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Sample records for duck feather keratin

  1. Identification of a feather β-keratin gene exclusively expressed in pennaceous barbule cells of contour feathers in chicken.

    PubMed

    Kowata, Kinue; Nakaoka, Minori; Nishio, Kaori; Fukao, Ayaka; Satoh, Akira; Ogoshi, Maho; Takahashi, Sumio; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Takeuchi, Sakae

    2014-05-25

    Feathers are elaborate skin appendages shared by birds and theropod dinosaurs that have hierarchical branching of the rachis, barbs, and barbules. Feather filaments consist of β-keratins encoded by multiple genes, most of which are located in tandem arrays on chromosomes 2, 25, and 27 in chicken. The expansion of the genes is thought to have contributed to feather evolution; however, it is unclear how the individual genes are involved in feather formation. The aim of the present study was to identify feather keratin genes involved in the formation of barbules. Using a combination of microarray analysis, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization, we found an uncharacterized keratin gene on chromosome 7 that was expressed specifically in barbule cells in regenerating chicken feathers. We have named the gene barbule specific keratin 1 (BlSK1). The BlSK1 gene structure was similar to the gene structure of previously characterized feather keratin genes, and consisted of a non-coding leader exon, an intron, and an exon with an open reading frame (ORF). The ORF was predicted to encode a 98 aa long protein, which shared 59% identity with feather keratin B. Orthologs of BlSK1 were found in the genomes of other avian species, including turkey, duck, zebra finch, and flycatcher, in regions that shared synteny with chromosome 7 of chicken. Interestingly, BlSK1 was expressed in feather follicles that generated pennaceous barbules but not in follicles that generated plumulaceous barbules. These results suggested that the composition of feather keratins probably varies depending on the structure of the feather filaments and, that individual feather keratin genes may be involved in building different portions and/or types of feathers in chicken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon Fibers from Chicken Feather Keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Melissa E.; Wool, Richard

    2006-03-01

    As the availability of synthetic and fossil-fuel based resources is becoming limited, bio-based materials offer an environmentally friendly alternative. Chicken feathers remain a huge agricultural waste. The feathers are comprised of approximately 97% keratin, but are currently used only to enrich animal feed. However, this usage is becoming a problem with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, commonly called ``Mad Cow Disease.'' The hollow, microcrystalline, oriented keratin feather fibers offer a novel, low cost approach to producing carbon fibers through controlled pyrolysis. Carbonized feather fibers (CFF) were prepared by first heating to 225 ^oC (below the melting point)in N2 for 26 hours to crosslink and stabilize the fiber structure; then carbonization occurred by increasing the temperature to 450 ^oC for two more hours. The resulting CFF were hollow, stiff and strong and had an affine 80% weight loss, which is near the theoretical value for the C-content of keratin. Initial studies showed that a composite with the CFF and an epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) gave an improved fiber modulus ECFF of order 13.5--66.1 GPa. With continued research, the goals are to increase the stiffness of the feathers to 100 GPa, while increasing the strength in the range of 5-10 GPa.

  3. Degradation and regeneration of feather keratin in NMMO solution.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bomou; Sun, Qisong; Yang, Jing; Wizi, Jakpa; Hou, Xiuliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2017-07-01

    Chicken feather, a potential source of keratin, is often disposed as waste material. Although some methods, i.e., hydrolysis, reduction, and oxidation, have been developed to isolate keratin for composites, it has been limited due to the rising environmental concerns. In this work, a green solvent N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) was used to extract keratin from chicken feather waste. Eighty-nine percent of keratin was extracted using 75% NMMO solution. However, the result from size exclusion HPLC showed that most of the keratin degraded into polypeptide with molecular weight of 2189 and only 25.3% regenerated keratin was obtained with molecular weight of 14,485. Analysis of amino acid composition showed a severe damage to the disulfide bonds in keratin during the extraction procedure. Oxidization had an important effect on the reconstitution of the disulfide bonds, which formed a stable three-dimensional net structure in the regenerated keratins. Besides, Raman spectra, NMR, FT-IR, XRD, and TGA were used to characterize the properties of regenerated keratin and raw chicken feather. In the end, a possible mechanism was proposed based on the results.

  4. Hydrogels from feather keratin show higher viscoelastic properties and cell proliferation than those from hair and wool keratins.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Yussef; Bandara, Nandika; Ullah, Aman; Wu, Jianping

    2018-09-01

    Hydrogel prepared from keratin shows potential applications in tissue engineering. However, the importance of the keratin sources has not been considered. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the rheological (storage modulus), physical (porosity, pore size, swelling capacity, and water contact angle) and in vitro cell compatibility of hydrogel scaffolds prepared from various keratin sources. Keratins were characterized by means of their molecular weight, amino acid composition, thermal and conformational properties. Hydrogels from chicken feather keratins demonstrated substantially higher storage modulus (G') than hair and wool keratin hydrogels. However, higher swelling capacity (>3000%) was determined in hair and wool over feather keratin (1500%) hydrogels. Our results suggest that small molecular weight and β-sheet conformation of feather keratin (~10 kDa) facilitated the self-assembly of rigid hydrogels through disulfide bond re-oxidation. Whereas, high molecular weight (10-75 kDa) stretchable α-helix conformation in hair and wool keratins resulted in weaker hydrogels. The cell cultures using fibroblasts showed the highest proliferation rate on chicken feather keratin hydrogel scaffolds. After 15 days of culture, partial breakdown of keratin fibers was observed. Results indicate that stiffer avian keratins can be used to fabricate more mechanically robust biomaterials than mammalian keratins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pure keratin membrane and fibers from chicken feather.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bomou; Qiao, Xue; Hou, Xiuliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2016-08-01

    In this research, keratin was extracted from the disposable chicken feather using l-cysteine as reducing agent. Then, it was re-dissolved in the sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate buffer, and the pure keratin membrane and fiber were fabricated by doctor-blade casting process and wet spinning method, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the chemical and physical properties of resulting powder, membrane and fiber. Compared with the raw chicken feather, the regenerated keratin materials retain its chemical structure and thermal stability, their relative crystallinity is a little different depend on the shaping method, which leads to the difference in moisture regain. The mechanical results show that tensile strength of the keratin membrane researches 3.5MPa, have potential application in biomedical fields. However, the keratin fiber presents low tenacity, i.e. 0.5cN/dtex, this problem should be solved in order to apply the new fiber in textile and material science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking the molecular evolution of avian beta (β) keratins to the evolution of feathers.

    PubMed

    Greenwold, Matthew J; Sawyer, Roger H

    2011-12-15

    Feathers of today's birds are constructed of beta (β)-keratins, structural proteins of the epidermis that are found solely in reptiles and birds. Discoveries of "feathered dinosaurs" continue to stimulate interest in the evolutionary origin of feathers, but few studies have attempted to link the molecular evolution of their major structural proteins (β-keratins) to the appearance of feathers in the fossil record. Using molecular dating methods, we show that before the appearance of Anchiornis (∼155 Million years ago (Ma)) the basal β-keratins of birds began diverging from their archosaurian ancestor ∼216 Ma. However, the subfamily of feather β-keratins, as found in living birds, did not begin diverging until ∼143 Ma. Thus, the pennaceous feathers on Anchiornis, while being constructed of avian β-keratins, most likely did not contain the feather β-keratins found in the feathers of modern birds. Our results demonstrate that the evolutionary origin of feathers does not coincide with the molecular evolution of the feather β-keratins found in modern birds. More likely, during the Late Jurassic, the epidermal structures that appeared on organisms in the lineage leading to birds, including early forms of feathers, were constructed of avian β-keratins other than those found in the feathers of modern birds. Recent biophysical studies of the β-keratins in feathers support the view that the appearance of the subfamily of feather β-keratins altered the biophysical nature of the feather establishing its role in powered flight. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian β-keratins: diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins.

    PubMed

    Greenwold, Matthew J; Sawyer, Roger H

    2013-09-01

    The archosauria consist of two living groups, crocodilians, and birds. Here we compare the structure, expression, and phylogeny of the beta (β)-keratins in two crocodilian genomes and two avian genomes to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of the feather β-keratins. Unlike squamates such as the green anole with 40 β-keratins in its genome, the chicken and zebra finch genomes have over 100 β-keratin genes in their genomes, while the American alligator has 20 β-keratin genes, and the saltwater crocodile has 21 β-keratin genes. The crocodilian β-keratins are similar to those of birds and these structural proteins have a central filament domain and N- and C-termini, which contribute to the matrix material between the twisted β-sheets, which form the 2-3 nm filament. Overall the expression of alligator β-keratin genes in the integument increases during development. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that a crocodilian β-keratin clade forms a monophyletic group with the avian scale and feather β-keratins, suggesting that avian scale and feather β-keratins along with a subset of crocodilian β-keratins evolved from a common ancestral gene/s. Overall, our analyses support the view that the epidermal appendages of basal archosaurs used a diverse array of β-keratins, which evolved into crocodilian and avian specific clades. In birds, the scale and feather subfamilies appear to have evolved independently in the avian lineage from a subset of archosaurian claw β-keratins. The expansion of the avian specific feather β-keratin genes accompanied the diversification of birds and the evolution of feathers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Keratin based bioplastic film from chicken feathers and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Navina; Sharma, Swati; Gupta, Arun; Alashwal, Basma Yahya

    2018-05-01

    Plastics have been one of the highly valued materials and it plays an significant role in human's life such as in food packaging and biomedical applications. Bioplastic materials can gradually work as a substitute for various materials based on fossil oil. The issue like sustainability and environmental challenges which occur due to manufacturing and disposal of synthetic plastics can be conquering by bio-based plastics. Feathers are among the most inexpensive abundant, and renewable protein sources. Feathers disposal to the landfills leads to environmental pollutions and it results into wastage of 90% of protein raw material. Keratin is non-burning hydrophilic, and biodegradable due to which it can be applicable in various ways via chemical processing. Main objective of this research is to synthesis bioplastic using keratin from chicken feathers. Extracted keratin solution mixed with different concentration of glycerol (2 to 10%) to produce plastic films. The mixture was stirred under constant magnetic stirring at 60 °C for 5 h. The mixtures are then poured into aluminum weighing boat and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 24 h. The mechanical properties of the samples were tested and the physic-chemical properties of the bioplastic were studied. According to the results, Scanning Electron Microscopy test showed good compatible morphologies without holes, cavity and edge. The difference in chemical composition was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The samples were also characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) to check the thermal and crystallinity properties. Other than that, bioplastic made up from keratin with 2% of glycerol has the best mechanical and thermal properties. According to biodegradability test, all bioplastic produced are proven biodegradable. Therefore, the results showed possible application of the film as an alternative to fossil oil

  9. Genomic Organization, Transcriptomic Analysis, and Functional Characterization of Avian α- and β-Keratins in Diverse Feather Forms

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wen-Lang; Yan, Jie; Chen, Chih-Kuan; Lai, Yu-Ting; Wu, Siao-Man; Mao, Chi-Tang; Chen, Jun-Jie; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Ho, Meng-Ru; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Feathers are hallmark avian integument appendages, although they were also present on theropods. They are composed of flexible corneous materials made of α- and β-keratins, but their genomic organization and their functional roles in feathers have not been well studied. First, we made an exhaustive search of α- and β-keratin genes in the new chicken genome assembly (Galgal4). Then, using transcriptomic analysis, we studied α- and β-keratin gene expression patterns in five types of feather epidermis. The expression patterns of β-keratin genes were different in different feather types, whereas those of α-keratin genes were less variable. In addition, we obtained extensive α- and β-keratin mRNA in situ hybridization data, showing that α-keratins and β-keratins are preferentially expressed in different parts of the feather components. Together, our data suggest that feather morphological and structural diversity can largely be attributed to differential combinations of α- and β-keratin genes in different intrafeather regions and/or feather types from different body parts. The expression profiles provide new insights into the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. Finally, functional analysis using mutant chicken keratin forms based on those found in the human α-keratin mutation database led to abnormal phenotypes. This demonstrates that the chicken can be a convenient model for studying the molecular biology of human keratin-based diseases. PMID:25152353

  10. Dissolution and characterization of biofunctional keratin particles extracted from chicken feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Swati; Gupta, Arun; Chik, Syed Mohd Saufi Bin Tuan; Yeo Gek Kee, Chua; Poddar, Pradeep Kumar

    2017-04-01

    In the present study chicken feathers were hydrolyzed in alkaline environment. The pH value of feather hydrolyzed solution was adjusted according to the principle of isoelectric precipitation. Three kinds of precipitates of keratin polypeptide were collected at pH of 3.5, 5.5 and 7.5 respectively. The keratin solution were freeze dried and denoted as FKP1, FKP2, FKP3 respectively. All keratin particles possessed smooth, uniform and round surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM). FKP1, FKP2 and FKP3 had higher glass transition temperature examined by thermogravimetry (TG). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that the extracted keratin retained the most of protein backbone, with the breakage of disulfide cross-links and hydrogen bonds.

  11. Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Alison E.; Zheng, Wenxia; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Keratinous ‘soft tissue’ structures (i.e. epidermally derived and originally non-biomineralized), include feathers, skin, claws, beaks, and hair. Despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record (second only to bone and teeth), few studies have addressed natural degradation processes that must occur in all organic material, including those keratinous structures that are incorporated into the rock record as fossils. Because feathers have high preservation potential and strong phylogenetic signal, in the current study we examine feathers subjected to different burial environments for a duration of ~10 years, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ immunofluorescence (IF). We use morphology and persistence of specific immunoreactivity as indicators of preservation at the molecular and microstructural levels. We show that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions. These data support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record, and to address evolutionary questions by distinguishing between alpha- (widely distributed) and beta- (limited to sauropsids) keratin. PMID:27384819

  12. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuyang; Chen, Xianqiong; Xin, J H

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks.

  13. Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanhong; Zheng, Wenxia; Moyer, Alison E; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Wang, Min; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli; Schroeter, Elena R; Zhou, Zhonghe; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2016-12-06

    Microbodies associated with feathers of both nonavian dinosaurs and early birds were first identified as bacteria but have been reinterpreted as melanosomes. Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in fossils has not been demonstrated. Here we provide multiple independent molecular analyses of both microbodies and the associated matrix recovered from feathers of a new specimen of the basal bird Eoconfuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. Our work represents the oldest ultrastructural and immunological recognition of avian beta-keratin from an Early Cretaceous (∼130-Ma) bird. We apply immunogold to identify protein epitopes at high resolution, by localizing antibody-antigen complexes to specific fossil ultrastructures. Retention of original keratinous proteins in the matrix surrounding electron-opaque microbodies supports their assignment as melanosomes and adds to the criteria employable to distinguish melanosomes from microbial bodies. Our work sheds new light on molecular preservation within normally labile tissues preserved in fossils.

  14. Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yanhong; Zheng, Wenxia; Moyer, Alison E.; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli; Schroeter, Elena R.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Microbodies associated with feathers of both nonavian dinosaurs and early birds were first identified as bacteria but have been reinterpreted as melanosomes. Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in fossils has not been demonstrated. Here we provide multiple independent molecular analyses of both microbodies and the associated matrix recovered from feathers of a new specimen of the basal bird Eoconfuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. Our work represents the oldest ultrastructural and immunological recognition of avian beta-keratin from an Early Cretaceous (∼130-Ma) bird. We apply immunogold to identify protein epitopes at high resolution, by localizing antibody–antigen complexes to specific fossil ultrastructures. Retention of original keratinous proteins in the matrix surrounding electron-opaque microbodies supports their assignment as melanosomes and adds to the criteria employable to distinguish melanosomes from microbial bodies. Our work sheds new light on molecular preservation within normally labile tissues preserved in fossils. PMID:27872291

  15. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. Results Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH 8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5 days, at 28°C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nano–membranes (Millipore – YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400 Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer® CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers

  16. The Chicken Frizzle Feather Is Due to an α-Keratin (KRT75) Mutation That Causes a Defective Rachis

    PubMed Central

    Foley, John; Foley, Anne; McDonald, Merry-Lynn; Juan, Wen-Tau; Huang, Chih-Jen; Lai, Yu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Chen, Chih-Feng; Leal, Suzanne M.; Zhang, Huanmin; Widelitz, Randall B.; Patel, Pragna I.; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Feathers have complex forms and are an excellent model to study the development and evolution of morphologies. Existing chicken feather mutants are especially useful for identifying genetic determinants of feather formation. This study focused on the gene F, underlying the frizzle feather trait that has a characteristic curled feather rachis and barbs in domestic chickens. Our developmental biology studies identified defects in feather medulla formation, and physical studies revealed that the frizzle feather curls in a stepwise manner. The frizzle gene is transmitted in an autosomal incomplete dominant mode. A whole-genome linkage scan of five pedigrees with 2678 SNPs revealed association of the frizzle locus with a keratin gene-enriched region within the linkage group E22C19W28_E50C23. Sequence analyses of the keratin gene cluster identified a 69 bp in-frame deletion in a conserved region of KRT75, an α-keratin gene. Retroviral-mediated expression of the mutated F cDNA in the wild-type rectrix qualitatively changed the bending of the rachis with some features of frizzle feathers including irregular kinks, severe bending near their distal ends, and substantially higher variations among samples in comparison to normal feathers. These results confirmed KRT75 as the F gene. This study demonstrates the potential of our approach for identifying genetic determinants of feather forms. PMID:22829773

  17. Selective biodegradation of keratin matrix in feather rachis reveals classic bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten; Bonser, Richard H. C.; Wesley-Smith, James

    2010-01-01

    Flight necessitates that the feather rachis is extremely tough and light. Yet, the crucial filamentous hierarchy of the rachis is unknown—study hindered by the tight chemical bonding between the filaments and matrix. We used novel microbial biodegradation to delineate the fibres of the rachidial cortex in situ. It revealed the thickest keratin filaments known to date (factor >10), approximately 6 µm thick, extending predominantly axially but with a small outer circumferential component. Near-periodic thickened nodes of the fibres are staggered with those in adjacent fibres in two- and three-dimensional planes, creating a fibre–matrix texture with high attributes for crack stopping and resistance to transverse cutting. Close association of the fibre layer with the underlying ‘spongy’ medulloid pith indicates the potential for higher buckling loads and greater elastic recoil. Strikingly, the fibres are similar in dimensions and form to the free filaments of the feather vane and plumulaceous and embryonic down, the syncitial barbules, but, identified for the first time in 140+ years of study in a new location—as a major structural component of the rachis. Early in feather evolution, syncitial barbules were consolidated in a robust central rachis, definitively characterizing the avian lineage of keratin. PMID:20018788

  18. Colour-producing β-keratin nanofibres in blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) feathers

    PubMed Central

    D'Alba, Liliana; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Clarke, Julia A.; Vinther, Jakob A.; Prum, Richard O.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of living organisms are produced by the differential absorption of light by pigments (e.g. carotenoids, melanins) and/or by the physical interactions of light with biological nanostructures, referred to as structural colours. Only two fundamental morphologies of non-iridescent nanostructures are known in feathers, and recent work has proposed that they self-assemble by intracellular phase separation processes. Here, we report a new biophotonic nanostructure in the non-iridescent blue feather barbs of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) composed of parallel β-keratin nanofibres organized into densely packed bundles. Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and two-dimensional Fourier analysis of electron micrographs of the barb nanostructure revealed short-range order in the organization of fibres at the appropriate size scale needed to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. These two-dimensional quasi-ordered penguin nanostructures are convergent with similar arrays of parallel collagen fibres in avian and mammalian skin, but constitute a novel morphology for feathers. The identification of a new class of β-keratin nanostructures adds significantly to the known mechanisms of colour production in birds and suggests additional complexity in their self-assembly. PMID:21307042

  19. Colour-producing [beta]-keratin nanofibres in blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) feathers

    SciTech Connect

    D; Alba, Liliana; Saranathan, Vinodkumar

    2012-03-26

    The colours of living organisms are produced by the differential absorption of light by pigments (e.g. carotenoids, melanins) and/or by the physical interactions of light with biological nanostructures, referred to as structural colours. Only two fundamental morphologies of non-iridescent nanostructures are known in feathers, and recent work has proposed that they self-assemble by intracellular phase separation processes. Here, we report a new biophotonic nanostructure in the non-iridescent blue feather barbs of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) composed of parallel {beta}-keratin nanofibres organized into densely packed bundles. Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and two-dimensional Fourier analysis of electron micrographs of the barbmore » nanostructure revealed short-range order in the organization of fibres at the appropriate size scale needed to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. These two-dimensional quasi-ordered penguin nanostructures are convergent with similar arrays of parallel collagen fibres in avian and mammalian skin, but constitute a novel morphology for feathers. The identification of a new class of {beta}-keratin nanostructures adds significantly to the known mechanisms of colour production in birds and suggests additional complexity in their self-assembly.« less

  20. Origin of archosaurian integumentary appendages: the bristles of the wild turkey beard express feather-type beta keratins.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Roger H; Washington, Lynette D; Salvatore, Brian A; Glenn, Travis C; Knapp, Loren W

    2003-06-15

    The discovery that structurally unique "filamentous integumentary appendages" are associated with several different non-avian dinosaurs continues to stimulate the development of models to explain the evolutionary origin of feathers. Taking the phylogenetic relationships of the non-avian dinosaurs into consideration, some models propose that the "filamentous integumentary appendages" represent intermediate stages in the sequential evolution of feathers. Here we present observations on a unique integumentary structure, the bristle of the wild turkey beard, and suggest that this non-feather appendage provides another explanation for some of the "filamentous integumentary appendages." Unlike feathers, beard bristles grow continuously from finger-like outgrows of the integument lacking follicles. We find that these beard bristles, which show simple branching, are hollow, distally, and express the feather-type beta keratins. The significance of these observations to explanations for the evolution of archosaurian integumentary appendages is discussed.

  1. Self-organization of oligopeptides obtained on dissolution of feather keratins in superheated water.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Rastogi, Sanjay; Terry, Ann E; Popescu, Crisan

    2007-03-01

    Keratins are self-organized proteins that are abundantly available in wool, feather, human hair, etc., making them a potential cheap feedstock for the modification of amino acids. This paper explores the hydrolysis of keratin in water under specific pressure-temperature conditions where the hydrolysis through scission of the protein chain yields oligopeptides. Here we report for the first time that, under appropriate conditions, these oligopeptides self-assemble into a hierarchical architecture, the process being followed in time by optical microscopy. Birefringent needle-like crystals are observed which tend to nucleate heterogeneously. When given sufficient time, these needles become tens of microns in length and act as further nuclei, developing a highly repetitive structure of several hundreds of microns in size. Micro-focus X-ray diffraction studies supported by in situ microscopy reveal that these needles have a crystal structure similar to that of the native protein, although better organized along the ab-plane. Spectroscopic studies on these structures show crystalline bands that disappear above 150 degrees C, coinciding with an endothermic peak in DSC. Amino acid analysis shows that the self-assembled birefringent entities are indeed oligopeptides, consisting of sequences of approximately 40 amino acids. The proposed ecofriendly route provides an effective route for obtaining oligopeptides that can be used as important building blocks for the synthesis of a range of novel polymers. The oligopeptides obtained from the sustainable source can be used as important building blocks for the synthesis of a range of novel polymers.

  2. Preparation of Keratin Hydrolysate from Chicken Feathers and Its Application in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Mokrejš, Pavel; Huťťa, Matouš; Pavlačková, Jana; Egner, Pavlína

    2017-11-27

    Keratin hydrolysates (KHs) are established standard components in hair cosmetics. Understanding the moisturizing effects of KH is advantageous for skin-care cosmetics. The goals of the protocol are: (1) to process chicken feathers into KH by alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis and purify it by dialysis, and (2) to test if adding KH into an ointment base (OB) increases hydration of the skin and improves skin barrier function by diminishing transepidermal water loss (TEWL). During alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis feathers are first incubated at a higher temperature in an alkaline environment and then, under mild conditions, hydrolyzed with proteolytic enzyme. The solution of KH is dialyzed, vacuum dried, and milled to a fine powder. Cosmetic formulations comprising from oil in water emulsion (O/W) containing 2, 4, and 6 weight% of KH (based on the weight of the OB) are prepared. Testing the moisturizing properties of KH is carried out on 10 men and 10 women at time intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 48 h. Tested formulations are spread at degreased volar forearm sites. The skin hydration of stratum corneum (SC) is assessed by measuring capacitance of the skin, which is one of the most world-wide used and simple methods. TEWL is based on measuring the quantity of water transported per a defined area and period of time from the skin. Both methods are fully non-invasive. KH makes for an excellent occlusive; depending on the addition of KH into OB, it brings about a 30% reduction in TEWL after application. KH also functions as a humectant, as it binds water from the lower layers of the epidermis to the SC; at the optimum KH addition in the OB, up to 19% rise in hydration in men and 22% rise in women occurs.

  3. Persistence of Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Feathers Detached from Bodies of Infected Domestic Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Mase, Masaji

    2010-01-01

    Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) continues to cause mortality in poultry and wild bird populations at a panzootic scale. However, little is known about its persistence in contaminated tissues derived from infected birds. We investigated avian influenza virus (H5N1) persistence in feathers detached from bodies of infected ducks to evaluate their potential risk for environmental contamination. Four-week-old domestic ducks were inoculated with different clades of avian influenza virus (H5N1). Feathers, drinking water, and feces were collected on day 3 postinoculation and stored at 4°C or 20°C. Viral persistence in samples was investigated for 360 days by virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR. Infectious viruses persisted for the longest period in feathers, compared with drinking water and feces, at both 4°C and 20°C. Viral infectivity persisted in the feathers for 160 days at 4°C and for 15 days at 20°C. Viral titers of 104.3 50% egg infectious doses/ml or greater were detected for 120 days in feathers stored at 4°C. Viral RNA in feathers was more stable than the infectivity. These results indicate that feathers detached from domestic ducks infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) can be a source of environmental contamination and may function as fomites with high viral loads in the environment. PMID:20581177

  4. A new helical crossed-fibre structure of β-keratin in flight feathers and its biomechanical implications.

    PubMed

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten; Murugan, Nelisha

    2013-01-01

    The feather aerofoil is unequalled in nature. It is comprised of a central rachis, serial paired branches or barbs, from which arise further branches, the barbules. Barbs and barbules arise from the significantly thinner lateral walls (the epicortex) of the rachis and barbs respectively, as opposed to the thicker dorsal and ventral walls (the cortex). We hypothesized a microstructural design of the epicortex that would resist the vertical or shearing stresses. The microstructures of the cortex and epicortex of the rachis and barbs were investigated in several bird species by microbe-assisted selective disassembly and conventional methods via scanning electron microscopy. We report, preeminent of the finds, a novel system of crossed fibres (ranging from ∼100-800 nm in diameter), oppositely oriented in alternate layers of the epicortex in the rachis and barbs. It represents the first cross-fibre microstructure, not only for the feather but in keratin per se. The cortex of the barbs is comprised of syncitial barbule cells, definitive structural units shown in the rachidial cortex in a related study. The structural connection between the cortex of the rachis and barbs appears uninterrupted. A new model on feather microstructure incorporating the findings here and in the related study is presented. The helical fibre system found in the integument of a diverse range of invertebrates and vertebrates has been implicated in profound functional strategies, perhaps none more so potentially than in the aerofoil microstructure of the feather here, which is central to one of the marvels of nature, bird flight.

  5. Processing of poultry feathers by alkaline keratin hydrolyzing enzyme from Serratia sp. HPC 1383.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2009-04-01

    The present study describes the production and characterization of a feather hydrolyzing enzyme by Serratia sp. HPC 1383 isolated from tannery sludge, which was identified by the ability to form clear zones around colonies on milk agar plates. The proteolytic activity was expressed in terms of the micromoles of tyrosine released from substrate casein per ml per min (U/mL min). Induction of the inoculum with protein was essential to stimulate higher activity of the enzyme, with 0.03% feathermeal in the inoculum resulting in increased enzyme activity (45U/mL) that further increased to 90U/mL when 3d old inoculum was used. The highest enzyme activity, 130U/mL, was observed in the presence of 0.2% yeast extract. The optimum assay temperature and pH for the enzyme were found to be 60 degrees C and 10.0, respectively. The enzyme had a half-life of 10min at 60 degrees C, which improved slightly to 18min in presence of 1mM Ca(2+). Inhibition of the enzyme by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) indicated that the enzyme was a serine protease. The enzyme was also partially inhibited (39%) by the reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol and by divalent metal ions such as Zn(2+) (41% inhibition). However, Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) resulted in increases in enzyme activity of 15% and 26%, respectively. The kinetic constants of the keratinase were found to be 3.84 microM (K(m)) and 108.7 microM/mLmin (V(max)). These results suggest that this extracellular keratinase may be a useful alternative and eco-friendly route for handling the abundant amount of waste feathers or for applications in other industrial processes.

  6. The chicken frizzle feather is due to an a-keratin (KRT75) mutation that causes a defective rachis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feathers have complex forms and are an excellent model to study the development and evolution of morphologies. Existing chicken feather mutants are especially useful for identifying genetic determinants of feather formation. The present study focused on the gene, F, underlying the frizzle feather tr...

  7. A review of terrestrial, aerial and aquatic keratins: the structure and mechanical properties of pangolin scales, feather shafts and baleen plates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Sullivan, Tarah N

    2017-12-01

    Keratinous materials, omnipresent as the hard and durable epidermal appendages of animals, are among the toughest biological materials. They exhibit diverse morphologies and structures that serve a variety of amazing and inspiring mechanical functions. In this work, we provide a review of representative terrestrial, aerial and aquatic keratinous materials, pangolin scales, feather shafts and baleen plates, and correlate their hierarchical structures to respective functions of dermal armor, flight material and undersea filter. The overlapping pattern of pangolin scales provides effective body coverage, and the solid scales show transverse isotropy and strain-rate sensitivity, both important for armor function. The feather shaft displays a distinct shape factor, hierarchical fibrous structure within the cortex, and a solid shell-over-foam design, which enables synergistic stiffening and toughening with exceptional lightness to fulfill flight. Baleen plates exhibit a sandwich-tubular structure that features anisotropic flexural properties to sustain forces from water flow and remarkable fracture toughness that ensures reliable undersea functioning. The latest findings regarding the structural design principles and mechanical properties are presented in order to advance current understanding of keratinous materials and to stimulate the development of new bioinspired materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbonate deposition on tail feathers of ruddy ducks using evaporation ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial carbonate deposits were observed on rectrices of Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) collected during 1982-1984 on evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Carbonate deposits were composed of about 75% aragonite and 25% calcite, both polymorphous forms of CaCO3. Significantly more carbonate deposits were observed on Ruddy Ducks as length of exposure to agricultural drain water increased, during the 1983-1984 field season when salt concentrations in the ponds were higher, and in certain evaporation-pond systems.

  9. A comparative evaluation of feathers, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in experimentally infected chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Nuradji, Harimurti; Bingham, John; Lowther, Sue; Wibawa, Hendra; Colling, Axel; Long, Ngo Thanh; Meers, Joanne

    2015-11-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs have been widely used for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAI virus) in birds. Previous studies have shown that the feather calamus is a site of H5N1 virus replication and therefore has potential for diagnosis of avian influenza. However, studies characterizing the value of feathers for this purpose are not available, to our knowledge; herein we present a study investigating feathers for detection of H5N1 virus. Ducks and chickens were experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus belonging to 1 of 3 clades (Indonesian clades 2.1.1 and 2.1.3, Vietnamese clade 1). Different types of feathers and oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples were compared by virus isolation. In chickens, virus was detected from all sample types: oral and cloacal swabs, and immature pectorosternal, flight, and tail feathers. During clinical disease, the viral titers were higher in feathers than swabs. In ducks, the proportion of virus-positive samples was variable depending on viral strain and time from challenge; cloacal swabs and mature pectorosternal feathers were clearly inferior to oral swabs and immature pectorosternal, tail, and flight feathers. In ducks infected with Indonesian strains, in which most birds did not develop clinical signs, all sampling methods gave intermittent positive results; 3-23% of immature pectorosternal feathers were positive during the acute infection period; oropharyngeal swabs had slightly higher positivity during early infection, while feathers performed better during late infection. Our results indicate that immature feathers are an alternative sample for the diagnosis of HPAI in chickens and ducks. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Differences in the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in feather samples from 4-week-old and 24-week-old infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Aiello, Roberta; Beato, Maria Serena; Mancin, Marzia; Rigoni, Michela; Tejeda, Aurora Romero; Maniero, Silvia; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2013-08-30

    Previous studies have reported the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus in feathers from ducks naturally and experimentally infected and suggested that feather calami (FC) could be used as diagnostic samples for the early detection of H5N1 HPAI infections. Ducks are readily infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses although the development of clinical signs and deaths were reported as age-related with younger birds being more susceptible. The correlation between age and virus localisation in FC of infected ducks has not been studied to date. In the present study juvenile (4-week-old) and adult (24-week-old) Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) were infected experimentally with a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus (A/duck/Nigeria/1071-23/2007). Tracheal (Tr) and cloacal (Cl) swabs and FC were collected at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection and tested by RRT-PCR and a double antibody sandwich-ELISA (DAS-ELISA) developed in house. Virus was detected in swabs and FC of challenged ducks with a higher rate of detection in juvenile ducks. In this age group virus was detected over a longer period of time in FC compared to swabs. Our study showed that FC samples collected from young ducks are a valid diagnostic specimen for H5N1 HPAI virus detection. The DAS-ELISA on FC proved to be a suitable alternative diagnostic test when molecular and/or virus isolation techniques are not available therefore it could be useful in the diagnosis of H5N1 HPAI infections in under-resourced countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Keratin: dissolution, extraction and biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Shavandi, Amin; Silva, Tiago H; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2017-08-22

    Keratinous materials such as wool, feathers and hooves are tough unique biological co-products that usually have high sulfur and protein contents. A high cystine content (7-13%) differentiates keratins from other structural proteins, such as collagen and elastin. Dissolution and extraction of keratin is a difficult process compared to other natural polymers, such as chitosan, starch, collagen, and a large-scale use of keratin depends on employing a relatively fast, cost-effective and time efficient extraction method. Keratin has some inherent ability to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation, and regeneration of the tissue, therefore keratin biomaterials can provide a biocompatible matrix for regrowth and regeneration of the defective tissue. Additionally, due to its amino acid constituents, keratin can be tailored and finely tuned to meet the exact requirement of degradation, drug release or incorporation of different hydrophobic or hydrophilic tails. This review discusses the various methods available for the dissolution and extraction of keratin with emphasis on their advantages and limitations. The impacts of various methods and chemicals used on the structure and the properties of keratin are discussed with the aim of highlighting options available toward commercial keratin production. This review also reports the properties of various keratin-based biomaterials and critically examines how these materials are influenced by the keratin extraction procedure, discussing the features that make them effective as biomedical applications, as well as some of the mechanisms of action and physiological roles of keratin. Particular attention is given to the practical application of keratin biomaterials, namely addressing the advantages and limitations on the use of keratin films, 3D composite scaffolds and keratin hydrogels for tissue engineering, wound healing, hemostatic and controlled drug release.

  12. The evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers.

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O; Brush, Alan H

    2002-09-01

    Progress on the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers has been hampered by conceptual problems and by the lack of plesiomorphic feather fossils. Recently, both of these limitations have been overcome by the proposal of the developmental theory of the origin of feathers, and the discovery of primitive feather fossils on nonavian theropod dinosaurs. The conceptual problems of previous theories of the origin of feathers are reviewed, and the alternative developmental theory is presented and discussed. The developmental theory proposes that feathers evolved through a series of evolutionary novelties in developmental mechanisms of the follicle and feather germ. The discovery of primitive and derived fossil feathers on a diversity of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs documents that feathers evolved and diversified in nonavian theropods before the origin of birds and before the origin of flight. The morphologies of these primitive feathers are congruent with the predictions of the developmental theory. Alternatives to the theropod origin of feathers are critique and rejected. Hypotheses for the initial function of feathers are reviewed. The aerodynamic theory of feather origins is falsified, but many other functions remain developmentally and phylogenetically plausible. Whatever their function, feathers evolved by selection for a follicle that would grow an emergent tubular appendage. Feathers are inherently tubular structures. The homology of feathers and scales is weakly supported. Feathers are composed of a suite of evolutionary novelties that evolved by the duplication, hierarchical organization, interaction, dissociation, and differentiation of morphological modules. The unique capacity for modular subdivision of the tubular feather follicle and germ has fostered the evolution of numerous innovations that characterize feathers. The evolution of feather keratin and the molecular basis of feather development are also discussed.

  13. Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation

    PubMed Central

    Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

  14. Topographical mapping of α- and β-keratins on developing chicken skin integuments: Functional interaction and evolutionary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Ng, Chen Siang; Yan, Jie; Lai, Yung-Chih; Chen, Chih-Kuan; Lai, Yu-Ting; Wu, Siao-Man; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Luo, Weiqi; Widelitz, Randall B.; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Avian integumentary organs include feathers, scales, claws, and beaks. They cover the body surface and play various functions to help adapt birds to diverse environments. These keratinized structures are mainly composed of corneous materials made of α-keratins, which exist in all vertebrates, and β-keratins, which only exist in birds and reptiles. Here, members of the keratin gene families were used to study how gene family evolution contributes to novelty and adaptation, focusing on tissue morphogenesis. Using chicken as a model, we applied RNA-seq and in situ hybridization to map α- and β-keratin genes in various skin appendages at embryonic developmental stages. The data demonstrate that temporal and spatial α- and β-keratin expression is involved in establishing the diversity of skin appendage phenotypes. Embryonic feathers express a higher proportion of β-keratin genes than other skin regions. In feather filament morphogenesis, β-keratins show intricate complexity in diverse substructures of feather branches. To explore functional interactions, we used a retrovirus transgenic system to ectopically express mutant α- or antisense β-keratin forms. α- and β-keratins show mutual dependence and mutations in either keratin type results in disrupted keratin networks and failure to form proper feather branches. Our data suggest that combinations of α- and β-keratin genes contribute to the morphological and structural diversity of different avian skin appendages, with feather-β-keratins conferring more possible composites in building intrafeather architecture complexity, setting up a platform of morphological evolution of functional forms in feathers. PMID:26598683

  15. What makes a feather shine? A nanostructural basis for glossy black colours in feathers.

    PubMed

    Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2011-07-07

    Colours in feathers are produced by pigments or by nanostructurally organized tissues that interact with light. One of the simplest nanostructures is a single layer of keratin overlying a linearly organized layer of melanosomes that create iridescent colours of feather barbules through thin-film interference. Recently, it has been hypothesized that glossy (i.e. high specular reflectance) black feathers may be evolutionarily intermediate between matte black and iridescent feathers, and thus have a smooth keratin layer that produces gloss, but not the layered organization of melanosomes needed for iridescence. However, the morphological bases of glossiness remain unknown. Here, we use a theoretical approach to generate predictions about morphological differences between matte and glossy feathers that we then empirically test. Thin-film models predicted that glossy spectra would result from a keratin layer 110-180 nm thick and a melanin layer greater than 115 nm thick. Transmission electron microscopy data show that nanostructure of glossy barbules falls well within that range, but that of matte barbules does not. Further, glossy barbules had a thinner and more regular keratin cortex, as well as a more continuous underlying melanin layer, than matte barbules. Thus, their quasi-ordered nanostructures are morphologically intermediate between matte black and iridescent feathers, and perceived gloss may be a form of weakly chromatic iridescence.

  16. Keratin decomposition by trogid beetles: evidence from a feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and feathers. Although beetles of the family Trogidae are considered keratin feeders, their ecological function has rarely been explored. Here, we investigated the keratin-decomposition function of trogid beetles in heron-breeding colonies where keratin was frequently supplied as feathers. Three trogid species were collected from the colonies and observed feeding on heron feathers under laboratory conditions. We also measured the nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of two trogid species that were maintained on a constant diet (feathers from one heron individual) during 70 days under laboratory conditions. We compared the isotopic signatures of the trogids with the feathers to investigate isotopic shifts from the feathers to the consumers for δ15N and δ13C. We used mixing models (MixSIR and SIAR) to estimate the main diets of individual field-collected trogid beetles. The analysis indicated that heron feathers were more important as food for trogid beetles than were soft tissues under field conditions. Together, the feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis provided strong evidence of keratin decomposition by trogid beetles.

  17. Pathophysiology of keratinization

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Priya Nimish; Deshmukh, Revati

    2018-01-01

    Cytoskeleton of a cell is made up of microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments. Keratins are diverse proteins. These intermediate filaments maintain the structural integrity of the keratinocytes. The word keratin covers these intermediate filament-forming proteins within the keratinocytes. They are expressed in a specific pattern and according to the stage of cellular differentiation. They always occur in pairs. Mutations in the genes which regulate the expression of keratin proteins are associated with a number of disorders which show defects in both skin and mucosa. In addition, there are a number of disorders which are seen because of abnormal keratinization. These keratins and keratin-associated proteins have become important markers in diagnostic pathology. This review article discusses the classification, structure, functions, the stains used for the demonstration of keratin and associated pathology. The review describes the physiology of keratinization, pathology behind abnormal keratin formation and various keratin disorders. PMID:29731562

  18. Influence of raised plastic floors compared with pine shaving litter on environment and Pekin duck condition.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Fraley, G S; Fraley, S M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-03-01

    Commercial poultry production management practices have been under increased public scrutiny driven by concerns for food safety and animal welfare. Within the United States, wood shavings and raised plastic floors are common flooring systems used in duck production. It is intuitive that each flooring type would present different management challenges influencing physical characteristics of growing ducks. This study evaluated the relationship between flooring type and duck condition during the winter. Random samples of 20 ducks from 5 predetermined areas (n = 100) were examined in commercial duck houses (n = 9, litter; n = 11, raised plastic slats). Ducks were assessed at 7, 21, and 32 d of age for eye, nostril, and feather cleanliness, feather and foot pad quality, and gait. The data were analyzed to determine the proportion of ducks with a given score. In both housing types, the proportion of 0 scores for foot pad quality improved during the production cycle (P < 0.0001). Feather hygiene declined with age in ducks reared on litter flooring, whereas ducks reared on slatted flooring had cleaner feathers at d 32 (P < 0.011). With the exception of foot pad scores, the majority of ducks had no detectable problems for any single trait. The only main effect due to flooring pertained to feather quality with the proportion of ducks having a 0 or 1 score greater in litter flooring systems than slats (P < 0.05). Overall, the condition of ducks reared, regardless of flooring system, was considered to be good.

  19. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  20. Keratinizing dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Vaishnavi; Ranganathan, Kannan; Praveen, B

    2014-01-01

    Keratinizing dentigerous cyst is a rare entity. This article reports a case of keratinizing dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular canine. Clinical and radiological features, cone-beam computed tomography findings and histological features of the case are reported along with a discussion on keratinizing odontogenic cysts and the need for follow-up. PMID:24808713

  1. [Water provisions for Muscovy ducks--behaviour at duck showers and modified plasson drinkers].

    PubMed

    Briese, Andreas; Hänsch, Friederike; Hartung, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism are serious problems in keeping Moscovy ducks. Prevention of feather pecking by regularly applied beak and claw trimming are increasingly criticised by the public. The recommendation of the Council of Europe (COE) for the keeping of Muscovy ducks in farming systems calls for environmental enrichment including water for preening and bathing after December 31,2010. A total of 126 female Muscovy ducks (not beak nor claw trimmed) from commercial breeding lines were kept for 63 resp. 70 days in four compartments with 15-16 ducks each during two production cycles. Two pens where equipped either with duck showers or open water facility (modified Plasson drinker). Water provisions were made available for the ducks four hours daily at working days from their fifth week of life until slaughter. Behaviour at the water provision was registered and analysed for the number of ducks being engaged with water (944 hours recordings over 59 days from four pens analysed in five-minute-intervals (11,540 observations). Additionally 858 feather preening bouts (five a day for each compartment) were analysed for the duration of feather preening behaviour at the water provision. From the fifth to the tenth week of life the mean percentage of animals of a pen was significantly higher at the open trough (trough: 8,3% (+/-5,37); shower: 4.9% (+/-6.1), Mann-Whitney p <0,01) and feather preening took significantly longer (trough: 134.4 sec (+/-154.8); shower: 111.2 sec (+/-152.0), Mann-Whitney p <0.01) than at the showers. Bout duration and percentage of animals observed at both water provisions increased with age. Nonetheless only ten percent of the feather preening behaviour exceeded five minutes. Most animals made use of water in the first hour of the time period when water was provided. In the first weeks of water provision open water troughs were used more often and preening behaviour was longer. When given the choice, younger ducks preferred open drinkers to

  2. Interactions between nesting pileated woodpeckers and wood ducks

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    We observed interactions between a nesting pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) and what appeared to be four pairs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks regularly approached and attempted to enter an active pileated woodpecker nest cavity that contained three fully feathered young pileated woodpeckers. The male...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Meiothermus ruber H328, Which Degrades Chicken Feathers, and Identification of Proteases and Peptidases Responsible for Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    Meiothermus ruber H328 was isolated from Arima Hot Springs, Kobe, Japan, as a moderate thermophile. It has a strong ability to degrade intact chicken feathers. The enzymatic mechanism of the strain for feather degradation is unclear. The draft genome suggests potent enzyme candidates for degradation of keratin, a hard-to-degrade protein found in feathers. PMID:23640376

  4. Feather regeneration as a model for organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sung-Jan; Wideliz, Randall B; Yue, Zhicao; Li, Ang; Wu, Xiaoshan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Wu, Ping; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2013-01-01

    In the process of organogenesis, different cell types form organized tissues and tissues are integrated into an organ. Most organs form in the developmental stage, but new organs can also form in physiological states or following injuries during adulthood. Feathers are a good model to study post-natal organogenesis because they regenerate episodically under physiological conditions and in response to injuries such as plucking. Epidermal stem cells in the collar can respond to activation signals. Dermal papilla located at the follicle base controls the regenerative process. Adhesion molecules (e.g., NCAM, tenascin), morphogens (e.g., Wnt3a, sprouty, FGF10), and differentiation markers (e.g., keratins) are expressed dynamically in initiation, growth and resting phases of the feather cycle. Epidermal cells are shaped into different feather morphologies based on the molecular micro-environment at the moment of morphogenesis. Chicken feather variants provide a rich resource for us to identify genetic determinants involved in feather regeneration and morphogenesis. An example of using genome-wide SNP analysis to identify alpha keratin 75 as the mutation in frizzled chickens is demonstrated. Due to its accessibility to experimental manipulation and observation, results of regeneration can be analyzed in a comprehensive way. The layout of time dimension along the distal (formed earlier) - proximal (formed later) feather axis makes the morphological analyses easier. Therefore feather regeneration can be a unique model for understanding organogenesis: from activation of stems cell under various physiological conditions to serving as the Rosetta stone for deciphering the language of morphogenesis. PMID:23294361

  5. Fossilized skin reveals coevolution with feathers and metabolism in feathered dinosaurs and early birds.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Zhang, Fucheng; Kearns, Stuart L; Orr, Patrick J; Toulouse, André; Foley, Tara; Hone, David W E; Rogers, Chris S; Benton, Michael J; Johnson, Diane; Xu, Xing; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2018-05-25

    Feathers are remarkable evolutionary innovations that are associated with complex adaptations of the skin in modern birds. Fossilised feathers in non-avian dinosaurs and basal birds provide insights into feather evolution, but how associated integumentary adaptations evolved is unclear. Here we report the discovery of fossil skin, preserved with remarkable nanoscale fidelity, in three non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs and a basal bird from the Cretaceous Jehol biota (China). The skin comprises patches of desquamating epidermal corneocytes that preserve a cytoskeletal array of helically coiled α-keratin tonofibrils. This structure confirms that basal birds and non-avian dinosaurs shed small epidermal flakes as in modern mammals and birds, but structural differences imply that these Cretaceous taxa had lower body heat production than modern birds. Feathered epidermis acquired many, but not all, anatomically modern attributes close to the base of the Maniraptora by the Middle Jurassic.

