on `Visualization and Communication: Overhead Imagery.' Based on the author's involvement with remote sensing policy while at the Department of Commerce from 1990 to 1993, the paper provides a brief overview of U.S. policy and legislation affecting remote sensing, discusses recent developments, and identifies continuing issues for commercial ventures. Example issues include operating licenses, export controls, government as a customer, and strategic partnerships.

  20. Remote sensing procurement package: Remote Sensing Industry Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A directory of over 140 firms and organizations which contains detailed information in the types of products, services and equipment which they offer is presented. Also included for each firm or organization are addresses, phone numbers, contact person(s), and experience in the remote sensing field.

  1. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  2. Mercury in canopy leaves of French Guiana in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Mélières, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, M; Charles-Dominique, P; Gaucher, P

    2003-07-20

    A study of total Hg concentration in the foliage of the canopy was carried out in two remote areas in French Guiana. The sampled canopy is representative of the French Guiana canopy. The concentration in the foliage, 64+/-14 ngg(-1) (dry wt.), is used to estimate the annual input of total Hg to the soil through the litterfall, found to be 45+/-10 microgm(-2)y(-1). As translocation is negligible, mercury in the canopy originates mainly from atmospheric uptake by the leaves and this litterfall deposit represents a direct atmospheric input from the background atmospheric load into the soil. PMID:12826397

  3. E-2C Loads Calibration in DFRC Flight Loads Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Lawrence S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: a) Safely and efficiently perform structural load tests on NAVAIR E-2C aircraft to calibrate strain gage instrumentation installed by NAVAIR; b) Collect load test data and derive loads equations for use in NAVAIR flight tests; and c) Assist flight test team with use of loads equations measurements at PAX River.

  4. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  5. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts are made to provide a total design of a Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) system flight engineering model. Activities include assembly and testing of Sample Receiving and Card Loading Devices (SRCLDs), operator related software, and testing of biological samples in the MLM. Progress was made in assembling SRCLDs with minimal leaks and which operate reliably in the Sample Loading System. Seven operator commands are used to control various aspects of the MLM such as calibrating and reading the incubating reading head, setting the clock and reading time, and status of Card. Testing of the instrument, both in hardware and biologically, was performed. Hardware testing concentrated on SRCLDs. Biological testing covered 66 clinical and seeded samples. Tentative thresholds were set and media performance listed.

  6. The solid state remote power controller - Its status, use and perspective. [for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.; Billings, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Remote power controllers (RPCs) are solid state devices that combine in one unit the capability to perform all the needed functions of load switching, overload protection, and a direct indication of whether the load is on or off. They provide total system protection of equipment and wires. RPCs are designed to be located near the load and communicate control and status information remotely via low level signals of a few milliwatts. The design and operation of the RPC are considered, taking into account the operation of an RPC, the RPC power switch and drive circuits, control and trip circuits, fail-safe devices, and RPC overcurrent protection. Attention is given to the RPC development status, RPC applications, and RPC perspectives.

  7. Estimating turbine limit load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A method for estimating turbine limit-load pressure ratio from turbine map information is presented and demonstrated. It is based on a mean line analysis at the last-rotor exit. The required map information includes choke flow rate at all speeds as well as pressure ratio and efficiency at the onset of choke at design speed. One- and two-stage turbines are analyzed to compare the results with those from a more rigorous off-design flow analysis and to show the sensitivities of the computed limit-load pressure ratios to changes in the key assumptions.

  8. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  10. Remote sensing and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  11. Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.

  12. Decoding the TV Remote Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, James

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to observe the pulse structure of the infrared signals from the light-emitting diode in a TV remote control. This exercise in decoding infrared digital signals provides an opportunity to discuss semiconductors, photonics technology, cryptology, and the physics of how things work. (WRM)

  13. Remote Science Operation Center research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the following areas is discussed: the design, planning and operation of a remote science payload operations control center; design and planning of a data link via satellite; and the design and prototyping of an advanced workstation environment for multi-media (3-D computer aided design/computer aided engineering, voice, video, text) communications and operations.

  14. Remote sensing for site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.; Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  15. Remote units eliminate unproductive pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Swartzlander, H.R. )

    1990-09-03

    This paper reports sucker-rod pumpoff controllers (POCs) based on available off-the-shelf remote terminal unit (RTU) components developed and installed in a Midland, Tex., producing area. Market availability of off-the-shelf pumpoff controllers in the early 1980s was limited. However, the fundamental building blocks for a general RTU-based system were readily available.

  16. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  17. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  18. Electric Remotely Piloted Vehicle (ERPV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. O.; Sherman, M. L.

    1983-09-01

    Electric propulsion offers significant advantages over the present gasoline engine propulsion system on a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV). The advantages are the result of technical advances in batteries, power transistors, permanent magnets and control methods. This report covers the ground and flight test of an RPV using a lithium thionyl chloride battery powering a samarium cobalt brushless dc motor.

  19. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  20. Remote Instrumentation for Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using current software, such as PC-Duo, PCAnywhere or LabVIEW, in training students in instrumental analysis from a remote location is investigated. Findings show that creation of online features is crucial to the use and learning by students and the development of a suitable Web site, which provides an easy-to-use interface to…

  1. Microwave remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Elachi, C.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1985-01-01

    Spaceborne microwave remote sensors provide perspectives of the earth surface and atmosphere which are of unique value in scientific studies of geomorphology, oceanic waves and topography, atmospheric water vapor and temperatures, vegetation classification and stress, ice types and dynamics, and hydrological characteristics. Microwave radars and radiometers offer enhanced sensitivities to the geometrical characteristics of the earth's surface and its cover, to water in all its forms - soil and vegetation moisture, ice, wetlands, oceans, and atmospheric water vapor, and can provide high-resolution imagery of the earth's surface independent of cloud cover or sun angle. A brief review of the historical development and principles of active and passive microwave remote sensing is presented, with emphasis on the unique characteristics of the information obtainable in the microwave spectrum and the value of this information to global geoscientific studies. Various spaceborne microwave remote sensors are described, with applications to geology, planetology, oceanography, glaciology, land biology, meteorology, and hydrology. A discussion of future microwave remote sensor technological developments and challenges is presented, along with a summary of future missions being planned by several countries.

  2. Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

  3. Connecting Remote Clusters with ATM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, T.C.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    Sandia's entry into utilizing clusters of networked workstations is called Computational Plant or CPlant for short. The design of CPlant uses Ethernet to boot the individual nodes, Myrinet to communicate within a node cluster, and ATM to connect between remote clusters. This SAND document covers the work done to enable the use of ATM on the CPlant nodes in the Fall of 1997.

  4. Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rex

    Oakland Schools, an Intermediate School District for Administration, operates a Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS). RAMS is composed of over 100 computer programs, each of which performs procedures on the files of the 28 local school districts comprising the constituency of Oakland Schools. This regional service agency covers 900 square…

  5. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In identifying and characterizing wetland and adjacent features, the use of remote sensor and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies has been valuable. Remote sensors such as photographs and computer-sensor generated images can illustrate conditions of hydrology, exten...

  6. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  7. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  8. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  9. Technical keynote address on remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holter, M. R.; Park, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    A review of remote sensing techniques is presented. Various types of remote sensors are described and the platforms used to mount the sensors are examined. Examples of remote sensing by aerial photography in infrared, ultraviolet, and visual spectra are included. The types of equipment are designated and their specific areas of application are defined. It is concluded that the primary objective of remote sensing is to contribute to man's ability to manage and use the terrestrial environment.

  10. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  11. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  12. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.L.

    2000-01-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since there are significant radiation and security concerns, the program team is developing novel and unique technology to remotely perform plutonium immobilization tasks. The remote task covered in this paper employs a jointed arm robot to load seven 3.5 inch diameter, 135-pound cylinders (magazines) through the 4 inch diameter neck of a stainless steel canister. Working through the narrow canister neck, the robot secures the magazines into a specially designed rack pre-installed in the canister. To provide the deterrent effect, the canisters are filled with a mixture of high-level waste and glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  13. Medical Applications of Remote Electronic Browsing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Joseph

    The purposes of this study are to identify and define viable remote browsing techniques and the requirements for an interactive medical information system that would permit the use of such techniques. The main emphasis is in the areas of: (1) remote viewing of page material; and (2) remote interrogation of fact banks with question-answering…

  14. A graphical user interface for remote intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, K.A.; Hallset, J.O.; Sandvig, G.

    1996-12-31

    Deep water petroleum production must rely on remotely controlled intervention methods, like ROV systems, to do inspection, maintenance and repair tasks. ROV work is normally done by a skilled pilot, controlling the vehicle and its tools. The pilot`s work is made tedious by the uncontrolled environment with currents, turbid water, inferior lighting and loss of perspective. The MIMIC (Modular Integrated Man-machine Interaction and Control) project is a new system development aimed at improving the efficiency and quality of ROV operations. The improvement is achieved by providing the pilot with a dramatically better user interface than he has today. The interface is based on three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics technology. In current ROV control systems, the pilot has to perceive data from many different sources, of various quality. The MIMIC project shows that it is possible to integrate and enhance this information, decreasing the work-load on the operator, and reducing operation time and costs due to errors. To the best of the authors` knowledge, this work is the first systematic attempt at using 3D computer graphics in this application field, not counting experimental systems. Similar systems are on the test bed for land and space applications.

  15. Get a fresh look with remote sensing - remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Koger, D.

    1997-04-01

    The ideal exploration approach finds structures and points out where hydrocarbons are buried. It operates to reduce risk, is cost-effective and feeds creativity. Exploration tools fall into two categories: (1) Those which detect structure (seismic, gravity, remote sensing). (2) Those that detect hydrocarbons (geochemistry, well logs, the drill bit, and remote sensing). All exploration takes place in this sometimes-forgotten context: The crust of Earth is not thick. In proportion, it is as thin as tomato skin. Unlike tomato skin, our crust floats on liquid and is unstable. We seek structure because that`s where hydrocarbons can become trapped. Satellite data-and before them airphotos-find structure efficiently. The methodology is well tested. Positive structures and lineaments find surface expression in many ways.

  16. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  17. Remote Control and Data Acquisition: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGennaro, Alfred J.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2000-01-01

    This paper details software tools developed to remotely command experimental apparatus, and to acquire and visualize the associated data in soft real time. The work was undertaken because commercial products failed to meet the needs. This work has identified six key factors intrinsic to development of quality research laboratory software. Capabilities include access to all new instrument functions without any programming or dependence on others to write drivers or virtual instruments, simple full screen text-based experiment configuration and control user interface, months of continuous experiment run-times, order of 1% CPU load for condensed matter physics experiment described here, very little imposition of software tool choices on remote users, and total remote control from anywhere in the world over the Internet or from home on a 56 Kb modem as if the user is sitting in the laboratory. This work yielded a set of simple robust tools that are highly reliable, resource conserving, extensible, and versatile, with a uniform simple interface.

  18. Deployment of remote dismantlement systems at the CP-5 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.B.; Ditch, R.W.; Henley, D.R.; Seifert, L.S.

    1997-06-01

    The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor Facility is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Illinois site. CP-5 was the principal nuclear reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research at Argonne from 1954 to 1979. The CP-5 reactor was a heavy-water moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor with a graphite reflector. The CP-5 D&D project includes the disassembly and removal of all radioactive components, equipment, and structures associated with the CP-5 facility. The Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program along with the Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown Office, have provided teleoperated, remote systems for use in the dismantlement of the CP-5 reactor structure for tasks requiring remote dismantlement. These systems include the dual-arm work platform, the Rosie mobile D&D vehicle, the swing-reduced crane control system, and a remotely-operated crane control system. The dual-arm work platform is a robotic dismantlement system that includes a pair of Schilling Titan III hydraulic manipulators mounted on a special platform, a hydraulic power unit and an operator console. The Rosie mobile D&D work system developed by RedZone Robotics, Inc. is an electro-hydraulic omni-directional locomotor platform with a heavy manipulator mounted on its deck. The Rosie vehicle moves about the floor around the CP-5 reactor block and is operated from a console in the control room. The swing-reduced crane control system has been installed on the CP-5 polar crane, and allows a load suspended from the crane hook to be moved while reducing the induced swing in the load. A remote control system and a rotating crane hook have also been added to the CP-5 polar crane. This paper discusses the status of these remote systems at CP-5 and the facility changes made to allow for their use in the dismantlement of the reactor structure internals. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Gas loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Lee; Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John; Morris, John

    2015-06-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez and Teflon. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system, and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown. LA-UR-15-20521

  20. Load measurement system with load cell lock-out mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thang; Carroll, Monty; Liu, Jonathan

    1995-05-01

    In the frame work of the project Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), a Load Measurement System was developed and fabricated to measure the impingement force of Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) jets. The Load Measurement System is a force sensing system that measures any combination of normal and shear forces up to 40 N (9 lbf) in the normal direction and 22 N (5 lbf) in the shear direction with an accuracy of +/- 0.04 N (+/- 0.01 lbf) Since high resolution is required for the force measurement, the Load Measurement System is built with highly sensitive load cells. To protect these fragile load cells in the non-operational mode from being damaged due to flight loads such as launch and landing loads of the Shuttle vehicle, a motor driven device known as the Load Cell Lock-Out Mechanism was built. This Lock-Out Mechanism isolates the load cells from flight loads and re-engages the load cells for the force measurement experiment once in space. With this highly effective protection system, the SPIFEX load measurement experiment was successfully conducted on STS-44 in September 1994 with all load cells operating properly and reading impingement forces as expected.

  1. Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy (ARMCI) library is to provide a general- purpose, efficient, and Widely portable remote memory access (RMA) operations (one-sided communication) optimized for Contiguous and noncontiguous (strided, scatter/gather, I/O vector) data transfers. In addition, ARMCI includes a set of atomic and mutual exclusion operations. The development ARMCI is driven by the need to support the global-addres space communication model in context of distributed regular or irregular distributed data structures,more » communication libraries, and compilers. ARMCI is a standalone system that could be used to support user-level libraries and applications that use MPI or PVM.« less

  2. Remote inhibition of polymer degradation.

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Roger Lee; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Polymer degradation has been explored on the basis of synergistic infectious and inhibitive interaction between separate materials. A dual stage chemiluminescence detection system with individually controlled hot stages was applied to probe for interaction effects during polymer degradation in an oxidizing environment. Experimental confirmation was obtained that volatile antioxidants can be transferred over a relatively large distance. The thermal degradation of a polypropylene (PP) sample receiving traces of inhibitive antioxidants from a remote source is delayed. Similarly, volatiles from two stabilized elastomers were also capable of retarding a degradation process remotely. This observation demonstrates inhibitive cross-talk as a novel interactive phenomenon between different polymers and is consequential for understanding general polymer interactions, fundamental degradation processes and long-term aging effects of multiple materials in a single environment.

