NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, An; Liu, Youjian; Xiang, Haige; Luo, Wu
2011-01-01
We take two new approaches to design efficient algorithms for transmitter optimization under rate constraints, to guarantee the Quality of Service in general MIMO interference networks, which is a combination of multiple interfering broadcast channels (BC) and multiaccess channels (MAC) and is named B-MAC Networks. Two related optimization problems, maximizing the minimum of weighted rates under a sum-power constraint and minimizing the sum-power under rate constraints, are considered. The first approach takes advantage of existing efficient algorithms for SINR problems by building a bridge between rate and SINR through the design of optimal mappings between them. The approach can be applied to other optimization problems as well. The second approach employs polite water-filling, which is the optimal network version of water-filling that we recently found. It replaces most generic optimization algorithms currently used for networks and reduces the complexity while demonstrating superior performance even in non-convex cases. Both centralized and distributed algorithms are designed and the performance is analyzed in addition to numeric examples.
Macroscopic electric field inside water-filled biological nanopores.
Acosta Gutiérrez, Silvia; Bodrenko, Igor; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Ceccarelli, Matteo
2016-04-07
Multi-drug resistance bacteria are a challenging problem of contemporary medicine. This is particularly critical for Gram-negative bacteria, where antibiotics are hindered by the outer membrane to reach internal targets. Here more polar antibiotics make use of nanometric water-filled channels to permeate inside. We present in this work a computational all-atom approach, using water as a probe, for the calculation of the macroscopic electric field inside water-filled channels. The method allows one to compare not only different systems but also the same system under different conditions, such as pH and ion concentration. This provides a detailed picture of electrostatics in biological nanopores shedding more light on how the charged residues of proteins determine the electric field inside, and also how medium can tune it. These details are central to unveil the filtering mechanism behind the permeation of small polar molecules through nanometric water-filled channels.
Green, Daniel; Lawrence, Albion; McGreevy, John; Morrison, David R.; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2007-05-18
We show that string theory on a compact negatively curved manifold, preserving a U(1)b1 winding symmetry, grows at least b1 new effective dimensions as the space shrinks. The winding currents yield a ''D-dual'' description of a Riemann surface of genus h in terms of its 2h dimensional Jacobian torus, perturbed by a closed string tachyon arising as a potential energy term in the worldsheet sigma model. D-branes on such negatively curved manifolds also reveal this structure, with a classical moduli space consisting of a b{sub 1}-torus. In particular, we present an AdS/CFT system which offers a non-perturbative formulation of such supercritical backgrounds. Finally, we discuss generalizations of this new string duality.
Rewarming preterm infants on a heated, water filled mattress.
Sarman, I; Can, G; Tunell, R
1989-01-01
Sixty low birthweight infants (1000-2000 g) admitted to a neonatal care unit in Turkey were studied. Those not requiring intensive care were randomly assigned for treatment either in a cot on a heated, water filled mattress kept at 37 degrees C (n = 28) or in air heated incubators with a mean air temperature of 35 degrees C (n = 32). On admission 53 (88.3%) of the infants had body temperatures between 30 degrees and 36 degrees C. There was good correlation between axillary and rectal temperatures in the infants while they were hypothermic. Normal temperatures were achieved within the first day and remained within this range during the subsequent days after admission in all the infants treated on the heated, water filled mattress, whereas they were not achieved until three days later in the incubator group. The neonatal mortality among those treated on the heated, water filled mattress was 21%, and among those treated in the incubator 34%. The heated, water filled mattress provides a good alternative to skin to skin contact with the mother, and to the use of a complex and expensive incubator for rapidly attaining and maintaining normal temperatures in the low birthweight newborn. PMID:2730122
A water-filled radio frequency accelerating cavity
Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Pogue, E.W.
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to study water-filled resonant cavities as a high-energy density source to drive high-current accelerator configurations. Basic considerations lead to the expectation that a dielectric-filled cavity should be able to store up to e/e{sub o} as much energy as a vacuum one with the same dimensions and thus be capable of accelerating a proportionately larger amount of charge before cavity depletion occurs. During this project, we confirmed that water-filled cavities with e/e{sub o} = 60-80 did indeed behave with the expected characteristics, in terms of resonant TM modes and cavity Q. We accomplished this result with numerical cavity eigenvalue codes; fully electromagnetic, two-dimensional, particle-in-cell codes; and, most significantly, with scaled experiments performed in water-filled aluminum cavities. The low-power experiments showed excellent agreement with the numerical results. Simulations of the high-field, high-current mode of operation indicated that charged-particle loss on the dielectric windows, which separate the cavity from the beamline, must be carefully controlled to avoid significant distortion of the axial fields.
Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolbe, W. F.; Turko, B. T.; Leskovar, B.
1984-04-01
A method is described for imaging the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.
Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe
Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.
1984-04-01
A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.
Acoustic Propagation in a Water-Filled Cylindrical Pipe
Sullivan, E J; Candy, J V
2003-06-01
This study was concerned with the physics of the propagation of a tone burst of high frequency sound in a steel water-filled pipe. The choice of the pulse was rather arbitrary, so that this work in no way can be considered as recommending a particular pulse form. However, the MATLAB computer codes developed in this study are general enough to carry out studies of pulses of various forms. Also, it should be pointed out that the codes as written are quite time consuming. A computation of the complete field, including all 5995 modes, requires several hours on a desktop computer. The time required by such computations as these is a direct consequence of the bandwidths, frequencies and sample rates employed. No attempt was made to optimize these codes, and it is assumed that much can be done in this regard.
Preliminary Study on Water Filled Tank Perforation by Rod Projectiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Xin-Ke; Guo, Zi-Tao; Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei
2009-06-01
The effects of fluid structure interactions resulting from the impact of a fluid filled tank is of the interests for engineers from both the military and civilian field, where hydrodynamic-ram (HRAM) phenomena is well known. And it is believed HRAM is responsible for the vulnerability and the possible catastrophic failure of the whole tank. Thus HRAM is related to the majority concerns on this topic, where the targets were usually assumed to be thin. In order to investigate the influence of water on the crashworthiness of a tank with relatively thick walls, 3 ballistic shots on the water filled tank with two 3 mm 2A12 aluminum plates as front and back target and 4 shots on the tank without any water by 12.7 mm rods were conducted. The failure patterns were indentified from the tests and the difference in the failure mechanism was further studied by a series of detailed numerical simulations on the corresponding tests in hydro-code AUTODYN-2D by using both the coupled Lagrange-Euler technology and the SPH method. And also, the challenge of numerical simulation in this field is addressed.
Separation of empty and water-filled single-wall carbon nanotubes.
Fagan, Jeffrey A; Huh, Ji Yeon; Simpson, Jeffrey R; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Holt, Josh M; Larsen, Brian A; Walker, Angela R Hight
2011-05-24
The separation of empty and water-filled laser ablation and electric arc synthesized nanotubes is reported. Centrifugation of these large-diameter nanotubes dispersed with sodium deoxycholate using specific conditions produces isolated bands of empty and water-filled nanotubes without significant diameter selection. This separation is shown to be consistent across multiple nanotube populations dispersed from different source soots. Detailed spectroscopic characterization of the resulting empty and filled fractions reveals that water filling leads to systematic changes to the optical and vibrational properties. Furthermore, sequential separation of the resolved fractions using cosurfactants and density gradient ultracentrifugation reveals that water filling strongly influences the optimal conditions for metallic and semiconducting separation.
Duality and 'particle' democracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellani, Elena
2017-08-01
Weak/strong duality is usually accompanied by what seems a puzzling ontological feature: the fact that under this kind of duality what is viewed as 'elementary' in one description gets mapped to what is viewed as 'composite' in the dual description. This paper investigates the meaning of this apparent 'particle democracy', as it has been called, by adopting an historical approach. The aim is to clarify the nature of the correspondence between 'dual particles' in the light of a historical analysis of the developments of the idea of weak/strong duality, starting with Dirac's electric-magnetic duality and its successive generalizations in the context of (Abelian and non-Abelian) field theory, to arrive at its first extension to string theory. This analysis is then used as evidential basis for discussing the 'elementary/composite' divide and, after taking another historical detour by analyzing an instructive analogy case (DHS duality and related nuclear democracy), drawing some conclusions on the particle-democracy issue.
Lalakulich, O.; Leitner, T.; Buss, O.; Mosel, U.; Praet, Ch.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.
2009-11-25
A phenomenological study of Bloom-Gilman duality is performed in electron and neutrino scattering on nuclei. In the resonance region the structure functions are calculated within the phenomenological models of Ghent and Giessen groups, where only the resonance contribution is taken into account, and the background one is neglected. Structure functions F{sub 2} in the resonance region are compared with the DIS ones, extracted directly from the experimental data. The results show, that within the models considered the Bloom-Gilman duality does not work well for nuclei: the integrated strength in the resonance region is considerably lower than in the DIS one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabowski, Janusz; Jóźwikowski, Michał; Rotkiewicz, Mikołaj
2017-08-01
We study the notion of duality in the context of graded manifolds. For graded bundles, somehow like in the case of Gelfand representation and the duality: points vs. functions, we obtain natural dual objects which belong to a different category than the initial ones, namely graded polynomial (co)algebra bundles and free graded Weil (co)algebra bundles. Our results are then applied to obtain elegant characterizations of double vector bundles and graded bundles of degree 2. All these results have their supergeometric counterparts. For instance, we give a simple proof of a nice characterisation of N-manifolds of degree 2, announced in the literature.
Putrov, Pavel; Song, Jaewon; Yan, Wenbin
2016-03-29
We study a class of two-dimensional N = (0; 4) quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories. We find dualities for the superconformal field theories similar to the 4d N = 2 theories of class S, labelled by a Riemann surface C. The dual descriptions arise from various pair-of-pants decompositions, that involve an analog of the TN theory. Especially, we find the superconformal indices of such theories can be written in terms of a topological field theory on C. In conclusion, we interpret this class of SCFTs as the ones coming from compactifying 6d N = (2; 0)more » theory on CP1 x C. Moreover, some new dualities of (0; 2) and (2; 2) theories are also discussed.« less
Putrov, Pavel; Song, Jaewon; Yan, Wenbin
2016-03-29
We study a class of two-dimensional N = (0; 4) quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories. We find dualities for the superconformal field theories similar to the 4d N = 2 theories of class S, labelled by a Riemann surface C. The dual descriptions arise from various pair-of-pants decompositions, that involve an analog of the T_{N} theory. Especially, we find the superconformal indices of such theories can be written in terms of a topological field theory on C. In conclusion, we interpret this class of SCFTs as the ones coming from compactifying 6d N = (2; 0) theory on CP^{1} x C. Moreover, some new dualities of (0; 2) and (2; 2) theories are also discussed.
Quantitative wave-particle duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qureshi, Tabish
2016-07-01
The complementary wave and particle character of quantum objects (or quantons) was pointed out by Niels Bohr. This wave-particle duality, in the context of the two-slit experiment, is here described not just as two extreme cases of wave and particle characteristics, but in terms of quantitative measures of these characteristics, known to follow a duality relation. A very simple and intuitive derivation of a closely related duality relation is presented, which should be understandable to the introductory student.
Feasibility of central loop TEM method for prospecting multilayer water-filled goaf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shu; Xue, Gou-Qiang; Qiu, Wei-Zhong; Li, Hai; Zhong, Hua-Sen
2016-12-01
With deep mining of coal mines, prospecting multilayer water-filled goaf has become a new content that results from geophysical exploration in coalfields. The central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method is favorable for prospecting conductive layers because of the coupling relationship between its field structure and formation. However, the shielding effect of conductive overburden would not only require a longer observation time when prospecting the same depth but also weaken the anomalous response of underlying layers. Through direct time domain numerical simulation and horizontal layered earth forward modeling, this paper estimates the length of observation time required to prospect the target, and the distinguishable criterion of multilayer water-filled goaf is presented with observation error according to the effect of noise on observation data. The observed emf curves from Dazigou Coal Mine, Shanxi Province can distinguish multilayer water-filled goaf. In quantitative inversion interpretation of observed curves, using electric logging data as initial parameters restrains the equivalence caused by coal formation thin layers. The deduced three-layer and two-layer water-filled goafs are confirmed by the drilling hole. The result suggests that when observation time is long enough and with the anomalous situation of underlying layers being greater than the observation error, the use of the central loop TEM method to prospect a multilayer water-filled goaf is feasible.
Comparing dualities and gauge symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Haro, Sebastian; Teh, Nicholas; Butterfield, Jeremy N.
2017-08-01
We discuss some aspects of the relation between dualities and gauge symmetries. Both of these ideas are of course multi-faceted, and we confine ourselves to making two points. Both points are about dualities in string theory, and both have the 'flavour' that two dual theories are 'closer in content' than you might think. For both points, we adopt a simple conception of a duality as an 'isomorphism' between theories: more precisely, as appropriate bijections between the two theories' sets of states and sets of quantities. The first point (Section 3) is that this conception of duality meshes with two dual theories being 'gauge related' in the general philosophical sense of being physically equivalent. For a string duality, such as T-duality and gauge/gravity duality, this means taking such features as the radius of a compact dimension, and the dimensionality of spacetime, to be 'gauge'. The second point (Sections 4-6) is much more specific. We give a result about gauge/gravity duality that shows its relation to gauge symmetries (in the physical sense of symmetry transformations that are spacetime-dependent) to be subtler than you might expect. For gauge theories, you might expect that the duality bijections relate only gauge-invariant quantities and states, in the sense that gauge symmetries in one theory will be unrelated to any symmetries in the other theory. This may be so in general; and indeed, it is suggested by discussions of Polchinski and Horowitz. But we show that in gauge/gravity duality, each of a certain class of gauge symmetries in the gravity/bulk theory, viz. diffeomorphisms, is related by the duality to a position-dependent symmetry of the gauge/boundary theory.
Hydroelectric voltage generation based on water-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes.
Yuan, Quanzi; Zhao, Ya-Pu
2009-05-13
A DFT/MD mutual iterative method was employed to give insights into the mechanism of voltage generation based on water-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Our calculations showed that a constant voltage difference of several mV would generate between the two ends of a carbon nanotube, due to interactions between the water dipole chains and charge carriers in the tube. Our work validates this structure of a water-filled SWCNT as a promising candidate for a synthetic nanoscale power cell, as well as a practical nanopower harvesting device at the atomic level.
Duality constraints on effective actions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garousi, Mohammad R.
2017-08-01
Superstring theories at low energy limit are described by the corresponding supergravities, and their non-perturbative D-brane/O-plane excitations are described by DBI and WZ actions. Higher derivative corrections to these effective actions are important for understanding the stringy behaviour of the fundamental objects. They may be extracted from the contact terms of the corresponding S-matrix elements. On the other hand, the superstring theories enjoy the T- and S-dualities which appear in the S-matrix elements as duality Ward identities. These Ward identities might be used as generating functions for constructing the S-matrix elements. The dualities may also be used directly to construct the effective actions. In this article, we review the duality Ward identities which can be used to generate S-matrix elements, and review the dualities which may be used directly to construct the higher derivative corrections to the effective actions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creutzig, Thomas; Hikida, Yasuaki; Rønne, Peter B.
2011-09-01
The Fateev-Zamolodchikov-Zamolodchikov (FZZ) duality relates Witten's cigar model to sine-Liouville theory. This duality was proven in the path integral formulation and extended to the case of higher genus closed Riemann surfaces by Schomerus and one of the authors. In this note we further extend the duality to the case with boundary. Specifically, we relate D1-branes in the cigar model to D2-branes in the sine-Liouville theory. In particular, the boundary action for D2-branes in the sine-Liouville theory is constructed. We also consider the fermionic version of the FZZ duality. This duality was proven as a mirror symmetry by Hori and Kapustin, but we give an alternative proof in the path integral formulation which directly relates correlation functions. Also here the case with boundary is investigated and the results are consistent with those for branes in mathcal{N} = 2 super Liouville field theory obtained by Hosomichi.
Electromagnetic duality and entanglement anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnelly, William; Michel, Ben; Wall, Aron C.
2017-08-01
Duality is an indispensable tool for describing the strong-coupling dynamics of gauge theories. However, its actual realization is often quite subtle: quantities such as the partition function can transform covariantly, with degrees of freedom rearranged in a nonlocal fashion. We study this phenomenon in the context of the electromagnetic duality of Abelian p -forms. A careful calculation of the duality anomaly on an arbitrary D -dimensional manifold shows that the effective actions agree exactly in odd D , while in even D they differ by a term proportional to the Euler number. Despite this anomaly, the trace of the stress tensor agrees between the dual theories. We also compute the change in the vacuum entanglement entropy under duality, relating this entanglement anomaly to the duality of an "edge mode" theory in two fewer dimensions. Previous work on this subject has led to conflicting results; we explain and resolve these discrepancies.
Simple Model of a Rolling Water-Filled Bottle on an Inclined Ramp
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shihao; Hu, Naiwen; Yao, Tianchen; Chu, Charles; Babb, Simona; Cohen, Jenna; Sangiovanni, Giana; Watt, Summer; Weisman, Danielle; Klep, James; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.
2015-01-01
We investigate a water-filled bottle rolling down an incline and ask the following question: is a rolling bottle better described by a model ignoring all internal motion where the bottle is approximated by a material point sliding down an incline, or is it better described by a rigid solid cylinder rolling down the incline without skidding? The…
Simple Model of a Rolling Water-Filled Bottle on an Inclined Ramp
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shihao; Hu, Naiwen; Yao, Tianchen; Chu, Charles; Babb, Simona; Cohen, Jenna; Sangiovanni, Giana; Watt, Summer; Weisman, Danielle; Klep, James; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.
2015-01-01
We investigate a water-filled bottle rolling down an incline and ask the following question: is a rolling bottle better described by a model ignoring all internal motion where the bottle is approximated by a material point sliding down an incline, or is it better described by a rigid solid cylinder rolling down the incline without skidding? The…
Nonsupersymmetric Dualities from Mirror Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kachru, Shamit; Mulligan, Michael; Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia
2017-01-01
We study supersymmetry breaking perturbations of the simplest dual pair of (2 +1 )-dimensional N =2 supersymmetric field theories—the free chiral multiplet and N =2 super QED with a single flavor. We find dual descriptions of a phase diagram containing four distinct massive phases. The equivalence of the intervening critical theories gives rise to several nonsupersymmetric avatars of mirror symmetry: we find dualities relating scalar QED to a free fermion and Wilson-Fisher theories to both scalar and fermionic QED. Thus, mirror symmetry can be viewed as the multicritical parent duality from which these nonsupersymmetric dualities directly descend.
String dualities and empirical equivalence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawid, Richard
2017-08-01
String dualities establish empirical equivalence between theories that often look entirely different with respect to their basic ontology and physical structure. Therefore, they represent a particularly interesting example of empirical equivalence in physics. However, the status of duality relations in string physics differs substantially from the traditional understanding of the role played by empirical equivalence. The paper specifies three important differences and argues that they are related to a substantially altered view on the underdetermination of theory building.
Duality symmetric quantization of superstrings
Kallosh, R.
1995-11-15
A general covariant quantization of a superparticle, Green-Schwarz superstring, and a supermembrane with manifest supersymmetry and duality symmetry is proposed. This quantization provides a natural quantum-mechanical description of curved BPS-type backgrounds related to the ultrashort supersymmetry multiplets. Half-size commuting and anticommuting Killing spinors admitted by such backgrounds in quantum theory become truncated {kappa}-symmetry ghosts. The symmetry of Killing spinors under dualities transfers to the symmetry of the spectrum of states. A GS superstring in the generalized semi-light-cone gauge can be quantized consistently in the background of ten-dimensional supersymmetric gravitational waves. Upon compactification they become supersymmetric electrically charged black holes, either massive or massless. However, the generalized light-cone gauge breaks {ital S} duality. We propose a new family of gauges, which we call black hole gauges. These gauges are suitable for quantization both in flat Minkowski space and in the black hole background, and they are duality symmetric. As an example, a manifestly {ital S}-duality symmetric black hole gauge is constructed in terms of the axion-dilaton-electric-magnetic black hole hair. We also suggest the {ital U}-duality covariant class of gauges for type II superstrings.
Kong, Xiangheng; Cao, Yuning; Yang, Daogui; Li, Senlin
2017-01-01
Abstract Rationale: Occult small bowel bleeding is always difficult to locate by either radiological examination or endoscopy. When the site of bleeding cannot be found by nonsurgical measures, exploratory laparotomy becomes necessary. Patient concerns: A 63-year-old woman with a half-month history of occult gastrointestinal bleeding failed to many conservative therapies. Interventions: Intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen was performed. Diagnoses: Small bowel bleeding was diagnosed intraoperatively. Outcomes: Segmental resection of the diseased small bowel with side-to-side anastomosis was performed while the histology showed no significant abnormality. Lessons: The technique of intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen allows simple, accurate, and rapid localization of lesions in occult small bowel bleeding and facilitates precise and definitive surgery. PMID:28151907
The accuracy of static pressure measurement with water-filled urodynamic systems.
Gammie, Andrew
2017-08-01
To quantify the inaccuracy of pressure measurement by water-filled systems, with a view to recommending better practice. Papers examining quality of measurements were reviewed, and standards documents examined. Technical data from manufacturers were gathered and summarized. Measurements were made on two different urodynamic systems. Individual inaccuracies were combined using the root sum of squares method. The total inaccuracy in measurement may reach up to 9.6 cmH2 O on pdet , but with good practice this may be mitigated to 1.3 cmH2 O. Water-filled systems, while being the recommended method for urodynamic measurements, are subject to a potential inaccuracy during poor use of up to approximately 10 cmH2 O on pdet . Good practice can reduce this inaccuracy to a tolerable level, that is, approximately 1 cmH2 O. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Structure of the Yeast Plasma Membrane SNARE Complex Reveals Destabilizing Water Filled Cavities
Strop, P.; Kaiser, S.E.; Vrljic, M.; Brunger, A.T.
2009-05-26
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins form a complex that leads to membrane fusion between vesicles, organelles, and plasma membrane in all eukaryotic cells. We report the 1.7{angstrom} resolution structure of the SNARE complex that mediates exocytosis at the plasma membrane in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Similar to its neuronal and endosomal homologues, the S. cerevisiae SNARE complex forms a parallel four-helix bundle in the center of which is an ionic layer. The S. cerevisiae SNARE complex exhibits increased helix bending near the ionic layer, contains water-filled cavities in the complex core, and exhibits reduced thermal stability relative to mammalian SNARE complexes. Mutagenesis experiments suggest that the water-filled cavities contribute to the lower stability of the S. cerevisiae complex.
Comparison of air-charged and water-filled urodynamic pressure measurement catheters.
Cooper, M A; Fletter, P C; Zaszczurynski, P J; Damaser, M S
2011-03-01
Catheter systems are utilized to measure pressure for diagnosis of voiding dysfunction. In a clinical setting, patient movement and urodynamic pumps introduce hydrostatic and motion artifacts into measurements. Therefore, complete characterization of a catheter system includes its response to artifacts as well its frequency response. The objective of this study was to compare the response of two disposable clinical catheter systems: water-filled and air-charged, to controlled pressure signals to assess their similarities and differences in pressure transduction. We characterized frequency response using a transient step test, which exposed the catheters to a sudden change in pressure; and a sinusoidal frequency sweep test, which exposed the catheters to a sinusoidal pressure wave from 1 to 30 Hz. The response of the catheters to motion artifacts was tested using a vortex and the response to hydrostatic pressure changes was tested by moving the catheter tips to calibrated heights. Water-filled catheters acted as an underdamped system, resonating at 10.13 ± 1.03 Hz and attenuating signals at frequencies higher than 19 Hz. They demonstrated significant motion and hydrostatic artifacts. Air-charged catheters acted as an overdamped system and attenuated signals at frequencies higher than 3.02 ± 0.13 Hz. They demonstrated significantly less motion and hydrostatic artifacts than water-filled catheters. The transient step and frequency sweep tests gave comparable results. Air-charged and water-filled catheters respond to pressure changes in dramatically different ways. Knowledge of the characteristics of the pressure-measuring system is essential to finding the best match for a specific application. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Failure Mode of the Water-filled Fractures under Hydraulic Pressure in Karst Tunnels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xin; Lu, Hao; Huang, Houxu; Hao, Yiqing; Xia, Yuanpu
2017-06-01
Water-filled fractures continue to grow after the excavation of karst tunnels, and the hydraulic pressure in these fractures changes along with such growth. This paper simplifies the fractures in the surrounding rock as flat ellipses and then identifies the critical hydraulic pressure values required for the occurrence of tensile-shear and compression-shear failures in water-filled fractures in the case of plane stress. The occurrence of tensile-shear fracture requires a larger critical hydraulic pressure than compression-shear failure in the same fracture. This paper examines the effects of fracture strike and lateral pressure coefficient on critical hydraulic pressure, and identifies compression-shear failure as the main failure mode of water-filled fractures. This paper also analyses the hydraulic pressure distribution in fractures with different extensions, and reveals that hydraulic pressure decreases along with the continuous growth of fractures and cannot completely fill a newly formed fracture with water. Fracture growth may be interrupted under the effect of hydraulic tensile shear.
Dualities and emergent gravity: Gauge/gravity duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Haro, Sebastian
2017-08-01
In this paper I develop a framework for relating dualities and emergence: two notions that are close to each other but also exclude one another. I adopt the conception of duality as 'isomorphism', from the physics literature, cashing it out in terms of three conditions. These three conditions prompt two conceptually different ways in which a duality can be modified to make room for emergence; and I argue that this exhausts the possibilities for combining dualities and emergence (via coarse-graining). I apply this framework to gauge/gravity dualities, considering in detail three examples: AdS/CFT, Verlinde's scheme, and black holes. My main point about gauge/gravity dualities is that the theories involved, qua theories of gravity, must be background-independent. I distinguish two senses of background-independence: (i) minimalistic and (ii) extended. I argue that the former is sufficiently strong to allow for a consistent theory of quantum gravity; and that AdS/CFT is background-independent on this account; while Verlinde's scheme best fits the extended sense of background-independence. I argue that this extended sense should be applied with some caution: on pain of throwing the baby (general relativity) out with the bath-water (extended background-independence). Nevertheless, it is an interesting and potentially fruitful heuristic principle for quantum gravity theory construction. It suggests some directions for possible generalisations of gauge/gravity dualities. The interpretation of dualities is discussed; and the so-called 'internal' vs. 'external' viewpoints are articulated in terms of: (i) epistemic and metaphysical commitments; (ii) parts vs. wholes. I then analyse the emergence of gravity in gauge/gravity dualities in terms of the two available conceptualisations of emergence; and I show how emergence in AdS/CFT and in Verlinde's scenario differ from each other. Finally, I give a novel derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula based on
Supersymmetry, duality and holonomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wen-Yu
In this thesis, I study various aspects of solutions to eleven-dimensional supergravity and its descendents. The former is at one corner of the moduli space of M-theory. While it is not clear how to formulate M-theory; it is equally interesting to see how far we can proceed from this low energy window. First of all, various techniques are applied to construct supergravity solutions preserving partial supersymmetry. A seven-dimensional membrane solution in the gauged supergravity is constructed by lifting a self-dual string in six dimensions, and its supersymmetric property is explored in certain detail. Then fractional BPS solutions from Sn x Sn reduction of six and ten-dimensional supergravities are constructed via the method of G-structures. The form of the solutions is totally determined by Laplace equations with specified boundary conditions. Secondly, the concept of duality is realized in two aspects. A certain type of *-theory, obtained from time-like T-dualization of the usual string and M-theory, is studied and its hyperbolic reduction results in de Sitter solutions, which are favored by modern astrophysical observations. Then the mass of R-charged AdS black holes is properly defined with Hamilton-Jacobi counterterms added in the supergravity action, as another illustration of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Finally, the concept of holonomy in Riemannian geometry is generalized to the discussion of generic supersymmetric solutions in various supergravity theories, as an alternate and comparable method for classifying supersymmetric solutions of fractional BPS. The subtlety of higher-order integrability is also discussed at the end.
Shear Weakening due to Drainge from Water-Filled Crevasses Along the Margins of Jakobshavn ISBRÆ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lampkin, D. J.; Parizek, B. R.; Larour, E. Y.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.
2014-12-01
Several marine-terminating outlet glaciers on the Greenland Ice Sheet have undergone dynamic thinning, acceleration, and retreat, largely driven by ocean-ice interactions at the glacier terminus. Commensurate with these changes, surface melt rates are also increasing, resulting in enhanced runoff and infiltration known to influence regional ice velocity and mass flux. In particular, Jakobshavn Isbræ has experienced some of the most dramatic changes relative to the other major outlet glaciers largely responsible for Greenland's contribution to sea level rise. The fast-flowing trunk of Jakobshavn Isbræ is well within the ablation zone and is exposed to significant accumulated runoff and drainage from water-filled crevasses within the shear margins during the summer. The impact of drainage from these structures on Jakobshavn's response to terminus instability is not well understood. There are seven major water-filled crevasse regions along the margins, with the largest demonstrating potential drainage volume on order of that from large supraglacial lakes. This effort explores the impact of meltwater injection on shear-margin weakening. Meltwater can reduce lateral drag through enhanced sliding due to distributed basal lubrication or reduced ice viscosity due to cryo-hyrologic warming. The finite-element Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) was used to evaluate the impact of meltwater input into the shear margins on basal sliding and ice stiffness. Ratios of misfit between modeled and measured velocity for inversions of basal friction and ice viscosity show a shift from basal friction-to-viscosity dominated conditions from the winter to the summer, at locations where water-filled crevasses exist. Forward models were perturbed to evaluate the magnitude of shear weakening due to enhanced sliding versus changes in ice hardness.
Lai, J H; Johnson, A E
1993-03-01
A water-filled dilatometer specifically designed for determining the polymerization shrinkage of photo-activated composite restorative materials was used to measure the polymerization shrinkage of three visible light-activated composites. Polymerization shrinkage values ranged from 1.82% for P-50 to 2.15% and 2.19% for Herculite XRV and Prisma APH, respectively. Shrinkage data obtained in this investigation were compared with the published data, and the factors which affect shrinkage measurements were reviewed. It was concluded that maintaining a constant temperature environment (+ or - 0.02 degrees C) for the dilatometer during the shrinkage test was the most critical factor for successful application of the dilatometer.
Electrical breakdown of a bubble in a water-filled capillary
Bruggeman, P.J.; Leys, C.A.; Vierendeels, J. A.
2006-06-01
In this Communication, the electrical breakdown of a static bubble in a water-filled capillary generated in a dc electrical field is studied. We present experimental results which indicate that the liquid layer between capillary and bubble wall can have an important influence on the breakdown mechanism of the bubble. The breakdown electrical field (atmospheric pressure) without a liquid layer in a (vapor) bubble is 18 kV/cm. When a liquid layer is present, the electrical breakdown of an air bubble is observed at electrical fields typically two times smaller. Local plasma formation is observed in this case possibly due to bubble deformation.
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics and duality.
Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan
2009-04-10
We discuss under what conditions the duality between electric and magnetic fields is a valid symmetry of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that Maxwell's equations in the absence of free charges satisfy duality invariance on an operator level, whereas this is not true for Lorentz forces and atom-field couplings in general. We prove that derived quantities such as Casimir forces, local-field corrected decay rates, as well as van der Waals potentials are invariant with respect to a global exchange of electric and magnetic quantities. This exact symmetry can be used to deduce the physics of new configurations on the basis of already established ones.
Duality relation for quantum ratchets.
Peguiron, J; Grifoni, M
2005-01-01
A duality relation between the long-time dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle in a tilted ratchet potential and a driven dissipative tight-binding model is reported. It relates a situation of weak dissipation in one model to strong dissipation in the other one, and vice versa. We apply this duality relation to investigate transport and rectification in ratchet potentials: From the linear mobility we infer ground-state delocalization for weak dissipation. We report reversals induced by adiabatic driving and temperature in the ratchet current and its dependence on the potential shape.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Water-Filled Vessel Impacted by Flat Projectiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wei; Ren, Peng; Huang, Wei; Gao, Yubo
2013-06-01
To understand the failure patterns and impact resistance of watertight vessel, a flat-nosed projectile was accelerated by a two-stage light gas gun against a vessel filled with water which was placed in an air-filled tank. The targets were the 5A06 aluminum which were installed on two opposite sides of the vessel. The penetration process was recorded by a digital high-speed camera. In order to compare, numerical simulations for the vessel with and without water impacted by projectiles were conducted by AUTODYN-3D. The material parameters of targets and projectiles used in the simulation were obtained from several previous studies. The result indicated that experimental and numerical results were in good agreement. Numerical simulations were capable to capture the main physical behavior. It was also found that the impact resistance of targets in the water-filled vessel was lager than that of the empty vessel. Tearing was the main failure models of the water-filled vessel targets which was different from that of the empty vessel where the shear plugging was in dominate. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.:11072072).
Experimental and Numerical Study of Water-Filled Vessel Impacted by Flat Projectiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zitao; Wei, Gang
2011-06-01
To understand the failure patterns and impact resistance of watertight vessel, a flat-nosed projectile was accelerated by a two-stage light gas gun against a vessel filled with water which was placed in an air-filled tank. The targets were the 5A06 aluminum which were installed on two opposite sides of the vessel. The penetration process was recorded by a digital high-speed camera. In order to compare, numerical simulations for the vessel with and without water impacted by projectiles were conducted by AUTODYN-3D. The material parameters of targets and projectiles used in the simulation were obtained from several previous studies. The result indicated that experimental and numerical results were in good agreement. Numerical simulations were capable to capture the main physical behavior. It was also found that the impact resistance of targets in the water-filled vessel was lager than that of the empty vessel. Tearing was the main failure models of the water-filled vessel targets which was different from that of the empty vessel where the shear plugging was in dominate.
Interferometric temperature sensor based on a water-filled suspended-core fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villalba, Anahí; Martín, Juan Carlos
2017-01-01
The performance of water-filled suspended-core fibers as key components of interferometric temperature sensors has been analyzed. Use of water is motivated by simplicity of use and by its thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients, which provide a good balance between sensitivity and wide temperature range (limited by the free spectral range of the interferometer). Two suspended core fibers have been tested. With one of them, the sensitivity observed is slightly better than the ones of most interferometers based on liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers, with a linear temperature range of 25 °C. With regard to the other one, its most remarkable feature is its temperature range, not limited by any interferometric property but by water melting and boiling temperatures, as its quotient between free spectral range and sensitivity is higher than 100 °C.
Sound radiation from a water-filled pipe, radiation into light fluid.
Liu, Bilong; Pan, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Tian, Jing
2002-12-01
This paper is concerned with the sound radiation from a water-filled exhaust pipe. The pipe opening and a plate attached to it form a vibrating surface for this radiation. Fluid-structural coupling between the pipe and enclosed fluid is included in the system modeling, but light fluid assumption is used for sound radiation into the space above the vibrating surface. In this paper, a numerical study on the n = 0 mode in the pipe shows that the wave types associated with this mode have different characteristics in two regions of the nondimensional frequency omega. In the first region of 0
A cosmological interpretation of duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osorio, M. A. R.; Vázquez-Mozo, M. A.
1994-01-01
We study the cosmological meaning of duality symmetry by considering a two dimensional model of string cosmology. We find that as seen by an internal observer in this universe, the scale factor rebounds at the self-dual length. This rebound is a consequence of the adiabatic expansion. Furthermore, in this situation there are four mathematically different scenarios which describe physically equivalent universes which are in fact undistinguishable. We also stress that R-duality suffices to prove that all the possible evolutions present a maximum temperature. On leave of absence from Dept. Física Teórica C-XI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohm, Olaf; Samtleben, Henning
2013-09-01
We extend the techniques of double field theory to more general gravity theories and U-duality symmetries, having in mind applications to the complete D = 11 supergravity. In this paper we work out a (3 + 3)-dimensional `U-duality covariantization' of D = 4 Einstein gravity, in which the Ehlers group SL(2, ) is realized geometrically, acting in the 3 representation on half of the coordinates. We include the full (2 + 1)-dimensional metric, while the `internal vielbein' is a coset representative of SL(2, )/SO(2) and transforms under gauge transformations via generalized Lie derivatives. In addition, we introduce a gauge connection of the `C-bracket', and a gauge connection of SL(2, ), albeit subject to constraints. The action takes the form of (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity coupled to a Chern-Simons-matter theory but encodes the complete D = 4 Einstein gravity. We comment on generalizations, such as an ` E 8(8) covariantization' of M-theory.
Etherington's Distance Duality with Birefringence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuller, Frederic; Werner, Marcus
2017-07-01
We consider light propagation in a spacetime whose kinematics allow weak birefringence, and whose dynamics have recently been derived by gravitational closure. Revisiting the definitions of luminosity and angular diameter distances in this setting, we present a modification of the Etherington distance duality relation in a weak gravitational field around a point mass. This provides the first concrete example of how the non-metricities implied by gravitational closure of birefringent electrodynamics affect observationally testable relations.
Dualities of fields and strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polchinski, Joseph
2017-08-01
Duality, the equivalence between seemingly distinct quantum systems, is a curious property that has been known for at least three quarters of a century. In the past two decades it has played a central role in mapping out the structure of theoretical physics. I discuss the unexpected connections that have been revealed among quantum field theories and string theories. Written for a special issue of Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
Thermal duality and gravitational collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hewitt, Michael
2015-07-01
Thermal duality is a relationship between the behaviour of heterotic string models of the E(8)×E(8) or SO(32) types at inversely related temperatures, a variant of T duality in the Euclidean regime. This duality would have consequences for the nature of the Hagedorn transition in these string models. We propose that the vacuum admits a family of deformations in situations where there are closed surfaces of constant area but high radial acceleration (a string regularized version of a Penrose trapped surface), such as would be formed in situations of extreme gravitational collapse. This would allow a radical resolution of the firewall paradox by allowing quantum effects to significantly modify the spacetime geometry around a collapsed object. A string bremsstrahlung process would convert the kinetic energy of infalling matter in extreme gravitational collapse to form a region of the deformed vacuum, which would be equivalent to forming a high temperature string phase. A heuristic criterion for the conversion process is presented, relating Newtonian gravity to the string tension, suggesting an upper limit to the strength of the gravitational interaction. This conversion process might have observable consequences for charged particles falling into a rotating collapsed object by producing high energy particles via a variant of the Penrose process.
Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering
W. Melnitchouk
2000-09-01
Quark-hadron duality addresses some of the most fundamental issues in strong interaction physics, in particular the nature of the transition from the perturbative to non-perturbative regions of QCD. I summarize recent developments in quark-hadron duality in lepton-hadron scattering, and outline how duality can be studied at future high-luminosity facilities such as Jefferson Lab at 12 GeV, or an electron-hadron collider such as EPIC.
Noncommutativity from exact renormalization group dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Scholtz, Frederik G.
2014-08-01
Here we demonstrate, first, the construction of dualities using the exact renormalization group approach and, second, that spatial noncommutativity can emerge as such a duality. This is done in a simple quantum mechanical setting that establishes an exact duality between the commutative and noncommutative quantum Hall systems with harmonic interactions. It is also demonstrated that this link can be understood as a blocking (coarse graining) transformation in time that relates commutative and noncommutative degrees of freedom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Eiichi; Wada, Akira; Karasawa, Naoki
2016-07-01
We generated a supercontinuum from a selectively water-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for enhancement in the visible spectral region using an optical pulse from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at 804 nm. We prepared a 7-cm-long fused silica PCF, where the holes adjacent to the central core were filled with water, using a UV-curable adhesive to close holes selectively before filling holes with water by capillary force. Compared with that of the PCF without water, the group velocity dispersion curve of the selectively water-filled PCF became flatter near 800 nm and the intensity in the visible spectral region of the supercontinuum became higher and more uniform. The spectra simulated using the calculated dispersion properties of the selectively water-filled PCF showed good agreement with the experimental spectra.
The Electromagnetic Duality Formulation of Geometric Phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Kang
2015-06-01
This paper focuses on the electromagnetic(EM) duality formulation of geometric phases of Aharonov-Bohm(A-B) effect and Aharonov-Casher(A-C) effect. Through the two four-vector potential formulation of electromagnetic theory, we construct a EM duality formulation for both A-B effect and A-C effect. The He-McKellar-Wilkens(HMW) effect is included as a EM duality counterpart of the A-C effect, and also the EM duality counterpart of the A-B effect is also predicted.
Quark-hadron duality in structure functions
Wally Melnitchouk
2011-09-01
We review recent progress in the study of quark-hadron duality in electron–nucleon structure functions. New developments include insights into the local aspects of duality obtained using truncated moments of structure functions, which allow duality-violating higher-twist contributions to be identified in individual resonance regions. Preliminary studies of pion electropro-duction have also showed the first glimpses of duality in semi-inclusive cross sections, which if confirmed would greatly expand the scope of constraining the flavor and spin dependence of parton distributions.
Rempe, J.L.; Wolf, J.R.; Chavez, S.A.; Condie, K.G.; Hagrman, D.L.; Carmack, W.J.
1994-09-01
This report documents work performed to support the development of an analytical and experimental program to investigate the coolability of a continuous mass of debris that relocates to a water-filled lower plenum. The objective of this program is to provide an adequate data base for developing and validating a model to predict the coolability of a continuous mass of debris relocating to a water-filled lower plenum. The model must address higher pressure scenarios, such as the TMI-2 accident, and lower pressure scenarios, which recent calculations indicate are more likely for most operating LWR plants. The model must also address a range of possible debris compositions.
Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled thin pipes of anisotropic composite materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Jeong Ho; Inaba, K.
2013-01-01
The effects of elastic anisotropy in piping materials on fluid-structure interaction are studied for water-filled carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. When an impact is introduced to water in a pipe, there are two waves traveling at different speeds. A primary wave corresponding to a breathing mode of pipe travels slowly and a precursor wave corresponding to a longitudinal mode of pipe travels fast. An anisotropic stress-strain relationship of piping materials has been taken into account to describe the propagation of primary and precursor waves in the carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. The wave speeds and strains in the axial and hoop directions are calculated as a function of carbon-fiber winding angles and compared with the experimental data. As the winding angle increases, the primary wave speed increases due to the increased stiffness in the hoop direction, while the precursor wave speed decreases. The magnitudes of precursor waves are much smaller than those of primary waves so that the effect of precursor waves on the deformation of pipe is not significant. The primary wave generates the hoop strain accompanying the opposite-signed axial strain through the coupling compliance of pipe. The magnitude of hoop strain induced by the primary waves decreases with increasing the winding angle due to the increased hoop stiffness of pipe. The magnitude of axial strain is small at low and high winding angles where the coupling compliance is small.