  6. Flow behavior of regenerated wool-keratin proteins in different mediums.

    PubMed

    Alemdar, Ayse; Iridag, Yesim; Kazanci, Murat

    2005-04-01

    Keratin is abundantly present in nature and the major component of hair, wool, feather, nail and horns. Dissolution of keratin is often required when non-textile applications are demanded. However, the low solubility of keratin in water is the major problem. It becomes unstable and precipitated when stored for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to find a good solvent that provides high stability and easy processibility. In this research, we used formic acid and dimethylformamide (DMF) to dissolve regenerated keratin protein films. It is shown that formic acid is a good solvent for regenerated keratin proteins for the purpose of storage. Transparent and stable regenerated keratin solution is obtained in formic acid.

  7. In situ identification of keratin-hydrolyzing organisms in swine manure inoculated anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Talbot, Guylaine; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Feathers, a poultry byproduct, are composed of > 90% keratin which is resistant to degradation during anaerobic digestion. In this study, four 42-L anaerobic digesters inoculated with adapted swine manure were used to investigate feather digestion. Ground feathers were added into two anaerobic digesters for biogas production, whereas another two without feathers were used as negative control. Feather degradation and enhanced methane production were recorded. Keratin-hydrolyzing organisms (KHOs) were visualized in the feather bag fluids after boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorescence casein staining. Their abundances correlated (R(2)  = 0.96) to feather digestion rates. A 16S rRNA clone library was constructed for the bacterial populations attached to the feather particles. Ninety-three clones (> 1300 bp) were retrieved and 57 (61%) belonged to class Clostridia in the phylum Firmicutes, while 34 (37%) belonged to class Bacteroidia in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Four oligonucleotide FISH probes were designed for the major Clostridia clusters and used with other FISH probes to identify the KHOs. Probe FIMs1029 hybridized with most (> 80%) of the KHOs. Its targeted sequence perfectly matches that possessed by 10 Clostridia 16S rRNA gene clones belonging to a previously uncharacterized new genus closely related to Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Gergely; Alinezhad, Saeid; Mirabdollah, Amir; Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas. Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production. Chopped, autoclaved chicken feathers (4%, W/V) were completely degraded, resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain. During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments, methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e., 0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers), corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins, was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates, independently of the pre-hydrolysis time period of 1, 2 or 8 days. Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain, Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate, which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers. Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B. megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  9. Iridescence in the neck feathers of domestic pigeons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Haiwei; Shi, Lei; Sha, Jing; Li, Yizhou; Qin, Youhua; Dong, Biqin; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Li; Zi, Jian

    2006-11-01

    We conducted structural characterizations, reflection measurements, and theoretical simulations on the iridescent green and purple neck feathers of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica). We found that both green and purple barbules are composed of an outer keratin cortex layer surrounding a medullary layer. The thickness of the keratin cortex layer shows a distinct difference between green and purple barbules. Green barbules vary colors from green to purple with the observing angle changed from normal to oblique, while purple barbules from purple to green in an opposite way. Both the experimental and theoretical results suggest that structural colors in green and purple neck feathers should originate from the interference in the top keratin cortex layer, while the structure beyond acts as a poor mirror.

  10. Multiple Regulatory Modules Are Required for Scale-to-Feather Conversion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Yan, Jie; Lai, Yung-Chih; Ng, Chen Siang; Li, Ang; Jiang, Xueyuan; Elsey, Ruth M; Widelitz, Randall; Bajpai, Ruchi; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2018-02-01

    The origin of feathers is an important question in Evo-Devo studies, with the eventual evolution of vaned feathers which are aerodynamic, allowing feathered dinosaurs and early birds to fly and venture into new ecological niches. Studying how feathers and scales are developmentally specified provides insight into how a new organ may evolve. We identified feather-associated genes using genomic analyses. The candidate genes were tested by expressing them in chicken and alligator scale forming regions. Ectopic expression of these genes induced intermediate morphotypes between scales and feathers which revealed several major morphogenetic events along this path: Localized growth zone formation, follicle invagination, epithelial branching, feather keratin differentiation, and dermal papilla formation. In addition to molecules known to induce feathers on scales (retinoic acid, β-catenin), we identified novel scale-feather converters (Sox2, Zic1, Grem1, Spry2, Sox18) which induce one or more regulatory modules guiding these morphogenetic events. Some morphotypes resemble filamentous appendages found in feathered dinosaur fossils, whereas others exhibit characteristics of modern avian feathers. We propose these morpho-regulatory modules were used to diversify archosaur scales and to initiate feather evolution. The regulatory combination and hierarchical integration may have led to the formation of extant feather forms. Our study highlights the importance of integrating discoveries between developmental biology and paleontology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success.

  12. Melanosomes or Microbes: Testing an Alternative Hypothesis for the Origin of Microbodies in Fossil Feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Alison E.; Zheng, Wenxia; Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Li, Da-Qing; Lacovara, Kenneth J.; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2014-03-01

    Microbodies associated with fossil feathers, originally attributed to microbial biofilm, have been reinterpreted as melanosomes: pigment-containing, eukaryotic organelles. This interpretation generated hypotheses regarding coloration in non-avian and avian dinosaurs. Because melanosomes and microbes overlap in size, distribution and morphology, we re-evaluate both hypotheses. We compare melanosomes within feathers of extant chickens with patterns induced by microbial overgrowth on the same feathers, using scanning (SEM), field emission (FESEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Melanosomes are always internal, embedded in a morphologically distinct keratinous matrix. Conversely, microbes grow across the surface of feathers in continuous layers, more consistent with published images from fossil feathers. We compare our results to both published literature and new data from a fossil feather ascribed to Gansus yumenensis (ANSP 23403). `Mouldic impressions' were observed in association with both the feather and sediment grains, supporting a microbial origin. We propose criteria for distinguishing between these two microbodies.

  13. Melanosomes or Microbes: Testing an Alternative Hypothesis for the Origin of Microbodies in Fossil Feathers

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Alison E.; Zheng, Wenxia; Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Li, Da-qing; Lacovara, Kenneth J.; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Microbodies associated with fossil feathers, originally attributed to microbial biofilm, have been reinterpreted as melanosomes: pigment-containing, eukaryotic organelles. This interpretation generated hypotheses regarding coloration in non-avian and avian dinosaurs. Because melanosomes and microbes overlap in size, distribution and morphology, we re-evaluate both hypotheses. We compare melanosomes within feathers of extant chickens with patterns induced by microbial overgrowth on the same feathers, using scanning (SEM), field emission (FESEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Melanosomes are always internal, embedded in a morphologically distinct keratinous matrix. Conversely, microbes grow across the surface of feathers in continuous layers, more consistent with published images from fossil feathers. We compare our results to both published literature and new data from a fossil feather ascribed to Gansus yumenensis (ANSP 23403). ‘Mouldic impressions’ were observed in association with both the feather and sediment grains, supporting a microbial origin. We propose criteria for distinguishing between these two microbodies. PMID:24595214

  14. Avian Feathers: An Examination of Lightweight Resilience and Bioinspired Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Tarah Naoe

    In bird flight, the majority of the wing surface consists of highly refined and hierarchically organized beta-keratinous feathers. Thus, flight feathers contain ingenious combinations of components that optimize lift, stiffness, aerodynamics, and damage resistance. Their design involves two main parts: a central shaft which prescribes stiffness and lateral vanes that allow for the capture of air. Within the feather vane, barbs branch from the shaft and barbules branch from barbs, forming a flat surface and ensuring lift. Microhooks at the end of barbules hold barbs tightly together, providing a close-knit, unified structure and enabling repair of the vane through the reattachment of un-hooked junctions. In this dissertation, unique aspects of feather architecture are explored to uncover principles translatable to the design of modern aerospace materials and structures. Specifically, understudied aspects of the feather's lightweight yet resilient properties are investigated. This research has revealed several novel characteristics of the feather. Allometric scaling relationships are developed linking the geometry of a bird's wing components to its flight characteristics and total mass. Barbule spacing within the feather vane is found to be 8-16 microm for birds ranging from 0.02-11 kg. Additionally, it is discovered that strength is recovered with the shape recovery property of feathers, and a mechanism for this phenomenon is proposed. Barbule adhesion within the vane is found to prevent barbs from twisting in flexure, maintaining the vane's stiffness, and the extent to which unzipping these connections affects the feather's ability to capture air is related to barb shape. Directional permeability of the feather vane is experimentally confirmed and related to the intricate microstructure of barbules. Lastly, the exceptional architecture of the feather motivated the design of novel bioinspired structures with tailored and unique properties. The avian feather serves

  15. Despotic Ducks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2008-01-01

    This field experiment is designed to test for despotic behavior in Mallards ("Anas platyrhynchos"), and to examine how ducks distribute themselves relative to their resources. Students present Mallards with food patches differing in profitability in order to examine whether ducks distribute themselves ideal freely or ideal despotically. Students…

  16. Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P < 0.05). Averages of AA and DHAA in positive raw ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P < 0.05). The results indicated that almost one-third of raw ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Microbial decomposition of keratin in nature-a new hypothesis of industrial relevance.

    PubMed

    Lange, Lene; Huang, Yuhong; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Discovery of keratin-degrading enzymes from fungi and bacteria has primarily focused on finding one protease with efficient keratinase activity. Recently, an investigation was conducted of all keratinases secreted from a fungus known to grow on keratinaceous materials, such as feather, horn, and hooves. The study demonstrated that a minimum of three keratinases is needed to break down keratin, an endo-acting, an exo-acting, and an oligopeptide-acting keratinase. Further, several studies have documented that disruption of sulfur bridges of the keratin structure acts synergistically with the keratinases to loosen the molecular structure, thus giving the enzymes access to their substrate, the protein structure. With such complexity, it is relevant to compare microbial keratin decomposition with the microbial decomposition of well-studied polymers such as cellulose and chitin. Interestingly, it was recently shown that the specialized enzymes, lytic polysaccharide monoxygenases (LPMOs), shown to be important for breaking the recalcitrance of cellulose and chitin, are also found in keratin-degrading fungi. A holistic view of the complex molecular self-assembling structure of keratin and knowledge about enzymatic and boosting factors needed for keratin breakdown have been used to formulate a hypothesis for mode of action of the LPMOs in keratin decomposition and for a model for degradation of keratin in nature. Testing such hypotheses and models still needs to be done. Even now, the hypothesis can serve as an inspiration for designing industrial processes for keratin decomposition for conversion of unexploited waste streams, chicken feather, and pig bristles into bioaccessible animal feed.

  18. Rapid Evolution of Beta-Keratin Genes Contribute to Phenotypic Differences That Distinguish Turtles and Birds from Other Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang I.; Kong, Lesheng; Ponting, Chris P.; Haerty, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing of vertebrate genomes permits changes in distinct protein families, including gene gains and losses, to be ascribed to lineage-specific phenotypes. A prominent example of this is the large-scale duplication of beta-keratin genes in the ancestors of birds, which was crucial to the subsequent evolution of their beaks, claws, and feathers. Evidence suggests that the shell of Pseudomys nelsoni contains at least 16 beta-keratins proteins, but it is unknown whether this is a complete set and whether their corresponding genes are orthologous to avian beak, claw, or feather beta-keratin genes. To address these issues and to better understand the evolution of the turtle shell at a molecular level, we surveyed the diversity of beta-keratin genes from the genome assemblies of three turtles, Chrysemys picta, Pelodiscus sinensis, and Chelonia mydas, which together represent over 160 Myr of chelonian evolution. For these three turtles, we found 200 beta-keratins, which indicate that, as for birds, a large expansion of beta-keratin genes in turtles occurred concomitantly with the evolution of a unique phenotype, namely, their plastron and carapace. Phylogenetic reconstruction of beta-keratin gene evolution suggests that separate waves of gene duplication within a single genomic location gave rise to scales, claws, and feathers in birds, and independently the scutes of the shell in turtles. PMID:23576313

  19. Avian skin development and the evolutionary origin of feathers.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Roger H; Knapp, Loren W

    2003-08-15

    The discovery of several dinosaurs with filamentous integumentary appendages of different morphologies has stimulated models for the evolutionary origin of feathers. In order to understand these models, knowledge of the development of the avian integument must be put into an evolutionary context. Thus, we present a review of avian scale and feather development, which summarizes the morphogenetic events involved, as well as the expression of the beta (beta) keratin multigene family that characterizes the epidermal appendages of reptiles and birds. First we review information on the evolution of the ectodermal epidermis and its beta (beta) keratins. Then we examine the morphogenesis of scutate scales and feathers including studies in which the extraembryonic ectoderm of the chorion is used to examine dermal induction. We also present studies on the scaleless (sc) mutant, and, because of the recent discovery of "four-winged" dinosaurs, we review earlier studies of a chicken strain, Silkie, that expresses ptilopody (pti), "feathered feet." We conclude that the ability of the ectodermal epidermis to generate discrete cell populations capable of forming functional structural elements consisting of specific members of the beta keratin multigene family was a plesiomorphic feature of the archosaurian ancestor of crocodilians and birds. Evidence suggests that the discrete epidermal lineages that make up the embryonic feather filament of extant birds are homologous with similar embryonic lineages of the developing scutate scales of birds and the scales of alligators. We believe that the early expression of conserved signaling modules in the embryonic skin of the avian ancestor led to the early morphogenesis of the embryonic feather filament, with its periderm, sheath, and barb ridge lineages forming the first protofeather. Invagination of the epidermis of the protofeather led to formation of the follicle providing for feather renewal and diversification. The observations that

  20. Melanin-based color of plumage: role of condition and of feathers' microstructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Alba, Liliana; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Spencer, Karen A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Gill, Lisa; Evans, Neil P.; Monaghan, Pat; Handel, Colleen M.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Whether melanin-based colors honestly signal a bird's condition during the growth of feathers is controversial, and it is unclear if or how the physiological processes underlying melanogenesis or color-imparting structural feather microstructure may be adversely affected by condition. Here we report results from two experiments designed to measure the effect of condition on expression of eumelanic and pheomelanic coloration in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), respectively. In chickadees, we compared feathers of birds affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder, while in zebra finches we compared feathers of controls with feathers of those subjected to an unpredictable food supply during development. In both cases we found that control birds had brighter feathers (higher total reflectance) and more barbules, but similar densities of melanosomes. In addition, the microstructure of the feathers explained variation in color more strongly than did melanosome density. Together, these results suggest that melanin-based coloration may in part be condition-dependent, but that this may be driven by changes in keratin and feather development, rather than melanogenesis itself. Researchers should be cautious when assigning variation in melanin-based color to melanin alone and microstructure of the feather should be taken into account.

  1. A lightweight, biological structure with tailored stiffness: The feather vane.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Tarah N; Pissarenko, Andreï; Herrera, Steven A; Kisailus, David; Lubarda, Vlado A; Meyers, Marc A

    2016-09-01

    The flying feathers of birds are keratinous appendages designed for maximum performance with a minimum weight penalty. Thus, their design contains ingenious combinations of components that optimize lift, stiffness, aerodynamics, and damage resistance. This design involves two main parts: a central shaft that prescribes stiffness and lateral vanes which allows for the capture of air. Within the feather vane, barbs branch from the shaft and barbules branch from barbs, forming a flat surface which ensures lift. Microhooks at the end of barbules hold barbs tightly together, providing the close-knit, unified structure of the feather vane and enabling a repair of the structure through the reattachment of un-hooked junctions. Both the shaft and barbs are lightweight biological structures constructed of keratin using the common motif of a solid shell and cellular interior. The cellular core increases the resistance to buckling with little added weight. Here we analyze the detailed structure of the feather barb and, for the first time, explain its flexural stiffness in terms of the mechanics of asymmetric foam-filled beams subjected to bending. The results are correlated and validated with finite element modeling. We compare the flexure of single barbs as well as arrays of barbs and find that the interlocking adherence of barbs to one another enables a more robust structure due to minimized barb rotation during deflection. Thus, the flexure behavior of the feather vane can be tailored by the adhesive hooking between barbs, creating a system that mitigates damage. A simplified three-dimensional physical model for this interlocking mechanism is constructed by additive manufacturing. The exceptional architecture of the feather vane will motivate the design of bioinspired structures with tailored and unique properties ranging from adhesives to aerospace materials. Despite its importance to bird flight, literature characterizing the feather vane is extremely limited. The feather

  2. The morphogenesis of feathers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingke; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2002-11-21

    Feathers are highly ordered, hierarchical branched structures that confer birds with the ability of flight. Discoveries of fossilized dinosaurs in China bearing 'feather-like' structures have prompted interest in the origin and evolution of feathers. However, there is uncertainty about whether the irregularly branched integumentary fibres on dinosaurs such as Sinornithosaurus are truly feathers, and whether an integumentary appendage with a major central shaft and notched edges is a non-avian feather or a proto-feather. Here, we use a developmental approach to analyse molecular mechanisms in feather-branching morphogenesis. We have used the replication-competent avian sarcoma retrovirus to deliver exogenous genes to regenerating flight feather follicles of chickens. We show that the antagonistic balance between noggin and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has a critical role in feather branching, with BMP4 promoting rachis formation and barb fusion, and noggin enhancing rachis and barb branching. Furthermore, we show that sonic hedgehog (Shh) is essential for inducing apoptosis of the marginal plate epithelia, which results in spaces between barbs. Our analyses identify the molecular pathways underlying the topological transformation of feathers from cylindrical epithelia to the hierarchical branched structures, and provide insights on the possible developmental mechanisms in the evolution of feather forms.

  3. The use of isoelectric focusing to identify rhinoceros keratins.

    PubMed

    Butler, D J; De Forest, P R; Kobilinsky, L

    1990-03-01

    Keratins represent the principal structural proteins of hair. They are also found in horn, nail, claw, hoof, and feather. Hair and nail samples from human and canine sources and hair samples from mule deer, white tail deer, cat, moose, elk, antelope, caribou, raccoon, and goat were studied. Parrot and goose feathers were also analyzed. Keratins are polymorphic, and species differences are known to exist. Proteinaceous extracts of deer and antelope antlers and bovine and rhinoceros horn were prepared by solubilizing 10 mg of horn sample in 200 microL of a solution containing 12M urea, 74mM Trizma base, and 78mM dithiothreitol (DTT). Extraction took place over a 48-h period. A 25-microL aliquot of extract was removed and incubated with 5 microL of 0.1 M DTT for 10 min at 25 degrees C. Keratins were then separated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) on 5.2% polyacrylamide gels for 3 h and visualized using silver staining. At least 20 bands could be observed for each species studied. However, band patterns differed in the position of each band, in the number of bands, and in band coloration resulting from the silver staining process. Horn from two species of rhinoceros was examined. For both specimens, most bands occurred in the pH range of 4 to 5. Although similar patterns for both species were observed, they differed sufficiently to differentiate one from the other. As might be expected, the closer two species are related phylogenetically, the greater the similarity in the IEF pattern produced from their solubilized keratin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Biological Pretreatment of Chicken Feather and Biogas Production from Total Broth.

    PubMed

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth; Lundin, Magnus; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Chicken feathers are available in large quantities around the world causing environmental challenges. The feathers are composed of keratin that is a recalcitrant protein and is hard to degrade. In this work, chicken feathers were aerobically pretreated for 2-8 days at total solid concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 % by Bacillus sp. C 4 , a bacterium that produces both α- and β-keratinases. Then, the liquid fraction (feather hydrolysate) as well as the total broth (liquid and solid fraction of pretreated feathers) was used as substrates for biogas production using anaerobic sludge or bacteria granules as inoculum. The biological pretreatment of feather waste was productive; about 75 % of feather was converted to soluble crude protein after 8 days of degradation at initial feather concentration of 5 %. Bacteria granules performed better during anaerobic digestion of untreated feathers, resulting in approximately two times more methane yield (i.e., 199 mlCH 4 /gVS compared to 105 mlCH 4 /gVS when sludge was used). Pretreatment improved methane yield by 292 and 105 % when sludge and granules were used on the hydrolysate. Bacteria granules worked effectively on the total broth, yielded 445 mlCH 4 /gVS methane, which is 124 % more than that obtained with the same type of inoculum from untreated feather.

  5. Duck plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    Duck plague is caused by a herpesvirus. Infection often results in an acute, contagious, and fatal disease. As with many other herpesviruses, duck plague virus can establish inapparent infections in birds that survive exposure to it, a state referred to as latency. During latency, the virus cannot be detected by standard methods for virus isolation. Studies of domestic species of waterfowl have detected multiple strains of the virus that vary in their ability to cause disease and death. Little is known about the response of wild waterfowl to strain differences.Duck plague outbreaks are thought to be caused when birds that carry the virus shed it through fecal or oral discharge, thus releasing the virus into food and water with which susceptible birds may have contact. Experimental studies have demonstrated spontaneous virus shedding by duck plague carriers during spring. Changes in the duration of daylight and onset of breeding are thought to be physiological stresses that stimulate virus shedding at this time of year. The carriers are immune to the disease, but the virus shed by them causes infection and disease among susceptible waterfowl. Bird-to-bird contact and contact with virus that has contaminated the environment perpetuate an outbreak. Scavenging and decomposition of carcasses of infected birds also contaminate the environment by releasing viruses from tissues and body fluids. Virus transmission through the egg has been reported, but the role of the egg in the disease cycle remains to be resolved.

  6. Simple Epithelial Keratins.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Pavel; Guldiken, Nurdan; Helenius, Terhi O; Misiorek, Julia O; Nyström, Joel H; Lähdeniemi, Iris A K; Silvander, Jonas S G; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of single-layered and glandular epithelial cells as found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lung. SEKs have broad cytoprotective functions, which are facilitated by dynamic posttranslational modifications and interaction with associated proteins. SEK filaments are composed of obligate heteropolymers of type II (K7, K8) and type I (K18-K20, K23) keratins. The multifaceted roles of SEKs are increasingly appreciated due to findings obtained from transgenic mouse models and human studies that identified SEK variants in several digestive diseases. Reorganization of the SEK network into aggregates called Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) is characteristic for specific liver disorders such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To spur further research on SEKs, we here review the methods and potential caveats of their isolation as well as possibilities to study them in cell culture. The existing transgenic SEK mouse models, their advantages and potential drawbacks are discussed. The tools to induce MDBs, ways of their visualization and quantification, as well as the possibilities to detect SEK variants in humans are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatially modulated structural colour in bird feathers.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Andrew J; Washington, Adam L; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Hill, Christopher J; Bianco, Antonino; Burg, Stephanie L; Dennison, Andrew J C; Snape, Mary; Cadby, Ashley J; Smith, Andrew; Prevost, Sylvain; Whittaker, David M; Jones, Richard A L; Fairclough, J Patrick A; Parker, Andrew R

    2015-12-21

    Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) feathers display periodic variations in the reflected colour from white through light blue, dark blue and black. We find the structures responsible for the colour are continuous in their size and spatially controlled by the degree of spinodal phase separation in the corresponding region of the feather barb. Blue structures have a well-defined broadband ultra-violet (UV) to blue wavelength distribution; the corresponding nanostructure has characteristic spinodal morphology with a lengthscale of order 150 nm. White regions have a larger 200 nm nanostructure, consistent with a spinodal process that has coarsened further, yielding broader wavelength white reflectance. Our analysis shows that nanostructure in single bird feather barbs can be varied continuously by controlling the time the keratin network is allowed to phase separate before mobility in the system is arrested. Dynamic scaling analysis of the single barb scattering data implies that the phase separation arrest mechanism is rapid and also distinct from the spinodal phase separation mechanism i.e. it is not gelation or intermolecular re-association. Any growing lengthscale using this spinodal phase separation approach must first traverse the UV and blue wavelength regions, growing the structure by coarsening, resulting in a broad distribution of domain sizes.

  8. Spatially modulated structural colour in bird feathers

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Andrew J.; Washington, Adam L.; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O.; Hill, Christopher J.; Bianco, Antonino; Burg, Stephanie L.; Dennison, Andrew J. C.; Snape, Mary; Cadby, Ashley J.; Smith, Andrew; Prevost, Sylvain; Whittaker, David M.; Jones, Richard A. L.; Fairclough, J. Patrick. A.; Parker, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) feathers display periodic variations in the reflected colour from white through light blue, dark blue and black. We find the structures responsible for the colour are continuous in their size and spatially controlled by the degree of spinodal phase separation in the corresponding region of the feather barb. Blue structures have a well-defined broadband ultra-violet (UV) to blue wavelength distribution; the corresponding nanostructure has characteristic spinodal morphology with a lengthscale of order 150 nm. White regions have a larger 200 nm nanostructure, consistent with a spinodal process that has coarsened further, yielding broader wavelength white reflectance. Our analysis shows that nanostructure in single bird feather barbs can be varied continuously by controlling the time the keratin network is allowed to phase separate before mobility in the system is arrested. Dynamic scaling analysis of the single barb scattering data implies that the phase separation arrest mechanism is rapid and also distinct from the spinodal phase separation mechanism i.e. it is not gelation or intermolecular re-association. Any growing lengthscale using this spinodal phase separation approach must first traverse the UV and blue wavelength regions, growing the structure by coarsening, resulting in a broad distribution of domain sizes. PMID:26686280

  9. Hope is the thing with feathers [book review

    Treesearch

    John C Kilgo

    2000-01-01

    Hope Is the Thing with Feathers, written by Christopher Cokinos, presents accounts of the lives and deaths of six extinct species (or races) of North American birds: Carolina parakeet, ivory-billed woodpecker, heath hen, passenger pigeon, Labrador duck, and the great auk. The message of Cokinos’ book is that we must do more than hope; we must act to prevent...

  10. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2014-01-01

    Birds-of-paradise are nature’s prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes’ parotia is produced by melanin rodlets arranged in layers, together acting as interference reflectors. Light reflection by the silvery colored occipital feathers is unidirectional as in a classical multilayer, but the reflection by the richly colored breast feathers is three-directional and extraordinarily complex. Here we show that the reflection properties of both feather types can be quantitatively explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling using realistic feather anatomies and experimentally determined refractive index dispersion values of keratin and melanin. The results elucidate the interplay between avian coloration and vision and indicate tuning of the mating displays to the spectral properties of the avian visual system. PMID:24591592

  11. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling.

    PubMed

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-03-25

    Birds-of-paradise are nature's prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes' parotia is produced by melanin rodlets arranged in layers, together acting as interference reflectors. Light reflection by the silvery colored occipital feathers is unidirectional as in a classical multilayer, but the reflection by the richly colored breast feathers is three-directional and extraordinarily complex. Here we show that the reflection properties of both feather types can be quantitatively explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling using realistic feather anatomies and experimentally determined refractive index dispersion values of keratin and melanin. The results elucidate the interplay between avian coloration and vision and indicate tuning of the mating displays to the spectral properties of the avian visual system.

  12. Ducks Overboard!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Ingrid; Sheffield, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The authors open this article with a description of an incident that happened in 1992, when 28,800 rubber bath toys (i.e., ducks, frogs, turtles, and beavers) fell off a cargo ship in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. In 2009, these rubber bath toys were still washing ashore on beaches all around the world. This science instruction can be used with…

  13. Fossilization of feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul G.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    1995-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of feathers has revealed evidence that a bacterial glycocalyx (a network of exocellular polysaccharide fibers) played a role in promoting their fossilization in some cases. This mode of preservation has not been reported in other soft tissues. The majority of fossil feathers are preserved as carbonized traces. More rarely, bacteria on the surface are replicated by authigenic minerals (bacterial autolithification). The feathers of Archaeopteryx are preserved mainly by imprintation following early lithification of the substrate and decay of the feather. Lacustrine settings provide the most important taphonomic window for feather preservation. Preservation in terrestrial and normal-marine settings involves very different processes (in amber and in authigenically mineralized coprolites, respectively). Therefore, there may be a significant bias in the avian fossil record in favor of inland water habitats.

  14. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  15. Sprouty / FGF signaling regulates the proximal-distal feather morphology and the size of dermal papillae

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhicao; Jiang, Ting Xin; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2013-01-01

    In a feather, there are distinct morphologies along the proximal-distal axis. The proximal part is a cylindrical stalk (calamus), whereas the distal part has barb and barbule branches. Here we focus on what molecular signaling activity can modulate feather stem cells to generate these distinct morphologies. We demonstrate the drastic tissue remodeling during feather cycling which includes initiation, growth and resting phases. In the growth phase, epithelial components undergo progressive changes from the collar growth zone to the ramogenic zone, to maturing barb branches along the proximal- distal axis. Mesenchymal components also undergo progressive changes from the dermal papilla, to the collar mesenchyme, to the pulp along the proximal- distal axis. Over-expression of Spry4, a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinases, promotes barb branch formation at the expense of the epidermal collar. It even induces barb branches from the follicle sheath (equivalent to the outer root sheath in hair follicles). The results are feathers with expanded feather vane regions and small or missing proximal feather shafts (the calamus). Spry4 also expands the pulp region while reducing the size of dermal papillae, leading to a failure to regenerate. In contrast, over-expressing Fgf10 increases the size of the dermal papillae, expands collar epithelia and mesenchyme, but also prevents feather branch formation and feather keratin differentiation. These results suggest that coordinated Sprouty/FGF pathway activity at different stages is important to modulate feather epidermal stem cells to form distinct feather morphologies along the proximal-distal feather axis. PMID:23000358

  16. Novel photonic crystals: incorporation of nano-CdS into the natural photonic crystals within peacock feathers.

    PubMed

    Han, Jie; Su, Huilan; Song, Fang; Gu, Jiajun; Di, Zhang; Jiang, Limin

    2009-03-03

    In this investigation, the natural 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) within peacock feathers are applied to incorporate CdS nanocrystallites. Peacock feathers are activated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic/dimethylformamide suspension to increase the reactive sites on the keratin component, on which CdS nanoparticles (nano-CdS) are in situ formed in succession and serve as the "seeds" to direct further incorporation during the following solvothermal procedure. Thus, homogeneous nano-CdS are loaded both on the feathers' surface layer and inside the 2D PhCs. The obtained nano-CdS/peacock feathers hybrids are novel photonic crystals whose photonic stop bands are markedly different from that of the natural PhCs within original peacock feathers, as observed by the reflection spectra.

  17. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial property of green composites from cellulose, wool, hair and chicken feather.

    PubMed

    Tran, Chieu D; Prosenc, Franja; Franko, Mladen; Benzi, Gerald

    2016-10-20

    Novel composites between cellulose (CEL) and keratin (KER) from three different sources (wool, hair and chicken feather) were successfully synthesized in a simple one-step process in which butylmethylimidazolium chloride (BMIm(+)Cl(-)), an ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent. The method is green and recyclable because [BMIm(+)Cl(-)] used was recovered for reuse. Spectroscopy (FTIR, XRD) and imaging (SEM) results confirm that CEL and KER remain chemically intact and homogeneously distributed in the composites. KER retains some of its secondary structure in the composites. Interestingly, the minor differences in the structure of KER in wool, hair and feather produced pronounced differences in the conformation of their corresponding composites with wool has the highest α-helix content and feather has the lowest content. These results correlate well with mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the composites. Specifically, adding CEL into KER substantially improves mechanical strength of [CEL+KER] composites made from all three different sources, wool, hair and chicken feathers i.e., [CEL+wool], [CEL+hair] and [CEL+feather]. Since mechanical strength is due to CEL, and CEL has only random structure, [CEL+feather] has, expectedly, the strongest mechanical property because feather has the lowest content of α-helix. Conversely, [CEL+wool] composite has the weakest mechanical strength because wool has the highest α-helix content. All three composites exhibit antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antibacterial property is due not to CEL but to the protein and strongly depends on the type of the keratin, namely, the bactericidal effect is strongest for feather and weakest for wool. These results together with our previous finding that [CEL+KER] composites can control release of drug such as ciprofloxacin clearly indicate that these composites can potentially be used as wound dressing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  18. Synthesis, Structure and Antimicrobial Property of Green Composites from Cellulose, Wool, Hair and Chicken Feather

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Chieu D.; Prosenc, Franja; Franko, Mladen; Benzi, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Novel composites between cellulose (CEL) and keratin (KER) from three different sources (wool, hair and chicken feather) were successfully synthesized in a simple one-step process in which butylmethylimidazolium chloride (BMIm+Cl−), an ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent. The method is green and recyclable because [BMIm+Cl−] used was recovered for reuse. Spectroscopy (FTIR, XRD) and imaging (SEM) results confirm that CEL and KER remain chemically intact and homogeneously distributed in the composites. KER retains some of its secondary structure in the composites. Interestingly, the minor differences in the structure of KER in wool, hair and feather produced pronounced differences in the conformation of their corresponding composites with wool has the highest α-helix content and feather has the lowest content. These results correlate well with mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the composites. Specifically, adding CEL into KER substantially improves mechanical strength of [CEL+KER] composites made from all three different sources, wool, hair and chicken feathers (i.e., [CEL+wool], [CEL+hair] and [CEL+feather]. Since mechanical strength is due to CEL, and CEL has only random structure, [CEL+feather] has, expectedly, the strongest mechanical property because feather has the lowest content of α-helix. Conversely, [CEL+wool] composite has the weakest mechanical strength because wool has the highest α-helix content. All three composites exhibit antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The antibacterial property is due not to CEL but to the protein and strongly depends on the type of the keratin, namely, the bactericidal effect is strongest for feather and weakest for wool. These results together with our previous finding that [CEL+KER] composites can control release of drug such as ciprofloxacin clearly indicate that these composites can potentially be used as wound dressing PMID:27474680

  19. Effect of clay content on morphology and processability of electrospun keratin/poly(lactic acid) nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Isarankura Na Ayutthaya, Siriorn; Tanpichai, Supachok; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2016-04-01

    This research work has concerned the development of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal filters from biomaterials, based on keratin extracted from chicken feather waste and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (50/50%w/w) blend. Clay (Na-montmorillonite) was also added to the blend solution prior to carrying out an electro-spinning process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clay content on viscosity, conductivity, and morphology of the electrospun fibers. Scanning electron micrographs showed that smooth and bead-free fibers were obtained when clay content used was below 2 pph. XRD patterns of the electrospun fibers indicated that the clay was intercalated and exfoliated within the polymers matrix. Percentage crystallinity of keratin in the blend increased after adding the clay, as evidenced from FTIR spectra and DSC thermograms. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a kind of core-shell structure with clay being predominately resided within the keratin rich shell and at the interfacial region. Filtration performance of the electrospun keratin/PLA fibers, described in terms of pressure drop and its capability of removing methylene blue, were also explored. Overall, our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve process-ability, morphology and filtration efficiency of the electrospun keratin fibers by adding a suitable amount of clay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brazil: Duck Lagoon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Brazil - The Duck Lagoon     View Larger Image ... the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to "the Duck Lagoon". It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King ...

  1. Pathogenesis of duck circovirus genotype 1 in experimentally infected Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y-T; Kang, M; Jang, H-K

    2018-05-17

    Ducks infected with duck circovirus (DuCV) exhibit feathering disorder, growth retardation, and low body weight. The virus can induce immunosuppression and increase rates of infection caused by other pathogens. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pathogenesis of DuCV in experimentally infected Pekin ducks. At postmortem examination, gross lesions were observed in the immune organs including bursa of Fabricius (BF), thymus, and spleen. Hemorrhage, lymphocytic depletion, necrosis, and degeneration were observed in the bursal tissues by histological examination. The TUNEL assay was performed with bursal tissue. There was a significant difference of the apoptosis rate between the negative and DuCV-infected ducks. The earliest time point for detection of DuCV DNA in sera, cloacal swabs, and organs was 1 wk post-infection (WPI). Viral shedding was persistent and detectable at the end of the experiment (10 WPI). The findings provide evidence that horizontal transmission and persistent infection are the characteristics of DuCV. The organ with the highest mean viral load was the spleen, followed by BF, cecal tonsil, lung, thymus, liver, and kidney. We successfully established an experimental DuCV genotype 1 (DuCV-1) infection in Pekin ducks and demonstrated the pathogenicity and persistence of DuCV-1. In conclusion, DuCV-1 caused extensive damage to the immune organs that may have resulted in immunosuppression. Pathobiological characteristics of DuCV-1 include systemic infection, persistent infection, and horizontal transmission. These features allow DuCV-1 to circulate more easily in farms and increase the susceptibility of ducks to other diseases.

  2. Structure and functions of keratin proteins in simple, stratified, keratinized and cornified epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Bragulla, Hermann H; Homberger, Dominique G

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the term ‘keratin’ stood for all of the proteins extracted from skin modifications, such as horns, claws and hooves. Subsequently, it was realized that this keratin is actually a mixture of keratins, keratin filament-associated proteins and other proteins, such as enzymes. Keratins were then defined as certain filament-forming proteins with specific physicochemical properties and extracted from the cornified layer of the epidermis, whereas those filament-forming proteins that were extracted from the living layers of the epidermis were grouped as ‘prekeratins’ or ‘cytokeratins’. Currently, the term ‘keratin’ covers all intermediate filament-forming proteins with specific physicochemical properties and produced in any vertebrate epithelia. Similarly, the nomenclature of epithelia as cornified, keratinized or non-keratinized is based historically on the notion that only the epidermis of skin modifications such as horns, claws and hooves is cornified, that the non-modified epidermis is a keratinized stratified epithelium, and that all other stratified and non-stratified epithelia are non-keratinized epithelia. At this point in time, the concepts of keratins and of keratinized or cornified epithelia need clarification and revision concerning the structure and function of keratin and keratin filaments in various epithelia of different species, as well as of keratin genes and their modifications, in view of recent research, such as the sequencing of keratin proteins and their genes, cell culture, transfection of epithelial cells, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Recently, new functions of keratins and keratin filaments in cell signaling and intracellular vesicle transport have been discovered. It is currently understood that all stratified epithelia are keratinized and that some of these keratinized stratified epithelia cornify by forming a Stratum corneum. The processes of keratinization and cornification in skin modifications are

  3. Family Feathers. [Videotape Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Family Feathers is a set of 18 videotapes for parents of preschool children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on practical advice from Tlingit and Haida parents, wisdom from elders, and some of…

  4. The impact of uropygial gland secretions on mechanically induced wearing of barn owl and pigeon body feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.

  5. Influence of dietary feathers on the fecal microbiota in captive Arctic fox: do dietary hair or feathers play a role in the evolution of carnivorous mammals?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Yang, Shuhui; Xu, Yanchun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2014-11-01

    Hair and feathers are composed of keratin and are indigestible, inalimental and unpalatable for carnivores. However, carnivores often ingest hair and feathers during feeding or when grooming. We hypothesized that ingestion of hair and feathers changes species diversity and relative abundance of bacteria in the gut of carnivores. To test this hypothesis, we added disinfected poultry down feathers to the normal diet of captive Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We then used fluorescently labeled terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) to examine changes in fecal bacterial diversity and abundance. The results showed that the number of bacterial species increased significantly after feather ingestion, but that total abundance was unchanged. This demonstrated that addition of disinfected feathers to the diet stimulated increased production among less abundant bacteria, resulting in a balancing of relative abundance of different bacterial species, or that some newly-ingested microbial species would colonize the gut because a suitable microhabitat had become available. This implies that the overall production of bacterial metabolites would be made up of a greater range of substances after feather ingestion. On one hand, the host's immune response would be more diverse, increasing the capacity of the immune system to regulate gut microflora. On the other hand, the animal's physiological performance would also be affected. For wild animals, such altered physiological traits would be subjected to natural selection, and, hence, persistent geographic differences in the character of ingested feathers or fur would drive speciation. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Proximate bases of silver color in anhinga (Anhinga anhinga) feathers.

    PubMed

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana

    2011-11-01

    Colors of living organisms are produced by selective light absorption from pigments and/or by light scattering from highly ordered nanostructures (i.e., structural color). While the physical bases of metallic colors of arthropods and fish are fairly well-known, those of birds are not. Here we examine structurally based silver color and its production in feathers of the waterbird species Anhinga. This achromatic color is distinguished from grey by high specular reflectance, from white by low diffuse reflectance, and from both by high gloss. Light and electron microscopy revealed three modifications of feathers likely leading to silver color. First, proximal barbules were highly elongated and contained glossy black color at their base and white color at their pennulum. Second, this glossy black portion contained a single outer layer of keratin weakly bounded by melanosomes. Finally, the white portion contained a disordered amorphous matrix of keratin and air. Optical analyzes suggest that these structures produce, respectively, glossy black color through thin-film interference and white color through incoherent light scattering. Silver color likely results from the combined reflectance of these adjacent structures. This represents a distinct mechanism for attaining silver colors that may have been partially derived through selection for display, thermoregulation or decreased hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Microstructural tissue-engineering in the rachis and barbs of bird feathers

    PubMed Central

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2017-01-01

    Feathers do not have to be especially strong but they do need to be stiff and at the same time resilient and to have a high work of fracture. Syncitial barbule fibres are the highest size-class of continuous filaments in the cortex of the rachis of the feather. However, the rachis can be treated as a generalized cone of rapidly diminishing volume. This means that hundreds of syncitial barbule fibres of the rachis may have to be terminated before reaching the tip – creating potentially thousands of inherently fatal crack-like defects. Here I report a new microstructural architecture of the feather cortex in which most syncitial barbule fibres deviate to the right and left edges of the feather rachis from far within its borders and extend into the barbs, side branches of the rachis, as continuous filaments. This novel morphology adds significantly to knowledge of β-keratin self-assembly in the feather and helps solve the potential problem of fatal crack-like defects in the rachidial cortex. Furthermore, this new complexity, consistent with biology’s robust multi-functionality, solves two biomechanical problems at a stroke. Feather barbs deeply ‘rooted’ within the rachis are also able to better withstand the aerodynamic forces to which they are subjected. PMID:28345593

  8. New consensus nomenclature for mammalian keratins

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Jürgen; Bowden, Paul E.; Coulombe, Pierre A.; Langbein, Lutz; Lane, E. Birgitte; Magin, Thomas M.; Maltais, Lois; Omary, M. Bishr; Parry, David A.D.; Rogers, Michael A.; Wright, Mathew W.

    2006-01-01

    Keratins are intermediate filament–forming proteins that provide mechanical support and fulfill a variety of additional functions in epithelial cells. In 1982, a nomenclature was devised to name the keratin proteins that were known at that point. The systematic sequencing of the human genome in recent years uncovered the existence of several novel keratin genes and their encoded proteins. Their naming could not be adequately handled in the context of the original system. We propose a new consensus nomenclature for keratin genes and proteins that relies upon and extends the 1982 system and adheres to the guidelines issued by the Human and Mouse Genome Nomenclature Committees. This revised nomenclature accommodates functional genes and pseudogenes, and although designed specifically for the full complement of human keratins, it offers the flexibility needed to incorporate additional keratins from other mammalian species. PMID:16831889

  9. Microstructure of the feather in Japanese Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) with distinguishing gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunok; Aoyama, Masato; Sugita, Shoei

    2009-09-01

    Assessing gender difference in Japanese Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) is difficult by gross observation because both sexes have black plumage colors. Careful observation of the plumage, however, reveals that it is actually iridescent glossy purple and dark-green in color, and that these colors are more marked in adult males than in females. In birds, such iridescent structural colors are generally produced in the feather barbules, where light is scattered constructively by laminar arrays consisting of alternating layers of materials with different refractive indices, namely keratin, melanin and air. We have investigated differences in the microstructure of the feathers of male and female Jungle Crows by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Male birds had more barbs than females, and the length of the prongs was shorter in males than in females. The density of the melanin granules in the cross-section of barbules was higher in males than in females. Moreover, only in males did the melanin granules show an ordered arrangement beneath a keratin cortex layer at the edges of barbules. These results demonstrate that there are microstructural differences in the feathers of male and female Jungle Crows and suggest that the Jungle Crows' feathers may have iridescent coloring that differs according to gender.