  3. Remote control apparatus for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, A.

    1989-01-10

    A remote control apparatus for a transmission is described, comprising: means for sending a signal representing an operation state of a change lever; auxiliary power means, remote-controlled by the change lever, for changing a gear position of the transmission and sending a signal representing the gear position; and control means for controlling an operation of the auxiliary power means in accordance with the change lever operation state signal and gear position signal, the control means being provided with neutral position holding means comprises signal transmission delay means. This comprises means for detecting that the shift path on which the striker presently exists is different from the shift path instructed according to the change lever operating signal, then detecting that the striker has reached the first neutral position according to the neutral position signal and generating a neutral position detection signal.

  4. Remote functionalization through alkene isomerization.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Alexandre; Bruffaerts, Jeffrey; Marek, Ilan

    2016-03-01

    Exploiting the reactivity of one functional group within a molecule to generate a reaction at a different position is an ongoing challenge in organic synthesis. Effective remote functionalization protocols have the potential to provide access to almost any derivatives but are difficult to achieve. The difficulty is more pronounced for acyclic systems where flexible alkyl chains are present between the initiating functional group and the desired reactive centres. In this Review, we discuss the concept of remote functionalization of alkenes using metal complexes, leading to a selective reaction at a position distal to the initial double bond. We aim to show the vast opportunity provided by this growing field through selected and representative examples. Our aim is to demonstrate that using a double bond as a chemical handle, metal-assisted long-distance activation could be used as a powerful synthetic strategy. PMID:26892551

  5. Remote sensing by plasmonic transport.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Joon; Moskovits, Martin

    2012-07-18

    Arrays of periodically disposed silver nanowires embedded in alumina were shown to be capable of conducting plasmons excited by laser illuminating one end of the array to its opposite end where surface-enhanced Raman of molecules resident among the tips of the nanowires was excited. The SERS signals, in turn, excited plasmons which propagated back to the originally illuminated ends of the nanowires where they emitted light signals that were collected and spectroscopically dispersed, in essence creating a sensor capable of exciting and collecting SERS remotely. For nanowire arrays with interwire gaps of ~11 nm and lengths of ~3.3 μm (i.e., after a ~6.6 μm round trip) the SERS signals obtained by remote sensing were rather strong, ~5% the intensity of those obtained by exciting the molecules resident among the nanowire tips directly. PMID:22747443

  6. Remote Sensing of Earth Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop theoretical models that are useful and practical in the remote sensing of the Earth environment including the Earth terrain, the lower and the upper atmospheres. Various models applicable to the microwave remote sensing of vegetation, snow-ice, and atmospheric precipitation have been developed. Such studies shall be extended to the higher frequency range to unify the optical band and the microwave theoretical foundations. The study, which had an emphasis on vegetation canopy to include all terrain media, and the whole Earth environment will be extended. A data base will be developed to generate scene radiation characteristics which will benefit the studies of global inhabitability, meteorological applications, and crop yield.

  7. Remote functionalization through alkene isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Alexandre; Bruffaerts, Jeffrey; Marek, Ilan

    2016-03-01

    Exploiting the reactivity of one functional group within a molecule to generate a reaction at a different position is an ongoing challenge in organic synthesis. Effective remote functionalization protocols have the potential to provide access to almost any derivatives but are difficult to achieve. The difficulty is more pronounced for acyclic systems where flexible alkyl chains are present between the initiating functional group and the desired reactive centres. In this Review, we discuss the concept of remote functionalization of alkenes using metal complexes, leading to a selective reaction at a position distal to the initial double bond. We aim to show the vast opportunity provided by this growing field through selected and representative examples. Our aim is to demonstrate that using a double bond as a chemical handle, metal-assisted long-distance activation could be used as a powerful synthetic strategy.

  8. Instrument Remote Control Application Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

  9. Remote sensing of the nearshore.

    PubMed

    Holman, Rob; Haller, Merrick C

    2013-01-01

    The shallow waters of the nearshore ocean are popular, dynamic, and often hostile. Prediction in this domain is usually limited less by our understanding of the physics or by the power of our models than by the availability of input data, such as bathymetry and wave conditions. It is a challenge for traditional in situ instruments to provide these inputs with the appropriate temporal or spatial density or at reasonable logistical or financial costs. Remote sensing provides an attractive alternative. We discuss the range of different sensors that are available and the differing physical manifestations of their interactions with the ocean surface. We then present existing algorithms by which the most important geophysical variables can be estimated from remote sensing measurements. Future directions and opportunities will depend on expected developments in sensors and platforms and on improving processing algorithms, including data assimilation formalisms.

  10. Remote functionalization through alkene isomerization.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Alexandre; Bruffaerts, Jeffrey; Marek, Ilan

    2016-03-01

    Exploiting the reactivity of one functional group within a molecule to generate a reaction at a different position is an ongoing challenge in organic synthesis. Effective remote functionalization protocols have the potential to provide access to almost any derivatives but are difficult to achieve. The difficulty is more pronounced for acyclic systems where flexible alkyl chains are present between the initiating functional group and the desired reactive centres. In this Review, we discuss the concept of remote functionalization of alkenes using metal complexes, leading to a selective reaction at a position distal to the initial double bond. We aim to show the vast opportunity provided by this growing field through selected and representative examples. Our aim is to demonstrate that using a double bond as a chemical handle, metal-assisted long-distance activation could be used as a powerful synthetic strategy.

  11. Geophysical aspects of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.

  12. Remote creation of quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Teng; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-10-01

    We study remote creation of coherence (RCC) for a quantum system, A, with the help of quantum operations on another system, B, and one-way classical communication. We show that all the nonincoherent quantum states are useful for RCC and all the incoherent-quantum states are not. The necessary and sufficient conditions of RCC for the quantum operations on system B are presented for pure states. The upper bound of average RCC is derived, giving a relation among the entanglement (concurrence), the RCC of the given quantum state, and the RCC of the corresponding maximally entangled state. Moreover, for two-qubit systems we find a simple factorization law for the average remote-created coherence.

  13. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Mouat, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the role of remote sensing in the analysis of biochemical cycling. A general review is provided of the interest of NASA in biochemical cycling, taking into account an assessment of the state and dynamics of the pools and fluxes of four major elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur), an understanding of the coupling and interaction of the biosphere and the atmosphere, and an understanding of the biosphere and the oceans. Attention is given to biogeochemical cycling science issues, the potential remote sensing role, the vegetation type, aspects of vegetation structure, the leaf area index, the canopy height, functional relationships, environmental and soil variables, questions of experimental design, sampling sites and ground data, and radiometric data and analysis.

  14. An overview of GNSS remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  15. Visualization of parallel molecular dynamics simulation on a remote visualization platform

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.Y.; Raghavendra, C.S.; Nicholas, J.B.

    1994-09-01

    Visualization requires high performance computers. In order to use these shared high performance computers located at national centers, the authors need an environment for remote visualization. Remote visualization is a special process that uses computing resources and data that are physically distributed over long distances. In their experimental environment, a parallel raytracer is designed for the rendering task. It allows one to efficiently visualize molecular dynamics simulations represented by three dimensional ball-and-stick models. Different issues encountered in creating their platform are discussed, such as I/O, load balancing, and data distribution.

  16. Remote-sensing studies of hydrologic environments in the lower Raritan River System, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. W.; Subitzky, S.

    1973-01-01

    A series of remote sensing experiments were conducted in January and November 1968. The airborne multisensor missions included photographic and thermal-infrared sensors operated over a single site at a time when streamflow and water temperature observations were being made on the ground. Remote sensing data show: (1) effect of thermal waste water discharges on stream temperatures, (2) cross-channel variations in thermal characteristics due to waste water discharge, channel characteristics, and tidal currents, (3) influence of flow rates on dispersion, (4) patterns and distribution of ice cover, and (5) movement of sediment loads.

  17. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    DOEpatents

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.

    2006-03-21

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  18. Technology Trends and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The science and application of remote sensing is flourishing in the digital age. Geographical information systems can provide a broad range of information tailored to the specific needs of disaster managers. Recent advances in airborne platforms, sensors and information technologies have come together provide the ability to put geo-registered, multispectral imagery on the web in near real-time. Highlights of a demonstration of NASA's First Response Experiment (FiRE) will be presented.

  19. Challenges in Infrared Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Strasburg, Jana D.; Harper, Warren W.

    2005-06-01

    During the last several years, Pacific Northwest National Lab has developed a remote sensing system designed to detect trace chemicals present in the atmosphere. Using Frequency Modulated Differential Absorption LIDAR (FM DIAL) techniques chemical signatures have been observed over pathlengths ranging from several hundred meters to several kilometers. Throughout the development process, we have encountered many challenges. Some of these have been overcome but others will require new laser technology.

  20. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J

  1. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  2. Experience with Remote Job Execution

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Vickie E; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D; Ren, Shelly; Smith, Bradford C; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Science Portal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory submits jobs to the TeraGrid for remote job execution. The TeraGrid is a network of high performance computers supported by the US National Science Foundation. There are eleven partner facilities with over a petaflop of peak computing performance and sixty petabytes of long-term storage. Globus is installed on a local machine and used for job submission. The graphical user interface is produced by java coding that reads an XML file. After submission, the status of the job is displayed in a Job Information Service window which queries globus for the status. The output folder produced in the scratch directory of the TeraGrid machine is returned to the portal with globus-url-copy command that uses the gridftp servers on the TeraGrid machines. This folder is copied from the stage-in directory of the community account to the user's results directory where the output can be plotted using the portal's visualization services. The primary problem with remote job execution is diagnosing execution problems. We have daily tests of submitting multiple remote jobs from the portal. When these jobs fail on a computer, it is difficult to diagnose the problem from the globus output. Successes and problems will be presented.

  3. Smart Cards and remote entrusting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussel, Jean-Daniel; D'Annoville, Jerome; Castillo, Laurent; Durand, Stephane; Fabre, Thierry; Lu, Karen; Ali, Asad

    Smart cards are widely used to provide security in end-to-end communication involving servers and a variety of terminals, including mobile handsets or payment terminals. Sometime, end-to-end server to smart card security is not applicable, and smart cards must communicate directly with an application executing on a terminal, like a personal computer, without communicating with a server. In this case, the smart card must somehow trust the terminal application before performing some secure operation it was designed for. This paper presents a novel method to remotely trust a terminal application from the smart card. For terminals such as personal computers, this method is based on an advanced secure device connected through the USB and consisting of a smart card bundled with flash memory. This device, or USB dongle, can be used in the context of remote untrusting to secure portable applications conveyed in the dongle flash memory. White-box cryptography is used to set the secure channel and a mechanism based on thumbprint is described to provide external authentication when session keys need to be renewed. Although not as secure as end-to-end server to smart card security, remote entrusting with smart cards is easy to deploy for mass-market applications and can provide a reasonable level of security.

  4. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  5. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  6. Load regulating latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A load regulating mechanical latch is described that has a pivotally mounted latch element having a hook-shaped end with a strike roller-engaging laterally open hook for engaging a stationary strike roller. The latch element or hook is pivotally mounted in a clevis end of an elongated latch stem that is adapted for axial movement through an opening in a support plate or bracket mounted to a structural member. A coil spring is disposed over and around the extending latch stem and the lower end of the coil spring engages the support bracket. A thrust washer is removably attached to the other end of the latch stem and engages the other end of the coil spring and compresses the coil spring thereby preloading the spring and the latch element carried by the latch stem. The hook-shaped latch element has a limited degree of axial travel for loading caused by structural distortion which may change the relative positions of the latch element hook and the strike roller. Means are also provided to permit limited tilt of the latch element due to loading of the hook.

  7. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  8. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  9. 32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER SLAB AND UNDERSIDE OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Remotely Operating a Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blavier, J.-F.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes how the MkIV instrument was adapted for remote operation from the Barcroft site, where the harsh winter conditions make access difficult. Some of the main technical challenges will be discussed including, (i) operation from solar panels and batteries, (ii) cooling the detectors with LN2, (iii) instrument control and monitoring over a cellular phone, and (iv) data storage, processing and analysis. Finally, MkIV spectra measured from Barcroft and compared with those measured from JPL to highlight the advantages of the higher altitude site.

  11. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  12. Microbial Load Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  13. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  14. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  15. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  16. RNAi: RISC gets loaded.

    PubMed

    Preall, Jonathan B; Sontheimer, Erik J

    2005-11-18

    When an siRNA or miRNA proceeds through the RNA-induced silencing complex assembly pathway, only one of the two approximately 21-nucleotide RNA strands survives in the final, active complex. In this issue of Cell, Matranga et al. (2005) and Rand et al. (2005) reveal the fate of the rejected passenger siRNA strand. Additionally, Gregory et al. (2005) define a heterotrimeric complex from humans that appears to execute dsRNA loading, strand selection, and target mRNA cleavage activities.

  17. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  18. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Herng-Aung; Kong, Jin AU

    1991-01-01

    In remote sensing, the encountered geophysical media such as agricultural canopy, forest, snow, or ice are inhomogeneous and contain scatters in a random manner. Furthermore, weather conditions such as fog, mist, or snow cover can intervene the electromagnetic observation of the remotely sensed media. In the modelling of such media accounting for the weather effects, a multi-layer random medium model has been developed. The scattering effects of the random media are described by three-dimensional correlation functions with variances and correlation lengths corresponding to the fluctuation strengths and the physical geometry of the inhomogeneities, respectively. With proper consideration of the dyadic Green's function and its singularities, the strong fluctuation theory is used to calculate the effective permittivities which account for the modification of the wave speed and attenuation in the presence of the scatters. The distorted Born approximation is then applied to obtain the correlations of the scattered fields. From the correlation of the scattered field, calculated is the complete set of scattering coefficients for polarimetric radar observation or brightness temperature in passive radiometer applications. In the remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems, the development of microwave remote sensing technology and the potential of SAR to measure vegetation structure and biomass have increased effort to conduct experimental and theoretical researches on the interactions between microwave and vegetation canopies. The overall objective is to develop inversion algorithms to retrieve biophysical parameters from radar data. In this perspective, theoretical models and experimental data are methodically interconnected in the following manner: Due to the complexity of the interactions involved, all theoretical models have limited domains of validity; the proposed solution is to use theoretical models, which is validated by experiments, to establish the region in which

  19. Telehealth Remote Monitoring Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Young, Heather M.; Quinn, Charlene C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to summarize research on telehealth remote patient monitoring interventions that incorporate key elements of structured self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) identified as essential for improving A1C. A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, and OVID Medline databases with search terms “Telemedicine” AND “Monitoring, Physiologic” AND “Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2.” Study selection criteria included original randomized clinical trials evaluating the impact of telehealth remote patient monitoring on A1C among adults with type 2 diabetes and incorporated 1 or more essential elements of SMBG identified by the International Diabetes Federation (patient education, provider education, structured SMBG profile, SMBG goals, feedback, data used to modify treatment, interactive communication or shared decision making). Fifteen studies were included, with interventions ranging from 3 to 12 months (mean 8 months) with sample sizes from 30 to 1665. Key SMBG elements were grouped into 3 categories: education, SMBG protocols, and feedback. Research incorporating 5 of the 7 elements consistently achieved significant A1C improvements between study groups. Interventions using more SMBG elements are associated with an improvement in A1C. Studies with the largest A1C decrease incorporated 6 of the 7 elements and computer decision support. Two studies with 5 of the 7 elements and active medication management achieved significant A1C decreases. Telehealth remote patient monitoring interventions in type 2 diabetes have not included all structured monitoring elements recommended by the IDF. Incorporating more elements of structured SMBG is associated with improved A1C. PMID:24876591

  20. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  1. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering. PMID:26982438

  2. Remote imaging of concealed objects

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, Aner Sfez, Bruno

    2014-05-27

    Optical detection of objects hidden behind opaque screening layers is a challenging problem. We demonstrate an optically detected echographic-like method that combines collimated acoustic and laser beams. The acoustic waves cross the screening layers and their back-reflection from the hidden objects is detected through the analysis of a dynamic laser speckle pattern created at the outer surface of the screening layer. Real-time remote detection of moving targets 15 meters away, with a few mm resolutions is demonstrated using a very sensitive camera detection scheme.