Wu, Kefei; Zhou, Bo; Xiu, Peng; Qi, Wenpeng; Wan, Rongzheng; Fang, Haiping
2010-11-28
The kinetics of water filling narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The time required to fully fill a nanotube was linear with respect to the tube length. We observed that water molecules could enter into nanotubes of different lengths, either from one end or from both ends. The probability of having a nanotube filled completely from both ends increased exponentially with the tube length. For short tubes, filling usually proceeded from only one end. For long tubes, filling generally proceeded from both tube ends over three stages, i.e., filling from one end, filling from both ends, and filling from both ends with the dipole reorientation of water molecules to give a concerted ordering within the fully filled tube. The water molecules in the partially filled nanotube were hydrogen bonded similarly to those in the fully filled nanotube. Simulations for the reference Lennard-Jones fluid without hydrogen bonds were also performed and showed that the filling behavior of water molecules can be attributed to strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding.
Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T
2014-10-01
Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety.
Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion
Wilson, T.L.; Lewis, M.W.
1997-10-01
Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). To model such problems in two-dimensions the authors developed the FSI2D code by coupling MFICE2D, a Los Alamos finite volume computation fluid dynamics (CFD) code, with PRONTO2D, a SANDIA finite element solid dynamics code. Details on this coupling approach and current implementations are discussed in Section 3. In this report the authors use FSI2D to model the response of Jumbino, a water-filled spherical steel vessel (63.4 cm i.d., 6.1 cm wall thickness), to an internal explosion caused by detonating 30 grams of C-4 at the center of the vessel. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.
Nature of proton transport in a water-filled carbon nanotube and in liquid water.
Chen, Ji; Li, Xin-Zheng; Zhang, Qianfan; Michaelides, Angelos; Wang, Enge
2013-05-07
Proton transport (PT) in bulk liquid water and within a thin water-filled carbon nanotube has been examined using ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD). Barrierless proton transfer is observed in each case when quantum nuclear effects (QNEs) are accounted for. The key difference between the two systems is that in the nanotube facile PT is facilitated by a favorable pre-alignment of water molecules, whereas in bulk liquid water solvent reorganization is required prior to PT. Configurations where the quantum excess proton is delocalized over several adjacent water molecules along with continuous interconversion between different hydration states reveals that, as in liquid water, the hydrated proton under confinement is best described as a fluxional defect, rather than any individual idealized hydration state such as Zundel, Eigen, or the so-called linear H7O3(+) complex along the water chain. These findings highlight the importance of QNEs in intermediate strength hydrogen bonds (HBs) and explain why H(+) diffusion through nanochannels is impeded much less than other cations.
Simple Model of a Rolling Water-Filled Bottle on an Inclined Ramp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shihao; Hu, Naiwen; Yao, Tianchen; Chu, Charles; Babb, Simona; Cohen, Jenna; Sangiovanni, Giana; Watt, Summer; Weisman, Danielle; Klep, James; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.
2015-12-01
We investigate a water-filled bottle rolling down an incline and ask the following question: is a rolling bottle better described by a model ignoring all internal motion where the bottle is approximated by a material point sliding down an incline, or is it better described by a rigid solid cylinder rolling down the incline without skidding? The measurements presented here represent a special case of similar experiments described by K.A. Jackson et al. (see Ref. 1 and references within). There exists also a report by Kagan describing the motion of soda cans rolling on an incline. In our case we investigate motion of the fully filled bottle. We demonstrate that within accuracy of our experiment the motion of the bottle can be described by a simple "frictionless water" model. The analysis of the dynamics of the bodies sliding and rolling on a ramp is a standard component of introductory physics classes, and a required component of the Advanced Placement (AP) Physics curriculum.
Predation by odonates depresses mosquito abundance in water-filled tree holes in Panama.
Fincke, Ola M; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Hanschu, Richard D
1997-10-01
In the lowland moist forest of Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, larvae of four common species of odonates, a mosquito, and a tadpole are the major predators in water-filled tree holes. Mosquito larvae are their most common prey. Holes colonized naturally by predators and prey had lower densities of mosquitoes if odonates were present than if they were absent. Using artificial tree holes placed in the field, we tested the effects of odonates on their mosquito prey while controlling for the quantity and species of predator, hole volume, and nutrient input. In large and small holes with low nutrient input, odonates depressed the number of mosquitoes present and the number that survived to pupation. Increasing nutrient input (and consequently, mosquito abundance) to abnormally high levels dampened the effect of predation when odonates were relatively small. However, the predators grew faster with higher nutrients, and large larvae in all three genera reduced the number of mosquitoes surviving to pupation, even though the abundance of mosquito larvae remained high. Size-selective predation by the odonates is a likely explanation for this result; large mosquito larvae were less abundant in the predator treatment than in the controls. Because species assemblages were similar between natural and artificial tree holes, our results suggest that odonates are keystone species in tree holes on BCI, where they are the most common large predators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Kefei; Zhou, Bo; Xiu, Peng; Qi, Wenpeng; Wan, Rongzheng; Fang, Haiping
2010-11-01
The kinetics of water filling narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The time required to fully fill a nanotube was linear with respect to the tube length. We observed that water molecules could enter into nanotubes of different lengths, either from one end or from both ends. The probability of having a nanotube filled completely from both ends increased exponentially with the tube length. For short tubes, filling usually proceeded from only one end. For long tubes, filling generally proceeded from both tube ends over three stages, i.e., filling from one end, filling from both ends, and filling from both ends with the dipole reorientation of water molecules to give a concerted ordering within the fully filled tube. The water molecules in the partially filled nanotube were hydrogen bonded similarly to those in the fully filled nanotube. Simulations for the reference Lennard-Jones fluid without hydrogen bonds were also performed and showed that the filling behavior of water molecules can be attributed to strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding.
Entropy driven insulator-metal crossover in ion channels and water filled nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jingshan; Kamenev, Alex; Shklovskii, Boris; Larkin, Anatony
2006-03-01
We consider ion transport of an ion channel in a lipid membrane or a water filled nanopore in silicon films [1]. It is known that due to the large ratio of dielectric constants of water (80) and lipid (2), the electric lines of an ion in the channel are squeezed. This should lead to a large electrostatic self-energy barrier for Ohmic resistance [2]. Nevertheless biological channels are well transparent at least for some selected ions. To address this paradox, we study reduction of the electrostatic barrier by a finite concentration of salt in water and/or by immobile charges on the internal channel walls. We show that both types of charges reduce the barrier, leading to insulator-metal crossover resembling metal-insulator transition in excited gas or in doped semiconductors. But here entropy plays the role of quantum mechanics. Evolution of ion channels took into account biological concentration of monovalent salt, and more importantly, made some channels charged from inside to reduce electrostatic barrier for a given sign of ions (cation/anion selectivity). We also show that in the channel with negative wall charges fractionalization of divalent Ca ions into monovalent excitations leads to good Ca-Vs.-Na selectivity of Ca channels. [1] A. Kamenev, J. Zhang, A. I. Larkin, B. I. Shklovskii, Physica A 359, 129 (2006); J. Zhang, A. Kamenev, B. I. Shklovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 148101 (2005); cond-mat/0510327. [2] A. Parsegian, Nature 221, 844 (1969).
Morphodynamics of a granular bed in a water-filled cylinder subjected to perturbed oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duran-Matute, Matias; van Gorp, Thijs; van Heijst, Gertjan
2015-11-01
We study experimentally the morphodynamics of a granular bed at the bottom of an oscillating water-filled cylinder. The granules are translucent PMMA particles with a typical size of 2mm. The bed thickness is measured in real time using a light attenuation technique. As shown already by previous work, the bed remains flat close to the center of the cylinder, and radial ripples form at outer radii. The size of the inner flat region and the number or ripples depend on the frequency and amplitude of the cylinder's oscillation. In the present work, we are interested in the dynamics and control of the bed forms when the primary sinusoidal signal of the oscillation is perturbed by adding a second sinusoidal signal with a relatively small amplitude, a different frequency, and a phase lag. Varying the parameters of the secondary signal results in a signal that can be asymmetric or modulated, for example. These properties translate into the bed producing simple behavior like the propagation of the ripples at a constant speed or more complex behavior like the time dependent coarsening and thinning of the ripples. This research is funded by NWO (the Netherlands) through the VENI grant 863.13.022.
Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion
Lewis, M.W.; Wilson, T.L.
1997-06-01
Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Such problems include underwater blast loading of structures, bubble dynamics and jetting around structures, and hydrodynamic ram events. These problems may involve gas, fluid, and solid dynamics, nonlinear material behavior, cavitation, reaction kinetics, material failure, and nonlinearity that is due to varying geometry and contact conditions within a structure or between structures. Here, the authors model the response of a water-filled, thick-walled, spherical steel vessel to an internal explosion of 30 grams of C-4 with FSI2D--a two-dimensional coupled finite element and finite volume hydrodynamics code. The gas phase detonation products were modeled with a Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson high-explosive equation of state. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.
Managing Dualities in Planned Change Initiatives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barge, J. Kevin; Lee, Michael; Maddux, Kristy; Nabring, Richard; Townsend, Bryan
2008-01-01
Dualities play an important role in creating the conditions for change and managing planned change initiatives. Building on Seo, Putnam, and Bartunek's (2003) work, this study focuses on the dualities associated with managing change processes. A case study of a planned change process called the Circle of Prosperity Initiative, a multi-stakeholder…
Managing Dualities in Planned Change Initiatives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barge, J. Kevin; Lee, Michael; Maddux, Kristy; Nabring, Richard; Townsend, Bryan
2008-01-01
Dualities play an important role in creating the conditions for change and managing planned change initiatives. Building on Seo, Putnam, and Bartunek's (2003) work, this study focuses on the dualities associated with managing change processes. A case study of a planned change process called the Circle of Prosperity Initiative, a multi-stakeholder…
Supersymmetry: Compactification, flavor, and dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidenreich, Benjamin Jones
N = 1 gauge theory dualities relating different world-volume gauge theories of D3 branes probing an orientifold singularity. We argue that these dualities originate from the S-duality of type IIB string theory, much like electromagnetic dualities of N = 4 gauge theories.
Duality symmetries and G+++ theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riccioni, Fabio; Steele, Duncan; West, Peter
2008-02-01
We show that the nonlinear realizations of all the very extended algebras G+++, except the B and C series which we do not consider, contain fields corresponding to all possible duality symmetries of the on-shell degrees of freedom of these theories. This result also holds for G+++2 and we argue that the nonlinear realization of this algebra accounts precisely for the form fields present in the corresponding supersymmetric theory. We also find a simple necessary condition for the roots to belong to a G+++ algebra.
Gluon-glueball duality and glueball searches
Nussinov, Shmuel; Shrock, Robert
2009-09-01
We discuss a notion of gluon-glueball duality analogous to quark-hadron duality. We apply this idea to the radiative decay of heavy orthoquarkonium, QQ{yields}{gamma}gg, which has been used to search for glueballs. The duality is first introduced in two simplified contexts: (i) a hypothetical version of QCD without any light quarks and (ii) QCD in the large-N{sub c} limit. We then discuss how an approximate form of this duality could hold in real QCD, based on a hierarchy of time scales in the temporal evolution of the gg subsystem in radiative orthoquarkonium decay. We apply this notion of gluon-glueball duality to suggest a method that could be useful in experimental searches for glueballs.
Ring wormholes via duality rotations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibbons, Gary W.; Volkov, Mikhail S.
2016-09-01
We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy-Voorhees-Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than -c4 / 4 G. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a hole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes, for example by vacuum fluctuations.
Duality symmetries in string theory
Nunez, Carmen A.
1999-10-25
The search for a unified theory of quantum gravity and gauge interactions leads naturally to string theory. This field of research has received a revival of interest after the discovery of duality symmetries in recent years. We present a self contained account of some non-perturbative aspects of string theory which have been recently understood. The spectrum and interactions of the five consistent superstring theories in ten dimensions are recollected and the fundamental principles underlying this initial stage in the construction of the theory are briefly reviewed. We next discuss some evidences that these apparently different superstrings are just different aspects of one unique theory. The key to this development is given by the non-perturbative duality symmetries which have modified and improved our understanding of string dynamics in many ways. In particular, by relating the fundamental objects of one theory to solitons of another theory, they have unraveled the presence of extended objects in the theory which stand on an equal footing with strings. We introduce these higher dimensional objects, named D-branes, and discuss applications of D-brane physics.
A comparative molecular analysis of water-filled limestone sinkholes in north-eastern Mexico.
Sahl, Jason W; Gary, Marcus O; Harris, J Kirk; Spear, John R
2011-01-01
Sistema Zacatón in north-eastern Mexico is host to several deep, water-filled, anoxic, karstic sinkholes (cenotes). These cenotes were explored, mapped, and geochemically and microbiologically sampled by the autonomous underwater vehicle deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX). The community structure of the filterable fraction of the water column and extensive microbial mats that coat the cenote walls was investigated by comparative analysis of small-subunit (SSU) 16S rRNA gene sequences. Full-length Sanger gene sequence analysis revealed novel microbial diversity that included three putative bacterial candidate phyla and three additional groups that showed high intra-clade distance with poorly characterized bacterial candidate phyla. Limited functional gene sequence analysis in these anoxic environments identified genes associated with methanogenesis, sulfate reduction and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. A directed, barcoded amplicon, multiplex pyrosequencing approach was employed to compare ∼100,000 bacterial SSU gene sequences from water column and wall microbial mat samples from five cenotes in Sistema Zacatón. A new, high-resolution sequence distribution profile (SDP) method identified changes in specific phylogenetic types (phylotypes) in microbial mats at varied depths; Mantel tests showed a correlation of the genetic distances between mat communities in two cenotes and the geographic location of each cenote. Community structure profiles from the water column of three neighbouring cenotes showed distinct variation; statistically significant differences in the concentration of geochemical constituents suggest that the variation observed in microbial communities between neighbouring cenotes are due to geochemical variation. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Awada, Hassan K; Fletter, Paul C; Zaszczurynski, Paul J; Cooper, Mitchell A; Damaser, Margot S
2015-08-01
The objective of this study was to compare the simultaneous responses of water-filled (WFC) and air-charged (ACC) catheters during simulated urodynamic pressures and develop an algorithm to convert peak pressures measured using an ACC to those measured by a WFC. Examples of cough leak point pressure and valsalva leak point pressure data (n = 4) were obtained from the literature, digitized, and modified in amplitude and duration to create a set of simulated data that ranged in amplitude from 15 to 220 cm H2 O (n = 25) and duration from 0.1 to 3.0 sec (n = 25) for each original signal. Simulated pressure signals were recorded simultaneously by WFCs, ACCs, and a reference transducer in a specially designed pressure chamber. Peak pressure and time to peak pressure were calculated for each simulated pressure signal and were used to develop an algorithm to convert peak pressures recorded with ACCs to corresponding peak pressures recorded with WFCs. The algorithm was validated with additional simulated urodynamic pressure signals and additional catheters that had not been utilized to develop the algorithm. ACCs significantly underestimated peak pressures of more rapidly changing pressures, as in coughs, compared to those measured by WFCs. The algorithm corrected 90% of peak pressures measured by ACCs to within 5% of those measured by WFCs when simultaneously exposed to the same pressure signals. The developed algorithm can be used to convert rapidly changing urodynamic pressures, such as cough leak point pressure, obtained using ACC systems to corresponding values expected from WFC systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Understanding strongly coupling magnetism from holographic duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu
2016-07-01
The unusual magnetic materials are significant in both science and technology. However, because of the strongly correlated effects, it is difficult to understand their novel properties from theoretical aspects. Holographic duality offers a new approach to understanding such systems from gravity side. This paper will give a brief review of our recent works on the applications of holographic duality in understanding unusual magnetic materials. Some quantitative comparision between holographic results and experimental data will be shown and some predictions from holographic duality models will be discussed.
Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results
Niculescu, Maria Ioana
2016-08-01
The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halabe, Udaya B.; Roy, M.; Klinkhachorn, P.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.
2006-03-01
Any discontinuity within a structural component influences the transmission of thermal energy through its thickness, which leads to differences in surface temperatures just above the defective and defect-free areas. The variation in the surface temperatures are recorded using a digital infrared camera and the thermal images (thermograms) are analyzed to locate the presence of subsurface defects such as debonds and delaminations within the structure. While past studies focused on detection of air-filled subsurface defects (debonds and delaminations) in fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite bridge decks using infrared thermography, this paper includes the detection of fully and partially water-filled defects as well. Simulated water-filled defects were embedded within the flange-to-flange junction of adjacent GFRP bridge deck modules to create delaminations. The deck specimens were then tested before and after the application of a 3/8″ (9.5 mm) thick polymer concrete wearing surface. It was found that water-filled delaminations as small as 2″ × 2″ × 1/16″ (51 mm × 51 mm × 1.6 mm) could be detected in case of specimens without wearing surface, but this was not possible after application of the wearing surface. The heating source considered included heater and solar radiation. Use of cooling sources such as cold water and liquid carbon dioxide were also explored. These results helped establish the limits of detection for fully and partially water-filled delaminations using Infrared Thermograpy. Additional studies included the detection of debond between 2″ (51mm) thick asphalt overlay and the underlying composite deck and it was found that air-filled debonds as small as 4″ × 4″ × 1/16″ (102 mm × 102 mm × 1.6 mm) could be detected using heater as well as solar radiation as heat sources.
Duality cascade in brane inflation
Bean, Rachel; Chen Xingang; Hailu, Girma; Henry Tye, S-H; Xu Jiajun E-mail: xgchen@mit.edu E-mail: tye@lepp.cornell.edu
2008-03-15
We show that brane inflation is very sensitive to tiny sharp features in extra dimensions, including those in the potential and in the warp factor. This can show up as observational signatures in the power spectrum and/or non-Gaussianities of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). One general example of such sharp features is a succession of small steps in a warped throat, caused by Seiberg duality cascade using gauge/gravity duality. We study the cosmological observational consequences of these steps in brane inflation. Since the steps come in a series, the prediction of other steps and their properties can be tested by future data and analysis. It is also possible that the steps are too close to be resolved in the power spectrum, in which case they may show up only in the non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations and/or EE polarization. We study two cases. In the slow-roll scenario, where steps appear in the inflaton potential, the sensitivity of brane inflation to the height and width of the steps is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to that in previously studied large field models. In the IR DBI scenario, where steps appear in the warp factor, we find that the glitches in the power spectrum caused by these sharp features are generally small or even unobservable, but associated distinctive non-Gaussianity can be large. Together with its large negative running of the power spectrum index, this scenario clearly illustrates how rich and different a brane inflationary scenario can be when compared to generic slow-roll inflation. Such distinctive stringy features may provide a powerful probe of superstring theory.
Can (electric-magnetic) duality be gauged?
Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc
2011-02-15
There exists a formulation of the Maxwell theory in terms of two vector potentials, one electric and one magnetic. The action is then manifestly invariant under electric-magnetic duality transformations, which are rotations in the two-dimensional internal space of the two potentials, and local. We ask the question: Can duality be gauged? The only known and battle-tested method of accomplishing the gauging is the Noether procedure. In its decanted form, it amounts to turning on the coupling by deforming the Abelian gauge group of the free theory, out of whose curvatures the action is built, into a non-Abelian group which becomes the gauge group of the resulting theory. In this article, we show that the method cannot be successfully implemented for electric-magnetic duality. We thus conclude that, unless a radically new idea is introduced, electric-magnetic duality cannot be gauged. The implication of this result for supergravity is briefly discussed.
Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering
Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel
2004-08-01
The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.
Maxwell Duality, Lorentz Invariance, and Topological Phase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowling, J.; Williams, C.; Franson, J.
1999-01-01
We discuss the Maxwell electromagnetic duality relations between the Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov-Casher, and He-McKellar-Wilkens topological phases, which allows a unified description of all three phenomena.
Duality in Semi-Inclusive Pion Electroproduction
F E Close, W Melnitchouk
2009-05-01
We explore quark-hadron duality in semi-inclusive pion electroproduction on proton and neutron targets. Using the spin-flavor symmetric quark model, we compute ratios of $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ cross sections for both unpolarized and polarized scattering, and discuss realizations of duality in several symmetry breaking scenarios. The model calculations allow one to understand some of the key features of recent data on semi-inclusive pion production at low energies.
Duality, Entropy and ADM Mass in Supergravity
Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Zumino, Bruno
2009-02-23
We consider the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula in four dimensional extended ungauged supergravity and its electric-magnetic duality property. Symmetries of both"large" and"small" extremal black holes are considered, as well as the ADM mass formula for N=4 and N=8 supergravity, preserving different fraction of supersymmetry. The interplay between BPS conditions and duality properties is an important aspect of this investigation.
Duality, entropy, and ADM mass in supergravity
Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Zumino, Bruno; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio
2009-06-15
We consider the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula in four dimensional extended ungauged supergravity and its electric-magnetic duality property. Symmetries of both 'large' and 'small' extremal black holes are considered, as well as the ADM mass formula for N=4 and N=8 supergravity, preserving different fraction of supersymmetry. The interplay between BPS conditions and duality properties is an important aspect of this investigation.
The Hydrochemical Evolution of Water-Filled Sinkholes at Bitter Lake NWR, Roswell, NM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premo, E.; Crossey, L. J.
2013-12-01
Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Roswell, NM houses one of the most ecologically significant wetlands in the US-SW including approximately 52 water-filled sinkholes each supporting a unique biological assemblage, including several endangered and endemic species (e.g., Pecos pupfish and Noel's amphipod, respectively). Forming in the karst landscape adjacent to the Pecos River where the regional dual-aquifer system discharges through a network of springs and seeps, these sinkholes are recharged by saline groundwater that is subject to anthropogenic withdrawals for irrigation and hydrocarbon production and chemically altered by a complex series of evaporation-precipitation reactions after discharge. This study investigates the hydrochemical differences among these sinkholes while considering the evolutionary processes affecting water column structure, geochemical mixing and ecological sustainability. Two major sampling suites, pre- and post-irrigation, yielded waters from 1.0m increments along the water columns of 10 representative sinkholes. Samples were analyzed for major ions, stable isotopes [δ18O, δD ], and dissolved gases; PHREEQc was used to model mineral saturation and speciation. An in-situ mineral precipitation experiment provided growth rate and mineral morphological (SEM) data. Source water is chemically similar to shallow springs found at the Refuge (Sago Spring). Sinkholes exhibit bimodal water column structure (well-mixed or stratified) organized in response to water density (with ~1.035 g/cm3 forming the modal transition threshold). By measuring the density, TDS or conductivity at sinkhole surface it is possible to predict modality of water column structure. Sinkhole waters - regardless of depth or season - fall along a common isotopic evaporation trajectory (δ D = 3.387*δ18O - 19.38), and adopt a Na-Cl chemical endmember facies. Driven primarily by physical sinkhole geometry (e.g., depth and surface area), sinkhole water follows a
Duality Theorems in Ergodic Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, Artur O.; Mengue, Jairo K.
2012-11-01
We analyze several problems of Optimal Transport Theory in the setting of Ergodic Theory. In a certain class of problems we consider questions in Ergodic Transport which are generalizations of the ones in Ergodic Optimization. Another class of problems is the following: suppose σ is the shift acting on Bernoulli space X={1,2,…, d}ℕ, and, consider a fixed continuous cost function c: X× X→ℝ. Denote by Π the set of all Borel probabilities π on X× X, such that, both its x and y marginals are σ-invariant probabilities. We are interested in the optimal plan π which minimizes ∫ c dπ among the probabilities in Π. We show, among other things, the analogous Kantorovich Duality Theorem. We also analyze uniqueness of the optimal plan under generic assumptions on c. We investigate the existence of a dual pair of Lipschitz functions which realizes the present dual Kantorovich problem under the assumption that the cost is Lipschitz continuous. For continuous costs c the corresponding results in the Classical Transport Theory and in Ergodic Transport Theory can be, eventually, different. We also consider the problem of approximating the optimal plan π by convex combinations of plans such that the support projects in periodic orbits.
Conformal aspects of Spinor-Vector duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraggi, Alon E.; Florakis, Ioannis; Mohaupt, Thomas; Tsulaia, Mirian
2011-07-01
We present a detailed study of various aspects of Spinor-Vector duality in Heterotic string compactifications and expose its origin in terms of the internal conformal field theory. In particular, we illustrate the main features of the duality map by using simple toroidal orbifolds preserving N=1 and N=2 spacetime supersymmetries in four dimensions. We explain how the duality map arises in this context by turning on special values of the Wilson lines around the compact cycles of the manifold. We argue that in models with N=2 spacetime supersymmetry, the interpolation between the Spinor-Vector dual vacua can be continuously realized. We trace the origin of the Spinor-Vector duality map to the presence of underlying N=(2,2) and N=(4,4) SCFTs, and explicitly show that the induced spectral flow in the twisted sectors is responsible for the observed duality. The isomorphism between current algebra representations gives rise to a number of chiral character identities, reminiscent of the recently-discovered MSDS symmetry.
Grothendieck-Verdier duality patterns in quantum algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manin, Yu I.
2017-08-01
After a brief survey of the basic definitions of Grothendieck-Verdier categories and dualities, I consider in this context dualities introduced earlier in the categories of quadratic algebras and operads, largely motivated by the theory of quantum groups. Finally, I argue that Dubrovin's `almost duality' in the theory of Frobenius manifolds and quantum cohomology must also fit a (possibly extended) version of Grothendieck-Verdier duality.
Particle-Vortex Duality from 3D Bosonization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karch, Andreas; Tong, David
2016-07-01
We show how particle-vortex duality in d =2 +1 dimensions arises as part of an intricate web of relationships between different field theories. The starting point is "bosonization," a conjectured duality that uses flux attachment to transmute the statistics of relativistic particles. From this seed, we derive many old and new dualities. These include particle-vortex duality for bosons as well as the recently discovered counterpart for fermions.
Particle-vortex duality from 3D bosonization
Karch, Andreas; Tong, David
2016-09-19
We show how particle-vortex duality in d = 2+1 dimensions arises as part of an intricate web of relationships between different field theories. The starting point is “bosonization,” a conjectured duality that uses flux attachment to transmute the statistics of relativistic particles. From this seed, we derive many old and new dualities. Finally, these include particle-vortex duality for bosons as well as the recently discovered counterpart for fermions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio
2011-05-01
We construct for arbitrary dimensions a universal T-duality covariant expression for the Wess-Zumino terms of supersymmetric String Solitons in toroidally compactified string theories with 32 supercharges. The worldvolume fields occurring in the effective action of these String Solitons form either a vector or a tensor multiplet with 16 supercharges. We determine the dimensions of the conjugacy classes under T-duality to which these String Solitons belong. We do this in two steps. First, we determine the T-duality representations of the p-forms of maximal supergravities that contain the potentials that couple to these String Solitons. We find that these are p-forms, with D - 4 ≤ p ≤ 6 if D ≥ 6 and with D - 4 ≤ p ≤ D if D < 6, transforming in the antisymmetric representation of rank m = p + 4 - D ≤ 4 of the T-duality symmetry SO(10 - D, 10 - D). All branes support vector multiplets except when m = 10 - D. In that case the T-duality representation splits, for D < 10, into a selfdual and anti-selfdual part, corresponding to 5-branes supporting either a vector or a tensor multiplet. In a second step we show that only certain well-defined lightlike directions in the anti-symmetric tensor representations of the T-duality group correspond to supersymmetric String Solitons. These lightlike directions define the conjugacy classes. As a by-product we show how by a straightforward procedure all solitonic fields of maximal supergravity are derived using the Kac-Moody algebra E11.
Duality in Yang's theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielke, Eckehard W.; Rincón Maggiolo, Alí A.
2005-05-01
The historical route and the current status of a curvature-squared model of gravity, in the affine form proposed by Yang, is briefly reviewed. Due to its inherent scale invariance, it enjoys some advantage for quantization, similarly as internal Yang-Mills fields. However, the exact vacuum solutions with double duality properties exhibit a ‘vacuum degeneracy’. By modifying the duality via a scale breaking term, we demonstrate that only the Einstein equations with induced cosmological constant emerge for the classical background, even when coupled to matter sources.
Cosmic distance duality and cosmic transparency
Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com
2012-12-01
We compare distance measurements obtained from two distance indicators, Supernovae observations (standard candles) and Baryon acoustic oscillation data (standard rulers). The Union2 sample of supernovae with BAO data from SDSS, 6dFGS and the latest BOSS and WiggleZ surveys is used in search for deviations from the distance duality relation. We find that the supernovae are brighter than expected from BAO measurements. The luminosity distances tend to be smaller then expected from angular diameter distance estimates as also found in earlier works on distance duality, but the trend is not statistically significant. This further constrains the cosmic transparency.
Duality properties of Gorringe Leach equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandati, Yves; Bérard, Alain; Mohrbach, Hervé
2009-02-01
In the category of motions preserving the angular momentum direction, Gorringe and Leach exhibited two classes of differential equations having elliptical orbits. After enlarging slightly these classes, we show that they are related by a duality correspondence of the Arnold Vassiliev type. The specific associated conserved quantities (Laplace Runge Lenz vector and Fradkin Jauch Hill tensor) are then dual reflections of each other.
String duality and novel theories without gravity
Kachru, Shamit
1998-01-15
We describe some of the novel 6d quantum field theories which have been discovered in studies of string duality. The role these theories (and their 4d descendants) may play in alleviating the vacuum degeneracy problem in string theory is reviewed. The DLCQ of these field theories is presented as one concrete way of formulating them, independent of string theory.
Noether symmetries and duality transformations in cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Capozziello, Salvatore
2016-09-01
We discuss the relation between Noether (point) symmetries and discrete symmetries for a class of minisuperspace cosmological models. We show that when a Noether symmetry exists for the gravitational Lagrangian, then there exists a coordinate system in which a reversal symmetry exists. Moreover, as far as concerns, the scale-factor duality symmetry of the dilaton field, we show that it is related to the existence of a Noether symmetry for the field equations, and the reversal symmetry in the normal coordinates of the symmetry vector becomes scale-factor duality symmetry in the original coordinates. In particular, the same point symmetry as also the same reversal symmetry exists for the Brans-Dicke scalar field with linear potential while now the discrete symmetry in the original coordinates of the system depends on the Brans-Dicke parameter and it is a scale-factor duality when ωBD = 1. Furthermore, in the context of the O’Hanlon theory for f(R)-gravity, it is possible to show how a duality transformation in the minisuperspace can be used to relate different gravitational models.
Duality concept in curve and surface modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kmetova, Maria; Kmet, Tibor
2012-09-01
The paper deals with projective construction of envelope conic section, line conic and its corresponding point conic and generally, with dual Bézier curve and its corresponding point curve. Also, the role of dual Bézier curves in surface modelling is studied. Duality concept is useful in both; special plane curve modelling and developable surface modelling.
Global-local duality in eternal inflation
Bousso, Raphael; Yang, I-S.
2009-12-15
We prove that the light-cone time cutoff on the multiverse defines the same probabilities as a causal patch with initial conditions in the longest-lived metastable vacuum. This establishes the equivalence of two measures of eternal inflation which naively appear very different (though both are motivated by holography). The duality can be traced to an underlying geometric relation which we identify.
Color-kinematics duality for QCD amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Henrik; Ochirov, Alexander
2016-01-01
We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and ( n - 2 k) gluons, are taken in the ( n - 2)! /k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluons. They restrict the amplitude basis further down to ( n - 3)!(2 k - 2) /k! primitives, for two or more quark lines. We give a decomposition of the full amplitude in that basis. The presented results provide strong evidence that QCD obeys the color-kinematics duality, at least at tree level. The results are also applicable to supersymmetric and D-dimensional extensions of QCD.
Duality as a category-theoretic concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corfield, David
2017-08-01
In a paper published in 1939, Ernest Nagel described the role that projective duality had played in the reformulation of mathematical understanding through the turn of the nineteenth century, claiming that the discovery of the principle of duality had freed mathematicians from the belief that their task was to describe intuitive elements. While instances of duality in mathematics have increased enormously through the twentieth century, philosophers since Nagel have paid little attention to the phenomenon. In this paper I will argue that a reassessment is overdue. Something beyond doubt is that category theory has an enormous amount to say on the subject, for example, in terms of arrow reversal, dualising objects and adjunctions. These developments have coincided with changes in our understanding of identity and structure within mathematics. While it transpires that physicists have employed the term 'duality' in ways which do not always coincide with those of mathematicians, analysis of the latter should still prove very useful to philosophers of physics. Consequently, category theory presents itself as an extremely important language for the philosophy of physics.
Superspace duality in low-energy superstrings
Siegel, W. )
1993-09-15
We extend spacetime duality to superspace, including fermions in the low-energy limits of superstrings. The tangent space is a curved, extended superspace. The geometry is based on an enlarged coordinate space where the vanishing of the d'Alembertian is as fundamental as the vanishing of the curl of a gradient.
On the universe's cybernetics duality behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feria, Erlan H.
2015-05-01
Universal cybernetics is the study of control and communications in living and non-living systems. In this paper the universal cybernetics duality principle (UCDP), first identified in control theory in 1978 and expressing a cybernetic duality behavior for our universe, is reviewed. The review is given on the heels of major prizes given to physicists for their use of mathematical dualities in solving intractable problems in physics such as those of cosmology's `dark energy', an area that according to a recent New York Times article has become "a cottage industry in physics today". These dualities are not unlike those of our UCDP that are further enhanced with physical dualities. For instance, in 2008 the UCDP guided us to the derivation of the laws of retention in physics as the space-penalty dual of the laws of motion in physics, including the dark energy thought responsible for the observed increase of the volume of our Universe as it ages. The UCDP has also guided us to the discovery of significant results in other fields such as: 1) in matched processors for quantized control with applications in the modeling of central nervous system (CNS) control mechanisms; 2) in radar designs where the discovery of latency theory, the time-penalty dual of information-theory, has led us to high-performance radar solutions that evade the use of `big data' in the form of SAR imagery of the earth; and 3) in unveiling biological lifespan bounds where the life-expectancy of an organism is sensibly predicted through lingerdynamics, the identified time-penalty dual of thermodynamics, which relates its adult lifespan to either: a. the ratio of its body size to its nutritional consumption rate; or b. its specific heat-capacity; or c. the ratio of its nutritional consumption rate energy to its entropic volume energy, a type of dark energy that is consistent with the observed decrease in the mass density of the organism as it ages.
Diamond, S. Kjellsen, K.O.
2008-04-15
SEM examinations are reported of freshly-mixed and early age mortar specimens prepared by fast freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by epoxy impregnation, and of companion specimens of early aged mortars prepared conventionally. Freshly-mixed mortars reveal complex features that appear to influence subsequent development of the hardened state microstructure. In particular, layers of entirely water-filled space a few micrometers thick are found adjacent to many of the sand grain surfaces. After a few hours sparse deposits of calcium hydroxide crystals (and later C-S-H) are found within these layers, but the layers persist as recognizable features for at least 12 h. The layers are identically recognizable in both fast-frozen and conventionally-prepared specimens. Another feature found in freshly-mixed mortars is the existence of patchy local areas of sparsely-packed and other areas of densely-packed cement particles.
Gammie, A; Abrams, P; Bevan, W; Ellis-Jones, J; Gray, J; Hassine, A; Williams, J; Hashim, H
2016-11-01
This study aimed to evaluate whether the pressure readings obtained from air-filled catheters (AFCs) are the same as the readings from simultaneously inserted water-filled catheters (WFCs). It also aimed to make any possible recommendations for the use of AFCs to conform to International Continence Society (ICS) Good Urodynamic Practices (GUP). Female patients undergoing urodynamic studies in a single center had water-filled and air-filled catheters simultaneously measuring abdominal and intravesical pressure during filling with saline and during voiding. The pressures recorded by each system at each event during the test were compared using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analyses. 62 patients were recruited, of whom 51 had pressures that could be compared during filling, and 23 during voiding. On average, the pressures measured by the two systems were not significantly different during filling and at maximum flow, but the values for a given patient were found to differ by up to 10 cmH2 O. This study shows that AFCs and WFCs cannot be assumed to register equal values of pressure. It has further shown that even when the pdet readings are compared with their value at the start of a test, a divergence of values of up to 10 cmH2 O remains. If AFCs are used, care must be taken to compensate for any pdet variations that occur during patient movement. Before AFCs are adopted, new normal values for resting pressures need to be developed to allow good quality AFC pressure readings to be made. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:926-933, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grassmannian duality and the particle spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delbourgo, Robert
2016-09-01
Schemes based on anticommuting scalar coordinates, corresponding to properties, lead to generations of particles naturally. The application of Grassmannian duality cuts down the number of states substantially and is vital for constructing sensible Lagrangians anyhow. We apply duality to all of the subgroups within the classification group SU(3) ×SU(2)L ×SU(2)R, which encompasses the standard model gauge group, and thereby determine the full state inventory; this includes the definite prediction of quarks with charge - 4/3 and other exotic states. Assuming universal gravitational coupling to the gauge fields and parity even property curvature, we also obtain 4sin2𝜃 w = 1 - 2α/3αs which is not far from the experimental value around the MZ mass.
Abelian Duality on Globally Hyperbolic Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Christian; Benini, Marco; Schenkel, Alexander; Szabo, Richard J.
2017-01-01
We study generalized electric/magnetic duality in Abelian gauge theory by combining techniques from locally covariant quantum field theory and Cheeger-Simons differential cohomology on the category of globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds. Our approach generalizes previous treatments using the Hamiltonian formalism in a manifestly covariant way and without the assumption of compact Cauchy surfaces. We construct semi-classical configuration spaces and corresponding presymplectic Abelian groups of observables, which are quantized by the CCR-functor to the category of C*-algebras. We demonstrate explicitly how duality is implemented as a natural isomorphism between quantum field theories. We apply this formalism to develop a fully covariant quantum theory of self-dual fields.
Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.
2016-11-01
We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.
Supersymmetric black holes and Freudenthal duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marrani, Alessio; Mandal, Taniya; Tripathy, Prasanta K.
2017-07-01
We study the effect of Freudenthal duality on supersymmetric extremal black hole attractors in 𝒩 = 2, D = 4 ungauged supergravity. Freudenthal duality acts on the dyonic black hole charges as an anti-involution which keeps the black hole entropy and the critical points of the effective black hole potential invariant. We analyze its effect on the recently discovered distinct, mutually exclusive phases of axionic supersymmetric black holes, related to the existence of nontrivial involutory constant matrices. In particular, we consider a supersymmetric D0 - D4 - D6 black hole and we explicitly Freudenthal-map it to a supersymmetric D0 - D2 - D4 - D6 black hole. We thus show that the charge representation space of a supersymmetric D0 - D2 - D4 - D6 black hole also contains mutually exclusive domains.
Unraveling duality violations in hadronic tau decays
Cata, Oscar; Cata, Oscar; Golterman, Maarten; Peris, Santiago
2008-03-03
There are some indications from recent determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_s and the gluon condensate that the Operator Product Expansion may not be accurate enough to describe non-perturbative effects in hadronic tau decays. This breakdown of the Operator Product Expansion is usually referred to as being due to"Duality Violations." With the help of a physically motivated model, we investigate these duality violations. Based on this model, we argue how they may introduce a non-negligible systematic error in the current analysis, which employs finite-energy sum rules with pinched weights. In particular, this systematic effect might affect the precision determination of alpha_s from tau decays. With a view to a possible future application to real data, we present an alternative method for determining the OPE coefficients that might help estimating, and possibly even reducing, this systematic error.
Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shijie; Long, Guilu; Tsinghua National LaboratoryInformation Science; Technology Collaboration; Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter Collaboration
Duality quantum computer is a new kind of quantum computer which is able to perform an arbitrary sum of unitaries, and therefore a general quantum operator. This gives more computational power than a normal quantum computer. All linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. Duality quantum computer can provide flexibility and clear physical picture in designing quantum algorithms, serving as a useful bridge between quantum and classical algorithms. In this report, we will firstly briefly review the theory of duality quantum computer. Then we will introduce the application of duality quantum computer in Hamiltonian simulation. We will show that duality quantum computer can simulate quantum systems more efficiently than ordinary quantum computer by providing descriptions of the recent efficient quantum simulation algorithms.
Wave particle duality, the observer and retrocausality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narasimhan, Ashok; Kafatos, Menas C.
2017-05-01
We approach wave particle duality, the role of the observer and implications on Retrocausality, by starting with the results of a well verified quantum experiment. We analyze how some current theoretical approaches interpret these results. We then provide an alternative theoretical framework that is consistent with the observations and in many ways simpler than usual attempts to account for retrocausality, involving a non-local conscious Observer.
Thermofield duality for higher spin Rindler Gravity
Jevicki, Antal; Suzuki, Kenta
2016-02-15
In this paper, we study the Thermo-field realization of the duality between the Rindler-AdS higher spin theory and O(N) vector theory. The CFT represents a decoupled pair of free O(N) vector field theories. It is shown how this decoupled domain CFT is capable of generating the connected Rindler-AdS background with the full set of Higher Spin fields.
Electromagnetic Duality Anomaly in Curved Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agullo, Ivan; del Rio, Adrian; Navarro-Salas, Jose
2017-03-01
The source-free Maxwell action is invariant under electric-magnetic duality rotations in arbitrary spacetimes. This leads to a conserved classical Noether charge. We show that this conservation law is broken at the quantum level in the presence of a background classical gravitational field with a nontrivial Chern-Pontryagin invariant, in parallel with the chiral anomaly for massless Dirac fermions. Among the physical consequences, the net polarization of the quantum electromagnetic field is not conserved.
Thermofield duality for higher spin Rindler Gravity
Jevicki, Antal; Suzuki, Kenta
2016-02-15
In this paper, we study the Thermo-field realization of the duality between the Rindler-AdS higher spin theory and O(N) vector theory. The CFT represents a decoupled pair of free O(N) vector field theories. It is shown how this decoupled domain CFT is capable of generating the connected Rindler-AdS background with the full set of Higher Spin fields.
Hutchinson's duality: The once and future niche
Colwell, Robert K.; Rangel, Thiago F.
2009-01-01
The duality between “niche” and “biotope” proposed by G. Evelyn Hutchinson provides a powerful way to conceptualize and analyze biogeographical distributions in relation to spatial environmental patterns. Both Joseph Grinnell and Charles Elton had attributed niches to environments. Attributing niches, instead, to species, allowed Hutchinson's key innovation: the formal severing of physical place from environment that is expressed by the duality. In biogeography, the physical world (a spatial extension of what Hutchinson called the biotope) is conceived as a map, each point (or cell) of which is characterized by its geographical coordinates and the local values of n environmental attributes at a given time. Exactly the same n environmental attributes define the corresponding niche space, as niche axes, allowing reciprocal projections between the geographic distribution of a species, actual or potential, past or future, and its niche. In biogeographical terms, the realized niche has come to express not only the effects of species interactions (as Hutchinson intended), but also constraints of dispersal limitation and the lack of contemporary environments corresponding to parts of the fundamental niche. Hutchinson's duality has been used to classify and map environments; model potential species distributions under past, present, and future climates; study the distributions of invasive species; discover new species; and simulate increasingly more realistic worlds, leading to spatially explicit, stochastic models that encompass speciation, extinction, range expansion, and evolutionary adaptation to changing environments. PMID:19805163
Duality analysis on random planar lattices.