  10. Amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhan, Tianrong; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Noniridescent coloration by the spongy keratin in parrot feather barbs has fascinated scientists. Nonetheless, its ultimate origin remains as yet unanswered, and a quantitative structural and optical description is still lacking. Here we report on structural and optical characterizations and numerical simulations of the blue feather barbs of the scarlet macaw. We found that the sponge in the feather barbs is an amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal with only short-range order. It possesses an isotropic photonic pseudogap that is ultimately responsible for the brilliant noniridescent coloration. We further unravel an ingenious structural optimization for attaining maximum coloration apparently resulting from natural evolution. Upon increasing the material refractive index above the level provided by nature, there is an interesting transition from a photonic pseudogap to a complete bandgap. PMID:22615350

  11. Evaluation of lateral flow devices for identification of infected poultry by testing swab and feather specimens during H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Marek J; To, Thanh L; Tong, Hien H; Coward, Vivien J; Mawhinney, Ian C; Banks, Jill; Brown, Ian H

    2012-09-01

    Evaluation of two commercial lateral flow devices (LFDs) for avian influenza (AI) detection in H5N1 highly pathogenic AI infected poultry in Vietnam. Determine sensitivity and specificity of the LFDs relative to a validated highly sensitive H5 RRT PCR. Swabs (cloacal and tracheal) and feathers were collected from 46 chickens and 48 ducks (282 clinical specimens) and tested by both LFDs and H5 RRT PCR. A subset of 59 chicken and 34 duck specimens was also tested by virus isolation (VI), the 'gold standard'. Twenty-six chickens and 15 ducks were shown to be infected by at least one RRT PCR positive clinical specimen per bird. Bird-level sensitivity for the Anigen LFD was 84·6% for chickens and 53·3% for ducks, and for the Quickvue LFD 65·4% for chickens and 33·3% for ducks. Comparison of the three clinical specimens revealed that chicken feathers were the most sensitive with 84% and 56% sensitivities for Anigen and Quickvue respectively. All 21 RRT PCR positive swabs from ducks were negative by both LFDs. However, duck feather testing gave sensitivities of 53·3% and 33·3% for Anigen and Quickvue respectively. Specificity was 100% for both LFDs in all investigations. Although LFDs were less sensitive than AI RRT PCR and VI, high titre viral shedding in H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infected and diseased chickens is sufficient for a proportion of birds to be identified as AI infected by LFDs. Feathers were the optimal specimen for LFD testing in such diseased HPAI scenarios, particularly for ducks where swab testing by LFDs failed to identify any infected birds. However, specimens should be forwarded to the laboratory for confirmation by more sensitive diagnostic techniques. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A new scenario for the evolutionary origin of hair, feather, and avian scales

    PubMed Central

    Dhouailly, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    In zoology it is well known that birds are characterized by the presence of feathers, and mammals by hairs. Another common point of view is that avian scales are directly related to reptilian scales. As a skin embryologist, I have been fascinated by the problem of regionalization of skin appendages in amniotes throughout my scientific life. Here I have collected the arguments that result from classical experimental embryology, from the modern molecular biology era, and from the recent discovery of new fossils. These arguments shape my view that avian ectoderm is primarily programmed toward forming feathers, and mammalian ectoderm toward forming hairs. The other ectoderm derivatives – scales in birds, glands in mammals, or cornea in both classes – can become feathers or hairs through metaplastic process, and appear to have a negative regulatory mechanism over this basic program. How this program is altered remains, in most part, to be determined. However, it is clear that the regulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is a critical hub. The level of beta-catenin is crucial for feather and hair formation, as its down-regulation appears to be linked with the formation of avian scales in chick, and cutaneous glands in mice. Furthermore, its inhibition leads to the formation of nude skin and is required for that of corneal epithelium. Here I propose a new theory, to be further considered and tested when we have new information from genomic studies. With this theory, I suggest that the alpha-keratinized hairs from living synapsids may have evolved from the hypothetical glandular integument of the first amniotes, which may have presented similarities with common day terrestrial amphibians. Concerning feathers, they may have evolved independently of squamate scales, each originating from the hypothetical roughened beta-keratinized integument of the first sauropsids. The avian overlapping scales, which cover the feet in some bird species, may have developed later in

  13. The effects of different bill-trimming methods on the well-being of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, L A; Cheng, H-W; Garner, J P; Pajor, E A; Mench, J A

    2007-09-01

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare 2 different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) and cautery only (tip-searing; SEAR), on the behavior, bill morphology, and weight gain of Pekin ducks. Ducklings (n = 192, 96 per sex) were trimmed at the hatchery and assigned to 12 floor pens (3.66 x0.91 m) by treatment. Behavior was evaluated by scan sampling, and plumage condition was scored using a 0 to 3 scoring system. Thirty-six ducks were randomly euthanized at 3 and 6 wk of age, and their bills were collected for examination. Following fixation and decalcification, the bills were embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned longitudinally. Alternate sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome for the connective tissues, and with Bielschowsky's silver impregnation, Bodian's staining, and Holmes' staining for the nerve fibers. Trimmed ducks engaged in fewer bill-related behaviors and rested more than untrimmed ducks (NOTRIM) during the first 2 wk posttrim. Ducks in the SEAR and NOTRIM groups showed similar patterns of weight gain, but those in the TRIM group had a lower rate of gain than ducks in the SEAR group during the first week posttrim and had a lower rate of gain than those in the NOTRIM group for 2 wk posttrim. Feather scores of ducks in the NOTRIM group were significantly worse than those in the TRIM or SEAR group by 18 d, and scores continued to deteriorate at a greater rate than those of trimmed ducks throughout the study. Both trimming methods caused connective tissue proliferation in the bill stumps, but the TRIM method caused thicker scar tissue than the SEAR method. No neuromas were found with either trimming method, but there were more nerve fibers in bill stumps of the SEAR ducks than the TRIM ducks. These results suggest that

  14. The human keratins: biology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Divo, Markus; Langbein, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    The keratins are the typical intermediate filament proteins of epithelia, showing an outstanding degree of molecular diversity. Heteropolymeric filaments are formed by pairing of type I and type II molecules. In humans 54 functional keratin genes exist. They are expressed in highly specific patterns related to the epithelial type and stage of cellular differentiation. About half of all keratins—including numerous keratins characterized only recently—are restricted to the various compartments of hair follicles. As part of the epithelial cytoskeleton, keratins are important for the mechanical stability and integrity of epithelial cells and tissues. Moreover, some keratins also have regulatory functions and are involved in intracellular signaling pathways, e.g. protection from stress, wound healing, and apoptosis. Applying the new consensus nomenclature, this article summarizes, for all human keratins, their cell type and tissue distribution and their functional significance in relation to transgenic mouse models and human hereditary keratin diseases. Furthermore, since keratins also exhibit characteristic expression patterns in human tumors, several of them (notably K5, K7, K8/K18, K19, and K20) have great importance in immunohistochemical tumor diagnosis of carcinomas, in particular of unclear metastases and in precise classification and subtyping. Future research might open further fields of clinical application for this remarkable protein family. PMID:18461349

  15. Every Feather Tells a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby; Chessin, Laura

    2006-01-01

    For Mr. Kim's fifth-grade students, recess is not just for playing and getting exercise! One spring, he observed a small group of his students near their class bluebird box, examining various bird feathers found on the ground. Building on students' natural curiosity, Mr. Kim purchased some feathers for further exploration in the classroom. He was…

  16. Manakins can produce iridescent and bright feather colours without melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2016-06-15

    Males of many species often use colourful and conspicuous ornaments to attract females. Among these, male manakins (family: Pipridae) provide classic examples of sexual selection favouring the evolution of bright and colourful plumage coloration. The highly iridescent feather colours of birds are most commonly produced by the periodic arrangement of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) within barbules. Melanin increases the saturation of iridescent colours seen from optimal viewing angles by absorbing back-scattered light; however, this may reduce the wide-angle brightness of these signals, contributing to a dark background appearance. We examined the nanostructure of four manakin species (Lepidothrix isidorei, L. iris, L. nattereri and L. coeruleocapilla) to identify how they produce their bright plumage colours. Feather barbs of all four species were characterized by dense and fibrous internal spongy matrices that likely increase scattering of light within the barb. The iridescent, yet pale or whitish colours of L. iris and L. nattereri feathers were produced not by periodically arranged melanosomes within barbules, but by periodic matrices of air and β-keratin within barbs. Lepidothrix iris crown feathers were able to produce a dazzling display of colours with small shifts in viewing geometry, likely because of a periodic nanostructure, a flattened barb morphology and disorder at a microstructural level. We hypothesize that iridescent plumage ornaments of male L. iris and L. nattereri are under selection to increase brightness or luminance across wide viewing angles, which may potentially increase their detectability by females during dynamic and fast-paced courtship displays in dim light environments. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  18. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  19. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  20. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  1. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  2. Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules

    PubMed Central

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Marshall, N. Justin; Osorio, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The breast-plate plumage of male Lawes' parotia (Parotia lawesii) produces dramatic colour changes when this bird of paradise displays on its forest-floor lek. We show that this effect is achieved not solely by the iridescence—that is an angular-dependent spectral shift of the reflected light—which is inherent in structural coloration, but is based on a unique anatomical modification of the breast-feather barbule. The barbules have a segmental structure, and in common with many other iridescent feathers, they contain stacked melanin rodlets surrounded by a keratin film. The unique property of the parotia barbules is their boomerang-like cross section. This allows each barbule to work as three coloured mirrors: a yellow-orange reflector in the plane of the feather, and two symmetrically positioned bluish reflectors at respective angles of about 30°. Movement during the parotia's courtship displays thereby achieves much larger and more abrupt colour changes than is possible with ordinary iridescent plumage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of multiple thin film or multi-layer reflectors incorporated in a single structure (engineered or biological). It nicely illustrates how subtle modification of the basic feather structure can achieve novel visual effects. The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display. PMID:21159676

  3. Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Leertouwer, Hein L; Marshall, N Justin; Osorio, Daniel

    2011-07-22

    The breast-plate plumage of male Lawes' parotia (Parotia lawesii) produces dramatic colour changes when this bird of paradise displays on its forest-floor lek. We show that this effect is achieved not solely by the iridescence--that is an angular-dependent spectral shift of the reflected light--which is inherent in structural coloration, but is based on a unique anatomical modification of the breast-feather barbule. The barbules have a segmental structure, and in common with many other iridescent feathers, they contain stacked melanin rodlets surrounded by a keratin film. The unique property of the parotia barbules is their boomerang-like cross section. This allows each barbule to work as three coloured mirrors: a yellow-orange reflector in the plane of the feather, and two symmetrically positioned bluish reflectors at respective angles of about 30°. Movement during the parotia's courtship displays thereby achieves much larger and more abrupt colour changes than is possible with ordinary iridescent plumage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of multiple thin film or multi-layer reflectors incorporated in a single structure (engineered or biological). It nicely illustrates how subtle modification of the basic feather structure can achieve novel visual effects. The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display.

  4. Variations in endothelin receptor B subtype 2 (EDNRB2) coding sequences and mRNA expression levels in 4 Muscovy duck plumage colour phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Wu, N; Qin, H; Wang, M; Bian, Y; Dong, B; Sun, G; Zhao, W; Chang, G; Xu, Q; Chen, G

    2017-04-01

    1. Endothelin receptor B subtype 2 (EDNRB2) is a paralog of EDNRB, which encodes a 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. Previous studies reported that EDNRB was essential for melanoblast migration in mammals and ducks. 2. Muscovy ducks have different plumage colour phenotypes. Variations in EDNRB2 coding sequences (CDSs) and mRNA expression levels were investigated in 4 different Muscovy duck plumage colour phenotypes, including black, black mutant, silver and white head. 3. The EDNRB2 gene from Muscovy duck was cloned; it had a length of 6435 bp and encoded 437 amino acids. The coding region was screened and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Eight mutations were obtained, including one missense variant (c.64C > T) and 7 synonymous substitutions. The substitutions were associated with plumage colour phenotypes. 4. The EDNRB2 mRNA expression levels were compared between feather pulp from black birds and black mutant birds. The results indicated that EDNRB2 transcripts in feather pulp were significantly higher in black feathers than in white feathers. 5. The results determined the variation of EDNRB2 CDS and mRNA expression in Muscovy ducks of various plumage colours.

  5. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Development, Regeneration, and Evolution of Feathers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Foley, John; Tang, Pin-Chi; Li, Ang; Jiang, Ting Xin; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2017-01-01

    The feather is a complex ectodermal organ with hierarchical branching patterns. It provides functions in endothermy, communication, and flight. Studies of feather growth, cycling, and health are of fundamental importance to avian biology and poultry science. In addition, feathers are an excellent model for morphogenesis studies because of their accessibility, and their distinct patterns can be used to assay the roles of specific molecular pathways. Here we review the progress in aspects of development, regeneration, and evolution during the past three decades. We cover the development of feather buds in chicken embryos, regenerative cycling of feather follicle stem cells, formation of barb branching patterns, emergence of intrafeather pigmentation patterns, interplay of hormones and feather growth, and the genetic identification of several feather variants. The discovery of feathered dinosaurs redefines the relationship between feathers and birds. Inspiration from biomaterials and flight research further fuels biomimetic potential of feathers as a multidisciplinary research focal point. PMID:25387232

  7. Mechanistic investigation of a hemostatic keratin biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmany, Maria Bahawdory

    Traumatic injury leads to more productive years lost than heart disease, cancer and stroke combined. Trauma is often accompanied and complicated by uncontrolled bleeding. Human hair keratin biomaterials have demonstrated efficacy in controlling hemorrhage in both small and large animal models; however little is known about the mechanism by which these proteins aid in blood clotting. Inspection of the amino acid sequence of known keratins shows the presence of several cellular binding motifs, suggesting a possible mechanism and potentially eliminating the need to functionalize the material's surface for cellular interaction. In addition to small animal studies, the hemostatic activity of keratin hydrogels was explored through porcine hemorrhage models representing both a high flow and low flow bleed. In both studies, keratin hydrogels appeared to lead to a significant reduction in blood loss. The promising results from these in vivo studies provided the motivation for this project. The objective of this dissertation work was to assess the mechanism of action of a hemostatic keratin biomaterial, and more broadly assess the biomaterial-cellular interaction(s). It is our hypothesis that keratin biomaterials have the capacity to specifically interact with cells and lead to propagation of intracellular signaling pathway, specifically contributing to hemostasis. Through application of biochemical and molecular tools, we demonstrate here that keratin biomaterials contribute to hemostasis through two probable mechanisms; integrin mediated platelet adhesion and increased fibrin polymerization. Platelets are the major cell type involved in coagulation both by acting as a catalytic surface for the clotting cascade and adhering to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins providing a soft platelet plug. Because keratin biomaterials have structural and biochemical characteristics similar to ECM proteins, we utilized several adhesion assays to investigate platelet adhesion to keratin

  8. Composition analysis and application of degradation products of whole feathers through a large scale of fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhang-Jun; Lu, Dan; Luo, Lai-Sheng; Deng, Yun-Xia; Bian, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Xing-Qun; Zhou, Mei-Hua

    2011-08-01

    Feathers are one of the most abundant bioresources. They are discarded as waste in most cases and could cause environmental pollution. On the other hand, keratin constituted by amino acids is the main component of feathers. In this article, we reported on biorefined feathers and integrants and application of degraded products. The fermentation of whole chicken feathers with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DHHJ in a scale-up of a 5-L bioreactor was investigated in this article. The fermentation process was controlled at 0.08 MPa pressure, 2.5 L/min airflow, and 300 rpm as 100% oxygen saturation level, 40°C, and pH 7.8. Feathers were almost completely degraded in the tested fermentation reaction with the following conditions: 80 g of whole feathers in 3 L fermentation broth for 72 h, seed age of 16 h, 100 mL inoculation amount, and 50% oxygen saturation level. The degraded products contain 397.1 mg/L soluble protein that has mass weight ranging from 10 to 160 kD, 336.9 mg/L amino acids, and many kinds of metal ions. The fermentation broth was evaluated as leaf fertilizer and found to increase plant growth to 82% or 66% for two- or fourfold dilutions, respectively. In addition, in a hair care assay, the broth showed a hair protective function by increasing weight, flexibility, and strength of the treated hair. The whole feathers were degraded completely by S. maltophilia DHHJ. The degraded product includes many factors to life, such as peptides, amino acids, and mineral elements. It could be applied as leaf fertilizer and hair care product.

  9. Impact of feathers and feather follicles on broiler carcass bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Buhr, R J

    2004-08-01

    Genetically featherless and feathered broiler siblings were used to test the contribution of feathers and feather follicles to the numbers of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter in whole-carcass rinse samples taken immediately after carcasses were defeathered for 30 or 60 s. Numbers of spoilage bacteria were counted after the same fully processed carcasses were stored for 1 wk at 2 degrees C. In each of 3 replications, twenty-eight 11-wk-old, mixed-sex, genetically featherless or feathered broilers were processed in a laboratory processing facility. Immediately after individual defeathering in a mechanical picker, carcasses were sampled using a carcass rinse technique. Carcasses were eviscerated, immersion chilled at 2 degrees C for 30 min, individually bagged, and stored for 1 wk at 2 degrees C, after which all carcasses were rinsed again, and spoilage bacteria in the rinsate were enumerated. There were no significant differences (P < or = 0.05) between the featherless and feathered broilers in numbers of aerobic bacteria, E. coli, and Campylobacter in rinse samples taken immediately after defeathering and no differences between carcasses picked for 30 or 60 s. There were no differences in numbers of spoilage bacteria after 1 wk of refrigeration for any of the feather presence-picking length combinations. Although the defeathering step in poultry processing has been identified as an opportunity for bacterial contamination from the intestinal tract and cross-contamination between carcasses, the presence of feathers and feather follicles does not make a significant difference in carcass bacterial contamination immediately after defeathering or in spoilage bacteria after 1 wk of refrigeration.

  10. Gap and tight junctions in the formation of feather branches: A descriptive ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2010-08-20

    The present study has focused on the distribution and ultrastructure of gap and tight junctions responsible for the formation of the barb/barbule branching in developing feathers using immunocytochemical detection. Apart from desmosomes, both tight and gap junctions are present between differentiating barb/barbule cells and during keratinization. While gap junctions are rare along the perimeter of these cells, tight junctions tend to remain localized in nodes joining barbule cells and between barb cells of the ramus. Occludin and connexin-26 but not connexin-43 have been detected between barb medullary, barb cortical and barbule cells during formation of barbs. Gap junctions are present in supportive cells located in the vicinity of barbule cells and destined to degenerate, but no close junctions are present between supportive and barb/barbule cells. Close junctions mature into penta-laminar junctions that are present between mature barb/barbule cells. Immunolabeling for occludin and Cx26 is rare along these cornified junctions. The junctions allow barb/barbule cells to remain connected until feather-keratin form the mature corneous syncytium that constitutes the barbs. A discussion of the role of gap and tight junctions during feather morphogenesis is presented. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. NMR spectroscopy reveals the presence and association of lipids and keratin in adhesive gecko setae

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dharamdeep; Stark, Alyssa Y.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Lipid and protein aggregates are one of the fundamental materials of biological systems. Examples include cell membranes, insect cuticle, vertebrate epidermis, feathers, hair and adhesive structures known as ‘setae’ on gecko toes. Until recently gecko setae were assumed to be composed entirely of keratin, but analysis of footprints left behind by geckos walking on surfaces revealed that setae include various kinds of lipids. However, the arrangement and molecular-level behavior of lipids and keratin in the setae is still not known. In the present study we demonstrate, for the first time, the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques to confirm the presence of lipids and investigate their association with keratin in ‘pristine' sheds, or natural molts of the adhesive toe pad and non-adhesive regions of the skin. Analysis was also carried on the sheds after they were ‘delipidized’ to remove surface lipids. Our results show a distribution of similar lipids in both the skin and toe shed but with different dynamics at a molecular level. The present study can help us understand the gecko system both biologically and for design of synthetic adhesives, but the findings may be relevant to the characteristics of lipid-protein interactions in other biological systems. PMID:25902194

  12. Feather seal slot for vanes

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mastro, B. P.; Eckart, F.

    1985-10-22

    The slots for accommodating feather seals in the turbine vanes of a gas turbine engine has the end thereof sealed off by use of weld wire inserted into the slot and simultaneously welded and cut to the required length.

  13. Influence of plastic slatted floors compared with pine shaving litter on Pekin Duck condition during the summer months.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S; Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-07-01

    The management and well-being of commercial Pekin ducks has been studied in the European Union where straw is the predominant litter source. In the United States, however, the most prevalent litter is wood shavings, with a recent trend toward using plastic slatted flooring. A previous study in the United States evaluated the relationship between flooring type (litter, slats) and duck condition during winter months and found very few differences between the 2 in terms of overall duck condition. The purpose of the current study was to reevaluate the 2 flooring systems during the summer months to determine if seasonal differences would interact with flooring type to have an impact on duck condition. Eighteen commercial barns that produce Pekin ducks for Maple Leaf Farms Inc. (Leesburg, IN), located in northern Indiana and southern Wisconsin (n = 9 litter; n = 9 raised slatted floor), were used for this study. Twenty ducks were randomly selected from 5 predetermined areas within each house (n = 100 total) and scored for eye condition, nostril and feather cleanliness, and feather and foot pad quality at 7, 21, and 32 d of age. Environmental data, including carbon monoxide, ammonia, RH, and temperature, were also obtained at each collection day. The only statistical differences in body condition occurred at 7 d; there were more ducks with clear eyes and eye rings on the litter flooring, whereas average nostril scores were better on the plastic slatted floors. Live weight, weight gain per day, flock mortality, and condemnations at the plant were collected, and the only statistical difference was a higher gain per day for ducks reared on slatted floors compared with litter (P < 0.05). There were no differences between flooring systems in the environmental parameters measured within the barns. In summary, there were very few differences between the litter and slatted flooring systems, indicating that there may not be clear advantages for one particular flooring system over

  14. Production of Proteolytic Enzymes by a Keratin-Degrading Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Silva, Lucas André Dedavid e; Tichota, Deise Michele; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    A fungal isolate with capability to grow in keratinous substrate as only source of carbon and nitrogen was identified as Aspergillus niger using the sequencing of the ITS region of the rDNA. This strain produced a slightly acid keratinase and an acid protease during cultivation in feather meal. The peak of keratinolytic activity occurred in 48 h and the maximum proteolytic activity in 96 h. These enzymes were partly characterized as serine protease and aspartic protease, respectively. The effects of feather meal concentration and initial pH on enzyme production were evaluated using a central composite design combined with response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were determined as pH 5.0 for protease and 7.8 for keratinase and 20 g/L of feather meal, showing that both models were predictive. Production of keratinases by A. niger is a less-exploited field that might represent a novel and promising biotechnological application for this microorganism. PMID:22007293

  15. LM and TEM study of the orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).

    PubMed

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena

    2014-12-01

    The previous histological studies of the lingual mucosa in birds characterized two types of keratinized epithelium, i.e. orthokeratinized and parakeratinized. These epithelia are composed of three layers: basal, intermediate and keratinized. The present study showed detailed ultrastructural features of cells in particular layers of two types of keratinized epithelia on the tongue in the domestic duck and defined structural differences. TEM observations showed a gradual reduction in cell organelles in the following layers, at increasing amounts of keratin fibers. The characteristic feature of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of sub-layers in the intermediate layer, i.e. the upper and lower part, which results from the different shape of cell nuclei and dye affinity of the cytoplasm. The keratinized layer of ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is built of two types of cells such as electron dark and light cells, which undergo exfoliation. The basic difference between the keratinized epithelia is the presence of flattened cell nuclei in the keratinized layer of the parakeratinized epithelium. The differentiating feature is also an arrangement of keratin fibers in the cell cytoplasm of the keratinized layer. The analysis of the thickness of the epithelium and the keratinized layer, indicated differences between keratinized epithelia, which result from two variants of performing protective functions, either through a thick keratinized layer or by a higher epithelium. Differences in the ultrastructure of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium are associated with mechanical functions of the epithelium resulting from different forces acting on the tongue during feeding activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids provided during embryonic development improve the growth performance and welfare of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Baéza, E; Chartrin, P; Bordeau, T; Lessire, M; Thoby, J M; Gigaud, V; Blanchet, M; Alinier, A; Leterrier, C

    2017-09-01

    The welfare of ducks can be affected by unwanted behaviors such as excessive reactivity and feather pecking. Providing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) during gestation and early life has been shown to improve the brain development and function of human and rodent offspring. The aim of this study was to test whether the pecking behavior of Muscovy ducks during rearing could be reduced by providing LC n-3 PUFA during embryonic and/or post-hatching development of ducklings. Enrichment of eggs, and consequently embryos, with LC n-3 PUFA was achieved by feeding female ducks (n-3F) a diet containing docosahexaenoic (DHA) and linolenic acids (microalgae and linseed oil). A control group of female ducks (CF) was fed a diet containing linoleic acid (soybean oil). Offspring from both groups were fed starter and grower diets enriched with DHA and linolenic acid or only linoleic acid, resulting in four treatment groups with 48 ducklings in each. Several behavioral tests were performed between 1 and 3 weeks of age to analyze the adaptation ability of ducklings. The growth performance, time budget, social interactions, feather growth, and pecking behavior of ducklings were recorded regularly during the rearing period. No significant interaction between maternal and duckling feeding was found. Ducklings from n-3F ducks had a higher body weight at day 0, 28, and 56, a lower feed conversion ratio during the growth period, and lower reactivity to stress than ducklings from CF ducks. Ducklings from n-3F ducks also exhibited a significantly reduced feather pecking frequency at 49 and 56 days of age and for the whole rearing period. Moreover, consumption of diets enriched with n-3 PUFA during the starter and grower post-hatching periods significantly improved the tibia mineralization of ducklings and the fatty acid composition of thigh muscles at 84 days of age by increasing the n-3 FA content. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Do black ducks and wood ducks habituate to aircraft disturbance?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomy, J.T.; Dubovsky, J.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Requests to increase military aircraft activity in some training facilities in the United States have raised the need to determine if waterfowl and other wildlife are adversely affected by aircraft disturbance. We hypothesized that habituation was a possible proximate factor influencing the low proportion of free-ranging ducks reacting to military aircraft activities in a training range in coastal North Carolina during winters 1991 and 1992. To test this hypothesis, we subjected captive, wild-strain American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) to actual and simulated activities of jet aircraft. In the first experiment, we placed black ducks in an enclosure near the center of aircraft activities on Piney Island, a military aircraft target range in coastal North Carolina. The proportion of times black ducks reacted (e.g., alert posture, fleeing response) to visual and auditory aircraft activity decreased from 38 to 6% during the first 17 days of confinement. Response rates remained stable at 5.8% thereafter. In the second experiment, black ducks and wood ducks were exposed to 6 different recordings of jet noise. The proportion of times black ducks reacted to noise decreased (P 0.05) in time-activity budgets of black ducks between pre-exposure to noise and 24 hr after first exposure. Unlike black ducks, wood duck responses to jet noise did not decrease uniformly among experimental groups following initial exposure to noise (P = 0.01). We conclude that initial exposure to aircraft noise elicits behavioral responses from black ducks and wood ducks. With continued exposure of aircraft noise, black ducks may become habituated. However, wood ducks did not exhibit the same pattern of response, suggesting that the ability of waterfowl to habituate to aircraft noise may be species specific.

  18. New homes for prairie ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, H.A.

    1970-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how to make, install and care for inexpensive duck nesting baskets. Ducks have been attracted to these structures in the prairies of eastern North and South Dakota, western Minnesota, and northern Iowa. Nesting structures can help increase the number of local nesting ducks, especially mallards.

  19. Measuring the regulation of keratin filament network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Moch, Marcin; Herberich, Gerlind; Aach, Til; Leube, Rudolf E.; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton is closely linked to epithelial function. To study keratin network plasticity and its regulation at different levels, tools are needed to localize and measure local network dynamics. In this paper, we present image analysis methods designed to determine the speed and direction of keratin filament motion and to identify locations of keratin filament polymerization and depolymerization at subcellular resolution. Using these methods, we have analyzed time-lapse fluorescence recordings of fluorescent keratin 13 in human vulva carcinoma-derived A431 cells. The fluorescent keratins integrated into the endogenous keratin cytoskeleton, and thereby served as reliable markers of keratin dynamics. We found that increased times after seeding correlated with down-regulation of inward-directed keratin filament movement. Bulk flow analyses further revealed that keratin filament polymerization in the cell periphery and keratin depolymerization in the more central cytoplasm were both reduced. Treating these cells and other human keratinocyte-derived cells with EGF reversed all these processes within a few minutes, coinciding with increased keratin phosphorylation. These results highlight the value of the newly developed tools for identifying modulators of keratin filament network dynamics and characterizing their mode of action, which, in turn, contributes to understanding the close link between keratin filament network plasticity and epithelial physiology. PMID:23757496

  20. Foraging ecology of the endangered wood stork recorded in the stable isotope signature of feathers.

    PubMed

    Romanek, C S; Gaines, K F; Bryan, A L; Brisbin, I L

    2000-12-01

    Down feathers and regurgitant were collected from nestling wood storks (Mycteria americana) from two inland and two coastal breeding colonies in Georgia. The stable isotopic ratios of carbon ( 13 C/ 12 C) and nitrogen ( 15 N/ 14 N) in these materials were analyzed to gain insights into the natal origins of juvenile storks and the foraging activities of adults. Down feathers differed in δ 13 C between inland and coastal colonies, having average isotopic values that reflected the sources of carbon fixed in biomass at the base of the food web. Feathers from the inland colonies differed between colonies in δ 15 N, while those from the coastal colonies did not. These patterns primarily reflected the foraging activities of parent storks, with individuals capturing differing percentages of prey of distinct trophic status at each colony. Collectively, the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of feather keratin were used to distinguish nestlings from each colony, except for instances where storks from different colonies foraged in common wetlands. The stable isotopic composition of food items in regurgitant was used to reconstruct the trophic structure of the ecosystems in which wood storks foraged. Predicted foraging activities based on the isotopic composition of keratin were generally consistent with the percentage of prey types (freshwater vs. saltwater and lower trophic level vs. upper trophic level consumer) observed in regurgitant, except for the coastal colony at St. Simons Island, where the δ 13 C of feathers strongly suggested that freshwater prey were a significant component of the diet. This inconsistency was resolved by aerial tracking of adults during foraging excursions using a fixed-wing aircraft. Observed foraging activities supported interpretations based on the stable isotope content of feathers, suggesting that the latter provided a better record of overall foraging activity than regurgitant analysis alone. Observed foraging patterns were compared

  1. Feeding ecology and development of juvenile black ducks in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, Kenneth J.

    1979-01-01

    Data from 41 juvenile Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in the Penobscot River valley of Maine from June through August 1974-76 were used to estimate the proportion of aquatic invertebrates in the prefledging diet and the allometric growth rates of the tarsi, flight muscles, and alimentary system. The proportion of aquatic invertebrates in the diet of downy and partially feathered juveniles averaged 88 and 91% of dry weight, but decreased to 43% for fully feathered young. The most important invertebrate food organisms for juvenile Black Ducks were asellid isopods, molluscs, nymphs of Ephemeroptera and Odonata, and larvae of Coleoptera, Trichoptera, and Diptera. A high proportion of invertebrates was consumed during the period of fastest absolute and relative growth. Estimation of allometric growth rates with the power formula (Y = a·$X_{b}$) showed that (1) the legs were relatively large at hatching and developed slowly; (2) the flight muscles, which were relatively small at hatching, grew slowly until the 4-week period preceding fledging, when they increased as the 4.75 power of body weight; and (3) growth of the liver and gizzard was approximately proportional to body weight. The data support Ricklefs' thesis that delayed functional maturity of the wings permits an increase in the overall growth rate of waterfowl.

  2. Correlation of the mechanical and structural properties of cortical rachis keratin of rectrices of the Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco).

    PubMed

    Bodde, S G; Meyers, M A; McKittrick, J

    2011-07-01

    Mechanical characterization of the cortex of rectrices (tail feathers) of the Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) has been carried out by tensile testing of the rachis cortex in order to systematically determine Young's modulus and maximum tensile strength gradients on the surfaces and along the length of the feather. Of over seventy-five samples tested, the average Young's modulus was found to be 2.56±0.09 GPa, and maximum tensile strength was found to be 78±6 MPa. The Weibull modulus for all sets is greater than one and less than four, indicating that measured strength is highly variable. The highest Weibull moduli were reported for dorsal samplings. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of the cortex are both significantly stiffer and stronger than lateral rachis cortex. On the dorsal surface, cortex sampled from the distal end of the feather was found to be least stiff and weakest compared to that sampled from proximal and middle regions along the length of the feather. Distinctive fracture patterns correspond to failure in the superficial cuticle layer and the bulk of the rachis cortex. In the cuticle, where supramolecular keratinous fibers are oriented tangentially, evidence of ductile tearing was observed. In the bulk cortex, where the fibers are bundled and oriented longitudinally, patterns suggestive of near-periodic aggregation and brittle failure were observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of lateral flow devices for identification of infected poultry by testing swab and feather specimens during H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Slomka, Marek J.; To, Thanh L.; Tong, Hien H.; Coward, Vivien J.; Mawhinney, Ian C.; Banks, Jill; Brown, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Slomka et al. (2012) Evaluation of lateral flow devices for identification of infected poultry by testing swab and feather specimens during H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Vietnam. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(5), 318–327. Background  Evaluation of two commercial lateral flow devices (LFDs) for avian influenza (AI) detection in H5N1 highly pathogenic AI infected poultry in Vietnam. Objectives  Determine sensitivity and specificity of the LFDs relative to a validated highly sensitive H5 RRT PCR. Methods  Swabs (cloacal and tracheal) and feathers were collected from 46 chickens and 48 ducks (282 clinical specimens) and tested by both LFDs and H5 RRT PCR. A subset of 59 chicken and 34 duck specimens was also tested by virus isolation (VI), the ‘gold standard’. Results  Twenty‐six chickens and 15 ducks were shown to be infected by at least one RRT PCR positive clinical specimen per bird. Bird‐level sensitivity for the Anigen LFD was 84·6% for chickens and 53·3% for ducks, and for the Quickvue LFD 65·4% for chickens and 33·3% for ducks. Comparison of the three clinical specimens revealed that chicken feathers were the most sensitive with 84% and 56% sensitivities for Anigen and Quickvue respectively. All 21 RRT PCR positive swabs from ducks were negative by both LFDs. However, duck feather testing gave sensitivities of 53·3% and 33·3% for Anigen and Quickvue respectively. Specificity was 100% for both LFDs in all investigations. Conclusions  Although LFDs were less sensitive than AI RRT PCR and VI, high titre viral shedding in H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infected and diseased chickens is sufficient for a proportion of birds to be identified as AI infected by LFDs. Feathers were the optimal specimen for LFD testing in such diseased HPAI scenarios, particularly for ducks where swab testing by LFDs failed to identify any infected birds. However, specimens should be

  4. Two Feathers Endowment Scholarship Program: Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The Saint Paul Foundation contracted with the Wilder Research Center to conduct an evaluation of their Two Feathers Scholarship Program. The Two Feathers Scholarship Program is funded through the Two Feathers Endowment, which is one part of the Foundation's SpectrumTrust. SpectrumTrust is a unique partnership between communities of color and The…

  5. Normal keratinized mucosa transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Reibel, J; Harder, F

    1981-01-01

    Two types of normal keratinized mucosa were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice of two different strains. 24 intact specimens of clinically normal human palatal mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu NC. The transplants were recovered after 42 d with a recovery rate of 96%. Moreover, 22 intact specimens of normal rat forestomach mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu BALB/c/BOM. These transplants were recovered after 21 d with a recovery rate of 63%. The histologic features of the transplants were essentially the same as those of the original tissues. However, epithelial outgrowths from the transplants differed with respect to the pattern of keratinization. The outgrowths of human palatal mucosa transplants were essentially unkeratinized, while the outgrowths of the rat forestomach transplants showed continued keratinization.

  6. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Jian; Yu, Xindi; Li, Yizhou; Hu, Xinhua; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xingjun; Liu, Xiaohan; Fu, Rongtang

    2003-01-01

    We report the mechanism of color production in peacock feathers. We find that the cortex in differently colored barbules, which contains a 2D photonic-crystal structure, is responsible for coloration. Simulations reveal that the photonic-crystal structure possesses a partial photonic bandgap along the direction normal to the cortex surface, for frequencies within which light is strongly reflected. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers are very ingenious and simple: controlling the lattice constant and the number of periods in the photonic-crystal structure. Varying the lattice constant produces diversified colors. The reduction of the number of periods brings additional colors, causing mixed coloration. PMID:14557541

  7. The Lame Duck Superintendent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, William G.; Follo, Eric

    1995-01-01

    According to a survey of 46 recently departed Michigan school superintendents, departing superintendents can announce their intention to leave and still maintain a viable leadership role. Lame-duck superintendents should help the board think through the superintendent-selection process and review possible promotions, recognize staff achievements,…

  8. No Duck Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sandi; Thomas, Julie; Motley, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a group of fourth graders joined "Pintail Partners"--a year-long collaborative research effort of scientists, students, classroom teachers, preservice teachers, museum educators, and university professors. Students and teachers followed satellite tracking data (marking the pintail duck's spring migration) and interacted with scientists…

  9. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Keratinous inclusion cyst of oesophagus: unusual finding

    PubMed Central

    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Mutum, Samarendra Singh; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of the oesophagus are unusual findings and they are classified according to the embryological site of origin. It may represent inclusion cysts, retention cysts and developmental cysts. We present a case of keratinous inclusion cyst of the lower oesophagus in a 71-year-old Malay woman who presented with dyspepsia and severe epigastric pain. An oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated a sliding hiatus hernia with whitish ulcer-like lesion at the lower oesophagus. Biopsy from the lesion revealed a keratinous inclusion cyst. The patient was given pantoprazole and put on regular follow-up for monitoring any other development. PMID:23878290

  11. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system.

    PubMed

    Schenk, A; Porter, A L; Alenciks, E; Frazier, K; Best, A A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2016-04-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n=1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n=8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks' body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P<0.001) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality, feather cleanliness, and foot pads. We also compared water condition, water quality, and duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P<0.001), nitrites (P<0.001), pH (P<0.01), and bacterial growth (P<0.001). The bacterial growth was shown to have higher (P<0.001)E. coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcusin the water troughs. Water lines typically showed no bacterial growth in culture-based assays. Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P=0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P=0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  12. Individual Consistency of Feather Pecking Behavior in Laying Hens: Once a Feather Pecker Always a Feather Pecker?

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Swanson, Janice C.; Siegford, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    The pecking behavior [severe feather, gentle feather, and aggressive pecks (AP)] of individual White Shaver non-cage laying hens (n = 300) was examined at 21, 24, 27, 32, and 37 weeks. Hens were housed in 30 groups of 10 hens each and on 3 cm litter with access to a feeder, perch, and two nest boxes. The number of severe feather pecks given (SFPG) and received (SFPR) was used to categorize hens as feather peckers (P), victims (V), neutrals (N), or feather pecker-victims (PV) at each age. Hens categorized as PV exhibited pecking behaviors similar to P and received pecks similar to V. SFP given were correlated with APs given, but not with gentle feather pecks (GFP) given throughout the study. State-transition plot maps illustrated that 22.5% of P remained P, while 44% of PV remained PV throughout the duration of the study. Lifetime behavioral categories identified hens as a consistent feather pecker (5%), consistent neutral (3.9%), consistent victim (7.9%), consistent feather pecker-victim (29.4%), or inconsistent (53.8%) in their behavioral patterns throughout their life. Consistent feather peckers performed more SFP than hens of other categories, and consistent neutral hens received fewer GFP than consistent feather PV. No differences in corticosterone or whole blood serotonin levels were observed among the categories. Approximately, half of the population was classified as a feather pecker at least once during the study, while the remainder was never categorized as a feather pecker. Therefore, even if the development and cause of feather pecking may be multifactorial, once the behavior has been developed, some hens may persist in feather pecking. However, as some hens were observed to never receive or perform SFP, emphasis should be made to select for these hens in future breeding practices. PMID:26664935

  13. Alpha- and beta-keratins of the snake epidermis.

    PubMed

    Toni, Mattia; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Snake scales contain specialized hard keratins (beta-keratins) and alpha- or cyto-keratins in their epidermis. The number, isoelectric point, and the evolution of these proteins in snakes and their similarity with those of other vertebrates are not known. In the present study, alpha- and beta-keratins of snake molts and of the whole epidermis have been studied by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunocytochemistry. Specific keratins in snake epidermis have been identified by using antibodies that recognize acidic and basic cytokeratins and avian or lizard scale beta-keratin. Alpha keratins of 40-70 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) at 4.5-7.0 are present in molts. The study suggests that cytokeratins in snakes are acidic or neutral, in contrast to mammals and birds where basic keratins are also present. Beta keratins of 10-15 kDa and a pI of 6.5-8.5 are found in molts. Some beta-keratins appear as basic proteins (pI 8.2) comparable to those present in the epidermis of other reptiles. Some basic "beta-keratins" associate with cytokeratins as matrix proteins and replace cytokeratins forming the corneous material of the mature beta-layer of snake scales, as in other reptiles. The study also suggests that more forms of beta-keratins (more than three different types) are present in the epidermis of snakes.

  14. Feather corticosterone reveals developmental stress in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Will, Alexis P; Suzuki, Yuya; Elliott, Kyle H; Hatch, Scott A; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    In nest-bound avian offspring, food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, assuming a constant rate of feather growth, elevated CORT circulating in the blood corresponds to higher levels of CORT in feather tissue, but experimental evidence for nutritionally stressed chicks is lacking. Here, we examined how food limitation affects feather CORT content in the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca moncerata). We (i) used captive chicks reared on control versus restricted diets, and (ii) applied this technique to free-living chicks with unknown nutritional histories that fledged at three separate colonies. We found that (i) feather growth was not affected by experimentally induced nutritional stress; (ii) captive chicks raised on a restricted diet had higher levels of CORT in their primary feathers; (iii) feather CORT deposition is a sensitive method of detecting nutritional stress; and (iv) free-living fledglings from the colony with poor reproductive performance had higher CORT in their primary feathers. We conclude that feather CORT is a sensitive integrated measure revealing the temporal dynamics of food limitations experienced by rhinoceros auklet nestlings. The use of feather CORT may be a powerful endocrine tool in ecological and evolutionary studies of bird species with similar preferential allocation of limited resources to feather development. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Beta-keratins of differentiating epidermis of snake comprise glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with an avian-like gene organization.

    PubMed

    Dalla Valle, Luisa; Nardi, Alessia; Belvedere, Paola; Toni, Mattia; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2007-07-01

    Beta-keratins of reptilian scales have been recently cloned and characterized in some lizards. Here we report for the first time the sequence of some beta-keratins from the snake Elaphe guttata. Five different cDNAs were obtained using 5'- and 3'-RACE analyses. Four sequences differ by only few nucleotides in the coding region, whereas the last cDNA shows, in this region, only 84% of identity. The gene corresponding to one of the cDNA sequences has a single intron present in the 5'-untranslated region. This genomic organization is similar to that of birds' beta-keratins. Cloning and Southern blotting analysis suggest that snake beta-keratins belong to a family of high-related genes as for geckos. PCR analysis suggests a head-to-tail orientation of genes in the same chromosome. In situ hybridization detected beta-keratin transcripts almost exclusively in differentiating oberhautchen and beta-cells of the snake epidermis in renewal phase. This is confirmed by Northern blotting that showed, in this phase, a high expression of two different transcripts whereas only the longer transcript is expressed at a much lower level in resting skin. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine rich proteins containing 137-139 amino acids, with apparent isoelectric point at 7.5 and 8.2. A central region, rich in proline, shows over 50% homology with avian scale, claw, and feather keratins. The prediction of secondary structure shows mainly a random coil conformation and few beta-strand regions in the central region, likely involved in the formation of a fibrous framework of beta-keratins. This region was possibly present in basic reptiles that originated reptiles and birds. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Why Does the Motorbike Feather?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, A.; De Luca, R.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of motorbike feathering has been analysed by writing the angular momentum theorem for non-inertial reference systems. The acceleration, for which the ideal line joining the median points of the axles of the two wheels makes an angle [theta] with the horizontal, has been calculated neglecting air friction and considering that the…

  17. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  18. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P < 0.001) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality, feather cleanliness, and foot pads. We also compared water condition, water quality, and duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P < 0.001), nitrites (P < 0.001), pH (P < 0.01), and bacterial growth (P < 0.001). The bacterial growth was shown to have higher (P < 0.001) E. coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus in the water troughs. Water lines typically showed no bacterial growth in culture-based assays. Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  19. Wild Duck Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

  20. Flight feather development: its early specialization during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mao; Sekine, Tomoe; Miyakoshi, Taku; Kitajima, Keiichi; Egawa, Shiro; Seki, Ryohei; Abe, Gembu; Tamura, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Flight feathers, a type of feather that is unique to extant/extinct birds and some non-avian dinosaurs, are the most evolutionally advanced type of feather. In general, feather types are formed in the second or later generation of feathers at the first and following molting, and the first molting begins at around two weeks post hatching in chicken. However, it has been stated in some previous reports that the first molting from the natal down feathers to the flight feathers is much earlier than that for other feather types, suggesting that flight feather formation starts as an embryonic event. The aim of this study was to determine the inception of flight feather morphogenesis and to identify embryological processes specific to flight feathers in contrast to those of down feathers. We found that the second generation of feather that shows a flight feather-type arrangement has already started developing by chick embryonic day 18, deep in the skin of the flight feather-forming region. This was confirmed by shh gene expression that shows barb pattern, and the expression pattern revealed that the second generation of feather development in the flight feather-forming region seems to start by embryonic day 14. The first stage at which we detected a specific morphology of the feather bud in the flight feather-forming region was embryonic day 11, when internal invagination of the feather bud starts, while the external morphology of the feather bud is radial down-type. The morphogenesis for the flight feather, the most advanced type of feather, has been drastically modified from the beginning of feather morphogenesis, suggesting that early modification of the embryonic morphogenetic process may have played a crucial role in the morphological evolution of this key innovation. Co-optation of molecular cues for axial morphogenesis in limb skeletal development may be able to modify morphogenesis of the feather bud, giving rise to flight feather-specific morphogenesis of traits.