  3. Diverless remote operated flowline connections

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Slider, M.; Galle, G.

    1997-07-01

    The diverless remote horizontal connection for a major project in the South China Sea was performed using the ABB Vetco Gray GSR connector in conjunction with a pull-in tool. New, innovative methods were developed whereby the hubs provide axial and angular misalignment capabilities and an ROV can make and break the connection and replace the innovative magnetic sealing assembly. The significance of this achievement is assessed with a focus on the implemented design philosophies, the principles of operation, the overall system reliability, the operational cost reduction, and the full-scale testing results. Additional comments are made concerning the applicability of this technology in various other subsea applications.

  4. Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Undergraduate students Kristina Wines and Dena Renzo at Rensselaer Poloytech Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, monitor the progress of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87), Nov. 19 - Dec.5, 1997). Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC) like this one will become more common during operations with the International Space Station. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

  5. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  6. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.

  7. Future remote-sensing programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickart, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    User requirements and methods developed to fulfill them are discussed. Quick-look data, data storage on computer-compatible tape, and an integrated capability for production of images from the whole class of earth-viewing satellites are among the new developments briefly described. The increased capability of LANDSAT-C and Nimbus G and the needs of specialized applications such as, urban land use planning, cartography, accurate measurement of small agricultural fields, thermal mapping and coastal zone management are examined. The affect of the space shuttle on remote sensing technology through increased capability is considered.

  8. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  9. Respirable particulate monitoring with remote sensors. (Public health ecology: Air pollution)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Severs, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring atmospheric aerosols in the respirable range from air or space platforms was studied. Secondary reflectance targets were located in the industrial area and near Galveston Bay. Multichannel remote sensor data were utilized to calculate the aerosol extinction coefficient and thus determine the aerosol size distribution. Houston Texas air sampling network high volume data were utilized to generate computer isopleth maps of suspended particulates and to establish the mass loading of the atmosphere. In addition, a five channel nephelometer and a multistage particulate air sampler were used to collect data. The extinction coefficient determined from remote sensor data proved more representative of wide areal phenomena than that calculated from on site measurements. It was also demonstrated that a significant reduction in the standard deviation of the extinction coefficient could be achieved by reducing the bandwidths used in remote sensor.

  10. Remote operations in a global accelerator network

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, Steve; Satogata, Todd; Agarwal, Deborah; Rice, David

    2003-05-08

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world.

  11. REMOTE OPERATIONS IN A GLOBAL ACCELERATOR NETWORK.

    SciTech Connect

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA,T.; AGARWAL,D.; RICE,D.

    2003-05-12

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world.

  12. REMOTE OPERATIONS IN A GLOBAL ACCELERATOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    PEGGS,S.SATOGATA,TAGARWAL,DRICE,D

    2003-05-12

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world.

  13. Generalized Covariance Analysis For Remote Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boone, Jack N.

    1991-01-01

    Technique developed to predict true covariance of stochastic process at remote location when control applied to process both by autonomous (local-estimator) control subsystem and remote (non-local-estimator) control subsystem. Intended orginally for design and evaluation of ground-based schemes for estimation of gyro parameters of Magellan spacecraft. Applications include variety of remote-control systems with and without delays. Potential terrestrial applications include navigation and control of industrial processes.

  14. Effect of solubilizing agents on mupirocin loading into and release from PEGylated nanoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Nativ-Roth, Einat; Goldblum, Amiram; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2014-07-01

    Mupirocin was identified by quantitative structure property relationship models as a good candidate for remote liposomal loading. Mupirocin is an antibiotic that is currently restricted to topical administration because of rapid hydrolysis in vivo to its inactive metabolite. Formulating mupirocin in PEGylated nanoliposomes may potentially expand its use to parenteral administration by protecting it from degradation in the circulation and target it (by the enhanced permeability effect) to the infected tissue. Mupirocin is slightly soluble in aqueous medium and its solubility can be increased using solubilizing agents. The effect of the solubilizing agents on mupirocin remote loading was studied when the solubilizing agents were added to the drug loading solution. Propylene glycol was found to increase mupirocin loading, whereas polyethylene glycol 400 showed no effect. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) showed a concentration-dependent effect on mupirocin loading; using the optimal HPCD concentration increased loading, but higher concentrations inhibited it. The inclusion of HPCD in the liposome aqueous phase while forming the liposomes resulted in increased drug loading and substantially inhibited drug release in serum.

  15. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOEpatents

    Wood, R.L.; Casamajor, A.B.; Parsons, R.E.

    1980-09-12

    A coupling mechanism for engaging and lifting a load has a housing with a guide passage for receiving a knob which is secured to the load through a neck of smaller diameter. A hollow ball in the housing has an opening which receives the knob and the ball is then turned to displace the opening from the housing passage and to cause the neck to enter a slot in the ball thereby securing the load to the coupling mechanism as elements of the housing block travel of the neck back into the opening when the ball is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball is preferably turned by a motor through worm gearing and the coupling mechanism may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements.

  16. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Richard L.; Casamajor, Alan B.; Parsons, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    Coupling mechanism (11) for engaging and lifting a load (12) has a housing (19) with a guide passage (18) for receiving a knob (13) which is secured to the load (12) through a neck (15) of smaller diameter. A hollow ball (23) in the housing (19) has an opening (27) which receives the knob (13) and the ball (23) is then turned to displace the opening (27) from the housing passage (18) and to cause the neck (15) to enter a slot (29) in the ball (23) thereby securing the load (12) to the coupling mechanism (11) as elements (49) of the housing (19) block travel of the neck (15) back into the opening (27) when the ball (23) is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load (12) and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball (23) motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball (23) is preferably turned by a motor (32) through worm gearing (36) and the coupling mechanism (11) may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism (11) is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements (12).

  17. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  18. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  19. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  20. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  1. Remote maintenance in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Remote maintenance techniques applied in large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are reviewed with particular attention to the three major maintenance philosophy groupings: contact, remote crane canyon, and remote/contact. Examples are given, and the relative success of each type is discussed. Probable future directions for large-scale reprocessing plant maintenance are described along with advanced manipulation systems for application in the plants. The remote maintenance development program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is also described. 19 refs., 19 figs.

  2. Virtual Planetary Analysis Environment for Remote Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keely, Leslie; Beyer, Ross; Edwards. Laurence; Lees, David

    2009-01-01

    All of the data for NASA's current planetary missions and most data for field experiments are collected via orbiting spacecraft, aircraft, and robotic explorers. Mission scientists are unable to employ traditional field methods when operating remotely. We have developed a virtual exploration tool for remote sites with data analysis capabilities that extend human perception quantitatively and qualitatively. Scientists and mission engineers can use it to explore a realistic representation of a remote site. It also provides software tools to "touch" and "measure" remote sites with an immediacy that boosts scientific productivity and is essential for mission operations.

  3. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  4. Textbooks and technical references for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.

  5. Conceptual design for remote handling methods using the HIP process in the Calcine Immobilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, S.M.; Cox, C.G.; Hoover, M.A.

    1994-03-01

    This report recommends the remote conceptual design philosophy for calcine immobilization using the hot isostatic press (HIP) process. Areas of remote handling operations discussed in this report include: (1) introducing the process can into the front end of the HIP process, (2) filling and compacting the calcine/frit mixture into the process can, (3) evacuating and sealing the process can, (4) non-destructive testing of the seal on the process can, (5) decontamination of the process can, (6) HIP furnace loading and unloading the process can for the HIPing operation, (7) loading an overpack canister with processed HIP cans, (8) sealing the canister, with associated non-destructive examination (NDE) and decontamination, and (9) handling canisters for interim storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site.

  6. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  7. Remote sensing for chemical monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jago, R.A.; Curran, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    Imaging spectrometry offers the potential of estimating the biochemical content of vegetation canopies, which is likely to provide a more powerful discriminant of land contamination than remotely sensed estimates of vegetation cover. A red edge/chlorophyll concentration/land contamination relationship provides a novel link between reflectance and the biochemical results of contamination. Canopy reflectance data were collected using a field spectrometer in conjunction with substantial ground-based measurements of chlorophyll concentration and leaf area index (LAI) across a contaminated site. There was a strong red edge/chlorophyll concentration/land contamination relationship across the study site and the correlation between red edge position and chlorophyll concentration was r = 0.86. Spectral mixture modelling demonstrated the effects of variable canopy cover and land contamination on the position of the red edge and provided an understanding of a double-peaked maxima present in derivative spectra. Strong red edge/chlorophyll concentration/land contamination relationships at this study site highlighted the potential use of the CASI to estimate depleted canopy chlorophyll concentration and evaluate further the utility of imaging spectrometers for the remote sensing of contaminated land. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Remote Excavation System test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) established the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) to integrate robotic development activities on a national basis; provide needs-oriented, timely, and economical robotics technology to support environmental and waste operations activities at Department of Energy (DOE) sites; and provide the focus and direction for the near term (less than five years) and guidance for the tong-term (five to twenty years) research and development efforts for site-specific problems. The RTDP consists of several programs including the Buried Waste Robotics Program (BWRP), which addresses remote buried waste applications. The Remote Excavation System (RES) was developed under the RTDP to provide a safer method of excavating hazardous materials for both the DOE and the Department of Defense (DOD). The excavator, initially developed by the DOD as a manually-operated small excavator, has been modified for teleoperation with joint funding from the BWRP and the DOD. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) and the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) are funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of the RES covered in this test plan. This document covers testing both at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), as funded by BWID and USID. This document describes the tests planned for the RES demonstration for the BWRP. The purposes of the test plan are (1) to establish test parameters to ensure that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and (2) to demonstrate performance in a safe manner within all regulatory requirements.

  9. Analysis of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  10. Remotely readable fiber optic compass

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.; Garrett, S.L.

    1985-04-30

    A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

  11. Remotely readable fiber optic compass

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Swift, Gregory W.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

  12. Mobile remote manipulator vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, Richard E. (Inventor); Jensen, J. Kermit (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A mobile remote manipulator system is disclosed for assembly, repair and logistics transport on, around and about a space station square bay truss structure. The vehicle is supported by a square track arrangement supported by guide pins integral with the space station truss structure and located at each truss node. Propulsion is provided by a central push-pull drive mechanism that extends out from the vehicle one full structural bay over the truss and locks drive rods into the guide pins. The draw bar is now retracted and the mobile remote manipulator system is pulled onto the next adjacent structural bay. Thus, translation of the vehicle is inchworm style. The drive bar can be locked onto two guide pins while the extendable draw bar is within the vehicle and then push the vehicle away one bay providing bidirectional push-pull drive. The track switches allow the vehicle to travel in two orthogonal directions over the truss structure which coupled with the bidirectional drive, allow movement in four directions on one plane. The top layer of this trilayered vehicle is a logistics platform. This platform is capable of 369 degees of rotation and will have two astronaut foot restraint platforms and a space crane integral.

  13. Theory of Remote Image Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blahut, Richard E.

    2004-11-01

    In many applications, images, such as ultrasonic or X-ray signals, are recorded and then analyzed with digital or optical processors in order to extract information. Such processing requires the development of algorithms of great precision and sophistication. This book presents a unified treatment of the mathematical methods that underpin the various algorithms used in remote image formation. The author begins with a review of transform and filter theory. He then discusses two- and three-dimensional Fourier transform theory, the ambiguity function, image construction and reconstruction, tomography, baseband surveillance systems, and passive systems (where the signal source might be an earthquake or a galaxy). Information-theoretic methods in image formation are also covered, as are phase errors and phase noise. Throughout the book, practical applications illustrate theoretical concepts, and there are many homework problems. The book is aimed at graduate students of electrical engineering and computer science, and practitioners in industry. Presents a unified treatment of the mathematical methods that underpin the algorithms used in remote image formation Illustrates theoretical concepts with reference to practical applications Provides insights into the design parameters of real systems

  14. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Batcheller; G. M. Huestis; S. M. Bolton

    2000-06-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  15. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-06-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified "off-the-shelf" classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a "hot cell" (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  16. Small helicopter could find niche in remote heavy lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-21

    A new helicopter specifically designed for external vertical lift operations, such as moving transportable rig components or seismic equipment in remote locations, operates more efficiently than most other medium or heavy-lift helicopters, according to manufacturer Kaman Aerospace. The single-pilot helicopter was designed as an aerial truck for efficient lifting of heavy loads but with the operating costs of a light-lift craft. The K-Max helicopter can lift more pounds of cargo per gallon of fuel consumed than other similar helicopters, according to Kaman. For example, to transport a 5,000-lb load at an elevation of 8,000 ft, the K-Max helicopter consumes 85 gal of fuel/hr. Under the same load conditions, the next most efficient commercially available helicopter consumes 160 gal of fuel/hr and requires two pilots. The 4,500-lb helicopter can lift 5,000 lb to an altitude of 8,000 ft or about 6,000 lb at low altitudes.