Ohzeki, Masayuki; Fujii, Keisuke
2012-11-01
The conventional duality analysis is employed to identify a location of a critical point on a uniform lattice without any disorder in its structure. In the present study, we deal with the random planar lattice, which consists of the randomized structure based on the square lattice. We introduce the uniformly random modification by the bond dilution and contraction on a part of the unit square. The random planar lattice includes the triangular and hexagonal lattices in extreme cases of a parameter to control the structure. A modern duality analysis fashion with real-space renormalization is found to be available for estimating the location of the critical points with a wide range of the randomness parameter. As a simple test bed, we demonstrate that our method indeed gives several critical points for the cases of the Ising and Potts models and the bond-percolation thresholds on the random planar lattice. Our method leads to not only such an extension of the duality analyses on the classical statistical mechanics but also a fascinating result associated with optimal error thresholds for a class of quantum error correction code, the surface code on the random planar lattice, which is known as a skillful technique to protect the quantum state.
Holographic duality in nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyaninov, Igor I.
2014-07-01
According to the holographic principle, the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on its boundary. Holographic principle establishes equivalence, or duality, between theoretical description of volume physics, which involves gravity, and the gravity-free field theory, which describes physics on its surface. While generally accepted as a theoretical framework, so far there was no known experimental system which would exhibit explicit holographic duality and be amenable to direct experimental testing. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear optics of hyperbolic metamaterials admits such a dual holographic description. Wave equation which describes propagation of extraordinary light through the volume of metamaterial exhibits 2 + 1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned with the optical axis of the material. Nonlinear optical Kerr effect bends this spacetime resulting in effective gravitational interaction between extraordinary photons. On the other hand, a holographic dual theory may be formulated on the metamaterial surface, which describes its nonlinear optics via interaction of cylindrical surface plasmons possessing conserved charges proportional to their angular momenta. Potential implications of this duality for superconductivity of hyperbolic metamaterials are discussed.
ABJ Wilson loops and Seiberg duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinji, Hirano; Keita, Nii; Masaki, Shigemori
2014-11-01
We study supersymmetric Wilson loops in the {N} = 6 supersymmetric U(N_1)_k × U(N_2)_{-k} Chern-Simons-matter (CSM) theory, the ABJ theory, at finite N_1, N_2, and k. This generalizes our previous study on the ABJ partition function. First computing the Wilson loops in the U(N_1) × U(N_2) lens space matrix model exactly, we perform an analytic continuation, N_2 to -N_2, to obtain the Wilson loops in the ABJ theory that is given in terms of a formal series and is only valid in perturbation theory. Via a Sommerfeld-Watson-type transform, we provide a nonperturbative completion that renders the formal series well defined at all couplings. This is given by min (N_1,N_2)-dimensional integrals that generalize the “mirror description” of the partition function of the ABJM theory. Using our results, we find the maps between the Wilson loops in the original and Seiberg dual theories and prove the duality. In our approach we can explicitly see how the perturbative and nonperturbative contributions to the Wilson loops are exchanged under the duality. The duality maps are further supported by a heuristic yet very useful argument based on the brane configuration as well as an alternative derivation based on that of Kapustin and Willett (arXiv:1302.2164 [hep-th]).
Real weights, bound states and duality orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio; Romano, Luca
2016-01-01
We show that the duality orbits of extremal black holes in supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds can be derived by studying the stabilizing subalgebras of suitable representatives, realized as bound states of specific weight vectors of the corresponding representation of the duality symmetry group. The weight vectors always correspond to weights that are real, where the reality properties are derived from the Tits-Satake diagram that identifies the real form of the Lie algebra of the duality symmetry group. Both 𝒩 = 2 magic Maxwell-Einstein supergravities and the semisimple infinite sequences of 𝒩 = 2 and 𝒩 = 4 theories in D = 4 and 5 are considered, and various results, obtained over the years in the literature using different methods, are retrieved. In particular, we show that the stratification of the orbits of these theories occurs because of very specific properties of the representations: in the case of the theory based on the real numbers, whose symmetry group is maximally noncompact and therefore all the weights are real, the stratification is due to the presence of weights of different lengths, while in the other cases it is due to the presence of complex weights.
Patching DFT, T-duality and gerbes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howe, P. S.; Papadopoulos, G.
2017-04-01
We clarify the role of the dual coordinates as described from the perspectives of the Buscher T-duality rules and Double Field Theory. We show that the T-duality angular dual coordinates cannot be identified with Double Field Theory dual coordinates in any of the proposals that have been made in the literature for patching the doubled spaces. In particular, we show with explicit examples that the T-duality angular dual coordinates can have non-trivial transition functions over a spacetime and that their identification with the Double Field Theory dual coordinates is in conflict with proposals in which the latter remain inert under the patching of the B-field. We then demonstrate that the Double Field Theory coordinates can be identified with some C-space coordinates and that the T-dual spaces of a spacetime are subspaces of the gerbe in C-space. The construction provides a description of both the local O( d, d) symmetry and the T-dual spaces of spacetime.
Quark Models of Duality in Electron and Neutrino Scattering
Wally Melnitchouk
2006-02-01
Results of recent analyses of electromagnetic structure functions in the resonance region suggest that duality-violating higher twists are small above Q^2 ~ 1 GeV^2. We analyze the systematics of local duality within a quark model framework for various modes of spin-flavor symmetry breaking. On the basis of these models we discuss expectations for the workings of duality in neutrino scattering.
Particle-vortex duality in topological insulators and superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu
2017-05-01
We investigate the origins and implications of the duality between topological insulators and topological superconductors in three and four spacetime dimensions. In the latter, the duality transformation can be made at the level of the path integral in the standard way, while in three dimensions, it takes the form of "self-duality in odd dimensions". In this sense, it is closely related to the particle-vortex duality of planar systems. In particular, we use this to elaborate on Son's conjecture that a three dimensional Dirac fermion that can be thought of as the surface mode of a four dimensional topological insulator is dual to a composite fermion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Diest, H.; Kesselmeier, J.
2007-10-01
The exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between soil and the atmosphere was investigated for three arable soils from Germany, China and Finland and one forest soil from Siberia for parameterization in the relation to ambient carbonyl sulfide (COS) concentration, soil water content (WC) and air temperature. All investigated soils acted as significant sinks for COS. A clear and distinct uptake optimum was found for the German, Chinese, Finnish and Siberian soils at 11.5%, 9%, 11.5%, and 9% soil WC, respectively, indicating that the soil WC acts as an important biological and physical parameter for characterizing the exchange of COS between soils and the atmosphere. Different optima of deposition velocities (Vd) as observed for the Chinese, Finnish and Siberian boreal soil types in relation to their soil WC, aligned at 19% in relation to the water-filled pore space (WFPS), indicating the dominating role of gas diffusion. This interpretation was supported by the linear correlation between Vd and bulk density. We suggest that the uptake of COS depends on the diffusivity dominated by WFPS, a parameter depending on soil WC, soil structure and porosity of the soil.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Diest, H.; Kesselmeier, J.
2008-04-01
The exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between soil and the atmosphere was investigated for three arable soils from Germany, China and Finland and one forest soil from Siberia for parameterization in the relation to ambient carbonyl sulfide (COS) concentration, soil water content (WC) and air temperature. All investigated soils acted as sinks for COS. A clear and distinct uptake optimum was found for the German, Chinese, Finnish and Siberian soils at 11.5%, 9%, 11.5%, and 9% soil WC, respectively, indicating that the soil WC acts as an important biological and physical parameter for characterizing the exchange of COS between soils and the atmosphere. Different optima of deposition velocities (Vd) as observed for the Chinese, Finnish and Siberian boreal soil types in relation to their soil WC, aligned at 19% in relation to the water-filled pore space (WFPS), indicating the dominating role of gas diffusion. This interpretation was supported by the linear correlation between Vd and bulk density. We suggest that the uptake of COS depends on the diffusivity dominated by WFPS, a parameter depending on soil WC, soil structure and porosity of the soil.
Chen, Mo; Kostylev, Maxim; Bomble, Yannick J; Crowley, Michael F; Himmel, Michael E; Wilson, David B; Brady, John W
2014-03-06
Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the possible catalytic role of an unusual conserved water-filled pore structure in the family 48 cellulase enzyme Cel48A from Thermobifida fusca. It was hypothesized that this pore serves as the pathway for the water molecules consumed in the hydrolysis catalyzed by the enzyme to reach the active site in a continuous stream to participate in the processive reactions. Theoretical mutants of this enzyme were created in which all of the residues lining the pore were made hydrophobic, which had the effect in molecular dynamics simulations of emptying the pore of water molecules and preventing any from passing through the pore on the simulation time scale. Mutants with smaller numbers of substitutions of this nature, which could be created experimentally by site-directed mutagenesis, were also identified from simulations, and these proteins were subsequently produced in Escherichia coli, expressed and purified, but were found to not fold in a manner similar to the wild type protein, preventing the determination of the importance of the water pore for activity. It is possible that the presence of a small vacuum in the pore was responsible for the instability of the mutants. In addition, alternate pathways were observed in the simulations that would allow water molecules to reach the active site of the enzyme, suggesting that the hypothesis that the pore has functional significance might be incorrect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amabili, Marco; Balasubramanian, Prabakaran; Ferrari, Giovanni
2016-10-01
The nonlinear vibrations of a water-filled circular cylindrical shell subjected to radial harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of the lowest resonances are investigated experimentally and numerically by using a seamless aluminium sample. The experimental boundary conditions are close to simply supported edges. The presence of exact one-to-one internal resonance, giving rise to a travelling wave response around the shell circumference and non-stationary vibrations, is experimentally observed and the nonlinear response is numerically reproduced. The travelling wave is measured by means of state-of-the-art laser Doppler vibrometers applied to multiple points on the structure simultaneously. Chaos is detected in the frequency region where the travelling wave response is present. The reduced-order model is based on the Novozhilov nonlinear shell theory retaining in-plane inertia and the nonlinear equations of motion are numerically studied (i) by using a code based on arclength continuation method that allows bifurcation analysis in case of stationary vibrations, (ii) by a continuation code based on direct integration and Poincaré maps that evaluates also the maximum Lyapunov exponent in case of non-stationary vibrations. The comparison of experimental and numerical results is particularly satisfactory.
Energy-weighted sum rules, y-scaling and duality
J. Wallace Van Orden; Sabine Jeschonnek
2002-09-01
The phenomena of scaling and Bloom-Gilman duality are examined in the context of simple nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanical models. These models are shown to scale and to show the qualitative feature of Bloom-Gilman duality. This suggests that these phenomena do not necessarily require the properties of QCD.
Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Liu, Hong; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2014-06-01
1. Opening remarks; 2. A heavy ion phenomenology primer; 3. Results from lattice QCD at nonzero temperature; 4. Introducing the gauge/string duality; 5. A duality toolbox; 6. Bulk properties of strongly coupled plasma; 7. From hydrodynamics for far-from-equilibrium dynamics; 8. Probing strongly coupled plasma; 9. Quarkonium mesons in strongly coupled plasma; 10. Concluding remarks and outlook; Appendixes; References; Index.
{ital T}-duality invariance in random lattice strings
Siegel, W.
1996-08-01
Preserving the {ital T}-duality invariance of the continuum string in its random lattice regularization uniquely determines the random matrix model potential. For {ital D}=0 the duality transformation can be performed explicitly on the matrix action, and replaces color with flavor; invariance, thus, requires that the color and flavor groups be the same. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Antagonistic functional duality of cancer genes.
Stepanenko, A A; Vassetzky, Y S; Kavsan, V M
2013-10-25
Cancer evolution is a stochastic process both at the genome and gene levels. Most of tumors contain multiple genetic subclones, evolving in either succession or in parallel, either in a linear or branching manner, with heterogeneous genome and gene alterations, extensively rewired signaling networks, and addicted to multiple oncogenes easily switching with each other during cancer progression and medical intervention. Hundreds of discovered cancer genes are classified according to whether they function in a dominant (oncogenes) or recessive (tumor suppressor genes) manner in a cancer cell. However, there are many cancer "gene-chameleons", which behave distinctly in opposite way in the different experimental settings showing antagonistic duality. In contrast to the widely accepted view that mutant NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1/2 (IDH1/2) and associated metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (R)-enantiomer are intrinsically "the drivers" of tumourigenesis, mutant IDH1/2 inhibited, promoted or had no effect on cell proliferation, growth and tumorigenicity in diverse experiments. Similar behavior was evidenced for dozens of cancer genes. Gene function is dependent on genetic network, which is defined by the genome context. The overall changes in karyotype can result in alterations of the role and function of the same genes and pathways. The diverse cell lines and tumor samples have been used in experiments for proving gene tumor promoting/suppressive activity. They all display heterogeneous individual karyotypes and disturbed signaling networks. Consequently, the effect and function of gene under investigation can be opposite and versatile in cells with different genomes that may explain antagonistic duality of cancer genes and the cell type- or the cellular genetic/context-dependent response to the same protein. Antagonistic duality of cancer genes might contribute to failure of chemotherapy. Instructive examples of unexpected activity of cancer genes and
Kawakami, Yoshikazu; Menkes, Harold A.; DuBois, Arthur B.
1970-01-01
A water-filled body plethysmograph was constructed to measure gas exchange in man. As compared to an air-filled plethysmograph, its advantages were greater sensitivity, less thermal drift, and no change from adiabatic to isothermal conditions after a stepwise change of pressure. When five subjects were completely immersed within it and were breathing to the ambient atmosphere, they had a normal heart rate, oxygen consumption, CO2 output, and functional residual capacity. Pulmonary capillary blood flow ([unk]Qc) during and after Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers was calculated from measurements of N2O uptake. Control measurements of [unk]Qc were 2.58 liters/min per m2 at rest and 3.63 liters/min per m2 after moderate exercise. During the Valsalva maneuver at rest (intrapulmonary pressure: 24, SD 3.0, mm Hg), [unk]Qc decreased from a control of 2.58, SD 0.43, liters/min per m2 to 1.62, SD 0.26, liters/min per m2 with a decrease in pulmonary capillary stroke volume from a control of 42.4, SD 8.8, ml/stroke per m2 to 25.2, SD 5.5, ml/stroke per m2. After release of the Valsalva, there was an overshoot in [unk]Qc averaging +0.78, SD 0.41, liter/min per m2 accompanied by a significant increase in heart rate. Similar changes occurred during and after the Valsalva following moderate exercise. During the Mueller maneuver at rest and after exercise, [unk]Qc, heart rate, and central stroke volume did not change significantly. Images PMID:5422025
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everett, A.; Murray, T.; Selmes, N.; Rutt, I. C.; Luckman, A.; James, T. D.; Clason, C.; O'Leary, M.; Karunarathna, H.; Moloney, V.; Reeve, D. E.
2016-10-01
Supraglacial lake drainage events are common on the Greenland ice sheet. Observations on the west coast typically show an up-glacier progression of drainage as the annual melt extent spreads inland. We use a suite of remote sensing and modeling techniques in order to study a series of lakes and water-filled crevasses within 20 km of the terminus of Helheim Glacier, southeast Greenland. Automatic classification of surface water areas shows a down-glacier progression of drainage, which occurs in the majority of years between 2007 and 2014. We demonstrate that a linear elastic fracture mechanics model can reliably predict the drainage of the uppermost supraglacial lake in the system but cannot explain the pattern of filling and draining observed in areas of surface water downstream. We propose that the water levels in crevasses downstream of the supraglacial lake can be explained by a transient high-pressure wave passing through the subglacial system following the lake drainage. We support this hypothesis with analysis of the subglacial hydrological conditions, which can explain both the position and interannual variation in filling order of these crevasses. Similar behavior has been observed in association with jökulhaups, surging glaciers, and Antarctic subglacial lakes but has not previously been observed on major outlets of the Greenland ice sheet. Our results suggest that the behavior of near-terminus surface water may differ considerably from that of inland supraglacial lakes, with the potential for basal water pressures to influence the presence of surface water in crevasses close to the terminus of tidewater glaciers.
Lai, Yei-Chen; Chen, Yi-Fan; Chiang, Yun-Wei
2013-01-01
There is considerable evidence for the essential role of surface water in protein function and structure. However, it is unclear to what extent the hydration water and protein are coupled and interact with each other. Here, we show by ESR experiments (cw, DEER, ESEEM, and ESE techniques) with spin-labeling and nanoconfinement techniques that the vitrified hydration layers can be evidently recognized in the ESR spectra, providing nanoscale understanding for the biological interfacial water. Two peptides of different secondary structures and lengths are studied in vitrified bulk solvents and in water-filled nanochannels of different pore diameter (6.1∼7.6 nm). The existence of surface hydration and bulk shells are demonstrated. Water in the immediate vicinity of the nitroxide label (within the van der Waals contacts, ∼0.35 nm) at the water-peptide interface is verified to be non-crystalline at 50 K, and the water accessibility changes little with the nanochannel dimension. Nevertheless, this water accessibility for the nanochannel cases is only half the value for the bulk solvent, even though the peptide structures remain largely the same as those immersed in the bulk solvents. On the other hand, the hydration density in the range of ∼2 nm from the nitroxide spin increases substantially with decreasing pore size, as the density for the largest pore size (7.6 nm) is comparable to that for the bulk solvent. The results demonstrate that while the peptides are confined but structurally unaltered in the nanochannels, their surrounding water exhibits density heterogeneity along the peptide surface normal. The causes and implications, especially those involving the interactions between the first hydration water and peptides, of these observations are discussed. Spin-label ESR techniques are proven useful for studying the structure and influences of interfacial hydration. PMID:23840841
Drell-Yan-like processes and duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anikin, I. V.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O. V.; Volchanskiy, N.
2017-06-01
We calculate the gauge invariant Drell-Yan-like hadron tensors. In connection with new COMPASS results, we predict the new single spin asymmetry which probes gluon poles together with chiral-odd and time-odd functions. The relevant pion production as a particular case of the Drell-Yan-like process has been discussed. For the meson-induced Drell-Yan (DY) process, we model an analog of the twist-3 distribution function, which is a collinear function in inclusive channel, by means of two noncollinear distribution amplitudes which are associated with exclusive channel. This modeling demonstrates the fundamental duality between different factorization regimes.
Crosscaps, boundaries and T-duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huiszoon, L. R.; Schellekens, A. N.
2000-09-01
Open descendants with boundaries and crosscaps of non-trivial automorphism type are studied. We focus on the case where the bulk symmetry is broken to a Z 2 orbifold subalgebra. By requiring positivity and integrality for the open sector, we derive a unique crosscap of automorphism type g∈Z 2 and a corresponding g-twisted Klein bottle for a charge conjugation invariant. As a specific example, we use T-duality to construct the descendants of the true diagonal invariant with symmetry preserving crosscaps and boundaries.
Diffractive Scattering and Gauge/String Duality
Tan, Chung-I [Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
2016-07-12
High-energy diffractive scattering will be discussed based on Gauge/String duality. As shown by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan, the ubiquitous Pomeron emerges naturally in gauge theories with string-theoretical descriptions. Its existence is intimately tied to gluons, and also to the energy-momentum tensor. With a confining dual background metric, the Pomeron can be interpreted as a 'massive graviton'. In a single unified step, both its infrared and ultraviolet properties are dealt with, reflecting confinement and conformal symmetry respectively. An effective field theory for high-energy scattering can be constructed. Applications based on this approach will also be described.
Apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality
Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Plewa, Grzegorz; Spalinski, Michal
2011-05-15
This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature, and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.
Spectral duality in integrable systems from AGT conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.; Zotov, A.
2013-03-01
We describe relationships between integrable systems with N degrees of freedom arising from the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa conjecture. Namely, we prove the equivalence (spectral duality) between the N-cite Heisenberg spin chain and a reduced gl N Gaudin model both at classical and quantum level. The former one appears on the gauge theory side of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa relation in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili (and further the Seiberg-Witten) limit while the latter one is natural on the CFT side. At the classical level, the duality transformation relates the Seiberg-Witten differentials and spectral curves via a bispectral involution. The quantum duality extends this to the equivalence of the corresponding Baxter-Schrödinger equations (quantum spectral curves). This equivalence generalizes both the spectral self-duality between the 2 × 2 and N × N representations of the Toda chain and the famous Adams-Harnad-Hurtubise duality.
Complementarity, wave-particle duality, and domains of applicability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokulich, Peter
2017-08-01
Complementarity has frequently, but mistakenly, been conflated with wave-particle duality, and this conflation has led to pervasive misunderstandings of Bohr's views and several misguided claims of an experimental "disproof" of complementarity. In this paper, I explain what Bohr meant by complementarity, and how this is related to, but distinct from, wave-particle duality. I list a variety of possible meanings of wave-particle duality, and canvass the ways in which they are (or are not) supported by quantum physics and Bohr's interpretation. I also examine the extent to which wave-particle duality should be viewed as an example of the sort of dualities one finds in, e.g., string theory. I argue that the most fruitful way of reading of Bohr's account complementarity is by comparing it to current accounts of effective theories with limited domains of applicability.
Target space duality with dilation and tachyon field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruszczycki, Blazej
We study the target space duality of classical two dimensional sigma models. The models with dilaton and tachyon field are analyzed. As a motivating example the historical electric-magnetic duality is presented. We review the construction of the duality transformation and the integrability conditions for the nonlinear sigma models with target spaces described by general metrics and antisymmetric two-forms. We generalize the formalism for the models whose actions contain the dilaton and tachyon field. For the dilaton field case it is required that the duality is a property solely of the target manifolds, independent of the world-sheet geometry. For both cases the duality transformation is established and the integrability conditions are calculated. The set of restrictions on geometrical data describing the models is obtained, the previously calculated condition on connections on target spaces is maintained in both cases.
Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camara da Silva, U.; Alves Lima, A. L.; Sotkov, G. M.
2016-11-01
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.
Seiberg duality versus hidden local symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abel, Steven; Barnard, James
2012-05-01
It is widely believed that the emergent magnetic gauge symmetry of SQCD is analogous to a hidden local symmetry (HLS). We explore this idea in detail, deriving the entire (spontaneously broken) magnetic theory by applying the HLS formalism to spontaneously broken SU( N) SQCD. We deduce the Kähler potential in the HLS description, and show that gauge and flavour symmetry are smoothly restored along certain scaling directions in moduli space. We propose that it is these symmetry restoring directions, associated with the R-symmetry of the theory, that allow full Seiberg duality. Reconsidering the origin of the magnetic gauge bosons as the ρ-mesons of the electric theory, colour-flavour locking allows a simple determination of the parameter a. Its value continuously interpolates between a = 2 on the baryonic branch of moduli space — corresponding to "vector meson dominance" — and a = 1 on the mesonic branch. Both limiting values are consistent with previous results in the literature. The HLS formalism is further applied to SO and Sp groups, where the usual Seiberg duals are recovered, as well as adjoint SQCD. Finally we discuss some possible future applications, including (naturally) the unitarisation of composite W scattering, blended Higgs/technicolour models, real world QCD and non-supersymmetric dualities.
Fricke S-duality in CHL models
Persson, Daniel; Volpato, Roberto
2015-12-23
In this study, we consider four dimensional CHL models with sixteen spacetime supersymmetries obtained from orbifolds of type IIA superstring on K3×T^{2} by a Z_{N} symmetry acting (possibly) non-geometrically on K3. We show that most of these models (in particular, for geometric symmetries) are self-dual under a weak-strong duality acting on the heterotic axio-dilaton modulus S by a “Fricke involution” S → -1/NS. This is a novel symmetry of CHL models that lies outside of the standard SL(2,Z)-symmetry of the parent theory, heterotic strings on T^{6}. For self-dual models this implies that the lattice of purely electric charges is N-modular, i.e. isometric to its dual up to a rescaling of its quadratic form by N. We verify this prediction by determining the lattices of electric and magnetic charges in all relevant examples. We also calculate certain BPS-saturated couplings and verify that they are invariant under the Fricke S-duality. For CHL models that are not self-dual, the strong coupling limit is dual to type IIA compactified on T^{6}/Z_{N}, for some Z_{N}-symmetry preserving half of the spacetime supersymmetries.
Fricke S-duality in CHL models
Persson, Daniel; Volpato, Roberto
2015-12-23
In this study, we consider four dimensional CHL models with sixteen spacetime supersymmetries obtained from orbifolds of type IIA superstring on K3×T2 by a ZN symmetry acting (possibly) non-geometrically on K3. We show that most of these models (in particular, for geometric symmetries) are self-dual under a weak-strong duality acting on the heterotic axio-dilaton modulus S by a “Fricke involution” S → -1/NS. This is a novel symmetry of CHL models that lies outside of the standard SL(2,Z)-symmetry of the parent theory, heterotic strings on T6. For self-dual models this implies that the lattice of purely electric charges is N-modular,more » i.e. isometric to its dual up to a rescaling of its quadratic form by N. We verify this prediction by determining the lattices of electric and magnetic charges in all relevant examples. We also calculate certain BPS-saturated couplings and verify that they are invariant under the Fricke S-duality. For CHL models that are not self-dual, the strong coupling limit is dual to type IIA compactified on T6/ZN, for some ZN-symmetry preserving half of the spacetime supersymmetries.« less
Nongeometric F -theory-heterotic duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Jie; Jockers, Hans
2015-04-01
In this work we study the duality between F -theory and the heterotic string beyond the stable degeneration limit in F -theory and large fiber limit in the heterotic theory. Building upon a recent proposal by Clingher and Doran and by Malmendier and Morrison—which phrases the duality on the heterotic side for a particular class of models in terms of (fibered) genus-two curves as nongeometric heterotic compactifications—we establish the precise limit to the semiclassical heterotic string in both eight and lower space-time dimensions. In particular for six-dimensional theories, we argue that this class of nongeometric heterotic compactifications capture α' quantum corrections to the semiclassical heterotic supergravity compactifications on elliptically fibered K 3 surfaces. From the nongeometric heterotic theory, the semiclassical phase on the K 3 surface is recovered from a remarkable limit of genus-two Siegel modular forms combined with a geometric surgery operation. Finally, in four dimensions we analyze another limit deep in the quantum regime of the nongeometric heterotic string, which we refer to as the heterotic Sen limit. In this limit we can explicitly argue that the semiclassical two-staged fibrational structure of the heterotic hypermultiplet moduli space—recently established by Alexandrov, Louis, Pioline, and Valandro—gets corrected by quantum effects.
From Buscher Duality to Poisson-Lie T-Plurality on Supermanifolds
Petr, I.
2010-11-25
In this review paper we summarize basic concepts of T-duality. Starting from the simplest case of abelian T-duality, we show the techniques used for finding the dual model and summarize developments in the field of Poisson-Lie T-duality/plurality, which deals with non-abelian groups. We also mention possible extension of T-duality to supermanifolds.
Zhang, Qun; Lin, Shi-Rong; He, Fang; Kang, De-Hua; Chen, Guo-Zhang; Luo, Wei
2011-01-01
Postoperative radiotherapy is a major treatment for patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. However, the irregular resection cavity poses a technical difficulty for this treatment, causing uneven dose distribution to target volumes. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution to target volumes and normal tissues in postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after placing a water-filled balloon into the resection cavity. Three postoperative patients with advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma were selected in this trial. Water-filled balloons and supporting dental stents were fabricated according to the size of the maxillary resection cavity. Simulation CT scans were performed with or without water-filled balloons, IMRT treatment plans were established, and dose distribution to target volumes and organs at risk were evaluated. Compared to those in the treatment plan without balloons, the dose (D98) delivered to 98% of the gross tumor volume (GTV) increased by 2.1 Gy (P = 0.009), homogeneity index (HI) improved by 2.3% (P = 0.001), and target volume conformity index (TCI) of 68 Gy increased by 18.5% (P = 0.011) in the plan with balloons. Dosimetry endpoints of normal tissues around target regions in both plans were not significantly different (P > 0.05) except for the optic chiasm. In the plan without balloons, 68 Gy high-dose regions did not entirely cover target volumes in the ethmoid sinus, posteromedial wall of the maxillary sinus, or surgical margin of the hard palate. In contrast, 68 Gy high-dose regions entirely covered the GTV in the plan with balloons. These results suggest that placing a water-filled balloon in the resection cavity for postoperative IMRT of maxillary sinus carcinoma can reduce low-dose regions and markedly and simultaneously increase dose homogeneity and conformity of target volumes. PMID:22035860
A nonabelian particle-vortex duality in gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu
2016-08-01
We define a nonabelian version of particle-vortex duality, by dimensionally extending usual (1+1)-dimensional nonabelian T-duality to (2+1) dimensions. While we will explicitly describe a global SU(2) symmetry, our methods can also be applied to a larger group G, by gauging an appropriate subgroup. We will exemplify our duality with matter in both adjoint and fundamental representations by considering a modification of {N} = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (Seiberg-Witten theory reduced to (2+1) dimensions), and an SU(2) × U(1) color-flavor locked theory that exhibits nonabelian vortex solutions.
Towards Reconciliation of Several Dualities in Physician Leadership
Walker, Keith; Kraines, Gerry
2015-01-01
Leadership has a renewed focus in healthcare, and physicians are being increasingly involved in a range of leadership roles. The aim of this paper is to discuss several dualities that exert tensions at the systems and individual levels. Although oppositional, the common dualities of physician leadership are not mutually exclusive but represent a complex, dynamic and interdependent relationship, often coexisting with each other and exerting tensions in multiple dimensions. The authors contend that a dialectic understanding – instead of either/or or finding a middle ground – of the opposite poles of these dualities allows for generating meaningful leadership perspectives and choices. PMID:25947031
Electronic duality in strongly correlated matter
Park, T.; Graf, M. J.; Boulaevskii, L.; Sarrao, J. L.; Thompson, J. D.
2008-01-01
Superconductivity develops from an attractive interaction between itinerant electrons that creates electron pairs, which condense into a macroscopic quantum state—the superconducting state. On the other hand, magnetic order in a metal arises from electrons localized close to the ionic core and whose interaction is mediated by itinerant electrons. The dichotomy between local moment magnetic order and superconductivity raises the question of whether these two states can coexist and involve the same electrons. Here, we show that the single 4f electron of cerium in CeRhIn5 simultaneously produces magnetism, characteristic of localization, and superconductivity that requires itinerancy. The dual nature of the 4f-electron allows microscopic coexistence of antiferromagnetic order and superconductivity whose competition is tuned by small changes in pressure and magnetic field. Electronic duality contrasts with conventional interpretations of coexisting spin-density magnetism and superconductivity and offers a new avenue for understanding complex states in classes of materials. PMID:18463288
New evidence for (0,2) target space duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Lara B.; Feng, He
2017-02-01
In the context of (0, 2) gauged linear sigma models, we explore chains of perturbatively dual heterotic string compactifications. The notion of target space duality originates in non-geometric phases and can be used to generate distinct GLSMs with shared geometric phases leading to apparently identical target space theories. To date, this duality has largely been studied at the level of counting states in the effective theories. We extend this analysis to the effective potential and loci of enhanced symmetry in dual theories. By engineering vector bundles with non-trivial constraints arising from slope-stability (i.e. D-terms) and holomorphy (i.e. F-terms) the detailed structure of the vacuum space of the dual theories can be explored. Our results give new evidence that GLSM target space duality may provide important hints towards a more complete understanding of (0, 2) string dualities.
Local duality and charge symmetry violation in quark distributions
Steffens, F.M.; Tsushima, K.
2004-11-01
We use local quark-hadron duality to calculate the nucleon structure function as seen by neutrino and muon beams. Our result indicates a possible signal of charge symmetry violation at the parton level in the very large x region.
T-duality as permutation of coordinates in double space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sazdović, B.
2017-05-01
We introduce the 2D dimensional double space with the coordinates ZM = (xμ , yμ ), whose components are the coordinates of initial space xμ and its T-dual yμ . We shall show that in this extended space the T-duality transformations can be realized simply by exchanging the places of some coordinates xa , along which we want to perform T-duality, and the corresponding dual coordinates ya . In such an approach it is evident that T-duality leads to the physically equivalent theory and that a complete set of T-duality transformations forms a subgroup of the 2D permutation group. So, in double space we are able to represent the backgrounds of all T-dual theories in a unified manner. Supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (171031)
Global analysis of duality maps in quantum field theory
Restuccia, A.
1997-03-15
A global analysis of duality transformations is presented. Global constraints are introduced in order to have the correct structure of the configuration spaces. This global structure is completely determined from the quantum equivalence of dual actions. Applications to S-dual actions and to T duality of string theories and D-branes are briefly discussed. It is shown that a new topological term in the dual open string actions is required.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-07-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems.
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-07-28
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d(3)) in contrast to O(d(4)) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm.
Duality and integrability in topological string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brini, Andrea
This thesis presents several new results on the interface between Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems and String Theory. We investigate two important aspects of the topological phase of string theory: duality in its various forms, and the existence of underlying integrable structures. We will focus on a central case for the theory, represented by the Gromov--Witten theory of toric Calabi--Yau manifolds of complex dimension three. Our results can be summarized as follows: 1. in Chapter 3, we study the variation of the A-model partition function, or Gromov--Witten potential, under a change of the Kahler moduli of the target space. We first propose a global B-model solution for the genus zero theory in a large class of examples, and then build on a recently proposed formalism based on the Eynard--Orantin recursion to determine structural properties (such as quasi-modularity) of the Gromov--Witten potentials, as well study their behavior when we move from one chamber to another of the (stringy) A-model moduli space. 2. in Chapter 4 we study the possibility to extend the Gopakumar-Vafa duality, which relates SU(N) Chern--Simons theory on S3 to the Gromov--Witten theory of the resolved conifold OP1 -1⊕OP1 (--1), to the case when the real three-sphere is replaced by a generic lens spaces L(p, q). To this aim we exploit, on one hand, the matrix model representation of the SU(N) Chern--Simons partition function and study it in a generic flat background for the entire L(p, q) family, providing a solution for its large N dynamics; on the other, we perform in full detail the construction of a family of would-be dual closed string backgrounds via conifold geometric transition from T*L(p, q). We will then explicitly prove, using mirror symmetry techniques, that the duality fails to hold true in this more general case. 3. in Chapter 5 we tackle the problem of unveiling the integrable structures behind Gromov--Witten theory in new classes of examples and begin the study and
Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E.J.; Holt, D.M.; Stump, C.J. Jr.
1982-05-13
A portable instrument for measuring induced Cerenkov radiation associated with irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in a water-filled storage pond is disclosed. The instrument includes a photomultiplier tube and an image intensifier which are operable in parallel and simultaneously by means of a field lens assembly and an associated beam splitter. The image intensifier permits an operator to aim and focus the apparatus on a submerged fuel assembly. Once the instrument is aimed and focused, an illumination reading can be obtained with the photomultiplier tube. The instrument includes a lens cap with a carbon-14/phosphor light source for calibrating the apparatus in the field.
Holographic duality from random tensor networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Thomas, Nathaniel; Walter, Michael; Yang, Zhao
2016-11-01
Tensor networks provide a natural framework for exploring holographic duality because they obey entanglement area laws. They have been used to construct explicit toy models realizing many of the interesting structural features of the AdS/CFT correspondence, including the non-uniqueness of bulk operator reconstruction in the boundary theory. In this article, we explore the holographic properties of networks of random tensors. We find that our models naturally incorporate many features that are analogous to those of the AdS/CFT correspondence. When the bond dimension of the tensors is large, we show that the entanglement entropy of all boundary regions, whether connected or not, obey the Ryu-Takayanagi entropy formula, a fact closely related to known properties of the multipartite entanglement of assistance. We also discuss the behavior of Rényi entropies in our models and contrast it with AdS/CFT. Moreover, we find that each boundary region faithfully encodes the physics of the entire bulk entanglement wedge, i.e., the bulk region enclosed by the boundary region and the minimal surface. Our method is to interpret the average over random tensors as the partition function of a classical ferromagnetic Ising model, so that the minimal surfaces of Ryu-Takayanagi appear as domain walls. Upon including the analog of a bulk field, we find that our model reproduces the expected corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi formula: the bulk minimal surface is displaced and the entropy is augmented by the entanglement of the bulk field. Increasing the entanglement of the bulk field ultimately changes the minimal surface behavior topologically, in a way similar to the effect of creating a black hole. Extrapolating bulk correlation functions to the boundary permits the calculation of the scaling dimensions of boundary operators, which exhibit a large gap between a small number of low-dimension operators and the rest. While we are primarily motivated by the AdS/CFT duality, the main
[GABA: a functional duality? Transition during neurodevelopment].
Cortes-Romero, C; Galindo, F; Galicia-Isasmendi, S; Flores, A
2011-06-01
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most important inhibitory-type neurotransmitter and its actions are mediated by ionotropic (GABA(A)) and metabotropic (GABA(B)) type receptors, which are widely distributed throughout the tissue of the central nervous system. To review the structure of GABA receptors and their involvement in physiological processes in the central nervous system. The study addresses the structure and diversity of the GABA receptors, especially during neurodevelopment, and reference is made to the excitatory and inhibitory nature of GABAergic transmission, where the participation of the cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2 plays a key role in this functional duality in the transition from an embryonic to a post-natal state. Likewise, the interest in GABA receptors as a pharmacological target for clinical use is also discussed. This is manifested by the presence of under-explored allosteric modulation sites in the aforementioned complex-receptor. The physiological and pharmacological knowledge of the great diversity of subunits that make up a particular subtype of GABA receptor, as well as the correct expression in time and space in order to ensure the viability of the organism, promise to be the answer to long-time severe disorders like epilepsy or drug addiction, and such complex ones as neurodevelopment.
Testing distance duality with CMB anisotropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Räsänen, Syksy; Väliviita, Jussi; Kosonen, Ville
2016-04-01
We constrain deviations of the form T propto (1+z)1+epsilon from the standard redshift-temperature relation, corresponding to modifying distance duality as DL = (1+z)2(1+epsilon) DA. We consider a consistent model, in which both the background and perturbation equations are changed. For this purpose, we introduce a species of dark radiation particles to which photon energy density is transferred, and assume epsilon >= 0. The Planck 2015 release high multipole temperature plus low multipole data give the limit epsilon < 4.5 × 10-3 at 95% C.L. The main obstacle to improving this CMB-only result is strong degeneracy between epsilon and the physical matter densities ωb and ωc. A constraint on deuterium abundance improves the limit to epsilon < 1.8 × 10-3. Adding the Planck high-multipole CMB polarisation and BAO data leads to a small improvement; with this maximal dataset we obtain epsilon < 1.3 × 10-3. This dataset constrains the present dark radiation energy density to at most 12% of the total photon plus dark radiation density. Finally, we discuss the degeneracy between dark radiation and the effective number of relativistic species Neff, and consider the impact of dark radiation perturbations and allowing epsilon < 0 on the results.
Disentangling the f(R)-duality
Broy, Benedict J.; Westphal, Alexander; Pedro, Francisco G. E-mail: francisco.pedro@desy.de
2015-03-01
Motivated by UV realisations of Starobinsky-like inflation models, we study generic exponential plateau-like potentials to understand whether an exact f(R)-formulation may still be obtained when the asymptotic shift-symmetry of the potential is broken for larger field values. Potentials which break the shift symmetry with rising exponentials at large field values only allow for corresponding f(R)-descriptions with a leading order term R{sup n} with 1
Wronskians, dualities and FZZT-Cardy branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Irie, Hirotaka; Niedner, Benjamin; Yeh, Chi-Hsien
2016-09-01
The resolvent operator plays a central role in matrix models. For instance, with utilizing the loop equation, all of the perturbative amplitudes including correlators, the free-energy and those of instanton corrections can be obtained from the spectral curve of the resolvent operator. However, at the level of non-perturbative completion, the resolvent operator is generally not sufficient to recover all the information from the loop equations. Therefore it is necessary to find a sufficient set of operators which provide the missing non-perturbative information. In this paper, we study generalized Wronskians of the Baker-Akhiezer systems as a manifestation of these new degrees of freedom. In particular, we derive their isomonodromy systems and then extend several spectral dualities to these systems. In addition, we discuss how these Wronskian operators are naturally aligned on the Kac table. Since they are consistent with the Seiberg-Shih relation, we propose that these new degrees of freedom can be identified as FZZT-Cardy branes in Liouville theory. This means that FZZT-Cardy branes are the bound states of elemental FZZT branes (i.e. the twisted fermions) rather than the bound states of principal FZZT-brane (i.e. the resolvent operator).
4d Spectra from BPS Quiver Dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espahbodi, Sam
We attack the question of BPS occupancy in a wide class of 4d N = 2 quantum field theories. We first review the Seiberg-Witten approach to finding the low energy Wilsonian effective action actions of such theories. In particular, we analyze the case of Gaiotto theories, which provide a large number of non-trivial examples in a unified framework. We then turn to understanding the massive BPS spectrum of such theories, and in particular their relation to BPS quivers. We present a purely 4d characterization of BPS quivers, and explain how a quiver's representation theory encodes the solution to the BPS occupancy problem. Next, we derive a so called mutation method, based on exploiting quiver dualities, to solve the quiver's representation theory. This method makes previously intractable calculations nearly trivial in many examples. As a particular highlight, we apply our methods to understand strongly coupled chambers in ADE SYM gauge theories with matter. Following this, we turn to the general story of quivers for theories of the Gaiotto class. We present a geometric approach to attaining quivers for the rank 2 theories, leading to a very elegant solution which includes a specification of quiver superpotentials. Finally, we solve these theories by an unrelated method based on gauging flavor symmetries in their various dual weakly coupled Lagrangian descriptions. After seeing that this method agrees in the rank 2 case, we will apply our new approach to the case of rank n.
Disentangling the f(R)-duality
Broy, Benedict J.; Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander
2015-03-16
Motivated by UV realisations of Starobinsky-like inflation models, we study generic exponential plateau-like potentials to understand whether an exact f(R)-formulation may still be obtained when the asymptotic shift-symmetry of the potential is broken for larger field values. Potentials which break the shift symmetry with rising exponentials at large field values only allow for corresponding f(R)-descriptions with a leading order term R{sup n} with 1
Stringy horizons and generalized FZZ duality in perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giribet, Gaston
2017-02-01
We study scattering amplitudes in two-dimensional string theory on a black hole bakground. We start with a simple derivation of the Fateev-Zamolodchikov-Zamolodchikov (FZZ) duality, which associates correlation functions of the sine-Liouville integrable model on the Riemann sphere to tree-level string amplitudes on the Euclidean two-dimensional black hole. This derivation of FZZ duality is based on perturbation theory, and it relies on a trick originally due to Fateev, which involves duality relations between different Selberg type integrals. This enables us to rewrite the correlation functions of sine-Liouville theory in terms of a special set of correlators in the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) theory, and use this to perform further consistency checks of the recently conjectured Generalized FZZ (GFZZ) duality. In particular, we prove that n-point correlation functions in sine-Liouville theory involving n - 2 winding modes actually coincide with the correlation functions in the SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZW model that include n - 2 oscillator operators of the type described by Giveon, Itzhaki and Kutasov in reference [1]. This proves the GFZZ duality for the case of tree level maximally winding violating n-point amplitudes with arbitrary n. We also comment on the connection between GFZZ and other marginal deformations previously considered in the literature.