  1. The evolutionary origin of feathers.

    PubMed

    Regal, P J

    1975-03-01

    Previous theories relating the origin of feathers to flight or to heat conservation are considered to be inadequate. There is need for a model of feather evolution that gives attention to the function and adaptive advantage of intermediate structures. The present model attempts to reveal and to deal with, the spectrum of complex questions that must be considered. In several genera of modern lizards, scales are elongated in warm climates. It is argued that these scales act as small shields to solar radiation. Experiments are reported that tend to confirm this. Using lizards as a conceptual model, it is argued that feathers likewise arose as adaptations to intense solar radiation. Elongated scales are assumed to have subdivided into finely branched structures that produced a heat-shield, flexible as well as long and broad. Associated muscles had the function of allowing the organism fine control over rates of heat gain and loss: the specialized scales or early feathers could be moved to allow basking in cool weather or protection in hot weather. Subdivision of the scales also allowed a close fit between the elements of the insulative integument. There would have been mechanical and thermal advantages to having branches that interlocked into a pennaceous structure early in evolution, so the first feathers may have been pennaceous. A versatile insulation of movable, branched scales would have been a preadaptation for endothermy. As birds took to the air they faced cooling problems despite their insulative covering because of high convective heat loss. Short glides may have initially been advantageous in cooling an animal under heat stress, but at some point the problem may have shifted from one of heat exclusion to one of heat retention. Endothermy probably evolved in conjunction with flight. If so, it is an unnecessary assumption to postulate that the climate cooled and made endothermy advantageous. The development of feathers is complex and a model is proposed that

  2. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha

    2011-06-01

    Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. To determine whether, among children not using feather upper bedding, a new feather pillow and feather quilt reduces asthma severity among house dust mite (HDM) sensitised children with asthma over a 1-year period compared with standard dust mite avoidance advice, and giving children a new mite-occlusive mattress cover. RCT. The Calvary Hospital in the Australian Capital Territory and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales. 197 children with HDM sensitisation and moderate to severe asthma. Intervention New upper bedding duck feather pillow and quilt and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (feather) versus standard care and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (standard). The proportion of children reporting four or more episodes of wheeze in the past year; an episode of speech-limiting wheeze; or one or more episodes of sleep disturbance caused by wheezing; and spirometry with challenge testing. Statistical analysis included multiple logistic and linear regression. No differences between groups were found for primary end points--frequent wheeze (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.76, p=0.17), speech-limiting wheeze (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.48, p=0.35), sleep disturbed because of wheezing (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.13, p=0.61) or for any secondary end points. Secondary analyses indicated the intervention reduced the risk of sleep being disturbed because of wheezing and severe wheeze to a greater extent for children who slept supine. No differences in respiratory symptoms or lung function were observed 1 year after children with moderate-severe asthma and HDM sensitisation were given a mite-occlusive mattress cover and then received either feather upper bedding (pillow and quilt) or standard

  3. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. Objective To determine whether, among children not using feather upper bedding, a new feather pillow and feather quilt reduces asthma severity among house dust mite (HDM) sensitised children with asthma over a 1-year period compared with standard dust mite avoidance advice, and giving children a new mite-occlusive mattress cover. Design RCT. Setting The Calvary Hospital in the Australian Capital Territory and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales. Patients 197 children with HDM sensitisation and moderate to severe asthma. Intervention New upper bedding duck feather pillow and quilt and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (feather) versus standard care and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (standard). Main outcome measures The proportion of children reporting four or more episodes of wheeze in the past year; an episode of speech-limiting wheeze; or one or more episodes of sleep disturbance caused by wheezing; and spirometry with challenge testing. Statistical analysis included multiple logistic and linear regression. Results No differences between groups were found for primary end points – frequent wheeze (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.76, p=0.17), speech-limiting wheeze (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.48, p=0.35), sleep disturbed because of wheezing (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.13, p=0.61) or for any secondary end points. Secondary analyses indicated the intervention reduced the risk of sleep being disturbed because of wheezing and severe wheeze to a greater extent for children who slept supine. Conclusion No differences in respiratory symptoms or lung function were observed 1 year after children with moderate–severe asthma and HDM sensitisation were given a mite

  4. Cysteic Acid in Dietary Keratin is Metabolized to Glutathione and Liver Taurine in a Rat Model of Human Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wolber, Frances M.; McGrath, Michelle; Jackson, Felicity; Wylie, Kim; Broomfield, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Poultry feathers, consisting largely of keratin, are a low-value product of the poultry industry. The safety and digestibility of a dietary protein produced from keratin (KER) was compared to a cysteine-supplemented casein-based diet in a growing rat model for four weeks. KER proved to be an effective substitute for casein at 50% of the total dietary protein, with no changes in the rats’ food intake, weight gain, organ weight, bone mineral density, white blood cell counts, liver glutathione, or blood glutathione. Inclusion of KER in the diet reduced total protein digestibility from 94% to 86% but significantly increased total dietary cysteine uptake and subsequent liver taurine levels. The KER diet also significantly increased caecum weight and significantly decreased fat digestibility, resulting in a lower proportion of body fat, and induced a significant increase in blood haemoglobin. KER is therefore a safe and suitable protein substitute for casein, and the cysteic acid in keratin is metabolised to maintain normal liver and blood glutathione levels. PMID:26907334

  5. Body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Ankney, C.D.; Roster, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    We studied body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) using drainwater evaporation ponds in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Levels of body fat and protein were similar by sex but varied by age (adults greater than immatures). Masses of breast and leg muscle protein were greatest in adult males and lowest in immature males, but similar in adult and immature females. Fat and protein levels in late-wintering ruddy ducks were independent of their body size. We detected no differences among sex-age classes in the proportion of animal foods consumed. Aquatic invertebrates composed 85% of the diet; midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) and brine flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) were the principal taxa consumed. Molt score by feather region and overall molt score did not vary by sex or age. Light to moderate molt (25 to 50% molting feathers) was recorded in all feather regions. High levels of body fat and protein were attributed to premigratory hyperphagia and consumption of foods with a high protein:energy ratio.

  6. A curated catalog of canine and equine keratin genes

    PubMed Central

    Pujar, Shashikant; McGarvey, Kelly M.; Welle, Monika; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J.; Pruitt, Kim D.; Leeb, Tosso

    2017-01-01

    Keratins represent a large protein family with essential structural and functional roles in epithelial cells of skin, hair follicles, and other organs. During evolution the genes encoding keratins have undergone multiple rounds of duplication and humans have two clusters with a total of 55 functional keratin genes in their genomes. Due to the high similarity between different keratin paralogs and species-specific differences in gene content, the currently available keratin gene annotation in species with draft genome assemblies such as dog and horse is still imperfect. We compared the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (dog annotation release 103, horse annotation release 101) and Ensembl (release 87) gene predictions for the canine and equine keratin gene clusters to RNA-seq data that were generated from adult skin of five dogs and two horses and from adult hair follicle tissue of one dog. Taking into consideration the knowledge on the conserved exon/intron structure of keratin genes, we annotated 61 putatively functional keratin genes in both the dog and horse, respectively. Subsequently, curators in the RefSeq group at NCBI reviewed their annotation of keratin genes in the dog and horse genomes (Annotation Release 104 and Annotation Release 102, respectively) and updated annotation and gene nomenclature of several keratin genes. The updates are now available in the NCBI Gene database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene). PMID:28846680

  7. Structure and optical function of amorphous photonic nanostructures from avian feather barbs: a comparative small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of 230 bird species

    PubMed Central

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Forster, Jason D.; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R.; Prum, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Non-iridescent structural colours of feathers are a diverse and an important part of the phenotype of many birds. These colours are generally produced by three-dimensional, amorphous (or quasi-ordered) spongy β-keratin and air nanostructures found in the medullary cells of feather barbs. Two main classes of three-dimensional barb nanostructures are known, characterized by a tortuous network of air channels or a close packing of spheroidal air cavities. Using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical spectrophotometry, we characterized the nanostructure and optical function of 297 distinctly coloured feathers from 230 species belonging to 163 genera in 51 avian families. The SAXS data provided quantitative diagnoses of the channel- and sphere-type nanostructures, and confirmed the presence of a predominant, isotropic length scale of variation in refractive index that produces strong reinforcement of a narrow band of scattered wavelengths. The SAXS structural data identified a new class of rudimentary or weakly nanostructured feathers responsible for slate-grey, and blue-grey structural colours. SAXS structural data provided good predictions of the single-scattering peak of the optical reflectance of the feathers. The SAXS structural measurements of channel- and sphere-type nanostructures are also similar to experimental scattering data from synthetic soft matter systems that self-assemble by phase separation. These results further support the hypothesis that colour-producing protein and air nanostructures in feather barbs are probably self-assembled by arrested phase separation of polymerizing β-keratin from the cytoplasm of medullary cells. Such avian amorphous photonic nanostructures with isotropic optical properties may provide biomimetic inspiration for photonic technology. PMID:22572026

  8. SNPs in the 5'-regulatory region of the tyrosinase gene do not affect plumage color in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Zhang, N N; Hu, J W; Liu, H H; Xu, H Y; He, H; Li, L

    2015-12-29

    Tyrosinase, encoded by the TYR gene, is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of melanin pigment. In this study, plumage color separation was observed in Cherry Valley duck line D and F1 and F2 hybrid generations of Liancheng white ducks. Gene sequencing and bioinformatic analysis were applied to the 5'-regulatory region of TYR, to explore the connection between TYR sequence variation and duck plumage color. Four SNPs were found in the 5'-regulatory region. The SNPs were in tight linkage and formed three haplotypes. However, the genotype distribution in groups with different plumage color was not significantly different, and there were no changes in the transcription factor binding sites between the different genotypes. In conclusion, these SNP variations may not cause the differences in feather color observed in this test group.

  9. Ducks Get Sick Too!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Laitman, Cynthia J.

    1988-01-01

    When it comes to getting sick, wild waterfowl—which include ducks, geese, and swans—are a lot like people. We are all vulnerable to a wide variety of diseases.Some diseases that affect waterfowl, such as avian botulism, have been recognized for many decades as a major cause of death. Others, such as duck plague, are relative newcomers to the known roster of waterfowl diseases.Unfortunately, the number of waterfowl diseases as well as disease-breeding conditions are on the increase. As human development has expanded and encroached on wetlands, more and more waterfowl have been forced into less and less habitat. The resulting crowding can promote the spread of infectious disease caused by toxicants and other noninfectious agents.Although millions of waterfowl die of disease each year, it is often difficult to "see" the disease process occurring. Sick and dying birds usually seek cover to hide, and predators and scavengers eventually devour most of them. When disease becomes epidemic (a disease epidemic in animals is called an epizootic) and sick and dead birds become too numerous for predators and scavengers to eliminate, the disease process becomes far more noticeable.The diseases described in this booklet are among the most common causes of death in wild waterfowl, and include examples of those cause by bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and toxic substances.

  10. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  11. Does access to open water affect the health of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)?

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Broom, D M

    2011-02-01

    Access to open water is considered good for the welfare of Pekin ducks. These studies investigated the effect that the type of water resource, provided over either straw bedding or a rubber mesh, had on measures of duck health. Pekin strain ducklings (n = 2,600) were managed in pens of 100 on straw over a solid concrete floor. In study 1, one of two water resources (nipple, n = 5 pens; wide-lip bell drinker, n = 5 pens), was located directly over the straw. In study 2, one of three water resources (narrow-lip bell drinker, n = 6 pens; trough, n = 5 pens; and bath, n = 5 pens) was located over a rubber mesh. On d 16, 24, 29, 35, and 43, (study 1) or d 21, 29, 35, and 43 posthatch (study 2), 10 birds were selected from each pen and weighed, and then feather hygiene, footpad dermatitis, eye health, gait score, and nostril condition scores were taken. Treatment had no effect on BW in either study, but in study 2, ducks in the open water treatments had higher scores (P < 0.001) than those in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment by d 43. In study 1, treatment had no effect on hygiene scores, but scores increased over time (P < 0.001). In study 2, ducks in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment were dirtier than those in the bath treatment (P = 0.01), with those in the trough treatment being intermediate. In both studies, ducks with bell drinkers had worse gait scores than those in the other treatments (study 1, P < 0.01; study 2, P < 0.05). Treatment had no effect on eye health scores. However, ducks were less likely to have dirty nostrils when provided with more open water resources in both studies (P < 0.01), or were less likely to have blocked nostrils in the trough and bath treatments than in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment in study 2 (P = 0.01). Provision of open water, particularly over a properly constructed drainage area, improved some aspects of duck health (improved feather hygiene and BW, and fewer dirty and blocked nostrils). However, further work is

  12. Duck virus enteritis (duck plague) - a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Naveen; Saminathan, Mani; Tiwari, Ruchi; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Kumar, M Asok; Palanivelu, M; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Duck virus enteritis (DVE), also called duck plague, is one of the major contagious and fatal diseases of ducks, geese and swan. It is caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV)/Anatid herpesvirus-1 of the genus Mardivirus, family Herpesviridae, and subfamily Alpha-herpesvirinae. Of note, DVE has worldwide distribution, wherein migratory waterfowl plays a crucial role in its transmission within and between continents. Furthermore, horizontal and/ or vertical transmission plays a significant role in disease spread through oral-fecal discharges. Either of sexes from varying age groups of ducks is vulnerable to DVE. The disease is characterized by sudden death, vascular damage and subsequent internal hemorrhage, lesions in lymphoid organs, digestive mucosal eruptions, severe diarrhea and degenerative lesions in parenchymatous organs. Huge economic losses are connected with acute nature of the disease, increased morbidity and mortality (5%-100%), condemnations of carcasses, decreased egg production and hatchability. Although clinical manifestations and histopathology can provide preliminary diagnosis, the confirmatory diagnosis involves virus isolation and detection using serological and molecular tests. For prophylaxis, both live-attenuated and killed vaccines are being used in broiler and breeder ducks above 2 weeks of age. Since DEV is capable of becoming latent as well as shed intermittently, recombinant subunit and DNA vaccines either alone or in combination (polyvalent) are being targeted for its benign prevention. This review describes DEV, epidemiology, transmission, the disease (DVE), pathogenesis, and advances in diagnosis, vaccination and antiviral agents/therapies along with appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  13. Binding Interactions of Keratin-Based Hair Fiber Extract to Gold, Keratin, and BMP-2

    PubMed Central

    de Guzman, Roche C.; Tsuda, Shanel M.; Ton, Minh-Thi N.; Zhang, Xiao; Esker, Alan R.; Van Dyke, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Hair-derived keratin biomaterials composed mostly of reduced keratin proteins (kerateines) have demonstrated their utility as carriers of biologics and drugs for tissue engineering. Electrostatic forces between negatively-charged keratins and biologic macromolecules allow for effective drug retention; attraction to positively-charged growth factors like bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been used as a strategy for osteoinduction. In this study, the intermolecular surface and bulk interaction properties of kerateines were investigated. Thiol-rich kerateines were chemisorbed onto gold substrates to form an irreversible 2-nm rigid layer for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Kerateine-to-kerateine cohesion was observed in pH-neutral water with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 1.8 × 10−4 M, indicating that non-coulombic attractive forces (i.e. hydrophobic and van der Waals) were at work. The association of BMP-2 to kerateine was found to be greater (KD = 1.1 × 10−7 M), within the range of specific binding. Addition of salts (phosphate-buffered saline; PBS) shortened the Debye length or the electrostatic field influence which weakened the kerateine-BMP-2 binding (KD = 3.2 × 10−5 M). BMP-2 in bulk kerateine gels provided a limited release in PBS (~ 10% dissociation in 4 weeks), suggesting that electrostatic intermolecular attraction was significant to retain BMP-2 within the keratin matrix. Complete dissociation between kerateine and BMP-2 occurred when the PBS pH was lowered (to 4.5), below the keratin isoelectric point of 5.3. This phenomenon can be attributed to the protonation of keratin at a lower pH, leading to positive-positive repulsion. Therefore, the dynamics of kerateine-BMP-2 binding is highly dependent on pH and salt concentration, as well as on BMP-2 solubility at different pH and molarity. The study findings may contribute to our understanding of the release kinetics of drugs from keratin biomaterials and allow for the

  14. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  15. Potential of chicken feather fibre in wood MDF composites

    Treesearch

    Jerold E. Winandy; James H. Muehl; Jessie A. Micales; Ashok Raina; Walter Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    We made a series of aspen fibre medium density fibreboard panels adding various levels of chicken feather fibre to determine the relative effect of the feather fibre-wood fibre mixtures on composite panel properties. Chicken feathers are a waste product left over after processing chickens for meat. The feather fibre amounts used ranged from 20% to 95% and a 5%...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  1. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Treesearch

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  2. 'Rubber Duck' on Ceres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-12

    This image from NASA's Dawn spacecraft shows a group of craters, left of center, that resembles a rubber duck. Halki Crater, the "head," is 12 miles (20 kilometers) in diameter, while Telepinu Crater, the "body," is 19 miles (31 kilometers) across. They can be found in the global map of Ceres' names. The "beak" crater is unnamed. Halki and Telepinu have both been recently added to the list of official names for Ceres' geological features. They are both named after Hittite (Asia Minor) deities: the goddess of grain and the god of fertility and vegetation, respectively. Dawn acquired this picture on August 20, 2015, from its high-altitude mapping orbit at about 915 miles (1,470 kilometers) above the surface. The center coordinates of this image are 26 degrees north latitude, 339 degrees east longitude. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21909

  3. Preparation of keratin and chemically modified keratin hydrogels and their evaluation as cell substrate with drug releasing ability.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Ryo; Osumi, Yu; Miyagawa, Shoko; Tachibana, Akira; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2015-07-01

    Keratin was extracted as a reduced form from wool, which was then subjected to acetamidation, carboxymethylation or aminoethylation at abundant free cysteine residues to give acetamidated keratin (AAK), carboxymethylated keratin (CMK) and aminoethylated keratin (AEK). Hydrogels were prepared from intact and three chemically modified keratins simply by concentrating their aqueous solution and subsequent cooling. The lowest concentration to form a hydrogel without fluidity was 110 mg/ml for AAK, 120 mg/ml for AEK, 130 mg/ml for keratin and 180 mg/ml for CMK. Comparing with a hydrogel just prepared (swelling ratio: 600-700), each hydrogel slightly shrank in an acidic solution. While AAK hydrogel little swelled in neutral and basic solutions, other hydrogels became swollen and CMK hydrogel reached to dissolution. Hydrogels of keratin, AAK and AEK were found to support cell proliferation, although cell elongation on AAK and AEK hydrogel was a little suppressed. On the other hand, CMK hydrogel did not seem to be suitable for a cell substrate because of its high swelling in culture medium. Evaluation of the hydrogels as a drug carrier showed that keratin and AAK hydrogels were good sustained drug release carriers, which showed the drug release for more than three days, while the release from AEK and CMK hydrogels completed within one day. Thus, keratin and chemically modified keratin hydrogels, especially keratin and AAK hydrogels, were promising biomaterials as a cell substrate and a sustained drug release carrier. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hair growth promoting activity of discarded biocomposite keratin extract.

    PubMed

    Akanda, Md Rashedunnabi; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Mira; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong

    2017-08-01

    Keratin biomaterial has been used in regenerative medicine owing to its in-vivo and in-vitro biocompatibility. The present study was aimed to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of keratin extract and its mechanism of action. Keratin extract was topically applied on the synchronized depilated dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 mice and promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase. The histomorphometric observation indicated significantly increases the number, shaft of hair follicles and deep subcutis area in the keratin extract treated group in contrast to the control group, which was considered an indication of anagen phase induction. Subsequently, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that fibroblast growth factor-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, β-catenin, and Shh were expressed earlier in the keratin extract-treated group than in the control group. Besides, keratin extract has been observed to be biocompatible when analyzed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining using immortalized human keratinocyte cells, showing more than 90% cell viability. Our study demonstrated that keratin extract stimulating hair follicle growth by inducing the growth phase; anagen in telogenic C57BL/6 mice and thus the topical application of keratin extract may represent a promising biomaterial for the management and applications of hair follicle disorder.

  5. Effect of the Duck Skin on Quality Characteristics of Duck Hams

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Sung, Jung-Min; Jang, YoungJin; Shim, Jae-Yun; Han, Sung-Gu; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of duck skin on cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, protein solubility, texture profile analysis (TPA), apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of press type duck ham with different ratio of duck breast meat and duck skin. Five duck ham formulations were produced with the following compositions: T1 (duck breast 70% + duck skin 30%), T2 (duck breast 60% + duck skin 40%), T3 (duck breast 50% + duck skin 50%), T4 (duck breast 40% + duck skin 60%), and T5 (duck breast 30% + duck skin 70%). The cooking loss and fat separation were lower in T1, and the total expressible fluid separations were lower in T1 and T2 than others. The pH ranged from 6.48 to 6.59, with the highest values in T4 and T5. T5 had the highest CIE L*-value, and T1 and T2 had the highest CIE a*-values; however, CIE b*-values did not differ significantly between the duck ham samples. The protein solubility and TPA (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness) were the highest in T1. T1 and T2 had higher scores for color, tenderness, and overall acceptability. T1, T2, and T3 showed significantly higher values, but there were no significant differences for flavor and juiciness. Regarding apparent viscosity properties, T1 and T2 had higher viscosity values than the other formulations. In conclusion, the T1 (duck breast 70% + duck skin 30%) and T2 (duck breast 60% + duck skin 40%) duck hams show the highest quality characteristics. PMID:28747821

  6. Effects of Plectin Depletion on Keratin Network Dynamics and Organization

    PubMed Central

    Moch, Marcin; Windoffer, Reinhard; Schwarz, Nicole; Pohl, Raphaela; Omenzetter, Andreas; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Herb, Fabian; Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Merhof, Dorit; Ramms, Lena; Fabris, Gloria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2016-01-01

    The keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton protects epithelial cells against various types of stress and is involved in fundamental cellular processes such as signaling, differentiation and organelle trafficking. These functions rely on the cell type-specific arrangement and plasticity of the keratin system. It has been suggested that these properties are regulated by a complex cycle of assembly and disassembly. The exact mechanisms responsible for the underlying molecular processes, however, have not been clarified. Accumulating evidence implicates the cytolinker plectin in various aspects of the keratin cycle, i.e., by acting as a stabilizing anchor at hemidesmosomal adhesion sites and the nucleus, by affecting keratin bundling and branching and by linkage of keratins to actin filament and microtubule dynamics. In the present study we tested these hypotheses. To this end, plectin was downregulated by shRNA in vulvar carcinoma-derived A431 cells. As expected, integrin β4- and BPAG-1-positive hemidesmosomal structures were strongly reduced and cytosolic actin stress fibers were increased. In addition, integrins α3 and β1 were reduced. The experiments furthermore showed that loss of plectin led to a reduction in keratin filament branch length but did not alter overall mechanical properties as assessed by indentation analyses using atomic force microscopy and by displacement analyses of cytoplasmic superparamagnetic beads using magnetic tweezers. An increase in keratin movement was observed in plectin-depleted cells as was the case in control cells lacking hemidesmosome-like structures. Yet, keratin turnover was not significantly affected. We conclude that plectin alone is not needed for keratin assembly and disassembly and that other mechanisms exist to guarantee proper keratin cycling under steady state conditions in cultured single cells. PMID:27007410

  7. Surface active complexes formed between keratin polypeptides and ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fang; Lu, Zhiming; Tucker, Ian; Hosking, Sarah; Petkov, Jordan; Lu, Jian R

    2016-12-15

    Keratins are a group of important proteins in skin and hair and as biomaterials they can provide desirable properties such as strength, biocompatibility, and moisture regaining and retaining. The aim of this work is to develop water-soluble keratin polypeptides from sheep wool and then explore how their surface adsorption behaves with and without surfactants. Successful preparation of keratin samples was demonstrated by identification of the key components from gel electrophoresis and the reproducible production of gram scale samples with and without SDS (sodium dodecylsulphate) during wool fibre dissolution. SDS micelles could reduce the formation of disulphide bonds between keratins during extraction, reducing inter-molecular crosslinking and improving keratin polypeptide solubility. However, Zeta potential measurements of the two polypeptide batches demonstrated almost identical pH dependent surface charge distributions with isoelectric points around pH 3.5, showing complete removal of SDS during purification by dialysis. In spite of different solubility from the two batches of keratin samples prepared, very similar adsorption and aggregation behavior was revealed from surface tension measurements and dynamic light scattering. Mixing of keratin polypeptides with SDS and C 12 TAB (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) led to the formation of keratin-surfactant complexes that were substantially more effective at reducing surface tension than the polypeptides alone, showing great promise in the delivery of keratin polypeptides via the surface active complexes. Neutron reflection measurements revealed the coexistence of surfactant and keratin polypeptides at the interface, thus providing the structural support to the observed surface tension changes associated with the formation of the surface active complexes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Ultrastructural localization of hair keratins, high sulfur keratin-associated proteins and sulfhydryl oxidase in the human hair.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Hardening of the human hair shaft during cornification results from the bonding of keratins and keratin-associated proteins. In situ hybridization and light immunocytochemical studies have shown the general distribution of different keratins and some associated proteins but not determined their ultrastructural localization. I report here the localization of hair keratins, two high-sulfur keratin-associated proteins and sulfhydryl oxidase has been studied under the transmission electron microscope in the cornification zone of the human hair. The ultrastructural study on keratin distribution in general confirms previous light microscopic studies. Sulfur-rich KAP1 is mainly cortical but the labeling disappears in fully cornified cortical cells while a diffuse labeling is also present in differentiating cuticle cells. Sulfur-rich K26 immunolocalization is only detected in the exocuticle and endocuticle. Sparse labeling for sulfhydryl oxidase occurs in differentiating cortical cells but is weak and uneven in cuticle cells and absent in medulla and inner root sheath. Labeling disappears in the upper fully cornified cortex and cuticle. The observations indicate that sulfhydryl oxidase and keratin associated proteins are initially produced in the cytoplasm among keratin bundles accumulating in cortical and cuticle cells but these proteins undergo changes during the following cornification that alter the epitopes tagged by the antibodies.

  9. Immunolocalization of a Histidine-Rich Epidermal Differentiation Protein in the Chicken Supports the Hypothesis of an Evolutionary Developmental Link between the Embryonic Subperiderm and Feather Barbs and Barbules

    PubMed Central

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Holthaus, Karin Brigit; Sukseree, Supawadee; Hermann, Marcela; Tschachler, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The morphogenesis of feathers is a complex process that depends on a tight spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression and assembly of the protein components of mature feathers. Recent comparative genomics and gene transcription studies have indicated that genes within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) encode numerous structural proteins of cornifying skin cells in amniotes including birds. Here, we determined the localization of one of these proteins, termed EDMTFH (Epidermal Differentiation Protein starting with a MTF motif and rich in Histidine), which belongs to a group of EDC-encoded proteins rich in aromatic amino acid residues. We raised an antibody against an EDMTFH-specific epitope and performed immunohistochemical investigations by light microscopy and immunogold labeling by electron microscopy of chicken embryos at days 14–18 of development. EDMTFH was specifically present in the subperiderm, a transient layer of the embryonic epidermis, and in barbs and barbules of feathers. In the latter, it partially localized to bundles of so-called feather beta-keratins (corneous beta-proteins, CBPs). Cells of the embryonic periderm, the epidermis proper, and the feather sheath were immunonegative for EDMTFH. The results of this study indicate that EDMTFH may contribute to the unique mechanical properties of feathers and define EDMTFH as a common marker of the subperiderm and the feather barbules. This expression pattern of EDMTFH resembles that of epidermal differentiation cysteine-rich protein (EDCRP) and feather CBPs and is in accordance with the hypothesis that a major part of the cyclically regenerating feather follicle is topologically, developmentally and evolutionarily related to the embryonic subperiderm. PMID:27936131

  10. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin Concentration on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Duck Meat Jellies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of duck feet gelatin concentration on the physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of duck meat jellies. Duck feet gelatin was prepared with acidic swelling and hot water extraction. In this study, four duck meat jellies were formulated with 3, 4, 5, and 6% duck feet gelatin, respectively. In the preliminary experiment, the increase in duck feet gelatin ranged from 5 to 20%, resulting in a significant (p<0.001) increase in the color score, but a decline in the hardness and dispersibility satisfaction scores. An increase in the added amount of duck feet gelatin contributed to decreased lightness and increased protein content in duck meat jellies. Regarding the textural properties, increase in the added amount of duck feet gelatin highly correlated with the hardness in the center (p<0.01, R2=0.91), and edge (p<0.01, R2=0.89), of duck meat jellies. Meanwhile, the increase in duck feet gelatin decreased the score for textural satisfaction; duck meat jellies containing 6% duck feet gelatin had a significantly lower textural satisfaction score, than those containing 3% duck feet gelatin (p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant difference in the overall acceptance of duck meat jellies formulated with 5% duck feet gelatin was observed, as compared to those prepared with 3% duck feet gelatin. Therefore, this study suggested that duck feet gelatin is a useful ingredient for manufacturing cold-cut meat products. In consideration of the sensory acceptance, the optimal level of duck feet gelatin in duck meat jellies was determined to be 5%. PMID:26761181

  11. Isolation and Analysis of Keratins and Keratin-Associated Proteins from Hair and Wool.

    PubMed

    Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Plowman, Jeffrey E; Harland, Duane P

    2016-01-01

    The presence of highly cross-linked protein networks in hair and wool makes them very difficult substrates for protein extraction, a prerequisite for further protein analysis and characterization. It is therefore imperative that these cross-links formed by disulfide bridges are first disrupted for the efficient extraction of proteins. Chaotropes such as urea are commonly used as efficient extractants. However, a combination of urea and thiourea not only improves recovery of proteins but also results in improved resolution of the keratins in 2DE gels. Reductants also play an important role in protein dissolution. Dithiothreitol effectively removes keratinous material from the cortex, whereas phosphines, like Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, remove material from the exocuticle. The relative extractability of the keratins and keratin-associated proteins is also dependent on the concentration of chaotropes, reductants, and pH, thus providing a means to preferentially extract these proteins. Ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM(+)[Cl](-)) are known to solubilize wool by disrupting noncovalent interactions, specifically intermolecular hydrogen bonds. BMIM(+)[Cl](-) proved to be an effective extractant of wool proteins and complementary in nature to chaotropes such as urea and thiourea for identifying unique peptides of wool proteins using mass spectrometry (MS). Successful identification of proteins resolved by one- or two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS is highly dependent on the optimal recovery of its protease-digested peptides with an efficient removal of interfering substances. The detergent sodium deoxycholate used in conjunction with Empore™ disks improved identification of proteins by mass spectrometry leading to higher percentage sequence coverage, identification of unique peptides and higher score. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New and little known feather mites (Acari)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) were analyzed with low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM), including the description of three new species: Plicatalloptes atrichogynus sp. nov. (Analgoidea: Alloptidae) from the Neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) (Pelecanifo...

  13. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  14. Duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in North American Waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Louis N.; Leibovitz, Louis; Herman, Carlton M.; Walker, John W.; Webb, James W.

    1969-01-01

    Duck Viral Enteritis (DVE) was first recognized in North America in January 1967, when an outbreak occurred in a commercial flock of white Pekin ducks in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York (Leibovitz and Hwang, 1968b). Originally described as a disease of domestic ducks in the Netherlands, DVE has since been reported from India and Belgium. it is also believed to have occurred in China and France (Jansen, 1968).This paper briefly reviews the status of DVE among wild waterfowl in North America and describes some of the characteristic lesions associated with this disease. The paper also mentions some of the work which has been undertaken to learn more about the status of DVE in North America.

  15. Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, Terhi O.; Antman, Cecilia A.; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Nyström, Joel H.; Toivola, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery. PMID:27626448

  16. Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Helenius, Terhi O; Antman, Cecilia A; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Nyström, Joel H; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-09-10

    Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery.

  17. Soft epidermis of a scaleless snake lacks beta-keratin.

    PubMed

    Toni, M; Alibardi, L

    2007-01-01

    Beta-keratins are responsible for the mechanical resistance of scales in reptiles. In a scaleless crotalus snake (Crotalus atrox), large areas of the skin are completely devoid of scales, and the skin appears delicate and wrinkled. The epidermis of this snake has been assessed for the presence of beta-keratin by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting using an antibody against chicken scale beta-keratin. This antibody recognizes beta-keratins in normal snake scales with molecular weights of 15-18 kDa and isoelectric points at 6.8, 7.5, 8.3 and 9.4. This indicates that beta-keratins of the stratum corneum are mainly basic proteins, so may interact with cytokeratins of the epidermis, most of which appear acidic (isoelectric points 4.5-5.5). A beta-layer and beta-keratin immunoreactivity are completely absent in moults of the scaleless mutant, and the corneous layer comprises a multi-layered alpha-layer covered by a flat oberhautchen. In conclusion, the present study shows that a lack of beta-keratins is correlated with the loss of scales and mechanical protection in the skin of this mutant snake.

  18. On the uniqueness of color patterns in raptor feathers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, I compared sequentially molted feathers for a few captive raptors from year to year and symmetrically matched feathers (left/right pairs) for many raptors to see if color patterns of sequential feather pairs were identical or if symmetrical pairs were mirror-image identical. Feather pairs were found to be identical only when without color pattern (e.g., the all-white rectrices of Bald Eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]). Complex patterns were not closely matched, but some simple patterns were sometimes closely matched, although not identical. Previous claims that complex color patterns in feather pairs are fingerprint-identical (and therefore that molted feathers from wild raptors can be used to identify breeding adults from year to year with certainty) were found to be untrue: each feather is unique. Although it is unwise to be certain of bird of origin using normal feathers, abnormal feathers can often be so used. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  19. Clustered Xenopus keratin genes: A genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Suzuki, Miyuki; Shigeta, Mitsuki; Fortriede, Joshua D; Takahashi, Shuji; Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Taira, Masanori; Fukui, Akimasa

    2017-06-15

    Keratin genes belong to the intermediate filament superfamily and their expression is altered following morphological and physiological changes in vertebrate epithelial cells. Keratin genes are divided into two groups, type I and II, and are clustered on vertebrate genomes, including those of Xenopus species. Various keratin genes have been identified and characterized by their unique expression patterns throughout ontogeny in Xenopus laevis; however, compilation of previously reported and newly identified keratin genes in two Xenopus species is required for our further understanding of keratin gene evolution, not only in amphibians but also in all terrestrial vertebrates. In this study, 120 putative type I and II keratin genes in total were identified based on the genome data from two Xenopus species. We revealed that most of these genes are highly clustered on two homeologous chromosomes, XLA9_10 and XLA2 in X. laevis, and XTR10 and XTR2 in X. tropicalis, which are orthologous to those of human, showing conserved synteny among tetrapods. RNA-Seq data from various embryonic stages and adult tissues highlighted the unique expression profiles of orthologous and homeologous keratin genes in developmental stage- and tissue-specific manners. Moreover, we identified dozens of epidermal keratin proteins from the whole embryo, larval skin, tail, and adult skin using shotgun proteomics. In light of our results, we discuss the radiation, diversification, and unique expression of the clustered keratin genes, which are closely related to epidermal development and terrestrial adaptation during amphibian evolution, including Xenopus speciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maturation experiments reveal bias in the fossil record of feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Maria; Field, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary history of birds and feathers is a major focus in palaeobiology and evolutionary biology. Diverse exceptionally preserved birds and feathered dinosaurs from Jurassic and Cretaceous biotas in China have provided pivotal evidence of early feathers and feather-like integumentary features, but the true nature of many of these fossil soft tissues is still debated. Interpretations of feathers at intermediate developmental stages (i.e. Stages II, III and IV) and of simple quill-like (Stage I) feathers are particularly controversial. This reflects key uncertainties relating to the preservation potential of feathers at different evolutionary-developmental stages, and to the relative preservation potential of diagnostic features of Stage I feathers and hair. To resolve these issues, we used high pressure-high temperature autoclave experiments to simulate the effects of burial on modern feathers from the Black Coucal (Centropus grilii) and Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), and on human hair. Our results reveal profound differences in the recalcitrance of feathers of different types during maturation: Stage I and Stage V feathers retain diagnostic morphological and ultrastructural details following maturation, whereas other feather types do not. Further, the morphology and arrangement of certain ultrastructural features diagnostic of Stages III and IV, e.g. barbules, are preferentially lost during maturation. These results indicate a pervasive bias in the fossil record of feathers, whereby preservation of feathers at Stages I and V is favored. Critical stages in the evolution of feathers, i.e. Stages II, III and IV, are less likely to be preserved and more likely to be misinterpreted as feathers at earlier developmental stages. Our discovery has major implications for our understanding of the fidelity of the fossil record of feathers and provides a framework for testing the significance of putative examples of fossil feathers at different developmental

  1. Macroscopic, histologic, and ultrastructural lesions associated with avian keratin disorder in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, C.; Armién, A. G.; Blake, J.E.; Handel, Colleen M.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    An epizootic of beak abnormalities (avian keratin disorder) was recently detected among wild birds in Alaska. Here we describe the gross, histologic, and ultrastructural features of the disease in 30 affected adult black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Grossly, there was elongation of the rhamphotheca, with varying degrees of lateral deviation, crossing, and gapping between the upper and lower beak. Not uncommonly, the claws were overgrown, and there was alopecia, scaling, and crusting of the skin. The most prominent histopathologic features in the beak included epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and core-like intrusions of necrotic debris. In affected birds, particularly those with moderate to severe beak overgrowth, there was remodeling of premaxillary and mandibular bones and various dermal lesions. Lesions analogous to those found in beaks were present in affected claws, indicating that this disorder may target both of these similar tissues. Mild to moderate hyperkeratosis occurred in other keratinized tissues, including skin, feather follicles, and, occasionally, sinus epithelium, but typically only in the presence of microbes. We did not find consistent evidence of a bacterial, fungal, or viral etiology for the beak lesions. The changes observed in affected birds did not correspond with any known avian diseases, suggesting a potentially novel hyperkeratotic disorder in wild birds.

  2. Biodegradation of a keratin waste and the concomitant production of detergent stable serine proteases from Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Cavello, I A; Cavalitto, S F; Hours, R A

    2012-07-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (LPS 876) efficiently degraded keratin in chicken feather during submerged cultivation producing extracellular proteases. Characterization of crude protease activity was done including its compatibility in commercial detergents. Optimum pH and temperature were 10.0 and 60 °C, respectively. Protease activity was enhanced by Ca²⁺ but was strongly inhibited by PMSF and by Hg²⁺ suggesting the presence of thiol-dependent serine proteases. The crude protease showed extreme stability toward non-ionic (Tween 20, Tween 85, and Triton X-100) and anionic (SDS) surfactants, and relative stability toward oxidizing agent (H₂O₂ and sodium perborate). In addition, it showed excellent stability and compatibility with various solid and liquid commercial detergents from 30 to 50 °C. The enzyme preparation retained more than 95% of its initial activity with solid detergents (Ariel™ and Drive™) and 97% of its original activity with a liquid detergent (Ace™) after pre-incubation at 40 °C. The protective effect of polyols (propylene glycol, PEG 4000, and glycerol) on the heat inactivation was also examined and the best results were obtained with glycerol from 50 to 60 °C. Considering its promising properties, P. lilacinus enzymatic preparation may be considered as a candidate for use in biotechnological processes (i.e., as detergent additive) and in the processing of keratinous wastes.

  3. New keratin isolates: actives for natural hair protection.

    PubMed

    Roddick-Lanzilotta, Alisa; Kelly, Rob; Scott, Sonya; Chahal, Surinder

    2007-01-01

    Hair is primarily composed of keratin proteins and it is well established that peptides and proteins bestow desirable effects on the hair, for example improving moisturization and softness. In the present work we describe how keratin actives with unique properties convey a range of beneficial properties to a variety of hair types. It has been observed that these functional keratins protect hair from damage associated with chemical treatments such as perming and relaxation, help to restore the mechanical strength of damaged fibers and decrease fading of colored hair.

  4. Sulfur mustard induces the formation of keratin aggregates in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Dillman, James F; McGary, Kriston L; Schlager, John J

    2003-12-01

    The vesicant sulfur mustard is an alkylating agent that has the capacity to cross-link biological molecules. We are interested in identifying specific proteins that are altered upon sulfur mustard exposure. Keratins are particularly important for the structural integrity of skin, and several genetically inherited blistering diseases have been linked to mutations in keratin 5 and keratin 14. We examined whether sulfur mustard exposure alters keratin biochemistry in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. Western blotting with specific monoclonal antibodies revealed the formation of stable high-molecular-weight "aggregates" containing keratin 14 and/or keratin 5. These aggregates begin to form within 15 min after sulfur mustard exposure. These aggregates display a complex gel electrophoresis pattern between approximately 100 and approximately 200 kDa. Purification and analysis of these aggregates by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of keratin 14 and keratin 5 and indicate that at least some of the aggregates are composed of keratin 14-keratin 14, keratin 14-keratin 5, or keratin 5-keratin 5 dimers. These studies demonstrate that sulfur mustard induces keratin aggregation in keratinocytes and support further investigation into the role of keratin aggregation in sulfur mustard-induced vesication.

  5. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  6. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Diana R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  7. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, T.M.; Burgess, E.C.

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Deathmore » occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.« less

  8. The pathogenicity of novel duck reovirus in Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Youling; Yu, Kexiang; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-08-30

    The novel duck reovirus (NDRV) is an emerging, contagious infection. To better realize the pathogenic mechanism of NDRV in ducks, an infection experiment was conducted. The resulting data demonstrated that typical gross lesions were observed in the infected ducks. NDRV was able to replicate in various tissues, leading to these pathological lesions, especially on the liver and spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression of most innate immune-related genes was up-regulated and the antiviral innate immune response could be established in both the liver and spleen. This study indicates that NDRV is a pantropic virus. To resist viral infection, several pathogen recognition receptors can cooperatively recognize NDRV and initiate innate immunity, but the responses are different between different tissues. As far as we know, this is the first systematic investigation of the pathogenicity of NDRV in Cherry Valley ducks based on the host's innate immunity, and these data will provide new insights into the further study of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction between duck hepatitis virus and DDT in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragland, W.L.; Friend, Milton; Trainer, D.O.; Sladek, N.E.

    1971-01-01

    Injections of duck hepatitis virus (DVH) decreased, and exposure to DDT increased, hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase activity. Injection of DFV prior to exposure to DDT did not prevent stimulation of hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase activity by DDT and may have enhanced it.

  10. "Panta rhei": Perpetual cycling of the keratin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Leube, Rudolf E; Moch, Marcin; Kölsch, Anne; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous cytoskeletal systems fulfil seemingly incompatible functions by maintaining a stable scaffolding to ensure tissue integrity and simultaneously facilitating rapid adaptation to intracellular processes and environmental stimuli. This paradox is particularly obvious for the abundant keratin intermediate filaments in epithelial tissues. The epidermal keratin cytoskeleton, for example, supports the protective and selective barrier function of the skin while enabling rapid growth and remodelling in response to physical, chemical and microbial challenges. We propose that these dynamic properties are linked to the perpetual re-cycling of keratin intermediate filaments that we observe in cultured cells. This cycle of assembly and disassembly is independent of protein biosynthesis and consists of distinct, temporally and spatially defined steps. In this way, the keratin cytoskeleton remains in constant motion but stays intact and is also able to restructure rapidly in response to specific regulatory cues as is needed, e.g., during division, differentiation and wound healing.