  17. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading FY98 Year End Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will immobilize plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report summarizes FY98 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes summaries of reports on Can Size, Equipment Review, Preliminary Concepts, Conceptual Design, and Preliminary Specification. Plant trip reports for the Greenville Automation and Manufacturing Exposition, Rocky Flats BNFL Pu repackaging glovebox line, and vendor trips are also included.

  18. Direct and indirect methods for correcting the aerosol effect on remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier

    1994-01-01

    Aspects of aerosol studies and remote sensing are reviewed. Aerosol scatters solar radiation before it reaches the surface and scatters and absorbs it again after it is reflected from the surface and before it reaches the satellite sensor. The effect is spectrally and spatially dependent. Therefore atmospheric aerosol (dust, smoke and air pollution particles) has a significant effect on remote sensing. Correction for the aerosol effect was never achieved on an operational basis though several case studies were demonstrated. Correction can be done in a direct way by deriving the aerosol loading from the image itself and correcting for it using the appropriate radiative transfer model or by an indirect way, by defining remote sensing functions that are less dependent on the aerosol loading. To some degree this was already achieved in global remote sensing of vegetation where a composite of several days of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) measurements, choosing the maximal value, was used instead of a single cloud screened value. The Atmospheric Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) introduced recently for the NASA Earth Observing System EOS-MODIS is the most appropriate example of indirect correction, where the index is defined in such a way that the atmospheric effect in the blue spectral channel cancels to a large degree the atmospheric in the red channel in computations of a vegetation index. Atmospheric corrections can also use aerosol climatology and ground based instrumentation.

  19. Cable load transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Scott E.; Abdow, David A.

    1994-10-01

    An apparatus for measuring the loads, moments and torque at a constrained end of a cable created by the action of the cable in a fluid medium in which the cable is suspended. The cable is suspended in the medium by means of a strut. The apparatus connects the cable to the strut. The apparatus includes two flexure members, one rigidly connected to the strut, the other to the cable. A universal joint couples the two flexure members so that the flexure member connected to the strut can be fitted with strain gages to measure bending while the other flexure member has strain gages to measure axial force and torque. The universal joint enables the isolation of axial and torsional strains at the flexure member connected to the cable.

  20. Offshore tanker loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Baan, J. de; Heijst, W.J. van.

    1994-01-04

    The present invention relates to an improved flexible loading system which provides fluid communication between a subsea pipeline and a surface vessel including a hose extending from the subsea pipeline to a first buoyancy tank, a second hose extending from the first buoyancy tank to a central buoyancy tank, a second buoyancy tank, means connecting said second buoyancy tank to the sea floor and to the central buoyancy tank whereby the forces exerted on said central buoyant tank by said second hose and said connecting means are balanced to cause said central buoyancy tank to maintain a preselected position, a riser section extending upwardly from said central buoyancy tank and means on the upper termination for engagement by a vessel on the surface to raise said upper termination onto the vessel to complete the communication for moving fluids between the subsea pipeline and the vessel. In one form the means for connecting between the sea floor to the second buoyancy tank includes an anchor on the sea floor and lines extending from the anchor to the second buoyancy tank and from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. In another form of the invention the means for connecting is a third hose extending from a second subsea pipeline to the second buoyancy tank and a fourth hose extending from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. The central buoyancy tank is preferred to be maintained at a level below the water surface which allows full movement of the vessel while connected to the riser section. A swivel may be positioned in the riser section and a pressure relief system may be included in the loading system to protect it from sudden excess pressures. 17 figs.

  1. Stress concentrations for straight-shank and countersunk holes in plates subjected to tension, bending, and pin loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional stress concentration analysis was conducted on straight shank and countersunk (rivet) holes in a large plate subjected to various loading conditions. Three dimensional finite element analysis were performed with 20 node isoparametric elements. The plate material was assumed to be linear elastic and isotropic, with a Poisson ratio of 0.3. Stress concentration along the bore of the hole were computed for several ratios of hole radius to plate thickness (0.1 to 2.5) and ratios of countersink depth to plate thickness (0.25 to 1). The countersink angles were varied from 80 to 100 degrees in some typical cases, but the angle was held constant at 100 degrees for most cases. For straight shank holes, three types of loading were considered: remote tension, remote bending, and wedge loading in the hole. Results for remote tension and wedge loading were used to estimate stress concentration for simulated rivet in pin loading. For countersunk holes only remote tension and bending were considered. Based on the finite element results, stress concentration equations were developed. Whenever possible, the present results were compared with other numerical solutions and experimental results from the literature.

  2. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  3. Loading configurations and driving mechanisms for joints based on the Griffith energy-balance concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelder, Terry; Fischer, Mark P.

    1996-05-01

    Using the Griffith energy-balance concept to model joint propagation in the brittle crust, two laboratory loading configurations serve as appropriate analogs for in situ conditions: the dead-weight load and the fixed-grips load. The distinction between these loading configurations is based largely on whether or not a loaded boundary moves as a joint grows. During displacement of a loaded boundary, the energy necessary for joint propagation comes from work by the dead weight (i.e., a remote stress). When the loaded boundary remains stationary, as if held by rigid grips, the energy for joint propagation develops upon release of elastic strain energy within the rock mass. These two generic loading configurations serve as models for four common natural loading configurations: a joint-normal load; a thermoelastic load; a fluid load; and an axial load. Each loading configuration triggers a different joint-driving mechanism, each of which is the release of energy through elastic strain and/or work. The four mechanisms for energy release are joint-normal stretching, elastic contraction, poroelastic contraction under either a constant fluid drive or fluid decompression, and axial shortening, respectively. Geological circumstances favoring each of the joint-driving mechanisms are as follows. The release of work under joint-normal stretching occurs whenever layer-parallel extension keeps pace with slow or subcritical joint propagation. Under fixed grips, a substantial crack-normal tensile stress can accumulate by thermoelastic contraction until joint propagation is driven by the release of elastic strain energy. Within the Earth the rate of joint propagation dictates which of these two driving mechanisms operates, with faster propagation driven by release of strain energy. Like a dead-weight load acting to separate the joint walls, pore fluid exerts a traction on the interior of some joints. Joint propagation under fluid loading may be driven by a release of elastic strain

  4. Robinson instability and beam loading

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, B.C. III

    1985-01-01

    The Robinson instability problem is developed in three stages. The first step is to derive the synchrotron oscillation equations in the absence of beam loading (unloaded case). Next, the equations are evaluated in the presence of beam loading at the fundamental rf frequency (statically loaded case). Finally, the system is redeveloped taking into account beam loading at the synchrotron sidebands (dynamically loaded case). Following the theoretical development, the results are applied to calculate the synchrotron frequency in the presence of beam-loading, automatic-gain-control, and automatic-tune-control. The results of this calculation are compared with data from the NSLS vuv-ring, a 750 MeV electron storage ring. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  5. Space technology in remote health care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belasco, N.

    1974-01-01

    A program for an earth-based remote health service system is discussed as a necessary step for the development and verification of a remote health services spacecraft capability. This demonstration program is described to provide data for developing health care for future manned space missions.

  6. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  7. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  8. Conference of Remote Sensing Educators (CORSE-78)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Ways of improving the teaching of remote sensing students at colleges and universities are discussed. Formal papers and workshops on various Earth resources disciplines, image interpretation, and data processing concepts are presented. An inventory of existing remote sensing and related subject courses being given in western regional universities is included.

  9. Red Dirt Thinking on Remote Educational Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie; Osborne, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The discourse of remote education is often characterised by a rhetoric of disadvantage. This is reflected in statistics that on the surface seem unambiguous in their demonstration of poor outcomes for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. A range of data support this view, including National Assessment Program-Literacy and…

  10. Remote Ischemic Conditioning: Its Benefits and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    This editorial describes benefits and limitations of remote ischemic conditioning. Remote ischemic conditioning was shown to reduce myocardial intact size in at least 4 sizeable clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction. It was not effective in recent studies of cardiac surgery. Reasons for these differences are discussed.

  11. What does remote sensing do for ecology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughgarden, J.; Running, S. W.; Matson, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to ecological investigations is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the recruitment problem in marine population dynamics, the regional analysis of terrestrial ecosystems, and the monitoring of ecological changes. Impediments to the use of remote sensing data in ecology are addressed.

  12. REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    I. Remote Sensing Basics
    A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors.
    B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often.
    1. Sp...

  13. Sandia multispectral analyst remote sensing toolkit (SMART).

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian Nelson; Smith, Jody Lynn; Geib, Peter L.; Nandy, Prabal; Wang, Nancy Nairong

    2003-03-01

    This remote sensing science and exploitation work focused on exploitation algorithms and methods targeted at the analyst. SMART is a 'plug-in' to commercial remote sensing software that provides algorithms to enhance the utility of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) and other multispectral satellite data. This toolkit has been licensed to 22 government organizations.

  14. Remote sensing data products: types and characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and define remote sending data products available for analysis of wildlife management problems. To ascribe characteristics and formats as they relate to a choice of the data product to select for a particular analysis. To identify the various remote sensing data products discussed, displayed, and presented at the symposium.

  15. Remote sensing and reflectance profiling in entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is about characterizing the status of objects and/or classifies their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be ground-based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolutio...

  16. Remote Library Users: Needs and Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rosemarie; Dempsey, Paula R.; Menon, Vanaja; Millson-Martula, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Discusses remote library users in an academic environment. Highlights include user needs and expectations; user satisfaction; service to remote customers in nonlibrary environments, such as industry; the distance-learning context; student demographics; distance learning and library services; course design; and a case study at De Paul University.…

  17. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.

  18. Developing a Remote Laboratory for Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas, E.; Farias, G.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Dormido, S.; Esquembre, F.

    2011-01-01

    New information technologies provide great opportunities for education. One such opportunity is the use of remote control laboratories for teaching students about control systems. This paper describes the creation of interactive remote laboratories (RLs). Two main software tools are used: Simulink and Easy Java Simulations (EJS). The first is a…

  19. Some guidelines for remote sensing in hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    1969-01-01

    Remote sensing in the field of hydrology is beginning to be applied to significant problems, such as thermal pollution, in many programs of the Federal and State Governments as well as in operation of many private organizations. The purpose of this paper is to guide the hydrologist to a better understanding of how he may collect, synthesize, and interpret remote sensing data.

  20. ADVANCED REMOTE SENSING MONITORING OF MINE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OEI-EAD and NERL-ESD have been cooperating on development of monitoring technologies and research to better use remote sensor-derived information and to ultimately disseminate that information to users. This work has focused on NASA'S airborne advanced remote sensor systems ...

  1. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  2. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  3. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.

  4. Remotely Monitored Sealing Array Software

    2012-09-12

    The Remotely Monitored Sealing Array (RMSA) utilizes the Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) framework to establish the fundamental operating capabilities for communication, security, power management, and cryptography. In addition to the SSP framework the RMSA software has unique capabilities to support monitoring a fiber optic seal. Fiber monitoring includes open and closed as well as parametric monitoring to detect tampering attacks. The fiber monitoring techniques, using the SSP power management processes, allow the seals to lastmore » for years while maintaining the security requirements of the monitoring application. The seal is enclosed in a tamper resistant housing with software to support active tamper monitoring. New features include LED notification of fiber closure, the ability to retrieve the entire fiber optic history via translator command, separate memory storage for fiber optic events, and a more robust method for tracking and resending failed messages.« less

  5. Remote synchronization in star networks.

    PubMed

    Bergner, A; Frasca, M; Sciuto, G; Buscarino, A; Ngamga, E J; Fortuna, L; Kurths, J

    2012-02-01

    We study phase synchronization in a network motif with a starlike structure in which the central node's (the hub's) frequency is strongly detuned against the other peripheral nodes. We find numerically and experimentally a regime of remote synchronization (RS), where the peripheral nodes form a phase synchronized cluster, while the hub remains free with its own dynamics and serves just as a transmitter for the other nodes. We explain the mechanism for this RS by the existence of a free amplitude and also show that systems with a fixed or constant amplitude, such as the classic Kuramoto phase oscillator, are not able to generate this phenomenon. Further, we derive an analytic expression which supports our explanation of the mechanism.

  6. Plant Condition Remote Monitoring Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Krishen, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a radiation transfer study conducted on houseplants using controlled environmental conditions. These conditions included: (1) air and soil temperature; (2) incident and reflected radiation; and (3) soil moisture. The reflectance, transmittance, and emittance measurements were conducted in six spectral bands: microwave, red, yellow, green, violet and infrared, over a period of three years. Measurements were taken on both healthy and diseased plants. The data was collected on plants under various conditions which included: variation in plant bio-mass, diurnal variation, changes in plant pathological conditions (including changes in water content), different plant types, various disease types, and incident light wavelength or color. Analysis of this data was performed to yield an algorithm for plant disease from the remotely sensed data.

  7. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  8. Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2001-01-01

    Our efforts have been focused on understanding the physical properties of planetary surfaces using remote sensing techniques. Specific application has been to the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. Our approach has been to use thermal-infrared emission and radar reflectance and scattering as a way of exploring the decimeter-scale structure of these surfaces. At this scale, the techniques are sensitive to physical parameters such as the average or effective particle size of surface materials, the degree of induration or physical bonding between individual regolith grains, and the abundance of rocks of different sizes resting on or admixed in to the surface. The results are relevant to understanding the geological processes that have affected the surface and, in the case of Mars, determining site safety and scientific relevance for planning upcoming lander, rover, and sample-return spacecraft missions. Specific results are discussed below, and publications that have resulted are listed at the end.

  9. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  10. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  11. Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground control is required to georeferenced airborne and spaceborne images. The production of ortho-photogrammetric data requires ground control that is traditionally provided as Ground Control Points (GCPs) by GNSS measurements in the field. However, it can be difficult to acquire accurate ground control points due to required turn-around time, high costs or impossible access. CompassData, Inc. a specialist in ground control, has expanded its service to deliver Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points (RSGCPs®). TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X are two satellites with such high accuracy of their orbital positions and SAR data that RSGCPs® can be produced to a sub-meter quality depending on certain parameters and circumstances. The technology and required parameters are discussed in this paper as well as the resulting accuracies.

  12. NASA remote sensing programs: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    In the Earth remote sensing area, NASA's three functions are to understand the basic mechanics and behavior of the Earth, evaluate what resources are available (in the way of minerals, and hydrocarbons on a general scale), and to arrange a scheme for managing our national assets. The capabilities offered by LANDSAT D and technology improvements needed are discussed. The French SPOT system, its orbits, possibilities for stereo imagery, and levels of preprocessing and processing with several degrees of radiometric and geometric corrections are examined. Progress in the AgRISTARS project is mentioned as well as future R & D programs in the use of fluorescence, microwave measurements, and synthetic aperture radar. Other areas of endeaver include studying man environment interactions and Earth radiation budgets, and the establishment of data systems programs.