Topological T-duality, automorphisms and classifying spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pande, Ashwin S.
2014-08-01
We extend the formalism of Topological T-duality to spaces which are the total space of a principal S1-bundle p:E→W with an H-flux in H3(E,Z) together with an automorphism of the continuous-trace algebra on E determined by H. The automorphism is a ‘topological approximation’ to a gerby gauge transformation of spacetime. We motivate this physically from Buscher’s Rules for T-duality. Using the Equivariant Brauer Group, we connect this problem to the C∗-algebraic formalism of Topological T-duality of Mathai and Rosenberg (2005). We show that the study of this problem leads to the study of a purely topological problem, namely, Topological T-duality of triples (p,b,H) consisting of isomorphism classes of a principal circle bundle p:X→B and classes b∈H2(X,Z) and H∈H3(X,Z). We construct a classifying space R for triples in a manner similar to the work of Bunke and Schick (2005). We characterize R up to homotopy and study some of its properties. We show that it possesses a natural self-map which induces T-duality for triples. We study some properties of this map.
Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolin, Lee
2016-11-01
Dualities are often supposed to be foundational, but they may come into conflict with a strong form of background independence, which is the principle that the dynamical equations of a theory not depend on arbitrary, fixed, non-dynamical structures. This is because a hidden fixed structures is needed to define the duality transformation. Examples include a fixed, absolute notion of time, a fixed non-dynamical background geometry, or the metric of Hilbert space. We show that this conflict can be eliminated by extending a duality to a triality. This renders that fixed structure dynamical, while unifying it with the dual variables. To illustrate this, we study matrix models with a cubic action, which have a natural triality symmetry. We show how breaking this triality symmetry by imposing different compactifications, which are expansions around fixed classical solutions, yields particle mechanics, string theory and Chern-Simons theory. These result from compactifying, respectively, one, two and three dimensions. This may explain the origin of Born's duality between position and momenta operators in quantum theory, as well as some of the the dualities of string theory.
Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolin, Lee
2017-01-01
Dualities are often supposed to be foundational, but they may come into conflict with a strong form of background independence, which is the principle that the dynamical equations of a theory not depend on arbitrary, fixed, non-dynamical structures. This is because a hidden fixed structures is needed to define the duality transformation. Examples include a fixed, absolute notion of time, a fixed non-dynamical background geometry, or the metric of Hilbert space. We show that this conflict can be eliminated by extending a duality to a triality. This renders that fixed structure dynamical, while unifying it with the dual variables. To illustrate this, we study matrix models with a cubic action, which have a natural triality symmetry. We show how breaking this triality symmetry by imposing different compactifications, which are expansions around fixed classical solutions, yields particle mechanics, string theory and Chern-Simons theory. These result from compactifying, respectively, one, two and three dimensions. This may explain the origin of Born's duality between position and momenta operators in quantum theory, as well as some of the the dualities of string theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann
2008-01-01
People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann
2008-01-01
People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…
Reggeon exchange from gauge/gravity duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, Matteo; Peschanski, Robi
2011-10-01
We perform the analysis of quark-antiquark Reggeon exchange in meson-meson scattering, in the framework of the gauge/gravity correspondence in a confining background. On the gauge theory side, Reggeon exchange is described as quark-antiquark exchange in the t channel between fast projectiles. The corresponding amplitude is represented in terms of Wilson loops running along the trajectories of the constituent quarks and antiquarks. The paths of the exchanged fermions are integrated over, while the "spectator" fermions are dealt with in an eikonal approximation. On the gravity side, we follow a previously proposed approach, and we evaluate the Wilson-loop expectation value by making use of gauge/gravity duality for a generic confining gauge theory. The amplitude is obtained in a saddle-point approximation through the determination near the confining horizon of a Euclidean "minimal surface with floating boundaries", i.e., by fixing the trajectories of the exchanged quark and antiquark by means of a minimisation procedure, which involves both area and length terms. After discussing, as a warm-up exercise, a simpler problem on a plane involving a soap film with floating boundaries, we solve the variational problem relevant to Reggeon exchange, in which the basic geometry is that of a helicoid. A compact expression for the Reggeon-exchange amplitude, including the effects of a small fermion mass, is then obtained through analytic continuation from Euclidean to Minkowski space-time. We find in particular a linear Regge trajectory, corresponding to a Regge-pole singularity supplemented by a logarithmic cut induced by the non-zero quark mass. The analytic continuation leads also to companion contributions, corresponding to the convolution of the same Reggeon-exchange amplitude with multiple elastic rescattering interactions between the colliding mesons.
Duality of the murine CD8 compartment
Genolet, Raphaël; Leignadier, Julie; Østerås, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Stevenson, Brian J.; Luescher, Immanuel F.
2014-01-01
CD8αβ plays crucial roles in the thymic selection, differentiation, and activation of some, but not all, CD8+ T cells, whereas CD8αα does not. To investigate these roles, we produced mice that expressed transgene P14 T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) chain and CD8β or did not (WT and KO mice, respectively). The primary CD8+ T-cell response to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was predominantly Db/GP33 specific and CD8 independent in KO mice and was mostly CD8 dependent in WT mice. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from KO mice failed to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ and to kill via perforin/granzyme. Their strong Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-γ response were signaled via a Ca2+-independent, PI3K-dependent pathway. This was also true for 15–20% of CD8-independent CTL found in WT mice. Conversely, the perforin/granzyme-mediated killing and IFN-γ response of CD8-dependent CTL were signaled via a Ca2+, p56lck, and nuclear factor of activated T cells-dependent pathway. Deep sequencing of millions of TCRα chain transcripts revealed that the TCR repertoires of preimmune CD8+ T cells were highly diverse, but those of LCMV Db/GP33-specific CTL, especially from KO mice, were narrow. The immune repertoires exhibited biased use of Vα segments that encoded different complementary-determining region 1α (CDR1α) and CDR2α sequences. We suggest that TCR from WT CD8-independent T cells may engage MHC–peptide complexes in a manner unfavorable for efficient CD8 engagement and Ca2+ signaling but permissive for Ca2+-independent, PI3K-dependent signaling. This duality of the CD8 compartment may provide organisms with broader protective immunity. PMID:24594598
Spectral Duality Between Heisenberg Chain and Gaudin Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Runov, Boris; Zenkevich, Yegor; Zotov, Andrei
2013-03-01
In our recent paper we described relationships between integrable systems inspired by the AGT conjecture. On the gauge theory side an integrable spin chain naturally emerges while on the conformal field theory side one obtains some special reduced Gaudin model. Two types of integrable systems were shown to be related by the spectral duality. In this paper we extend the spectral duality to the case of higher spin chains. It is proved that the N-site GL k Heisenberg chain is dual to the special reduced k + 2-points gl N Gaudin model. Moreover, we construct an explicit Poisson map between the models at the classical level by performing the Dirac reduction procedure and applying the AHH duality transformation.
The Jarzynski identity and the AdS/CFT duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minic, Djordje; Pleimling, Michel
2011-06-01
We point out a remarkable analogy between the Jarzynski identity from non-equilibrium statistical physics and the AdS/CFT duality. We apply the logic that leads to the Jarzynski identity to renormalization group (RG) flows of quantum field theories and then argue for the natural connection with the AdS/CFT duality formula. This application can be in principle checked in Monte Carlo simulations of RG flows. Given the existing generalizations of the Jarzynski identity in non-equilibrium statistical physics, and the analogy between the Jarzynski identity and the AdS/CFT duality, we are led to suggest natural but novel generalizations of the AdS/CFT dictionary.
On S-Duality in Abelian Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witten, Edward
1995-09-01
U(1) gauge theory on R4 is known to possess an electric-magnetic duality symmetry that inverts the coupling constant and extends to an action of SL(2,Z). In this paper, the duality is studied on a general four-manifold and it is shown that the partition function is not a modular-invariant function but transforms as a modular form. This result plays an essential role in determining a new low-energy interaction that arises when N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is formulated on a four-manifold; the determination of this interaction gives a new test of the solution of the model and would enter in computations of the Donaldson invariants of four-manifolds with b+2≤1. Certain other aspects of abelian duality, relevant to matters such as the dependence of Donaldson invariants on the second Stieffel-Whitney class, are also analyzed.
Tests of quark-hadron duality in τ-decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominguez, C. A.; Hernandez, L. A.; Schilcher, K.; Spiesberger, H.
2016-09-01
An exhaustive number of QCD finite energy sum rules for τ-decay together with the latest updated ALEPH data is used to test the assumption of global duality. Typical checks are the absence of the dimension d = 2 condensate, the equality of the gluon condensate extracted from vector or axial vector spectral functions, the Weinberg sum rules, the chiral condensates of dimensions d = 6 and d = 8, as well as the extraction of some low-energy parameters of chiral perturbation theory. Suitable pinched linear integration kernels are introduced in the sum rules in order to suppress potential quark-hadron duality violations and experimental errors. We find no compelling indications of duality violations in hadronic τ-decay in the kinematic region above s ≃ 2.2 GeV2 for these kernels.
E11, Romans theory and higher level duality relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter
2017-02-01
From the underlying nonlinear realisation, we compute the complete E11 invariant equations of motion in eleven dimensions, at the linearised level, up to and including level four in the fields. Thus, we include the metric, the three and six forms, the dual graviton and three fields at level four. The fields are linked by a set of duality equations, which are first-order in derivatives and transform into each other under the E11 symmetries. From these duality relations, we deduce second-order equations of motion, including those for the usual supergravity fields. As a result the on-shell degrees of freedom are those of the eleven-dimensional supergravity. We also show that the level four fields provide an eleven-dimensional origin of Romans theory and lead to a novel duality relation.
Kramers-Wannier duality applied to the boolean satifiability problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, Joe; Hsu, Benjamin; Galitski, Victor
2014-03-01
Kramers-Wannier duality, first considered in 1941, is an exact technique used in statistical mechanics to relate two models together through an order-disorder transformation, and thereby study their structure and critical phenomena. The boolean satisfiability problem is one of the most important problems in computer science, specifically complexity theory; it is the first proven NP-complete problem. Using a mapping to a multi-spin Ising model in the limit of zero temperature, we present an application of Kramers-Wannier duality to this problem. This results in a novel relationship between solving the boolean satisfiability counting problem and a different computational problem: listing the non-negative solutions to a particular system of linear integer equations. This mapping relates the complexity of the two problems. We discuss the generality of Kramers-Wannier duality and its possible application to other computational problems. This research was supported by NSF-CAREER award No. DMR-0847224 and Simons Foundation.
Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graff, Gerald
2000-01-01
Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…
New localization mechanism and Hodge duality for q -form field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chun-E.; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Sheng-Li
2016-03-01
In this paper, we investigate the problem of localization and the Hodge duality for a q -form field on a p -brane with codimension one. By a general Kaluza-Klein (KK) decomposition without gauge fixing, we obtain two Schrödinger-like equations for two types of KK modes of the bulk q -form field, which determine the localization and mass spectra of these KK modes. It is found that there are two types of zero modes (the 0-level modes): a q -form zero mode and a (q -1 )-form one, which cannot be localized on the brane at the same time. For the n -level KK modes, there are two interacting KK modes, a massive q -form KK mode and a massless (q -1 )-form one. By analyzing gauge invariance of the effective action and choosing a gauge condition, the n -level massive q -form KK mode decouples from the n -level massless (q -1 )-form one. It is also found that the Hodge duality in the bulk naturally becomes two dualities on the brane. The first one is the Hodge duality between a q -form zero mode and a (p -q -1 )-form one, or between a (q -1 )-form zero mode and a (p -q )-form one. The second duality is between two group KK modes: one is an n -level massive q -form KK mode with mass mn and an n -level massless (q -1 )-form mode; another is an n -level (p -q )-form one with the same mass mn and an n -level massless (p -q -1 )-form mode. Because of the dualities, the effective field theories on the brane for the KK modes of the two dual bulk form fields are physically equivalent.
The Plane-Wave/Super Yang-Mills Duality
Sadri, D
2003-10-14
We present a self-contained review of the Plane-wave/super-Yang-Mills duality, which states that strings on a plane-wave background are dual to a particular large R-charge sector of N=4, D=4 superconformal U(N) gauge theory. This duality is a specification of the usual AdS/CFT correspondence in the ''Penrose limit''. The Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} S{sup 5} leads to the maximally supersymmetric ten dimensional plane-wave (henceforth the plane-wave) and corresponds to restricting to the large R-charge sector, the BMN sector, of the dual superconformal field theory. After assembling the necessary background knowledge, we state the duality and review some of its supporting evidence. We review the suggestion by 't Hooft that Yang-Mills theories with gauge groups of large rank might be dual to string theories and the realization of this conjecture in the form of the AdS/CFT duality. We discuss plane-waves as exact solutions of supergravity and their appearance as Penrose limits of other backgrounds, then present an overview of string theory on the plane-wave background, discussing the symmetries and spectrum. We then make precise the statement of the proposed duality, classify the BMN operators, and mention some extensions of the proposal. We move on to study the gauge theory side of the duality, studying both quantum and non-planar corrections to correlation functions of BMN operators, and their operator product expansion. The important issue of operator mixing and the resultant need for re-diagonalization is stressed. Finally, we study strings on the plane-wave via light-cone string field theory, and demonstrate agreement on the one-loop correction to the string mass spectrum and the corresponding quantity in the gauge theory. A new presentation of the relevant superalgebra is given.
A rational explanation of wave-particle duality of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashkovskiy, S. A.
2013-10-01
The wave-particle duality is a fundamental property of the nature. At the same time, it is one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. This gave rise to a whole direction in quantum physics - the interpretation of quantum mechanics. The Wiener experiments demonstrating the wave-particle duality of light are discussed. It is shown that almost all interpretations of quantum mechanics allow explaining the double-slit experiments, but are powerless to explain the Wiener experiments. The reason of the paradox, associated with the wave-particle duality is analyzed. The quantum theory consists of two independent parts: (i) the dynamic equations describing the behavior of a quantum object (for example, the Schrodinger or Maxwell equations), and (ii) the Born's rule, the relation between the wave function and the probability of finding the particle at a given point. It is shown that precisely the Born's rule results in paradox in explaining the wave-particle duality. In order to eliminate this paradox, we propose a new rational interpretation of the wave-particle duality and associated new rule, connecting the corpuscular and wave properties of quantum objects. It is shown that this new rational interpretation of the wave-particle duality allows using the classic images of particle and wave in explaining the quantum mechanical and optical phenomena, does not result in paradox in explaining the doubleslit experiments and Wiener experiments, and does not contradict to the modern quantum mechanical concepts. It is shown that the Born's rule follows immediately from proposed new rules as an approximation.
Color-kinematic duality in ABJM theory without amplitude relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivaramakrishnan, Allic
2017-01-01
We explicitly show that the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson color-kinematic duality holds at tree level through at least eight points in Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory with gauge group SU(N) × SU(N). At six points we give the explicit form of numerators in terms of amplitudes, displaying the generalized gauge freedom that leads to amplitude relations. However, at eight points no amplitude relations follow from the duality, so the diagram numerators are fixed unique functions of partial amplitudes. We provide the explicit amplitude-numerator decomposition and the numerator relations for eight-point amplitudes.
Hidden isometry of "T-duality without isometry"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouwknegt, Peter; Bugden, Mark; Klimčík, Ctirad; Wright, Kyle
2017-08-01
We study the T-dualisability criteria of Chatzistavrakidis, Deser and Jonke [3] who recently used Lie algebroid gauge theories to obtain sigma models exhibiting a "Tduality without isometry". We point out that those T-dualisability criteria are not written invariantly in [3] and depend on the choice of the algebroid framing. We then show that there always exists an isometric framing for which the Lie algebroid gauging boils down to standard Yang-Mills gauging. The "T-duality without isometry" of [3] is therefore nothing but traditional isometric non-Abelian T-duality in disguise.
New Correlation Duality Relations for the Planar Potts Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, C.; Wu, F. Y.
2002-05-01
We introduce a new method to generate duality relations for correlation functions of the Potts model on a planar graph. The method extends previously known results, by allowing the consideration of the correlation function for arbitrarily placed vertices on the graph. We show that generally it is linear combinations of correlation functions, not the individual correlations, that are related by dualities. The method is illustrated in several non-trivial cases, and the relation to earlier results is explained. A graph-theoretical formulation of our results in terms of rooted dichromatic, or Tutte, polynomials is also given.
Wave-particle duality in a Raman atom interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Ai-Ai; Yang, Jun; Yan, Shu-Hua; Hu, Qing-Qing; Luo, Yu-Kun; Zhu, Shi-Yao
2015-08-01
We theoretically investigate the wave-particle duality based on a Raman atom interferometer, via the interaction between the atom and Raman laser, which is similar to the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wave and which-way information are stored in the atomic internal states. For the φ - π - π/2 type of atom interferometer, we find that the visibility (V) and predictability (P) still satisfy the duality relation, P2 + V2 ≤ 1. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51275523) and the Special Research Found for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20134307110009).
Black hole thermodynamics, stringy dualities and double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Blair, Chris D. A.
2017-03-01
We discuss black hole thermodynamics in the manifestly duality invariant formalism of double field theory (DFT). We reformulate and prove the first law of black hole thermodynamics in DFT, using the covariant phase space approach. After splitting the full O(D, D) invariant DFT into a Kaluza–Klein-inspired form where only n coordinates are doubled, our results provide explicit duality invariant mass and entropy formulas. We illustrate how this works by discussing the black string solution and its T-duals.
Symmetry for Flavor-Kinematics Duality from an Action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien
2017-03-01
We propose a new representation of the nonlinear sigma model that exhibits a manifest duality between flavor and kinematics. The fields couple exclusively through cubic Feynman vertices which define the structure constants of an underlying kinematic algebra. The action is invariant under a combination of internal and spacetime symmetries whose conservation equations imply flavor-kinematics duality, ensuring that all Feynman diagrams satisfy kinematic Jacobi identities. Substituting flavor for kinematics, we derive a new cubic action for the special Galileon theory. In this picture, the vanishing soft behavior of amplitudes is a by-product of the Weinberg soft theorem.
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
2013-04-21
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Desai, P; Caroprese, B; McKellar, H
2014-06-01
Purpose: To illustrate 25% reduction in CyberKnife prostate SBRT treatment times using a water filled rectal balloon. Methods: We perform prostate SBRT using a 3800cGy in 4 fraction regimen prescribed between 51% 59% iso-dose lines to 95% of PTV using a CyberKnife System. The resultant heterogeneous dosimetry is analogous to HDR dosimetry. Our patients are treated in a feet first supine position to decrease treatment couch sag and also to position the prostate anatomy closer to the robot. CT imaging is performed with a Radiadyne Immobiloc rectal balloon filled with 45-50cc water placed firmly inside the patient's rectum. A treatment plan is developed from this CT study using Multiplan. The patient is treated every other day for 4 days using the rectal balloon for each fraction. Gold fiducials previously implanted inside the prostate are used for tracking by the CyberKnife system. Results: Critical structures comprise the usual GU anatomy of bladder, rectum, urethra, femoral-heads along with emphasis on doses to anterior rectal wall and rectal mucosa. The water filled rectal balloon localizes the rectum, which enables the physician to accurately contour both anterior rectal wall, and rectal mucosa. The balloon also has a gas release valve enabling better patient comfort. Rectum localization enables the CyberKnife system to make fewer corrections resulting in fewer treatment interruptions and time lost to re-adjustment for rectal motion, bowel filling and gas creation. Effective treatment times are reduced by 25% to approximately 45 minutes. Adoption of the balloon has required minimal change to our planning strategy and plan evaluation process. Conclusion: Patient follow-up comparisons show no difference in effectiveness of treatment with and without balloons We conclude that rectal balloons enhance patient comfort and decrease effective treatment times.
Sample, J.W.
1996-05-01
The Dutch people are the first known to have employed sand-filled containers in erosion control. The myriad of enormous dikes surrounding Holland provide continuous protection to a nation which is sited largely below sea level. The earliest fabric material used in containment of sand for the construction of dikes and levees was a burlap type material which had severe limitations. The problem has been primarily related to the inadequacies of the fabric materials containing the sand fill. A comparable analogy exists in the aerospace industry. Incredible achievements in high speed flight which have been accomplished in the last thirty years were previously impossible due to the inadequacies of the aircraft construction materials available in the first half of the twentieth century. It is of particular interest to note that many of the {open_quotes}Space Age{close_quote} materials originally conceived through these initial alliances were later incorporated by entrepreneurs and private industry into applications and products far beyond the initial scope of their creators. The combination of high strength materials such as woven multifilament dacron thread, extrusion coated with poly vinyl chloride (PVC Plastic) has resulted in the development of heretofore unknown materials known as {open_quotes}Geotextiles{close_quotes}. Geotextile materials are high strength fabrics which have been specifically created for use in, on, under and around the earth. They incorporate exceptional strength with unique abrasion, puncture and ultraviolet resistance characteristics previously not available. The application of these space age geotextiles in the field of coastal erosion control has resulted in the development of a multitude of patented sand and water-filled erosion control devices which provide significant levels of storm protection for coastal homes and properties. This paper reviews the evolutionary development of sand and water filled systems for erosion control.
Leadership of International Schools: Understanding and Managing Dualities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keller, Dan
2015-01-01
Leaders of international schools find themselves operating within a loosely defined, yet rapidly growing, specialty niche of education. The leadership context for these schools is often filled with ambiguity and complex tensions between opposing forces. This article proposes a two-stage framework for critically analyzing the dualities of…
Duality in entanglement of macroscopic states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kim, Jaewan
2016-08-01
We investigate duality in entanglement of a bipartite multiphoton system generated from a coherent state of light. The system can exhibit polarization entanglement if the two parts are distinguished by their parity, or parity entanglement if the parts are distinguished by polarization. It was shown in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 140404 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.140404 that this phenomenon can be exploited as a method to test indistinguishability of two particles and it was conjectured that one can also test indistinguishability of macroscopic systems. We propose a setup to test this conjecture. Contrary to the previous studies using two-particle interference effect as in the Hong-Ou- Mandel setup, our setup neither assumes that the tested state is composed of single particles nor requires that the total number of particles be fixed. Consequently, the notion of entanglement duality is shown to be compatible with a broader class of physical systems. Moreover, by observing duality in entanglement in the above system one can confirm that macroscopic systems exhibit quantum behavior. As a practical side, entanglement duality is a useful concept that enables adaptive conversion of entanglement of one degree of freedom (DOF) to that of another DOF according to varying quantum protocols.
Conditions for duality between fluxes and concentrations in biochemical networks.
Fleming, Ronan M T; Vlassis, Nikos; Thiele, Ines; Saunders, Michael A
2016-11-21
Mathematical and computational modelling of biochemical networks is often done in terms of either the concentrations of molecular species or the fluxes of biochemical reactions. When is mathematical modelling from either perspective equivalent to the other? Mathematical duality translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one manner. We present a novel stoichiometric condition that is necessary and sufficient for duality between unidirectional fluxes and concentrations. Our numerical experiments, with computational models derived from a range of genome-scale biochemical networks, suggest that this flux-concentration duality is a pervasive property of biochemical networks. We also provide a combinatorial characterisation that is sufficient to ensure flux-concentration duality.The condition prescribes that, for every two disjoint sets of molecular species, there is at least one reaction complex that involves species from only one of the two sets. When unidirectional fluxes and molecular species concentrations are dual vectors, this implies that the behaviour of the corresponding biochemical network can be described entirely in terms of either concentrations or unidirectional fluxes.
Quaternionic Torsion Geometry, Superconformal Symmetry and T-duality
Swann, Andrew
2009-02-02
HyperKaehler metrics with torsion (HKT metrics) are constructed via superconformal symmetry. It is shown how T-duality interpreted as a twist construction for circle actions provides a number of compact simply-connected examples. Further applications of the twist construction are discussed to obtain compact simply-connected HKT manifolds with few symmetries and to construct all HKT nilmanifolds.
Dualities in 3D large N vector models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muteeb, Nouman; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Quevedo, Fernando
2016-05-01
Using an explicit path integral approach we derive non-abelian bosonization and duality of 3D systems in the large N limit. We first consider a fermionic U( N) vector model coupled to level k Chern-Simons theory, following standard techniques we gauge the original global symmetry and impose the corresponding field strength F μν to vanish introducing a Lagrange multiplier Λ. Exchanging the order of integrations we obtain the bosonized theory with Λ as the propagating field using the large N rather than the previously used large mass limit. Next we follow the same procedure to dualize the scalar U ( N) vector model coupled to Chern-Simons and find its corresponding dual theory. Finally, we compare the partition functions of the two resulting theories and find that they agree in the large N limit including a level/rank duality. This provides a constructive evidence for previous proposals on level/rank duality of 3D vector models in the large N limit. We also present a partial analysis at subleading order in large N and find that the duality does not generically hold at this level.
Theoretical equivalence in classical mechanics and its relationship to duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teh, Nicholas J.; Tsementzis, Dimitris
2017-08-01
As a prolegomenon to understanding the sense in which dualities are theoretical equivalences, we investigate the intuitive 'equivalence' of hyper-regular Lagrangian and Hamiltonian classical mechanics. We show that the symplectification of these theories (via Tulczyjew's Triple) provides a sense in which they are (1) isomorphic, and (2) mutually and canonically definable through an analog of 'common definitional extension'.
Geometric Langlands Program and Dualities in Quantum Physics
2009-04-30
systems, such as the KdV hier- archy, to an affine analogue of the Langlands duality. We have conjectured that common eigenvalues of the mutually...the spectra of the quantum KdV Hamiltonians. (5) In the joint papers [2, 3] with B. Feigin and L. Rybnikov, we have studied the spectra of the
Non-linear duality invariant partially massless models?
Cherney, D.; Deser, S.; Waldron, A.; ...
2015-12-15
We present manifestly duality invariant, non-linear, equations of motion for maximal depth, partially massless higher spins. These are based on a first order, Maxwell-like formulation of the known partially massless systems. Lastly, our models mimic Dirac–Born–Infeld theory but it is unclear whether they are Lagrangian.
Efficient simulation of open quantum system in duality quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shi-Jie; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-11-01
Practical quantum systems are open systems due to interactions with their environment. Understanding the evolution of open systems dynamics is important for quantum noise processes , designing quantum error correcting codes, and performing simulations of open quantum systems. Here we proposed an efficient quantum algorithm for simulating the evolution of an open quantum system on a duality quantum computer. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality algorithm, the time evolution of open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally realized in duality quantum computing. Compared to the Lloyd's quantum algorithm [Science.273, 1073(1996)] , the dependence on the dimension of the open quantum system in our algorithm is decreased. Moreover, our algorithm uses a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, exponentially improving the performance on the precision compared with existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations.
New insights into quantum gravity from gauge/gravity duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelhardt, Netta; Horowitz, Gary T.
2016-06-01
Using gauge/gravity duality, we deduce several nontrivial consequences of quantum gravity from simple properties of the dual field theory. These include: (1) a version of cosmic censorship, (2) restrictions on evolution through black hole singularities, and (3) the exclusion of certain cosmological bounces. In the classical limit, the latter implies a new singularity theorem.
Leadership of International Schools: Understanding and Managing Dualities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keller, Dan
2015-01-01
Leaders of international schools find themselves operating within a loosely defined, yet rapidly growing, specialty niche of education. The leadership context for these schools is often filled with ambiguity and complex tensions between opposing forces. This article proposes a two-stage framework for critically analyzing the dualities of…
Localization and Dualities in Three-dimensional Superconformal Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willett, Brian
In this thesis we apply the technique of localization to three-dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories. We consider both theories which are exactly superconformal, and those which are believed to flow to nontrivial superconformal fixed points, for which we consider implicitly these fixed points. We find that in such theories, the partition function and certain supersymmetric observables, such as Wilson loops, can be computed exactly by a matrix model. This matrix model consists of an integral over g , the Lie algebra of the gauge group of the theory, of a certain product of 1-loop factors and classical contributions. One can also consider a space of supersymmetric deformations of the partition function corresponding to the set of abelian global symmetries. In the second part of the thesis we apply these results to test dualities. We start with the case of ABJM theory, which is dual to M-theory on an asymptotically AdS4 x S7 background. We extract strong coupling results in the field theory, which can be compared to semiclassical, weak coupling results in the gravity theory, and a nontrivial agreement is found. We also consider several classes of dualities between two three-dimensional field theories, namely, 3D mirror symmetry, Aharony duality, and Giveon-Kutasov duality. Here the dualities are typically between the IR limits of two Yang-Mills theories, which are strongly coupled in three dimensions since Yang-Mills theory is asymptotically free here. Thus the comparison is again very nontrivial, and relies on the exactness of the localization computation. We also compare the deformed partition functions, which tests the mapping of global symmetries of the dual theories. Finally, we discuss some recent progress in the understanding of general three-dimensional theories in the form of the F-theorem, a conjectured analogy to the a-theorem in four dimensions and c-theorem in two dimensions, which is closely related to the localization computation.
Effective and exact holographies from symmetries and dualities
Nussinov, Zohar; Ortiz, Gerardo; Cobanera, Emilio
2012-10-15
The theoretical basis of the phenomenon of effective and exact dimensional reduction, or holographic correspondence, is investigated in a wide variety of physical systems. We first derive general inequalities linking quantum systems of different spatial (or spatio-temporal) dimensionality, thus establishing bounds on arbitrary correlation functions. These bounds enforce an effective dimensional reduction and become most potent in the presence of certain symmetries. Exact dimensional reduction can stem from a duality that (i) follows from properties of the local density of states, and/or (ii) from properties of Hamiltonian-dependent algebras of interactions. Dualities of the first type (i) are illustrated with large-n vector theories whose local density of states may remain invariant under transformations that change the dimension. We argue that a broad class of examples of dimensional reduction may be understood in terms of the functional dependence of observables on the local density of states. Dualities of the second type (ii) are obtained via bond algebras, a recently developed algebraic tool. We apply this technique to systems displaying topological quantum order, and also discuss the implications of dimensional reduction for the storage of quantum information. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study the phenomenon of dimensional reduction from symmetries and dualities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Derive general (dimensional reduction) correlation inequalities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show that a duality exists whenever the inequalities become equalities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apply inequalities and bond algebraic techniques to establish topological order in various systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show implications of dimensional reduction for the storage of quantum information.
Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse
2014-07-01
Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Political News and Political Consciousness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schertges, Claudia
2007-01-01
This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paterson, Matthew
2006-11-01
The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography
Berger, T; Hajek, M; Schoner, W; Fugger, M; Vana, N; Noll, M; Ebner, R; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V
2001-01-01
The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities developed the HTR-method for determination of absorbed dose and "averaged" linear energy transfer (LET) in mixed radiation fields. The method was applied with great success during several space missions (e.g. STS-60, STS-63, BION-10 and BION-11) and on space station MIR in the past 10 years. It utilises the changes of peak height ratios in LiF thermoluminescent glowcurves in dependence on the LET. Due to the small size of these dosemeters the HTR-method can be used also for measurements inside tissue equivalent phantoms. A water filled phantom with a diameter of 35 cm containing four channels where dosemeters can be exposed in different depths was developed by the Institute for Biomedical Problems. This opens the possibility to measure the depth distribution of the average LET and the dose equivalent simultaneously. During phase 1 dosemeters were exposed for 271 days (05.1997-02.1998) in 6 different depths inside the phantom, which was positioned in the commander cabin. In phase 2 dosemeters were exposed in 2 channels in 6 different depths for 102 days (05.1998-08.1998) in the board engineer cabin, following an exposure in different channels in 3 different depths for 199 days (08.1998- 02.1999) in the Modul KWANT 2.
Berger, T; Hajek, M; Schöner, W; Fugger, M; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V; Kartashov, D
2002-01-01
A water-filled tissue equivalent phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems. Moscow. Russia. It contains four channels perpendicular to each other, where dosemeters can be exposed at different depths. Between May 1997 and February 1999 the phantom was installed at three different locations on board the Mir space station. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed at various depths inside the phantom either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method was used for the evaluation of the TLDs. The method was developed at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities. Vienna, Austria, and has already been used for measurements in mixed radiation fields on earth and in space with great success. It uses the changes of peak height ratios in LiF:Mg,Ti glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer (LET), and therefore allows determination of an 'averaged' LET as well as measurement of the absorbed dose. A mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent can be calculated according to the Q(LETinfinity) relationship proposed by the ICRP. The small size of the LiF dosemeters means that the HTR method can be used to determine the gradient of absorbed dose and dose equivalent inside the tissue equivalent body.
Asquith, G.B. )
1990-06-01
Reservoirs with microporosity present significant exploration opportunities as well as new exploitation potential. In sandstones with clay or shale, clay microporosity may distort a number of log-calculated parameters that form the basis for estimating producible reserves. Since reservoirs with microporosity often appear water-productive, the author concludes that producible hydrocarbons in such zones often may be overlooked. Standard formation evaluation approaches that correct for the presence of shale or clay are hampered by the lack of accurate methods for determining volume of clay (Vcl), total shale porosity ({phi}tsh), bound water resistivity (Rb), and resistivity of dispersed clay (Rcl) or by the lack of laboratory-determined values for cation exchange capacity (CEC). In addition some shaly sand corrections (Fertl and Dispersed Clay) can be unreliable in shaly sands with large formation water resistivities (Rw). This paper proposes a microporosity approach which does not require values for Vcl, {phi}tsh, Rcl, Rb, or CEC, and is based on the observation that CEC is related to specific surface area of clays, and specific surface area is related to the amount of clay-bound water-filled microporosity. Without the limitations imposed on other approaches the microporosity method has broad application.
Series-parallel dualities in actively coordinated mechanisms
Waldron, K.J. ); Hunt, K.H. )
1991-10-01
A deep symmetry between serial chain manipulators and fully parallel systems such as the Stewart platform is demonstrated. This symmetry is shown to be a result of the well-known duality of motion screw axes and wrenches. The appearance of the inverse of the Jacobian matrix in force decomposition in the same role as the Jacobian in rate decomposition is also a consequence of this same duality and of the reciprocity relationship between the motion screw system and the wrench system of a kinematic joint. A geometric meaning of the columns of the Jacobian is demonstrated. A simple example of the application of the ideas presented here to the understanding of the complex combinations of serial and parallel chains found in vehicle and multifingered hand problems is also presented.
Critical interfaces and duality in the Ashkin-Teller model
Picco, Marco; Santachiara, Raoul
2011-06-15
We report on the numerical measures on different spin interfaces and Fortuin-Kasteleyn (FK) cluster boundaries in the Askhin-Teller (AT) model. For a general point on the AT critical line, we find that the fractal dimension of a generic spin cluster interface can take one of four different possible values. In particular we found spin interfaces whose fractal dimension is d{sub f}=3/2 all along the critical line. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the boundaries of FK clusters was found to satisfy all along the AT critical line a duality relation with the fractal dimension of their outer boundaries. This result provides clear numerical evidence that such duality, which is well known in the case of the O(n) model, exists in an extended conformal field theory.
Duality and universal transport in mixed-dimension electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsiao, Wei-Han; Son, Dam Thanh
2017-08-01
We consider a theory of a two-component Dirac fermion localized on a (2+1)-dimensional brane coupled to a (3+1)-dimensional bulk. Using the fermionic particle-vortex duality, we show that the theory has a strong-weak duality that maps the coupling e to e ˜=(8 π ) /e . We explore the theory at e2=8 π where it is self-dual. The electrical conductivity of the theory is a constant independent of frequency. When the system is at finite density and magnetic field at filling factor ν =1/2 , the longitudinal and Hall conductivity satisfies a semicircle law, and the ratio of the longitudinal and Hall thermal electric coefficients is completely determined by the Hall angle. The thermal Hall conductivity is directly related to the thermal electric coefficients.
Wave-particle duality in N-path interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qureshi, Tabish; Siddiqui, Mohd Asad
2017-10-01
Bohr's principle of complementarity, in the context of a two-slit interference experiment, is understood as the quantitative measures of wave and particle natures following a duality relation D2 +V2 ≤ 1. Here D is a measure of distinguishability of the two paths, and V is the visibility of interference. It is shown that such a relation can be formulated for N-slit or N-path interference too, with the proviso that the wave nature is characterized by a measure of coherence (C). This new relation, D2 +C2 ≤ 1 is shown to be tight, and reduces to the known duality relation for the case N = 2. A recently introduced similar relation (Bagan et al., 2016) is shown to be inadequate for the purpose.
Quark-Hadron Duality in Neutron (He3) Spin Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solvignon, P.; Liyanage, N.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, Seonho; Aniol, K.; Averett, T.; Boeglin, W.; Camsonne, A.; Cates, G. D.; Chang, C. C.; Chudakov, E.; Craver, B.; Cusanno, F.; Deur, A.; Dutta, D.; Ent, R.; Feuerbach, R.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Glashausser, C.; Gorbenko, V.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Ibrahim, H.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M.; Kelleher, A.; Kelly, J.; Keppel, C.; Kim, W.; Korsch, W.; Kramer, K.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lerose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Ma, B.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; McCormick, K.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Monaghan, P.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Paschke, K.; Reitz, B.; Saha, A.; Sheyor, R.; Singh, J.; Slifer, K.; Sulkosky, V.; Tobias, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, K.; Wijesooriya, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Woo, S.; Yang, J.-C.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.
2008-10-01
We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g1 of the neutron and He3 using a polarized He3 target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0(GeV/c)2. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g1 down to at least Q2=1.8(GeV/c)2 in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A1 in the resonance region for He3 and found no strong Q2 dependence above 2.2(GeV/c)2.
Heterotic modular invariants and level-rank duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gannon, T.; Walton, M. A.
1998-12-01
New heterotic modular invariants are found using the level-rank duality of affine Kac-Moody algebras. They provide strong evidence for the consistency of an infinite list of heterotic Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) conformal field theories. We call the basic construction the dual-flip, since it flips chirality (exchanges left and right movers) and takes the level-rank dual. We compare the dual-flip to the method of conformal subalgebras, another way of constructing heterotic invariants. To do so, new level-one heterotic invariants are first bound; the complete list of a specified subclass of these is obtained. We also prove (under a mild hypothesis) an old conjecture concerning exceptional Ar, k invariants and level-rank duality.
S-duality as a β-deformed Fourier transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galakhov, D.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.
2012-08-01
An attempt is made to formulate Gaiotto's S-duality relations in an explicit quantitative form. Formally the problem is that of evaluation of the Racah coefficients for the Virasoro algebra, and we approach it with the help of the matrix model representation of the AGT-related conformal blocks and Nekrasov functions. In the Seiberg-Witten limit, this S-duality reduces to the Legendre transformation. In the simplest case, its lifting to the level of Nekrasov functions is just the Fourier transform, while corrections are related to the beta-deformation. We calculate them with the help of the matrix model approach and observe that they vanish for β = 1. Explicit evaluation of the same corrections from the U q ( sl(2)) infinite-dimensional representation formulas due to B.Ponsot and J.Teshner remains an open problem.
Background Independence and Duality Invariance in String Theory.
Hohm, Olaf
2017-03-31
Closed string theory exhibits an O(D,D) duality symmetry on tori, which in double field theory is manifest before compactification. I prove that to first order in α^{'} there is no manifestly background independent and duality invariant formulation of bosonic string theory in terms of a metric, b field, and dilaton. To this end I use O(D,D) invariant second order perturbation theory around flat space to show that the unique background independent candidate expression for the gauge algebra at order α^{'} is inconsistent with the Jacobi identity. A background independent formulation exists instead for frame variables subject to α^{'}-deformed frame transformations (generalized Green-Schwarz transformations). Potential applications for curved backgrounds, as in cosmology, are discussed.
Higher derivative corrections, dimensional reduction and Ehlers duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, Yann; Pioline, Boris
2007-09-01
Motivated by applications to black hole physics and duality, we study the effect of higher derivative corrections on the dimensional reduction of four-dimensional Einstein, Einstein-Liouville and Einstein-Maxwell gravity to one direction, as appropriate for stationary, spherically symmetric solutions. We construct a field redefinition scheme such that the one-dimensional Lagrangian is corrected only by powers of first derivatives of the fields, eliminating spurious modes and providing a suitable starting point for quantization. We show that the Ehlers symmetry, broken by the leading R2 corrections in Einstein-Liouville gravity, can be restored by including contributions of Taub-NUT instantons. Finally, we give a preliminary discussion of the duality between higher-derivative F-term corrections on the vector and hypermultiplet branches in N = 2 supergravity in four dimensions.
Quark-Hadron Duality in Neutron (3He) Spin Structure
Solvignon, Patricia; Liyanage, Nilanga; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Aniol, Konrad; Averett, Todd; Boeglin, Werner; Camsonne, Alexandre; Cates, Gordon; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chudakov, Eugene; Craver, Brandon; Cusanno, Francesco; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Dipangkar; Ent, Rolf; Feuerbach, Robert; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Glashausser, Charles; Gorbenko, Viktor; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Ibrahim, Hassan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kelly, J.; Keppel, Cynthia; Kim, Wooyoung; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kramer, Kevin; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Ma, Bin; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; McCormick, Kathy; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Monaghan, Peter; Munoz-Camacho, Carlos; Paschke, Kent; Reitz, Bodo; Saha, Arunava; Sheyor, Ran; Singh, Jaideep; Slifer, Karl; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Wang, Kebin; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Woo, Seungtae; Yang, Jae-Choon; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan
2008-10-01
We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g_1 of the neutron and $^3$He using a polarized 3He target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0 (GeV/c)^2. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g_1 down to at least Q^2 = 1.8 (GeV/c)^2 in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A_1 in the resonance region for 3He and found no strong Q^2-dependence above 2.2 (GeV/c)^2.
On dualities for SSEP and ASEP with open boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohkubo, J.
2017-03-01
Duality relations for simple exclusion processes with general open boundaries are discussed. It is shown that a combination of spin operators and bosonic operators enables us to have a unified discussion about duality relations with open boundaries. As for the symmetric simple exclusion process (SSEP), more general results than those from previous studies are obtained. It is clarified that not only the absorbing sites, but also additional sites—called copying sites— are needed for the boundaries in the dual process for the SSEP. The role of the copying sites is to conserve information about the particle states on the boundary sites. Similar discussions are applied to the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP), in which the q-analogues are employed, and it is clarified that the ASEP with open boundaries has a complicated dual process on the boundaries.