  11. Biodegradable materials based on silk fibroin and keratin.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Freddi, Giuliano; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2008-04-01

    Wool and silk were dissolved and used for the preparation of blended films. Two systems are proposed: (1) blend films of silk fibroin and keratin aqueous solutions and (2) silk fibroin and keratin dissolved in formic acid. The FTIR spectra of pure films cast from aqueous solutions indicated that the keratin secondary structure mainly consists of alpha-helix and random coil conformations. The IR spectrum of pure SF is characteristic of films with prevalently amorphous structure (random coil conformation). Pure keratin film cast from formic acid shows an increase in the amount of beta-sheet and disordered keratin structures. The FTIR pattern of SF dissolved in formic acid is characteristic of films with prevalently beta-sheet conformations with beta-sheet crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. The thermal behavior of the blends confirmed the FTIR results. DSC curve of pure SF is typical of amorphous SF and the curve of pure keratin show the characteristic melting peak of alpha-helices for the aqueous system. These patterns are no longer observed in the films cast from formic acid due to the ability of formic acid to induce crystallization of SF and to increase the amount of beta-sheet structures on keratin. The nonlinear trend of the different parameters obtained from FTIR analysis and DSC curves of both SF/keratin systems indicate that when proteins are mixed they do not follow additives rules but are able to establish intermolecular interactions. Degradable polymeric biomaterials are preferred candidates for medical applications. It was investigated the degradation behavior of both SF/keratin systems by in vitro enzymatic incubation with trypsin. The SF/keratin films cast from water underwent a slower biological degradation than the films cast from formic acid. The weight loss obtained is a function of the amount of keratin in the blend. This study encourages the further investigation of the type of matrices presented here to be applied whether in scaffolds

  12. Synthesis of Keratin-based Nanofiber for Biomedical Engineering.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Zanshe S; Rijal, Nava P; Jarvis, David; Edwards, Angela; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-02-07

    Electrospinning, due to its versatility and potential for applications in various fields, is being frequently used to fabricate nanofibers. Production of these porous nanofibers is of great interest due to their unique physiochemical properties. Here we elaborate on the fabrication of keratin containing poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers (i.e., PCL/keratin composite fiber). Water soluble keratin was first extracted from human hair and mixed with PCL in different ratios. The blended solution of PCL/keratin was transformed into nanofibrous membranes using a laboratory designed electrospinning set up. Fiber morphology and mechanical properties of the obtained nanofiber were observed and measured using scanning electron microscopy and tensile tester. Furthermore, degradability and chemical properties of the nanofiber were studied by FTIR. SEM images showed uniform surface morphology for PCL/keratin fibers of different compositions. These PCL/keratin fibers also showed excellent mechanical properties such as Young's modulus and failure point. Fibroblast cells were able to attach and proliferate thus proving good cell viability. Based on the characteristics discussed above, we can strongly argue that the blended nanofibers of natural and synthetic polymers can represent an excellent development of composite materials that can be used for different biomedical applications.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system depends on engine oil, there must be means to trap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 25.1027...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system depends on engine oil, there must be means to trap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 25.1027...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system depends on engine oil, there must be means to trap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 25.1027...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system depends on engine oil, there must be means to trap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 25.1027...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system depends on engine oil, there must be means to trap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 25.1027...

  8. Dkk2/Frzb in the dermal papillae regulates feather regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Qiqi; Cai, Linyan; Fu, Yu; Chen, Xi; Yan, Zhipeng; Lin, Xiang; Zhou, Guixuan; Han, Hao; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-ming; Wu, Wei; Yue, Zhicao

    2015-01-01

    Avian feathers have robust growth and regeneration capability. To evaluate the contribution of signaling molecules and pathways in these processes, we profiled gene expression in the feather follicle using an absolute quantification approach. We identified hundreds of genes that mark specific components of the feather follicle: the dermal papillae (DP) which controls feather regeneration and axis formation, the pulp mesenchyme (Pp) which is derived from DP cells and nourishes the feather follicle, and the ramogenic zone epithelium (Erz) where a feather starts to branch. The feather DP is enriched in BMP/TGF-β signaling molecules and inhibitors for Wnt signaling including Dkk2/Frzb. Wnt ligands are mainly expressed in the feather epithelium and pulp. We find that while Wnt signaling is required for the maintenance of DP marker gene expression and feather regeneration, excessive Wnt signaling delays regeneration and reduces pulp formation. Manipulating Dkk2/Frzb expression by lentiviral-mediated overexpression, shRNA-knockdown, or by antibody neutralization resulted in dual feather axes formation. Our results suggest that the Wnt signaling in the proximal feather follicle is fine-tuned to accommodate feather regeneration and axis formation. PMID:24463139

  9. Feather eating and its associations with plumage damage and feathers on the floor in commercial farms of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Riber, A B; Hinrichsen, L K

    2016-07-01

    Feather eating has been associated with feather pecking, which continues to pose economic and welfare problems in egg production. Knowledge on feather eating is limited and studies of feather eating in commercial flocks of laying hens have not been performed previously. Therefore, the main objective was to investigate feather eating and its association with plumage damage and floor feather characteristics in commercial flocks of layers in barn and organic production systems. The study was performed in 13 flocks of barn layers and 17 flocks of organic layers. Each flock was visited at around 32 and 62 weeks of age. During both visits, the plumage condition was assessed and the density of floor feathers recorded. In week 62, droppings and floor feathers were collected. Droppings were examined for presence of feather content, whereas length, downiness and pecking damage were recorded for each floor feather. In week 62, a higher prevalence of hens with poor plumage condition was found in barn (22.2%) compared with organic production systems (7.4%; P<0.001), but the prevalence of droppings with feather content did not differ between the two production systems (8.5% in barn v. 4.3% in organic; P=0.99). Our hypothesis about a positive correlation between feather eating and plumage damage was not supported as no correlation was found between the prevalence of poor plumage condition and the prevalence of droppings with feather content. However, the prevalence of pecking damaged floor feathers was positively correlated both with prevalence of droppings with feather content (P<0.05) and poor plumage condition (P<0.01), indicating a possible association between feather eating and feather pecking. In conclusion, it was confirmed that feather eating occurs on-farm, but feather eating was only found to be positively correlated to the number of floor feathers with pecking damage and not as expected to the prevalence of plumage damage. More research is needed into the sources from

  10. Failure of flight feathers under uniaxial compression.

    PubMed

    Schelestow, Kristina; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2017-09-01

    Flight feathers are light weight engineering structures. They have a central shaft divided in two parts: the calamus and the rachis. The rachis is a thinly walled conical shell filled with foam, while the calamus is a hollow tube-like structure. Due to the fact that bending loads are produced during birds' flight, the resistance to bending of feathers has been reported in different studies. However, the analysis of bent feathers has shown that compression could induce failure by buckling. Here, we have studied the compression of feathers in order to assess the failure mechanisms involved. Axial compression tests were carried out on the rachis and the calamus of dove and pelican feathers. The failure mechanisms and folding structures that resulted from the compression tests were observed from images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rachis and calamus fail due to structural instability. In the case of the calamus, this instability leads to a progressive folding process. In contrast, the rachis undergoes a typical Euler column-type buckling failure. The study of failed specimens showed that delamination buckling, cell collapse and cell densification are the primary failure mechanisms of the rachis structure. The role of the foam is also discussed with regard to the mechanical response of the samples and the energy dissipated during the compression tests. Critical stress values were calculated using delamination buckling models and were found to be in very good agreement with the experimental values measured. Failure analysis and mechanical testing have confirmed that flight feathers are complex thin walled structures with mechanical adaptations that allow them to fulfil their functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Keratins as components of the enamel organic matrix

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Beniash, Elia; Morasso, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Dental enamel is a hardest tissue in the human body, and although it starts as a tissue rich in proteins, by the time of eruption of the tooth in the oral cavity only a small fraction of the protein remains. While this organic matrix of enamel represents less than 1% by weight it plays essential roles in improving both toughness and resilience to chemical attacks. Despite the fact that the first studies of the enamel matrix began in the 19th century its exact composition and mechanisms of its function remain poorly understood. It was proposed that keratin or a keratin-like primitive epithelial component exists in mature enamel, however due to the extreme insolubility of its organic matrix the presence of keratins there was never clearly established. We have recently identified expression of a number of hair keratins in ameloblasts, the enamel secreting cells, and demonstrated their incorporation into mature enamel. Mutation in epithelial hair keratin KRT75 leads to a skin condition called pseudofollicularis barbae. Carriers of this mutation have an altered enamel structure and mechanical properties. Importantly, these individuals have a much higher prevalence of caries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing a direct link between a mutation in a protein-coding region of a gene and increased caries rates. In this paper we present an overview of the evidence of keratin-like material in enamel that has accumulated over the last 150 years. Furthermore, we propose potential mechanisms of action of KTR75 in enamel and highlight the clinical implications of the link between mutations in KRT75 and caries. Finally, we discuss the potential use of keratins for enamel repair. PMID:26709044

  12. Engineering stem cells into organs: Topobiological transformations demonstrated by beak, feather and other ectodermal organ morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Wu, Ping; Plikus, Maksim; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall Bruce

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish regenerative medicine, several critical issues in stem cell biology have to be solved, including the identification of sources, expanding populations, building them into organs, and assimilating them to the host. While many stem cells can now differentiate along certain lineages, knowledge on how to use them to build organs lags behind. Here we focus on topobiological events that bridge this gap, i.e., the regulation of number, size, axis, shape, arrangement, and architecture during organogenesis. Rather than reviewing detailed molecular pathways known to disrupt organogenesis when perturbed, we highlight conceptual questions at the topobiological level, and ask how cellular and molecular mechanisms can work to explain these phenomena. The avian integument is used as the Rosetta stone because the molecular activities are linked to organ forms which are visually apparent and have functional consequences during evolution as shown by the fossil record and extant diversity. For example, we show that feather pattern formation is the equilibrium of stochastic interactions among multiple activators and inhibitors. While morphogens and receptors are coded by the genome, the result is based on the summed physical-chemical properties on the whole cell surface and is self-organizing. For another example, we show developing chicken and duck beaks contain differently configured localized growth zones (LoGZ) and can modulate chicken beaks to phenocopy diverse avian beaks in Nature by altering the position, number, size, and duration of LoGZs. Different organs have their unique topology and we also discuss shaping mechanisms of the liver and different ways of branching morphogenesis. Multi-primordia organs (e.g., feathers, hairs, teeth) have additional topographic specificities across the body surface, an appendage field, or within an appendage. Promises and problems in reconstituted feather / hair follicles and other organs are discussed. Finally, simple

  13. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  14. CHICKEN FEATHER FIBERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of Findings (Outputs/Outcomes):

    A Sievert’s apparatus for measuring the H2 storage capacities of adsorbents was built. The nitrogen adsorption and H2 storage test performed on the pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) prepared by a p...

  15. The Weight of Iron and Feathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendri, G.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the popular question concerning the difference in weight between 1 kg of iron and 1 kg of feathers, by taking into account the non-trivial aspect of the semantic interpretation of "weight" and the weighting procedure. The inclusion of air buoyancy makes the correct answer an interesting one. We describe and comment on the…

  16. Modelling the growth of feather crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, H.J.; Hunt, J.D.; Evans, P.V.

    1997-02-01

    An existing numerical model of dendritic growth has been adapted to model the growth of twinned columnar dendrites (feather crystals) in a binary aluminium alloy, Examination of the effect of dendrite tip angle on growth has led to an hypothesis regarding the stability of a pointed tip morphology in these crystals.

  17. Modified approach for keratinized tissue augmentation in multiple teeth

    PubMed Central

    Terenzi, Mayara; Pigossi, Suzane Cristina; Pires, Luana Carla; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Sampaio, José Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This case report demonstrated a modified technique of free gingival graft (FGG) aiming to increase keratinized attached tissue in large recipient areas. A FGG to increase the amount of attached gingival tissue, facilitate oral hygiene, and prevent further clinical attachment loss was realized in two patients. Because the extensive recipient area, a modified technique was performed to obtain a smaller graft of the donor area. A template of the graft was made about 25%–30% smaller than the total recipient area. After graft removal, interspersed incisions were made in the upper and lower edges of it. After 9–24 months of follow-up, the final width of the keratinized tissue was 4.0–4.4 times larger in comparison to initial clinical condition. In conclusion, this FGG technique can be considered an alternative to gain sufficient amount of keratinized gingival tissue using a smaller graft. PMID:29551874

  18. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5-7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-weeks-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One-week-old ducks showed endocardial hemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver, and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three-weeks-old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-weeks-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-weeks-old ducks at 3-5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P < 0.05). More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  19. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-weeks-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One-week-old ducks showed endocardial hemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver, and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three-weeks-old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-weeks-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-weeks-old ducks at 3–5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P < 0.05). More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks. PMID:26106382

  20. D.U.C.K. Walking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steller, Jenifer J.

    This manual presents a schoolwide walking program that includes aerobic fitness information, curriculum integration, and walking tours. "Discover and Understand Carolina Kids by Walking" is D.U.C.K. Walking. An aerobic walking activity, D.U.C.K. Walking has two major goals: (1) to promote regular walking as a way to exercise at any age;…

  1. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  2. A 'feather-trap' for collecting DNA samples from birds.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Golo; Beck, Nadeena; Double, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of birds are usually based on DNA extracted from a blood sample. For some species, however, obtaining blood samples is difficult because they are sensitive to handling, pose a conservation or animal welfare concern, or evade capture. In such cases, feathers obtained from live birds in the wild can provide an alternative source of DNA. Here, we provide the first description and evaluation of a 'feather-trap', consisting of small strips of double-sided adhesive tape placed close to a nest with chicks, as a simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive method to collect feathers. The feather-trap was tested in tropical conditions on the Australian pheasant coucal (Centropus phasianinus). None of the 12 pairs of coucals on which the feather-trap was used abandoned the nest, and feeding rates did not differ from those of birds not exposed to a feather-trap. On average, 4.2 feathers were collected per trap over 2-5 days and, despite exposure to monsoonal rain, DNA was extracted from 71.4% of samples, albeit at low concentrations. The amount of genomic DNA extracted from each feather was sufficient to reliably genotype individuals at up to five microsatellite loci for parentage analysis. We show that a feather-trap can provide a reliable alternative for obtaining DNA in species where taking blood is difficult. It may also prove useful for collecting feather samples for other purposes, e.g. stable-isotope analysis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Keratin capped silver nanoparticles - synthesis and characterization of a nanomaterial with desirable handling properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were produced with keratin stabilizer and the NPs exhibited unimodal Gaussian distribution with average diameter of 3.5nm +/- 0.7 nm. The molecular mass of keratin stabilizer was 6-8 kDa. The mass of keratin capped NPs was >250 kDa to indicate the formation of crosslinked...

  4. Body molt of male long-tailed ducks in the nearshore waters of the north slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, M.D.; Grand, J.B.; Flint, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the timing and intensity of body molt in relation to stage of remige growth for postbreeding adult male Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) off the coast of northern Alaska. During this period, remige and rectrix feathers are molted simultaneously with body feathers during the prebasic molt, which results in a period of increased energetic and nutritional demands. We collected birds from late July through mid-August and recorded intensity of molt in eight regions: head and neck, back and rump, greater coverts, lesser coverts, flank and sides, breast, belly, and tail. Using nonlinear regression, we estimated the peak intensity and variation for each region in relation to ninth primary length. We found little evidence of molt in the head and neck region. The greater and lesser coverts, and back and rump reached peak molt intensities earliest and were followed by tail, breast, and belly. Molt intensity in the flank and side region was highly variable and indicated a more prolonged molting pattern in relation to other regions. While body molt occurs simultaneously with wing molt, we found that molt among regions occurred in a staggered pattern. Long-tailed Ducks may employ this staggered molting pattern to minimize the energetic and nutritional requirements of molt.

  5. Keratin gel in the management of Epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Denyer, J; Marsh, C; Kirsner, R S

    2015-10-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) describes a number of genetically inherited conditions which cause skin fragility and minor trauma leading to skin damage, skin loss and wounding. Owing to the fragility of the skin and requirement for frequent dressing changes, at present, the optimal dressing(s) is not clear. Our objective was to assess the use of a keratin gel in the management of wounds in patients with different forms of EB. We treated patients with different types of EB and a range of wounds with a novel keratin gel. In a convenience sample of consecutive patients, we introduced the keratin gel into their treatment regimen maintaining other aspects of their care. Patients reported faster healing and more resilient healed skin. Of the ten patients treated in this pilot study, six found the gel effective; two found it ineffective; and in two patients, it caused itching leading to discontinuation of the treatment. The results of this case study series suggest that keratin gel can be useful in the management of EB and are consistent with previous published experiences.

  6. Keratin sponge/hydrogel part 1. fabrication and characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keratin sponge/hydrogel products formed by either the oxidation or reduction of U.S. domestic fine- or coarse-grade wool exhibited distinctively different topologies and molecular weights of 6- 8 kDa and 40-60 kDa, each with unique macro-porous structure and microstructural behaviors. The sponge/ ...

  7. Keratin sponge/hydrogel II, active agent delivery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keratin sponge/hydrogels from oxidation and reduction hydrolysis of fine and coarse wool fibers were formed to behave as cationic hydrogels to swell and release active agents in the specific region of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Their porous, interpenetrating networks (IPN) were effective for...

  8. The structure of the "amorphous" matrix of keratins.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Murat; Wang, Xinwei; Zhu, Bowen; Liu, Jing; Harland, Duane; Popescu, Crisan

    2017-05-01

    Various keratin fibers, particularly human hairs, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, TEM, solid-state 1 H NMR and Transient Electro-Thermal Technique, TET. The results converge to suggest that the matrix of keratin fiber cortex, far from being amorphous, has a well-defined nano-scale grainy structure, the size of these grains being around 2-4nm. The size of the grains appears to strongly depend on the chemical treatment of the fiber, on the temperature and on the relative humidity of the environment, as well as on the physiological factors at the level of fiber production in follicle. By suggesting an organization at the nano-scale of the protein chains in these grains, likely to be Keratin Associated Proteins, the results challenge the view of matrix as a homogeneous glassy material. Moreover, they indicate the potential of further investigating the purpose of this structure that appears to reflect not only chemical treatments of keratins but also biological processes at the level of the follicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Drug Evaluation Research (CDER), the Center for Biologics E valuation Research (CBER), and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health ( CDRH ) on May...Research (CBER) , and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health ( CDRH ) to clar ify the designation of the keratin hydrogel. During this m eeting

  10. Model-based analysis of keratin intermediate filament assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ines; Leitner, Anke; Walther, Paul; Herrmann, Harald; Marti, Othmar

    2015-09-01

    The cytoskeleton of epithelial cells consists of three types of filament systems: microtubules, actin filaments and intermediate filaments (IFs). Here, we took a closer look at type I and type II IF proteins, i.e. keratins. They are hallmark constituents of epithelial cells and are responsible for the generation of stiffness, the cellular response to mechanical stimuli and the integrity of entire cell layers. Thereby, keratin networks constitute an important instrument for cells to adapt to their environment. In particular, we applied models to characterize the assembly of keratin K8 and K18 into elongated filaments as a means for network formation. For this purpose, we measured the length of in vitro assembled keratin K8/K18 filaments by transmission electron microscopy at different time points. We evaluated the experimental data of the longitudinal annealing reaction using two models from polymer chemistry: the Schulz-Zimm model and the condensation polymerization model. In both scenarios one has to make assumptions about the reaction process. We compare how well the models fit the measured data and thus determine which assumptions fit best. Based on mathematical modelling of experimental filament assembly data we define basic mechanistic properties of the elongation reaction process.

  11. Pyrolyzed feather fibers for adsorbent and high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoz, Erman

    Chicken feather fibers (CFF) are problematic and costly for the poultry industry in terms of managing maintenance and disposal. Considering their great availability, low cost, and unique protein structure, CFF can be an environmentally friendly and bio-renewable candidate to replace petroleum products. CFF's low degradation and melting temperature render them useless at high temperatures. Pyrolysis methods were developed for CFF by using two temperature steps to convert them into high temperature resistant and adsorbent fibers while retaining their original physical appearance and affine dimensions. An intermolecular crosslinking mechanism in the first step of pyrolysis at 215 ºC for 24 h provided an intact fibrous structure with no subsequent melting. The evidence obtained from the thermal, bulk, and surface analysis techniques was indication of the simultaneous side chain degradation, polypeptide backbone scission, disulfide bond cleavage, and isopeptide crosslinking. The variation in the reaction kinetics of disulfide bond cleavage and isopeptide crosslinking played an important role in the melting transition. Consequently, long-lasting heat treatments below the melting point provided sufficient crosslinks in the protein matrix to keep the fibrous structure intact. Water-insoluble and crosslinked CFF reinforced the triglyceride-fatty acid based composites by providing a 15 fold increase in storage and tensile modulus at room temperature. These thermally stable fibers can be used instead of CFF in composites which may require high temperature compounding and molding processes. The second step of pyrolysis at 400--450 ºC for 1 h resulted in microporous fibers with a micropore volume of ˜0.18 cm3/g STP and with a narrower pore size distribution than commercial activated carbons through thermal degradation. Nearly all accessible pores in the microporous pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) had diameters less than 1 nm and therefore, showed a potential to be

  12. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  13. Survival and movements of molting male black ducks in Labrador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, Timothy D.; Longcore, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    We marked 26 flightless male American black ducks with transmitters during the post-nuptial molt in northern Labrabor to determine survival and movements. Twelve ducks remained in the watershed where marked and 11 ducks moved to different watersheds. The period survival rate (PSR) for these flightless males was 0.89 using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Only 2 ducks were killed by predators. Death of these 2 ducks might have been influenced by our disturbance, thus we considered the PSR minimal.

  14. Phylogenetics and ecomorphology of emarginate primary feathers.

    PubMed

    Klaassen van Oorschot, Brett; Tang, Ho Kwan; Tobalske, Bret W

    2017-07-01

    Wing tip slots are a distinct morphological trait broadly expressed across the avian clade, but are generally perceived to be unique to soaring raptors. These slots are the result of emarginations on the distal leading and trailing edges of primary feathers, and allow the feathers to behave as individual airfoils. Research suggests these emarginate feathers are an adaptation to increase glide efficiency by mitigating induced drag in a manner similar to aircraft winglets. If so, we might expect birds known for gliding and soaring to exhibit emarginate feather morphology; however, that is not always the case. Here, we explore emargination across the avian clade, and examine associations between emargination and ecological and morphological variables. Pelagic birds exhibit pointed, high-aspect ratio wings without slots, whereas soaring terrestrial birds exhibit prominent wing-tip slots. Thus, we formed four hypotheses: (1) Emargination is segregated according to habitat (terrestrial, coastal/freshwater, pelagic). (2) Emargination is positively correlated with mass. (3) Emargination varies inversely with aspect ratio and directly with wing loading and disc loading. (4) Emargination varies according to flight style, foraging style, and diet. We found that emargination falls along a continuum that varies with habitat: Pelagic species tend to have zero emargination, coastal/freshwater birds have some emargination, and terrestrial species have a high degree of emargination. Among terrestrial and coastal/freshwater species, the degree of emargination is positively correlated with mass. We infer this may be the result of selection to mitigate induced power requirements during slow flight that otherwise scale adversely with increasing body size. Since induced power output is greatest during slow flight, we hypothesize that emargination may be an adaptation to assist vertical take-off and landing rather than glide efficiency as previously hypothesized. © 2017 Wiley

  15. Propeller/fan-pitch feathering apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, Jan C. (Inventor); Adamson, Arthur P. (Inventor); Bathori, Julius (Inventor); Walker, Neil (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A pitch feathering system for a gas turbine driven aircraft propeller having multiple variable pitch blades utilizes a counter-weight linked to the blades. The weight is constrained to move, when effecting a pitch change, only in a radial plane and about an axis which rotates about the propeller axis. The system includes a linkage allowing the weight to move through a larger angle than the associated pitch change of the blade.

  16. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yabin; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Mei; Shen, Xinyue; Li, Jianmei; Yu, Shengqing; Zou, Jianmin; Ding, Chan

    2014-07-17

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND. The

  17. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Results Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. Conclusions The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important

  18. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  19. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  20. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Russell, Robin E; Franson, J Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J; Allen, R Bradford; Nashold, Sean W; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  1. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. A 15-year-long effort funded research on sea duck habitats through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and the Endangered or Threatened Species programs of the United States and Canada. Nevertheless, important gaps remain in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered by anthropogenic activities. The goal of this chapter is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, we examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Last, we evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for sea ducks.

  2. Keratin expression profiling of transitional epithelium in the painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Pilar; Smedts, Frank; Nordling, Jörgen; Horn, Thomas; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Hopman, Anton; de la Rosette, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a severely debilitating condition. Its cause is poorly understood; therapy is symptomatic and often unsuccessful. To study urothelial involvement, we characterized the keratin phenotype of bladder urothelium in 18 patients with PBS/IC using a panel of 11 keratin antibodies recognizing simple keratins found in columnar epithelia (keratins 7, 8, 18, and 20) and keratins associated with basal cell compartments of squamous epithelia (keratins 5, 13, 14, and 17). We also tested 2 antibodies recognizing more than 1 keratin also directed against basal cell compartments of squamous epithelia (D5/16 B4 and 34betaE12). Bladder urothelium in PBS/IC showed distinct differences in the profiles of keratins 7, 8, 14, 17, 18, and 20 compared with literature reports for normal bladder urothelium. These were characterized by a shift from the normal bladder urothelial keratin phenotype to a more squamous keratin profile, despite the lack of morphologic evidence of squamous epithelial differentiation and a loss of compartmentalization of keratin expression. The severity of these changes varied between biopsy specimens. Whether these changes are primary or secondary to another underlying condition remains to be determined.

  3. [Immunohistochemical observation on keratin filaments of cultured tumor cells by ABC staining].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yang, F

    1991-06-01

    Avidin-Biotin Peroxidase complex technique, ABV staining, was employed by using monoclonal anti-keratin antibody HK2 in this study. The organization and dynamics of keratins in both interphase and mitotic T56 and HeLa cells were analysed. We also observed the effects of microtubule (MT) and microfilament (MF) inhibitors, colchicine and cytochalasin B, on the organization of keratin filaments in T56 and HeLa cells. The results showed that a significant alteration in the structural organization and distribution of keratin filaments occurred during mitosis, and an extensive rearrangement of keratin networks of the two cell lines was induced in interphase after the MT and MF were disrupted by combined treatment with the two drugs, colchicine and cytochalasin B; the keratin networks turned into a star-like lattice rapidly within 1-2h. Neither colchicine nor cytochalasin B alone elicited significant organizational change in the keratin networks of the two cell lines.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mottled duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rorabaugh, James C.; Zwank, Phillip J.

    1983-01-01

    The mottled duck is a mallard-like resident species of the Gulf of Mexico coast, from the marshes of Pearl River on the Lou i si ana-Ht ss t ss ipp i border to the Al varado Lagoon near Veracruz, Mexico (Bell rose 1976). The highest densities of nesting mottl ed ducks are found in brackish to fresh coastal marshes (H. Bateman, Louisiana Department of Wildl ife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge; pers , comm.). Mottled ducks also inhabit prairie land near prairie potholes in Texas and flooded rice fields in Texas (Engel ing 1950) and Louisiana (Linscombe 1972).

  5. Hawaiian Duck's Future Threatened by Feral Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uyehara, Kimberly J.; Engilis, Andrew; Reynolds, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 70 percent of Hawaii's native bird species are found nowhere else on Earth, and many of these species are declining or in danger of extinction. Although the Hawaiian Islands were once home to a remarkable diversity of waterfowl, only three species remain-the Hawaiian Goose (Nene), Laysan Duck, and Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)-all Federally endangered. The Koloa maoli is the only Hawaiian bird threatened by 'genetic extinction' from hybridization with an invasive species-feral Mallard ducks. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologists in Hawaii are working to find the causes of bird endangerment and ways to prevent extinction of the Koloa maoli and other threatened birds.

  6. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, Roy D.; Stein, George; Novilla, Meliton N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  7. Rachis morphology cannot accurately predict the mechanical performance of primary feathers in extant (and therefore fossil) feathered flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, John; Garner, Terence; Cooper, Glen; Nudds, Robert

    2017-02-01

    It was previously suggested that the flight ability of feathered fossils could be hypothesized from the diameter of their feather rachises. Central to the idea is the unvalidated assumption that the strength of a primary flight feather (i.e. its material and structural properties) may be consistently calculated from the external diameter of the feather rachis, which is the only dimension that is likely to relate to structural properties available from fossils. Here, using three-point bending tests, the relationship between feather structural properties (maximum bending moment, Mmax and Young's modulus, Ebend) and external morphological parameters (primary feather rachis length, diameter and second moment of area at the calamus) in 180 primary feathers from four species of bird of differing flight style was investigated. Intraspecifically, both Ebend and Mmax were strongly correlated with morphology, decreasing and increasing, respectively, with all three morphological measures. Without accounting for species, however, external morphology was a poor predictor of rachis structural properties, meaning that precise determination of aerial performance in extinct, feathered species from external rachis dimensions alone is not possible. Even if it were possible to calculate the second moment of area of the rachis, our data suggest that feather strength could still not be reliably estimated.

  8. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Liu, H C; Huang, J F; Lee, S R; Liu, H L; Hsieh, C H; Huang, C W; Huang, M C; Tai, C; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Cheng, Y S

    2015-05-01

    rate. The average predicted genetic response for F was 40% of genetic standard deviation per generation of selection. The mule ducklings' feather colour also was improved. It was concluded that this study provided results for a better understanding of the genetics of the duration of fertility traits in the common female duck bred for mule and that the selection of a synthetic strain was effective method of improvement.

  9. New volatile selenium and tellurium species in fermentation gases produced by composting duck manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel-Raffaitin, P.; Pécheyran, C.; Amouroux, D.

    The occurrence of volatile metal(loid) compounds is investigated in gases released from a compost composed of pine shavings, duck feathers and duck excreta. The fermentation gases were sampled using Tedlar bags, pre-concentrated with cryogenic trap and finally analysed by cryo-trapping followed by gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled mass spectrometry (CT-GC-ICPMS). In addition to arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn) volatile species, up to eight selenium (Se) and seven tellurium (Te) species, namely methylated, ethylated and mixed methyl-ethylated ones, are detected for the first time. Although few volatile species standards are available, their identification or semi-identification is established by using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) through the correlation between boiling point and retention time of each compound. Their semi-quantification highlights maximal concentrations ranging from 30 to 2300 ng m -3 for Se species and from 10 to 500 ng m -3 for Te species. The variations of their concentrations are examined by emphasizing the influences of both compost nature and compost maturation stage. Finally, the results obtained in this study outline the diversity and the quantity of Se and Te species especially in comparison with other fermentation gases. Their release could thus induce "olfactory pollution" and potential sanitary and environmental impacts if no effluent treatment is applied during the compost production.

  10. Floods on Duck and Little Duck Rivers and Grindstone Hollow, Hunt, Hickory Flat, and Wolf Creeks in the vicinity of Manchester, Tennessee. [Duck River; Little Duck River

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This flood hazard report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the Duck and Little Duck Rivers, and Grindstone Hollow, Hunt, Hickory Flat, and Wolf Creeks in the vicinity of Manchester, Tennessee. The report was prepared by TVA as a result of a request from the city of Manchester for TVA technical assistance in evaluating alternative solutions to local flood problems. 5 references, 12 figures, 12 tables.

  11. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  12. Seasonal survival of adult female mottled ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Jena A.; Haukos, David A.; Conway, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulgivula) is a non-migratory duck dependent on coastal habitats to meet all of its life cycle requirements in the Western Gulf Coast (WGC) of Texas and Louisiana, USA. This population of mottled ducks has experienced a moderate decline during the past 2 decades. Adult survival has been identified as an important factor influencing population demography. Previous work based on band-recovery data has provided only annual estimates of survival. We assessed seasonal patterns of female mottled duck survival from 2009 to 2012 using individuals marked with satellite platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We used temperature and movement sensors within each PTT to indicate potential mortality events. We estimated cumulative weekly survival and ranked factors influential in patterns of mortality using known-fate modeling in Program MARK. Models included 4 predictors: week; hunting and non-hunting periods; biological periods defined as breeding, brooding, molt, and pairing; and mass at time of capture. Models containing hunt periods, during and outside the mottled duck season, comprised essentially 100% of model weights where both legal and illegal harvest had a negative influence on mottled duck survival. Survival rates were low during 2009–2011 (12–38% annual rate of survival), when compared with the long-term banding average of 53% annual survival. During 2011, survival of female mottled ducks was the lowest annual rate (12%) ever documented and coincided with extreme drought. Management actions maximizing the availability of wetlands and associated upland habitats during hunting seasons and drought conditions may increase adult female mottled duck survival.

  13. Keratin K15 as a Biomarker of Epidermal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Amrita; Teh, Muy-Teck; Mackenzie, Ian C.; Waseem, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Keratin 15 (K15) is type I keratin protein co-expressed with the K5/K14 pair present in the basal keratinocytes of all stratified epithelia. Although it is a minor component of the cytoskeleton with a variable expression pattern, nonetheless its expression has been reported as a stem cell marker in the bulge of hair follicles. Conversely, suprabasal expression of K15 has also been reported in both normal and diseased tissues, which is inconsistent with its role as a stem cell marker. Our recently published work has given evidence of the molecular pathways that seem to control the expression of K15 in undifferentiated and differentiated cells. In this article, we have critically reviewed the published work to establish the reliability of K15 as an epidermal stem cell marker. PMID:24071939

  14. Valorisation of chicken feathers: Characterisation of chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Tamrat; Sithole, Bruce; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Chunilall, Viren

    2017-10-01

    The characterisation of the chemical properties of the whole chicken feather and its fractions (barb and rachis), was undertaken to identify opportunities for valorizing this waste product. The authors have described the physical, morphological, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of the chicken feathers and related them to potential valorisation routes of the waste. However, identification of their chemical properties is necessary to complete a comprehensive description of chicken feather fractions. Hence, the chicken feathers were thoroughly characterised by proximate and ultimate analyses, elemental composition, spectroscopic analyses, durability in different solvents, burning test, and hydrophobicity. The proximate analysis of chicken feathers revealed the following compositions: crude lipid (0.83%), crude fibre (2.15%), crude protein (82.36%), ash (1.49%), NFE (1.02%) and moisture content (12.33%) whereas the ultimate analyses showed: carbon (64.47%), nitrogen (10.41%), oxygen (22.34%), and sulphur (2.64%). FTIR analysis revealed that the chicken feather fractions contain amide and carboxylic groups indicative of proteinious functional groups; XRD showed a crystallinity index of 22. Durability and burning tests confirmed that feathers behaved similarly to animal fibre. This reveals that chicken feather can be a valuable raw material in textile, plastic, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biomedical and bioenergy industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Corvidae feather pulp and West Nile virus detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Romaine Long, R.; Griffin, Katie M.; Saito, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated cloacal swab, vascular pulp of flight feather, and kidney and spleen pool samples from carcasses of members of the family Corvidae as sources of West Nile virus (WNV). The cloacal swab, kidney and spleen pool, and feather pulp were the source of WNV in 38%, 43%, and 77%, respectively, of the carcasses.

  17. Rejoining of cut wounds by engineered gelatin-keratin glue.

    PubMed

    Thirupathi Kumara Raja, S; Thiruselvi, T; Sailakshmi, G; Ganesh, S; Gnanamani, A

    2013-08-01

    Rejoining of cut tissue ends of a critical site challenges clinicians. The toxicity, antigenicity, low adhesive strength, flexibility, swelling and cost of the currently employed glue demands an alternative. Engineered gelatin-keratin glue (EGK-glue) described in the present study was found to be suitable for wet tissue approximation. EGK-glue was prepared by engineering gelatin with caffeic acid using EDC and conjugating with keratin by periodate oxidation. UV-visible, (1)H NMR and circular dichroism analyses followed by experiments on gelation time, rheology, gel adhesive strength (in vitro), wet tissue approximation (in vivo), H&E staining of tissue sections at scheduled time intervals and tensile strength of the healed skin were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the EGK-glue in comparison with fibrin glue and cyanoacrylate. Results of UV-visible, NMR and CD analyses confirmed the functionalization and secondary structural changes. Increasing concentration of keratin reduces the gelation time (<15s). Lap-shear test demonstrates the maximum adhesive strength of 16.6±1.2kPa. Results of hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility studies suggested the suitability of the glue for clinical applications. Tissue approximation property assessed using the incision wound model (Wistar strain) in comparison with cyanoacrylate and fibrin glue suggested, that EGK-glue explicitly accelerates the rejoining of tissue with a 1.86 fold increase in skin tensile strength after healing. Imparting quinone moiety to gelatin-keratin conjugates through caffeic acid and a weaker oxidizing agent provides an adhesive glue with appreciable strength, and hemocompatible, cytocompatible and biodegradable properties, which, rejoin the cut tissue ends effectively. EGK-glue obtained in the present study finds wide biomedical/clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Radiological Health ( CDRH ) to clarify the designation of the hydrogel. As a result of this meeting, steps required for an IND for the keratin...the Center for Biologics Evaluation Research (CBER), and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health 8 ( CDRH ) to clarify the designation of the...application to the CDRH for a new product. This new product is the material that is produced in the validated manufacturing facility at KeraNetics. This

  19. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Prolactin--a novel neuroendocrine regulator of human keratin expression in situ.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Bíró, Tamás; Tiede, Stephan; Tóth, Balázs I; Langan, Ewan A; Sugawara, Koji; Foitzik, Kerstin; Ingber, Arieh; Goffin, Vincent; Langbein, Lutz; Paus, Ralf

    2010-06-01

    The controls of human keratin expression in situ remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we have investigated the effects of the neurohormone prolactin (PRL) on keratin expression in a physiologically and clinically relevant test system: organ-cultured normal human hair follicles (HFs). Not only do HFs express a wide range of keratins, but they are also a source and target of PRL. Microarray analysis revealed that PRL differentially regulated a defined subset of keratins and keratin-associated proteins. Quantitative immunohistomorphometry and quantitative PCR confirmed that PRL up-regulated expression of keratins K5 and K14 and the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19 in organ-cultured HFs and/or isolated HF keratinocytes. PRL also up-regulated K15 promoter activity and K15 protein expression in situ, whereas it inhibited K6 and K31 expression. These regulatory effects were reversed by a pure competitive PRL receptor antagonist. Antagonist alone also modulated keratin expression, suggesting that "tonic stimulation" by endogenous PRL is required for normal expression levels of selected keratins. Therefore, our study identifies PRL as a major, clinically relevant, novel neuroendocrine regulator of both human keratin expression and human epithelial stem cell biology in situ.

  1. Fourier Plane Image Combination by Feathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, W. D.

    2017-09-01

    Astronomical objects frequently exhibit structure over a wide range of scales whereas many telescopes, especially interferometer arrays, only sample a limited range of spatial scales. To properly image these objects, images from a set of instruments covering the range of scales may be needed. These images then must be combined in a manner to recover all spatial scales. This paper describes the feathering technique for image combination in the Fourier transform plane. Implementations in several packages are discussed and example combinations of single dish and interferometric observations of both simulated and celestial radio emission are given.

  2. First findings of duck circovirus in migrating wild ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xinxin; Liu, Lanlan; Han, Chunyan; Li, Jing; Zeng, Xiangwei

    2018-03-01

    To probe the epidemiology of duck circovirus (DuCV) in migrating wild ducks in China, 189 samples collected from 11 species of wild ducks from 2013 to 2016 were analyzed by PCR. Four positive samples were obtained from Mallard (2), Green-winged Teal (1), and Falcated Duck (1), and the positive rate was 2.12%. The homologous alignment of the complete genome shows that the homology of the wild duck strains is 81.6 to 95.1% to each other and 81.4 to 100% to the 32 strains from other origins. Amino acids alignment revealed that the mutable ORF2 gene has six major variable regions and many random mutation points. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four sequences belong to two genotypes: wd2013017, wd2013046 and AY228555 (representative strain of genotype 1) belong to genotype 1, while wd2014012, wd2015028 and AY394721 (representative strain of genotype 2) belong to genotype 2. The results indicate that both genotypes of DuCV are distributed and common in migrating wild ducks. Further analysis shows that duck circovirus infection is mainly concentrated in the eastern coastal cities of China, which are part of the East Asian-Australian flyway. This suggests that wild ducks with circovirus may be an important factor in the epidemic and spread of DuCV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Viscoelastic properties of α-keratin fibers in hair.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; André Meyers, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Considerable viscoelasticity and strain-rate sensitivity are a characteristic of α-keratin fibers, which can be considered a biopolymer. The understanding of viscoelasticity is an important part of the knowledge of the overall mechanical properties of these biological materials. Here, horse and human hairs are examined to analyze the sources of this response. The dynamic mechanical response of α-keratin fibers over a range of frequencies and temperatures is analyzed using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The α-keratin fibers behave more elastically at higher frequencies while they become more viscous at higher temperatures. A glass transition temperature of ∼55°C is identified. The stress relaxation behavior of α-keratin fibers at two strains, 0.02 and 0.25, is established and fit to a constitutive equation based on the Maxwell-Wiechert model. The constitutive equation is further compared to the experimental results within the elastic region and a good agreement is obtained. The two relaxation constants, 14s and 359s for horse hair and 11s and 207s for human hair, are related to two hierarchical levels of relaxation: the amorphous matrix-intermediate filament interfaces, for the short term, and the cellular components for the long term. Results of the creep test also provide important knowledge on the uncoiling and phase transformation of the α-helical structure as hair is uniaxially stretched. SEM results show that horse hair has a rougher surface morphology and damaged cuticles. It also exhibits a lower strain-rate sensitivity of 0.05 compared to that of 0.11 for human hair. After the horse and human hairs are chemically treated and the disulfide bonds are cleaved, they exhibit a similar strain-rate sensitivity of ∼0.05. FTIR results confirms that the human hair is more sensitive to the -S-S- cleavage, resulting in an increase of cysteic acid content. Therefore, the disulfide bonds in the matrix are experimentally identified as one source of the strain

  4. Removal of odor using biofilter from duck confinement buildings.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anthony; Cheng, Kimberly

    2007-06-01

    The poultry and waterfowl industry in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia needs to deal with odor emission problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a pilot-scale biofiltration system for treating odors from the exhaust air streams of a commercial duck farm building before their release to the atmosphere. A pilot-scale biofiltration system with semi-enclosed wooden structure was designed, constructed and installed to treat the exhaust air from one of the 12 operating ventilation exhaust fans, having a ventilation rate of 2.36 m3/s. The empty bed residence time of the biofilter was 5-10 seconds at the design flow rate. The biofilter media comprised of 2 parts softwood chips and barks to 1 part finished compost. Fabric filters were used for pre-treatment to protect the biofilter from clogging by dust particles and feathers. Odor reduction was determined by measuring the concentration of the air entering and leaving the biofilter via olfactometry analysis. The odor concentration of untreated barn air was found to vary from 8553+/-1006 to 12171+/-1575 OU/m3; however, the odor concentration was substantially reduced to 420+/-195 OU/m(3) after the manure storage was cleaned out at the end of summer. The odor removal efficiency of the biofilter system averaged 95+/-3%. The high frequency of cleaning and replacement required of the fabric filters would considerably increase the operating cost. Alternative methods of dust and odor removal that are more cost-effective will need to be investigated in the future.

  5. LUTEAR CELLS AND HEN-FEATHERING

    PubMed Central

    Boring, Alice M.; Morgan, T. H.

    1918-01-01

    The experimental evidence had made clear that some substance is produced in the testis of the male Sebright that suppresses in him the development of the secondary sexual plumage of the cock of his species. The detection in his testis of lutear cells like those in hens makes the conclusion highly probable that it is these cells that cause the suppression of cock-feathering in both the Sebright male and in hens of all fowls. Genetic work by Morgan had shown that one or two Mendelian factor-differences are responsible for hen-feathering in the Sebright. These factor-differences produce their effects through the testes. The presence of these genetic factors, we now see, causes the testes of the Sebright to produce a kind of secretory cell that is ordinarily only produced in the female, or possibly to a slight extent in young males (Boring), or in numbers insufficient to suppress the male plumage in the testes of some ordinary cock birds (Reeves). PMID:19871722

  6. Monoclonal Antibody Analysis of Keratin Expression in the Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Maryellen C.; Gibbs, Clarence J.; Rhoades, Dorothy A.; Carleton Gajdusek, D.

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody directed against a 65-kDa brain protein demonstrates an epitope found in keratin from human epidermis. By indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody decorates intracytoplasmic filaments in a subclass of astrocytes and Purkinje cells of adult hamster brain. Double-label immunofluorescence study using antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein and this antibody reveals the 65-kDa protein to be closely associated with glial filaments in astrocytes of fetal mouse brain cultures. Immunoblot analysis of purified human epidermal keratin and hamster brain homogenate confirms the reactivity of this antibody to epidermal keratin polypeptides. All the major epidermal keratins were recognized by this antibody. It did not bind to the remaining major intermediate filament proteins. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibody 34C9 recognizes a cytoskeletal structure connected with intermediate filaments. In addition, the monoclonal antibody demonstrates that epidermal keratins share an epitope not only among themselves but also with a ``neural keratin.''

  7. Vocalisations and acoustic parameters of flock noise from feather pecking and non-feather pecking laying flocks.

    PubMed

    Bright, A

    2008-05-01

    1. In this study, the calling rates of vocalisations known to indicate distress and aversive events (Alarm calls, Squawks, Total vocalisations) and acoustic parameters of flock noise were quantified from feather and non-feather pecking laying flocks. 2. One hour of flock noise (background machinery and hen vocalisations) was recorded from 21 commercial free-range laying hen flocks aged > or =35 weeks. Ten of the flocks were classified as feather pecking (based on a plumage condition score) and 11 as non-feather pecking. 3. Recordings were made using a Sony DAT recorder and Audio-Technica omni-directional microphone, placed in the centre of the house-1.5 m from the ground. Avisoft-SASlab Pro was used to create and analyse audio spectrograms. 4. There was no effect of flock size or farm on call/s or acoustic parameters of flock noise. However, strain had an effect on the number of Total vocalisation/s; the Hebden Black flock made more calls than Lohmann flocks. Feather pecking flocks gave more Squawk/s and more Total vocalisation/s than non-feather pecking flocks. Feather pecking did not explain variation in alarm call rate or, intensity (dB) and frequency (Hz) measures of flock noise. 5. The differences between Squawk and Total vocalisation call rates of feather and non-feather pecking flocks are a new finding. An increase or change in flock calling rate may be evident before other conventional measures of laying hen welfare such as a drop in egg production or increase in plumage damage, thus enabling farmers to make management or husbandry changes to prevent an outbreak of feather pecking.