  13. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  14. Survey of remote sensing applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1974-01-01

    Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.

  15. Satellite remote sensing over ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.

  16. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  17. Remote instruction in groundwater hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    staff of the Interactive Remote Instructional System

    Wright State University (Dayton, Ohio) is preparing for its fourth cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology beginning July 15, 1986. The Department of Geological Sciences proudly announces that the first two cycles recorded an impressive 83% completion ratio for registered participants. This completion rate is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by courses of this nature; it is the result of 2 years of implementation and refinement and demonstrates the progressive orientation of the program. The third cycle has been underway since January. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. As a result of that cooperative effort, the IRIS program has evolved to meet the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  18. Remotely Monitored Sealing Array Software

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The Remotely Monitored Sealing Array (RMSA) utilizes the Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) framework to establish the fundamental operating capabilities for communication, security, power management, and cryptography. In addition to the SSP framework the RMSA software has unique capabilities to support monitoring a fiber optic seal. Fiber monitoring includes open and closed as well as parametric monitoring to detect tampering attacks. The fiber monitoring techniques, using the SSP power management processes, allow the seals to last for years while maintaining the security requirements of the monitoring application. The seal is enclosed in a tamper resistant housing with software to support active tamper monitoring. New features include LED notification of fiber closure, the ability to retrieve the entire fiber optic history via translator command, separate memory storage for fiber optic events, and a more robust method for tracking and resending failed messages.

  19. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  20. Remote Arrhythmia Monitoring System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liszka, Kathy J.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is taking a step forward with the efforts of team members from the NASA Glenn Research Center, the MetroHealth campus of Case Western University, and the University of Akron. The Arrhythmia Monitoring System is a completed, working test bed developed at Glenn that collects real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a mobile or homebound patient, combines these signals with global positioning system (GPS) location data, and transmits them to a remote station for display and monitoring. Approximately 300,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks, which are arrhythmia cases. However, not all patients identified at risk for arrhythmias can be monitored continuously because of technological and economical limitations. Such patients, who are at moderate risk of arrhythmias, would benefit from technology that would permit long-term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment. Embedded Web Technology developed at Glenn to remotely command and collect data from embedded systems using Web technology is the catalyst for this new telemetry system (ref. 1). In the end-to-end system architecture, ECG signals are collected from a patient using an event recorder and are transmitted to a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) using Bluetooth, a short-range wireless technology. The PDA concurrently tracks the patient's location via a connection to a GPS receiver. A long distance link is established via a standard Internet connection over a 2.5-generation Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS)1 cellular, wireless infrastructure. Then, the digital signal is transmitted to a call center for monitoring by medical professionals.

  1. Remote experimental site concept development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Thomas A.; Meyer, William; Butner, David

    1995-01-01

    Scientific research is now often conducted on large and expensive experiments that utilize collaborative efforts on a national or international scale to explore physics and engineering issues. This is particularly true for the current US magnetic fusion energy program where collaboration on existing facilities has increased in importance and will form the basis for future efforts. As fusion energy research approaches reactor conditions, the trend is towards fewer large and expensive experimental facilities, leaving many major institutions without local experiments. Since the expertise of various groups is a valuable resource, it is important to integrate these teams into an overall scientific program. To sustain continued involvement in experiments, scientists are now often required to travel frequently, or to move their families, to the new large facilities. This problem is common to many other different fields of scientific research. The next-generation tokamaks, such as the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will operate in steady-state or long pulse mode and produce fluxes of fusion reaction products sufficient to activate the surrounding structures. As a direct consequence, remote operation requiring robotics and video monitoring will become necessary, with only brief and limited access to the vessel area allowed. Even the on-site control room, data acquisition facilities, and work areas will be remotely located from the experiment, isolated by large biological barriers, and connected with fiber-optics. Current planning for the ITER experiment includes a network of control room facilities to be located in the countries of the four major international partners; USA, Russian Federation, Japan, and the European Community.

  2. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian Eric

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  3. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  4. FIRRE Remote Sensor Station (RSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshanks, J. R.; Wickstrand, E. L.; Kramer, T. A.; Laird, R. T.; Barngrover, C. M.; Gardner, C. W.

    2006-05-01

    The Family of Integrated Rapid Response Equipment (FIRRE) is an advanced technology demonstration program intended to develop a family of affordable, scalable, modular, and logistically supportable unmanned systems to meet urgent operational force protection needs and requirements worldwide. The near-term goal is to provide the best available unmanned ground systems to the warfighter in Iraq and Afghanistan. The overarching long-term goal is to develop a fully-integrated, layered force protection system of systems for our forward deployed forces that is networked with the future force C4ISR systems architecture. The intent of the FIRRE program is to reduce manpower requirements, enhance force protection capabilities, and reduce casualties through the use of unmanned systems. FIRRE is sponsored by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense, Acquisitions, Technology and Logistics (OUSD AT&L), and is managed by the Product Manager, Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). The Remote Sensor Station (RSS) provides FIRRE with the ability to remote (or extend the range of) manned/unmanned sensors. The RSS consists of three primary components: (1) an actively cooled and hermetically sealed (NEMA-4X) electronics enclosure, (2) a 22' telescoping tower, (3) and the PM-MEP 531A 2KW GENSET. The current configuration supports a Digital Imaging Infrared (DII) DI-5000 thermal imaging system/visual imaging system (TIS/VIS), a Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) PPS-5D ground surveillance radar (GSR), an AN/PRS-9 (BAIS) unmanned ground sensor (UGS) receiver, an Intuicom Military Navigator II (MILNAVII) data link radio, and a DTC Communications Palladium 12000 audio/video (A/V) radio. The electronics box is insulated with a radiant barrier and fitted with a EIC Solutions 1500 BTU solid state thermoelectric cooler (TEC) capable of maintaining a safe operating temperature in extreme conditions (<120° Fahrenheit).

  5. Remote application for spectral collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Shelli R.; Steele, R. J.; Tzeng, Nigel H.; Firpi, Alexer H.; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    In the area of collecting field spectral data using a spectrometer, it is common to have the instrument over the material of interest. In certain instances it is beneficial to have the ability to remotely control the spectrometer. While several systems have the ability to use a form of connectivity to capture the measurement it is essential to have the ability to control the settings. Additionally, capturing reference information (metadata) about the setup, system configuration, collection, location, atmospheric conditions, and sample information is necessary for future analysis leading towards material discrimination and identification. This has the potential to lead to cumbersome field collection and a lack of necessary information for post processing and analysis. The method presented in this paper describes a capability to merge all parts of spectral collection from logging reference information to initial analysis as well as importing information into a web-hosted spectral database. This allows the simplification of collecting, processing, analyzing and storing field spectra for future analysis and comparisons. This concept is developed for field collection of thermal data using the Designs and Prototypes (D&P) Hand Portable FT-IR Spectrometer (Model 102). The remote control of the spectrometer is done with a customized Android application allowing the ability to capture reference information, process the collected data from radiance to emissivity using a temperature emissivity separation algorithm and store the data into a custom web-based service. The presented system of systems allows field collected spectra to be used for various applications by spectral analysts in the future.

  6. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Le, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems. This is partially due to a lack of observations. In many systems, satellite remote sensing of water quality variables may be used to supplement limited field observations and improve understanding of linkages to nutrients. Here, we present the results from a field and satellite ocean color study that quantitatively links nutrients to variations in estuarine water quality endpoints. The study was conducted in Pensacola Bay, Florida, an estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by watershed nutrients. We developed new empirical band ratio algorithms to retrieve phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a (chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). MERIS had suitable spatial resolution (300-m) for the scale of Pensacola Bay (area = 370 km2, mean depth = 3.4 m) and a spectral band centered at wavelength 709 nm that was used to minimize the effect of organic matter on chla retrieval. The algorithms were applied to daily MERIS remote sensing reflectance (level 2) data acquired from 2003 to 2011 to calculate nine-year time-series of mean monthly chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations. The MERIS derived time-series were then analyzed for statistical relations with time-series of mean monthly river discharge and river loads of nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and SPM. Regression analyses revealed significant relationships between river loads and MERIS water quality variables. The simple regression models provide quantitative predictions about how much chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations in Pensacola Bay will increase with increased river loading, which is necessary information

  7. ALFA: Automated load forecasting assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Jabbour, K.; Riveros, J.F.V.; Landsbergen, D.; Meyer, W.

    1988-08-01

    ALFA, an expert system for forecasting short term demand for electricity is presented. ALFA is in operation at the new Energy Management System center at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation in Upstate New York, generating the real time hourly load forecasts up to 48 hours in advance. ALFA uses an extensive 10 year historical data base of hourly observations of 12 weather variables and load, and a rule base that takes into account daily, weekly, and seasonal variations of load, as well as holidays, special events, and load growth. A satellite interface for the real-time acquisition of weather data, and the machine-operator interface are also discussed.

  8. Residential-appliance load characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

  9. Tooling concepts for ITER tokamak assembly and remote disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Oikawa, A.; Puhn, F.; Helary, J.L.; Shaw, R.; Friend, M.; Piec, Z.; Tachikawa, N.; Acks, M.; Basile, A.

    1995-12-31

    Since ITER has many of the characteristics of a full-scale tokamak reactor, its provisions for assembly and replaceability are relevant to a future fusion power plant. The performance of ITER is dependent on tight tolerances, mainly for the magnets and plasma facing components. The magnetic field must be highly uniform in the toroidal direction to ensure good plasma energy and particle confinement. Alignment of the plasma facing surface of the first wall and divertor target plates is required to avoid large local heat loads on the plasma facing components and, as a consequence, their erosion and contamination of the plasma with impurities. Because of the large and heavy components the major challenge of the ITER tokamak assembly is to hold such tight tolerances using guide tools, adjustable interfaces, accurate measuring tools, and specific procedures to compensate for deformation and fabrication tolerances. The assembly tooling plan also includes verification of the essential remote handling operations.

  10. Piezoelectric Windmill: A Novel Solution to Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Shashank; Chen, Chih-Ta; Fye, Darren; Zahnd, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrates a technology, “Piezoelectric Windmill”, for generating the electrical power from wind energy. The electric power-generation from wind energy is based on piezoelectric effect and utilizes the bimorph actuators. Piezoelectric Windmill consists of piezoelectric actuators arranged along the circumference of the mill in the cantilever form. Using the camshaft gear mechanism an oscillating torque is generated through the flowing wind and applied on the actuators. A working prototype was fabricated utilizing 12 bimorphs (60 × 20 × 0.5 mm3) having a preload of 23.5 gm. Under a nominal torque level corresponding to normal wind flow and oscillating frequency of 6 Hz, a power of 10.2 mW was successfully measured across a load of 4.6 kΩ after rectification. Combined with the wireless transmission, this technology provides a practical solution to the remote powering of sensors and communication devices.

  11. Remotely Triggered Cisplatin Release from Carbon Nanocapsules by Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Mustafa; Cisneros, Brandon T.; Guven, Adem; Corr, Stuart J.; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery is limited by its peri-vascular sequestration, thus necessitating a strategy to trigger drug release from such intra-tumoral nanocarrier-drug depots. In our efforts to explore remotely-activated nanocarriers, we have developed carbon nanocapsules comprised of an ultrashort carbon nanotube shell (US-tubes) loaded with cisplatin (CDDP@US-tubes) and covered with a Pluronic surfactant wrapping to minimize passive release. We demonstrate here that non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) field activation of the CDDP@US-tubes produces heat that causes Pluronic disruption which triggers cisplatin release in an RF-dependent manner. Furthermore, release-dependent cytotoxicity is demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. PMID:23228421

  12. Estimating Nitrogen Loads, BMPs, and Target Loads Exceedance Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wabash River (WR) watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state’s 92 counties and has primarily agricultural land use. The nutrient and sediment loads of the WR significantly increase loads of the Ohio River ultimately polluting the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study...

  13. Remote Task-level Commanding of Centaur over Time Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Ngo, Tam; Burridge, Robert; Wang, Lui; Izygon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Remote operation of robots on the lunar surface by ground controllers poses unique human-robot interaction challenges due to time delay and constrained bandwidth. One strategy for addressing these challenges is to provide task-level commanding of robots by a ground controller. Decision-support tools are being developed at JSC for remote task-level commanding over time-delay. The approach is to provide ground procedures that guide a controller when executing task-level command sequences and aid awareness of the state of command execution in the robot. This approach is being evaluated using the Centaur robot at JSC. The Centaur Central Commander provides a task-level command interface that executes on the robot side of the delay. Decision support tools have been developed for a human Supervisor in the JSC Cockpit to use when interacting with the Centaur Central Commander. Commands to the Central Commander are defined as instructions in a procedure. Sequences of these instructions are grouped into procedures for the Cockpit Supervisor. When a Supervisor is ready to perform a task, a procedure is loaded into the decision support tool. From this tool, the Supervisor can view command sequences and dispatch individual commands to Centaur. Commands are queued for execution on the robot side of the delay. Reliable command sequences can be dispatched automatically upon approval by the Supervisor. The decision support tool provides the Supervisor with feedback about which commands are waiting for execution and which commands have finished. It also informs the Supervisor when a command fails to have its intended effect. Cockpit procedures are defined using the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) developed at JSC for mission operations. The decision support tool is based on a Procedure Sequencer and multi-agent software developed for human-robot interaction. In this paper the approach for remote task-level commanding of robots is described and the results of the evaluation

  14. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  15. Optical properties of volcanic ash: improving remote sensing observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelley, Patrick; Colarco, Peter; Aquila, Valentina; Krotkov, Nickolay; Bleacher, Jake; Garry, Brent; Young, Kelsey; Rocha Lima, Adriana; Martins, Vanderlei; Carn, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Many times each year explosive volcanic eruptions loft ash into the atmosphere. Global travel and trade rely on aircraft vulnerable to encounters with airborne ash. Volcanic ash advisory centers (VAACs) rely on dispersion forecasts and satellite data to issue timely warnings. To improve ash forecasts model developers and satellite data providers need realistic information about volcanic ash microphysical and optical properties. In anticipation of future large eruptions we can study smaller events to improve our remote sensing and modeling skills so when the next Pinatubo 1991 or larger eruption occurs, ash can confidently be tracked in a quantitative way. At distances >100km from their sources, drifting ash plumes, often above meteorological clouds, are not easily detected from conventional remote sensing platforms, save deriving their quantitative characteristics, such as mass density. Quantitative interpretation of these observations depends on a priori knowledge of the spectral optical properties of the ash in UV (>0.3μm) and TIR wavelengths (>10μm). Incorrect assumptions about the optical properties result in large errors in inferred column mass loading and size distribution, which misguide operational ash forecasts. Similarly, simulating ash properties in global climate models also requires some knowledge of optical properties to improve aerosol speciation.