Background Independence and Duality Invariance in String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohm, Olaf
2017-03-01
Closed string theory exhibits an O (D ,D ) duality symmetry on tori, which in double field theory is manifest before compactification. I prove that to first order in α' there is no manifestly background independent and duality invariant formulation of bosonic string theory in terms of a metric, b field, and dilaton. To this end I use O (D ,D ) invariant second order perturbation theory around flat space to show that the unique background independent candidate expression for the gauge algebra at order α' is inconsistent with the Jacobi identity. A background independent formulation exists instead for frame variables subject to α'-deformed frame transformations (generalized Green-Schwarz transformations). Potential applications for curved backgrounds, as in cosmology, are discussed.
Generalized entropies and logarithms and their duality relations
Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan; Gell-Mann, Murray
2012-01-01
For statistical systems that violate one of the four Shannon–Khinchin axioms, entropy takes a more general form than the Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy. The framework of superstatistics allows one to formulate a maximum entropy principle with these generalized entropies, making them useful for understanding distribution functions of non-Markovian or nonergodic complex systems. For such systems where the composability axiom is violated there exist only two ways to implement the maximum entropy principle, one using escort probabilities, the other not. The two ways are connected through a duality. Here we show that this duality fixes a unique escort probability, which allows us to derive a complete theory of the generalized logarithms that naturally arise from the violation of this axiom. We then show how the functional forms of these generalized logarithms are related to the asymptotic scaling behavior of the entropy. PMID:23129618
Observables in the Guarino-Jafferis-Varela/CS-SYM duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araujo, Thiago R.; Nastase, Horatiu
2017-07-01
We study various semiclassical observables in the duality proposed by Guarino, Jafferis and Varela, between a warped AdS 4× squashed S 6 gravitational solution and a 3 dimensional N=2 SYM-{CS}_k conformal gauge theory, deformed from the maximal SU( N) N=8SYM . Baryonverticescorrespondingtoparticle-likebraneshaveunusualbehaviour with N and k and present strong evidence for a certain level-rank duality. Wilson loops and the anomalous dimensions of operators of high spin scale like ( N/k)3/2. The entanglement entropy behaves like in a usual CFT. Giant magnon operators obey the same law as in 4 dimensional N=4 SYM , and giant gravitons are also sub-determinant operators.
Quark-hadron duality in neutron (3He) spin structure.
Solvignon, P; Liyanage, N; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Aniol, K; Averett, T; Boeglin, W; Camsonne, A; Cates, G D; Chang, C C; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Feuerbach, R; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Glashausser, C; Gorbenko, V; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Ibrahim, H; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Kelleher, A; Kelly, J; Keppel, C; Kim, W; Korsch, W; Kramer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Lerose, J J; Lindgren, R; Ma, B; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Munoz Camacho, C; Paschke, K; Reitz, B; Saha, A; Sheyor, R; Singh, J; Slifer, K; Sulkosky, V; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wijesooriya, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Woo, S; Yang, J-C; Zheng, X; Zhu, L
2008-10-31
We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g_{1} of the neutron and 3He using a polarized 3He target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0 (GeV/c);{2}. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g_{1} down to at least Q;{2}=1.8 (GeV/c);{2} in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A1 in the resonance region for 3He and found no strong Q2 dependence above 2.2 (GeV/c);{2}.
Solution of coupled and singular perturbation methods using duality theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.
1973-01-01
Dual variational techniques developed by Chan and Leininger (1972) are summarized, and duality theory in the form of the Complementary Variational Principle is employed to provide a suboptimal measure for the singular and epsilon-coupled perturbation methods proposed by Kokotovic and Cruz. The suboptimal measure is independent of any a priori knowledge of the optimal solution, thereby providing an absolute estimate of the performance loss rather than an estimate relative to the unknown optimal solution.
Complementary variational principle and duality in mathematical programming.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.; Farison, J. B.
1973-01-01
The relationship between the complementary variational principle and duality in mathematical programming is demonstrated through a geometric approach in a Hilbert space setting. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such a principle is given in the case of a convex functional constrained by linear dynamics. Its relationship to the Kuhn-Tucker saddle point theory is indicated. Applications to various programming and control problems are discussed.
Open-closed string duality at tree level.
Sen, Ashoke
2003-10-31
We study the decay of unstable D-branes in string theory in the presence of an electric field, and show that the classical open string theory results for various properties of the final state agree with the properties of closed string states into which the system is expected to decay. This suggests a duality between tree level open string theory on unstable D-branes and closed strings at high density.
Generalized geometry, T-duality, and renormalization group flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streets, Jeffrey
2017-04-01
We interpret the physical B-field renormalization group flow in the language of Courant algebroids, clarifying the sense in which this flow is the natural ;Ricci flow; for generalized geometry. Next we show that the B-field renormalization group flow preserves T-duality in a natural sense. As corollaries we obtain new long time existence results for the B-field renormalization group flow.
Onset of quark-hadron duality in pion electroproduction.
Navasardyan, T; Adams, G S; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Bertoncini, C; Blok, H P; Boeglin, W U; Bosted, P E; Breuer, H; Christy, M E; Connell, S H; Cui, Y; Dalton, M M; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Dodario, T; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; El Khayari, N; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gan, L; Gaskell, D; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Hungerford, E; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Joo, K; Kalantarians, N; Kelly, J J; Keppel, C E; Kubarovski, V; Li, Y; Liang, Y; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McGrath, E; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Moziak, B; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Opper, A K; Ostapenko, T; Reimer, P; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stoler, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X; Zhu, H
2007-01-12
A large data set of charged-pion (pi+/-) electroproduction from both hydrogen and deuterium targets has been obtained spanning the low-energy residual-mass region. These data conclusively show the onset of the quark-hadron duality phenomenon, as predicted for high-energy hadron electroproduction. We construct several ratios from these data to exhibit the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark-->pion production mechanisms.
How overdetermined are the generalized self-duality relations?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchrakian, D. H.; Chakrabarti, A.
1991-09-01
It is shown that the self-duality equations of the generalized Yang-Mills (GYM) models are overdetermined except when they are subjected to the spherical or axial symmetry. It is also found that the Bogomol'nyi equations on Rd, of the GYM-Higgs (GYM-H) models descended from the GYM system on Rd×S8-d, are overdetermined for d=3,4,5, and 6 only.
Gluon condensate, Wilson loops and gauge/string duality
Andreev, Oleg; Zakharov, Valentin I.
2007-08-15
We test gauge/string duality by evaluating expectation values of small Wilson loops in pure Yang-Mills theories. On the gauge theory side, there exists a rich phenomenology. The dual formulation provides a universal language to evaluate the gluon condensate and quadratic correction in terms of the metric in the fifth coordinate. Quantitatively, the estimated value of the gluon condensate is approximately 0.010 GeV{sup 4}.
Rowlands' Duality Principle: A Generalization of Noether's Theorem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karam, Sabah E.
This paper will examine a physical principle that has been used in making valid predictions and generalizes established conservation laws. In a previous paper it was shown how Rowlands' zero-totality condition could be viewed as a generalization of Newton's third law of motion. In this paper it will be argued that Rowlands' Duality Principle is a generalization of Noether's Theorem and that the two principles taken together are truly foundational principles that have tamed Metaphysics.
Duality and phase diagram of one-dimensional transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.
2007-02-01
The idea of duality in one-dimensional nonequilibrium transport is introduced by generalizing the observations by Mukherji and Mishra. A general approach is developed for the classification and characterization of the steady state phase diagrams which are shown to be determined by the nature of the zeros of a set of coarse-grained functions that encode the microscopic dynamics. A new class of nonequilibrium multicritical points has been identified.
Dualities, CPT symmetry and dimensional reduction in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolami, O.
1997-08-01
In this lecture we address the following issues in the context of string theories: i) The role played by S and T dualities in obtaining topological inflation in N=1 supergravity models, ii) A mechanism for generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe based on the string interactions that violate CPT symmetry and iii) The quantum cosmology of the dimensionally reduced multidimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills system.
The Onset of Quark-Hadron Duality in Pion Electroproduction
Tigran Navasardyan; Gary Adams; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Tatiana Angelescu; John Arrington; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Nawal Benmouna; Crystal Bertoncini; Henk Blok; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Herbert Breuer; Michael Christy; Simon Connell; Yonggang Cui; Mark Dalton; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; T. Dodario; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Najib Elkhayari; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Valera Frolov; Liping Gan; David Gaskell; Kawtar Hafidi; Wendy Hinton; Roy Holt; Tanja Horn; Garth Huber; Ed Hungerford; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Kyungseon Joo; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; V. Kubarovski; Ya Li; Yongguang Liang; Simona Malace; Pete Markowitz; Erin McGrath; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Brian Moziak; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Allena Opper; Tanya Ostapenko; Paul Reimer; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Stephen Rock; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C. Smith; G.R. Smith; Paul Stoler; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Maurizio Ungaro; Alicia Uzzle; Sandra Vidakovic; Anthony Villano; William Vulcan; Miao Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Stephen Wood; Chuncheng Xu; Lulin Yuan; Xiaochao Zheng; Hong Guo Zhu
2006-08-29
A large data set of charged-pion electroproduction from both hydrogen and deuterium targets has been obtained spanning the low-energy residual-mass region. These data conclusively show the onset of the quark-hadron duality phenomenon, as predicted for high-energy hadron electroproduction. We construct several ratios from these data to exhibit the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark-to- pion production mechanisms.
One-dimensional contact process: duality and renormalization.
Hooyberghs, J; Vanderzande, C
2001-04-01
We study the one-dimensional contact process in its quantum version using a recently proposed real-space renormalization technique for stochastic many-particle systems. Exploiting the duality and other properties of the model, we can apply the method for cells with up to 37 sites. After suitable extrapolation, we obtain exponent estimates that are comparable in accuracy with the best known in the literature.
BPS states in the duality web of the Omega deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellerman, Simeon; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne
2013-06-01
In this note, we study different limits of an Ω-deformed (2, 0) six-dimensional gauge theory realized in an M-theory fluxtrap background. Via a chain of dualities, we connect the Ω-deformed sym to a new four-dimensional gauge theory which we refer to as the reciprocal gauge theory. This theory has several properties in common with Liouville field theory, such as its gauge coupling b 2 = ɛ 2/ ɛ 1, and its behavior under S-duality. Finally, we realize the bps states on the sym side of the agt correspondence and follow them along the chain of dualities. In the fluxtrap frame, we are dealing with two distinct types of states localized in different radial positions, while in the reciprocal frame, we find single states carrying both charges localized in one place which appear to be perturbatively stable. Our microscopic picture of the small- b limit exhibits semiclassically bps bound states, which are not visible at the level of the partition function.
Fair sampling perspective on an apparent violation of duality
Bolduc, Eliot; Leach, Jonathan; Miatto, Filippo M.; Leuchs, Gerd; Boyd, Robert W.
2014-01-01
In the event in which a quantum mechanical particle can pass from an initial state to a final state along two possible paths, the duality principle states that “the simultaneous observation of wave and particle behavior is prohibited” [Scully MO, Englert B-G, Walther H (1991) Nature 351:111–116]. Whereas wave behavior is associated with the observation of interference fringes, particle behavior generally corresponds to the acquisition of which-path information by means of coupling the paths to a measuring device or part of their environment. In this paper, we show how the consequences of duality change when allowing for biased sampling, that is, postselected measurements on specific degrees of freedom of the environment of the two-path state. Our work gives insight into a possible mechanism for obtaining simultaneous high which-path information and high-visibility fringes in a single experiment. Further, our results introduce previously unidentified avenues for experimental tests of duality. PMID:25114237
U-duality transformation of membrane on Tn revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Shan; Li, Tianjun
2016-08-01
The problem with the U-duality transformation of membrane on T n is recently addressed in [arXiv:1509.02915]. We will consider the U-duality transformation rule of membrane on T n × R. It turns out that winding modes on T n should be taken into account, since the duality transformation may bring the membrane configuration without winding modes into the one with winding modes. With the winding modes added, the membrane worldvolume theory in lightcone gauge is equivalent to the n + 1 dimensional super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory in {tilde{T}}^n , which has SL(2 , Z) × SL(3 , Z) and SL(5 , Z) symmetries for n = 3 and n = 4, respectively. The SL(2 , Z) × SL(3 , Z) transformation can be realized classically, making the on-shell field configurations transformed into each other. However, the SL(5 , Z) symmetry may only be realized at the quantum level, since the classical 5 d SYM field configurations cannot form the representation of SL(5 , Z).
Dualities in the analysis of phage DNA packaging motors.
Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen
2012-10-01
The DNA packaging motors of double-stranded DNA phages are models for analysis of all multi-molecular motors and for analysis of several fundamental aspects of biology, including early evolution, relationship of in vivo to in vitro biochemistry and targets for anti-virals. Work on phage DNA packaging motors both has produced and is producing dualities in the interpretation of data obtained by use of both traditional techniques and the more recently developed procedures of single-molecule analysis. The dualities include (1) reductive vs. accretive evolution, (2) rotation vs. stasis of sub-assemblies of the motor, (3) thermal ratcheting vs. power stroking in generating force, (4) complete motor vs. spark plug role for the packaging ATPase, (5) use of previously isolated vs. new intermediates for analysis of the intermediate states of the motor and (6) a motor with one cycle vs. a motor with two cycles. We provide background for these dualities, some of which are under-emphasized in the literature. We suggest directions for future research.
Dualities in the analysis of phage DNA packaging motors
Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen
2012-01-01
The DNA packaging motors of double-stranded DNA phages are models for analysis of all multi-molecular motors and for analysis of several fundamental aspects of biology, including early evolution, relationship of in vivo to in vitro biochemistry and targets for anti-virals. Work on phage DNA packaging motors both has produced and is producing dualities in the interpretation of data obtained by use of both traditional techniques and the more recently developed procedures of single-molecule analysis. The dualities include (1) reductive vs. accretive evolution, (2) rotation vs. stasis of sub-assemblies of the motor, (3) thermal ratcheting vs. power stroking in generating force, (4) complete motor vs. spark plug role for the packaging ATPase, (5) use of previously isolated vs. new intermediates for analysis of the intermediate states of the motor and (6) a motor with one cycle vs. a motor with two cycles. We provide background for these dualities, some of which are under-emphasized in the literature. We suggest directions for future research. PMID:23532204
Fermionic T-duality in fermionic double space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, B.; Sazdović, B.
2017-04-01
In this article we offer the interpretation of the fermionic T-duality of the type II superstring theory in double space. We generalize the idea of double space doubling the fermionic sector of the superspace. In such doubled space fermionic T-duality is represented as permutation of the fermionic coordinates θα and θbarα with the corresponding fermionic T-dual ones, ϑα and ϑbarα, respectively. Demanding that T-dual transformation law has the same form as initial one, we obtain the known form of the fermionic T-dual NS-R and R-R background fields. Fermionic T-dual NS-NS background fields are obtained under some assumptions. We conclude that only symmetric part of R-R field strength and symmetric part of its fermionic T-dual contribute to the fermionic T-duality transformation of dilaton field and analyze the dilaton field in fermionic double space. As a model we use the ghost free action of type II superstring in pure spinor formulation in approximation of constant background fields up to the quadratic terms.
Political Warfare and Contentious Politics
2015-06-01
resource-mobilization theory in meso-level analysis.218 The final component is the psychological process of cognitive liberation, a concept developed by...236 Neal Caren, “Political Process Theory ” In The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, ed. George Ritzer (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2007), 3456...important enabler. In applying models of social movement theory to historical analysis, this thesis identifies and develops the contentious politics
Spectral dualities in XXZ spin chains and five dimensional gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Runov, B.; Zenkevich, Y.; Zotov, A.
2013-12-01
Motivated by recent progress in the study of supersymmetric gauge theories we propose a very compact formulation of spectral duality between XXZ spin chains. The action of the quantum duality is given by the Fourier transform in the spectral parameter. We investigate the duality in various limits and, in particular, prove it for q → 1, i.e. when it reduces to the XXX/Gaudin duality. We also show that the universal difference operators are given by the normal ordering of the classical spectral curves.
On powercounting in perturbative quantum gravity theories through color-kinematic duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boels, Rutger H.; Isermann, Reinke Sven
2013-06-01
The standard argument why gravity is not renormalisable relies on direct powercounting of Feynman graphs to estimate the degree of UV divergence. In several (highly) supersymmetric examples the actual divergences have been shown to be considerably better. In these examples the improvement follows from a conjectured duality between color and kinematics. In this paper we initiate the systematic study of quite general powercounting under the assumption that color-kinematic duality exists. The main technical tool is a reformulation of the duality in terms of linear maps, modulo subtleties at loop level mostly inherent to the duality. This tool may have wider applications in both gauge and gravity theories, up to resolution of the subtleties. Here it is first applied to the large Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) shift behavior of gravity integrands constructed through the duality. Assuming color-kinematic duality and reasonable technical requirements hold these shifts are shown to be independent of loop order. This is a new quantitative measure for massive cancellations with respect to the Feynman graph expression. More speculatively, the same approach is then applied to provide estimates of the overall degree of UV divergence in quite general gravity theories, assuming the duality exists. The manifest cancellations obtained in these estimates depends on the exact implementation of the duality at loop level, especially on graph topology. The developed arguments apply to all multiplicity. Finally, some evidence for the duality to all loop orders is provided from an analysis of BCFW shifts of gauge theory integrands through Feynman graphs.
Dualities and Curved Space Partition Functions of Supersymmetric Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Prarit
In this dissertation we discuss some conjectured dualities in supersymmetric field theories and provide non-trivial checks for these conjectures. A quick review of supersymmetry and related topics is provided in chapter 1. In chapter 2, we develop a method to identify the so called BPS states in the Hilbert space of a supersymmetric field theory (that preserves at least two real supercharges) on a generic curved space. As an application we obtain the superconformal index (SCI) of 4d theories. The large N SCI of quiver gauge theories has been previously noticed to factorize over the set of extremal BPS mesonic operators. In chapter 3, we reformulate this factorization in terms of the zigzag paths in the dimer model associated to the quiver and extend the factorization theorem of the index to include theories obtained from D-branes probing orbifold singularities. In chapter 4, we consider the dualities in two classes of 3 dimensional theories. The first class consist of dualities of certain necklace type Chern-Simons (CS) quiver gauge theories. A non trivial check of these dualities is provided by matching their squashed sphere partition functions. The second class consists of theories whose duals are described by a collection of free fields. In such cases, due to mixing between the superconformal R-symmetry and accidental symmetries, the matching of electric and magnetic partition functions is not straightforward. We provide a prescription to rectify this mismatch. In chapter 5, we consider some the N = 1 4d theories with orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups, arising from N = 1 preserving reduction of 6d theories on a Riemann surface. This construction allows us to dual descriptions of 4d theories. Some of the dual frames have no known Lagrangian description. We check the dualities by computing the anomaly coefficients and the superconformal indices. We also give a prescription to write the index of the theory obtained by reduction of 6d theories on a three
How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation
Reichert, Frank
2016-01-01
This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mekala, C.; Nambi, Indumathi M.
2017-07-01
Irrigation practice will be effective if it supplies optimal water and nutrients to crops and act as a filter for contaminants leaching to ground water. There is always a scope for improving the fertilizer use efficiency and scheduling of wastewater irrigation if the fate and transport of nutrients particularly nitrogenous compounds in the soil are well understood. In the present study, nitrogen transport experiments for two different agricultural soils are performed under varying saturation 33, 57, 78% water filled pore space for sandy soil 1 and 52, 81 and 96% for loam soil 2. A HYDRUS 2D model with constructed wetland (CW2D) module could simulate aerobic nitrification and anoxic denitrification well for both soils and estimated the reaction kinetics. A hot spot of Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) pathway has been observed at 81% moisture content for a loamy sand soil. The presence of high organic content and reductive soil environment (5.53 C/NO3- ratio; ORP = - 125 mV) results in ammonium accumulation of 16.85 mg in the soil. The overall observation from this study is nitrification occurs in a wide range of saturations 33-78% with highest at 57% whereas denitrification is significant at higher water saturations 57-78% for sandy soil texture. For a loamy sand soil, denitrification is dominant at 96% saturation with least nitrification at all saturation studies. The greatest nitrogen losses (> 90%) was observed for soil 2 while 30-70% for soil1. The slow dispersive subsurface transport with varying oxygen dynamics enhanced nitrogen losses from soil2 due to lesser soil permeability. This in turn, prevents NO3- leaching and groundwater contamination. This type of modeling study should be used before planning field experiments for designing optimal irrigation and fertigation schedules.
2012-01-01
Background Our purpose was to report acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates for prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) with a daily endorectal water-filled balloon (ERBH2O), and assess associations with planning parameters and pretreatment clinical characteristics. Methods The first 100 patients undergoing prostate and proximal seminal vesicle IG-IMRT with indexed-lumen 100 cc ERBH2O to 79.2 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions at our institution from 12/2008- 12/2010 were assessed. Pretreatment characteristics, organ-at-risk dose volume histograms, and maximum GU and GI toxicities (CTCAE 3.0) were evaluated. Logistic regression models evaluated univariate association between toxicities and dosimetric parameters, and uni- and multivariate association between toxicities and pretreatment characteristics. Results Mean age was 68 (range 51–88). Thirty-two, 49, and 19 patients were low, intermediate, and high-risk, respectively; 40 received concurrent androgen deprivation. No grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Maximum GI toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 in 69%, 23%, and 8%, respectively. Infield (defined as 1 cm above/below the CTV) rectal mean/median doses, D75, V30, and V40 and hemorrhoid history were associated with grade 2 GI toxicity (Ps < 0.05). Maximum acute GU toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 for 17%, 41%, and 42% of patients, respectively. Infield bladder V20 (P = 0.03) and pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) (P = 0.003) were associated with grade 2 GU toxicity. Conclusion Prostate IG-IMRT using a daily ERBH2O shows low rates of acute GI toxicity compared to previous reports of air-filled ERB IMRT when using stringent infield rectum constraints and comparable GU toxicities. PMID:22621764
Kleivdal, H; Benz, R; Jensen, H B
1995-10-01
The pore-forming activity of the major outer-membrane protein FomA of the anaerobic Fusobacterium nucleatum was studied in artificial lipid bilayer membranes. FomA was isolated from F. nucleatum strains Fev1, ATCC 10953, and ATCC 25586 by extraction with lithium dodecyl sulfate and lithium chloride and had an apparent molecular mass of about 40 kDa. When solubilized at low temperatures, the protein ran with an apparent molecular mass of about 62 kDa on SDS/PAGE. Cross-linking experiments and two-dimensional SDS/PAGE gave evidence that the 62-kDa protein band represented the trimeric form of FomA. The protein trimers were susceptible to SDS and temperature. The stability of the porin trimers varied among the strains. The properties of the FomA channels were studied in reconstitution experiments with black lipid bilayer membranes. The F. nucleatum porins formed channels with single-channel conductances in the range 0.66-1.30 nS in M KCl. The single-channel conductance was a function of the mobilities of the ions present in the aqueous solution bathing the bilayer membrane. This means that FomA forms general diffusion channels since (a) the conductance showed a linear dependence on the salt concentration, (b) the ion selectivity was small and varied for the three strains, and (c) the channels did not exhibit any binding site for maltotriose or triglycine. The water-filled channel was voltage dependent, and conductance decrements were observed at transmembrane potentials of +/- 50 mV. The conductance decrement steps were about one-third of the total conductance of a functional unit in its fully 'open' state. This strongly suggests that the trimer is the functional unit of the porin.
Mekala, C; Nambi, Indumathi M
2017-07-01
Irrigation practice will be effective if it supplies optimal water and nutrients to crops and act as a filter for contaminants leaching to ground water. There is always a scope for improving the fertilizer use efficiency and scheduling of wastewater irrigation if the fate and transport of nutrients particularly nitrogenous compounds in the soil are well understood. In the present study, nitrogen transport experiments for two different agricultural soils are performed under varying saturation 33, 57, 78% water filled pore space for sandy soil 1 and 52, 81 and 96% for loam soil 2. A HYDRUS 2D model with constructed wetland (CW2D) module could simulate aerobic nitrification and anoxic denitrification well for both soils and estimated the reaction kinetics. A hot spot of Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) pathway has been observed at 81% moisture content for a loamy sand soil. The presence of high organic content and reductive soil environment (5.53 C/NO3(-) ratio; ORP=-125mV) results in ammonium accumulation of 16.85mg in the soil. The overall observation from this study is nitrification occurs in a wide range of saturations 33-78% with highest at 57% whereas denitrification is significant at higher water saturations 57-78% for sandy soil texture. For a loamy sand soil, denitrification is dominant at 96% saturation with least nitrification at all saturation studies. The greatest nitrogen losses (>90%) was observed for soil 2 while 30-70% for soil1. The slow dispersive subsurface transport with varying oxygen dynamics enhanced nitrogen losses from soil2 due to lesser soil permeability. This in turn, prevents NO3(-) leaching and groundwater contamination. This type of modeling study should be used before planning field experiments for designing optimal irrigation and fertigation schedules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ptatscheck, Christoph; Traunspurger, Walter
2015-01-01
Objectives In this study we investigated the dynamics of meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities in artificial water-filled tree holes. The abundances and, for the first time, biomasses and secondary production rates of these communities were examined. The experimental set-up consisted of 300 brown plastic cups placed in temperate mixed forests and sampled five times over a period of 16 months to determine the impact of (i) seasonal events, (ii) physicochemical parameters, and (iii) food resources on the tree hole metazoans. Outcomes Metazoan organisms, especially the meiofauna (rotifers and nematodes) occupied nearly all of the cups (> 99%) throughout the year. Between 55% and 99% of the metazoan community was represented by rotifers (max. 557,000 individuals 100 cm-2) and nematodes (max. 58,000 individuals 100 cm-2). Diptera taxa, particularly Dasyhelea sp. (max. 256 individuals 100 cm-2) dominated the macrofaunal community. Macrofauna accounted for the majority of the metazoan biomass, with a mean dry weight of 5,800 μg 100 cm-2 and an annual production rate of 20,400 μg C 100 cm-2, whereas for meiofauna mean biomass and annual production were 100 μg 100 cm-2 and 5,300 μg C 100 cm-2, respectively. The macrofaunal taxa tended to show more fluctuating population dynamic while the meiofaunal dynamic was rather low with partly asynchronous development. Seasonality (average temperature and rain intervals) had a significant impact on both meiofauna and macrofauna. Furthermore, bottom-up control (chlorophyll-a and organic carbon), mainly attributable to algae, was a significant factor that shaped the metazoan communities. In contrast, physicochemical water parameters had no evident influence. 23.7% of organism density distribution was explained by redundancy analysis (RDA) indicating a high dynamic and asynchrony of the systems. PMID:26284811
Quark-Hadron Duality and the Transition to pQCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fantoni, Alessandra.; Liuti, Simonetta; Rondón, Oscar A.
2006-02-01
Introduction and review: experimental and theoretical status. Introductory remarks on duality in Lepton-Hadron scattering / C. E. Carlson. Duality in the polarized structure functions / H. P. Blok. Spin structure of the nucleon and aspects of duality / Z. E. Meziani -- Duality and confinement. Quark models of duality in electron and neutrino scattering / W. Melnitchouk. Recent predictions from the statistical parton distributions / J. Soffer. Hadron structure on the back of an envelope / A. W. Thomas, R. D. Young and D. B. Leinweber. The strong coupling constant at low Q[symbol] / A. Deur. Spin duality on the neutron ([symbol]He) / P. Solvignon. Local duality in spin structure functions [symbol] and [symbol] / Y. Prok. Spin-flavor decomposition and in polarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab / X. Jiang. Spin structure functions: proton/deuteron measurements in the resonance region / M. K. Jones -- Duality in photoproduction. Duality in vector-meson production / A. Donnachie. Photopion production from nucleon and scaling / H. Gao and D. Dutta. Onset of scaling in exclusive processes / M. Mirazita. Exclusive baryon-antibaryon production in [symbol]-[symbol] at e[symbol]e[symbol] colliders / T. Barillari. Photoabsorption and photoproduction on nuclei in the resonance region / S. Schadmand -- Duality in nuclei. A partonic picture of jet fragmentation in nuclei / X.-N. Wang. Hadron attenuation by (Pre-)hadronic final state interaction at HERMES / T. Falter, K. Gallmeister and U. Mosel. Quark gluon plasma and hadronic gas on the lattice / M. P. Lombardo -- Duality in neutrino experiments. Neutrinos and local duality / F. Steffens and K. Tsushima -- Duality and QCD. Higher twist effects in polarized DIS / E. Leader, A. V. Sidorov and D. B. Stamenov. Higher twist effects in polarized experiments / N. Liyanage. Status of polarized and unpolarized deep inelastic scattering / J. Blümlein. The transition between perturbative and non
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lucas, W. R.
1972-01-01
Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maslow, Abraham
1977-01-01
This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, William R.
The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maslow, Abraham
1977-01-01
This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…
String Theory, Strongly Correlated Systems, and Duality Twists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres Chicon, Nesty Ray
In the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 1), I present a construction of a six dimensional (2,0)-theory model that describes the dynamics of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). The FQHE appears as part of the low energy description of the Coulomb branch of the A1 (2,0)-theory formulated on a geometry (S 1 x R2)/Zk. At low-energy, the configuration is described in terms of a 4+1D supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on a cone (R2/Z k) with additional 2+1D degrees of freedom at the tip of the cone that include fractionally charged particles. These fractionally charged "quasi-particles" are BPS strings of the (2,0)-theory wrapped on short cycles. In this framework, a W-boson can be modeled as a bound state of k quasi-particles, which can be used to understand the dynamics of the FQHE. In the second part of this dissertation (Chapters 2-3), I investigate the N=4 SYM theory compactified on a circle, with a varying coupling constant (Janus configuration) and an S-duality twist. I relate this setup to a three dimensional topological theory and to a dual string theory. The equality of these descriptions is exhibited by matching the operator algebra, and the dimensions of the Hilbert space. Additionally, this dissertation addresses a classic result in number theory, called quadratic reciprocity, using string theory language. I present a proof that quadratic reciprocity is a direct consequence of T-duality of Type-II string theory. This is demonstrated by analyzing a partition function of abelian N=4 SYM theory on a certain supersymmetry-preserving four-manifold with variable coupling constant and a SL(2,Z)-duality twist.
QED effective action in magnetic field backgrounds and electromagnetic duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang Pyo
2011-09-01
In the in-out formalism we advance a method of the inverse scattering matrix for calculating effective actions in pure magnetic field backgrounds. The one-loop effective actions are found in a localized magnetic field of Sauter type and approximately in a general magnetic field by applying the uniform semiclassical approximation. The effective actions exhibit the electromagnetic duality between a constant electric field and a constant magnetic field and between E(x)=Esech2(x/L) and B(x)=Bsech2(x/L).
Arthur Wigan and The Duality of the Mind.
Clarke, B
1987-01-01
It is not easy to see a simple outline in the progress of the idea of duality, because it did not develop evenly or reach the stage of general acceptance. From the seventeenth century there were shifts in some of the basic assumptions about how the brain and mind functioned, and there are some useful markers along the way to an era of more systematic studies. Descartes is the most convenient base. He had earlier firmly separated mind and matter in his philosophy, and is still chiefly known for that. But at the end of his life (1649) he tried to reconcile them by the device of a specific 'seat of the soul' in the brain through which information passed between brain and mind. Symmetry of the operation of the hemispheres was assumed. This theory had currency into the eighteenth century. At the end of that century Franz Gall of Austria and France was assigning discrete faculties to numerous parts of the brain on no strong evidence, and nothing the double form of the brain, without claiming independent action of the hemispheres. Hewett Watson in 1836 discussed duality more directly than had been the case before, and Arthur Wigan in 1844 asserted the duality of the mind roundly and treated the two hemispheres, not consistently, as two independent brains. He was not satisfied with independence, however, and tried various ways of allowing for joint action by the two sides of the brain, as well as for substitution, with one side having the power to act on behalf of both in cases of disease or injury. He also considered that one hemisphere, usually the left, was generally dominant; but he did not see the two hemispheres as differently constituted. Recognition of differentiation of function between the two sides came chiefly out of the largely French discussions, in the 1820s and after, about the location--frontal or not--of 'language', and out of the work and arguments of the middle of the century. Broca's left frontal language centre became widely known, though its
Duality of boson and fermion: New intermediate-statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Won Sang; Algin, Abdullah
2017-10-01
In this work, we propose a new model for describing an intermediate-statistics particles system. Starting with a deformed grand partition function, we investigate several thermodynamical and statistical properties of a gas model of two-parameter deformed particles. We specifically focus on the low-temperature behavior of the model and the conditions under which either boson condensation or fermion condensation would occur in such a model are discussed. Our results obtained in this study reveal that the present deformed gas model exhibits duality of boson and fermion, and can be useful for approaching the thermostatistics of condensation characteristics in quantum systems.
Duality and helicity: the photon wave function approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elbistan, M.; Horváthy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.
2017-08-01
The photon wave equation proposed in terms of the Riemann-Silberstein vector is derived from a first-order Dirac/Weyl-type action principle. It is symmetric w.r.t. duality transformations, but the associated Noether quantity vanishes. Replacing the fields by potentials and using instead a quadratic Klein-Gordon-type Lagrangian allows us to recover the double-Chern-Simons expression of conserved helicity and is shown to be equivalent to recently proposed alternative frameworks. Applied to the potential-modified theory the Dirac/Weyl-type approach yields again zero conserved charge, whereas the Klein-Gordon-type approach applied to the original setting yields Lipkin's ;zilch;.
Some considerations on duality concerning κ -Minkowski spacetime theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikoofard, Vahid; Abreu, Everton M. C.
2016-02-01
In this paper we have analyzed the κ -deformed Minkowski spacetime through the light of the interference phenomena in quantum field theory where two opposite chiral fields are put together in the same multiplet and its consequences are discussed. The chiral models analyzed here are the chiral Schwinger model, its generalized version, and its gauge invariant version, where a Wess-Zumino term was added. We will see that the final actions obtained here are, in fact, related to the original ones via duality transformations.
A duality framework for stochastic optimal control of complex systems
Malikopoulos, Andreas A.
2016-01-01
In this study, we address the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of interactive subsystems. We formulate a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems and provide a duality framework to prove that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion of the system. We provide the conditions of existence and a geometric interpretation of the solution. For practical situations having constraints consistent with those studied here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value when we seek to derive online the optimal control policy in complex systems.
The Bloom-Gilman duality and leading logarithms
Carlson, C.E.; Mukhopadhyay, N.C.
1994-04-01
The existing inclusive electroproduction data base allows the authors a look at the issue of the relative behaviors of background and resonance excitations, a part of the Bloom-Gilman duality. These data lack accuracy at high Q{sup 2} but establish PQCD scaling in the resonance region and even allow the authors a glimpse at the leading logarithmic corrections due to the gluon radiation and its possible quenching at large W and x. These should inspire better quality experimental tests at facilities like CEBAF II.
Inflation and compactification derived from duality invariant gaugino condensation
Stewart, N.R. )
1992-04-10
Recently it has been demonstrated that the breaking of space-time supersymmetry in the context of string-induced effective actions may be realized in a duality invariant way using gaugino condensates. In this paper, although generically the ground state is a negative minimum, the authors present a toy model of a Hawking-Moss type inflation by invoking a one-loop Casimir effect and adjusting the cosmological constant to zero. This can only be justified a posteriori since the authors obtain inflation and compactification of the target space albeit fine-tuning is necessary.
Punctuated eternal inflation via AdS/CFT duality
Lowe, David A.; Roy, Shubho
2010-09-15
The work is an attempt to model a scenario of inflation in the framework of anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory duality, a potentially complete nonperturbative description of quantum gravity. We study bubble geometries with de Sitter interiors within an ambient Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime and the properties of the corresponding states in the dual conformal field theory. It is argued the viable bubble states can be identified with a subset of the black hole microstates. Consistency checks are performed and a number of implications regarding cosmology are discussed including how the key problems or paradoxes of conventional eternal inflation are overcome in this scenario.
The Politics of Political Correctness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minsky, Leonard
1992-01-01
This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…
The Politics of Political Correctness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minsky, Leonard
1992-01-01
This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brooks, Gary H.
1981-01-01
Describes a college course dealing with comparative state politics. Students learn about the way in which political scientists employ the study of American state politics as a "laboratory" for the development of scientific explanations of political phenomena. (RM)
Chern-Simons-matter dualities with SO and USp gauge groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharony, Ofer; Benini, Francesco; Hsin, Po-Shen; Seiberg, Nathan
2017-02-01
In the last few years several dualities were found between the low-energy behaviors of Chern-Simons-matter theories with unitary gauge groups coupled to scalars, and similar theories coupled to fermions. In this paper we generalize those dualities to orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups. In particular, we conjecture dualities between SO( N) k Chern-Simons theories coupled to N f real scalars in the fundamental representation, and SO( k)- N + N f / 2 theories coupled to N f real (Majorana) fermions in the fundamental. For N f = 0 these are just level-rank dualities of pure Chern-Simons theories, whose precise form we clarify. They lead us to propose new gapped boundary states of topological insulators and superconductors. For k = 1 we get an interesting low-energy duality between N f free Majorana fermions and an SO( N)1 Chern-Simons theory coupled to N f scalar fields (with N f ≤ N - 2).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berzak Hopkins, Laura
2013-03-01
Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to
Electric-Magnetic Duality and the Dualized Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsou, Sheung Tsun
In these lectures I shall explain how a new-found nonabelian duality can be used to solve some outstanding questions in particle physics. The first lecture introduces the concept of electromagnetic duality and goes on to present its nonabelian generalization in terms of loop space variables. The second lecture discusses certain puzzles that remain with the Standard Model of particle physics, particularly aimed at nonexperts. The third lecture presents a solution to these problems in the form of the Dualized Standard Model, first proposed by Chan and the author, using nonabelian dual symmetry. The fundamental particles exist in three generations, and if this is a manifestation of dual colour symmetry, which by 't Hooft's theorem is necessarily broken, then we have a natural explanation of the generation puzzle, together with tested and testable consequences not only in particle physics, but also in astrophysics, nuclear and atomic physics. Reported is mainly work done in collaboration with Chan Hong-Mo, and also various parts with Peter Scharbach, Jacqueline Faridani, José Bordes, Jakov Pfaudler, Ricardo Gallego severally.
Duality between k-essence and Rastall gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronnikov, Kirill A.; Fabris, Júlio C.; Piattella, Oliver F.; Rodrigues, Denis C.; Santos, Edison C.
2017-06-01
The k-essence theory with a power-law function of (partial φ )^2 and Rastall's non-conservative theory of gravity with a scalar field are shown to have the same solutions for the metric under the assumption that both the metric and the scalar fields depend on a single coordinate. This equivalence (called k-R duality) holds for static configurations with various symmetries (spherical, plane, cylindrical, etc.) and all homogeneous cosmologies. In the presence of matter, Rastall's theory requires additional assumptions on how the stress-energy tensor non-conservation is distributed between different contributions. Two versions of such non-conservation are considered in the case of isotropic spatially flat cosmological models with a perfect fluid: one (R1) in which there is no coupling between the scalar field and the fluid, and another (R2) in which the fluid separately obeys the usual conservation law. In version R1 it is shown that k-R duality holds not only for the cosmological models themselves but also for their adiabatic perturbations. In version R2, among other results, a particular model is singled out that reproduces the same cosmological expansion history as the standard Λ CDM model but predicts different behaviors of small fluctuations in the k-essence and Rastall frameworks.
Representation Theory over Tropical Semifield and Langlands Duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimov, Anton A.; Lebedev, Dimitri R.
2013-06-01
Recently we propose a class of infinite-dimensional integral representations of classical {{gl}_{ell+1}}-Whittaker functions and local Archimedean local L-factors using two-dimensional topological field theory framework. The local Archimedean Langlands duality was identified in this setting with the mirror symmetry of the underlying topological field theories. In this note we introduce elementary analogs of the Whittaker functions and the Archimedean L-factors given by U ℓ+1-equivariant symplectic volumes of appropriate Kähler U ℓ+1-manifolds. We demonstrate that the functions thus defined have a dual description as matrix elements of representations of monoids {GL_{ell+1}({R}), {R}} being the tropical semifield. We also show that the elementary Whittaker functions can be obtained from the non-Archimedean Whittaker functions over {{Q}_p} by taking the formal limit p→ 1. Hence the elementary special functions constructed in this way might be considered as functions over the mysterious field {{Q}_1}. The existence of two representations for the elementary Whittaker functions, one as an equivariant volume and the other as a matrix element, should be considered as a manifestation of a hypothetical elementary analog of the local Langlands duality for number fields. We would like to note that the elementary local L-factors coincide with L-factors introduced previously by Kurokawa.
The origins of duality of patterning in artificial whistled languages
Verhoef, Tessa
2012-01-01
In human speech, a finite set of basic sounds is combined into a (potentially) unlimited set of well-formed morphemes. Hockett (1960) placed this phenomenon under the term ‘duality of patterning’ and included it as one of the basic design features of human language. Of the thirteen basic design features Hockett proposed, duality of patterning is the least studied and it is still unclear how it evolved in language. Recent work shedding light on this is summarized in this paper and experimental data is presented. This data shows that combinatorial structure can emerge in an artificial whistled language through cultural transmission as an adaptation to human cognitive biases and learning. In this work the method of experimental iterated learning (Kirby et al. 2008) is used, in which a participant is trained on the reproductions of the utterances the previous participant learned. Participants learn and recall a system of sounds that are produced with a slide whistle. Transmission from participant to participant causes the whistle systems to change and become more learnable and more structured. These findings follow from qualitative observations, quantitative measures and a follow-up experiment that tests how well participants can learn the emerged whistled languages by generalizing from a few examples. PMID:23637710
The duality principle in the presence of postselection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leach, Jonathan; Bolduc, Eliot; Miatto, Filippo M.; Piché, Kevin; Leuchs, Gerd; Boyd, Robert W.
2016-01-01
The duality principle, a cornerstone of quantum mechanics, limits the coexistence of wave and particle behaviours of quantum systems. This limitation takes a quantitative form when applied to the visibility of interference fringes and predictability of paths within a two-alternative system, which are bound by the inequality . However, if such a system is coupled to its environment, it becomes possible to obtain conditional measures of visibility and predictability, i.e. measures that are conditioned on the state of the environment. We show that in this case, the predictability and visibility values can lead to an apparent violation of the duality principle. We experimentally realize this apparent violation in a controlled manner by enforcing a fair-sampling-like loophole via postselection. This work highlights some of the subtleties that one can encounter while interpreting familiar quantities such as which-alternative information and visibility. While we concentrated on an extreme example, it is of utmost importance to realise that such subtleties might also be present in cases where the results are not obviously violating an algebraic bound, making them harder (but not any less crucial) to detect.