  8. An improved extraction method to increase DNA yield from molted feathers

    Treesearch

    Shelley Bayard De Volo; Richard T. Reynolds; Marlis R. Douglas; Michael F. Antolin

    2008-01-01

    To assess the value of molted feathers as a noninvasive source of DNA for genetic studies of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), we isolated and quantified DNA from molted feathers and compared yields across five feather types. We also compared PCR success across the same five feather types using five microsatellite genetic markers of varying...

  9. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  10. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  11. Immunocytochemical and autoradiographic studies on the process of keratinization in avian epidermis suggests absence of keratohyalin.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2004-02-01

    The process of keratinization in apteric avian epidermis and in scutate scales of some avian species has been studied by autoradiography for histidine and immunohistochemistry for keratins and other epidermal proteins. Acidic or basic alpha-keratins are present in basal, spinosus, and transitional layers, but are not seen in the corneous layer. Keratinization-specific alpha-keratins (AE2-positive) are observed in the corneous layer of apteric epidermis but not in that of scutate scales, which contain mainly beta-keratin. Alpha-keratin bundles accumulate along the plasma membrane of transitional cells of apteric epidermis. In contrast to the situation in scutate scales, in the transitional layer and in the lowermost part of the corneous layer of apteric epidermis, filaggrin-like, loricrin-like, and transglutaminase immunoreactivities are present. The lack of isopeptide bond immunoreactivity suggests that undetectable isopeptide bonds are present in avian keratinocytes. Using immunogold ultrastructural immunocytochemistry a low but localized loricrin-like and, less, filaggrin-like labeling is seen over round-oval granules or vesicles among keratin bundles of upper spinosus and transitional keratinocytes of apteric epidermis. Filaggrin-and loricrin-labeling are absent in alpha-keratin bundles localized along the plasma membrane and in the corneous layer, formerly considered keratohyalin. Using ultrastructural autoradiography for tritiated histidine, occasional trace grains are seen among these alpha-keratin bundles. A different mechanism of redistribution of matrix and corneous cell envelope proteins probably operates in avian keratinocytes as compared to that of mammals. Keratin bundles are compacted around the lipid-core of apteric epidermis keratinocytes, which do not form complex chemico/mechanical-resistant corneous cell envelopes as in mammalian keratinocytes. These observations suggest that low amounts of matrix proteins are present among keratin bundles of

  12. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamics of Feather-Covered Flapping Wing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenqing; Song, Bifeng

    2017-01-01

    Avian flight has an outstanding performance than the manmade flapping wing MAVs. Considering that the feather is light and strong, a new type of the flapping wing was designed and made, whose skeleton is carbon fiber rods and covered by goose feathers as the skin. Its aerodynamics is tested by experiments and can be compared with conventional artificial flapping wings made of carbon fiber rods as the skeleton and polyester membrane as the skin. The results showed that the feathered wing could generate more lift than the membrane wing in the same flapping kinematics because the feathered wing can have slots between feathers in an upstroke process, which can mainly reduce the negative lift. At the same time, the power consumption also decreased significantly, due to the decrease in the fluctuating range of the periodic lift curve, which reduced the offset consumption of lift. At the same time, the thrusts generated by the feather wing and the membrane wing are similar with each other, which increases with the increase of flapping frequency. In general, the aerodynamic performances of the feather wing are superior to that of the membrane wings.

  13. Feathers as a biomonitoring tool of polyhalogenated compounds: a review.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma

    2013-04-02

    Feathers have many advantages that make them an excellent nondestructive tool for monitoring polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs). This paper proposes a review on the PHCs in feathers and factors influencing the pollutant load. Special attention has given to external contamination and the main analytical methods used to detect these compounds in feathers. Some authors have found strong and significant correlations between the concentrations of PHCs in feathers and internal tissues, providing positive expectations for their future use in the field of ecotoxicology. However, changes in diet, time elapsed between the previous molt period and sampling, sample size, and/or external contamination have been suggested as possible causes to explain the lack of correlations reported in some studies. Further studies with newly grown feathers and blood samples would be required in order to clarify this issue. Although atmospheric deposition has been reported as cause of external contamination, preening oil seems to be the most relevant factor contributing to this process. Unfortunately, washing techniques tested to date are not able to effectively remove the surface contamination from barbs and shafts, and therefore, it is necessary to develop methods able to discriminate between internal and external contamination. Finally, in this review, deposition rate is proposed as a measurement unit, as this allows comparisons between different parts of the same feather, as well as between different feathers.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamics of Feather-Covered Flapping Wing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bifeng

    2017-01-01

    Avian flight has an outstanding performance than the manmade flapping wing MAVs. Considering that the feather is light and strong, a new type of the flapping wing was designed and made, whose skeleton is carbon fiber rods and covered by goose feathers as the skin. Its aerodynamics is tested by experiments and can be compared with conventional artificial flapping wings made of carbon fiber rods as the skeleton and polyester membrane as the skin. The results showed that the feathered wing could generate more lift than the membrane wing in the same flapping kinematics because the feathered wing can have slots between feathers in an upstroke process, which can mainly reduce the negative lift. At the same time, the power consumption also decreased significantly, due to the decrease in the fluctuating range of the periodic lift curve, which reduced the offset consumption of lift. At the same time, the thrusts generated by the feather wing and the membrane wing are similar with each other, which increases with the increase of flapping frequency. In general, the aerodynamic performances of the feather wing are superior to that of the membrane wings. PMID:29527117

  15. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  16. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...-FF09M13100] Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... and conservation stamp (Federal Duck Stamp) annually. The stamps are a vital tool for wetland conservation. Ninety-eight cents out of every dollar generated by the sale of Federal Duck Stamps goes directly...

  17. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  18. Methodological considerations for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in feathers

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Sara A.; McGettrick, Julie R.; Hansen, Warren K.; Breuner, Creagh W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have begun to use corticosteroid metabolites in feathers (fCORT) as a metric of stress physiology in birds. However, there remain substantial questions about how to measure fCORT most accurately. Notably, small samples contain artificially high amounts of fCORT per millimetre of feather (the small sample artefact). Furthermore, it appears that fCORT is correlated with circulating plasma corticosterone only when levels are artificially elevated by the use of corticosterone implants. Here, we used several approaches to address current methodological issues with the measurement of fCORT. First, we verified that the small sample artefact exists across species and feather types. Second, we attempted to correct for this effect by increasing the amount of methanol relative to the amount of feather during extraction. We consistently detected more fCORT per millimetre or per milligram of feather in small samples than in large samples even when we adjusted methanol:feather concentrations. We also used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify hormone metabolites present in feathers and measured the reactivity of these metabolites against the most commonly used antibody for measuring fCORT. We verified that our antibody is mainly identifying corticosterone (CORT) in feathers, but other metabolites have significant cross-reactivity. Lastly, we measured faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in house sparrows and correlated these measurements with corticosteroid metabolites deposited in concurrently grown feathers; we found no correlation between faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and fCORT. We suggest that researchers should be cautious in their interpretation of fCORT in wild birds and should seek alternative validation methods to examine species-specific relationships between environmental challenges and fCORT. PMID:27335650

  19. Prevalence of duck circovirus infection of subclinical pekin ducks in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Song, Eu-Tteum; Kang, Min; Wei, Bai; Seo, Hye-Suk; Roh, Jae-Hee; Yoon, Ran-Hee; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-04-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence and infection pattern of duck circovirus (DuCV) in subclinical Pekin ducks on South Korean duck farms. A total of 147 samples collected from 92 duck farms in five provinces were examined from 2011 to 2012. The overall prevalence of DuCV PCR-positive pooled bursa of Fabricius and liver samples was 21.8% (32/147). The prevalence of DuCV PCR-positive samples increased significantly in 3-week-old ducks compared with that in 1-week-old ducks (P<0.05). DuCV in association with Riemerella and Salmonella infections (10.9%; 16/147) occurred at the same level as infection with DuCV alone (10.9%; 16/147). In comparison of the relationship between bacterial diseases (salmonellosis, Riemerella infection) and morbidity in farms with and without DuCV, morbidity was higher in circovirus-positive farms (50%; 16/32) than in circovirus-negative farms (26.1%; 30/115). Our findings provide baseline information on the degree of DuCV infection and distribution and pattern of DuCV in ducks, and it is evident that DuCV can be associated with subclinical diseases and that subclinical infection could be economically important.

  20. Occurrence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks and duck eggs in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Faiza, S; Saleha, A A; Jalila, A; Fauziah, N

    2013-03-01

    The importance of Campylobacter and Salmonella as foodborne pathogens is well recognised globally. A recent work in Penang found ducks in commercial farms were infected with these organisms. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks and Salmonella in duck eggs in farms in a small part of Selangor. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 75 ducks and 30 duck eggs from three farms. The isolation and identification of Campylobacter and Salmonella were done using conventional methods. Twelve percent of Campylobacter and 16.0% of Salmonella were isolated from the ducks sampled. Salmonella was absent on and in eggs. Campylobacter isolates consisted of 22% Campylobacter jejuni and the remaining was Campylobacter coli. Three Salmonella serovars identified were Salmonella Agona, S. Braenderup and S. Corvallis. The presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks may cause contamination of the meat during processing and handling which can constitute public health hazard. Moreover, the farm workers may be exposed to the organisms through contact with the infected animals.

  1. Mechanochromic response of the barbules in peacock tail feather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yonggang; Wang, Rui; Feng, Lin; Zhang, Deyuan

    2018-01-01

    Peacock tail feathers exhibit diverse striking brilliancy, as the cortex in different colored barbules of the feathers contains a 2-D photonic-crystal structure. The mechanochromic response of the 2-D photonic structure in peacock feather barbules is measured for the first time, by combining an in-situ stretching device and a reflectivity measurement system. The reflectance spectra of the barbule specimen blueshifts own to stretching along its longitudinal direction. A high strain sensitivity of 5.3 nm/% is obtained for green barbules. It could be of great help in bionic design of strain sensors using 2D photonic crystal structures.

  2. Keratinase Production by Three Bacillus spp. Using Feather Meal and Whole Feather as Substrate in a Submerged Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Mazotto, Ana Maria; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; de Lima, Marcos Fábio; Couri, Sonia; Paraguai de Souza, Edilma; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Three Bacillus species (B. subtilis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1270, B. subtilis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1273, and B. licheniformis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1274), isolated from the poultry industry, were evaluated for keratinase production using feathers or feather meal as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources in a submerged fermentation. The three Bacillus spp. produced extracellular keratinases and peptidases after 7 days. Feather meal was the best substrate for keratinase and peptidase production in B. subtilis 1273, with 412 U/mL and 463 U/ml. The three strains were able to degrade feather meal (62–75%) and feather (40–95%) producing 3.9–4.4 mg/ml of soluble protein in feather meal medium and 1.9–3.3 mg/ml when feather medium was used. The three strains produced serine peptidases with keratinase and gelatinase activity. B. subtilis 1273 was the strain which exhibited the highest enzymatic activity. PMID:21822479

  3. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  4. Intermediate filament structure in fully differentiated (oxidised) trichocyte keratin.

    PubMed

    Fraser, R D Bruce; Parry, David A D

    2017-10-01

    For the past 50years there has been considerable debate over the sub-structure of the fully differentiated (oxidised) trichocyte keratin intermediate filament. Depending on the staining and preparative procedures employed, IF observed in transverse section in the transmission electron microscope have varied in appearance between that of a "ring" and a "ring-core" structure, corresponding to the so-called (8+0) and (7+1) protofilament arrangements. In a new analysis of the fine structure of the 1nm equatorial region of the X-ray diffraction pattern of quill we show that the observed pattern is consistent with the (8+0) model and we are also able to assign values to the various parameters. In contrast, we show that the observed X-ray pattern is inconsistent with a (7+1) arrangement. Furthermore, in the (7+1) model steric hindrance would be encountered between the core protofilament and those constituting the ring. The appearance of a central "core" in transverse TEM sections, previously attributed to a central protofilament, is explained in terms of portions of the apolar, disulfide-bonded head and/or tail domains of the trichocyte keratin IF molecules, including the conserved H subdomains, lying along the axis of the IF, thereby decreasing the efficacy of the reducing agents used prior to staining. The H1 subdomain, previously shown to be important in the assembly of epidermal IF molecules at the two- to four-molecule level, is likely to have a similar role for the trichocyte keratins and may form part of a central scaffold on which the molecules assemble into fully functional IF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Complete genome sequence of duck Tembusu virus, isolated from Muscovy ducks in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Jidang; Wei, Chunya; Wang, Heng; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Minze; Tang, Fengfeng; Xie, Jiexiong; Liang, Huanbin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo

    2012-12-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) WJ-1 strain, isolated from Muscovy ducks. This is the first complete genome sequence of DTMUV reported in southern China. Compared with the other strains (TA, GH-2, YY5, and ZJ-407) that were previously found in eastern China, WJ-1 bears a few differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We found that there are 47 mutations of amino acids encoded by the whole open reading frame (ORF) among these five strains. The whole-genome sequence of DTMUV will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck Tembusu virus in southern China.

  6. Complete genome sequence analysis of a duck circovirus from Guangxi pockmark ducks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Zhao, Guangyuan; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing

    2012-12-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel duck circovirus (DuCV) strain, GX1104, isolated from Guangxi pockmark ducks in Guangxi, China. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology (97.2%) with the sequence of strain TC/2002 (GenBank accession number AY394721.1) and had a low homology (76.8% to 78.6%) with the sequences of other strains isolated from China, Germany, and the United States. This report will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of Guangxi pockmark duck circovirus in southern China.

  7. Fishy Odor and TMA Content Levels in Duck Egg Yolks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingzheng; Yuan, Gongjiao; Chen, Xia; Guo, Yuying; Yang, Ning; Pi, Jinsong; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Jiangxia

    2018-01-01

    The differences between the trimethylamine (TMA) content levels in duck and chicken egg yolks under normal dietary conditions were compared. Moreover, the association between the polymorphisms of the duck FMO3 gene and TMA content levels in duck egg yolks was analyzed. Then, to detect the mutations associated with the fish-flavor trait, duck populations were selected for a high-choline diet experiment, which was followed by full-length sequencing of the FMO3 exons. The results showed that the TMA content levels in duck eggs (3.60 μg/g) were significantly higher than those in chicken eggs (2.35 μg/g) under normal dietary conditions (P < 0.01). With regard to the high-choline diet, the average TMA content levels in duck egg yolks (9.21 μg/g; P < 0.01) increased significantly. Furthermore, 5 SNPs reported in Ensembl database were detected in duck FMO3 exons. However, no mutation loci were found to be significantly associated with the TMA content levels in duck egg yolks. Besides, duck liver FMO3 mRNA expression levels were not associated with the TMA content levels. The results indicated that excessive TMA deposition in duck eggs is one of main factors causing the fishy odor in duck eggs, and the addition of choline in the ducks' diets was responsible for inducing an increase in the TMA content levels in duck eggs. Our study can help to diminish the fishy taste in duck eggs by reducing the amount of supplemented choline. Furthermore, this study laid a solid foundation for revealing the genetic factors involved in the fishy odor in duck eggs. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Migratory ducks and protected wetlands in India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Namgail, Tsewang; Takekawa, John Y.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy; Prosser, Diann J.; McCracken, Tracy; Newman, Scott H.

    2017-01-01

    India is the most important wintering ground for migratory ducks in the Central Asian Flyway. Because of its latitudinal and climatic extent, the country provides a diversity of wetland habitats for migratory ducks (Ali & Ripley 1978). India is the seventh largest country in the world with an area of about 3.3 million km2 or 2.4% of the world’s land-area. Mainland India stretches nearly 3200 km from north to south (6° to 36° N), and 3000 km from west to east (68° to 98° E). Given this huge geographical extent, migratory ducks wintering in the southern part of the country need to refuel at several wetlands before they cross the Himalayas on their way to the breeding areas in Central Asia and Siberia.

  9. Temporal overlap and repeatability of feather corticosterone levels: practical considerations for use as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christopher M; Madliger, Christine L; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers has recently become an appealing tool for the conservation toolbox, potentially providing a non-invasive, integrated measure of stress activity throughout the time of feather growth. However, because the mechanism of CORT deposition, storage and stability in feathers is not fully understood, it is unclear how reliable this measure may be, especially when there is an extended interval between growth and feather collection. We compared CORT levels of naturally grown feathers from tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) that were moulted and regrown concurrently and therefore expected to have similar CORT levels. Specifically, we compared the same feather from the left and right wing (moulted symmetrically) and different types of feathers (wing, back and tail) expected to have been moulted within the same time period. We found that larger, heavier feathers held more CORT per unit length. In addition, we found a lack of concordance in CORT levels both within the same feather type and between different feather types, even after taking into account differences in feather density. Our results indicate that naturally grown feathers may not consistently provide an indication of stress status. Additionally, conflict in results may arise depending on the feather assayed, and total feather volume may be an important consideration when interpreting feather CORT levels. Future work is necessary to determine explicitly the mechanisms of CORT deposition, the effects of environmental exposure and feather wear on the permanence of the feather CORT signal, and the influence of responses to wild stressors on feather CORT levels, before feather CORT can be implemented effectively as a tool for ecological and conservation applications.

  10. Theory of the development of curved barbs and their effects on feather morphology.

    PubMed

    Feo, Teresa J; Simon, Emma; Prum, Richard O

    2016-08-01

    Feathers exhibit an extraordinary diversity of shapes, which are used by birds to accomplish a diverse set of functions. Pennaceous feathers have a double branched morphology that develops from a tube of epidermis, and variation in branch geometry determines feather shape. Feather development is both complex (i.e., a simple developmental modification can have multiple effects on mature feather shape), and redundant (i.e., different developmental modifications can create the same shape). Due to this, it is not readily apparent how different feather shapes develop. In many feathers, barbs are not straight, but instead curve in toward, or away, from the feather tip. Barb curvature can affect the shape of mature feathers but the development of curved barbs is unknown. Previous research has hypothesized that barb curvature could develop either during the helical growth of barb ridges in the tubular feather germ, or during barb angle expansion as the feather unfurls from the sheath. To better understand the development of curved barbs and their effects on mature feathers we present a theoretical model of curved barb development and test the model with empirical investigations of feathers. We find that curved barbs affect many aspects of feather morphology including vane width, barb length, and barb spacing. In real feathers, curved barbs can develop both during helical barb ridge growth and during barb angle expansion, with most of the observed curvature due to barb angle expansion. Our results demonstrate that barb angle expansion as a feather unfurls from the sheath is a complex and dynamic process that plays an important role in determining the shape and structure of mature feathers. Curved barbs create heterogeneity in barb geometry within the feather vane, which could have important implications for aerodynamic function and the development of within feather pigmentation patterns. J. Morphol. 277:995-1013, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley

  11. Temporal overlap and repeatability of feather corticosterone levels: practical considerations for use as a biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christopher M.; Madliger, Christine L.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers has recently become an appealing tool for the conservation toolbox, potentially providing a non-invasive, integrated measure of stress activity throughout the time of feather growth. However, because the mechanism of CORT deposition, storage and stability in feathers is not fully understood, it is unclear how reliable this measure may be, especially when there is an extended interval between growth and feather collection. We compared CORT levels of naturally grown feathers from tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) that were moulted and regrown concurrently and therefore expected to have similar CORT levels. Specifically, we compared the same feather from the left and right wing (moulted symmetrically) and different types of feathers (wing, back and tail) expected to have been moulted within the same time period. We found that larger, heavier feathers held more CORT per unit length. In addition, we found a lack of concordance in CORT levels both within the same feather type and between different feather types, even after taking into account differences in feather density. Our results indicate that naturally grown feathers may not consistently provide an indication of stress status. Additionally, conflict in results may arise depending on the feather assayed, and total feather volume may be an important consideration when interpreting feather CORT levels. Future work is necessary to determine explicitly the mechanisms of CORT deposition, the effects of environmental exposure and feather wear on the permanence of the feather CORT signal, and the influence of responses to wild stressors on feather CORT levels, before feather CORT can be implemented effectively as a tool for ecological and conservation applications. PMID:27933163

  12. Study of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 in Commercial Pekin Ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California.

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone; Crossley, Beate; Shivaprasad, H L

    2018-03-01

    A February 2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in a flock of commercial Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California was investigated in detail. Approximately 17,349 five-wk-old ducks experienced an increased mortality from a normal of eight birds per day to 24, 18, 24, 33, and 61 birds per day, respectively, in the last 5 days prior to flock depopulation. Clinically, there was decreased water and feed consumption, and approximately 1.0% of the affected flock exhibited neurologic signs. Necropsy of five clinically ill ducks revealed pale, patchy areas on the epicardium in two birds, pale foci of necrosis in the liver of one bird, and airsacculitis in three birds. Histopathology revealed multifocal nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, myositis, pancreatitis, hepatitis, and glossitis. Immunohistochemistry revealed avian influenza virus (AIV) nucleoprotein in the nucleus and cytoplasm of various cells in the aforementioned organs, as well as in the skin and feathers. Eight of the 10 sera samples tested were positive for avian influenza antibodies by agar gel immunodiffusion serology. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs taken from 15 birds, as well as from the lungs, livers, pancreas, and spleen, were positive for AIV by real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR. AIV was isolated and typed as Eurasian lineage HPAI H5N8, clade 2.3.4.4, by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames, IA. Extensive surveillance of birds for AIV around the 10-km zone did not reveal any additional cases. Ducks on the affected premises were humanely euthanatized by foam and composted in-house, the houses were heated to 57 C for 4 days, and swabs were taken periodically from the compost to ensure negativity for AIV by rRT-PCR. The compost and litter were then removed, and the house was pressure cleaned, disinfected, and repopulated approximately 120 days after euthanatization of the ducks.

  13. Benefits, costs, and determinants of dominance in American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Behavioural dominance was studied in captive American black ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-December 1984. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and groups of 10 ducks consisting of 5 adults (3 males and 2 females) and 5 juveniles (3 males and 2 females) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet, and ducks in the other 4 pens were given a restricted diet. Dominance structure within pens was linear. Adults were dominant to young, and body mass had no influence on dominance rank. The effect of sex on dominance rank was age-specific. Adult males were dominant to adult females and to young black ducks of both sexes; however, dominance rank of young males did not differ from adult or young females. Paired adults were dominant to unpaired adults and to young individuals that were either paired or unpaired. Paired young black ducks were similar in dominance rank to unpaired adults and unpaired young indicating that pairing did not make these individuals more dominant. Ducks on the restricted diet gained less body mass than ducks on the ad libitum diet, but dominant and subordinate black ducks within treatment groups experienced similar changes in body mass during the early winter. Dominant black ducks interacted more frequently and were more likely to form pair bonds than subordinates, thus higher energy costs of dominant individuals may explain the poor relationship between physical condition and dominance rank. There was a significant positive association between the dominance ranks of pair members.

  14. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    PubMed

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  15. Chemical regulation of body feather microbiota in a wild bird.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Staffan; Sallé, Louis; Zinger, Lucie; Chaine, Alexis S; Ducamp, Christine; Boutault, Léa; Russell, Andrew F; Heeb, Philipp

    2018-04-01

    The microbiota has a broad range of impacts on host physiology and behaviour, pointing out the need to improve our comprehension of the drivers of host-microbiota composition. Of particular interest is whether the microbiota is acquired passively, or whether and to what extent hosts themselves shape the acquisition and maintenance of their microbiota. In birds, the uropygial gland produces oily secretions used to coat feathers that have been suggested to act as an antimicrobial defence mechanism regulating body feather microbiota. However, our comprehension of this process is still limited. In this study, we for the first time coupled high-throughput sequencing of the microbiota of both body feathers and the direct environment (i.e., the nest) in great tits with chemical analyses of the composition of uropygial gland secretions to examine whether host chemicals have either specific effects on some bacteria or nonspecific broad-spectrum effects on the body feather microbiota. Using a network approach investigating the patterns of co-occurrence or co-exclusions between chemicals and bacteria within the body feather microbiota, we found no evidence for specific promicrobial or antimicrobial effects of uropygial gland chemicals. However, we found that one group of chemicals was negatively correlated to bacterial richness on body feathers, and a higher production of these chemicals was associated with a poorer body feather bacterial richness compared to the nest microbiota. Our study provides evidence that chemicals produced by the host might function as a nonspecific broad-spectrum antimicrobial defence mechanism limiting colonization and/or maintenance of bacteria on body feathers, providing new insight about the drivers of the host's microbiota composition in wild organisms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The sequential tissue distribution of duck Tembusu virus in adult ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Ding, Leilei; Lin, Yuan; Li, Qimeng; He, Xijun; Chen, Qiusheng; Chen, Hualan

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a novel Tembusu virus (TMUV) that caused a severe decrease in the egg production of ducks was isolated in southeast China. Given the novelty of this duck pathogen, little information is available regarding its pathogenesis. Here, we systematically investigated the replication kinetics of TMUV PTD2010 in adult male and female ducks. We found that PTD2010 was detectable in most of the parenchymatous organs as well as the oviduct and intestinal tract from days 1 to 7 after inoculation. Viral titers were maintained at high levels for at least 9 days in the spleen, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, brain, and ovary. No virus was detected in any of these organs or tissues at 18 days after inoculation. PTD2010, thus, causes systemic infections in male and female ducks; its replication kinetics show similar patterns in most organs, with the exception of the ovaries and testes.

  17. Cultivation of human dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes on keratin-coated silica bead substrates.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bee Yi; Nguyen, Luong T H; Kim, Hyo-Sop; Kim, Jae-Ho; Ng, Kee Woei

    2017-10-01

    Human hair keratin is promising as a bioactive material platform for various biomedical applications. To explore its versatility further, human hair keratin was coated onto monolayers of silica beads to produce film-like substrates. This combination was hypothesized to provide a synergistic effect in improving the biochemical properties of the resultant composite. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed uniform coatings of keratin on the silica beads with a slight increase in the resulting surface roughness. Keratin-coated silica beads had higher surface energy and relatively lower negative charge than those of bare silica beads. To investigate cell response, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) were cultured on the substrates over 4 days. Results showed that keratin coatings significantly enhanced the metabolic activity of HDFs and encouraged cell spreading but did not exert any significant effects on HEKs. HDF expression of collagen I was significantly more intense on the keratin-coated compared to the bare silica substrates. Furthermore, HDF secretion of various cytokines suggested that keratin coatings triggered active cell responses related to wound healing. Collectively, our study demonstrated that human hair keratin-coated silica bead monolayers have the potential to modulate HDF behavior in culture and may be exploited further. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2789-2798, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Fossil evidence for evolution of the shape and color of penguin feathers.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia A; Ksepka, Daniel T; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Altamirano, Ali J; Shawkey, Matthew D; D'Alba, Liliana; Vinther, Jakob; DeVries, Thomas J; Baby, Patrice

    2010-11-12

    Penguin feathers are highly modified in form and function, but there have been no fossils to inform their evolution. A giant penguin with feathers was recovered from the late Eocene (~36 million years ago) of Peru. The fossil reveals that key feathering features, including undifferentiated primary wing feathers and broad body contour feather shafts, evolved early in the penguin lineage. Analyses of fossilized color-imparting melanosomes reveal that their dimensions were similar to those of non-penguin avian taxa and that the feathering may have been predominantly gray and reddish-brown. In contrast, the dark black-brown color of extant penguin feathers is generated by large, ellipsoidal melanosomes previously unknown for birds. The nanostructure of penguin feathers was thus modified after earlier macrostructural modifications of feather shape linked to aquatic flight.

  19. Feathering instability of spiral arms. II. Parameter study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wing-Kit, E-mail: wklee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw; Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan

    2014-09-10

    We report the results of a parameter study of the feathering stability in the galactic spiral arms. A two-dimensional, razor-thin magnetized self-gravitating gas disk with an imposed two-armed stellar spiral structure is considered. Using the formulation developed previously by Lee and Shu, a linear stability analysis of the spiral shock is performed in a localized Cartesian geometry. Results of the parameter study of the base state with a spiral shock are also presented. The single-mode feathering instability that leads to growing perturbations may explain the feathering phenomenon found in nearby spiral galaxies. The self-gravity of the gas, characterized by itsmore » average surface density, is an important parameter that (1) shifts the spiral shock farther downstream and (2) increases the growth rate and decreases the characteristic spacing of the feathering structure due to the instability. On the other hand, while the magnetic field suppresses the velocity fluctuation associated with the feathers, it does not strongly affect their growth rate. Using a set of typical parameters of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 2 kpc from the center, the spacing of the feathers with the maximum growth rate is found to be 530 pc, which agrees with the previous observational studies.« less

  20. Study of temporal trends in mercury concentrations in the primary flight feathers of Strix aluco.

    PubMed

    Varela, Z; García-Seoane, R; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-08-01

    Temporal trends in Hg concentrations were determined in the primary flight feathers of 146 specimens of Strix aluco which had died in various Wildlife Recovery Centres in Galicia (NW Spain) between 1997 and 2014. The aim of the study was to determine whether standardization of a primary flight feather (or feathers) in this species is essential for identifying temporal trends in Hg concentrations. For this purpose, we had to first standardize the feather(s) analyzed to enable comparison of the levels of Hg detected in different feathers. The results show a high degree of both inter and intra-individual variability but despite that, it was possible to identify P5 as the most representative feather taking into account the amount of metal excreted in each feather and the intra-individual variability: its median was 133ng, which represents 15% (from 7% to 15%) of the total Hg present in all the primary feathers. However, this "standard feather" did not reveal any temporal trend in Hg concentrations for the study period. This lack of trend was found irrespective of the feather considered and it is expected that detection of any existing trend would also not depend on the feather considered. We conclude that use of any particular feather is not essential for identifying temporal trends in Hg concentrations, because the pattern will be identified regardless of the feather selected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam

    2015-09-01

    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  2. Click chemistry modification of natural keratin fibers for sustained shrink-resist performance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Cai, Jackie Y; Church, Jeffrey S; Wang, Lijing

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel chemical treatment for achieving sustained shrink-resist performance on natural keratin fibers. The new treatment involves the controlled reduction of keratin in the cuticle region of the fiber, and the application of a water soluble diacrylate, namely glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate (GDA), on the reduced keratin substrate. The acrylate groups of the GDA react with cysteine residues in the reduced keratin through thiol-ene click reactions at room temperature, leading to GDA grafting and the formation of GDA crosslinks in the keratin structure. The modified substrates were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and assessed for its shrink-resistance and wet burst strength. This chemical modification has shown to alter the fiber surface morphology and hydrophilicity, resulting in substantially improved shrink-resistance with good fiber strength retention. Possible shrink-resistance mechanisms were also discussed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Victoria Crater from Duck Bay Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-28

    NASA Mars rover Opportunity edged closer to the top of the Duck Bay alcove along the rim of Victoria Crater overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28, and gained this vista of the crater. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  4. Evaluation and experimentation with duck management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Johnson, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    Our knowledge of the effects of hunting regulations on duck populations has been based largely on retrospective studies of historical data. We have reached the limits of what can be learned in this way. Future knowledge gains will likely come about only through experimentation and adaptive management.

  5. Investigating the microstructure of keratin extracted from wool: peptide sequence (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and protein conformation (FTIR)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keratin was extracted from wool by reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. It was isolated as intact keratin and characterized by its similar molecular weight, protein composition, and secondary structure to native keratin. Gel electrophoresis patterns and MALDI-TOF/TOF peptide sequences provided the ide...

  6. Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Chhatre, Shreerang S; Guardado, Jesus O; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Parker, Andrew R; Rubner, Michael F; McKinley, Gareth H; Cohen, Robert E

    2014-07-06

    Birds in the cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae) family dive tens of metres into water to prey on fish while entraining a thin layer of air (a plastron film) within the microstructures of their feathers. In addition, many species within the family spread their wings for long periods of time upon emerging from water. To investigate whether wetting and wing-spreading are related to feather structure, microscopy and photographic studies have previously been used to extract structural parameters for barbs and barbules. In this work, we describe a systematic methodology to characterize the quasi-hierarchical topography of bird feathers that is based on contact angle measurements using a set of polar and non-polar probing liquids. Contact angle measurements on dip-coated feathers of six aquatic bird species (including three from the Phalacrocoracidae family) are used to extract two distinguishing structural parameters, a dimensionless spacing ratio of the barbule (D*) and a characteristic length scale corresponding to the spacing of defect sites. The dimensionless spacing parameter can be used in conjunction with a model for the surface topography to enable us to predict a priori the apparent contact angles of water droplets on feathers as well as the water breakthrough pressure required for the disruption of the plastron on the feather barbules. The predicted values of breakthrough depths in water (1-4 m) are towards the lower end of typical diving depths for the aquatic bird species examined here, and therefore a representative feather is expected to be fully wetted in a typical deep dive. However, thermodynamic surface energy analysis based on a simple one-dimensional cylindrical model of the feathers using parameters extracted from the goniometric analysis reveals that for water droplets on feathers of all six species under consideration, the non-wetting 'Cassie-Baxter' composite state represents the global energy minimum of the system. By contrast, for other wetting

  7. Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Chhatre, Shreerang S.; Guardado, Jesus O.; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Parker, Andrew R.; Rubner, Michael F.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Birds in the cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae) family dive tens of metres into water to prey on fish while entraining a thin layer of air (a plastron film) within the microstructures of their feathers. In addition, many species within the family spread their wings for long periods of time upon emerging from water. To investigate whether wetting and wing-spreading are related to feather structure, microscopy and photographic studies have previously been used to extract structural parameters for barbs and barbules. In this work, we describe a systematic methodology to characterize the quasi-hierarchical topography of bird feathers that is based on contact angle measurements using a set of polar and non-polar probing liquids. Contact angle measurements on dip-coated feathers of six aquatic bird species (including three from the Phalacrocoracidae family) are used to extract two distinguishing structural parameters, a dimensionless spacing ratio of the barbule (D*) and a characteristic length scale corresponding to the spacing of defect sites. The dimensionless spacing parameter can be used in conjunction with a model for the surface topography to enable us to predict a priori the apparent contact angles of water droplets on feathers as well as the water breakthrough pressure required for the disruption of the plastron on the feather barbules. The predicted values of breakthrough depths in water (1–4 m) are towards the lower end of typical diving depths for the aquatic bird species examined here, and therefore a representative feather is expected to be fully wetted in a typical deep dive. However, thermodynamic surface energy analysis based on a simple one-dimensional cylindrical model of the feathers using parameters extracted from the goniometric analysis reveals that for water droplets on feathers of all six species under consideration, the non-wetting ‘Cassie–Baxter’ composite state represents the global energy minimum of the system. By contrast, for other

  8. Humid microclimates within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) can potentially facilitate long distance dispersal of propagules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan, Neil E.; Kelly, Tom C.; Davenport, John; Jansen, Marcel A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Birds as carriers of propagules are major agents in the dispersal of plants, animals, fungi and microbes. However, there is a lack of empirical data in relation to bird-mediated, epizoochorous dispersal. The microclimate found within the plumage likely plays a pivotal role in survival during flight conditions. To investigate the potential of epizoochory, we have analysed the microclimatic conditions within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Under similar ambient conditions of humidity and temperature, a sample of mallards showed a consistent microclimatic regime with variation across the body surface. The highest (mean) temperature and specific humidity occurred between feathers of the postpatagium. The lowest humidity was found between feathers of the centre back and the lowest temperature in the crissum. Observed differences in plumage depth and density, and distance from the skin, are all likely to be determining factors of microclimate condition. Specific humidity found within the plumage was on average 1.8-3.5 times greater than ambient specific humidity. Thus, the plumage can supply a microclimate buffered from that of the exterior environment. Extrapolating survival data for Lemna minor desiccation at various temperature and humidity levels to the measured plumage microclimatic conditions of living birds, survival for up to 6 h can be anticipated, especially in crissum, crural and breast plumage. The results are discussed in the context of potential long distance epizoochorous dispersal by A. platyrhynchos and similar species.

  9. Do spotless starlings place feathers at their nests by ultraviolet color?

    PubMed

    Avilés, Jesús M; Parejo, Deseada; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Navarro, Carlos; Soler, Juan J

    2010-02-01

    A considerable number of bird species carry feathers to their nests. Feathers' presence in the nests has traditionally been explained by their insulating properties. Recently, however, it has been suggested that feathers carried to the nests by females of the spotted starling (Sturnus unicolor L.) could have an ornamental function based on their ultraviolet (300-400 nm) and human-visible longer wavelength (400-700 nm) coloration. In our population, 95.7% of feathers found inside next-boxes occupied by nesting starlings were rock dove fly feathers. Of these feathers, 82.7% were naturally positioned with their reverse side oriented toward the entrance hole and 42.4% of all found feathers were situated within the nest-cup. Here we experimentally assess the signaling function of ultraviolet coloration of feathers in nests of spotless starlings by providing nests with a number of pigeon flight feathers that were respectively treated on their obverse, reverse, both, or neither side with a UV blocker. Starlings placed 42.5% of the experimental feathers in the nest-cup irrespective of the UV block treatment. Orientation of feathers toward the entrance hole was not related with their ultraviolet radiation. However, feathers placed within the nest-cup were more likely found with their reverse side oriented toward the entrance hole confirming our correlative findings. These results suggest a minor role of ultraviolet coloration on feather location by spotless starlings.

  10. Virologic and Immunologic Characteristics in Mature Ducks with Acute Duck Hepatitis A Virus 1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Mao, Sai; Wang, Mingshu; Ou, Xumin; Sun, Di; Cheng, Anchun; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Xinxin; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2017-01-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1) infection in mature ducks has previously been proposed as a small-animal model for human hepatitis A. However, basic research on the outcome of DHAV-1 infection in mature ducks is limited. Here, we examined the course of viremia, the characteristics of antibody responses, and the profiles of plasma cytokines in mature ducks infected with DHAV-1. During the course of infection, the viremia was detectable soon after infection and persisted for 196 days, however, the ducks presented as clinically asymptomatic. Specific and timely immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA1 responses were elicited. At the same time, extensive inhibition of viral replication was observed with increasing IgG concentration. With respect to pattern-recognition receptors, TLR-7 was mainly involved in triggering the innate defense against the DHAV-1 infection. In addition, plasma immune analytes were measured and were determined to have bidirectional roles in virus clearance. It was concluded that DHAV-1 spreads quickly in blood. The spontaneous clearance of DHAV-1 during asymptomatic infection in mature ducks depends on the cooperation of timely antibody responses and alert innate immune responses. Moreover, the delayed clearance may be associated with a weak interferon-γ-producing CD8+ T cell response. This study allows us to reveal the mechanism of clearance and persistence of DHAV-1 infection in mature ducks. We anticipate that it will provide a basis for future studies focused on defining the nature mechanisms involved in the clearance and persistence of human hepatitis virus.

  11. Solo and keratin filaments regulate epithelial tubule morphology.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ryosuke; Kato, Kagayaki; Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-04-28

    Epithelial tubules, consisting of the epithelial cell sheet with a central lumen, are the basic structure of many organs. Mechanical forces play an important role in epithelial tubulogenesis; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the mechanical forces during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. Solo (also known as ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that is involved in mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) filaments, and this interaction plays a crucial role in mechanotransduction. In this study, we examined the roles of Solo and K8/K18 filaments in epithelial tubulogenesis using MDCK cells cultured in 3D collagen gels. Knockdown of either Solo or K18 resulted in rounder tubules with increased lumen size, indicating that Solo and K8/K18 filaments play critical roles in forming the elongated morphology of epithelial tubules. Moreover, knockdown of Solo or K18 decreased the level of diphosphorylated myosin light chain (a marker of contractile force) at the luminal and outer surfaces of tubules, suggesting that Solo and K8/K18 filaments are involved in the generation of the myosin II-mediated contractile force during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. In addition, K18 filaments were normally oriented along the long axis of the tubule, but knockdown of Solo perturbed their orientation. These results suggest that Solo plays crucial roles in forming the elongated morphology of epithelial tubules and in regulating myosin II activity and K18 filament organization during epithelial tubule formation.

  12. Novel Picornavirus Associated with Avian Keratin Disorder in Alaskan Birds.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Maxine; Van Hemert, Caroline; Dumbacher, John P; Handel, Colleen M; Tihan, Tarik; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2016-07-26

    Avian keratin disorder (AKD), characterized by debilitating overgrowth of the avian beak, was first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska. Subsequently, similar deformities have appeared in numerous species across continents. Despite the widespread distribution of this emerging pathology, the cause of AKD remains elusive. As a result, it is unknown whether suspected cases of AKD in the afflicted species are causally linked, and the impacts of this pathology at the population and community levels are difficult to evaluate. We applied unbiased, metagenomic next-generation sequencing to search for candidate pathogens in birds affected with AKD. We identified and sequenced the complete coding region of a novel picornavirus, which we are calling poecivirus. Subsequent screening of 19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees and 9 control individuals for the presence of poecivirus revealed that 19/19 (100%) AKD-affected individuals were positive, while only 2/9 (22%) control individuals were infected with poecivirus. Two northwestern crows (Corvus caurinus) and two red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) with AKD-consistent pathology also tested positive for poecivirus. We suggest that poecivirus is a candidate etiological agent of AKD. Avian keratin disorder (AKD) is an increasingly common disease of wild birds. This disease, characterized by beak overgrowth, was first described in the late 1990s and has been spreading rapidly both geographically and in terms of host species affected. AKD decreases host fitness and can be fatal. However, the cause of the disease has remained elusive, and its impact on host populations is poorly understood. We found a novel and divergent picornavirus in 19/19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees that we examined but in only 2/9 control cases. We also found this virus in 4 individuals of 2 other passerine species that exhibited symptoms consistent with AKD. Our data suggest that this novel picornavirus

  13. Different outcomes of infection of chickens and ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, C C; Diao, Y X; Sun, X Y; Hao, D M; Liu, X; Ge, P P

    2014-01-01

    As the major aquatic and terrestrial hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), ducks and chickens play a critical role in the evolution and spread of the H9N2 virus. However, the outcomes of infection of ducks and chickens with the H9N2 virus are not sufficiently documented. In this study, we compared the outcomes of infection of chickens and Peking ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 virus. The results showed that this virus caused more pronounced clinical signs and histological lesions in chickens. As for the virus shedding, chickens shed more virus in the trachea and less virus in the cloaca in levels of interferon (IFN) γ were found in the trachea of ducks compared with chickens, while comparison with ducks. As for cytokines, namely IFNs and interleukins (IL), higher higher levels of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 were observed in the ileum of chickens compared with ducks. Eventually, serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were higher in chickens than in ducks. Taken together, ducks and chickens use different strategies in response to the H9N2 virus infection in tissues representing main replication sites of low-pathogenic AIVs. Given the different outcomes of the H9N2 virus infection in ducks and chickens, different measures should be taken in vaccination and treatment.

  14. Flight feather attachment in rock pigeons (Columba livia): covert feathers and smooth muscle coordinate a morphing wing.

    PubMed

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms for passively coordinating forelimb movements and flight feather abduction and adduction have been described separately from both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Skeletal coordination has been identified as a way for birds to simplify the neuromotor task of controlling flight stroke, but an understanding of the relationship between skeletal coordination and the coordination of the aerodynamic control surface (the flight feathers) has been slow to materialize. This break between the biomechanical and aerodynamic approaches - between skeletal kinematics and airfoil shape - has hindered the study of dynamic flight behaviors. Here I use dissection and histology to identify previously overlooked interconnections between musculoskeletal elements and flight feathers. Many of these structures are well-placed to directly link elements of the passive musculoskeletal coordination system with flight feather movements. Small bundles of smooth muscle form prominent connections between upper forearm coverts (deck feathers) and the ulna, as well as the majority of interconnections between major flight feathers of the hand. Abundant smooth muscle may play a role in efficient maintenance of folded wing posture, and may also provide an autonomically regulated means of tuning wing shape and aeroelastic behavior in flight. The pattern of muscular and ligamentous linkages of flight feathers to underlying muscle and bone may provide predictable passive guidance for the shape of the airfoil during flight stroke. The structures described here provide an anatomical touchstone for in vivo experimental tests of wing surface coordination in an extensively researched avian model species. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  15. Domestic Ducks and H5N1 Influenza Epidemic, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Songserm, Thaweesak; Jam-on, Rungroj; Sae-Heng, Numdee; Meemak, Noppadol; Hulse-Post, Diane J.; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine M.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to causing 12 human deaths and 17 cases of human infection, the 2004 outbreak of H5N1 influenza virus in Thailand resulted in the death or slaughter of 60 million domestic fowl and the disruption of poultry production and trade. After domestic ducks were recognized as silent carriers of H5N1 influenza virus, government teams went into every village to cull flocks in which virus was detected; these team efforts markedly reduced H5N1 infection. Here we examine the pathobiology and epidemiology of H5N1 influenza virus in the 4 systems of duck raising used in Thailand in 2004. No influenza viruses were detected in ducks raised in "closed" houses with high biosecurity. However, H5N1 influenza virus was prevalent among ducks raised in "open" houses, free-ranging (grazing) ducks, and backyard ducks. PMID:16704804

  16. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Nascimbene, Paul C; Dove, Carla J; Grimaldi, David A; James, Helen F

    2014-06-09

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  17. k0-INAA for determining chemical elements in bird feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, Elvis J.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Antunes, Alexsander Z.; Bardini Junior, Claudiney; Bacchi, Márcio A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P. O.