  16. Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Practices Through Remote Sensing Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driese, K. L.; Sivanpillai, R.

    2007-12-01

    Ever increasing demand for food and fiber calls for farm management strategies such as effective use of chemicals and efficient water use that will maximize productivity while reducing adverse impacts on the environment. Remotely sensed data collected by satellites are a valuable resource for farmers and ranchers for gaining insights about farm and ranch productivity. While researchers in universities and agencies have made tremendous advances, technology transfer to end-users has lagged, preventing the farmers from taking advantage of this valuable resource. To overcome this barrier, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), a NASA funded program headed by the University of North Dakota, has been working with end-users to promote the use of remote sensing technology for sustainable agricultural practices. We will highlight the UMAC activities in Wyoming aimed at promoting this technology to sugar-beet farmers in the Big Horn Basin. To assist farmers who might not have a computer at home, we provide them to local county Cooperative Extension Offices pre-loaded with relevant imagery. Our targeted outreach activities have resulted in farmers requesting and using new and old Landsat images to identify growth anomalies and trends which have enabled them to develop management zones within their croplands.

  17. Optimal load shedding and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ding

    Load shedding is an emergency control action in power systems that can save systems from a wide-area blackout. Underfrequency load shedding, steady state load shedding, and voltage load shedding are widely used in power systems. These methods utilize either the steady state model or a simplified dynamic model to represent a power systems. In this dissertation, a general optimal load shedding method that considers both the dynamic process and load distribution is proposed. The unfavorable load shedding is then formulated as an optimization problem with the objective function of cost minimization. This objective function is subjected to system, security, and operation constraints. The entire problem becomes a question of optimization with differential and nonlinear equations as constraints. To solve this problem, discretization is used to change the differential equations into algebraic equations. The original problem is thus reformulated as an optimization problem and can be solved by a standard mathematical program. The general idea is then applied to traditional power systems, deregulated power systems, power systems with distributed generation, and load restoration. In the traditional power system, the method shows that governor action, generation dynamic, disturbance location, and economic factors can be taken into consideration. In the deregulated power system, two power market models are developed and incorporated into the load shedding scheme. In power systems with multiple distributed generations, the different cases of disturbances are analyzed and models of different distributed generation developed. The general idea is then applied. Finally, the load restoration problem is studied, and it is proposed that an optimization method be applied to it. This dissertation provides a comprehensive solution for load shedding problem in power systems. The models developed in this research can also be used to study other power system problems.

  18. Inexpensive Bolt-Load Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    "Built-in" gage determines whether large bolt or stud has been torqued to desired load and provides for continuous inspection to ensure proper load is being maintained. Gage detects longitudinal stress/strain bolt; requires no electronic or sonic test equipment.

  19. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  20. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  1. Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

  2. NIF ICCS network design and loading analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tietbohl, G; Bryant, R

    1998-02-20

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is housed within a large facility about the size of two football fields. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is distributed throughout this facility and requires the integration of about 40,000 control points and over 500 video sources. This integration is provided by approximately 700 control computers distributed throughout the NIF facility and a network that provides the communication infrastructure. A main control room houses a set of seven computer consoles providing operator access and control of the various distributed front-end processors (FEPs). There are also remote workstations distributed within the facility that allow provide operator console functions while personnel are testing and troubleshooting throughout the facility. The operator workstations communicate with the FEPs which implement the localized control and monitoring functions. There are different types of FEPs for the various subsystems being controlled. This report describes the design of the NIF ICCS network and how it meets the traffic loads that will are expected and the requirements of the Sub-System Design Requirements (SSDR's). This document supersedes the earlier reports entitled Analysis of the National Ignition Facility Network, dated November 6, 1996 and The National Ignition Facility Digital Video and Control Network, dated July 9, 1996. For an overview of the ICCS, refer to the document NIF Integrated Computer Controls System Description (NIF-3738).

  3. Remote sensing of hydrological fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, R. J.

    Remote sensing is developing as a measurement technique to the point where data are starting to be used operationally in a quantitative way other than just in weather forecasting. In addition, many other uses of the data are being developed because of the sparseness of conventional data in many parts of the world. A recent session of AGU's Hydrology Section at the Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., featured discussions of some of the recent advances in the use of remotely sensed data to estimate hydrological fluxes.Several papers dealt with remote sensing aspects of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE), following another session of the Hydrology Section, which discussed nonremote sensing results from FIFE. S. N. Goward (University of Maryland, College Park) presented a review of empirical results from time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer at the FIFE site and their relationship to some conventional observations. He showed strong relationships between spectral vegetation indices and surface temperature with scatter being at least partly caused by surface moisture variations. Unraveling the relationships from a physical point of view will involve a greater understanding of atmospheric effects and surface properties from other concurrent measurements during FIFE. Similar relationships between spectral vegetation indices and surface temperature were observed and reported by C. L. Walthall (University of Maryland, College Park), who used a radiometer mounted on a helicopter to collect data at the FIFE site. This indicates that the relationships are not entirely due to atmospheric effects. M. F. Jasinski and P. S. Eagleson (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge) described a theoretical reflectance model for spectral vegetation indices in terms of ground cover that will be extremely useful in interpreting these experimental results. R. N. Halthore (Applied Research Corp., Landover, Md.) described some of the measurements of aerosols during

  4. Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project: Puck packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF will fill the canister with a mixture of high-level waste and glass for permanent storage. Because of the radiation, remote equipment will perform PIP operations in a contained environment. The PIP puck packaging includes loading pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, and inspecting the cans. A magnetically coupled elevator will lower a tray of pucks onto a magnetically coupled transport cart. This cart will carry the tray through an air lock into the can-loading glove box. Inside the glove box, a magnetically coupled tray lifter will raise the tray off the cart. A three-axis Cartesian robot will use a vacuum cup on a long pipe to lift the 67.3-mm (2.65-in.)-diam, 25.4-mm (1.0-in.)-tall pucks from the transfer tray and place 20 pucks in a 76.2-mm (3.0-in.)-diam stainless steel can. The Cartesian robot will place a custom hood on the open metal can, and this hood will remove the air from the can, insert helium, and place a hollow plug in the can. The SRS-developed bagless transfer system will weld the plug to the can wall and cut the can in the weld area. The can stub and the upper plug half above the cut line will remain in the sphincter seal to maintain the glove-box seal. The puck can and the lower plug half below the cut line is lowered into the bagless transfer enclosure. A floor-mounted robot in this enclosure will swipe the can exterior for contamination and place the

  5. EPA Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, H. K.; Szykman, J. J.; Plessel, T.; Freeman, M.; Dimmick, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Information Gateway was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist researchers in easily obtaining and combining a variety of environmental datasets related to air quality research. Current datasets available include, but are not limited to surface PM2.5 and O3 data, satellite derived aerosol optical depth , and 3-dimensional output from U.S. EPA's Models 3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The presentation will include a demonstration that illustrates several scenarios of how researchers use the tool to help them visualize and obtain data for their work; with a particular focus on episode analysis related to biomass burning impacts on air quality. The presentation will provide an overview on how RSIG works and how the code has been—and can be—adapted for other projects. One example is the Virtual Estuary, which focuses on automating the retrieval and pre-processing of a variety of data needed for estuarine research. RSIG’s source codes are freely available to researchers with permission from the EPA principal investigator, Dr. Jim Szykman. RSIG is available to the community and can be accessed online at http://www.epa.gov/rsig. Once the JAVA policy file is configured on your computer you can run the RSIG applet on your computer and connect to the RSIG server to visualize and retrieve available data sets. The applet allows the user to specify the temporal/spatial areas of interest, and the types of data to retrieve. The applet then communicates with RSIG subsetter codes located on the data owners’ remote servers; the subsetter codes assemble and transfer via ordinary Internet protocols only the specified data to the researcher’s computer. This is much faster than the usual method of transferring large files via FTP and greatly reduces network traffic. The RSIG applet then visualizes the transferred data on a latitude-longitude map, automatically locating the data in the correct

  6. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Mitch; Howard, Bryan; Weyerman, Wade; Mctaggart, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  7. Prediction of health levels by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of the environment derived from remote sensing were compared to census population/housing measures in their ability to discriminate among health status areas in two urban communities. Three hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships between environmental and health data. Univariate and multiple step-wise linear regression analyses were performed on data from two sample areas in Houston and Galveston, Texas. Environmental data gathered by remote sensing were found to equal or surpass census data in predicting rates of health outcomes. Remote sensing offers the advantages of data collection for any chosen area or time interval, flexibilities not allowed by the decennial census.

  8. Parallelized dilate algorithm for remote sensing image.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suli; Hu, Haoran; Pan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    As an important algorithm, dilate algorithm can give us more connective view of a remote sensing image which has broken lines or objects. However, with the technological progress of satellite sensor, the resolution of remote sensing image has been increasing and its data quantities become very large. This would lead to the decrease of algorithm running speed or cannot obtain a result in limited memory or time. To solve this problem, our research proposed a parallelized dilate algorithm for remote sensing Image based on MPI and MP. Experiments show that our method runs faster than traditional single-process algorithm.

  9. Remote sensing using an airborne biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ligler, F.S.; Anderson, G.P.; Davidson, P.T.; Stenger, D.A.; Ives, J.T.; King, K.D.; Page, G.; Whelan, J.P.

    1998-08-15

    There is no current method for remote identification of aerosolized bacteria. In particular, such a capability is required to warn of a biological warfare attack prior to human exposure. A fiber optic biosensor, capable of running four simultaneous immunoassays, was integrated with an automated fluidics unit, a cyclone-type air sampler, a radio transceiver, and batteries on a small, remotely piloted airplane capable of carrying a 4.5-kg payload. The biosensor system was able to collect aerosolized bacteria in flight, identify them, and transmit the data to the operator on the ground. The results demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a biosensor into a portable, remotely operated system for environmental analysis.

  10. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage following supratentorial cerebrovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ross; Kebriaei, Meysam; Gard, Andrew; Thorell, William; Surdell, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Three patients with remote cerebellar hemorrhage following supratentorial cerebrovascular surgery are presented. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage is a rare surgical complication that is most often associated with aneurysm clipping or temporal lobectomies. Bleeding occurs on the superior cerebellar cortex and is believed to be venous in origin. The precise pathogenesis of remote cerebellar hemorrhage has yet to be fully elucidated but is generally considered to be a consequence of intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid loss causing caudal displacement of the cerebellum with resultant stretching of the supracerebellar veins. This case series will hopefully shed further light on the incidence, presentation, workup, and treatment of this particular complication of supratentorial surgery. PMID:24238635

  11. Method for remote detection of trace contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Simonson, Robert J.; Hance, Bradley G.

    2003-09-09

    A method for remote detection of trace contaminants in a target area comprises applying sensor particles that preconcentrate the trace contaminant to the target area and detecting the contaminant-sensitive fluorescence from the sensor particles. The sensor particles can have contaminant-sensitive and contaminant-insensitive fluorescent compounds to enable the determination of the amount of trace contaminant present in the target are by relative comparison of the emission of the fluorescent compounds by a local or remote fluorescence detector. The method can be used to remotely detect buried minefields.

  12. Remotely operated submersible underwater suction apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kristan, Louis L.

    1990-01-01

    A completely submersible, remotely operated underwater suction device for collection of irradiated materials in a nuclear pool is disclosed. The device includes a pump means for pumping water through the device, a filter means for capturing irradiated debris, remotely operated releasable connector means, a collection means and a means for remotely maneuvering the collection means. The components of the suction device may be changed and replaced underwater to take advantage of the excellent radiation shielding ability of water to thereby minimize exposure of personnel to radiation.

  13. Probabilistic remote state preparation by W states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we consider a scheme for probabilistic remote state preparation of a general qubit by using W states. The scheme consists of the sender, Alice and two remote receivers Bob and Carol. Alice performs a projective measurement on her qubit in the basis spanned by the state she wants to prepare and its orthocomplement. This allows either Bob or Carol to reconstruct the state with finite success probability. It is shown that for some special ensembles of qubits, the remote state preparation scheme requires only two classical bits, unlike the case in the scheme of quantum teleportation where three classical bits are needed.

  14. Optical remote measurement of toxic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.; Kagann, R. H.; McClenny, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 has resulted in increased ambient air monitoring needs for industry, some of which may be met efficiently using open-path optical remote sensing techniques. These techniques include Fourier transform spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy, laser long-path absorption, differential absorption lidar, and gas cell correlation spectroscopy. With this regulatory impetus, it is an opportune time to consider applying these technologies to the remote and/or path-averaged measurement and monitoring of toxic gases covered by the CAAA. This article reviews the optical remote sensing technology and literature for that application.

  15. Laser Remote Sensing: Velocimetry Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove

    Laser-based velocity measurement is an area of the field of remote sensing where the coherent properties of laser radiation are the most exposed. Much of the published literature deals with the theory and techniques of remote sensing. We restrict our discussion to current trends in this area, gathered from recent conferences and professional journals. Remote wind sensing and vibrometry are promising in their new scientific, industrial, military, and biomedical applications, including improving flight safety, precise weapon correction, non-contact mine detection, optimization of wind farm operation, object identification based on its vibration signature, fluid flow studies, and vibrometry-associated diagnosis.

  16. Remote State Preparation for Quantum Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ber, Ran; Zohar, Erez

    2016-07-01

    Remote state preparation is generation of a desired state by a remote observer. In spite of causality, it is well known, according to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, that it is possible for relativistic quantum field theories, and a "physical" process achieving this task, involving superoscillatory functions, has recently been introduced. In this work we deal with non-relativistic fields, and show that remote state preparation is also possible for them, hence obtaining a Reeh-Schlieder-like result for general fields. Interestingly, in the nonrelativistic case, the process may rely on completely different resources than the ones used in the relativistic case.

  17. Remote sensing and urban public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  18. Telescope Automation and Remote Observing System (TAROS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, G.; Czezowski, A.; Hovey, G. R.; Jarnyk, M. A.; Nielsen, J.; Roberts, B.; Sebo, K.; Smith, D.; Vaccarella, A.; Young, P.

    2005-12-01

    TAROS is a system that will allow for the Australian National University telescopes at a remote location to be operated automatically or interactively with authenticated control via the internet. TAROS is operated by a Java front-end GUI and employs the use of several Java technologies - such as Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the telescope and the remote observer, Java Native Interface to integrate existing data acquisition software written in C++ (CICADA) with new Java programs and the JSky collection of Java GUI components for parts of the remote observer client. In this poster the design and implementation of TAROS is described.