Duality groups, automorphic forms, and higher derivative corrections
Lambert, Neil; West, Peter
2007-03-15
We study the higher derivative corrections that occur in type II superstring theories in ten dimensions or less. Assuming invariance under a discrete duality group G(Z) we show that the generic functions of the scalar fields that occur can be identified with automorphic forms. We then give a systematic method to construct automorphic forms from a given group G(Z) together with a chosen subgroup H and a linear representation of G(Z). This construction is based on the theory of nonlinear realizations and we find that the automorphic forms contain the weights of G. We also carry out the dimensional reduction of the generic higher derivative corrections of the IIB theory to three dimensions and find that the weights of E{sub 8} occur generalizing previous results of the authors on M theory. Since the automorphic forms of this theory contain the weights of E{sub 8} we can interpret the occurrence of weights in the dimensional reduction as evidence for an underlying U-duality symmetry.
S-duality invariant perturbation theory improved by holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, Abhishek; Honda, Masazumi; Thakur, Somyadip
2017-04-01
We study anomalous dimensions of unprotected low twist operators in the four-dimensional SU( N ) N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We construct a class of interpolating functions to approximate the dimensions of the leading twist operators for arbitrary gauge coupling τ . The interpolating functions are consistent with previous results on the perturbation theory, holographic computation and full S-duality. We use our interpolating functions to test a recent conjecture by the N = 4 superconformal bootstrap that upper bounds on the dimensions are saturated at one of the duality-invariant points τ = i and τ = e iπ/3. It turns out that our interpolating functions have maximum at τ = e iπ/3, which are close to the conjectural values by the conformal bootstrap. In terms of the interpolating functions, we draw the image of conformal manifold in the space of the dimensions. We find that the image is almost a line despite the conformal manifold is two-dimensional. We also construct interpolating functions for the subleading twist operator and study level crossing phenomenon between the leading and subleading twist operators. Finally we study the dimension of the Konishi operator in the planar limit. We find that our interpolating functions match with numerical result obtained by Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz very well. It turns out that analytic properties of the interpolating functions reflect can expectation on a radius of convergence of the perturbation theory.
Bilinear covariants and spinor fields duality in quantum Clifford algebras
Abłamowicz, Rafał; Gonçalves, Icaro; Rocha, Roldão da
2014-10-15
Classification of quantum spinor fields according to quantum bilinear covariants is introduced in a context of quantum Clifford algebras on Minkowski spacetime. Once the bilinear covariants are expressed in terms of algebraic spinor fields, the duality between spinor and quantum spinor fields can be discussed. Thus, by endowing the underlying spacetime with an arbitrary bilinear form with an antisymmetric part in addition to a symmetric spacetime metric, quantum algebraic spinor fields and deformed bilinear covariants can be constructed. They are thus compared to the classical (non quantum) ones. Classes of quantum spinor fields classes are introduced and compared with Lounesto's spinor field classification. A physical interpretation of the deformed parts and the underlying Z-grading is proposed. The existence of an arbitrary bilinear form endowing the spacetime already has been explored in the literature in the context of quantum gravity [S. W. Hawking, “The unpredictability of quantum gravity,” Commun. Math. Phys. 87, 395 (1982)]. Here, it is shown further to play a prominent role in the structure of Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana spinor fields, besides the most general flagpoles and flag-dipoles. We introduce a new duality between the standard and the quantum spinor fields, by showing that when Clifford algebras over vector spaces endowed with an arbitrary bilinear form are taken into account, a mixture among the classes does occur. Consequently, novel features regarding the spinor fields can be derived.
Path integral duality modified propagators in spacetimes with constant curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kothawala, Dawood; Sriramkumar, L.; Shankaranarayanan, S.; Padmanabhan, T.
2009-08-01
The hypothesis of path integral duality provides a prescription to evaluate the propagator of a free, quantum scalar field in a given classical background, taking into account the existence of a fundamental length, say, the Planck length LP in a locally Lorentz invariant manner. We use this prescription to evaluate the duality modified propagators in spacetimes with constant curvature (exactly in the case of one spacetime, and in the Gaussian approximation for another two), and show that (i) the modified propagators are ultraviolet finite, (ii) the modifications are nonperturbative in LP, and (iii) LP seems to behave like a “zero point length” of spacetime intervals such that ⟨σ2(x,x')⟩=[σ2(x,x')+O(1)LP2], where σ(x,x') is the geodesic distance between the two spacetime points x and x', and the angular brackets denote (a suitable) average over the quantum gravitational fluctuations. We briefly discuss the implications of our results.
T-duality orbifolds of heterotic Narain compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nibbelink, Stefan Groot; Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.
2017-04-01
To obtain a unified framework for symmetric and asymmetric heterotic orbifold constructions we provide a systematic study of Narain compactifications orbifolded by finite order T -duality subgroups. We review the generalized vielbein that parametrizes the Narain moduli space (i.e. the metric, the B-field and the Wilson lines) and introduce a convenient basis of generators of the heterotic T -duality group. Using this we generalize the space group description of orbifolds to Narain orbifolds. This yields a unified, crystallographic description of the orbifold twists, shifts as well as Narain moduli. In particular, we derive a character formula that counts the number of unfixed Narain moduli after orbifolding. More-over, we develop new machinery that may ultimately open up the possibility for a full classification of Narain orbifolds. This is done by generalizing the geometrical concepts of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and affine classes from the theory of crystallography to the Narain case. Finally, we give a variety of examples illustrating various aspects of Narain orbifolds, including novel T -folds.
A duality web in 2 + 1 dimensions and condensed matter physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiberg, Nathan; Senthil, T.; Wang, Chong; Witten, Edward
2016-11-01
Building on earlier work in the high energy and condensed matter communities, we present a web of dualities in 2 + 1 dimensions that generalize the known particle/vortex duality. Some of the dualities relate theories of fermions to theories of bosons. Others relate different theories of fermions. For example, the long distance behavior of the 2 + 1-dimensional analog of QED with a single Dirac fermion (a theory known as U(1)1/2) is identified with the O(2) Wilson-Fisher fixed point. The gauged version of that fixed point with a Chern-Simons coupling at level one is identified as a free Dirac fermion. The latter theory also has a dual version as a fermion interacting with some gauge fields. Assuming some of these dualities, other dualities can be derived. Our analysis resolves a number of confusing issues in the literature including how time reversal is realized in these theories. It also has many applications in condensed matter physics like the theory of topological insulators (and their gapped boundary states) and the problem of electrons in the lowest Landau level at half filling. (Our techniques also clarify some points in the fractional Hall effect and its description using flux attachment.) In addition to presenting several consistency checks, we also present plausible (but not rigorous) derivations of the dualities and relate them to 3 + 1-dimensional S-duality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loick, Nadine; Dixon, Elizabeth R.; Repullo Ruibérriz de Torres, Miguel A.; Ciganda, Veronica; Lopez-Aizpun, Maria A.; Matthews, G. Peter; Müller, Christoph; Cardenas, Laura M.
2017-04-01
labelling technique - i.e. applying NH4NO3 with either the N at the NH4+ or at the NO3-, or in both places being labelled - this study investigates the effects of a low, medium and high water filled pore space (55, 70, 85%) in a clay soil on gaseous N emissions and investigates the source and processes leading to N2O emissions. To assess the utilisation of applied NO3- vs nitrified NO3- from applied NH4+, the model developed by Müller et al. (2007) is used to calculate the immobilisation of added NO3- and NH4+, nitrification of added NH4+, mineralisation of organic N and subsequent nitrification by the analysis of the 15N in the soil. Gross transformation rates, indicating the relative importance of added NO3- and NO3- derived from nitrified added NH4+ are calculated. Bergstermann et al. (2011) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 43, 240-250. Meijide et al. (2010) Eur. J. Soil Sci. 61, 364-374. Cárdenas et al. (2003) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 35, 867-870. Müller et al. (2007) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 39, 715-726.
Evidence for quark-hadron duality in {gamma}*p helicity cross sections
Malace, S. P.; Melnitchouk, W.; Psaker, A.
2011-03-15
Combining data on unpolarized and polarized inclusive proton structure functions, we perform the first detailed study of quark-hadron duality in individual helicity-1/2 and 3/2 virtual photoproduction cross sections. We find that duality is realized more clearly in the helicity-1/2 channel, with duality-violating corrections < or approx. 10% over the entire nucleon resonance region, while larger, < or approx. 20% corrections are found in the helicity-3/2 sector. The results are in general agreement with quark model expectations, and suggest that data above the {Delta} resonance region may be used to constrain both spin-averaged and spin-dependent parton distributions.
Self-duality for the two-component asymmetric simple exclusion process
Belitsky, V.; Schütz, G. M.
2015-08-15
We study a two-component asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) that is equivalent to the ASEP with second-class particles. We prove self-duality with respect to a family of duality functions which are shown to arise from the reversible measures of the process and the symmetry of the generator under the quantum algebra U{sub q}[gl{sub 3}]. We construct all invariant measures in explicit form and discuss some of their properties. We also prove a sum rule for the duality functions.
Evidence for quark-hadron duality in gamma*-p helicity cross sections
S. P. Malace, W. Melnitchouk, A. Psaker
2011-03-01
Combining data on unpolarized and polarized inclusive proton structure functions, we perform the first detailed study of quark-hadron duality in individual helicity-1/2 and 3/2 virtual photoproduction cross sections. We find that duality is realized more clearly in the helicity-1/2 channel, with duality violating corrections < 10% over the entire nucleon resonance region, while larger, < 20% corrections are found in the helicity-3/2 sector. The results are in general agreement with quark model expectations, and suggest that data above the Delta resonance region may be used to constrain both spin-averaged and spin-dependent parton distributions.
Ohkubo, Jun
2015-10-01
An alternative application of duality relations of stochastic processes is demonstrated. Although conventional usages of the duality relations need analytical solutions for the dual processes, here I employ numerical solutions of the dual processes and investigate the usefulness. As a demonstration, estimation problems of hidden variables in stochastic differential equations are discussed. Employing algebraic probability theory, a little complicated birth-death process is derived from the stochastic differential equations, and an estimation method based on the ensemble Kalman filter is proposed. As a result, the possibility for making faster computational algorithms based on the duality concepts is shown.
Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Long, Samuel
The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.
This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…
Inference in infinite-dimensional inverse problems - Discretization and duality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stark, Philip B.
1992-01-01
Many techniques for solving inverse problems involve approximating the unknown model, a function, by a finite-dimensional 'discretization' or parametric representation. The uncertainty in the computed solution is sometimes taken to be the uncertainty within the parametrization; this can result in unwarranted confidence. The theory of conjugate duality can overcome the limitations of discretization within the 'strict bounds' formalism, a technique for constructing confidence intervals for functionals of the unknown model incorporating certain types of prior information. The usual computational approach to strict bounds approximates the 'primal' problem in a way that the resulting confidence intervals are at most long enough to have the nominal coverage probability. There is another approach based on 'dual' optimization problems that gives confidence intervals with at least the nominal coverage probability. The pair of intervals derived by the two approaches bracket a correct confidence interval. The theory is illustrated with gravimetric, seismic, geomagnetic, and helioseismic problems and a numerical example in seismology.
Duality and quantum state engineering in cavity arrays.
Meher, Nilakantha; Sivakumar, S; Panigrahi, Prasanta K
2017-08-23
A system of two coupled cavities with N - 1 photons is shown to be dynamically equivalent to an array of N coupled cavities containing one photon. Every transition in the two cavity system has a dual phenomenon in terms of photon transport in the cavity array. This duality is employed to arrive at the required coupling strengths and nonlinearities in the cavity array so that controlled photon transfer is possible between any two cavities. This transfer of photons between two of the cavities in the array is effected without populating the other cavities. The condition for perfect transport enables perfect state transfer between any two cavities in the array. Further, possibility of high fidelity generation of generalized NOON states in two coupled cavities, which are dual to the Bell states of the photon in the cavity array, is established.
Duality in left-right symmetric seesaw mechanism.
Akhmedov, E Kh; Frigerio, M
2006-02-17
We consider type I + II seesaw mechanism, where the exchanges of both right-handed neutrinos and isotriplet Higgs bosons contribute to the neutrino mass. Working in the left-right symmetric framework and assuming the mass matrix of light neutrinos m(v) and the Dirac-type Yukawa couplings to be known, we find the triplet Yukawa coupling matrix f, which carries the information about the masses and mixing of the right-handed neutrinos. We show that in this case there exists a duality: for any solution f, there is a dual solution [symbol: see text] = m(v)/nu(L) - f, where nu(L) is the vacuum expectation value of the triplet Higgs boson. Thus, unlike in pure type I (II) seesaw, there is no unique allowed structure for the matrix f. For n lepton generations the number of solutions is 2(n). We develop an exact analytic method of solving the seesaw nonlinear matrix equation for f.
Penguins with charm and quark-hadron duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beneke, M.; Buchalla, G.; Neubert, M.; Sachrajda, C. T.
2009-06-01
The integrated branching fraction of the process B→ X s l + l - is dominated by resonance background from narrow charmonium states, such as B→ X s ψ→ X s l + l -, which exceeds the non-resonant charm-loop contribution by two orders of magnitude. The origin of this fact is discussed in view of the general expectation of quark-hadron duality. The situation in B→ X s l + l - is contrasted with charm-penguin amplitudes in two-body hadronic B decays of the type B→ π π, for which it is demonstrated that resonance effects and the potentially non-perturbative cbar{c} threshold region do not invalidate the standard picture of QCD factorization. This holds irrespective of whether the charm quark is treated as a light or a heavy quark.
Equivalence of wave-particle duality to entropic uncertainty.
Coles, Patrick J; Kaniewski, Jedrzej; Wehner, Stephanie
2014-12-19
Interferometers capture a basic mystery of quantum mechanics: a single particle can exhibit wave behaviour, yet that wave behaviour disappears when one tries to determine the particle's path inside the interferometer. This idea has been formulated quantitatively as an inequality, for example, by Englert and Jaeger, Shimony and Vaidman, which upper bounds the sum of the interference visibility and the path distinguishability. Such wave-particle duality relations (WPDRs) are often thought to be conceptually inequivalent to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, although this has been debated. Here we show that WPDRs correspond precisely to a modern formulation of the uncertainty principle in terms of entropies, namely, the min- and max-entropies. This observation unifies two fundamental concepts in quantum mechanics. Furthermore, it leads to a robust framework for deriving novel WPDRs by applying entropic uncertainty relations to interferometric models. As an illustration, we derive a novel relation that captures the coherence in a quantum beam splitter.
Particle-Hole Duality in the Lowest Landau Level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dung Xuan; Can, Tankut; Gromov, Andrey
2017-05-01
We derive a number of exact relations between response functions of holomorphic, chiral fractional quantum Hall states and their particle-hole (PH) conjugates. These exact relations allow one to calculate the Hall conductivity, Hall viscosity, various Berry phases, and the static structure factor of PH conjugate states from the corresponding properties of the original states. These relations establish a precise duality between chiral quantum Hall states and their PH conjugates. The key ingredient in the proof of the relations is a generalization of Girvin's construction of PH-conjugate states to inhomogeneous magnetic field and curvature. Finally, we make several nontrivial checks of the relations, including for the Jain states and their PH conjugates.
T-duality via gerby geometry and reductions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunke, Ulrich; Nikolaus, Thomas
2015-06-01
We consider topological T-duality of torus bundles equipped with {S}1-gerbes. We show how a geometry on the gerbe determines a reduction of its band to the subsheaf of S1-valued functions which are constant along the torus fibers. We observe that such a reduction is exactly the additional datum needed for the construction of a T-dual pair. We illustrate the theory by working out the example of the canonical lifting gerbe on a compact Lie group which is a torus bundle over the associated flag manifold. It was a recent observation of Daenzer and van Erp [16] that for certain compact Lie groups and a particular choice of the gerbe, the T-dual torus bundle is given by the Langlands dual group.
Duality invariance in Fayet-Iliopoulos gauged supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cacciatori, Sergio L.; Klemm, Dietmar; Rabbiosi, Marco
2016-09-01
We propose a geometric method to study the residual symmetries in N = 2, d = 4 U(1) Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) gauged supergravity. It essentially involves the stabilization of the symplectic vector of gauge couplings (FI parameters) under the action of the U-duality symmetry of the ungauged theory. In particular we are interested in those transformations that act non-trivially on the solutions and produce scalar hair and dyonic black holes from a given seed. We illustrate the procedure for finding this group in general and then show how it works in some specific models. For the prepotential F = - iX 0 X 1, we use our method to add one more parameter to the rotating Chow-Compère solution, representing scalar hair.
A duality framework for stochastic optimal control of complex systems
Malikopoulos, Andreas A.
2016-01-01
In this study, we address the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of interactive subsystems. We formulate a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems and provide a duality framework to prove that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion of the system. We provide the conditions of existence and a geometric interpretation of the solution. For practical situations having constraints consistent with those studied here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value when we seek to derivemore » online the optimal control policy in complex systems.« less
T-Duality for Orientifolds and Twisted KR-Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Charles; Méndez-Diez, Stefan; Rosenberg, Jonathan
2014-08-01
D-brane charges in orientifold string theories are classified by the KR-theory of Atiyah. However, this is assuming that all O-planes have the same sign. When there are O-planes of different signs, physics demands a "KR-theory with a sign choice" which up until now has not been studied by mathematicians (with the unique exception of Moutuou, who did not have a specific application in mind). We give a definition of this theory and compute it for orientifold theories compactified on S 1 and T 2. We also explain how and why additional "twisting" is implemented. We show that our results satisfy all possible T-duality relationships for orientifold string theories on elliptic curves, which will be studied further in subsequent work.
Spin dynamics of counterrotating Kitaev spirals via duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimchi, Itamar; Coldea, Radu
2016-11-01
Incommensurate spiral order is a common occurrence in frustrated magnetic insulators. Typically, all magnetic moments rotate uniformly, through the same wavevector. However the honeycomb iridates family Li2IrO3 shows an incommensurate order where spirals on neighboring sublattices are counterrotating, giving each moment a different local environment. Theoretically describing its spin dynamics has remained a challenge: The Kitaev interactions proposed to stabilize this state, which arise from strong spin-orbit effects, induce magnon umklapp scattering processes in spin-wave theory. Here we propose an approach via a (Klein) duality transformation into a conventional spiral of a frustrated Heisenberg model, allowing a direct derivation of the dynamical structure factor. We analyze both Kitaev and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya based models, both of which can stabilize counterrotating spirals, but with different spin dynamics, and we propose experimental tests to identify the origin of counterrotation.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality
Costa, Miguel S.; Djuric, Marko
2013-04-15
We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.
De Sitter space in gauge/gravity duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2015-10-01
We investigate gauge/gravity duality for gauge theories in de Sitter space. More precisely, we study a five-dimensional consistent truncation of type IIB supergravity, which encompasses a wide variety of gravity duals of strongly coupled gauge theories, including the Maldacena-Nunez solution and its walking deformations. We find several solutions of the 5d theory with dS4 spacetime and nontrivial profiles for (some of) the scalars along the fifth (radial) direction. In the process, we prove that one of the equations of motion becomes dependent on the others, for nontrivial warp factor. This dependence reduces the number of field equations and, thus, turns out to be crucial for the existence of solutions with (A) dS 4 spacetime. Finally, we comment on the implications of our dS4 solutions for building gravity duals of Glueball Inflation.
Constraining axionlike particles using the distance-duality relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, Prabhakar
2017-01-01
One of the fundamental results used in observational cosmology is the distance duality relation (DDR), which relates the luminosity distance, DL , with angular diameter distance, DA , at a given redshift z . We employ the observed limits of this relation to constrain the coupling of axionlike particles (ALPs) with photons. With our detailed 3 D ALP-photon mixing simulation in standard Λ CDM universe and latest DDR limits observed in Holanda and Barros [Phys. Rev. D 94, 023524 (2016)]., 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.023524 we limit the coupling constant gϕ≤6 ×10-13 GeV-1(n/G ⟨B ⟩Mpc ) for ALPs of mass ≤10-15 eV . The DDR observations can provide very stringent constraint on ALPs mixing in the future. Also any deviation in DDR can be conventionally explained as photons decaying to axions or vice-versa.
Two-field Born-Infeld with diverse dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrara, S.; Sagnotti, A.; Yeranyan, A.
2016-11-01
We elaborate on how to build, in a systematic fashion, two-field Abelian extensions of the Born-Infeld Lagrangian. These models realize the non-trivial duality groups that are allowed in this case, namely U (2), SU (2) and U (1) × U (1). For each class, we also construct an explicit example. They all involve an overall square root and reduce to the Born-Infeld model if the two fields are identified, but differ in quartic and higher interactions. The U (1) × U (1) and SU (2) examples recover some recent results obtained with different techniques, and we show that the U (1) × U (1) model admits an N = 1 supersymmetric completion. The U (2) example includes some unusual terms that are not analytic at the origin of field space.
Duality between noise and spatial resolution in linear systems.
Gureyev, Timur E; Nesterets, Yakov I; de Hoog, Frank; Schmalz, Gerd; Mayo, Sheridan C; Mohammadi, Sara; Tromba, Giuliana
2014-04-21
It is shown that in a broad class of linear systems, including general linear shift-invariant systems, the spatial resolution and the noise satisfy a duality relationship, resembling the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics. The product of the spatial resolution and the standard deviation of output noise in such systems represents a type of phase-space volume that is invariant with respect to linear scaling of the point-spread function, and it cannot be made smaller than a certain positive absolute lower limit. A corresponding intrinsic "quality" characteristic is introduced and then evaluated for the cases of some popular imaging systems, including computed tomography, generic image convolution and phase-contrast imaging. It is shown that in the latter case the spatial resolution and the noise can sometimes be decoupled, potentially leading to a substantial increase in the imaging quality.
Origin of Money: Dynamic Duality Between Necessity and Unnecessity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tauchi, Yuka; Kamiura, Moto; Haruna, Taichi; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2008-10-01
We propose a mathematical model of economic agents to study origin of money. This multi-agent model is based on commodity theory of money, which says that a commodity used as money emerges from barter transaction. Each agent has a different value system which is given by a Heyting algebra, and exchanges one's commodities based on the value system. In each value system, necessity and unnecessity of commodities are expressed by some elements and their compliments on a Heyting Algebra. Moreover, the concept of the compliment is extended. Consequently, the duality of the necessity-unnecessity is weakened, and the exchanges of the commodities are promoted. The commodities which keeps being exchanged for a long time can correspond to money.
Exact self-duality in a modified Skyrme model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, L. A.
2017-07-01
We propose a modification of the Skyrme model that supports a self-dual sector possessing exact non-trivial finite energy solutions. The action of such a theory possesses the usual quadratic and quartic terms in field derivatives, but the couplings of the components of the Maurer-Cartan form of the Skyrme model is made by a non-constant symmetric matrix, instead of the usual Killing form of the SU(2) Lie algebra. The introduction of such a matrix make the self-duality equations conformally invariant in three space dimensions, even though it may break the global internal symmetries of the original Skyrme model. For the case where that matrix is proportional to the identity we show that the theory possesses exact self-dual Skyrmions of unity topological charges.
Approaches to emergent spacetime in gauge/gravity duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sully, James Kenneth
2013-08-01
In this thesis we explore approaches to emergent local spacetime in gauge/gravity duality. We first conjecture that every CFT with a large-N type limit and a parametrically large gap in the spectrum of single-trace operators has a local bulk dual. We defend this conjecture by counting consistent solutions to the four-point function in simple scalar models and matching to the number of local interaction terms in the bulk. Next, we proceed to explicitly construct local bulk operators using smearing functions. We argue that this construction allows one to probe inside black hole horizons for only short times. We then suggest that the failure to construct bulk operators inside a black hole at late times is indicative of a break-down of local effective field theory at the black hole horizon. We argue that the postulates of black hole complementarity are inconsistent and cannot be realized within gauge/gravity duality. We argue that the most conservative solution is a firewall at the black hole horizon and we critically explore alternative resolutions. We then examine the CGHS model of two-dimensional gravity to look for dynamical formation of firewalls. We find that the CGHS model does not exhibit firewalls, but rather contains long-lived remnants. We argue that, while this is consistent for the CGHS model, it cannot be so in higher-dimensional theories of gravity. Lastly, we turn to F-theory, and detail local and global obstructions to writing elliptic fibrations in Tate form. We determine more general possible forms.
Arbitrary dimensional Majorana dualities and architectures for topological matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nussinov, Zohar; Ortiz, Gerardo; Cobanera, Emilio
2012-08-01
Motivated by the prospect of attaining Majorana modes at the ends of nanowires, we analyze interacting Majorana systems on general networks and lattices in an arbitrary number of dimensions, and derive universal spin duals. We prove that these interacting Majorana systems, quantum Ising gauge theories, and transverse-field Ising models with annealed bimodal disorder are all dual to one another on general planar graphs. This leads to an interesting connection between heavily disordered annealed Ising systems and uniform Ising theories with nearest-neighbor interactions. As any Dirac fermion (including electronic) operator can be expressed as a linear combination of two Majorana fermion operators, our results further lead to dualities between interacting Dirac fermionic systems on rather general lattices and graphs and corresponding spin systems. Such general complex Majorana architectures (other than those of simple square or other crystalline arrangements) might be of empirical relevance. As these systems display low-dimensional symmetries, they are candidates for realizing topological quantum order. The spin duals allow us to predict the feasibility of various standard transitions as well as spin-glass-type behavior in interacting Majorana fermion or electronic systems. Several systems that can be simulated by arrays of Majorana wires are further introduced and investigated: (1) the XXZ honeycomb compass model (intermediate between the classical Ising model on the honeycomb lattice and Kitaev's honeycomb model), (2) a checkerboard lattice realization of the model of Xu and Moore for superconducting (p+ip) arrays, and a (3) compass-type two-flavor Hubbard model with both pairing and hopping terms. By the use of our dualities (tantamount to high-dimensional fermionization), we show that all of these systems lie in the three-dimensional Ising universality class. We further discuss how the existence of topological orders and bounds on autocorrelation times can be
Vortex duality: Observing the dual nature using order propagators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetkovic, V.; Zaanen, J.
2006-10-01
In condensed matter physics, Kramers-Wannier duality implies that the state disordered by quantum fluctuations or temperature actually corresponds to an ordered state formed from the topological excitations of the “original” ordered state. At first sight it might appear to be impossible to observe this dual order using means associated with the original order. Although true for Ising models, we demonstrate in this paper that this is not a general statement by considering the well-known vortex duality, in particular in the quantum interpretation in 2+1D where it is associated with the quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Bose Mott insulator. Here, the disordered Mott insulating state is at the same time a dual superconductor corresponding to a Bose condensate of vortices. We present a simple formalism making it possible to compute the velocity propagator associated with the superfluid in terms of the degrees of freedom of the dual theory. The Mott insulator is characterized by a doublet of massive modes, and we demonstrate that one of these modes is nothing else than the longitudinal photon (gauged second sound) of the dual superconductor. For increasing momenta, the system rediscovers the original order, and the effect on the velocity correlator is that the longitudinal photon loses its pole strength. The quantum critical regime as probed by the velocity correlator is most interesting. We demonstrate that at infinite wavelength the continua of critical modes associated with second sound and the dual longitudinal photon are indistinguishable. However, at finite momenta they behave differently, tracking the weight reshuffling found in the quasiparticle spectrum of the disorder state closely.
String duality transformations in f(R) gravity from Noether symmetry approach
Capozziello, Salvatore; Gionti, Gabriele S.J.; Vernieri, Daniele E-mail: ggionti@as.arizona.edu
2016-01-01
We select f(R) gravity models that undergo scale factor duality transformations. As a starting point, we consider the tree-level effective gravitational action of bosonic String Theory coupled with the dilaton field. This theory inherits the Busher's duality of its parent String Theory. Using conformal transformations of the metric tensor, it is possible to map the tree-level dilaton-graviton string effective action into f(R) gravity, relating the dilaton field to the Ricci scalar curvature. Furthermore, the duality can be framed under the standard of Noether symmetries and exact cosmological solutions are derived. Using suitable changes of variables, the string-based f(R) Lagrangians are shown in cases where the duality transformation becomes a parity inversion.
Real Baum-Connes assembly and T-duality for torus orientifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Jonathan
2015-03-01
We show that the real Baum-Connes conjecture for abelian groups, possibly twisted by a cocycle, explains the isomorphisms of (twisted) KR-groups that underlie all T-dualities of torus orientifold string theories.
S-duality and modular transformation as a non-perturbative deformation of the ordinary pq-duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galakhov, D.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.
2014-06-01
A recent claim that the S-duality between 4 d SUSY gauge theories, which is AGT related to the modular transformations of 2 d conformal blocks, is no more than an ordinary Fourier transform at the perturbative level, is further traced down to the commutation relation between the check-operator monodromies of the exponential resolvent operator in the underlying Dotsenko-Fateev matrix models and β-ensembles. To this end, we treat the conformal blocks as eigenfunctions of the monodromy check operators, what is especially simple in the case of one-point toric block. The kernel of the modular transformation is then defined as the intertwiner of the two monodromies, and can be obtained straightforwardly, even when the eigenfunction interpretation of the blocks themselves is technically tedious. In this way, we provide an elementary derivation of the old expression for the modular kernel for the one-point toric conformal block.
Marginal and non-commutative deformations via non-abelian T-duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoare, Ben; Thompson, Daniel C.
2017-02-01
In this short article we develop recent proposals to relate Yang-Baxter sigmamodels and non-abelian T-duality. We demonstrate explicitly that the holographic spacetimes associated to both (multi-parameter)- β-deformations and non-commutative deformations of N = 4 super Yang-Mills gauge theory including the RR fluxes can be obtained via the machinery of non-abelian T-duality in Type II supergravity.
Comment on {open_quotes}Covariant duality symmetric actions{close_quotes}
Pasti, P.; Sorokin, D.; Tonin, M.
1997-08-01
We demonstrate that an action proposed by Khoudeir and Pantoja [Phys. Rev. D {bold 53}, 5974 (1996)] for endowing Maxwell theory with manifest electric-magnetic duality symmetry contains, in addition to the Maxwell field, additional propagating vector degrees of freedom. Hence it cannot be considered as a duality symmetric action for a {ital single} Abelian gauge field. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Quark-hadron duality and truncated moments of nucleon structure functions
Psaker, A.; Melnitchouk, W.; Christy, M. E.; Keppel, C.
2008-08-15
We employ a novel new approach to study local quark-hadron duality using 'truncated' moments, or integrals of structure functions over restricted regions of x, to determine the degree to which individual resonance regions are dominated by leading twist. Because truncated moments obey the same Q{sup 2} evolution equations as the leading twist parton distributions, this approach makes possible for the first time a description of resonance region data and the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality directly from QCD.
Seiberg duality, quiver gauge theories, and Ihara’s zeta function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Da; Xiao, Yan; He, Yang-Hui
2015-07-01
We study Ihara’s zeta function for graphs in the context of quivers arising from gauge theories, especially under Seiberg duality transformations. The distribution of poles is studied as we proceed along the duality tree, in light of the weak and strong graph versions of the Riemann Hypothesis. As a by-product, we find a refined version of Ihara’s zeta function to be the generating function for the generic superpotential of the gauge theory.
Challenges in assessing college students' conception of duality: the case of infinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babarinsa-Ochiedike, Grace Olutayo
Interpreting students' views of infinity posits a challenge for researchers due to the dynamic nature of the conception. There is diversity and variation among students' process-object perceptions. The fluctuations between students' views however reveal an undeveloped duality conception. This study examined college students' conception of duality in understanding and representing infinity with the intent to design strategies that could guide researchers in categorizing students' views of infinity into different levels. Data for the study were collected from N=238 college students enrolled in Calculus sequence courses (Pre-Calculus, Calculus I through Calculus III) at one of the southwestern universities in the U.S. using self-report questionnaires and semi-structured individual task-based interviews. Data was triangulated using multiple measures analyzed by three independent experts using self-designed coding sheets to assess students' externalization of the duality conception of infinity. Results of this study reveal that college students' experiences in traditional Calculus sequence courses are not supportive of the development of duality conception. On the contrary, it strengthens the singularity perspective on fundamental ideas of mathematics such as infinity. The study also found that coding and assessing college students' conception of duality is a challenging and complex process due to the dynamic nature of the conception that is task-dependent and context-dependent. Practical significance of the study is that it helps to recognize misconceptions and starts addressing them so students will have a more comprehensive view of fundamental mathematical ideas as they progress through the Calculus coursework sequence. The developed duality concept development framework called Action-Process-Object-Duality (APOD) adapted from the APOS theory could guide educators and researchers as they engage in assessing students' conception of duality. The results of this study
SL(2,R) duality-symmetric action for electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic sources
Lee, Choonkyu; Min, Hyunsoo
2013-12-15
For the SL(2,R) duality-invariant generalization of Maxwell electrodynamics in the presence of both electric and magnetic sources, we formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action by introducing a pair of four-potentials A{sup μ} and B{sup μ} in a judicious way. On the two potentials A{sup μ} and B{sup μ} the SL(2,R) duality transformation acts in a simple linear manner. In quantum theory including charged source fields, this action can be recast as a SL(2,Z)-invariant action. Also given is a Zwanziger-type action for SL(2,R) duality-invariant Born–Infeld electrodynamics which can be important for D-brane dynamics in string theory. -- Highlights: •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action. •Maxwell electrodynamics is generalized to include dilaton and axion fields. •SL(2,R) symmetry is manifest. •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, nonlinear Born–Infeld action with SL(2,R) symmetry.
A requiem for AdS4×C P3 fermionic self-T duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Colgáin, E.; Pittelli, A.
2016-11-01
Strong evidence for dual superconformal symmetry in N =6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory has fueled expectations that the AdS /CFT dual geometry AdS4×C P3 is self-dual under T duality. We revisit the problem to identify commuting bosonic and fermionic isometries in a systematic fashion and show that fermionic T duality, a symmetry originally proposed by Berkovits and Maldacena, inevitably leads to a singularity in the dilaton transformation. We show that TsT deformations commute with fermionic T duality and comment on T duality in the corresponding sigma model. Our results rule out self-duality based on fermionic T duality for AdS4×C P3 or its TsT deformations but leave the door open for new possibilities.
2015-12-07
Only rarely does an astronomical object have a political association. However, the spiral galaxy NGC 7252 acquired exactly that when it was given an unusual nickname. In December 1953, the US President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave a speech advocating the use of nuclear power for peaceful purposes. This “Atoms for Peace” speech was significant for the scientific community, as it brought nuclear research into the public domain, and NGC 7252, which has a superficial resemblance to an atomic nucleus surrounded by the loops of electronic orbits, was dubbed the Atoms for Peace galaxy in honour of this. These loops are well visible in a wider field of view image. This nickname is quite ironic, as the galaxy’s past was anything but peaceful. Its peculiar appearance is the result of a collision between two galaxies that took place about a billion years ago, which ripped both galaxies apart. The loop-like outer structures, likely made up of dust and stars flung outwards by the crash, but recalling orbiting electrons in an atom, are partly responsible for the galaxy’s nickname. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the inner parts of the galaxy, revealing a pinwheel-shaped disc that is rotating in a direction opposite to the rest of the galaxy. This disc resembles a spiral galaxy like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, but is only about 10 000 light-years across — about a tenth of the size of the Milky Way. It is believed that this whirling structure is a remnant of the galactic collision. It will most likely have vanished in a few billion years’ time, when NGC 7252 will have completed its merging process.
Tillett, Jackie
2011-01-01
Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.
Generalized dualities in one-time physics as holographic predictions from two-time physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araya, Ignacio J.; Bars, Itzhak
2014-03-01
In the conventional formalism of physics, with one time, systems with different Hamiltonians or Lagrangians have different physical interpretations and are considered to be independent systems unrelated to each other. However, in this paper we construct explicitly canonical maps in one-time (1T) phase space (including timelike components, specifically the Hamiltonian) to show that it is appropriate to regard various 1T physics systems, with different Lagrangians or Hamiltonians, as being duals of each other. This concept is similar in spirit to dualities discovered in more complicated examples in field theory or string theory. Our approach makes it evident that such generalized dualities are widespread. This suggests that, as a general phenomenon, there are hidden relations and hidden symmetries that conventional 1T physics does not capture, implying the existence of a more unified formulation of physics that naturally supplies the hidden information. In fact, we show that two-time (2T) physics in (d +2) dimensions is the generator of these dualities in 1T physics in d dimensions by providing a holographic perspective that unifies all the dual 1T systems into one. The unifying ingredient is a gauge symmetry in phase space. Via such dualities it is then possible to gain new insights toward new physical predictions not suspected before, and suggest new methods of computation that yield results not obtained before. As an illustration, we will provide concrete examples of 1T systems in classical mechanics that are solved analytically for the first time via our dualities. These dualities in classical mechanics have counterparts in quantum mechanics and field theory, and in some simpler cases they have already been constructed in field theory. We comment on the impact of our approach on the meaning of space-time and on the development of new computational methods based on dualities.
Duality, phase structures, and dilemmas in symmetric quantum games
Ichikawa, Tsubasa . E-mail: tsubasa@post.kek.jp; Tsutsui, Izumi
2007-03-15
Symmetric quantum games for 2-player, 2-qubit strategies are analyzed in detail by using a scheme in which all pure states in the 2-qubit Hilbert space are utilized for strategies. We consider two different types of symmetric games exemplified by the familiar games, the Battle of the Sexes (BoS) and the Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). These two types of symmetric games are shown to be related by a duality map, which ensures that they share common phase structures with respect to the equilibria of the strategies. We find eight distinct phase structures possible for the symmetric games, which are determined by the classical payoff matrices from which the quantum games are defined. We also discuss the possibility of resolving the dilemmas in the classical BoS, PD, and the Stag Hunt (SH) game based on the phase structures obtained in the quantum games. It is observed that quantization cannot resolve the dilemma fully for the BoS, while it generically can for the PD and SH if appropriate correlations for the strategies of the players are provided.
Duality and reciprocity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in conductors.
Reggiani, Lino; Alfinito, Eleonora; Kuhn, Tilmann
2016-09-01
By analogy with linear response, we formulate the duality and reciprocity properties of current and voltage fluctuations expressed by Nyquist relations, including the intrinsic bandwidths of the respective fluctuations. For this purpose, we individuate total-number and drift-velocity fluctuations of carriers inside a conductor as the microscopic sources of noise. The spectral densities at low frequency of the current and voltage fluctuations and the respective conductance and resistance are related in a mutually exclusive way to the corresponding noise source. The macroscopic variances of current and voltage fluctuations are found to display a dual property via a plasma conductance that admits a reciprocal plasma resistance. Analogously, the microscopic noise sources are found to obey a dual property and a reciprocity relation. The formulation is carried out in the frame of the grand canonical (for current noise) and canonical (for voltage noise) ensembles, and results are derived that are valid for classical as well as degenerate statistics, including fractional exclusion statistics. The unifying theory so developed sheds new light on the microscopic interpretation of dissipation and fluctuation phenomena in conductors. In particular, it is proven that for fermions, as a consequence of the Pauli principle, nonvanishing single-carrier velocity fluctuations at zero temperature are responsible for diffusion but not for current noise, which vanishes in this limit.
Perspectives on Bulk Locality in Gauge/Gravity Duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heemskerk, Idse J.
2012-05-01
In this thesis we consider the question of how local bulk physics emerges from the perspective of the boundary field theory in the supergravity limit of gauge/gravity duality. We take three different approaches to this problem, which in retrospect correspond to the different ways of thinking about quantum field theory in the bulk. In the S-matrix approach, we study crossing constraints on two-to-two scattering amplitudes, and provide evidence for the conjecture that a large N expansion and a hierarchy in the spectrum of operator dimension are sufficient conditions for a conformal theory to have a local bulk dual. In the path integral approach we attempt to connect the holographic and Wilsonian renormalization groups. An important role for multi-trace operators is discovered. Although locality remains unexplained, several parallels between holographic and Wilsonian renormalization are made and a physical picture of how the bulk dynamics might emerge from the perspective of the renormalization group is sketched. In the last part we consider the construction of the bulk field operators in terms of smeared boundary operators. Aside from extending the previous work on this construction in several directions, we formulate conditions for obtaining the field operators without already knowing the bulk dynamics and address some paradoxes related to a cat inside a black hole.
Deep Restricted Kernel Machines Using Conjugate Feature Duality.
Suykens, Johan A K
2017-08-01
The aim of this letter is to propose a theory of deep restricted kernel machines offering new foundations for deep learning with kernel machines. From the viewpoint of deep learning, it is partially related to restricted Boltzmann machines, which are characterized by visible and hidden units in a bipartite graph without hidden-to-hidden connections and deep learning extensions as deep belief networks and deep Boltzmann machines. From the viewpoint of kernel machines, it includes least squares support vector machines for classification and regression, kernel principal component analysis (PCA), matrix singular value decomposition, and Parzen-type models. A key element is to first characterize these kernel machines in terms of so-called conjugate feature duality, yielding a representation with visible and hidden units. It is shown how this is related to the energy form in restricted Boltzmann machines, with continuous variables in a nonprobabilistic setting. In this new framework of so-called restricted kernel machine (RKM) representations, the dual variables correspond to hidden features. Deep RKM are obtained by coupling the RKMs. The method is illustrated for deep RKM, consisting of three levels with a least squares support vector machine regression level and two kernel PCA levels. In its primal form also deep feedforward neural networks can be trained within this framework.
On KKLT/CFT and LVS/CFT dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Alwis, Senarath; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Quevedo, Fernando; Valandro, Roberto
2015-07-01
We present a general discussion of the properties of three dimensional CFT duals to the AdS string theory vacua coming from type IIB Calabi-Yau flux compactifi-cations. Both KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS) minima are considered. In both cases we identify the large `central charge', find a separation of scales between the radius of AdS and the size of the extra dimensions and show that the dual CFT has only a limited number of operators with small conformal dimension. Differences between the two sets of duals are identified. Besides a different amount of supersymmetry ( for KKLT and for LVS) we find that the LVS CFT dual has only one scalar operator with O(1) conformal dimension, corresponding to the volume modulus, whereas in KKLT the whole set of h 1,1 Kähler moduli have this property. Also, the maximal number of degrees of freedom is estimated to be larger in LVS than in KKLT duals. In both cases we explic-itly compute the coefficient of the logarithmic contribution to the one-loop vacuum energy which should be invariant under duality and therefore provides a non-trivial prediction for the dual CFT. This coefficient takes a particularly simple form in the KKLT case.
Quantum Gravity Explanation of the Wave-Particle Duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterberg, Friedwardt
2016-03-01
A quantum gravity explanation of the quantum-mechanical wave-particle duality is given by the watt-less emission of gravitational waves from a particle described by the Dirac equation. This explanation is possible through the existence of negative energy, and hence negative mass solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations. They permit to understand the Dirac equation as the equation for a gravitationally bound positive-negative mass (pole-dipole particle) two-body configuration, with the mass of the Dirac particle equal to the positive mass of the gravitational field binding the positive with the negative mass particle, and with the positive and negative mass particles making a luminal ``Zitterbewegung'' (quivering motion), emitting a watt-less oscillating positive-negative space curvature wave. Is it shown that this thusly produced ``Zitterbewegung'' reproduces the quantum potential of the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. The watt-less gravitational wave emitted by the quivering particles is conjectured to be the de Broglie pilot wave.