    2010-10-01

    The k0-method instrumental neutron activation analysis ( k0-INAA) was employed for determining chemical elements in bird feathers. A collection was obtained taking into account several bird species from wet ecosystems in diverse regions of Brazil. For comparison reason, feathers were actively sampled in a riparian forest from the Marins Stream, Piracicaba, São Paulo State, using mist nets specific for capturing birds. Biological certified reference materials were used for assessing the quality of analytical procedure. Quantification of chemical elements was performed using the k0-INAA Quantu Software. Sixteen chemical elements, including macro and micronutrients, and trace elements, have been quantified in feathers, in which analytical uncertainties varied from 2% to 40% depending on the chemical element mass fraction. Results indicated high mass fractions of Br (max=7.9 mg kg -1), Co (max=0.47 mg kg -1), Cr (max=68 mg kg -1), Hg (max=2.79 mg kg -1), Sb (max=0.20 mg kg -1), Se (max=1.3 mg kg -1) and Zn (max=192 mg kg -1) in bird feathers, probably associated with the degree of pollution of the areas evaluated. In order to corroborate the use of k0-INAA results in biomonitoring studies using avian community, different factor analysis methods were used to check chemical element source apportionment and locality clustering based on feather chemical composition.

  18. A feather precipitation hydrogen isoscape for New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. M.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Soto, D. X.; Bartle, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Forensic isotopic assays of feathers from historical Maori cloaks are a potential tool to link historical artefacts back to their native locales (Iwi) in New Zealand. In order to test this approach, we sampled feathers from extant museum archived birds of known origin for their feather hydrogen isotopes (δyHf) to assign their regional origin and location over time. We obtained feathers from two non-migratory bird species widely distributed around New Zealand, tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and quail (Callipepla californica). Feathers were sampled from archived birds collected between 1880-2002 held in 3 New Zealand museum collections. We determined regression coefficients of δ2H on location, latitude, δ2Hprecipitation, and age. The data showed that ground dwelling quail had higher regression coefficients with respect to latitude (r2=0.46) than the nectar feeding tui (r2=0.39). On the whole, both resident birds showed promise as regional geographical indicators of their habitat (r2=0.58). Year of collection had no meaningful effect on isotopic composition. We conclude that isotopic assays may therefore be used to aid in regional assignments relevant to the interpretation of historical artefacts.

  19. Observations on the Growth of Roughness Elements Into Icing Feathers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen, Ching

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experiment conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center to understand the process by which icing feathers are formed in the initial stages of ice accretion formation on swept wings. Close-up photographic data were taken on an aluminum NACA 0012 swept wing tip airfoil. Two types of photographic data were obtained: time sequence close-up photographic data during the run and close-up photographic data of the ice accretion at the end of each run. Icing runs were conducted for short ice accretion times from 10 to 180 sec. The time sequence close-up photographic data was used to study the process frame by frame and to create movies of how the process developed. The movies confirmed that at glaze icing conditions in the attachment line area icing feathers develop from roughness elements. The close-up photographic data at the end of each run showed that roughness elements change into a pointed shape with an upstream facet and join on the side with other elements having the same change to form ridges with pointed shape and upstream facet. The ridges develop into feathers when the upstream facet grows away to form the stem of the feather. The ridges and their growth into feathers were observed to form the initial scallop tips present in complete scallops.

  20. Hormonal treatment and flight feather molt in immature Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Molt, the production of a new generation of feathers, is a poorly understood physiological phenomenon in nondomestic birds. Often in large birds like geese, flight is restricted by clipping the primary remiges on 1 wing and flight is restored after the molt when the primaries are replaced. A similar technique would be desirable for use with cranes conditioned for release to the native habitat. However, immature sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) did not appear to replace their primaries annually; therefore, we studied their flight feather molt (from 4 months to 3.5 years of age) and attempted to influence molting. Under natural conditions tail feathers (rectrices) were replaced annually and all secondaries replaced in 2.5-year-old birds. However, replacement of primaries in immature sandhill cranes appears to be a gradual process beginning the 2nd year; about 33% of the original primaries (present at 10 months of age) persisted in the 3.5-year-oId birds. Pulling out the primaries of immature sandhill cranes induces the growth of new primaries, as is true of many other birds. However, the new primaries were incapable of supporting flight, fell out repeatedly, and those that remained were often deformed. Pulling the primaries, under the influence of tranquilizers and anesthetics to relax the feather papillae, also did not induce normal growth of the replacement primaries. Progesterone (including excessively high doses), thyroxine, and follicle stimulating hormone, although effective in inducing feather replacement in domestic poultry, had no effect on crane molt.

  1. Dynamics of mercury in blood and feathers of great skuas

    SciTech Connect

    Bearhop, S.; Ruxton, G.D.; Furness, R.W.

    2000-06-01

    Mercury dynamics in the blood and feathers of captive great skuas, Catharacta skua, were monitored over 56 weeks. Prior to the onset of molt, mercury intake was solely from their maintenance ration of sprats, Sprattus sprattus. For the first half of molt, in addition to mercury intake from sprats, birds were fed different doses of methylmercuric chloride weekly for 20 weeks. During the second half of molt, dosing was stopped and mercury intake was solely from sprats. Blood was sampled throughout the study and feather growth was monitored. Prior to the onset of molt, mercury concentrations increased over the firstmore » 51 to 71 d and appeared to level off after this period. Repeated dosing models based on mammalian pharmacokinetics were, in general, too simplistic to be applicable to the birds in the study. During molt, the elimination of mercury from the blood is probably best described by a three-compartment model. Mercury concentrations in feathers were significantly correlated with those in blood at the time of their growth, suggesting that blood and feathers reflect mercury intake over the same time period. Individuals varied in their ability to excrete ingested mercury into the feathers.« less

  2. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Keratins Regulate p38MAPK-Dependent Desmoglein Binding Properties in Pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Walter, Elias; Fuchs, Michael; Radeva, Mariya Y.; Buechau, Fanny; Magin, Thomas M.; Spindler, Volker; Waschke, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Keratins are crucial for the anchorage of desmosomes. Severe alterations of keratin organization and detachment of filaments from the desmosomal plaque occur in the autoimmune dermatoses pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus (PF), which are mainly caused by autoantibodies against desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 3. Keratin alterations are a structural hallmark in pemphigus pathogenesis and correlate with loss of intercellular adhesion. However, the significance for autoantibody-induced loss of intercellular adhesion is largely unknown. In wild-type (wt) murine keratinocytes, pemphigus autoantibodies induced keratin filament retraction. Under the same conditions, we used murine keratinocytes lacking all keratin filaments (KtyII k.o.) as a model system to dissect the role of keratins in pemphigus. KtyII k.o. cells show compromised intercellular adhesion without antibody (Ab) treatment, which was not impaired further by pathogenic pemphigus autoantibodies. Nevertheless, direct activation of p38MAPK via anisomycin further decreased intercellular adhesion indicating that cell cohesion was not completely abrogated in the absence of keratins. Direct inhibition of Dsg3, but not of Dsg1, interaction via pathogenic autoantibodies as revealed by atomic force microscopy was detectable in both cell lines demonstrating that keratins are not required for this phenomenon. However, PF-IgG shifted Dsg1-binding events from cell borders toward the free cell surface in wt cells. This led to a distribution pattern of Dsg1-binding events similar to KtyII k.o. cells under resting conditions. In keratin-deficient keratinocytes, PF-IgG impaired Dsg1-binding strength, which was not different from wt cells under resting conditions. In addition, pathogenic autoantibodies were capable of activating p38MAPK in both KtyII wt and k.o. cells, the latter of which already displayed robust p38MAPK activation under resting conditions. Since inhibition of p38MAPK blocked autoantibody-induced loss of

  4. Heterogeneity of keratin expression and actin distribution in benign and malignant mammary diseases.

    PubMed

    Wada, T; Yasutomi, M; Yamada, K; Hashimura, K; Kunikata, M; Tanaka, T; Huang, J W; Mori, M

    1991-01-01

    Immunoreactivity of monoclonal anti-cytokeratin KL1, PKK1, K8.12 and anti-actin antibodies in 101 cases of diseased human breast lesions showed irregular keratin distribution in luminal cells of terminal ductal-lobular unit and basal layer cells of the interlobular and main duct. Actin staining was confined to myoepithelial cells. Benign lesions showed great heterogeneity in luminal cells of the terminal ductal-lobular units. Breast carcinoma showed a reduced staining for keratins, heterogeneity of keratin expression was found in solid tubular carcinoma, and actin was usually absent: however, papillo-ductal or comedo type had actin positive myoepithelial cells around carcinoma foci.

  5. Drug-induced keratin 9 interaction with Hsp70 in bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Andolino, C; Hess, C; Prince, T; Williams, H; Chernin, M

    2018-05-25

    A pull-down experiment (co-immunoprecipitation) was performed on a T24 human bladder cancer cell lysate treated with the Hsp inhibitor VER155008 using an Hsp70 antibody attached to Dynabeads. Keratin 9, a cytoskeleton intermediate filament protein, was identified by LC MS/MS analysis. This novel finding was confirmed by Western blotting, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry. Other members of the keratin family of proteins have been shown to be involved in cancer progression, most recently identified to be associated with cell invasion and metastasis. The specific role of keratin 9 expression in these cells is yet to be determined.

  6. Cytoskeleton in motion: the dynamics of keratin intermediate filaments in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Windoffer, Reinhard; Beil, Michael; Magin, Thomas M; Leube, Rudolf E

    2011-09-05

    Epithelia are exposed to multiple forms of stress. Keratin intermediate filaments are abundant in epithelia and form cytoskeletal networks that contribute to cell type-specific functions, such as adhesion, migration, and metabolism. A perpetual keratin filament turnover cycle supports these functions. This multistep process keeps the cytoskeleton in motion, facilitating rapid and protein biosynthesis-independent network remodeling while maintaining an intact network. The current challenge is to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the keratin cycle in relation to actin and microtubule networks and in the context of epithelial tissue function.

  7. Cytoskeleton in motion: the dynamics of keratin intermediate filaments in epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Windoffer, Reinhard; Beil, Michael; Magin, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelia are exposed to multiple forms of stress. Keratin intermediate filaments are abundant in epithelia and form cytoskeletal networks that contribute to cell type–specific functions, such as adhesion, migration, and metabolism. A perpetual keratin filament turnover cycle supports these functions. This multistep process keeps the cytoskeleton in motion, facilitating rapid and protein biosynthesis–independent network remodeling while maintaining an intact network. The current challenge is to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the keratin cycle in relation to actin and microtubule networks and in the context of epithelial tissue function. PMID:21893596

  8. Liposomes containing recombinant E protein vaccine against duck Tembusu virus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Liu, Yongxia; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Yanhan; Fan, Wentao; Cheng, Ziqiang; Niu, Xudong; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-04-27

    To obtain an effective vaccine candidate against duck Tembusu viral (DTMUV) disease which causes egg-drop and great economical loss in the Chinese duck industry, liposome vaccines containing recombinant E protein were prepared and assessed in this study. The recombinant plasmid (PET28a-E) was constructed and transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells to produce E proteins. The recombinant E proteins were purified and entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. Eighty-four cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into seven groups and inoculated intramuscularly at one- or seven-day-old with liposomes-E protein or Freund's adjuvant-E protein vaccine. Blood samples were collected from the first week to the tenth week for serum antibody, plasma for viremia, as well as oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs for virus shedding analyses after being challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of duck Tembusu virus. Results showed that serum antibody level of the liposomes vaccine was higher than the Freund's adjuvant vaccine, and inoculating twice was superior to once; furthermore, the viremia and virus shedding tests also proved that the liposomes vaccine can provide complete protection against DTMUV challenge. These results demonstrated that the liposomes-E protein vaccine could be used as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Nutritional stress affects corticosterone deposition in feathers of Caspian tern chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Allison G. L.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions affect the adrenocortical function of developing animals, which can have consequences for their fitness. Discovery of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in feathers has the potential to broaden the application of endocrine research in ecological and evolutionary studies of wild birds by providing a long-term measure of CORT secretion. Mechanisms of CORT deposition in feathers are not well known and few studies have related feather CORT to circulating plasma CORT during feather growth. Our objective was to experimentally test the validity of using feather CORT as a measure of CORT secretion in developing birds experiencing nutritional stress. Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia chicks were fed ad libitum or restricted (35% less than ad libitum) diets for four weeks. We measured CORT in feathers from these chicks to examine the relationship between feather CORT concentrations and nutritional limitation, circulating plasma CORT, and feather development. We found that feather CORT was higher in controls fed ad libitum than in restricted individuals, despite higher levels of plasma CORT in restricted chicks compared to controls. Feather mass and growth rates were strongly and positively related to feather CORT concentrations in both treatments. This is the first experimental study to show that feather CORT concentrations can be lower in response to nutritional stress, even when plasma CORT concentrations are elevated. Our results indicate that CORT deposition in feathers may be confounded when feather mass and growth rates are compromised by nutritional stress. We conclude that feather CORT can be used for assessing nutritional stress in growing birds, but the direction of response depends on how strongly stress affects feather development.

  11. Duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome" disease complex: Interplay of novel goose parvovirus-related virus and duck circovirus?

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, J; Zhang, R; Chen, J; Wang, W; Lan, J; Xie, Z; Jiang, S

    2018-04-01

    As a newly emerged infectious disease, duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS)" disease has caused huge economic losses to waterfowl industry in China since 2015. Novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) is believed the main pathogen of BADS disease; however, BADS is rarely reproduced by infecting ducks with NGPV alone. As avian circovirus infection causes clinical symptoms similar to BADS, duck circovirus (DuCV) is suspected the minor pathogen of BADS disease. In this study, an investigation was carried out to determine the coinfection of NGPV and DuCV in duck embryos and in ducks with BADS disease. According to our study, the coinfection of emerging NGPV and DuCV was prevalent in East China (Shandong, Jiangsu and Anhui province) and could be vertical transmitted, indicating their cooperative roles in duck BADS disease. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Pathogenicity and genetic characterization of a duck Tembusu virus associated with egg-dropping in Muscovy ducks.

    PubMed

    Shen, Han-Qin; Lin, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Zhan-Xin; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo; Chen, Feng

    2016-09-02

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has spread to the major duck-farming region in China, causing acute egg-production drop in Chinese duck population. In this study, we characterized a DTMUV strain (named GD2014) isolated from an egg-production drop duck farm in Guangdong province, South China. The virus was pathogenic to Muscovy duck embryos and caused severe egg production drop for laying Muscovy ducks. The genome sequence of GD2014 shared 97-99% homologies with other waterfowl-origin Tembusu viruses, and shared 89% identities with MM1775 strain isolated from mosquito. Phylogenetic analysis of entire open reading frame (ORF), E gene and NS5 gene indicated that GD2014 belonged to Ntaya group. These results have implications for understanding the orgin, emergence and pathogenicity of DTMUV as well as for the development of vaccines and diagnostics based on epidemiological data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Nashold, S.W.; Docherty, D.E.; Brown, S.E.; Knudson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl tissues from past and current cases of waterfowl mortality and to identify duck plague virus in combined cloacal/oral-pharyngeal swab samples from healthy mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after a disease outbreak. The PCR was able to detect viral DNA from all the individual or pooled tissues assayed from 10 waterfowl, including liver and spleen samples from three Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) that did not yield virus isolates. The strong staining intensity of the PCR products from the waterfowl tissues indicated that large amounts of virus were present, even when virus was not isolated. Duck plague DNA was also detected in a cloacal swab sample from a wood duck (Aix sponsa) carcass submitted for diagnosis. The PCR assay identified duck plague DNA in 13 swab samples that produced virus isolates from carrier mallards sampled in 1981 after a duck plague die-off. The duck plague PCR clearly demonstrated the ability to quickly diagnose duck plague in suspect mortality cases and to detect virus shed by carrier waterfowl.

  14. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  15. 50 CFR 20.92 - Personal use of feathers or skins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personal use of feathers or skins. 20.92... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Feathers or Skins § 20.92 Personal use of feathers or skins. Any person for his own use may possess, transport, ship, import, and export without a...

  16. 50 CFR 20.92 - Personal use of feathers or skins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal use of feathers or skins. 20.92... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Feathers or Skins § 20.92 Personal use of feathers or skins. Any person for his own use may possess, transport, ship, import, and export without a...

  17. 50 CFR 20.92 - Personal use of feathers or skins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal use of feathers or skins. 20.92... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Feathers or Skins § 20.92 Personal use of feathers or skins. Any person for his own use may possess, transport, ship, import, and export without a...

  18. 50 CFR 20.92 - Personal use of feathers or skins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personal use of feathers or skins. 20.92... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Feathers or Skins § 20.92 Personal use of feathers or skins. Any person for his own use may possess, transport, ship, import, and export without a...

  19. Theoretical morphology and development of flight feather vane asymmetry with experimental tests in parrots.

    PubMed

    Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 77 FR 12493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of.... * * * * * (c) * * * (378) * * * (i) * * * (E) Feather River Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 3.22...

  1. Do spotless starlings place feathers at their nests by ultraviolet color?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avilés, Jesús M.; Parejo, Deseada; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Navarro, Carlos; Soler, Juan J.

    2010-02-01

    A considerable number of bird species carry feathers to their nests. Feathers’ presence in the nests has traditionally been explained by their insulating properties. Recently, however, it has been suggested that feathers carried to the nests by females of the spotted starling ( Sturnus unicolor L.) could have an ornamental function based on their ultraviolet (300-400 nm) and human-visible longer wavelength (400-700 nm) coloration. In our population, 95.7% of feathers found inside next-boxes occupied by nesting starlings were rock dove fly feathers. Of these feathers, 82.7% were naturally positioned with their reverse side oriented toward the entrance hole and 42.4% of all found feathers were situated within the nest-cup. Here we experimentally assess the signaling function of ultraviolet coloration of feathers in nests of spotless starlings by providing nests with a number of pigeon flight feathers that were respectively treated on their obverse, reverse, both, or neither side with a UV blocker. Starlings placed 42.5% of the experimental feathers in the nest-cup irrespective of the UV block treatment. Orientation of feathers toward the entrance hole was not related with their ultraviolet radiation. However, feathers placed within the nest-cup were more likely found with their reverse side oriented toward the entrance hole confirming our correlative findings. These results suggest a minor role of ultraviolet coloration on feather location by spotless starlings.

  2. 50 CFR 20.92 - Personal use of feathers or skins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal use of feathers or skins. 20.92... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Feathers or Skins § 20.92 Personal use of feathers or skins. Any person for his own use may possess, transport, ship, import, and export without a...

  3. Molecular composition and ultrastructure of Jurassic paravian feathers

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M.; Cincotta, Aude; Uvdal, Per; Hutcheson, Steven W.; Gustafsson, Ola; Lefèvre, Ulysse; Escuillié, François; Heimdal, Jimmy; Engdahl, Anders; Gren, Johan A.; Kear, Benjamin P.; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Yans, Johan; Godefroit, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Feathers are amongst the most complex epidermal structures known, and they have a well-documented evolutionary trajectory across non-avian dinosaurs and basal birds. Moreover, melanosome-like microbodies preserved in association with fossil plumage have been used to reconstruct original colour, behaviour and physiology. However, these putative ancient melanosomes might alternatively represent microorganismal residues, a conflicting interpretation compounded by a lack of unambiguous chemical data. We therefore used sensitive molecular imaging, supported by multiple independent analytical tests, to demonstrate that the filamentous epidermal appendages in a new specimen of the Jurassic paravian Anchiornis comprise remnant eumelanosomes and fibril-like microstructures, preserved as endogenous eumelanin and authigenic calcium phosphate. These results provide novel insights into the early evolution of feathers at the sub-cellular level, and unequivocally determine that melanosomes can be preserved in fossil feathers. PMID:26311035

  4. Melanin concentration gradients in modern and fossil feathers.

    PubMed

    Field, Daniel J; D'Alba, Liliana; Vinther, Jakob; Webb, Samuel M; Gearty, William; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    In birds and feathered non-avian dinosaurs, within-feather pigmentation patterns range from discrete spots and stripes to more subtle patterns, but the latter remain largely unstudied. A ∼55 million year old fossil contour feather with a dark distal tip grading into a lighter base was recovered from the Fur Formation in Denmark. SEM and synchrotron-based trace metal mapping confirmed that this gradient was caused by differential concentration of melanin. To assess the potential ecological and phylogenetic prevalence of this pattern, we evaluated 321 modern samples from 18 orders within Aves. We observed that the pattern was found most frequently in distantly related groups that share aquatic ecologies (e.g. waterfowl Anseriformes, penguins Sphenisciformes), suggesting a potential adaptive function with ancient origins.

  5. Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phil R; Campione, Nicolás E; Persons, W Scott; Currie, Philip J; Larson, Peter L; Tanke, Darren H; Bakker, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence for feathers in theropods has led to speculations that the largest tyrannosaurids, including Tyrannosaurus rex , were extensively feathered. We describe fossil integument from Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids ( Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Tarbosaurus ), confirming that these large-bodied forms possessed scaly, reptilian-like skin. Body size evolution in tyrannosauroids reveals two independent occurrences of gigantism; specifically, the large sizes in Yutyrannus and tyrannosaurids were independently derived. These new findings demonstrate that extensive feather coverings observed in some early tyrannosauroids were lost by the Albian, basal to Tyrannosauridae. This loss is unrelated to palaeoclimate but possibly tied to the evolution of gigantism, although other mechanisms exist. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. parasitised feathered dinosaurs as revealed by Cretaceous amber assemblages.

    PubMed

    Peñalver, Enrique; Arillo, Antonio; Delclòs, Xavier; Peris, David; Grimaldi, David A; Anderson, Scott R; Nascimbene, Paul C; Pérez-de la Fuente, Ricardo

    2017-12-12

    Ticks are currently among the most prevalent blood-feeding ectoparasites, but their feeding habits and hosts in deep time have long remained speculative. Here, we report direct and indirect evidence in 99 million-year-old Cretaceous amber showing that hard ticks and ticks of the extinct new family Deinocrotonidae fed on blood from feathered dinosaurs, non-avialan or avialan excluding crown-group birds. A †Cornupalpatum burmanicum hard tick is entangled in a pennaceous feather. Two deinocrotonids described as †Deinocroton draculi gen. et sp. nov. have specialised setae from dermestid beetle larvae (hastisetae) attached to their bodies, likely indicating cohabitation in a feathered dinosaur nest. A third conspecific specimen is blood-engorged, its anatomical features suggesting that deinocrotonids fed rapidly to engorgement and had multiple gonotrophic cycles. These findings provide insight into early tick evolution and ecology, and shed light on poorly known arthropod-vertebrate interactions and potential disease transmission during the Mesozoic.

  7. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  8. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  9. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. FeatherSail - Design, Development and Future Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Scheierl, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    To the present day, the idea of using solar sails for space propulsion is still just a concept, but one that provides a great potential for future space exploration missions. Several notable solar propulsion missions and experiments have been performed and more are still in the development stage. Solar Sailing is a method of space flight propulsion, which utilizes the light photons to propel spacecrafts through the vacuum of space. This concept will be tested in the near future with the launch of the NanoSail-D satellite. NanoSail-D is a nano-class satellite, <10kg, which will deploy a thin lightweight sheet of reflective material used to propel the satellite in its low earth orbit. Using the features of the NanoSail-D architecture, a second-generation solar sail design concept, dubbed FeatherSail, has been developed. The goal of the FeatherSail project is to create a sail vehicle with the ability to provide steering from the sails and increase the areal density. The FeatherSail design will utilize the NanoSail-D based extendable boom technology with only one sail on each set of booms. This design also allows each of the four sails to feather as much as ninety degrees. The FeatherSail concept uses deployable solar arrays to generate the power necessary for deep space missions. In addition, recent developments in low power, low temperature Silicon-Germanium electronics provide the capability for long duration deep space missions. It is envisioned that the FeatherSail conceptual design will provide the impetus for future sail vehicles, which may someday visit distant places that mankind has only observed.

  11. Morphology of primary feathers in two falcon species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honisch, B.; Bleckmann, H.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, A.

    2012-04-01

    Primary feathers allow birds to fly; however, morphology and material properties of theses feathers vary in different bird species. We therefore analysed both morphology and material properties of primary feathers in two raptor species, the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) which is the fastest vertical flyer known, and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation. The program AutoCAD was used for the computation of the moments of inertia. The reduced E-modulus of the cortex of the rachis of the first, fifth, and tenth primary were measured at proximal (10% of total rachis length), central (50%) and distal (75%) cross-sections. In all cross sections the kestrel showed higher E-moduli than the peregrine falcon (values varied between 6.7 and 9.1 GPa). In the primaries, values increased from proximal to central but decreased distally. Looking at the hardness, the kestrel had higher values than the peregrine falcon yet again. The main differences occurred in the first primary. Values ranged between 0.17 and 0.4 GPa. SEM studies revealed that the tenth primary was more stable in the peregrine falcon, featuring more hamuli than the kestrel at all analysed positions and longer hamuli at the distal positions. The higher moments of inertia found in the peregrine falcon caused a much higher bending stiffness in this species. Values were 4.4 to 9.1 times larger in the peregrine falcon than in the kestrel. Because the given structures are responsible for the stability of the feather face it seems that the feathers of F. peregrinus are more robust than those of F. tinnunculus. Even when considering the higher body mass of the peregrine falcon compared to the kestrel (3.4 times), the determined stability of the feather compensates for this problem.

  12. Harvest and dynamics of duck populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    The role of harvest in the dynamics of waterfowl populations continues to be debated among scientists and managers. Our perception is that interested members of the public and some managers believe that harvest influences North American duck populations based on calls for more conservative harvest regulations. A recent review of harvest and population dynamics of North American mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations (Pöysä et al. 2004) reached similar conclusions. Because of the importance of this issue, we reviewed the evidence for an impact of harvest on duck populations. Our understanding of the effects of harvest is limited because harvest effects are typically confounded with those of population density; regulations are typically most liberal when populations are greatest. This problem also exists in the current Adaptive Harvest Management Program (Conn and Kendall 2004). Consequently, even where harvest appears additive to other mortality, this may be an artifact of ignoring effects of population density. Overall, we found no compelling evidence for strong additive effects of harvest on survival in duck populations that could not be explained by other factors.

  13. Survival of postfledging female American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Frazer, C.

    1991-01-01

    We equipped 106 hatching-year (HY), female, black ducks (Anas rubripes) with transmitters during 1985-87 and monitored survival from late August to mid-December on a lightly hunted area on the Maine-New Brunswick border. The 1985-87 estimate of survival (hunting losses included) was 0.593, and when losses from hunting were censored it was 0.694. Survival in August-September was 0.987; by 31 October survival declined to 0.885, and by 30 November it was 0.718. Most nonhunting mortality was caused by predators (21/41, 53.2%); there were 14 deaths (34.1%) from mammals or unknown predators and 7 (17.1%) from raptors. Hunting caused 13 (31. 7%) deaths. Ducks with lowest mass had the lowest survival. The estimate of survival for postfledging female black ducks, when multiplied with interval survival rates for hunting, winter, and breeding periods, produced an annual survival estimate of 0.262, about 12% lower than that (0.38) based on analysis of banding data.

  14. Indigenous Muscovy ducks in Congo-Brazzaville. 1. A survey of indigenous Muscovy duck management in households in Dolisie City.

    PubMed

    Banga-Mboko, H; Maes, D; Leroy, P L

    2007-02-01

    A cross-sectional study by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and multiple-choice questions was used to collect data on the profile of duck keepers, husbandry practices, and performances, opportunities and constraints of Muscovy duck breeding in households (n = 88) in Dolisie city (Congo-Brazzaville). The study confirmed the common observations on traditional poultry keeping such as scavenging during the day and housing overnight. The flock size (7.7 +/- 3 ducks per unit) showed no specialization of husbandry (100% of surveyed flocks were kept for simultaneous production of ducklings, meat and eggs) and a high drake-to-duck ratio (1:3). The hatchability was close to 80.5% +/- 13%, whereas the average number of eggs was 13.2 +/- 5 per clutch. In addition, a high mortality (80%) was observed in ducklings, which was due to poor feeding, lack of veterinary care and housing conditions. Eggs and live ducks were sold by duck farmers in response to the family needs rather than market price. The three most important findings were as follows: (1) duck keepers were mainly men (80% versus 20% of women); (2) there was no evidence of taboo; and (3) the duck as an exotic bird was not proscribed by cultural beliefs, and therefore development of the Muscovy duck in Congo Brazzaville should be unhindered.

  15. Artificial Bird Feathers: An Adaptive Wing with High Lift Capability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, W.; Meyer, R.; Bechert, D. W.

    1997-11-01

    In Wind tunnel experiments, the operation of the covering feathers of bird wings has been investigated. At incipient flow separation, local flow reversal lifts the feathers and inhibits the spreading of the separation regime towards the leading edge. This mechanism can be utilized by movable flaps on airfoils. The operation of quasi-steady and of vibrating movable flaps is outlined. These devices are self-actuated, require no energy and do not produce parasitic drag. They are compatible with laminar and turbulent airfoils as well as with various conventional flaps on aircraft wings. Laboratory and flight experiments are shown. Ref: AIAA-Paper 97-1960.

  16. Preparation and study on the structure of keratin/PVA membrane containing wool fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Shen, Shuming; Yang, Xuhong; Tang, Rencheng

    2017-10-01

    The urea / sodium sulfide / sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) method was used to dissolve the wool in this study. Then the Wool fiber/keratin/PVA composites with different proportions were prepared, and the surface morphology, molecular structure, mechanical property of the composite films and the influence of the proportions on their structure and properties were studied. The results showed that, there are α-helix structure, β-sheet and random coil conformations in the pure keratin film, as well as in the wool fiber. Compared with wool fiber, the crystallinity of keratin decreased. PVA can obviously improve the mechanical property of the blended film. When the blended ratio of keratin/PVA is 20/80, the mechanical property of the blended film is greatly improved. The composite films with 8%-16% of wool fibers have better flexibility than those without wool fibers.

  17. Novel immobilization of a quaternary ammonium moiety on keratin fibers for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Cai, Jackie Y; Liu, Xin; Church, Jeffrey S; Wang, Lijing

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for immobilizing a quaternary ammonium moiety on a keratinous substrate for enhanced medical applications. The method involves the generation of thiols by controlled reduction of cystine disulfide bonds in the keratin, followed by reaction with [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride through thiol-ene click chemistry. The modified substrate was characterized with Raman and infrared spectroscopy, and assessed for its antibacterial efficacy and other performance changes. The results have demonstrated that the quaternary ammonium moiety has been effectively attached onto the keratin structure, and the resultant keratin substrate exhibits a multifunctional effect including antibacterial and antistatic properties, improved liquid moisture management property, improved dyeability and a non-leaching characteristic of the treated substrate. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel mutations in the helix termination motif of keratin 3 and keratin 12 in 2 Taiwanese families with Meesmann corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ting; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Chao, Sheau-Chiou

    2005-11-01

    To analyze mutations of the keratin 3 gene (KRT3) and keratin 12 gene (KRT12) in 2 Taiwanese families with Meesmann corneal dystrophy (MCD). Diagnosis of MCD was confirmed by slit-lamp examination of the cornea in 4 members of family 1 and 6 members of family 2. All exons and flanking intron boundaries of KRT3 and KRT12 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and products were subjected to direct sequencing. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) with created mismatch primers, Bst XI and Nsp I, was used to confirm the presence of the mutations in affected individuals in family 1 and family 2, respectively. A novel heterozygous missense mutation (1508G-->C), predicting the substitution of a proline for an arginine (R503P) was detected in the helix termination motif of the keratin 3 polypeptide in family 1. Another novel heterozygous missense mutation (1286A-->G), predicting the substitution of a cysteine for a tyrosine at codon 429 (Y429C) was detected in the helix termination motif of the keratin 12 polypeptide in family 2. These 2 mutations were excluded from 50 normal controls by RFLP analysis, indicating that they were not common polymorphisms. A novel missense mutation (R503P) in KRT3 and another novel missense mutation (Y429C) in KRT12 lead to MCD in 2 unrelated Taiwanese families. The mutant codons in our study are all located in the highly conserved alpha-helix-termination motif, which is essential for keratin filament assembly. Mutation at this area may account for the disruption of keratin filament assembly, leading to MCD.

  19. Preparation of bio-based keratin-derived magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the facile and selective separation of bisphenol A from water.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Marjan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2018-02-21

    In this study, new bio-based magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (∼23 nm) were synthesized from keratin extracted from chicken feathers and methacrylate-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles for its potential application in separation and removal of bisphenol A from water. The prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, alternative gradient field magnetometry, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The sorption of bisphenol A was investigated by changing the influencing factors such as pH, immersion time, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles dosage, and the initial concentration of bisphenol A. Results illustrated that sorption was very fast and efficient (Q m  = 600 mg/g) having a removal efficiency of ∼98% in 40 min of immersion. The adsorption process showed better conformity with the Weber-Morris kinetics and the Freundlich isotherm model. The selectivity of bisphenol A by adsorbent was checked in the presence of hydroquinone, phenol, tetrabromobisphenol, and 4,4'-biphenol as interferences. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nutritional value of enzyme- or sodium hydroxide-treated feathers from dead hens.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2000-04-01

    Two feather digestion processes to remove the feathers from the carcasses of dead hens were evaluated for their impact on the nutritional quality of the resulting feather meal. There were three treatments: control (untreated feathers), a feather-digesting enzyme, and NaOH treatment. Both enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were easily separated from the hen carcasses. The CP level of enzyme-treated feathers after autoclaving (49.90%) was significantly less than the control and NaOH-treated feathers (94.48 and 87.31%, respectively) because of elevated ether extract levels resulting from skin and abdominal fat release during the 12-h enzyme incubation. Before autoclaving, pepsin digestibilities of enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were significantly higher than the control. However, after autoclaving, no significant difference was found in pepsin digestibility between the control and enzyme treatments or control and NaOH treatments. The typical limiting amino acids, methionine, lysine, and histidine, in feathers were present at greater levels in the resulting enzyme-feather meal (E-FM) compared with the NaOH-feather meal (N-FM) or control-feather meal (C-FM) on a percentage of CP basis. Cystine levels, however, were significantly lower in the E-FM and N-FM compared with that of the C-FM. In chick bioassays, no significant differences were found in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) among C-FM, E-FM, and N-FM. The AMEn of E-FM (4.52 kcal/g) was significantly higher than the C-FM (3.58) or N-FM (2.79). These findings indicated that although enzyme treatment could improve the nutritional quality of feathers from dead hens, NaOH treatment was a more rapid means of separating feathers from the carcass.

  1. Keratin-based products for effective wound care management in superficial and partial thickness burns injuries.

    PubMed

    Loan, Fiona; Cassidy, Sharon; Marsh, Clive; Simcock, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This n=40 cohort study on superficial and partial thickness burns compares novel keratin-based products with the standard products used at our facility. The keratin products are found to facilitate healing with minimal scarring, be well tolerated with minimal pain and itch, be easy to use for the health professional and be cost effective for the health care provider. For these reasons they are being adopted into use at our facility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Keratins K2 and K10 are essential for the epidermal integrity of plantar skin.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Heinz; Langbein, Lutz; Reichelt, Julia; Buchberger, Maria; Tschachler, Erwin; Eckhart, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    K1 and K2 are the main type II keratins in the suprabasal epidermis where each of them heterodimerizes with the type I keratin K10 to form intermediate filaments. In regions of the ears, tail, and soles of the mouse, only K2 is co-expressed with K10, suggesting that these keratins suffice to form a mechanically resilient cytoskeleton. To determine the effects of the suppression of both main keratins, K2 and K10, in the suprabasal plantar epidermis of the mouse. Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice were generated by crossing Krt2(-/-) and Krt10(-/-) mice. Epidermal morphology of soles of hind-paws was examined macroscopically and histologically. Immunofluorescence analysis and quantitative PCR analysis were performed to analyze the expression of keratins in sole skin of wildtype and Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice. Highly abundant proteins of the sole stratum corneum were determined by electrophoretic and chromatographic separation and subsequent mass spectrometry. K2 and K10 are the most prominent suprabasal keratins in normal mouse soles with the exception of the footpads where K1, K9 and K10 predominate. Mice lacking both K2 and K10 were viable and developed epidermal acanthosis and hyperkeratosis in inter-footpad epidermis of the soles. The expression of keratins K1, K9 and K16 was massively increased at the RNA and protein levels in the soles of Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice. This study demonstrates that the loss of the main cytoskeletal components of plantar epidermis, i.e. K2 and K10, can be only partly compensated by the upregulation of other keratins. The thickening of the epidermis in the soles of Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice may serve as a model for pathomechanistic aspects of palmoplantar keratoderma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Raman spectroscopic study of keratin 8 knockdown oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Alam, Hunain; Dmello, Crismita; Vaidya, Milind M.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-03-01

    Keratins are one of most widely used markers for oral cancers. Keratin 8 and 18 are expressed in simple epithelia and perform both mechanical and regulatory functions. Their expression are not seen in normal oral tissues but are often expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Aberrant expression of keratins 8 and 18 is most common change in human oral cancer. Optical-spectroscopic methods are sensitive to biochemical changes and being projected as novel diagnostic tools for cancer diagnosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting minor changes associated with differential level of keratin expression in tongue-cancer-derived AW13516 cells. Knockdown clones for K8 were generated and synchronized by growing under serum-free conditions. Cell pellets of three independent experiments in duplicate were used for recording Raman spectra with fiberoptic-probe coupled HE-785 Raman-instrument. A total of 123 and 96 spectra from knockdown clones and vector controls respectively in 1200-1800 cm-1 region were successfully utilized for classification using LDA. Two separate clusters with classification-efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Leave-one-out cross-validation yielded ~63% efficiency. Findings of the study demonstrate the potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting even subtle changes such as variations in keratin expression levels. Future studies towards identifying Raman signals from keratin in oral cells can help in precise cancer diagnosis.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of keratinized mucosa augmentation techniques around dental implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingqing; Qu, Yili; Gong, Ping; Wang, Tianlu; Gong, Ting; Man, Yi

    2015-05-01

    The absence of periimplant keratinized mucosa is considered risky in patients with a predisposition to periodontitis or recession. Although various soft tissue augmentation techniques exist, dentists are seeking for more efficient approaches to augment periimplant keratinized mucosa. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of the various techniques and biomaterials adopted in periimplant keratinized mucosa augmentation and whether one technique or biomaterial is superior. A search in Medline-PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials was conducted. Randomized clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, clinical control studies, and case series from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2013, with a follow-up of at least 6 months reporting changes on keratinized mucosa width were included. Several journals were hand-searched for related articles. The bibliographies of all publications selected for inclusion were also scanned. The screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 60 relevant publications. Six of them were finally included. Free gingival graft, connective tissue graft, acellular dermal matrix, and collagen matrix were used for keratinized mucosa augmentation. Because of heterogeneity of the studies, only descriptive analysis was performed. Improvements in keratinized mucosa width were reported in all studies. A definitive conclusion could not be achieved owing to the lack of well-designed studies and appropriate methods of studying soft tissue. The establishment of universal surgical guidelines and measurement systems is imperative in the future. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Complete Structure of an Epithelial Keratin Dimer: Implications for Intermediate Filament Assembly.

    PubMed

    Bray, David J; Walsh, Tiffany R; Noro, Massimo G; Notman, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that hierarchically arrange into filaments, starting with the dimer sub-unit. They are integral to the structural support of cells, in skin, hair and nails. In skin, keratin is thought to play a critical role in conferring the barrier properties and elasticity of skin. In general, the keratin dimer is broadly described by a tri-domain structure: a head, a central rod and a tail. As yet, no atomistic-scale picture of the entire dimer structure exists; this information is pivotal for establishing molecular-level connections between structure and function in intermediate filament proteins. The roles of the head and tail domains in facilitating keratin filament assembly and function remain as open questions. To address these, we report results of molecular dynamics simulations of the entire epithelial human K1/K10 keratin dimer. Our findings comprise: (1) the first three-dimensional structural models of the complete dimer unit, comprising of the head, rod and tail domains; (2) new insights into the chirality of the rod-domain twist gained from analysis of the full domain structure; (3) evidence for tri-subdomain partitioning in the head and tail domains; and, (4) identification of the residue characteristics that mediate non-covalent contact between the chains in the dimer. Our findings are immediately applicable to other epithelial keratins, such as K8/K18 and K5/K14, and to intermediate filament proteins in general.

  6. Compost biodegradation of recalcitrant hoof keratin by bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Reuter, T; Gilroyed, B H; Xu, W; McAllister, T A; Stanford, K

    2015-08-01

    Compost activities efficiently break down a wide range of organic substances over time. In this study, bovine hoof was used as recalcitrant protein model to gain so far cryptic information on biodegradation during livestock mortalities composting. Bovine hooves (black and white), containing different amounts of melanin, placed into nylon bags were monitored during composting of cattle mortalities for up to 230 days. Besides physiochemical analysis, bacterial 16S and fungal 18S DNA fragments were amplified by PCR and profiles were separated by DGGE. Sequence analysis of separated fragments revealed various bacterial and fungal identities during composting. The microbial diversity was affected by a time-temperature interaction and by the hoof colour. Our molecular data, supported by electron microscopy, suggest hoof colonization by shifting bacteria and fungi communities. During composting, microbial communities work collaboratively in the degradation of recalcitrant organic matter such as keratin over time. A number of biomolecules including recalcitrant proteins may persist in environmental reservoirs, but breakdown can occur during composting. A combination of bioactivity and physiochemical conditions appear to be decisive for the fate of persistent biomolecules. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Strong Keratin-like Nanofibers Made of Globular Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, Yael; Makarov, Vadim; Admon, Arie; Zussman, Eyal

    2008-03-01

    Protein fibers as elementary structural and functional elements in nature inspire the engineering of protein-based products for versatile bio-medical applications. We have recently used the electrospinning process to fabricate strong sub-micron fibers made solely of serum albumin (SA). This raises the challenges of turning a globular non-viscous protein solution into a polymer--like spinnable solution and producing keratin-like fibers enriched in inter S-S bridges. A stable spinning process was achieved by using SA solution in a rich trifluoroethanol-water mixture with β-mercaptoethanol. The breakage of the intra disulfide bridges, as identified by mass spectrometry, together with the denaturing alcohol, enabled a pronounced expansion of the protein. This in turn, affects the rheological properties of the solution. X-ray diffraction pattern of the fibers revealed equatorial orientation, indicating the alignment of structures along the fiber axis. The mechanical properties reached remarkable average values (Young's modulus of 1.6GPa, and max stress of 36MPa) as compared to other fibrous protein nanofibers. These significant results are attributed to both the alignment and inter disulfide bonds (cross linking) that were formed by spontaneous post-spinning oxidation.

  8. Novel picornavirus associated with avian keratin disorder in Alaskan birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zylberberg, Maxine; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Dumbacher, John P.; Handel, Colleen M.; Tihan, Tarik; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Avian keratin disorder (AKD), characterized by debilitating overgrowth of the avian beak, was first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska. Subsequently, similar deformities have appeared in numerous species across continents. Despite the widespread distribution of this emerging pathology, the cause of AKD remains elusive. As a result, it is unknown whether suspected cases of AKD in the afflicted species are causally linked, and the impacts of this pathology at the population and community levels are difficult to evaluate. We applied unbiased, metagenomic next-generation sequencing to search for candidate pathogens in birds affected with AKD. We identified and sequenced the complete coding region of a novel picornavirus, which we are calling poecivirus. Subsequent screening of 19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees and 9 control individuals for the presence of poecivirus revealed that 19/19 (100%) AKD-affected individuals were positive, while only 2/9 (22%) control individuals were infected with poecivirus. Two northwestern crows (Corvus caurinus) and two red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) with AKD-consistent pathology also tested positive for poecivirus. We suggest that poecivirus is a candidate etiological agent of AKD.

  9. Comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes of two types of ducks, peking duck (Anas platyrhychos) and muscovy duck (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Tu, Jianfeng; Yang, Ying; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2017-03-01

    Peking duck (Anas platyrhychos) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) are two types of domestic ducks and the most popular meat breeds on the world. In this study, we sequenced and compared complete mitochondrial genomes of both breeds. In order to investigate the phylogeny of both breeds within Anseriformes, the sequences of concatenated 12 protein-coding genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. The result was consistent with most of the previous morphological and molecular studies. Our complete mitochondrial genome sequences of both breeds will be useful information in phylogenetics, and be available as basic data for the breeding and genetics.

  10. Vaccination of domestic ducks against H5N1 HPAI

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of H5N1 and H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, and therefore, successful control of HPAI in ducks is vital for the eradication of the disease in poultry. Vaccination can be used as a tool for supporting eradication by inc...

  11. Molecular basis of tactile specialization in the duck bill.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eve R; Anderson, Evan O; Mastrotto, Marco; Matson, Jon D; Schulz, Vincent P; Gallagher, Patrick G; LaMotte, Robert H; Gracheva, Elena O; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N

    2017-12-05

    Tactile-foraging ducks are specialist birds known for their touch-dependent feeding behavior. They use dabbling, straining, and filtering to find edible matter in murky water, relying on the sense of touch in their bill. Here, we present the molecular characterization of embryonic duck bill, which we show contains a high density of mechanosensory corpuscles innervated by functional rapidly adapting trigeminal afferents. In contrast to chicken, a visually foraging bird, the majority of duck trigeminal neurons are mechanoreceptors that express the Piezo2 ion channel and produce slowly inactivating mechano-current before hatching. Furthermore, duck neurons have a significantly reduced mechano-activation threshold and elevated mechano-current amplitude. Cloning and electrophysiological characterization of duck Piezo2 in a heterologous expression system shows that duck Piezo2 is functionally similar to the mouse ortholog but with prolonged inactivation kinetics, particularly at positive potentials. Knockdown of Piezo2 in duck trigeminal neurons attenuates mechano current with intermediate and slow inactivation kinetics. This suggests that Piezo2 is capable of contributing to a larger range of mechano-activated currents in duck trigeminal ganglia than in mouse trigeminal ganglia. Our results provide insights into the molecular basis of mechanotransduction in a tactile-specialist vertebrate.