  19. An international organization for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helm, Neil R.; Edelson, Burton I.

    1991-01-01

    A recommendation is presented for the formation of a new commercially oriented international organization to acquire or develop, coordinate or manage, the space and ground segments for a global operational satellite system to furnish the basic data for remote sensing and meteorological, land, and sea resource applications. The growing numbers of remote sensing programs are examined and possible ways of reducing redundant efforts and improving the coordination and distribution of these global efforts are discussed. This proposed remote sensing organization could play an important role in international cooperation and the distribution of scientific, commercial, and public good data.

  20. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Mooring Masts for Remotely Controlled Indoor and Outdoor Airships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleelullah, Syed; Bhardwaj, Utsav; Pant, Rajkumar Sureshchandra

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design and structural details of two mooring masts, one for remotely controlled outdoor airships and another one for remotely controlled indoor airships. In a previous study, a mast for outdoor remotely controlled airship was designed to meet several user-specified operating requirements, and a simplified version of the same was fabricated. A spring loaded device was incorporated that sounds an alarm when the wind-loads exceed a threshold value, so that the airship can be taken indoors. The present study started with a critical analysis of that mast, and a new mast was designed and fabricated to remove several of its shortcomings. This mast consists of power screw operated telescopic module made of aluminium, mounted on a five legged base with castor wheels, for ease in mobility. Components of the existing mast were used to the possible extent, and the design was simplified to meet the assembly and transportation requirements. The spring mechanism used in alarming device was also modified to ensure higher sensitivity in the range of maximum expected wind-loads acting on the airship. A lightweight mooring mast for indoor remotely controlled airships was also designed and fabricated, which can accommodate non-rigid indoor airships of length up to 5 m. The mast consists of an elevating bolt operated telescopic module mounted on a tripod adapter base, with lockable castor wheels, and has a specially designed mooring-clamp at the top. The various modules and components of the mast were designed to enable quick assembly and transportation.

  1. Footprint Representation of Planetary Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S. H. G.; Gasselt, S. V.; Michael, G.; Neukum, G.

    The geometric outline of remote sensing image data, the so called footprint, can be represented as a number of coordinate tuples. These polygons are associated with according attribute information such as orbit name, ground- and image resolution, solar longitude and illumination conditions to generate a powerful base for classification of planetary experiment data. Speed, handling and extended capabilites are the reasons for using geodatabases to store and access these data types. Techniques for such a spatial database of footprint data are demonstrated using the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) PostgreSQL, spatially enabled by the PostGIS extension. Exemplary, footprints of the HRSC and OMEGA instruments, both onboard ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, are generated and connected to attribute information. The aim is to provide high-resolution footprints of the OMEGA instrument to the science community for the first time and make them available for web-based mapping applications like the "Planetary Interactive GIS-on-the-Web Analyzable Database" (PIG- WAD), produced by the USGS. Map overlays with HRSC or other instruments like MOC and THEMIS (footprint maps are already available for these instruments and can be integrated into the database) allow on-the-fly intersection and comparison as well as extended statistics of the data. Footprint polygons are generated one by one using standard software provided by the instrument teams. Attribute data is calculated and stored together with the geometric information. In the case of HRSC, the coordinates of the footprints are already available in the VICAR label of each image file. Using the VICAR RTL and PostgreSQL's libpq C library they are loaded into the database using the Well-Known Text (WKT) notation by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC). For the OMEGA instrument, image data is read using IDL routines developed and distributed by the OMEGA team. Image outlines are exported together with relevant attribute

  2. Resonant loading of aircraft secondary structure panels for use with thermoelastic stress analysis and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, Rachael C.; Dulieu-Barton, Janice M.; Quinn, S.

    2015-03-01

    Thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) is an established active thermographic approach which uses the thermoelastic effect to correlate the temperature change that occurs as a material is subjected to elastic cyclic loading to the sum of the principal stresses on the surface of the component. Digital image correlation (DIC) tracks features on the surface of a material to establish a displacement field of a component subjected to load, which can then be used to calculate the strain field. The application of both DIC and TSA on a composite plate representative of aircraft secondary structure subject to resonant frequency loading using a portable loading device, i.e. `remote loading' is described. Laboratory based loading for TSA and DIC is typically imparted using a test machine, however in the current work a vibration loading system is used which is able to excite the component of interest at resonant frequency which enables TSA and DIC to be carried out. The accuracy of the measurements made under remote loading of both of the optical techniques applied is discussed. The data are compared to extract complimentary information from the two techniques. This work forms a step towards a combined strain based non-destructive evaluation procedure able to identify and quantify the effect of defects more fully, particularly when examining component performance in service applications.

  3. Laser remote sensing of marine sediment load and algal pigments: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Houghton, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorescence emission spectra for estuarine water samples excited by an argon laser at 514.5 nm were analyzed. The features of interest were: (1) scattering at the laser wavelength by particulates (Mie); (2) fluorescence from the pigments chlorophyl a and phycoerythrin; (3) Raman scattering by water; and (4) fluorescence by dissolved organic matter. It is shown that these intensities increase with the concentration of the corresponding material and decrease with attenuation. Since the concentration of water is constant the Raman intensity provides a direct measure of attenuation.

  4. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  5. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    DOEpatents

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  6. Mobile Remote Base System (MBS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Backdropped against the blackness of space and the Earth's horizon, the Mobile Remote Base System (MBS) is moved by the Canadarm2 for installation on the International Space Station (ISS). Delivered by the STS-111 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in June 2002, the MBS is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is neccessary for future construction tasks. In addition, STS-111 delivered a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after remaining a record-setting 196 days in space. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the MBS to the Mobile Transporter on the S0 (S-zero) truss, the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm, and the task of unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  7. Remote Attitude Measurement Sensor (RAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Remote attitude measurement sensor (RAMS) offers a low-cost, low-risk, proven design concept that is based on mature, demonstrated space sensor technology. The electronic design concepts and interpolation algorithms were tested and proven in space hardware like th Retroreflector Field Tracker and various star trackers. The RAMS concept is versatile and has broad applicability to both ground testing and spacecraft needs. It is ideal for use as a precision laboratory sensor for structural dynamics testing. It requires very little set-up or preparation time and the output data is immediately usable without integration or extensive analysis efforts. For on-orbit use, RAMS rivals any other type of dynamic structural sensor (accelerometer, lidar, photogrammetric techniques, etc.) for overall performance, reliability, suitability, and cost. Widespread acceptance and extensive usage of RAMS will occur only after some interested agency, such as OAST, adopts the RAMS concept and provides the funding support necessary for further development and implementation of RAMS for a specific program.

  8. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahr, Tobias; Peper, Eva; Schubert, Alexander; Warnach, Simon; Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Beirle, Steffen; Mies, Kornelia; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) allows to determine the concentration of trace gases based on their specific absorptions cross-sections along a light path. Since 1995, this principle is employed successfully on satellite-based instruments like GOME, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY for the global measurement of stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like ozone and nitrogen oxides. Usually, spectral signatures from the ground, where a big part of the sunlight is reflected, are neglected in the evaluation. This can lead to errors in the trace gas determination. However, these structures offer the opportunity to identify surface properties of the earth and different types of vegetation. To analyse spectral reflectance properties, high resolved reflection spectra (FWHM 0.29 nm) from 95 plants were measured between 350 and 1050 nm. They can serve as a basis for the analysis of satellite data. Including different vegetation reference spectra, it is possible to determine groups of plants with similar optical properties. This allows to derive global maps of the spatio-temporal variation of plant distribution by satellite remote sensing. We present first results of this technique based on SCIAMACHY observations.

  9. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey; Conley, Gerald; Diaz, Claudine; Dimella, Timothy; Dodson, Pete; Hykin, Jeff; Richards, Byron; Richardson, Kroy; Shetzer, Christie; Vandyke, Melissa

    1990-01-01

    A first generation lunar transportation vehicle was designed for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focussed on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. It's purpose will be for the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 kilometers). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the asronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include: a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat restraints, heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model was built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  10. Paleovalleys mapping using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibatsha, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    For work materials used multispectral satellite imagery Landsat (7 channels), medium spatial resolution (14,25-90 m) and a digital elevation model (data SRTM). For interpretation of satellite images and especially their infrared and thermal channels allocated buried paleovalleys pre-paleogene age. Their total length is 228 km. By manifestation of the content of remote sensing paleovalleys distinctly divided into two types, long ribbon-like read in materials and space survey highlights a network of small lakes. By the nature of the relationship established that the second type of river paleovalleys flogs first. On this basis, proposed to allocate two uneven river paleosystem. The most ancient paleovalleys first type can presumably be attributed to karst erosion, blurry chalk and carbon deposits foundation. Paleovalleys may include significant groundwater resources as drinking and industrial purposes. Also we can control the position paleovalleys zinc and bauxite mineralization area and alluvial deposits include uranium mineralization valleys infiltration type and placer gold. Direction paleovalleys choppy, but in general they have a north-east orientation, which is controlled by tectonic zones of the foundation. These zones are defined as the burial place themselves paleovalleys and position of karst cavities in areas interfacing with other structures orientation. The association of mineralization to the caverns in the beds paleovalleys could generally present conditions of formation of mineralization and carry it to the "Niagara" type. The term is obviously best reflects the mechanism of formation of these ores.

  11. Remote Handling System for Ignitor^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbiati, L.; Bianchi, A.; Lucca, F.; Coppi, B.

    2005-10-01

    Since access in Ignitor is through the limited width of the equatorial ports, the use of remote handling (RH) technology for any in-vessel intervention is required, even before the vessel becomes activated. In particular, the first wall of Ignitor, which is made of TZM (Molybdenum) tiles mounted on Inconel tile-carriers covering the entire plasma chamber, has been designed to be installed and replaced entirely by the RH system. The presence of radiation screens inside the cryostat and around the ports ensure a sufficiently low level of activation around the machine to avoid the need of ex-vessel RH techniques. The in-vessel RH system is based on two transporters carrying an articulated boom with end-effectors, supported by a movable structure over a transport system that can be lifted and set in position adjacent to two opposite horizontal ports. The design of the in-vessel RH system, of the boom and its enclosure, and of the most significant end-effectors (welding and cutting tools, and tools for the removal and handling of tile carriers) has been completed. A series of other dedicated tools for installation and maintainances of diagnostics components, of the RF antennas, vacuum cleaners, tools for general inspection and metrology are included in the design. ^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. DOE.

  12. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Progress on the investigation of the anisotropy of the terrain media, such as vegetation canopy and sea ice, and the study of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in conjunction with the application of strong fluctuation theory for passive remote sensing of snowpacks is reported. The Feynman diagrammatic technique is used to derive the Dyson equation for the mean field and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the correlation or the covariance of the field for electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in an anisotropic random medium. With the random permittivity expressed in a general form, the bilocal and the nonlinear approximations are employed to solve the Dyson equation and the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The mean dyadic Green's function for a two layer anisotropic random medium with arbitrary three dimensional correlation function was investigated with the zeroth-order solutions to the Dyson equation under the four characteristic waves associated with the coherent vector fields propagating in an anisotropic random medium layer, which are the ordinary and extraordinary waves with upward and downward propagating vectors.

  13. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  14. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  15. Remote Transmission at High Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Omni and NASA Test Operations at Stennis entered a Dual-Use Agreement to develop the FOTR-125, a 125 megabit-per-second fiber-optic transceiver that allows accurate digital recordings over a great distance. The transceiver s fiber-optic link can be as long as 25 kilometers. This makes it much longer than the standard coaxial link, which can be no longer than 50 meters.The FOTR-125 utilizes laser diode transmitter modules and integrated receivers for the optical interface. Two transmitters and two receivers are employed at each end of the link with automatic or manual switchover to maximize the reliability of the communications link. NASA uses the transceiver in Stennis High-Speed Data Acquisition System (HSDAS). The HSDAS consists of several identical systems installed on the Center s test stands to process all high-speed data related to its propulsion test programs. These transceivers allow the recorder and HSDAS controls to be located in the Test Control Center in a remote location while the digitizer is located on the test stand.

  16. Passive Remote Sensing of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Remote sensing of aerosol optical and microphysical properties got a resurgence in the 1970s when John Reagan and Ben Herman initiated a program to develop and implement a surface-based sunphotometer system to monitor spectral aerosol optical thickness at the University of Arizona. In this presentation I will review the state of the technology used to monitor aerosol optical and microphysical properties, including the determination of spectral aerosol optical thickness and total ozone content. This work continued with John Reagan developed a surface-based spectral flux radiometer to implement Ben Herman's idea to determine the imaginary part of the complex refractive index of aerosols using the recently developed diffuse-direct technique. Progress made both in surface-based instrumentation, inversion theory for analyzing such data, and in satellite observations of aerosol optical and microphysical properties will be reviewed to highlight the state of knowledge after 30 years of expanded capability and introduction of novel new capabilities, both from the ground and from spacecraft.

  17. Remote Attitude Measurement Sensor (RAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, H. W.

    1989-07-01

    Remote attitude measurement sensor (RAMS) offers a low-cost, low-risk, proven design concept that is based on mature, demonstrated space sensor technology. The electronic design concepts and interpolation algorithms were tested and proven in space hardware like th Retroreflector Field Tracker and various star trackers. The RAMS concept is versatile and has broad applicability to both ground testing and spacecraft needs. It is ideal for use as a precision laboratory sensor for structural dynamics testing. It requires very little set-up or preparation time and the output data is immediately usable without integration or extensive analysis efforts. For on-orbit use, RAMS rivals any other type of dynamic structural sensor (accelerometer, lidar, photogrammetric techniques, etc.) for overall performance, reliability, suitability, and cost. Widespread acceptance and extensive usage of RAMS will occur only after some interested agency, such as OAST, adopts the RAMS concept and provides the funding support necessary for further development and implementation of RAMS for a specific program.

  18. USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, Bradley; Koenig, Richard

    2013-08-08

    The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

  19. Immediate loading of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Henry, P J; Liddelow, G J

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the concept of immediate loading as it pertains to dental implants and the indications for clinical practice. The definition of immediate loading will be considered together with a review of the relevant literature in an attempt to provide evidence-based guidelines for successful implementation into practice. A search of electronic databases including Medline, PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was undertaken using the terms "immediate loading'', "dental implants'', "immediate function'', "early loading'', "oral implants'', "immediate restoration'' and "systematic review''. This was supplemented by handsearching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Emphasis was given to systematic reviews and controlled clinical trials. A definition of immediate loading was suggested pertinent to the realities of logistics in clinical practice with respect to application and time frame. The literature was evaluated and shown to be limited with significant shortcomings. Guidelines and recommendations for clinical protocols were suggested and illustrated by examples of case types with a minimum of 1-3 years follow-up. A list of additional references for further reading was provided. Within the limitations of this review, there is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols have demonstrated high implant survival rates and may be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations. However, more high level evidence studies, preferably randomized controlled trials (RCTs), over a long time frame are required to show a clear benefit over more conventional loading protocols.