Probing the cosmic distance duality relation using time delay lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rana, Akshay; Jain, Deepak; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha; Holanda, R. F. L.
2017-07-01
The construction of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR) has been widely studied. However, its consistency with various new observables remains a topic of interest. We present a new way to constrain the CDDR η(z) using different dynamic and geometric properties of strong gravitational lenses (SGL) along with SNe Ia observations. We use a sample of 102 SGL with the measurement of corresponding velocity dispersion σ0 and Einstein radius θE. In addition, we also use a dataset of 12 two image lensing systems containing the measure of time delay Δ t between source images. Jointly these two datasets give us the angular diameter distance DAol of the lens. Further, for luminosity distance, we use the 740 observations from JLA compilation of SNe Ia. To study the combined behavior of these datasets we use a model independent method, Gaussian Process (GP). We also check the efficiency of GP by applying it on simulated datasets, which are generated in a phenomenological way by using realistic cosmological error bars. Finally, we conclude that the combined bounds from the SGL and SNe Ia observation do not favor any deviation of CDDR and are in concordance with the standard value (η=1) within 2σ confidence region, which further strengthens the theoretical acceptance of CDDR.
Duality, Confinement and Supersymmetry in Restricted Quantum Chromodynamics (rcd)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rana, J. M. S.
Electromagnetic duality has been utilized to study the isocolor charge-dyon interactions in Restricted Quantum Chromodynamics (RCD),in terms of current-current correlation (in magnetic gauge)using dielectric and permeability parameters of the associated vacuum. In the state of dyonic superconductivity, it has been shown that the dual propagators behave as 1/k4 (for small k2), which in analogy with superconductivity (dual superconductivity) leads to the confinement of colored fluxes associated with dyonic quarks vide generalized Meissner effect. Based on semi-quantitative analysis of vortex solutions of RCD and by calculating the masses for the massive collective modes of the condensed vacuum, the expressions for the London penetration depth, coherence length and the associated flux energy functions for the type I and type II superconducting media have been obtained. It has further been demonstrated that in the type I medium, vortices tend to coalesce and hence are attractive, while the energy function supports repulsive forces between vortices in the type II superconducting medium. The RCD has been supersymmetrized in N=1 limit and the supersymmetric dyonic solutions have been obtained. In the dyonic background gauge one-loop quantum corrections to the dyonic mass have been calculated and it has been shown that the one-loop quantum corrections lead no change in classical mass of the dyon.
The Distance Duality Relation from Strong Gravitational Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Kai; Li, Zhengxiang; Cao, Shuo; Biesiada, Marek; Zheng, Xiaogang; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2016-05-01
Under very general assumptions of the metric theory of spacetime, photons traveling along null geodesics and photon number conservation, two observable concepts of cosmic distance, i.e., the angular diameter and the luminosity distances are related to each other by the so-called distance duality relation (DDR) {D}L={D}A{(1+z)}2. Observational validation of this relation is quite important because any evidence of its violation could be a signal of new physics. In this paper we introduce a new method to test the DDR based on strong gravitational lensing systems and type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) under a flat universe. The method itself is worth attention because unlike previously proposed techniques, it does not depend on all other prior assumptions concerning the details of cosmological model. We tested it using a new compilation of strong lensing (SL) systems and JLA compilation of SNe Ia and found no evidence of DDR violation. For completeness, we also combined it with previous cluster data and showed its power on constraining the DDR. It could become a promising new probe in the future in light of forthcoming massive SL surveys and because of expected advances in galaxy cluster modeling.
Census taking in the hat: FRW/CFT duality
Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard
2009-10-15
In this paper a holographic description of eternal inflation is developed. We focus on the description of an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe that results from a tunneling event in which a false vacuum with positive vacuum energy decays to a supersymmetric vacuum with vanishing cosmological constant. The observations of a 'census taker' in the final vacuum can be organized into a holographic dual conformal field theory that lives on the asymptotic boundary of space. We refer to this bulk-boundary correspondence as FRW/CFT duality. The dual conformal field theory (CFT) is a Euclidean two-dimensional theory that includes a Liouville 2D gravity sector describing geometric fluctuations of the boundary. The renormalization-group flow of the theory is richer than in the AdS/CFT correspondence, and generates two space-time dimensions--one spacelike and one timelike. We discuss a number of phenomena such as bubble collisions, and the Garriga, Guth Vilenkin 'persistence of memory', from the dual viewpoint.
Duality picture of Superconductor-insulator transitions on Superconducting nanowire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka; Tominari, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Shukichi; Shinozaki, Bunju
2016-06-01
In this study, we investigated the electrical transport properties of niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) nanowire with four-terminal geometries to clarify the superconducting phase slip phenomena and superconducting-insulator transitions (SIT) for one-dimensional superconductors. We fabricated various nanowires with different widths and lengths from epitaxial NbTiN films using the electron beam lithography method. The temperature dependence of resistance R(T) below the superconducting transition temperature Tc was analyzed using thermal activation phase slip (TAPS) and quantum phase slip (QPS) theories. Although the accuracy of experimental data at low temperatures can deviate when using the TAPS model, the QPS model thoroughly represents the R(T) characteristic with resistive tail at low temperatures. From the analyses of data on Tc, we found that NbTiN nanowires exhibit SIT because of the change in the ratio of kinetic inductance energy and QPS amplitude energy with respect to the flux-charge duality theory.
BMN vacua, superstars and non-abelian T-duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lozano, Yolanda; Núñez, Carlos; Zacarías, Salomón
2017-09-01
Acting with non-Abelian T-duality on the S 3 inside the AdS 5 subspace of AdS 5 × S 5 with N units of flux, we generate a new half-BPS solution with SU(2|4) symmetry that belongs to the Lin-Lunin-Maldacena class of geometries. The analysis of the asymptotics, quantised charges and probe branes in this geometry suggests an interpretation as the gravity dual to the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase Plane Wave Matrix Model, in a particular vacuum associated to a partition of N, in which the multiplicity of each SU(2) irreducible representation is equal to its dimension. This vacuum is interpreted in M-theory in terms of giant gravitons backreacting in the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave geometry. Consistently with this, we show that the non-Abelian T-dual solution exactly agrees with the Penrose limit of the superstar solution in AdS 7 × S 4. This suggests an interesting global completion of the non-Abelian T-dual solution in terms of an M5-brane geometry.
Chiral Lagrangian from Duality and Monopole Operators in Compactified QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherman, Aleksey; Schäfer, Thomas; Ünsal, Mithat
2016-08-01
We show that there exists a special compactification of QCD on R3×S1 in which the theory has a domain where continuous chiral symmetry breaking is analytically calculable. We give a microscopic derivation of the chiral Lagrangian, the chiral condensate, and the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation mπ2fπ2=-mq⟨q ¯ q ⟩ . Abelian duality, monopole operators, and flavor-twisted boundary conditions play the main roles. The flavor twisting leads to the new effect of fractional jumping of fermion zero modes among monopole instantons. Chiral symmetry breaking is induced by monopole-instanton operators, and the Nambu-Goldstone pions arise by color-flavor transmutation from gapless "dual photons." We also give a microscopic picture of the "constituent quark" masses. Our results are consistent with expectations from chiral perturbation theory at large S1, and yield strong support for adiabatic continuity between the small-S1 and large-S1 regimes. We also find concrete microscopic connections between N =1 and N =2 supersymmetric gauge theory dynamics and nonsupersymmetric QCD dynamics.
Chiral Lagrangian from Duality and Monopole Operators in Compactified QCD.
Cherman, Aleksey; Schäfer, Thomas; Ünsal, Mithat
2016-08-19
We show that there exists a special compactification of QCD on R^{3}×S^{1} in which the theory has a domain where continuous chiral symmetry breaking is analytically calculable. We give a microscopic derivation of the chiral Lagrangian, the chiral condensate, and the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation m_{π}^{2}f_{π}^{2}=-m_{q}⟨q[over ¯]q⟩. Abelian duality, monopole operators, and flavor-twisted boundary conditions play the main roles. The flavor twisting leads to the new effect of fractional jumping of fermion zero modes among monopole instantons. Chiral symmetry breaking is induced by monopole-instanton operators, and the Nambu-Goldstone pions arise by color-flavor transmutation from gapless "dual photons." We also give a microscopic picture of the "constituent quark" masses. Our results are consistent with expectations from chiral perturbation theory at large S^{1}, and yield strong support for adiabatic continuity between the small-S^{1} and large-S^{1} regimes. We also find concrete microscopic connections between N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory dynamics and nonsupersymmetric QCD dynamics.
Census taking in the hat: FRW/CFT duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard
2009-10-01
In this paper a holographic description of eternal inflation is developed. We focus on the description of an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe that results from a tunneling event in which a false vacuum with positive vacuum energy decays to a supersymmetric vacuum with vanishing cosmological constant. The observations of a “census taker” in the final vacuum can be organized into a holographic dual conformal field theory that lives on the asymptotic boundary of space. We refer to this bulk-boundary correspondence as FRW/CFT duality. The dual conformal field theory (CFT) is a Euclidean two-dimensional theory that includes a Liouville 2D gravity sector describing geometric fluctuations of the boundary. The renormalization-group flow of the theory is richer than in the AdS/CFT correspondence, and generates two space-time dimensions—one spacelike and one timelike. We discuss a number of phenomena such as bubble collisions, and the Garriga, Guth Vilenkin “persistence of memory,” from the dual viewpoint.
Constraints on cosmic distance duality relation from cosmological observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Meng-Zhen; Xia, Jun-Qing
2016-09-01
In this paper, we use the model dependent method to revisit the constraint on the well-known cosmic distance duality relation (CDDR). By using the latest SNIa samples, such as Union2.1, JLA and SNLS, we find that the SNIa data alone cannot constrain the cosmic opacity parameter ε, which denotes the deviation from the CDDR, dL =dA(1 + z) 2 + ε, very well. The constraining power on ε from the luminosity distance indicator provided by SNIa and GRB is hardly to be improved at present. When we include other cosmological observations, such as the measurements of Hubble parameter, the baryon acoustic oscillations and the distance information from cosmic microwave background, we obtain the tightest constraint on the cosmic opacity parameter ε, namely the 68% C.L. limit: ε = 0.023 ± 0.018. Furthermore, we also consider the evolution of ε as a function of z using two methods, the parametrization and the principle component analysis, and do not find the evidence for the deviation from zero. Finally, we simulate the future SNIa and Hubble measurements and find the mock data could give very tight constraint on the cosmic opacity ε and verify the CDDR at high significance.
Demosaicking using geometric duality and dilated directional differentiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Joohyeok; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang
This paper presents a new demosaicking algorithm which uses two cost terms: the interpolation error of a low resolution image based on geometric duality and the dilated directional differentiation of color differences. Since a given high resolution image and its low resolution image obtained by sampling have similar edge properties, the proposed algorithm computes the interpolation errors for the candidate directions in the low resolution image, and exploits them as a cost term for the direction. In addition, the interpolation direction can be determined accurately even in the vicinity of object boundaries by dilating the directional differentiation of the color difference values. Through dilation, some pixels, which are in the neighborhood of an edge but classified into a flat region by simple edge detection like the Sobel filter, are reclassified. By combining this edge classifier and the weighted sum of the estimates obtained by Taylor approximation, missing pixels are interpolated. Simulation results show that the proposed demosaicking algorithm is superior to other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of visual and objective qualities. Furthermore, the computational complexity is comparable with the existing algorithms. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is suitable for real-time implementation.
Type I/heterotic duality and M-theory amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Michael B.; Rudra, Arnab
2016-12-01
This paper investigates relationships between low-energy four-particle scattering amplitudes with external gauge particles and gravitons in the E 8 × E 8 and SO(32) heterotic string theories and the type I and type IA superstring theories by considering a variety of tree level and one-loop Feynman diagrams describing such amplitudes in eleven-dimensional supergravity in a Horava-Witten background compactified on a circle. This accounts for a number of perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of low order higher derivative terms in the low-energy expansion of string theory amplitudes, which are expected to be protected by half maximal supersymmetry from receiving corrections beyond one or two loops. It also suggests the manner in which type I/heterotic duality may be realised for certain higher derivative interactions that are not so obviously protected. For example, our considerations suggest that R 4 interactions (where R is the Riemann curvature) might receive no perturbative corrections beyond one loop by virtue of a conspiracy involving contributions from (non-BPS) {Z}_2 D-instantons in the type I and heterotic SO(32) theories.
Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
2015-05-01
Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Power centroid radar and its rise from the universal cybernetics duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feria, Erlan H.
2014-05-01
Power centroid radar (PC-Radar) is a fast and powerful adaptive radar scheme that naturally surfaced from the recent discovery of the time-dual for information theory which has been named "latency theory." Latency theory itself was born from the universal cybernetics duality (UC-Duality), first identified in the late 1970s, that has also delivered a time dual for thermodynamics that has been named "lingerdynamics" and anchors an emerging lifespan theory for biological systems. In this paper the rise of PC-Radar from the UC-Duality is described. The development of PC-Radar, US patented, started with Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded research on knowledge-aided (KA) adaptive radar of the last decade. The outstanding signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) performance of PC-Radar under severely taxing environmental disturbances will be established. More specifically, it will be seen that the SINR performance of PC-Radar, either KA or knowledgeunaided (KU), approximates that of an optimum KA radar scheme. The explanation for this remarkable result is that PC-Radar inherently arises from the UC-Duality, which advances a "first principles" duality guidance theory for the derivation of synergistic storage-space/computational-time compression solutions. Real-world synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be used as prior-knowledge to illustrate these results.
Duality methods in networks, computer science models, and disordered condensed matter systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, Joseph Dan
In this thesis, I explore lattice independent duality and systems to which it can be applied. I first demonstrate classical duality on models in an external field, including the Ising, Potts, and x -- y models, showing in particular how this modifies duality to be lattice independent and applicable to networks. I then present a novel application of duality on the boolean satsifiability problem, one of the most important problems in computational complexity, through mapping to a low temperature Ising model. This establishes the equivalence between boolean satisfiability and a problem of enumerating the positive solutions to a Diophantine system of equations. I continue by combining duality with a prominent tool for models on networks, belief propagation, deriving a new message passing procedure, dual belief propagation. In the final part of my thesis, I shift to propose and examine a semiclassical model, the two-component Coulomb glass model, which can explain the giant magnetoresistance peak present in disordered films near a superconductor-insulator transition as the effect of competition between single particle and localized pair transport. I numerically analyze the density of states and transport properties of this model.
Chern-Simons-matter dualities with SO and USp gauge groups
Aharony, Ofer; Benini, Francesco; Hsin, Po -Shen; ...
2017-02-14
In the last few years several dualities were found between the low-energy behaviors of Chern-Simons-matter theories with unitary gauge groups coupled to scalars, and similar theories coupled to fermions. In this paper we generalize those dualities to orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups. In particular, we conjecture dualities between SO(N)k Chern-Simons theories coupled to Nf real scalars in the fundamental representation, and SO(k)-N+Nf/2 coupled to Nf real (Majorana) fermions in the fundamental. For Nf = 0 these are just level-rank dualities of pure Chern-Simons theories, whose precise form we clarify. They lead us to propose new gapped boundary states of topologicalmore » insulators and superconductors. As a result, for k = 1 we get an interesting low-energy duality between Nf free Majorana fermions and an SO(N)1 Chern-Simons theory coupled to Nf scalar fields (with Nf ≤ N-2).« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2011-03-01
Remarkable progress has been achieved in the last 10 years in the quantitative understanding of gauge/string duality. For the first time it now appears that it will be possible to find the exact solution of a 4-dimensional interacting quantum field theory. This should have important implications for our understanding of other strongly coupled gauge theories such as Quantum Chromodynamics. The most studied is the most symmetric example of a gauge-string duality—the correspondence between the maximally supersymmetric gauge theory in flat 4 dimensions and superstring theory in a curved space AdS5×S5, also refered to as AdS/CFT duality. The solvability of this model, allowing us for example to compute the dimensions of gauge invariant operators for any value of the coupling, is due to its hidden integrability. At weak coupling this integrability is seen by identifying the dilatation operator which acts on single trace operators in the gauge theory with the Hamiltonian of an integrable 1-dimensional spin chain. At strong coupling, where the operators of the gauge theory are most easily identifiable as string states, integrability is manifested by the underlying integrability of the sigma model defined on the string world sheet. As a result, the exact quantum spectrum is determined by a set of thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations. These remarkable developments are based on a wide range of techniques from quantum field theory, condensed matter theory and mathematical physics and were reviewed in a special issue published two years ago: Kristjansen C, Staudacher M and Tseytlin A (ed) 2009 Integrability and the AdS/CFT correspondence J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 250301 The present special issue is an update: it contains three long reviews by Didina Serban, Benoit Vicedo and Dmytro Volin that cover recent developments and also present a few particular directions in a detailed pedagogical manner. It starts with a review by Serban [1], where the integrabilitity of the
Unity and Duality in Barack Obama's "A More Perfect Union"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terrill, Robert E.
2009-01-01
Faced with a racialized political crisis that threatened to derail his campaign to become the first African American president of the United States, Barack Obama delivered a speech on race titled "A More Perfect Union." He begins by portraying himself as an embodiment of double consciousness, but then invites his audience to share his…
Unity and Duality in Barack Obama's "A More Perfect Union"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terrill, Robert E.
2009-01-01
Faced with a racialized political crisis that threatened to derail his campaign to become the first African American president of the United States, Barack Obama delivered a speech on race titled "A More Perfect Union." He begins by portraying himself as an embodiment of double consciousness, but then invites his audience to share his…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheong, Yong Wook; Song, Jinwoong
2014-01-01
There is no consensus on the genuine meaning of wave-particle duality and the interpretation of quantum theory. How can we teach duality and quantum theory despite this lack of consensus? This study attempts to answer this question. This research argues that reality issues are at the core of both the endless debates concerning the interpretation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheong, Yong Wook; Song, Jinwoong
2014-01-01
There is no consensus on the genuine meaning of wave-particle duality and the interpretation of quantum theory. How can we teach duality and quantum theory despite this lack of consensus? This study attempts to answer this question. This research argues that reality issues are at the core of both the endless debates concerning the interpretation…
Duality, gauged supergravities and vertex operators in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langham, Michael Charles
2000-10-01
We first examine a conjectured S-duality between the type IIA on R6 × K3 and the Heterotic string on R6 × T4, and compare their perturbative spectra. The partition function of type II strings on R6 × K3, in the orbifold limit, is computed as a modular invariant sum of spin structures or sectors, required by perturbative unitarity. Secondly, we analyze type II strings on R6 × W4, where W4 is associated with the tube metric conformal field theory, given by the degrees of freedom transverse to the Neveu- Schwarz fivebrane solution. The tube metric generates partition functions and perturbative spectra of string theories in six space-time dimensions, associated with the modular invariants of the level k affine SU(2) Kac-Moody algebra. We then study maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravities; i.e. low-energy limits of superstrings and M theory in anti-deSitter space times a sphere (AdSxS). We show how the gauge symmetry representation of the massless particle content of gauged supergravities can be derived from symmetric subgroups to be carried by string theory vertex operators in these compactified models. Lastly, for a non-maximally supersymmetric case, type IIB in AdS3 × S 3 background with NS-NS flux, we calculate explicit vertex operators using the Berkovits-Vafa-Witten formalism. From these, with suitable field definitions, the linearized field equations for six-dimensional supergravity and a tensor multiplet on AdS3 × S3 are recovered. We also discuss the three dimensional massless degrees of freedom that survive the S3 Kaluza-Klein compactification and show how our vertex operators are related to the vertex operators introduced by Giveon, Kutasov, and Seiberg.
Testing the distance duality relation with present and future data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardone, V. F.; Spiro, S.; Hook, I.; Scaramella, R.
2012-06-01
The assumptions that light propagates along null geodesics of the spacetime metric and the number of photons is conserved along the light path lead to the distance duality relation (DDR), η=DL(z)(1+z)-2/DA(z)=1, with DL(z) and DA(z) the luminosity and angular diameter distances to a source at redshift z. In order to test the DDR, we follow the usual strategy comparing the angular diameter distances of a set of clusters, inferred from x-ray and radio data, with the luminosity distance at the same cluster redshift using the local regression technique to estimate DL(z) from a type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) Hubble diagram. In order to both strengthen the constraints on the DDR and get rid of the systematics related to the unknown cluster geometry, we also investigate the possibility to use baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to infer DA(z) from future BAO surveys. As a test case, we consider the proposed Euclid mission investigating the precision that can be afforded on η(z) from the expected SNeIa and BAO data. We find that the combination of BAO and the local regression coupled allows one to reduce the errors on ηa=dη/dz|z=0 by a factor 2 if one η0=η(z=0)=1 is forced and future data are used. On the other hand, although the statistical error on η0 is not significantly reduced, the constraints on this quantity will be nevertheless ameliorated thanks to the reduce impact of systematics.
Elliptic Hypergeometry of Supersymmetric Dualities II. Orthogonal Groups, Knots, and Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiridonov, V. P.; Vartanov, G. S.
2014-01-01
We consider Seiberg electric-magnetic dualities for 4 d SYM theories with SO( N) gauge group. For all such known theories we construct superconformal indices (SCIs) in terms of elliptic hypergeometric integrals. Equalities of these indices for dual theories lead both to proven earlier special function identities and new conjectural relations for integrals. In particular, we describe a number of new elliptic beta integrals associated with the s-confining theories with the spinor matter fields. Reductions of some dualities from SP(2 N) to SO(2 N) or SO(2 N + 1) gauge groups are described. Interrelation of SCIs and the Witten anomaly is briefly discussed. Possible applications of the elliptic hypergeometric integrals to a two-parameter deformation of 2 d conformal field theory and related matrix models are indicated. Connections of the reduced SCIs with the state integrals of knot theory, generalized AGT duality for (3 + 3) d theories, and a 2 d vortex partition function are described.
Seiberg duality for Chern-Simons quivers and D-brane mutations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Closset, Cyril
2012-03-01
Chern-Simons quivers for M2-branes at Calabi-Yau singularities are best understood as the low energy theory of D2-branes on a dual type IIA background. We show how the D2-brane point of view naturally leads to three dimensional Seiberg dualities for Chern-Simons quivers with chiral matter content: They arise from a change of brane basis (or mutation), in complete analogy with the better known Seiberg dualities for D3-brane quivers. This perspective reproduces the known rules for Seiberg dualities in Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with unitary gauge groups. We provide explicit examples of dual theories for the quiver dual to the {Y^{{p,q}}}left( {mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}^{{2}}}} right) geometries. We also comment on the string theory derivation of CS quivers dual to massive type IIA geometries.
Hall, Nathan L.; Blunden, Peter G.; Melnitchouk, Wally; ...
2015-12-08
We examine the interference \\gamma Z box corrections to parity-violating elastic electron--proton scattering in the light of the recent observation of quark-hadron duality in parity-violating deep-inelastic scattering from the deuteron, and the approximate isospin independence of duality in the electromagnetic nucleon structure functions down to Q2 \\approx 1 GeV2. Assuming that a similar behavior also holds for the \\gamma Z proton structure functions, we find that duality constrains the γ Z box correction to the proton's weak charge to be Re V γ Z V = (5.4 \\pm 0.4) \\times 10-3 at the kinematics of the Qweak experiment. Within themore » same model we also provide estimates of the γ Z corrections for future parity-violating experiments, such as MOLLER at Jefferson Lab and MESA at Mainz.« less
Political Integration of Hezbollah into Lebanese Politics
2009-06-01
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY POLITICAL LOYALTIES OF THE LEBANESE SHI’A...assimilating into the political arena. However, the major hindrance to assisting or speeding this transition is the branding of Hezbollah as a...denying their own responsibility for fostering the conditions which gave rise to Hezbollah. …[By branding the Resistance as “terrorists” it can continue
Political Systems, Public Schools, and Political Socialization.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LaNoue, George R.; Adler, Norman
This paper, prepared for the Center for Research and Education in American Liberties Conference in 1968, argues that education is the foundation upon which democratic politics stands because of the transmittal by schools of the skills and values necessary for our political system to operate. The objective of the paper is to show the relationship…
Implementation of the Duality between Wilson Loops and Scattering Amplitudes in QCD
Makeenko, Yuri; Olesen, Poul
2009-02-20
We generalize modern ideas about the duality between Wilson loops and scattering amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory to large-N (or quenched) QCD. We show that the area-law behavior of asymptotically large Wilson loops is dual to the Regge-Veneziano behavior of scattering amplitudes at high energies and fixed momentum transfer, when the quark mass is small and/or the number of particles is large. We elaborate on this duality for string theory in flat space, identifying the asymptotes of the disk amplitude and the Wilson loop of large-N QCD.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, H. E.
1977-01-01
Linear numerical inversion methods applied to atmospheric remote sounding generally can be categorized in two ways: (1) iterative, and (2) inverse matrix methods. However, these two categories are not unrelated; a duality exists between them. In other words, given an iterative scheme, a corresponding inverse matrix method exists, and conversely. This duality concept is developed for the more familiar linear methods. The iterative duals are compared with the classical linear iterative approaches and their differences analyzed. The importance of the initial profile in all methods is stressed. Calculations using simulated data are made to compare accuracies and to examine the dependence of the solution on the initial profile.
Minimal duality breaking in the Kallen Lehman approach to 3D Ising model: A numerical test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astorino, Marco; Canfora, Fabrizio; Martínez, Cristián; Parisi, Luca
2008-06-01
A Kallen-Lehman approach to 3D Ising model is analyzed numerically both at low and high temperatures. It is shown that, even assuming a minimal duality breaking, one can fix three parameters of the model to get a very good agreement with the Monte Carlo results at high temperatures. With the same parameters the agreement is satisfactory both at low and near critical temperatures. How to improve the agreement with Monte Carlo results by introducing a more general duality breaking is shortly discussed.
Thermodynamics of a field theory with an infrared fixed point from gauge/gravity duality
Alanen, J.; Kajantie, K.
2010-02-15
We use gauge/gravity duality to study the thermodynamics of a field theory with asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet and a fixed point in the infrared. We find a high temperature quark-gluon phase and a low T conformal unparticle phase. The phase transition between the phases is of first order or continuous, depending on the ratio of the radii of asymptotic anti-de Sitter spaces at T=0 and T={infinity}. This is a prediction from a model of gauge/gravity duality, not yet verified on the field theory side.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, H. E.
1977-01-01
Linear numerical inversion methods applied to atmospheric remote sounding generally can be categorized in two ways: (1) iterative, and (2) inverse matrix methods. However, these two categories are not unrelated; a duality exists between them. In other words, given an iterative scheme, a corresponding inverse matrix method exists, and conversely. This duality concept is developed for the more familiar linear methods. The iterative duals are compared with the classical linear iterative approaches and their differences analyzed. The importance of the initial profile in all methods is stressed. Calculations using simulated data are made to compare accuracies and to examine the dependence of the solution on the initial profile.
Duality invariance of s ≥ 3/2 fermions in AdS
Deser, S.; Seminara, D.
2014-09-30
The research show that in D = 4 AdS, s ≥ 3/2 partially massless (PM) fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios m2/M2 ≠ 0 that turn them into sums of effectively massless unconstrained helicity ±(s, ···, 3/2) excitations, shorn of the lowest (non-dual) helicity ±1/2-rung and — more generally — of succeeding higher rung as well. Each helicity mode is separately duality invariant, like its flat space counterpart.
Local duality in spin structure functions g1(p) and g1(d)
Yelena Prok
2006-02-01
Inclusive double spin asymmetries obtained by scattering polarized electrons off polarized protons and deuterons have been analyzed to address the issue of quark hadron duality in the polarized spin structure functions gp 1 and gd 1. A polarized electron beam, solid polarized NH3 and ND3 targets and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B were used to collect the data. The resulting gp 1 and gd 1 were averaged over the nucleon resonance energy region (M
Splitting spacetime and cloning qubits: linking no-go theorems across the ER=EPR duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Ning; Pollack, Jason; Remmen, Grant N.
2015-11-01
We analyze the no-cloning theorem in quantum mechanics through the lens of the proposed ER=EPR (Einstein-Rosen = Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) duality between entanglement and wormholes. In particular, we find that the no-cloning theorem is dual on the gravity side to the no-go theorem for topology change, violating the axioms of which allows for wormhole stabilization and causality violation. Such a duality between important no-go theorems elucidates the proposed connection between spacetime geometry and quantum entanglement.
Political Education in Hungary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szabo, Mate
1989-01-01
The contradictions of political education in East European socialist countries based on the Hungarian experience are explored in this paper. Divided into three parts, the first part gives a brief sketch of institutionalized political education, while the second concerns the crisis of Hungary's political education emerging in the 1980s. In the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peterson, Steven A.
1986-01-01
Explores the relationship between death anxiety and sociopolitical attitudes and political behavior. Data from a sample of 209 undergraduate students indicate that death anxiety is modestly related to attitudes reflecting a turning away from the social and political world. Death anxiety does not seem related to political behavior. (Author)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.
2013-01-01
Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…
Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burson, George
1992-01-01
Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)
Political Education in Hungary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szabo, Mate
1989-01-01
The contradictions of political education in East European socialist countries based on the Hungarian experience are explored in this paper. Divided into three parts, the first part gives a brief sketch of institutionalized political education, while the second concerns the crisis of Hungary's political education emerging in the 1980s. In the…
Adolescent Rebellion and Politics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meeus, Wim
1988-01-01
Examination of 352 Dutch secondary school students reveals that adolescents with high-level education who endorse adolescent rebellion have a more distinctly left-wing profile--in both their political party preferences and their political views--than those with low-level education, who more often ratified political intolerance. (BJV)
Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacKinnon, Mary Pat
2008-01-01
The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political…
Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacKinnon, Mary Pat
2008-01-01
The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political…
Teaching Politically Correct Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsehelska, Maryna
2006-01-01
This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu
2015-01-01
Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…
Unique Rural District Politics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farmer, Tod Allen
2009-01-01
The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.
2013-01-01
Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…
The Politics of Education: From Political Science to Multidisciplinary Inquiry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Kenneth K.
1994-01-01
Discusses how political science has shaped educational politics. Examines educational politics' contribution to political science theory-building, highlighting federalism, multiple power centers, race relations, and democratic schooling issues. Explores why educational politics researchers diverge from the new political science paradigm (the…
What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.
Nye, M J
1999-01-01
There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.
Duality, Gauge Symmetries, Renormalization Groups and the BKT Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jorge V.
2017-03-01
In this chapter, I will briefly review, from my own perspective, the situation within theoretical physics at the beginning of the 1970s, and the advances that played an important role in providing a solid theoretical and experimental foundation for the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory (BKT). Over this period, it became clear that the Abelian gauge symmetry of the 2D-XY model had to be preserved to get the right phase structure of the model. In previous analyses, this symmetry was broken when using low order calculational approximations. Duality transformations at that time for two-dimensional models with compact gauge symmetries were introduced by José, Kadanoff, Nelson and Kirkpatrick (JKKN). Their goal was to analyze the phase structure and excitations of XY and related models, including symmetry breaking fields which are experimentally important. In a separate context, Migdal had earlier developed an approximate Renormalization Group (RG) algorithm to implement Wilson’s RG for lattice gauge theories. Although Migdal’s RG approach, later extended by Kadanoff, did not produce a true phase transition for the XY model, it almost did asymptotically in terms of a non-perturbative expansion in the coupling constant with an essential singularity. Using these advances, including work done on instantons (vortices), JKKN analyzed the behavior of the spin-spin correlation functions of the 2D XY-model in terms of an expansion in temperature and vortex-pair fugacity. Their analysis led to a perturbative derivation of RG equations for the XY model which are the same as those first derived by Kosterlitz for the two-dimensional Coulomb gas. JKKN’s results gave a theoretical formulation foundation and justification for BKT’s sound physical assumptions and for the validity of their calculational approximations that were, in principle, strictly valid only at very low temperatures, away from the critical TBKT temperature. The theoretical predictions were soon tested
Duality, Gauge Symmetries, Renormalization Groups and the BKT Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jorge V.
2013-06-01
In this chapter, I will briefly review, from my own perspective, the situation within theoretical physics at the beginning of the 1970s, and the advances that played an important role in providing a solid theoretical and experimental foundation for the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory (BKT). Over this period, it became clear that the Abelian gauge symmetry of the 2D-XY model had to be preserved to get the right phase structure of the model. In previous analyses, this symmetry was broken when using low order calculational approximations. Duality transformations at that time for two-dimensional models with compact gauge symmetries were introduced by José, Kadanoff, Nelson and Kirkpatrick (JKKN). Their goal was to analyze the phase structure and excitations of XY and related models, including symmetry breaking fields which are experimentally important. In a separate context, Migdal had earlier developed an approximate Renormalization Group (RG) algorithm to implement Wilson's RG for lattice gauge theories. Although Migdal's RG approach, later extended by Kadanoff, did not produce a true phase transition for the XY model, it almost did asymptotically in terms of a non-perturbative expansion in the coupling constant with an essential singularity. Using these advances, including work done on instantons (vortices), JKKN analyzed the behavior of the spin-spin correlation functions of the 2D XY-model in terms of an expansion in temperature and vortex-pair fugacity. Their analysis led to a perturbative derivation of RG equations for the XY model which are the same as those first derived by Kosterlitz for the two-dimensional Coulomb gas. JKKN's results gave a theoretical formulation foundation and justification for BKT's sound physical assumptions and for the validity of their calculational approximations that were, in principle, strictly valid only at very low temperatures, away from the critical TBKT temperature. The theoretical predictions were soon tested
Impact of Duality Violations on Spectral Sum Rule analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catà, Oscar
2007-02-01
Recent sum rule analyses on the
Krakauer, E.
1992-01-01
This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451
American Political Behavior. Revised Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.
This textbook is designed to increase political knowledge and sophistication about the U.S. political system. The volume consisting of five units tries to capture the vitality and drama of politics through the use of cases that describe the political activities of typical citizens and political leaders. Simulations, games, political attitude…
Hacker, Jacob S
2008-01-01
The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jovanović, Dejan; Barrett, Clark
The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.
The politics of researching global health politics
Rushton, Simon
2015-01-01
In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482
Duality in the Aharonov-Casher and Aharonov-Bohm effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohrlich, Daniel
2010-09-01
A neutral particle with a magnetic moment interacts with a charged particle. Such an interaction is invariant under the interchange of the particles. This interchangeability or duality of the particles elucidates subtleties of the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, including whether and how these two effects are themselves dual.
Sonic booms and diffusion wakes generated by a heavy quark in thermal gauge-string duality.
Gubser, Steven S; Pufu, Silviu S; Yarom, Amos
2008-01-11
We evaluate the Poynting vector generated by a heavy quark moving through a thermal state of N=4 gauge theory using the gauge-string duality. A significant diffusion wake is observed as well as a Mach cone. We discuss the ratio of the energy going into sound modes to the energy coming in from the wake.
Dyons and S-duality in N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Lowe, David A.
1996-02-01
We analyze the spectrum of dyons in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(3) spintaneously broken down to U(1) × U(1). The Higgs fields select a natural basis of simple roots. Acting with S-duality on the W-boson states corresponding to simplr roots leads to an orbit of BPS dyon states that are magnetically charged with respect to one of the U(1)'s. The corresponding monopole solutions can be obtained by embedding SU(2) monopoles into SU(3) and the S-duality predictions reduce to the SU(2) case. Acting with S-duality on the W-boson corresponding to a nonsimple root leads to an infinite set of new S-duality predictions. The simplest of these corresponds to the existence of a harmonic form on the moduli space of SU(3) monopoles that have magnetic charge (1,1) with respect to the two U(1)'s. We argue that the moduli space is given by R 3 × (R 1 x M)/ |Z, where M is Euclidean Taub-NUT space, and that the latter admits the appropriate normalizable harmonic two-form. We briefly discuss the generalizations to other gauge groups.
5D/4D U-dualities and N=8 black holes
Ceresole, Anna; Ferrara, Sergio; Gnecchi, Alessandra
2009-12-15
We use the connection between the U-duality groups in d=5 and d=4 to derive properties of the N=8 black hole potential and its critical points (attractors). This approach allows us to study and compare the supersymmetry features of different solutions.
Vocational Training in India and the Duality Principle: A Case for Evidence-Based Reform
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mehrotra, Santosh; Kalaiyarasan, A.; Kumra, Neha; Ravi Raman, K.
2015-01-01
This article explores the notion of the duality principle, as embodied in the German dual system of Vocational Education and Training (VET), within the context of a field survey of skill shortages faced by German and Indian firms operating in India. The study finds that these firms experience problems with the quantity and quality of skills…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie
2011-01-01
Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students' depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an…
Symmetry and Degeneracy in Quantum Mechanics. Self-Duality in Finite Spin Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osacar, C.; Pacheco, A. F.
2009-01-01
The symmetry of self-duality (Savit 1980 "Rev. Mod. Phys. 52" 453) of some models of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed for finite spin blocks of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field. The existence of this symmetry in a specific type of these blocks, and not in others, is manifest by the degeneracy of their…
Vocational Training in India and the Duality Principle: A Case for Evidence-Based Reform
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mehrotra, Santosh; Kalaiyarasan, A.; Kumra, Neha; Ravi Raman, K.
2015-01-01
This article explores the notion of the duality principle, as embodied in the German dual system of Vocational Education and Training (VET), within the context of a field survey of skill shortages faced by German and Indian firms operating in India. The study finds that these firms experience problems with the quantity and quality of skills…
The Duality of Zero in the Transition from Arithmetic to Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallardo, Aurora; Hernandez, Abraham
2005-01-01
This article shows that the recognition of the dualities in equality (operator-equivalent) of the minus sign (unary-binary) and the zero (nullity-totality) during the transitional process from arithmetic to algebra by 12-13 year-old students constitutes a possible way to achieve the extension of the natural number domain to the integers. (Contains…
Six-dimensional origin of N = 4 SYM with duality defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assel, Benjamin; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura
2016-12-01
We study the topologically twisted compactification of the 6d (2, 0) M5-brane theory on an elliptically fibered Kähler three-fold preserving two supercharges. We show that upon reducing on the elliptic fiber, the 4d theory is N = 4 Super-Yang Mills, with varying complexified coupling τ , in the presence of defects. For abelian gauge group this agrees with the so-called duality twisted theory, and we determine a non-abelian generalization to U( N). When the elliptic fibration is singular, the 4d theory contains 3d walls (along the branch-cuts of τ ) and 2d surface defects, around which the 4d theory undergoes SL(2,Z) duality transformations. Such duality defects carry chiral fields, which from the 6d point of view arise as modes of the two-form B in the tensor multiplet. Each duality defect has a flavor symmetry associated to it, which is encoded in the structure of the singular elliptic fiber above the defect. Generically 2d surface defects will intersect in points in 4d, where there is an enhanced flavor symmetry. The 6d point of view provides a complete characterization of this 4d-3d-2d-0d `Matroshka'-defect configuration.
Boundaries, mirror symmetry, and symplectic duality in 3d N=4 gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide; Hilburn, Justin
2016-10-01
We introduce several families of N=(2, 2) UV boundary conditions in 3d N=4 gaugetheoriesandstudytheirIRimagesinsigma-modelstotheHiggsandCoulomb branches. In the presence of Omega deformations, a UV boundary condition defines a pair of modules for quantized algebras of chiral Higgs- and Coulomb-branch operators, respec-tively, whose structure we derive. In the case of abelian theories, we use the formalism of hyperplane arrangements to make our constructions very explicit, and construct a half-BPS interface that implements the action of 3d mirror symmetry on gauge theories and boundary conditions. Finally, by studying two-dimensional compactifications of 3d N=4 gauge theories and their boundary conditions, we propose a physical origin for symplectic duality — an equivalence of categories of modules associated to families of Higgs and Coulomb branches that has recently appeared in the mathematics literature, and generalizes classic results on Koszul duality in geometric representation theory. We make several predictions about the structure of symplectic duality, and identify Koszul duality as a special case of wall crossing.
How to Teach Hicksian Compensation and Duality Using a Spreadsheet Optimizer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghosh, Satyajit; Ghosh, Sarah
2007-01-01
Principle of duality and numerical calculation of income and substitution effects under Hicksian Compensation are often left out of intermediate microeconomics courses because they require a rigorous calculus based analysis. But these topics are critically important for understanding consumer behavior. In this paper we use excel solver--a…
Boundaries, mirror symmetry, and symplectic duality in 3d N = 4 gauge theory
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide; ...
2016-10-20
We introduce several families of N = (2, 2) UV boundary conditions in 3d N=4 gauge theories and study their IR images in sigma-models to the Higgs and Coulomb branches. In the presence of Omega deformations, a UV boundary condition defines a pair of modules for quantized algebras of chiral Higgs- and Coulomb-branch operators, respectively, whose structure we derive. In the case of abelian theories, we use the formalism of hyperplane arrangements to make our constructions very explicit, and construct a half-BPS interface that implements the action of 3d mirror symmetry on gauge theories and boundary conditions. Finally, by studyingmore » two-dimensional compactifications of 3d N = 4 gauge theories and their boundary conditions, we propose a physical origin for symplectic duality $-$ an equivalence of categories of modules associated to families of Higgs and Coulomb branches that has recently appeared in the mathematics literature, and generalizes classic results on Koszul duality in geometric representation theory. We make several predictions about the structure of symplectic duality, and identify Koszul duality as a special case of wall crossing.« less
Boundaries, mirror symmetry, and symplectic duality in 3d N = 4 gauge theory
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide; Hilburn, Justin
2016-10-20
We introduce several families of N = (2, 2) UV boundary conditions in 3d N=4 gauge theories and study their IR images in sigma-models to the Higgs and Coulomb branches. In the presence of Omega deformations, a UV boundary condition defines a pair of modules for quantized algebras of chiral Higgs- and Coulomb-branch operators, respectively, whose structure we derive. In the case of abelian theories, we use the formalism of hyperplane arrangements to make our constructions very explicit, and construct a half-BPS interface that implements the action of 3d mirror symmetry on gauge theories and boundary conditions. Finally, by studying two-dimensional compactifications of 3d N = 4 gauge theories and their boundary conditions, we propose a physical origin for symplectic duality $-$ an equivalence of categories of modules associated to families of Higgs and Coulomb branches that has recently appeared in the mathematics literature, and generalizes classic results on Koszul duality in geometric representation theory. We make several predictions about the structure of symplectic duality, and identify Koszul duality as a special case of wall crossing.
Sonic Booms and Diffusion Wakes Generated by a Heavy Quark in Thermal Gauge-String Duality
Gubser, Steven S.; Pufu, Silviu S.; Yarom, Amos
2008-01-11
We evaluate the Poynting vector generated by a heavy quark moving through a thermal state of N=4 gauge theory using the gauge-string duality. A significant diffusion wake is observed as well as a Mach cone. We discuss the ratio of the energy going into sound modes to the energy coming in from the wake.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie
2011-01-01
Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students' depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an…
How to Teach Hicksian Compensation and Duality Using a Spreadsheet Optimizer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghosh, Satyajit; Ghosh, Sarah
2007-01-01
Principle of duality and numerical calculation of income and substitution effects under Hicksian Compensation are often left out of intermediate microeconomics courses because they require a rigorous calculus based analysis. But these topics are critically important for understanding consumer behavior. In this paper we use excel solver--a…
Symmetry and Degeneracy in Quantum Mechanics. Self-Duality in Finite Spin Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osacar, C.; Pacheco, A. F.
2009-01-01
The symmetry of self-duality (Savit 1980 "Rev. Mod. Phys. 52" 453) of some models of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed for finite spin blocks of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field. The existence of this symmetry in a specific type of these blocks, and not in others, is manifest by the degeneracy of their…
Geometric representation of the generator of duality in massless and massive p-form field theories
Contreras, Ernesto; Martinez, Yisely; Leal, Lorenzo
2010-11-15
We study the invariance under duality transformations in massless and massive p-form field theories and obtain the Noether generators of the infinitesimal transformations that correspond to this symmetry. These generators can be realized in geometrical representations that generalize the loop representation of the Maxwell field, allowing for a geometrical interpretation which is studied.
N-person differential games. Part 1: Duality-finite element methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, G.; Zheng, Q.
1983-01-01
The duality approach, which is motivated by computational needs and is done by introducing N + 1 Language multipliers is addressed. For N-person linear quadratic games, the primal min-max problem is shown to be equivalent to the dual min-max problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzenko, Sergei M.
2016-12-01
In three spacetime dimensions, (super)conformal geometry is controlled by the (super-)Cotton tensor. We present a new duality transformation for N-extended supersymmetric theories formulated in terms of the linearised super-Cotton tensor or its higher spin extensions for the cases N = 2 , 1 , 0. In the N = 2 case, this transformation is a generalisation of the linear-chiral duality, which provides a dual description in terms of chiral superfields for general models of self-interacting N = 2 vector multiplets in three dimensions and N = 1 tensor multiplets in four dimensions. For superspin-1 (gravitino multiplet), superspin-3/2 (supergravity multiplet) and any higher superspin s ≥ 2, the duality transformation relates a higher-derivative theory to one containing at most two derivatives at the component level. In the N = 1 case, we introduce gauge prepotentials for higher spin superconformal gravity and construct the corresponding super-Cotton tensors, as well as the higher spin extensions of the linearised N = 1 conformal supergravity action. Our N = 1 duality transformation is a higher spin extension of the known superfield duality relating the massless N = 1 vector and scalar multiplets. Our N = 0 duality transformation is a higher spin extension of the vector-scalar duality.
Twisted self-duality for higher spin gauge fields and prepotentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henneaux, Marc; Hörtner, Sergio; Leonard, Amaury
2016-11-01
We show that the equations of motion for (free) integer higher spin gauge fields can be formulated as twisted self-duality conditions on the higher spin curvatures of the spin-s field and its dual. We focus on the case of four spacetime dimensions, but formulate our results in a manner applicable to higher spacetime dimensions. The twisted self-duality conditions are redundant and we exhibit a nonredundant subset of conditions, which have the remarkable property to involve only first-order derivatives with respect to time. This nonredundant subset equates the electric field of the spin-s field (which we define) to the magnetic field of its dual (which we also define), and vice versa. The nonredundant subset of twisted self-duality conditions involve the purely spatial components of the spin-s field and its dual, and also the components of the fields with one zero index. One can get rid of these gauge components by taking the curl of the equations, which does not change their physical content. In this form, the twisted self-duality conditions can be derived from a variational principle that involves prepotentials. These prepotentials are the higher spin generalizations of the prepotentials previously found in the spins 2 and 3 cases. The prepotentials have again the intriguing feature of possessing both higher spin diffeomorphism invariance and higher spin conformal geometry. The tools introduced in an earlier paper for handling higher spin conformal geometry turn out to be crucial for streamlining the analysis. In four spacetime dimensions where the electric and magnetic fields are tensor fields of the same type, the twisted self-duality conditions enjoy an S O (2 ) electric-magnetic invariance. We explicitly show that this symmetry is an "off-shell symmetry" (i.e., a symmetry of the action and not just of the equations of motion). Remarks on the extension to higher dimensions are given.
Mross, David F; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei I
2016-07-01
We explicitly derive the duality between a free electronic Dirac cone and quantum electrodynamics in (2+1) dimensions (QED_{3}) with N=1 fermion flavors. The duality proceeds via an exact, nonlocal mapping from electrons to dual fermions with long-range interactions encoded by an emergent gauge field. This mapping allows us to construct parent Hamiltonians for exotic topological-insulator surface phases, derive the particle-hole-symmetric field theory of a half-filled Landau level, and nontrivially constrain QED_{3} scaling dimensions. We similarly establish duality between bosonic topological insulator surfaces and N=2 QED_{3}.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, Robert J.
2003-01-01
Projects can, and do, succeed because of politics. And they can fail due to politics, as well. Politics does not have to be a dirty word, if it means working closely and openly with customers and stakeholder s; it is an essential approach that requires continuous dedication of time and attention. Project management is a people industry. Gainin g the trust of your followers will grant you more influence than any formal authority.
2010-05-01
system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in
Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.
2013-01-01
In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177
Cosmopolitan political science.
Grande, Edgar
2006-03-01
Until recently, the term cosmopolitism could rarely be found in modern political science literature. It was only in the 1990s that the term was rediscovered by political scientists in the critical discourse on globalization. In this article, I will explore the full potential of cosmopolitism as an analytical concept for empirical political science. I will argue that the concept of cosmopolitism should not be restricted to the analysis of global politics. Indeed, cosmopolitism has much more to offer for political scientists. Properly understood, it enables--and necessitates--a re-invention of political science in the age of globalization, comparable to the behavioural revolution in political science in the 1950s. Such a paradigmatic shift should be based on a twofold transformation of existing disciplinary boundaries: A removal of the boundary between national (and comparative) and international politics on the one hand; and a re-definition of the boundaries between empirical and normative approaches on the other. As a result, cosmopolitism may serve as a new, critical theory of politics based on the integration of hitherto separated fields and sub-fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, John M.
The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.
Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E
2013-01-01
In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.
Renormalized Polyakov loop in the deconfined phase of SU(N) gauge theory and gauge-string duality.
Andreev, Oleg
2009-05-29
We use gauge-string duality to analytically evaluate the renormalized Polyakov loop in pure Yang-Mills theories. For SU(3), the result is in quite good agreement with lattice simulations for a broad temperature range.
The Evolution of Chicano Politics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Navarro, Armando
1974-01-01
The historical evolution of Chicano politics from the United States war with Mexico to the early seventies is analyzed in 4 stages: 1) Politics of Resistance (1846-1915); 2) Politics of Accommodation (1915-1945); 3) Politics of Social Change (1945-1965); and 4) Politics of Protest (1965-1972). (NQ)
Educating for Political Activity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chitty, Clyde
2010-01-01
The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that…
Political Corruption in Japan.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reed, Steven R.; And Others
1996-01-01
Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)
Getting Your Political Bearings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Owen, Jane
2007-01-01
Being an instructional leader is important, but no one can be an instructional leader without a job. Political astuteness is key to survival in the principalship. The salient question, of course, is, How does one become politically astute? This process involves learning how to conscientiously and accurately keep a finger on the pulse of the…
Politics of Textbook Selection.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keith, Sherry
The process of determining textbook content and selecting textbooks for classroom use in public schools throughout America is highly political and raises many fundamental questions about the relationship between education as a social enterprise and other aspects of society--economic, ideological, political, and legal. This study focuses on three…
America's Political Cartoon Heritage.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heitzmann, William Ray
1988-01-01
Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and…
America's Political Cartoon Heritage.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heitzmann, William Ray
1988-01-01
Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and…
Political Corruption in Japan.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reed, Steven R.; And Others
1996-01-01
Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)
Educating for Political Activity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chitty, Clyde
2010-01-01
The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that…
Sexuality, Power, and Politics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hartsock, Nancy C. M.
The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Information Update, 1991
1991-01-01
This document examines political questions that surround the issue of literacy. "City Literacy Cuts" outlines effects of the most recent budget cuts in New York City. "Families, Inequality, and Power: The Cultural Politics of Literacy" (Deborah D'Amico-Samuels) focuses on the importance of understanding the different models…
The Politics of Encyclopaedias
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fozooni, Babak
2012-01-01
The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…
The Politics of Encyclopaedias
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fozooni, Babak
2012-01-01
The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…
Glaser, J; Salovey, P
1998-01-01
Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.
The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reichert, Frank
2014-01-01
Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…
Student life - Making politics matter.
McCullough, Siobhan
2014-12-02
'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merrell, Willie Carl, II
2007-12-01
We describe the use of superspace techniques to discuss some of the issues in string theory. First we use superspace techniques to derive the effective action for the 10D N = 1 Heterotic string perturbatively to first order in the parameter alpha'. Next we demonstrate how to use the superspace description of the supersymmetric gauge multiplet for chiral superfield in 2d N = (2, 2) to discuss T duality for sigma models that realizes a particular case of generalized Kahler geometry. We find that the salient features of T duality are captured but at the cost of introducing unwanted fields in dual sigma model. Fortunately the extra fields decouple from the relevant fields under consideration. This leads us to introduce a new supersymmetric gauge multiplet that will eliminate the need to introduce extra fields in the dual sigma model.
New dualities and misleading anomaly matchings from outer-automorphism twists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Sridip; Song, Jaewon
2017-03-01
We study four-dimensional N=1, 2 superconformal theories in class S obtained by compactifying the 6d N=(2, 0) theory on a Riemann surface C with outer-automorphism twist lines. From the pair-of-pants decompositions of C, we find various dual descriptions for the same theory having distinct gauge groups. We show that the various configurations of the twist line give rise to dual descriptions for the identical theory. We compute the 't Hooft anomaly coefficients and the superconformal indices to test dualities. Surprisingly, we find that the class S theories with twist lines wrapping 1-cycles of C have the identical 't Hooft anomalies as the ones without the twist line, whereas the superconformal indices differ. This provides a large set of examples where the anomaly matching is insufficient to test dualities.
Non-abelian T-duality and consistent truncations in type-II supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itsios, Georgios; Lozano, Yolanda; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.; Sfetsos, Konstadinos
2012-08-01
For a general class of SO(4) symmetric backgrounds in type-II supergravity, we show that the action of non-Abelian T-duality can be described via consistent truncation to seven dimensional theories with seemingly massive modes. As such, any solution to these theories uplifts to both massive type IIA and IIB supergravities presenting an invertible map between the two. For supersymmetric backgrounds, we show that for spinors transforming under SO(4) the non-Abelian T-duality transformation breaks the original supersymmetry by half. We use these mappings to generate the non-Abelian T-duals of the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave, the Lin, Lunin, Maldacena geometries and spacetimes with Lifshitz symmetry.
Non-Abelian vortices on a cylinder: Duality between vortices and walls
Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Isozumi, Youichi; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke; Ohta, Kazutoshi
2006-04-15
We investigate vortices on a cylinder in supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theory with hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation. We identify moduli space of periodic vortices and find that a pair of wall-like objects appears as the vortex moduli is varied. Usual domain walls also can be obtained from the single vortex on the cylinder by introducing a twisted boundary condition. We can understand these phenomena as a T duality among D-brane configurations in type II superstring theories. Using this T-duality picture, we find a one-to-one correspondence between the moduli space of non-Abelian vortices and that of kinky D-brane configurations for domain walls.
New dualities and misleading anomaly matchings from outer-automorphism twists
Pal, Sridip; Song, Jaewon
2017-03-29
We study four-dimensional N=1, 2 superconformal theories in class S obtained by compactifying the 6d N=(2, 0) theory on a Riemann surface C with outer-automorphism twist lines. From the pair-of-pants decompositions of C, we find various dual descriptions for the same theory having distinct gauge groups. We show that the various configurations of the twist line give rise to dual descriptions for the identical theory. We compute the ’t Hooft anomaly coefficients and the superconformal indices to test dualities. Surprisingly, we find that the class S theories with twist lines wrapping 1-cycles of C have the identical ’t Hooft anomaliesmore » as the ones without the twist line, whereas the superconformal indices differ. As a result, this provides a large set of examples where the anomaly matching is insufficient to test dualities.« less
Large N topologically twisted index: necklace quivers, dualities, and Sasaki-Einstein spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Mekareeya, Noppadol
2016-08-01
In this paper, we calculate the topological free energy for a number of {N} ≥ 2 Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons-matter theories at large N and fixed Chern-Simons levels. The topological free energy is defined as the logarithm of the partition function of the theory on S 2 × S 1 with a topological A-twist along S 2 and can be reduced to a matrix integral by exploiting the localization technique. The theories of our interest are dual to a variety of Calabi-Yau four-fold singularities, including a product of two asymptotically locally Euclidean singularities and the cone over various well-known homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds, N 0,1,0, V 5,2, and Q 1,1,1. We check that the large N topological free energy can be matched for theories which are related by dualities, including mirror symmetry and SL(2,{Z}) duality.
Gauge/gravity duality and the interplay of various fractional branes
Argurio, Riccardo; Closset, Cyril; Benini, Francesco; Bertolini, Matteo; Cremonesi, Stefano
2008-08-15
We consider different types of fractional branes on a Z{sub 2} orbifold of the conifold and analyze in detail the corresponding gauge/gravity duality. The gauge theory possesses a rich and varied dynamics, both in the UV and in the IR. We find the dual supergravity solution, which contains both untwisted and twisted 3-form fluxes, related to what are known as deformation and N=2 fractional branes, respectively. We analyze the resulting renormalization group flow from the supergravity perspective, by developing an algorithm to easily extract it. We find hints of a generalization of the familiar cascade of Seiberg dualities due to a nontrivial interplay between the different types of fractional branes. We finally consider the IR behavior in several limits, where the dominant effective dynamics is either confining in a Coulomb phase or runaway, and discuss the resolution of singularities in the dual geometric background.
Infinite-Dimensional Schur-Weyl Duality and the Coxeter-Laplace Operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsilevich, N. V.; Vershik, A. M.
2014-05-01
We extend the classical Schur-Weyl duality between representations of the groups and to the case of and the infinite symmetric group . Our construction is based on a "dynamic," or inductive, scheme of Schur-Weyl dualities. It leads to a new class of representations of the infinite symmetric group, which has not appeared earlier. We describe these representations and, in particular, find their spectral types with respect to the Gelfand-Tsetlin algebra. The main example of such a representation acts in an incomplete infinite tensor product. As an important application, we consider the weak limit of the so-called Coxeter-Laplace operator, which is essentially the Hamiltonian of the XXX Heisenberg model, in these representations.
Systematic classical continuum limits of integrable spin chains and emerging novel dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia; Sfetsos, Konstadinos
2010-12-01
We examine certain classical continuum long wave-length limits of prototype integrable quantum spin chains. We define the corresponding construction of classical continuum Lax operators. Our discussion starts with the XXX chain, the anisotropic Heisenberg model and their generalizations and extends to the generic isotropic and anisotropic gl magnets. Certain classical and quantum integrable models emerging from special "dualities" of quantum spin chains, parametrized by c-number matrices, are also presented.
Duality and Other Exotic Gauge Dynamics in Software Broken Supersymmetric QCD
Peskin, Michael E
2003-06-11
We analyze the theory of softly broken supersymmetric QCD. Exotic behavior like spontaneously broken baryon number, massless composite fermions and Seiberg's duality seems to persist also in the presence of (small) soft supersymmetry breaking. We argue that certain, specially tailored, lattice simulations may be able to detect the novel phenomena. Most of the exotic behavior does not survive the decoupling limit of large SUSY breaking parameters.
Duality of thermal regimes is the distinctive characteristic of plate tectonics since the Neoarchean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Michael
2006-11-01
Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite metamorphism is documented predominantly in the Neoarchean to Cambrian rock record, but UHT granulite metamorphism also may be inferred at depth in Cenozoic orogenic systems. The first occurrence of UHT granulite metamorphism in the record signifies a change in geodynamics that generated transient sites of very high heat flow. Many UHT granulite metamorphic belts may have developed in settings analogous to modern continental backarcs; on a warmer Earth, destruction of oceans floored by thinner lithosphere may have generated hotter backarcs than those associated with the modern Pacific ring of fire. Medium-temperature eclogite high- pressure (EHP) granulite metamorphism is documented in the Neoarchean rock record and at intervals throughout the Proterozoic and Paleozoic record. EHP granulite metamorphic belts are complementary to UHT granulite metamorphic belts in that they are generally inferred to record subduction-to-collision orogenesis. Blueschists become evident in the Neoproterozoic rock record, but lawsonite blueschist eclogite metamorphism (high pressure [HP]) and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHP) characterized by coesite or diamond are predominantly Phanerozoic phenomena. HP-UHP metamorphism registers the low thermal gradients and deep subduction of continental crust during the early stage of subduction-to-collision orogenesis. A duality of metamorphic belts—reflecting a duality of thermal regimes—appears in the record only since the Neoarchean Era. A duality of thermal regimes is the hallmark of modern plate tectonics, and the duality of metamorphic belts is the characteristic imprint of plate tectonics in the rock record. The occurrence of both UHT and EHP granulite metamorphism since the Neoarchean marks the onset of a “Proterozoic plate tectonics” regime, which evolved during a Neoproterozoic transition to the modern plate tectonics regime, characterized by colder subduction as chronicled by HP
Aspects of the T-duality construction for the Supermembrane theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia del Moral, M. P.; Pena, J. M.; Restuccia, A.
2016-05-01
In this note we explicitly show how the generalization of the T-duality symmetry of the supermembrane theory compactified in M9 x T 2 can be reduced to a parabolic subgroup of SL(2,Z) that acts non-linearly on the moduli parameters and on the KK and winding charges of the supermembrane. This is a first step towards a deeper understanding of the dual relation between the parabolic type II gauged supergravity in nine dimensions.
Jordan pairs, E6 and U-duality in five dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Zumino, Bruno
2013-02-01
By exploiting the Jordan pair structure of U-duality Lie algebras in D = 3 and the relation to the super-Ehlers symmetry in D = 5, we elucidate the massless multiplet structure of the spectrum of a broad class of D = 5 supergravity theories. Both simple and semi-simple, Euclidean rank-3 Jordan algebras are considered. Theories sharing the same bosonic sector but with different supersymmetrizations are also analyzed.
Lectures on the gauge/string duality with emphasis on spectroscopy
Mateos, David
2010-11-12
I review recent progress on the connection between string theory and quantum chromo-dynamics in the context of the gauge/string duality. Emphasis is placed on conciseness and conceptual aspects rather than on technical details. Topics covered include the large-N{sub c} limit of gauge theories, the gravitational description of gauge theory thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, and the physics of quarks and mesons in the quark-gluon plasma.
World-sheet duality for D-branes with travelling waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachas, Constantin P.; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.
2004-03-01
We study D-branes with plane waves of arbitrary profiles as examples of time-dependent backgrounds in string theory. We show how to reproduce the quantum mechanical (one-to-one) open-string S-matrix starting from the closed-string boundary state for the D-branes, thereby establishing the channel duality of this calculation. The required Wick rotation to a lorentzian worldsheet singles out as `prefered' time coordinate the open-string light-cone time.
Electric-magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Jun-Kai; Ma, Chen-Te
2016-08-01
Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.
Duality and the geometric measure of entanglement of general multiqubit W states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaryan, Sayatnova; Sudbery, Anthony; Tamaryan, Levon
2010-05-01
We find the nearest product states for arbitrary generalized W states of n qubits, and show that the nearest product state is essentially unique if the W state is highly entangled. It is specified by a unit vector in Euclidean n-dimensional space. We use this duality between unit vectors and highly entangled W states to find the geometric measure of entanglement of such states.
Sewing relations and duality for BRST off-shell string tadpole amplitudes
Ordonez, C.R. ); Rey, S.; Rubin, M.A.; Zucchini, R.
1989-09-15
Using a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin- (BRST-)invariant first-quantized formalism for closed-bosonic-string theory, we construct amplitudes for closed-string tadpoles in the conformal gauge and discuss the connection with covariant string field theory in the Siegel gauge. We also show that the application of the sewing rules, previously found for propagators, to pairs of these tadpole amplitudes yields the Klein-bottle and annulus one-loop vacuum amplitudes as required by duality and factorization.
Crossing symmetry and modular invariance in conformal field theory and S duality in gauge theory
Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Xie, Dan
2009-11-15
In this paper, we explore the relation between crossing symmetry and modular invariance in conformal field theory and S duality in gauge theory. It is shown that partition functions of different S dual theories of N=2 SU(2) gauge theory with four fundamentals can be derived from the crossing symmetry of the Liouville four-point function. We also show that the partition function of N=4 SU(2) gauge theory can be derived from the Liouville partition function on torus.
Generalized Dirac duality and CP violation in a two-photon theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Paola; Das, Ashok K.; Gamboa, Jorge; Méndez, Fernando
2017-02-01
A kinetic mixing term, which generalizes the duality symmetry of Dirac, is studied in a theory with two photons (visible and hidden). This theory can be either CP conserving or CP violating depending on the transformation of fields in the hidden sector. However, if CP is violated, it necessarily occurs in the hidden sector. This opens up an interesting possibility of new sources of CP violation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamshidnia, Hamidreza; Gudmundsson, Magnus Tumi
2016-11-01
Rates of energy transfer in water-filled cavities formed under glaciers by geothermal and volcanic activity are investigated by conducting experiments in which hot water jets (10°- 90°C) impinging into an ice block for jet Reynolds numbers in turbulent regime of 10000 -70000. It is found that heat flux is linearly dependent on jet flow temperature. Water jet melts a cavity into an ice block. Cavities had steep to vertical sides with a doming roof. Some of ice blocks used had trapped air bubbles. In these cases that melting of the ice could have led to trapping of air at the top of cavity, partially insulating the roof from hot water jet. The overall heat transfer rate in cavity formation varied with jet temperature from <100 kW m-2 to 900 kW m-2 while melting rates in the vertical direction yield heat transfer rates of 200-1200 kW m-2. Experimental heat transfer rates can be compared to data on subglacial melting observed for ice cauldrons in Iceland. For lowest temperatures the numbers are comparable to those for geothermal water in cool, subglacial water bodies and above subglacial flowpaths of jökulhlaups. Highest experimental rates for 80-90°C jets are 3-10 times less than inferred from observations of recent subglacial eruptions (2000-4000 kW m-2) . This can indicate that single phase liquid water convection alone may not be sufficient to explain the rates seen in recent subglacial eruptions, suggesting that forced 2 or 3 phase convection can be common.
Reichert, Frank
2016-05-01
This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.
2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.
2012-08-16
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Peng; Cheng, Meng; Fradkin, Eduardo
2017-08-01
In this paper, we propose a generalization of the S -duality of four-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED4) to QED4 with fractionally charged excitations, the fractional S -duality. Such QED4 can be obtained by gauging the U(1) symmetry of a topologically ordered state with fractional charges. When time-reversal symmetry is imposed, the axion angle (θ ) can take a nontrivial but still time-reversal-invariant value π /t2 (t ∈Z ). Here, 1 /t specifies the minimal electric charge carried by bulk excitations. Such states with time-reversal and U(1) global symmetry (fermion number conservation) are fractional topological insulators (FTIs). We propose a topological quantum field theory description, which microscopically justifies the fractional S -duality. Then, we consider stacking operations (i.e., a direct sum of Hamiltonians) among FTIs. We find that there are two topologically distinct classes of FTIs: type I and type II. Type I (t ∈Zodd ) can be obtained by directly stacking a noninteracting topological insulator and a fractionalized gapped fermionic state with minimal charge 1 /t and vanishing θ . But type II (t ∈Zeven ) cannot be realized through any stacking. Finally, we study the surface topological order of fractional topological insulators.
Serre duality, Abel's theorem, and Jacobi inversion for supercurves over a thick superpoint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rothstein, Mitchell J.; Rabin, Jeffrey M.
2015-04-01
The principal aim of this paper is to extend Abel's theorem to the setting of complex supermanifolds of dimension 1 | q over a finite-dimensional local supercommutative C-algebra. The theorem is proved by establishing a compatibility of Serre duality for the supercurve with Poincaré duality on the reduced curve. We include an elementary algebraic proof of the requisite form of Serre duality, closely based on the account of the reduced case given by Serre in Algebraic groups and class fields, combined with an invariance result for the topology on the dual of the space of répartitions. Our Abel map, taking Cartier divisors of degree zero to the dual of the space of sections of the Berezinian sheaf, modulo periods, is defined via Penkov's characterization of the Berezinian sheaf as the cohomology of the de Rham complex of the sheaf D of differential operators. We discuss the Jacobi inversion problem for the Abel map and give an example demonstrating that if n is an integer sufficiently large that the generic divisor of degree n is linearly equivalent to an effective divisor, this need not be the case for all divisors of degree n.
ν-K0 Analogy, Dirac-Majorana Neutrino Duality and the Neutrino Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipmanov, E. M.
The intent of this paper is to convey a new primary physical idea of a Dirac-Majorana neutrino duality in relation to the topical problem of neutrino oscillations. In view of the new atmospheric, solar and the LSND neutrino oscillation data, the Pontecorvo ν - K0 oscillation analogy is generalized to the notion of neutrino duality with substantially different physical meaning ascribed to the long-baseline and the short-baseline neutrino oscillations. At the level of CP-invariance, the suggestion of dual neutrino properties defines the symmetric two-mixing-angle form of the widely discussed four-neutrino (2 +2)-mixing scheme, as a result of the lepton charge conservation selection rule and a minimum of two Dirac neutrino fields. With neutrino duality, the two-doublet structure of the Majorana neutrino mass spectrum is a vestige of the two-Dirac-neutrino origin. The fine neutrino mass doublet structure is natural because it is produced by a lepton charge symmetry violating perturbation on a zero-approximation system of two twofold mass-degenerate Dirac neutrino-antineutrino pairs. A set of inferences related to the neutrino oscillation phenomenology in vacuum is considered.
Integral group actions on symmetric spaces and discrete duality symmetries of supergravity theories
Carbone, Lisa; Murray, Scott H.; Sati, Hisham
2015-10-15
For G = G(ℝ), a split, simply connected, semisimple Lie group of rank n and K the maximal compact subgroup of G, we give a method for computing Iwasawa coordinates of K∖G using the Chevalley generators and the Steinberg presentation. When K∖G is a scalar coset for a supergravity theory in dimensions ≥3, we determine the action of the integral form G(ℤ) on K∖G. We give explicit results for the action of the discrete U-duality groups SL{sub 2}(ℤ) and E{sub 7}(ℤ) on the scalar cosets SO(2)∖SL{sub 2}(ℝ) and [SU(8)/( ± Id)]∖E{sub 7(+7)}(ℝ) for type IIB supergravity in ten dimensions and 11-dimensional supergravity reduced to D = 4 dimensions, respectively. For the former, we use this to determine the discrete U-duality transformations on the scalar sector in the Borel gauge and we describe the discrete symmetries of the dyonic charge lattice. We determine the spectrum-generating symmetry group for fundamental BPS solitons of type IIB supergravity in D = 10 dimensions at the classical level and we propose an analog of this symmetry at the quantum level. We indicate how our methods can be used to study the orbits of discrete U-duality groups in general.
Applications of quark-hadron duality in F2 structure function
Malace, S P
2009-09-01
Inclusive electron-proton and electron-deuteron inelastic cross sections have been measured at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in the resonance region, at large Bjorken x, up to 0.92, and four-momentum transfer squared Q2 up to 7.5 GeV2 in the experiment E00-116. These measurements are used to extend to larger x and Q2 precision, quantitative, studies of the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality. Our analysis confirms, both globally and locally, the apparent violation of quark-hadron duality previously observed at a Q2 of 3.5 GeV2 when resonance data are compared to structure function data created from CTEQ6M and MRST2004 parton distribution functions (PDFs). More importantly, our new data show that this discrepancy saturates by Q2 ~ 4 Gev2, becoming Q2 independent. This suggests only small violations of Q2 evolution by contributions from the higher-twist terms in the resonance region which is confirmed by our comparisons to ALEKHIN and ALLM97.We conclude that the unconstrained strength of the CTEQ6M and MRST2004 PDFs at large x is the major source of the disagreement between data and these parameterizations in the kinematic regime we study and that, in view of quark-hadron duality, properly averaged resonance region data could be used in global QCD fits to reduce PDF uncertainties at large x.
Duality between the Deconfined Quantum-Critical Point and the Bosonic Topological Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Yan Qi; He, Yuan-Yao; You, Yi-Zhuang; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Sen, Arnab; Sandvik, Anders W.; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang
2017-07-01
Recently, significant progress has been made in (2 +1 )-dimensional conformal field theories without supersymmetry. In particular, it was realized that different Lagrangians may be related by hidden dualities; i.e., seemingly different field theories may actually be identical in the infrared limit. Among all the proposed dualities, one has attracted particular interest in the field of strongly correlated quantum-matter systems: the one relating the easy-plane noncompact CP1 model (NCCP1 ) and noncompact quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two flavors (N =2 ) of massless two-component Dirac fermions. The easy-plane NCCP1 model is the field theory of the putative deconfined quantum-critical point separating a planar (X Y ) antiferromagnet and a dimerized (valence-bond solid) ground state, while N =2 noncompact QED is the theory for the transition between a bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and a trivial Mott insulator. In this work, we present strong numerical support for the proposed duality. We realize the N =2 noncompact QED at a critical point of an interacting fermion model on the bilayer honeycomb lattice and study it using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. Using stochastic series expansion QMC simulations, we study a planar version of the S =1 /2 J -Q spin Hamiltonian (a quantum X Y model with additional multispin couplings) and show that it hosts a continuous transition between the X Y magnet and the valence-bond solid. The duality between the two systems, following from a mapping of their phase diagrams extending from their respective critical points, is supported by the good agreement between the critical exponents according to the proposed duality relationships. In the J -Q model, we find both continuous and first-order transitions, depending on the degree of planar anisotropy, with deconfined quantum criticality surviving only up to moderate strengths of the anisotropy. This explains previous claims of no deconfined quantum
Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Michel, Dirk
2007-01-01
This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…
The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael
2017-01-01
This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…
The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael
2017-01-01
This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…
Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri
2015-01-01
There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…
Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri
2015-01-01
There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…
Semi-Projective Methods, Political Attitudes, and Political Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Binford, Michael B.
Semi-projective holistic methods in political science research can augment knowledge of political attitudes and political reasoning. Semi-projective methods refer to techniques which present focused or structured stimuli and allow an unrestricted range of responses. Visual stimuli include ink blots, standard drawings, political cartoons, or…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tillman, Hope N.
1988-01-01
Reviews the literature that deals with the political ramifications of weeding material from academic library collections and the need to involve users and other libraries within the institution in the decision process. (14 references) (CLB)
Fugelli, P
1991-03-20
If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.
Australia's Political Structure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sawer, Geoffrey
1984-01-01
Australia is an independent nation-state, federally constituted under a democratic parliamentary system. Being part of the Commonwealth of Nations, with feelings of loyalty to the Crown, Australia is also a democratic monarchy. Its political structure is discussed. (RM)
conform to social and political standards of appropriateness, the ethics of persuasion, and the social sanctions given to the change agent. An analysis...of the techniques used by salesmen, police interrogators, and volunteers canvassing for political candidates helps make explicit some of these...fundamental assumptions. In the process of presenting these general analyses, extractions from police training manuals and improvised tactics used to
Has Political Science Ignored Religion?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kettell, Steven
2012-01-01
A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…
Has Political Science Ignored Religion?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kettell, Steven
2012-01-01
A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…
Political Speeches and Discourse Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaffner, Christina
1996-01-01
Argues that any political action is prepared, controlled and influenced by language. Notes that the study of language has become more central to academic disciplines concerned with politics. Political scientists focus on the consequences of political decisions and actions for a society, whereas linguists concentrate on the linguistic structures…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirkwood, Julieta
1983-01-01
Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)
Women and political representation.
Rathod, P B
1999-01-01
A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.
Murder, political resources, and women's political success.
Jacobs, David; Paxton, Pamela M; Jackson, Aubrey L; Malone, Chad A
2013-03-01
This analysis tests overlooked sociological hypotheses about women's presence in the state legislatures and the House of Representatives. Stereotypes about women suggest that shifts in social conditions affect these political outcomes by making such stereotypes more or less salient. Findings indicate that beliefs about female competencies-such as women's purported unwillingness to endorse violent solutions-should reduce support for female candidates when increases in violent crime create demands for increasingly severe punishments. Since women also are typecast as being more protective of vulnerable populations than males, states with larger minority populations should have additional women in both legislatures. Pooled time-series models based on 1127 state-years show that fewer women were present in the state legislatures or in state delegations to the House after increases in the murder rates. States with larger minority populations, however, had more women in these two legislative bodies. Our results support claims that under researched social conditions produce political climates that either benefit or harm women who seek these offices.
Lectures on the plane-wave string/gauge theory duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plefka, J. C.
2004-02-01
These lectures give an introduction to the novel duality relating type IIB string theory in a maximally supersymmetric plane-wave background to = 4, d = 4, U(N) super Yang-Mills theory in a particular large N and large R-charge limit due to Berenstein, Maldacena and Nastase. In the first part of these lectures the duality is derived from the AdS/CFT correspondence by taking a Penrose limit of the AdS5 × S5 geometry and studying the corresponding double-scaling limit on the gauge theory side. The resulting free plane-wave superstring is then quantized in light-cone gauge. On the gauge theory side of the correspondence the composite super Yang-Mills operators dual to string excitations are identified, and it is shown how the string spectrum can be mapped to the planar scaling dimensions of these operators. In the second part of these lectures we study the correspondence at the interacting respectively non-planar level. On the gauge theory side it is demonstrated that the large N large R-charge limit in question preserves contributions from Feynman graphs of all genera through the emergence of a new genus counting parameter - in agreement with the string genus expansion for non-zero gs. Effective quantum mechanical tools to compute higher genus contributions to the scaling dimensions of composite operators are developed and explicitly applied in a genus one computation. We then turn to the interacting string theory side and give an elementary introduction into light-cone superstring field theory in a plane-wave background and point out how the genus one prediction from gauge theory can be reproduced. Finally, we summarize the present status of the plane-wave string/gauge theory duality.
Political participation of registered nurses.
Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan
2011-08-01
Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p < .001) of political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p < .001). Resources (time/money/civic skills) significantly contributed to political participation (p < .001). Less than half (40%) felt they could impact local decisions, and fewer (32%) felt they could impact state or national government decisions. Most respondents (80%) indicated their nursing courses lacked political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.
Depression and Political Participation*
Ojeda, Christopher
2015-01-01
In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857
Belkin, Aaron
2013-01-01
For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube.
Astronomy and political theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campion, Nicholas
2011-06-01
This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.
Depression and Political Participation.
Ojeda, Christopher
2015-11-01
In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument-whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group.
Electromagnetic duality symmetry and helicity conservation for the macroscopic Maxwell's equations.
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Tischler, Nora; Vidal, Xavier; Juan, Mathieu L; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2013-08-09
In this Letter, we show that the electromagnetic duality symmetry, broken in the microscopic Maxwell's equations by the presence of charges, can be restored for the macroscopic Maxwell's equations. The restoration of this symmetry is shown to be independent of the geometry of the problem. These results provide a tool for the study of light-matter interactions within the framework of symmetries and conservation laws. We illustrate its use by determining the helicity content of the natural modes of structures possessing spatial inversion symmetries and by elucidating the root causes for some surprising effects in the scattering off magnetic spheres.
Duality-based calculations for transition probabilities in stochastic chemical reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohkubo, Jun
2017-02-01
An idea for evaluating transition probabilities in chemical reaction systems is proposed, which is efficient for repeated calculations with various rate constants. The idea is based on duality relations; instead of direct time evolutions of the original reaction system, the dual process is dealt with. Usually, if one changes rate constants of the original reaction system, the direct time evolutions should be performed again, using the new rate constants. On the other hands, only one solution of an extended dual process can be reused to calculate the transition probabilities for various rate constant cases. The idea is demonstrated in a parameter estimation problem for the Lotka-Volterra system.
Deep inelastic scattering cross sections from the gauge/string duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koile, Ezequiel; Kovensky, Nicolas; Schvellinger, Martin
2015-12-01
Differential cross sections of deep inelastic scattering of charged leptons from hadrons are investigated by using the gauge/string duality. We consider vector mesons derived from different holographic dual models obtaining a general expression. We focus on the strongly coupled regime of dual gauge theories for different values of the Bjorken parameter. We find new predictions which are particularly interesting for differential scattering cross sections of polarized leptons scattered off polarized vector mesons. We also carry out a detailed comparison of the moments of the structure functions with lattice QCD results.
Two new tests to the distance duality relation with galaxy clusters
Santos-da-Costa, Simony; Busti, Vinicius C.; Holanda, Rodrigo F.L. E-mail: vcbusti@astro.iag.usp.br
2015-10-01
The cosmic distance duality relation is a milestone of cosmology involving the luminosity and angular diameter distances. Any departure of the relation points to new physics or systematic errors in the observations, therefore tests of the relation are extremely important to build a consistent cosmological framework. Here, two new tests are proposed based on galaxy clusters observations (angular diameter distance and gas mass fraction) and H(z) measurements. By applying Gaussian Processes, a non-parametric method, we are able to derive constraints on departures of the relation where no evidence of deviation is found in both methods, reinforcing the cosmological and astrophysical hypotheses adopted so far.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zenkevich, Yegor
2015-05-01
We study five dimensional AGT correspondence by means of the q-deformed beta-ensemble technique. We provide a special basis of states in the q-deformed CFT Hilbert space consisting of generalized Macdonald polynomials, derive the loop equations for the beta-ensemble and obtain the factorization formulas for the corresponding matrix elements. We prove the spectral duality for SU(2) Nekrasov functions and discuss its meaning for conformal blocks. We also clarify the relation between topological strings and q-Liouville vertex operators.
Ohm's law at strong coupling: S duality and the cyclotron resonance
Hartnoll, Sean A.; Herzog, Christopher P.
2007-11-15
We calculate the electrical and thermal conductivities and the thermoelectric coefficient of a class of strongly interacting 2+1-dimensional conformal field theories with anti-de Sitter space duals. We obtain these transport coefficients as a function of charge density, background magnetic field, temperature, and frequency. We show that the thermal conductivity and thermoelectric coefficient are determined by the electrical conductivity alone. At small frequency, in the hydrodynamic limit, we are able to provide a number of analytic formulas for the electrical conductivity. A dominant feature of the conductivity is the presence of a cyclotron pole. We show how bulk electromagnetic duality acts on the transport coefficients.
Three-point functions in duality-invariant higher-derivative gravity
Naseer, Usman; Zwiebach, Barton
2016-03-21
Here, doubled α'-geometry is the simplest higher-derivative gravitational theory with exact global duality symmetry. We use the double metric formulation of this theory to compute on-shell three-point functions to all orders in α'. A simple pattern emerges when comparing with the analogous bosonic and heterotic three-point functions. As in these theories, the amplitudes factorize. The theory has no Gauss-Bonnet term, but contains a Riemann-cubed interaction to second order in α'.
Branes in Extended Spacetime: Brane Worldvolume Theory Based on Duality Symmetry.
Sakatani, Yuho; Uehara, Shozo
2016-11-04
We propose a novel approach to the brane worldvolume theory based on the geometry of extended field theories: double field theory and exceptional field theory. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that one can reproduce the conventional bosonic string and membrane actions, and the M5-brane action in the weak-field approximation. At a glance, the proposed 5-brane action without approximation looks different from the known M5-brane actions, but it is consistent with the known nonlinear self-duality relation, and it may provide a new formulation of a single M5-brane action. Actions for exotic branes are also discussed.
Universality of the diffusion wake in the gauge-string duality
Gubser, Steven S.; Yarom, Amos
2008-03-15
As a particle moves through a fluid, it may generate a laminar wake behind it. In the gauge-string duality, we show that such a diffusion wake is created by a heavy quark moving through a thermal plasma and that it has a universal strength when compared to the total drag force exerted on the quark by the plasma. The universality extends over all asymptotically anti-de Sitter supergravity constructions with arbitrary scalar matter. We discuss how these results relate to the linearized hydrodynamic approximation and how they bear on our understanding of di-hadron correlators in heavy ion collisions.
Duality and genetic significance of REE speciation in tourmaline from tin deposits of the Far East
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorelikova, N. V.; Balashov, F. V.; Bychkova, Ya. V.; Minervina, E. A.; Korostelev, P. G.; Magazina, O. L.; Bortnikov, N. S.
2016-04-01
The distribution of REEs and some minor elements in tourmalines of different associations and deposits of the Russian Far East is studied by the methods of ICP-MS, ICP-MS with laser ablation and scanning electron microscopy. The duality of REE speciation in tourmaline is established: in high-temperature varieties, most REEs (mainly HREEs) are incorporated in rare minerals (monazite, xenotime, zircon, and F-Ce-Y carbonate), whereas hydrothermal ores are characterized by isomorphic incorporation of LREEs in the mineral structure, as well as by a fine admixture of zircon at the expense of detrital clasts in flyschoid rocks with the zones of tourmalinization.
Plane-parallel waves as duals of the flat background II: T-duality with spectators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrásek, Filip; Hlavatý, Ladislav; Petr, Ivo
2017-08-01
We give the classification of T-duals of the flat background in four dimensions with respect to one-, two-, and three-dimensional subgroups of the Poincaré group using non-Abelian T-duality with spectators. As duals we find backgrounds for sigma models in the form of plane-parallel waves or diagonalizable curved metrics often with torsion. Among others, we find exactly solvable time-dependent isotropic pp-wave, singular pp-waves, or generalized plane wave (K-model).
Duality-based calculations for transition probabilities in stochastic chemical reactions.
Ohkubo, Jun
2017-02-01
An idea for evaluating transition probabilities in chemical reaction systems is proposed, which is efficient for repeated calculations with various rate constants. The idea is based on duality relations; instead of direct time evolutions of the original reaction system, the dual process is dealt with. Usually, if one changes rate constants of the original reaction system, the direct time evolutions should be performed again, using the new rate constants. On the other hands, only one solution of an extended dual process can be reused to calculate the transition probabilities for various rate constant cases. The idea is demonstrated in a parameter estimation problem for the Lotka-Volterra system.