  20. Space Shuttle fatigue loads spectra for prelaunch and liftoff loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldish, Judith; Ortasse, Raphael

    1994-01-01

    Fatigue loads spectra for the prelaunch and liftoff flight segments of the Space Shuttle were developed. A variety o methods were used to determine the distributions of several important parameters, such as time of exposure on the launch, pad, month of launch, and wind speed. Also, some lessons learned that would be applicable to development of fatigue loads spectra for other reusable space vehicles are presented.

  1. Remote Sensing in Agriculture: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)

  2. A Teacher's Introduction to Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines remote sensing as the examination of something without touching it. Generally, this refers to satellite and aerial photographic images. Discusses how this technology and resulting knowledge can be integrated into geography classes. Includes a sample unit using images. (MJP)

  3. Information Processing of Remote-Sensing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, P. A. M.; Meadows, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the current status of satellite remote sensing data, including problems with efficient storage and rapid retrieval of the data, and appropriate computer graphics to process images. Areas of research concerned with overcoming these problems are described. (16 references) (CLB)

  4. Remote Operations and Ground Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Barry S.; Lankford, Kimberly; Pitts, R. Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center supports the International Space Station (ISS) through remote interfaces around the world. The POIC was originally designed as a gateway to space for remote facilities; ranging from an individual user to a full-scale multiuser environment. This achievement was accomplished while meeting program requirements and accommodating the injection of modern technology on an ongoing basis to ensure cost effective operations. This paper will discuss the open POIC architecture developed to support similar and dissimilar remote operations centers. It will include technologies, protocols, and compromises which on a day to day basis support ongoing operations. Additional areas covered include centralized management of shared resources and methods utilized to provide highly available and restricted resources to remote users. Finally, the effort of coordinating the actions of participants will be discussed.

  5. Remote-sensing applications to geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of two day workshop on applications of remote sensing to geology are summarized in report. Topics discussed are environmental analysis, crop classification, plant epidemics and diseases, irrigation reform, and soil surveys.

  6. Sources of support for remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Past financial support for educational programs in remote sensing came largely in the form of short courses funded by the National Science Foundation. Later NASA began to fund such courses for local and state government and for some university participants in its regional programs. The greater impact came from the funding by a variety of federal agencies for remote sensing research projects at educational institutions throughout the country. Probably the best and most significant example of these programs, from the university standpoint is, and should continue to be, the NASA university affairs programs, which with its long term step funding of a number of institutions has probably done more for remote sensing education than any other federal program in this country. An incomplete listing of federal agencies that support remote sensing research at the university level is presented.

  7. State remote sensing (LANDSAT) programs catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This directory lists the technical capabilities, personnel, and program structure for remote sensing activities as they existed in each state in late 1980. The institutional framework, participating agencies, applications, status, equipment, software, and funding sources are also indicated.

  8. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1994-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture... This Paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods.

  9. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  10. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  11. Applications of remote sensing surveys in Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The grant project continues to introduce remote sensing technology to users in Texas and other regions in the South through presentation of papers and briefings at technical and professional meetings.

  12. Future use of digital remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.; Jones, N. L.

    1978-01-01

    Users of remote sensing data are increasingly turning to digital processing techniques for the extraction of land resource, environmental, and natural resource information. This paper presents the results of recent and ongoing research efforts sponsored, in part, by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center on the current uses of and future needs for digital remote sensing data. An ongoing investigation involves a comprehensive survey of capabilities for digital Landsat data use in the Southeastern U.S. Another effort consists of an evaluation of future needs for digital remote sensing data by federal, state, and local governments and the private sector. These needs are projected into the 1980-1985 time frame. Furthermore, the accelerating use of digital remote sensing data is not limited to the U.S. or even to the developed countries of the world.

  13. Remote Sensing of Snow and Evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The use of snowmelt runoff models from both the U.S. and Japan for simulating discharge on basins in both countries is discussed as well as research in snowpack properties and evapotranspiration using remotely sensed data.

  14. Remote sensing: An inventory of earth's resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N.

    1974-01-01

    The remote sensing capabilities of Landsat are reviewed along with the broad areas of application of the Landsat imagery. The importance of Landsat imagery in urban planning and resources management is stressed.

  15. Indicators of international remote sensing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The extent of worldwide remote sensing activities, including the use of satellite and high/medium altitude aircraft data was studied. Data were obtained from numerous individuals and organizations with international remote sensing responsibilities. Indicators were selected to evaluate the nature and scope of remote sensing activities in each country. These indicators ranged from attendance at remote sensing workshops and training courses to the establishment of earth resources satellite ground stations and plans for the launch of earth resources satellites. Results indicate that this technology constitutes a rapidly increasing component of environmental, land use, and natural resources investigations in many countries, and most of these countries rely on the LANDSAT satellites for a major portion of their data.

  16. Remote Use of CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, Diana; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of a telecommunications program called "PC Anywhere" to afford users remote access to compact disc ready-only-memory (CD-ROM) systems. Describes hardware requirements and benefits to libraries and users. (DMM)

  17. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided consist of the following: (1) large format aerial photography; (2) video from aerial platforms; (3) multispectral scanning; and (4) airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in the summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis. 2 figures.

  18. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  19. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  20. Remote television viewing: an ultrasound teaching device.

    PubMed

    Raskin, M M; Vining, P E

    1979-07-01

    Remote viewing of ultrasound scans facilitates assessment of a student's technique while minimizing anxiety for both him and the patient. This method may also be effective for the busy physician who must monitor several procedures at the same time.

  1. Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

  2. Remote Monitoring and Control of Irradiation Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Toader, O.; Rotberg, V.H.; Was, G.S.

    2003-08-26

    As computer technology plays an increasing important role in particle accelerator facilities, instrumentation systems can be expected to include web connections and other remote capability features. The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor has developed remote monitor and control capability by using a combination of commercial software packages and in-house software development. Irradiation parameters such as ion current on the samples and apertures, sample temperature read from an optical pyrometer, and chamber pressure can all be accessed and monitored remotely through a web site, as can ion source parameters such as power supply currents and voltages or feed gas pressure. With administrator permission, the control parameters of the ion source or the readouts from the irradiation stage can be modified in real time during an experiment. A description will be given of the various ways in which this type of remote monitoring and control has been accomplished at the Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory.

  3. Remote sensor support requirements for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddell, J. B.; Wheeler, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    The study approach, methods, results, and conclusions of remote sensor support requirements for planetary missions are summarized. Major efforts were made to (1) establish the scientific and engineering knowledge and observation requirements for planetary exploration in the 1975 to 1985 period; (2) define the state of the art and expected development of instrument systems appropriate for sensing planetary environments; (3) establish scaling laws relating performance and support requirements of candidate remote sensor systems; (4) establish fundamental remote sensor system capabilities, limitations, and support requirements during encounter and other dynamical conditions for specific missions; and (5) construct families of candidate remote sensors compatible with selected missions. It was recommended that these data be integrated with earlier results to enhance utility, and that more restrictions be placed on the system.

  4. Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.

  5. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  6. Scalable loading of a two-dimensional trapped-ion array

    PubMed Central

    Bruzewicz, Colin D.; McConnell, Robert; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of trapped-ion qubits are attractive platforms for scalable quantum information processing. Sufficiently rapid reloading capable of sustaining a large array, however, remains a significant challenge. Here with the use of a continuous flux of pre-cooled neutral atoms from a remotely located source, we achieve fast loading of a single ion per site while maintaining long trap lifetimes and without disturbing the coherence of an ion quantum bit in an adjacent site. This demonstration satisfies all major criteria necessary for loading and reloading extensive two-dimensional arrays, as will be required for large-scale quantum information processing. Moreover, the already high loading rate can be increased by loading ions in parallel with only a concomitant increase in photo-ionization laser power and no need for additional atomic flux. PMID:27677357

  7. Satellite remote sensing of water turbidity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments obtain an optical measure of water colour and turbidity. Colour increases the absorption of light in water and decreases the remotely sensed signal; turbidity increases the backscatter of light. For low concentrations of suspended materials, spectral reflectance is determined mostly by the absorptance characteristics of water; for higher concentrations, the absorptance characteristics of suspended particles are the most important factors. -from Authorwater colour suspended materials

  8. Extending IPsec for Efficient Remote Attestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schulz, Steffen

    When establishing a VPN to connect different sites of a network, the integrity of the involved VPN endpoints is often a major security concern. Based on the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), available in many computing platforms today, remote attestation mechanisms can be used to evaluate the internal state of remote endpoints automatically. However, existing protocols and extensions are either unsuited for use with IPsec or impose considerable additional implementation complexity and protocol overhead.

  9. Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J.

    1997-10-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.

  10. Pilot interministerial operation for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamare, J. M.; Bied-Charreton, M.; Couzy, A.; Jahan, A.; Ledder, J.; Pasquet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of obtaining required information for land and resources management and the possibilities of remote sensing are discussed. The services available, organization and objectives of the pilot operation are presented. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary dialog among designers, builders, operators, interpreters and users in all phases. The principles, operation and practical applications of remote sensing systems and processing systems under the pilot operation are presented.

  11. Summary: Remote sensing soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmer, F. A.; Werner, H. D.; Waltz, F. A.

    1970-01-01

    During the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons research was conducted to investigate the relationship between remote sensing imagery and soil moisture. The research was accomplished under two completely different conditions: (1) cultivated cropland in east central South Dakota, and (2) rangeland in western South Dakota. Aerial and ground truth data are being studied and correlated in order to evaluate the moisture supply and water use. Results show that remote sensing is a feasible method for monitoring soil moisture.

  12. Remote sensing, imaging, and signal engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering (RISE) trust area which has been very active in working to define new directions. Signal and image processing have always been important support for existing programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but now these technologies are becoming central to the formation of new programs. Exciting new applications such as high-resolution telescopes, radar remote sensing, and advanced medical imaging are allowing us to participate in the development of new programs.

  13. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing users from the 14 western states explained their diverse applications of LANDSAT data, discussed operational goals, and exchanged problems and solutions. In addition, conference participants stressed the need for increased cooperation among state and local governments, private industry, and universities to aid NASA's objective of transferring to user agencies the ability to operationally use remote sensing technology for resource and environmental quality management.

  14. Deflection-Based Structural Loads Estimation From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew M.; Lokos, William A.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques in structural load measurement entail the correlation of a known load with strain-gage output from the individual components of a structure or machine. The use of strain gages has proved successful and is considered the standard approach for load measurement. However, remotely measuring aerodynamic loads using deflection measurement systems to determine aeroelastic deformation as a substitute to strain gages may yield lower testing costs while improving aircraft performance through reduced instrumentation weight. This technique was examined using a reliable strain and structural deformation measurement system. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of a deflection-based load estimation, using the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft. Calibration data from ground tests performed on the aircraft were used to derive left wing-root and wing-fold bending-moment and torque load equations based on strain gages, however, for this study, point deflections were used to derive deflection-based load equations. Comparisons between the strain-gage and deflection-based methods are presented. Flight data from the phase-1 active aeroelastic wing flight program were used to validate the deflection-based load estimation method. Flight validation revealed a strong bending-moment correlation and slightly weaker torque correlation. Development of current techniques, and future studies are discussed.

  15. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  16. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  17. 14 CFR 23.425 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.425 Gust loads. (a) Each horizontal surface, other than a main wing, must be... for the conditions specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the initial balancing loads for steady... load resulting from the gusts must be added to the initial balancing load to obtain the total load....

  18. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  19. Remote Control of Neuronal Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    A significant challenge for neuroscientists is to determine how both electrical and chemical signals affect the activity of cells and circuits and how the nervous system subsequently translates that activity into behavior. Remote, bidirectional manipulation of those signals with high spatiotemporal precision is an ideal approach to addressing that challenge. Neuroscientists have recently developed a diverse set of tools that permit such experimental manipulation with varying degrees of spatial, temporal, and directional control. These tools use light, peptides, and small molecules to primarily activate ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that in turn activate or inhibit neuronal firing. By monitoring the electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral effects of such activation/inhibition, researchers can better understand the links between brain activity and behavior. Here, we review the tools that are available for this type of experimentation. We describe the development of the tools and highlight exciting in vivo data. We focus primarily on designer GPCRs (receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands, designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) and microbial opsins (e.g., channelrhodopsin-2, halorhodopsin, Volvox carteri channelrhodopsin) but also describe other novel techniques that use orthogonal receptors, caged ligands, allosteric modulators, and other approaches. These tools differ in the direction of their effect (activation/inhibition, hyperpolarization/depolarization), their onset and offset kinetics (milliseconds/minutes/hours), the degree of spatial resolution they afford, and their invasiveness. Although none of these tools is perfect, each has advantages and disadvantages, which we describe, and they are all still works in progress. We conclude with suggestions for improving upon the existing tools. PMID:21415127

  20. Revolutionizing Remote Exploration with ANTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S.; Truszkowski, W.

    2002-05-01

    We are developing the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) architecture based on an insect colony analogue for the cost-effective, efficient, systematic survey of remote or inaccessible areas with multiple object targets, including planetary surface, marine, airborne, and space environments. The mission context is the exploration in the 2020s of the most compelling remaining targets in the solar system: main belt asteroids. Main belt asteroids harbor important clues to Solar System origins and evolution which are central to NASA's goals in Space Science. Asteroids are smaller than planets, but their number is far greater, and their combined surface area likely dwarfs the Earth's. An asteroid survey will dramatically increase our understanding of the local resources available for the Human Exploration and Development of Space. During the mission composition, shape, gravity, and orbit parameters could be returned to Earth for perhaps several thousand asteroids. A survey of this area will rival the great explorations that encircled this globe, opened up the New World, and laid the groundwork for the progress and challenges of the last centuries. The ANTS architecture for a main belt survey consists of a swarm of as many as a thousand or more highly specialized pico-spacecraft that form teams to survey as many as one hundred asteroids a month. Multi-level autonomy is critical for ANTS and the objective of the proposed study is to work through the implications and constraints this entails. ANTS couples biologically inspired autonomic control for basic functions to higher level artificial intelligence that together enable individual spacecraft to operate as specialized, cooperative, social agents. This revolutionary approach postulates highly advanced, but familiar, components integrated and operated in a way that uniquely transcends any evolutionary extrapolation of existing trends and enables thousand-spacecraft missions.