  12. Molecular basis of tactile specialization in the duck bill

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Evan O.; Mastrotto, Marco; Matson, Jon D.; Schulz, Vincent P.; Gallagher, Patrick G.; LaMotte, Robert H.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.

    2017-01-01

    Tactile-foraging ducks are specialist birds known for their touch-dependent feeding behavior. They use dabbling, straining, and filtering to find edible matter in murky water, relying on the sense of touch in their bill. Here, we present the molecular characterization of embryonic duck bill, which we show contains a high density of mechanosensory corpuscles innervated by functional rapidly adapting trigeminal afferents. In contrast to chicken, a visually foraging bird, the majority of duck trigeminal neurons are mechanoreceptors that express the Piezo2 ion channel and produce slowly inactivating mechano-current before hatching. Furthermore, duck neurons have a significantly reduced mechano-activation threshold and elevated mechano-current amplitude. Cloning and electrophysiological characterization of duck Piezo2 in a heterologous expression system shows that duck Piezo2 is functionally similar to the mouse ortholog but with prolonged inactivation kinetics, particularly at positive potentials. Knockdown of Piezo2 in duck trigeminal neurons attenuates mechano current with intermediate and slow inactivation kinetics. This suggests that Piezo2 is capable of contributing to a larger range of mechano-activated currents in duck trigeminal ganglia than in mouse trigeminal ganglia. Our results provide insights into the molecular basis of mechanotransduction in a tactile-specialist vertebrate. PMID:29109250

  13. Duck plague epizootics in the United States, 1967-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, K.A.; Kidd, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1967, the first confirmed diagnosis of duck plague (DP) in the USA was made from pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) on commercial duck farms on Long Island, New York. Within 10 mo, DP was confirmed as the cause of death in migratory waterfowl on a Long Island bay. This paper reviews 120 DP epizootics reported from 1967 to 1995 that involved waterfowl species native to North America or were reported in areas with free-flying waterfowl at risk. Duck plague epizootics occurred in 21 states with the greatest number reported in Maryland (29), New York (18), California (16), and Pennsylvania (13). The greatest frequency of epizootics (86%) was detected during the months of March to June. At least 40 waterfowl species were affected with the highest frequency of epizootics reported in captive or captive-reared ducks including muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) (68%), mallard ducks (A. platyrhynchos) (18%) and black ducks (A. rubripes) (14%). The greatest number of waterfowl died in three epizootics that involved primarily migratory birds in 1967 and 1994 in New York (USA) and 1973 in South Dakota (USA). The greatest number of DP epizootics reported since 1967 appear to have involved flocks of non-migratory rather than migratory waterfowl; therefore, in our opinion it remains unknown if DP is enzootic in either non-migratory or migratory waterfowl.

  14. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W R; Brown, S E; Nashold, S W; Knudson, D L

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3' ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primers sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague.

  15. A cis-Regulatory Mutation of PDSS2 Causes Silky-Feather in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chungang; Gao, Yu; Dorshorst, Ben; Song, Chi; Gu, Xiaorong; Li, Qingyuan; Li, Jinxiu; Liu, Tongxin; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Zhao, Yiqiang; Wang, Yanqiang; Fei, Jing; Li, Huifang; Chen, Kuanwei; Qu, Hao; Shu, Dingming; Ashwell, Chris; Da, Yang; Andersson, Leif; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Silky-feather has been selected and fixed in some breeds due to its unique appearance. This phenotype is caused by a single recessive gene (hookless, h). Here we map the silky-feather locus to chromosome 3 by linkage analysis and subsequently fine-map it to an 18.9 kb interval using the identical by descent (IBD) method. Further analysis reveals that a C to G transversion located upstream of the prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 2 (PDSS2) gene is causing silky-feather. All silky-feather birds are homozygous for the G allele. The silky-feather mutation significantly decreases the expression of PDSS2 during feather development in vivo. Consistent with the regulatory effect, the C to G transversion is shown to remarkably reduce PDSS2 promoter activity in vitro. We report a new example of feather structure variation associated with a spontaneous mutation and provide new insight into the PDSS2 function. PMID:25166907

  16. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Treesearch

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  17. 50 CFR 20.91 - Commercial use of feathers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... game authorities, except that: (a) No person shall purchase, sell, barter, or offer to purchase, sell, or barter for millinery or ornamental use the feathers of migratory game birds taken under authority... mounted specimens of migratory game birds taken under authority of this part. [38 FR 22021, Aug. 15, 1973...

  18. 50 CFR 20.91 - Commercial use of feathers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... game authorities, except that: (a) No person shall purchase, sell, barter, or offer to purchase, sell, or barter for millinery or ornamental use the feathers of migratory game birds taken under authority... mounted specimens of migratory game birds taken under authority of this part. [38 FR 22021, Aug. 15, 1973...

  19. 50 CFR 20.91 - Commercial use of feathers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... game authorities, except that: (a) No person shall purchase, sell, barter, or offer to purchase, sell, or barter for millinery or ornamental use the feathers of migratory game birds taken under authority... mounted specimens of migratory game birds taken under authority of this part. [38 FR 22021, Aug. 15, 1973...

  20. 50 CFR 20.91 - Commercial use of feathers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... game authorities, except that: (a) No person shall purchase, sell, barter, or offer to purchase, sell, or barter for millinery or ornamental use the feathers of migratory game birds taken under authority... mounted specimens of migratory game birds taken under authority of this part. [38 FR 22021, Aug. 15, 1973...

  1. 50 CFR 20.91 - Commercial use of feathers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... game authorities, except that: (a) No person shall purchase, sell, barter, or offer to purchase, sell, or barter for millinery or ornamental use the feathers of migratory game birds taken under authority... mounted specimens of migratory game birds taken under authority of this part. [38 FR 22021, Aug. 15, 1973...

  2. Ecomorphology of parasite attachment: experiments with feather lice.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Sohn, Edward; Clayton, Dale H

    2006-02-01

    The host specificity of some parasites can be reinforced by morphological specialization for attachment to mobile hosts. For example, ectoparasites with adaptations for attaching to hosts of a particular size might not be able to remain attached to larger or smaller hosts. This hypothesis is suggested by the positive correlation documented between the body sizes of many parasites and their hosts. We adopted an ecomorphological approach to test the attachment hypothesis. We tested the ability of host-specific feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) to attach to 6 novel species of pigeons and doves that vary in size by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Surprisingly, Rock Pigeon lice (Columbicola columbae) remained attached equally well to all 6 novel host species. We tested the relative importance of 3 factors that could facilitate louse attachment: whole-body insertion, tarsal claw use, and mandible use. Insertion, per se, was not necessary for attachment. However, insertion on coarse feathers of large hosts allowed lice to access feather barbules with their mandibles. Mandible use was a key component of attachment regardless of feather size. Attachment constraints do not appear to reinforce host specificity in this system.

  3. Apoptosis induction in duck tissues during duck hepatitis A virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Sheng, X D; Zhang, W P; Zhang, Q R; Gu, C Q; Hu, X Y; Cheng, G F

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the role of apoptosis in duck viral hepatitis pathogenesis, 4- and 21-d-old ducks were inoculated with duck hepatitis A virus serotype 1 and killed at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h postinfection. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling was used to detect apoptosis cells. Expression profiles of apoptosis-related genes including caspase-3, -8, -9, and Bcl-2 in spleen, bursa of Fabricius, liver, and the quantity of virus in blood were examined using real-time PCR. The TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis indicated there was a significant difference of apoptotic cells between treatments and controls. The same difference also appeared in virus amount variation in blood during infection. Gene expression analysis revealed that the apoptosis-related gene expression profile was different in the 2 groups, and also different between various organs. This study suggested that apoptosis may play an important role in duck hepatitis A virus serotype 1 infection, and apoptosis suppression might facilitate virus multiplication, resulting in the highest virus concentration in the host.

  4. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  5. The relation of selenium to western duck sickness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, H.W.; Quortrup, E.R.; Hotchkiss, N.

    1944-01-01

    In 1936 Twomey and Twomey reported that 20-50 parts per million of selenium as sodium selenite in the drinking water produced poisoning in ducks in which the syndrome was identical with that produced by Clostridium botulinum type C, which had been considered the principal causative agent in western duck sickness (Kalmbach and Gunderson, 1934). In a more recent paper, Twomey, Twomey and Williams (1939) reported the analyses of a number of duck livers collected at various points near Great Salt Lake where the sickness is prevalent. These analyses show the presence of 7-148 p. p. m. of selenium, based on the oven-dried weight of the livers. In contrast, no selenium was found in duck livers obtained in Pennsylvania, where sickness has not been reported. As a result of these findings, a thorough investigation of the significance of selenium in outbreaks of western duck sickness was undertaken in the summer of 1940.

  6. Expression and distribution of the duck enteritis virus UL51 protein in experimentally infected ducks.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chanjuan; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xu, Chao; Jia, Renyong; Chen, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Dekang; Luo, Qihui; Cui, Hengmin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yin; Xu, Zhiwen; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2010-06-01

    To determine the expression and distribution of tegument proteins encoded by duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL51 gene in tissues of experimentally infected ducks, for the first time, an immunoperoxidase staining method to detect UL51 protein (UL51p) in paraffin-embedded tissues is reported. A rabbit anti-UL51 polyclonal serum, raised against a recombinant 6-His-UL51 fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli, was prepared, purified, and used as primary antibodies. Fifty-eight 30-day-old DEV-free ducks were intramuscularly inoculated with the pathogenic DEV CHv strain as infection group, and two ducks were selected as preinfection group. The tissues were collected at sequential time points between 2 and 480 hr postinoculation (PI) and prepared for immunoperoxidase staining. DEV UL51p was first found in the spleen and liver at 8 hr PI; in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus at 12 hr PI; in the Harders glands, esophagus, small intestine (including the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and large intestine (including the caecum and rectum) at 24 hr PI; in the glandularis ventriculus at 48 hr PI; and in the pancreas, cerebrum, kidney, lung, and myocardium at 72 hr PI. Throughout the infection process, the UL51p was not seen in the muscle. Furthermore, the intensity of positive staining of DEV UL51p antigen in various tissues increased sharply from 8 to 96 hr PI, peaked during 120-144 hr PI, and then decreased steadily from 216 to 480 hr PI, suggesting that the expressional levels of DEV UL51p in systemic organs have a close correlation with the progression of duck virus enteritis (DVE) disease. A number of DEV UL51p was distributed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, liver, esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine of DEV-infected ducks, whereas less DEV UL51p was distributed in the Harders glands, glandularis ventriculus, cerebrum, kidney, lung, pancreas, and myocardium of DEV-infected ducks. Moreover, DEV UL51p can be expressed in the cytoplasm of various types

  7. An investigation of duck circovirus and co-infection in Cherry Valley ducks in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingxiao; Jiang, Shijin; Wu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Kong, Yibo; Li, Xiaoxia; Yao, Meiling; Chai, Tongjie

    2009-01-13

    The co-infection of duck circovirus (DuCV) with Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) or/and Escherichia coli (E. coli) or/and duck hepatitis virus I (DHV-I) in Cherry Valley ducks in China's Shandong Province was investigated by using polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based methods. For this study, 742 ducks sampled at random from 70 duck farms during 2006-2007 were examined using PCR and dot-blot hybridisation (DBH) tests. Overall the DuCV infection rate was 33.29%. Compared with those at 2 weeks of age, the ducks at 3-4 weeks of age were more susceptible to DuCV infection. Compared with the DuCV-negative ones, the DuCV-positive ducks had a higher rate of infection by DHV-I (25.5% vs. 7.475%), RA (23.48% vs. 8.28%) and E. coli (16.19% vs. 4.85%). This investigation shows that DuCV infection is common in Cherry Valley ducks on some farms in Shandong Province.

  8. Evidence of possible vertical transmission of Tembusu virus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiuli; Chen, Hao; Ti, Jinfeng; Yang, Guoping; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Yunjian; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-09-30

    In 2013, Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection was successively observed on several breeding duck farms in Shandong province, China. Affected ducks showed consistently acute anorexia, diarrhea and egg production drop. 125 hatching eggs produced by TMUV infected breeding ducks from four duck farms were collected. Among them, 35 hatching eggs were selected randomly from all before incubation for vitelline membrane samples collection. The rest of 90 hatching eggs were incubated routinely. As a result, 16 hatching eggs were found non-embryonated, 28 duck embryos died during incubation and 46 newly hatched ducklings were obtained. Vitelline membranes of non-embryonated hatching eggs, vitelline membrane, brain or liver samples of dead embryos and brain samples of newly hatched ducklings were collected for virus detection. Samples collected from one egg, embryo or duckling were treated as one. Consequently, 18 of 35 (51.43%) hatching eggs, 2 of 16 (12.50%) non-embryonated duck eggs, 17 of 28 (60.71%) dead duck embryos and 5 of 46 (10.87%) newly hatched ducklings were detected positive for TMUV using NS3-based RT-PCR. Overall, 42 of 125 (33.6%) eggs were positive for TMUV. A virus strain, designated as TMUV-SDDE, was isolated from one of these dead duck embryos which were detected TMUV positive. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that E gene of TMUV-SDDE virus was closely related to other TMUV strains isolated in China during 2010-2013. Pathogenicity studies showed that TMUV-SDDE strain was virulent to ducklings. This is the first report that TMUV is isolated from duck embryos. The findings provide evidence of possible vertical transmission of TMUV from breeding ducks to ducklings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Module Based Complexity Formation: Periodic Patterning in Feathers and Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism's lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specified number, size, and spacing. We explore how a field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical-chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators / inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (micro-environment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macro-environment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by Cellular Automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to “organ metamorphosis”, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential evolutionary novel steps using this module based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. PMID:23539312

  10. Autosomal-dominant Meesmann epithelial corneal dystrophy without an exon mutation in the keratin-3 or keratin-12 gene in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Yan, Ming; Hao, QianYun; Wang, ShuLin; Wu, LiHua; Liu, Qing; Li, MingYan; Biddle, Fred G; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Meesmann epithelial corneal dystrophy (MECD) is a dominantly inherited disorder, characterized by fragility of the anterior corneal epithelium and formation of intraepithelial microcysts. It has been described in a number of different ancestral groups. To date, all reported cases of MECD have been associated with either a single mutation in one exon of the keratin-3 gene (KRT3) or a single mutation in one of two exons of the keratin-12 gene (KRT12). Each mutation leads to a predicted amino acid change in the respective keratin-3 or keratin-12 proteins that combine to form the corneal-specific heterodimeric intermediate filament protein. This case report describes a four-generation Chinese kindred with typical autosomal-dominant MECD. Exon sequencing of KRT3 and KRT12 in six affected and eight unaffected individuals (including two spouses) did not detect any mutations or nucleotide sequence variants. This kindred demonstrates that single mis-sense mutations may be sufficient but are not required in all individuals with the MECD phenotype. It provides a unique opportunity to investigate further genomic and functional heterogeneity in MECD.

  11. Band reporting probablilities of mallards, American black ducks, and wood ducks in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrettson, Pamela R.; Raftovich, Robert V.; Hines, James; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of band reporting probabilities are used for managing North American waterfowl to convert band recovery probabilities into harvest probabilities, which are used to set harvest regulations. Band reporting probability is the probability that someone who has shot and retrieved a banded bird will report the band. This probability can vary relative to a number of factors, particularly the inscription on the band and the ease with which it can be reported. Other factors, such as geographic reporting region, and species and sex of the bird may also play a role. We tested whether reporting probabilities of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and American black ducks (black ducks; Anas rubripes) differed from those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and whether band reporting varied geographically or by the sex of the banded bird. In the analysis of spatially comparable wood duck and mallard data, a band reporting probability of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.78) was appropriate for use across species, sex, and reporting region within the United States. In the black duck–mallard comparison, the band reporting probability of black ducks in Eastern Canada (0.50, 95% CI = 0.44–0.57) was lower than in the Eastern United States (0.73, 95% CI = 0.62–0.83). These estimates reflected an increase in overall band reporting probability following the addition of a toll-free telephone number to band inscriptions. Lower reporting in Eastern Canada may be because of cultural, linguistic, or logistical barriers.

  12. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P < 0.05). Percentage hens varied among the 5 most common dabbling ducks found at dens. In eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota, where predation on ducks was greatest, an average of 64% of gadwall, 73% of northern pintail, 81% of blue-winged teal, 81% of mallard, and 90% of northern shoveler remains found at dens were hens. Percentage hens among duck remains found at dens increased as the duck nesting season progressed. Numbers of adult ducks found at individual dens ranged from 0 to 67. The average number of ducks found in and around den entrances was used as an index of fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P < 0.10) and duck population size (r = 0.930, P < 0.05), but all species were not affected in the same manner or to

  13. Complete genome sequence of a novel flavivirus, duck tembusu virus, isolated from ducks and geese in china.

    PubMed

    Yun, Tao; Zhang, Dabing; Ma, Xuejun; Cao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Liu; Ni, Zheng; Ye, Weicheng; Yu, Bin; Hua, Jionggang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cun

    2012-03-01

    Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. We report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2, isolated from Shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in China. The genomes of YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. It is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.

  14. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  15. The role of allogenic keratin-derived dressing in wound healing in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Konop, Marek; Sulejczak, Dorota; Czuwara, Joanna; Kosson, Piotr; Misicka, Aleksandra; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Keratin is an interesting protein needed for wound healing and tissue recovery. We have recently proposed a new, simple and inexpensive method to obtain fur and hair keratin-derived biomaterials suitable for medical application. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the fur keratin-derived protein (FKDP) dressing in the allogenic full-thickness surgical skin wound model. The data obtained using scanning electron microscopy showed that employed processed biomaterial had higher surface porosity compared with control raw material. From the MTS test, it was found keratin biomaterial is not only toxic to the NIH/3T3 cell line (p < 0.05), but also enhances cell proliferation compared with the control. In vivo studies have shown keratin dressings are tissue biocompatible, accelerate wound closure and epithelialization to the statistically significant differences on day 5 (p < 0.05) in comparison to control wounds. Histological examination revealed, that in FKDP-treated wounds the inflammatory response contained predominantly macrophages whilst their morphological untreated variants showed mixed cell infiltrates rich in neutrophils. Predominant macrophages based response creates more favorable environment for healing. In FKDP-dressed wounds the number of microhemorrhages was also significantly decreased (p < 0.05) as compared with undressed wounds. Applied keratin dressing favors reconstruction of a more regular skin structure and assures better cosmetic effect in terms of scar formation and appearance. In conclusion, fur keratin-derived protein dressings significantly accelerated wound healing in the mouse model. Further studies are needed to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the multilayer wound healing process and to assess the possible use of these dressings for medical purposes. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Different Duck Species Infected Intramuscularly with Duck-Origin Genotype IX APMV-1 Show Discrepant Mortality and Indicate Another Fatal Genotype APMV-1 to Ducks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanghua; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Qi, Baomin; Chen, Cuiteng; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Liu, Rongchang; Huang, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91.6%-91.9% nucleotide identities with early-genotype viruses (such as genotype III and IV) and shared 85.3%-85.9% nucleotide homologies with later genotype viruses (such as genotype VII). Pathogenicity tests showed that strain XBT14 could cause death in different duck breeds with a mortality rate of 44.4% in Muscovy duck, 25.9% in Sheldrake, and 11.1% in Cherry Valley duck, respectively. Similar mortality discrepancies were also observed in different ducks when infected with chicken-origin gIX virus strain F48E8. These results indicate that XBT14-like velogenic gIX APMV-1 (such as XBT14, F48E8, and GD09-2) could cause fatal infection in duck, and genotype IX is another genotype velogenic to duck as well as genotype VII. Accompanied by genetic differences in the vaccine strains or dominant strains prevailing in poultry, the virulent XBT14-like gIX viruses might become potentially endemic strains in poultry in the future.

  17. Ducks launch into flight at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A flock of ducks launch into the morning sky in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  18. Effects of dietary vanadium in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm vanadyl sulfate in the diet were sacrificed after 12 wk on treatment; tissues were analyzed for vanadium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. Vanadium accumulated to higher concentrations in the bone and liver than in other tissues. Concentrations in bones of hens were five times those in bones of drakes, suggesting an interaction between vanadium and calcium mobilization in laying hens. Vanadium concentrations in most tissues were significantly correlated and increased with treatment level. Lipid metabolism was altered in laying hens fed 100 ppm vanadium. Very little vanadium accumulated in the eggs of laying hens.

  19. Relationship of PCDD/F concentrations in duck-egg farmers and consumption of ranched duck eggs in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Po-Chin; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2010-11-01

    The 2004 food market-basket survey in Taiwan found high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in duck eggs. A subsequent survey in Chang-Hua County, central Taiwan, found nine duck farms for egg production and duck eggs that were highly contaminated by PCDD/Fs in the secondary sampling and analysis during the years 2004 to 2005. Duck-egg farmers eat duck eggs rather than chicken eggs, and the aim of the current study was to evaluate how eating contaminated duck eggs affected serum PCDD/F accumulation and PCDD/F profiles in family members of duck-egg farmers. Forty-two family members of duck-egg farmers and 88 residents living nearby (control group) were recruited. Serum PCDD/F levels were significantly higher in duck-egg farmers than in the control group (28.1 vs 18.6 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalency [TEQ]/g lipid, WHO-TEQ). Significant differences in PCDD/F levels were found for most congeners, especially for 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorinated dibenzofurans. Elevated serum PCDD/F levels were positively associated with an increase in monthly duck-egg consumption after adjustments for fish consumption. The current result contradicted results of our previous study, which showed a positive association between fish intake and serum PCDD/F levels. The matter of cultivation in the contaminant area in Chang-Hua County should be considered more seriously. © 2010 SETAC

  20. Cellulose, Chitosan, and Keratin Composite Materials. Controlled Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed in which cellulose (CEL) and/or chitosan (CS) were added to keratin (KER) to enable [CEL/CS+KER] composites to have better mechanical strength and wider utilization. Butylmethylimmidazolium chloride ([BMIm+Cl–]), an ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent, and because the [BMIm+Cl–] used was recovered, the method is green and recyclable. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirm that KER, CS, and CEL remain chemically intact in the composites. Tensile strength results expectedly show that adding CEL or CS into KER substantially increases the mechanical strength of the composites. We found that CEL, CS, and KER can encapsulate drugs such as ciprofloxacin (CPX) and then release the drug either as a single or as two- or three-component composites. Interestingly, release rates of CPX by CEL and CS either as a single or as [CEL+CS] composite are faster and independent of concentration of CS and CEL. Conversely, the release rate by KER is much slower, and when incorporated into CEL, CS, or CEL+CS, it substantially slows the rate as well. Furthermore, the reducing rate was found to correlate with the concentration of KER in the composites. KER, a protein, is known to have secondary structure, whereas CEL and CS exist only in random form. This makes KER structurally denser than CEL and CS; hence, KER releases the drug slower than CEL and CS. The results clearly indicate that drug release can be controlled and adjusted at any rate by judiciously selecting the concentration of KER in the composites. Furthermore, the fact that the [CEL+CS+KER] composite has combined properties of its components, namely, superior mechanical strength (CEL), hemostasis and bactericide (CS), and controlled drug release (KER), indicates that this novel composite can be used in ways which hitherto were not possible, e.g., as a high-performance bandage to treat chronic and ulcerous wounds. PMID:25548871

  1. Bristles before down: a new perspective on the functional origin of feathers.

    PubMed

    Persons, Walter S; Currie, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last two decades, the understanding of the early evolution of feathers in nonavian dinosaurs has been revolutionized. It is now recognized that early feathers had a simple form comparable in general structure to the hairs of mammals. Insight into the prevalence of simple feathers throughout the dinosaur family tree has gradually arisen in tandem with the growing evidence for endothermic dinosaur metabolisms. This has led to the generally accepted opinion that the early feather coats of dinosaurs functioned as thermo insulation. However, thermo insulation is often erroneously stated to be a likely functional explanation for the origin of feathers. The problem with this explanation is that, like mammalian hair, simple feathers could serve as insulation only when present in sufficiently high concentrations. The theory therefore necessitates the origination of feathers en masse. We advocate for a novel origin theory of feathers as bristles. Bristles are facial feathers common among modern birds that function like mammalian tactile whiskers, and are frequently simple and hair-like in form. Bristles serve their role in low concentrations, and therefore offer a feasible first stage in feather evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. A full annual cycle modeling framework for American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor P.; Devers, Patrick K.; Brook, Rodney W.; Huang, Min; Jones, Malcom; McAuley, Daniel G.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2016-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) are a harvested, international migratory waterfowl species in eastern North America. Despite an extended period of restrictive harvest regulations, the black duck population is still below the population goal identified in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). It has been hypothesized that density-dependent factors restrict population growth in the black duck population and that habitat management (increases, improvements, etc.) may be a key component of growing black duck populations and reaching the prescribed NAWMP population goal. Using banding data from 1951 to 2011 and breeding population survey data from 1990 to 2014, we developed a full annual cycle population model for the American black duck. This model uses the seven management units as set by the Black Duck Joint Venture, allows movement into and out of each unit during each season, and models survival and fecundity for each region separately. We compare model population trajectories with observed population data and abundance estimates from the breeding season counts to show the accuracy of this full annual cycle model. With this model, we then show how to simulate the effects of habitat management on the continental black duck population.

  3. Multiple losses of flight and recent speciation in steamer ducks

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Tara L.; Letts, Brandon; Shapiro, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Steamer ducks (Tachyeres) comprise four species, three of which are flightless. The flightless species are believed to have diverged from a flying common ancestor during the Late Pleistocene; however, their taxonomy remains contentious. Of particular interest is the previously unstudied population of flying steamer ducks in the Falkland Islands. We present the first genetic data from this insular population, and illustrate that the flying and flightless steamer ducks on the Falkland Islands are genetically indistinguishable, in contrast to their traditional classification as separate species. The three species that reside in continental South America form a genetically distinct lineage from the Falkland Island ducks. The Falkland steamer ducks diverged from their continental relatives 2.2–0.6 million years ago, coincident with a probable land bridge connecting the Falkland Islands to the mainland. The three continental species share a common ancestor approximately 15 000 years ago, possibly owing to isolation during a recent glacial advance. The continental steamer duck species are not reciprocally monophyletic, but show some amount of genetic differentiation between them. Each lineage of Tachyeres represents a different stage between flight and flightlessness. Their phylogenetic relationships suggest multiple losses of flight and/or long-term persistence of mixed-flight capability. As such, steamer ducks may provide a model system to study the evolution of flightlessness. PMID:22319122

  4. Fall food habits of ducks near Santee Refuge, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGilvrey, F.B.

    1966-01-01

    During the 1961 waterfowl hunting season, 360 stomachs of 10 duck species were collected from hunters near the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Marion, South Carolina. Based on percentage of total volume, 20 of the most important foods are listed. The six most important duck species in the kill were: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wood duck (Aix sponsa), widgeon (Mareca americam), pintail (Anas acuta) , black duck ( Anas rubripes) , and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis). Six plant species made up 5 percent or more of the total volume of food items found in the stomachs of all ducks. Only seeds of oaks (Quercus sp.), corn, sweet gum (Liquidambar Styraciflua), and buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) were consumed. Some seed, but mostly the vegetative portions of hydrochloa (Hydrochloa carolinensis) and only the vegetative portions of southern rice cutgrass (Leersia hexandra) were taken. The more important game ducks concentrated on the refuge farmlands when water levels were below 72 feet mean sea level (msl). When levels reached 75 feet msl, natural foods became available, ducks dispersed from refuge areas, and hunting success increased greatly.

  5. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  6. Fluorescence detection of protein content in house dust: the possible role of keratin.

    PubMed

    Voloshina, O V; Shirshin, E A; Lademann, J; Fadeev, V V; Darvin, M E

    2017-03-01

    We propose a fluorescence method for protein content assessment in fine house dust, which can be used as an indicator of the hygienic state of occupied rooms. The results of the measurements performed with 30 house dust samples, including ultrafiltration experiments, strongly suggest that the fluorescence emission of house dust extracts excited at 350 nm is mainly due to protein fragments, which are presumably keratin hydrolysates. This suggestion is supported by several facts: (i) Spectral band shapes for all the samples under investigation are close and correspond to that of keratin; (ii) fluorescence intensity correlates with the total protein content as provided by Lowry assay; (iii) treatment of the samples with proteinase K, which induces keratin hydrolysis, results in fluorescence enhancement without changing fluorescence band shape; and (iv) Raman spectra of keratin and fine house dust samples exhibit a very similar structure. Based on the obtained results and literature data, we propose a hypothesis that keratin is a major substrate for fluorescence species in fine house dust, which are responsible for emission at 350-nm excitation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force–induced stress fiber reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical force–induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch–induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force–induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force–induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. PMID:26823019

  8. Development and Characterization of a 3D Printed, Keratin-Based Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Placone, Jesse K; Navarro, Javier; Laslo, Gregory W; Lerman, Max J; Gabard, Alexis R; Herendeen, Gregory J; Falco, Erin E; Tomblyn, Seth; Burnett, Luke; Fisher, John P

    2017-01-01

    Keratin, a naturally-derived polymer derived from human hair, is physiologically biodegradable, provides adequate cell support, and can self-assemble or be crosslinked to form hydrogels. Nevertheless, it has had limited use in tissue engineering and has been mainly used as casted scaffolds for drug or growth factor delivery applications. Here, we present and assess a novel method for the printed, sequential production of 3D keratin scaffolds. Using a riboflavin-SPS-hydroquinone (initiator-catalyst-inhibitor) photosensitive solution we produced 3D keratin constructs via UV crosslinking in a lithography-based 3D printer. The hydrogels obtained have adequate printing resolution and result in compressive and dynamic mechanical properties, uptake and swelling capacities, cytotoxicity, and microstructural characteristics that are comparable or superior to those of casted keratin scaffolds previously reported. The novel keratin-based printing resin and printing methodology presented have the potential to impact future research by providing an avenue to rapidly and reproducibly manufacture patient-specific hydrogels for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  9. Moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate effects on bighorn sheep horn keratin mechanical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, K. L.; Trim, M. W.; Francis, D. K.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Our paper investigates the effects of moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate on the mechanical properties of the bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis) horn keratin. The horns consist of fibrous keratin tubules extending along the length of the horn and are contained within an amorphous keratin matrix. We tested samples in the rehydrated (35 wt.% water) and ambient dry (10 wt.% water) conditions along the longitudinal and radial directions under tension and compression. Increased moisture content was found to increase ductility and decrease strength, as well as alter the stress state dependent nature of the material. Furthermore, the horn keratinmore » demonstrates a significant strain rate dependence in both tension and compression, and also showed increased energy absorption in the hydrated condition at high strain rates when compared to quasi-static data, with increases of 114% in tension and 192% in compression. Compressive failure occurred by lamellar buckling in the longitudinal orientation followed by shear delamination. Tensile failure in the longitudinal orientation occurred by lamellar delamination combined with tubule pullout and fracture. Finally, the structure-property relationships quantified here for bighorn sheep horn keratin can be used to help validate finite element simulations of ram’s impacting each other as well as being useful for other analysis regarding horn keratin on other animals.« less

  10. Novel bilayer wound dressing based on electrospun gelatin/keratin nanofibrous mats for skin wound repair.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Chia-Yu; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chen, Kuo-Yu

    2017-10-01

    A bilayer membrane (GKU) with a commercial polyurethane wound dressing as an outer layer and electrospun gelatin/keratin nanofibrous mat as an inner layer was fabricated as a novel wound dressing. Scanning electron micrographs showed that gelatin/keratin nanofibers had a uniform morphology and bead-free structure with average fiber diameter of 160.4nm. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using L929 fibroblast cells indicated that the residues released from the gelatin/keratin composite nanofibrous mat accelerated cell proliferation. Cell attachment experiments revealed that adhered cells spread better and migrated deeper into the gelatin/keratin nanofibrous mat than that into the gelatin nanofibrous mat. In animal studies, compared with the bilayer membrane without keratin, gauze and commercial wound dressing, Comfeel®, GKU membrane gave much more number of blood vessels and a greater reduction in wound area at 4days, and better wound repair at 14days with a thicker epidermis and larger number of newly formed hair follicles. GKU membrane, thus, could be a good candidate for wound dressing applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Various Techniques to Increase Keratinized Tissue for Implant Supported Overdentures: Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Cayarga, Rodrigo; Suzuki, Takanori; Kaufman, Zev

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this retrospective case series is to describe and compare different surgical techniques that can be utilized to augment the keratinized soft tissue around implant-supported overdentures. Materials and Methods. The data set was extracted as deidentified information from the routine treatment of patients at the Ashman Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry at New York University College of Dentistry. Eight edentulous patients were selected to be included in this study. Patients were treated for lack of keratinized tissue prior to implant placement, during the second stage surgery, and after delivery of the final prosthesis. Results. All 8 patients in this study were wearing a complete maxillary and/or mandibular denture for at least a year before the time of the surgery. One of the following surgical techniques was utilized to increase the amount of keratinized tissue: apically positioned flap (APF), pedicle graft (PG), connective tissue graft (CTG), or free gingival graft (FGG). Conclusions. The amount of keratinized tissue should be taken into consideration when planning for implant-supported overdentures. The apical repositioning flap is an effective approach to increase the width of keratinized tissue prior to the implant placement. PMID:26124833

  12. The role of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in keratin intermediate filament protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Micah R; Jaitovich, Ariel; Ridge, Karen M

    2010-02-01

    Lung injury, whether caused by hypoxic or mechanical stresses, elicits a variety of responses at the cellular level. Alveolar epithelial cells respond and adapt to such injurious stimuli by reorganizing the cellular cytoskeleton, mainly accomplished through modification of the intermediate filament (IF) network. The structural and mechanical integrity in epithelial cells is maintained through this adaptive reorganization response. Keratin, the predominant IF expressed in epithelial cells, displays highly dynamic properties in response to injury, sometimes in the form of degradation of the keratin IF network. Post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation, targets keratin proteins for degradation in these circumstances. As with other structural and regulatory proteins, turnover of keratin is regulated by the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway. The degradation process begins with activation of Ub by the Ub-activating enzyme (E1), followed by the exchange of Ub to the Ub-conjugating enzyme (E2). E2 shuttles the Ub molecule to the substrate-specific Ub ligase (E3), which then delivers the Ub to the substrate protein, thereby targeting it for degradation. In some cases of injury and IF-related disease, aggresomes form in epithelial cells. The mechanisms that regulate aggresome formation are currently unknown, although proteasome overload may play a role. Therefore, a more complete understanding of keratin degradation--causes, mechanisms, and consequences--will allow for a greater understanding of epithelial cell biology and lung pathology alike.

  13. Free Gingival Graft to Increase Keratinized Mucosa after Placing of Mandibular Fixed Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Elcio

    2017-01-01

    Insufficiently keratinized tissue can be increased surgically by free gingival grafting. The presence or reconstruction of keratinized mucosa around the implant can facilitate restorative procedure and allow the maintenance of an oral hygiene routine without irritation or discomfort to the patient. The aim of this clinical case report is to describe an oral rehabilitation procedure of an edentulous patient with absence of keratinized mucosa in the interforaminal area, using a free gingival graft associated with a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis. The treatment included the manufacturing of a maxillary complete denture and a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis followed by a free gingival graft to increase the width of the mandibular keratinized mucosa. Free gingival graft was obtained from the palate and grafted on the buccal side of interforaminal area. The follow-up of 02 and 12 months after mucogingival surgery showed that the free gingival graft promoted peri-implant health, hygiene, and patient comfort. Clinical Significance. The free gingival graft is an effective treatment in increasing the width of mandibular keratinized mucosa on the buccal side of the interforaminal area and provided an improvement in maintaining the health of peri-implant tissues which allows for better oral hygiene. PMID:28293441

  14. Moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate effects on bighorn sheep horn keratin mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K. L.; Trim, M. W.; Francis, D. K.

    Our paper investigates the effects of moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate on the mechanical properties of the bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis) horn keratin. The horns consist of fibrous keratin tubules extending along the length of the horn and are contained within an amorphous keratin matrix. We tested samples in the rehydrated (35 wt.% water) and ambient dry (10 wt.% water) conditions along the longitudinal and radial directions under tension and compression. Increased moisture content was found to increase ductility and decrease strength, as well as alter the stress state dependent nature of the material. Furthermore, the horn keratinmore » demonstrates a significant strain rate dependence in both tension and compression, and also showed increased energy absorption in the hydrated condition at high strain rates when compared to quasi-static data, with increases of 114% in tension and 192% in compression. Compressive failure occurred by lamellar buckling in the longitudinal orientation followed by shear delamination. Tensile failure in the longitudinal orientation occurred by lamellar delamination combined with tubule pullout and fracture. Finally, the structure-property relationships quantified here for bighorn sheep horn keratin can be used to help validate finite element simulations of ram’s impacting each other as well as being useful for other analysis regarding horn keratin on other animals.« less

  15. Keratin-lipid structural organization in the corneous layer of snake.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Alberto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Falini, Giuseppe; Fermani, Simona; Gazzano, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    The shed epidermis (molt) of snakes comprises four distinct layers. The upper two layers, here considered as beta-layer, contain essentially beta-keratin. The following layer, known as mesos-layer, is similar to the human stratum corneum, and is formed by thin cells surrounded by intercellular lipids. The latter layer mainly contains alpha-keratin. In this study, the molecular assemblies of proteins and lipids contained in these layers have been analyzed in the scale of two species of snakes, the elapid Tiger snake (TS, Notechis scutatus) and the viperid Gabon viper (GV, Bitis gabonica). Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy experiments confirm the presence of the three layers in the GV skin scale. Conversely, in the TS molt a typical alpha-keratin layer appears to be absent. In the latter, experimental data suggest the presence of two domains similar to those found in the lipid intercellular matrix of stratum corneum. X-ray diffraction data also allow to determine the relative orientation of keratins and lipids. The keratin fibrils are randomly oriented inside the layers parallel to the surface of scales while the lipids are organized in lamellar structures having aliphatic chains normal to the scale surface. The high ordered lipid organization in the mature mesos layer probably increases its effectiveness in limiting water-loss.

  16. Factors influencing depredation of artificial duck nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Grand, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Because artificial nests can facilitate controlled experiments of nest success, we used them to assess whether human visitation, nest density, vegetation structure, and proximity to habitat edge could affect depredation of duck nests on Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. More (P < 0.01) nests in a plot visited daily (100%) were depredated than those in plots visited at intervals of 7 (40%), 14 (35%), or 28 days (45%). More (P < 0.01) nests were depredated in a plot with 10 nests/ha (95%) than nests in a plot of a lower density (2/ha; 40%). Vegetation height, vegetation density, distance to a wetland, distance to forest edge, or distance to the nearest ecotone did not differ (P > 0.05) between depredated and undisturbed nests. We suggest that daily visitation of duck nests increases depredation, but longer intervals, typical of most nest studies, do not. High nesting densities, which could occur when flooding limits nesting habitat, may result in higher depredation rates.

  17. Genetic characterization of a novel astrovirus in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qinfeng; Liu, Ning; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Fumin; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-06-01

    Three divergent groups of duck astroviruses (DAstVs), namely DAstV-1, DAstV-2 (formerly duck hepatitis virus type 3) and DAstV-3 (isolate CPH), and other avastroviruses are known to infect domestic ducks. To provide more data regarding the molecular epidemiology of astroviruses in domestic ducks, we examined the prevalence of astroviruses in 136 domestic duck samples collected from four different provinces of China. Nineteen goose samples were also included. Using an astrovirus-specific reverse transcription-PCR assay, two groups of astroviruses were detected from our samples. A group of astroviruses detected from Pekin ducks, Shaoxing ducks and Landes geese were highly similar to the newly discovered DAstV-3. More interestingly, a novel group of avastroviruses, which we named DAstV-4, was detected in Pekin ducks. Following full-length sequencing and sequence analysis, the variation between DAstV-4 and other avastroviruses in terms of lengths of genome and internal component was highlighted. Sequence identity and phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of the three open reading frames (ORFs) clearly demonstrated that DAstV-4 was highly divergent from all other avastroviruses. Further analyses showed that DAstV-4 shared low levels of genome identities (50-58%) and high levels of mean amino acid genetic distances in the ORF2 sequences (0.520-0.801) with other avastroviruses, suggesting DAstV-4 may represent an additional avastrovirus species although the taxonomic relationship of DAstV-4 to DAstV-3 remains to be resolved. The present works contribute to the understanding of epidemiology, ecology and taxonomy of astroviruses in ducks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American black duck (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James C.; Garrison, Russell L.

    1984-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The American black duck, commonly known as the black duck, is migratory and has a wide geographic range. American black ducks breed from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, west to the Mississippi River and north through the eastern Canadian boreal forest (Bellrose 1976). The winter range extends from the Rio Grande River on the Texas coast, northeast to Lake Michigan, east to Nova Scotia, south to Florida, and west to Texas (Wright 1954). American black ducks arrive on their wintering habitats between September and early December and remain there until February to April (Bellrose 1976). Their preferred habitat varies considerably through the wintering range. Habitat use appears related to food availability, freedom from disturbance, weather, and often upon the presence of large bodies of open water. These interrelated elements are essential for meeting the energy demands and other nutritional requirements of black ducks in response to the rigors of cold weather and migration. In the Atlantic Flyway, winter populations of American black ducks concentrate in marine and estuarine wetlands (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1979). They use salt marshes and small tidal bays for feeding and loafing areas. In wintering areas north of Chesapeake Bay, American black ducks frequently feed on tidal flats and rest in emergent wetlands or on ice-free bays, rivers, and coastal reservoirs. In the Chesapeake bay area, migrant and wintering American black ducks occupy a wide variety of habitats (Stewart 1962). They strongly favor brackish bays with extensive adjacent agricultural lands. Estuarine bays, coastal salt marshes, tidal fresh marshes, and adjacent impoundments receive high usage. American black ducks also concentrate in forested wetlands in and adjacent to estuaries in the South Atlantic Flyway, especially in Virginia and North Carolina.

  19. Fabrication of hierarchical feather-mimetic polymer nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Shenshen; Wang, Tao; Zhong, Longgang; Peng, Meiling; Yao, Juming; Wang, Sheng

    2018-01-01

    In this study, hierarchically feather-mimetic structures formed of poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA) nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent crystallisation for superwettability applications. X-ray diffraction measurementsand scanning electron microscopy show that a feather-mimetic structure of crystallised nanoflakes was formed following a hydrothermal treatment process. The nanoflakes formed a nanosized fine texture on top of a coarser-textured membrane, which greatly improved the membrane roughness and yielded a hierarchical topography. After fluorination, the membrane exhibited superamphiphobicity, with surface contact angles of 151° and 136° for water and hexadecane, respectively. The method provides new insight for the design and development of functional bionic membranes based on PMIA.

  20. Genetic analysis of duck circovirus in Pekin ducks from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Cho, J-G; Jang, H-K

    2013-11-01

    The genetic organization of the 24 duck circovirus (DuCV) strains detected in commercial Pekin ducks from South Korea between 2011 and 2012 is described in this study. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed on the 24 viral genome sequences as well as on 45 genome sequences available from the GenBank database. Phylogenetic analyses based on the genomic and open reading frame 2/cap sequences demonstrated that all DuCV strains belonged to genotype 1 and were designated in a subcluster under genotype 1. Analysis of the capsid protein amino acid sequences of the 24 Korean DuCV strains showed 10 substitutions compared with that of other genotype 1 strains. Our analysis showed that genotype 1 is predominant and circulating in South Korea. These present results serve as incentive to add more data to the DuCV database and provide insight to conduct further intensive study on the geographic relationships among these virus strains.

  1. Wear resistance of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) with the Addition of Bone Ash, Hydroxylapatite and Keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emre, G.; Akkus, A.; Karamış, M. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this study mechanichal and tribological properties of keratin, bone ash and hydroxylapatite by adding to PMMA ( known as the main prosthesis material) were investigated. Hydroxylapatite, bone ash, and keratin materials were added as PMMA in to the content of PMMA, in the proportions of %1, %3 and %5, respectively. The resulting mixtures were put into the molds and solidified in order to obtain samples to be used in the wear experiments. Each experiment was conducted by preparing three experimental samples. The wear data were compared according to the average values of the experimental samples. In the wear test, the results were also evaluated according to the average values obtained from each group and the results of the control group. It was observed that, the wear resistance of the PMMA including 3%, 5% bone ash and PMMA including 5% keratin flour were higher than the values of the control group.

  2. Toward unraveling the complexity of simple epithelial keratins in human disease.

    PubMed

    Omary, M Bishr; Ku, Nam-On; Strnad, Pavel; Hanada, Shinichiro

    2009-07-01

    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are found primarily in single-layered simple epithelia and include keratin 7 (K7), K8, K18-K20, and K23. Genetically engineered mice that lack SEKs or overexpress mutant SEKs have helped illuminate several keratin functions and served as important disease models. Insight into the contribution of SEKs to human disease has indicated that K8 and K18 are the major constituents of Mallory-Denk bodies, hepatic inclusions associated with several liver diseases, and are essential for inclusion formation. Furthermore, mutations in the genes encoding K8, K18, and K19 predispose individuals to a variety of liver diseases. Hence, as we discuss here, the SEK cytoskeleton is involved in the orchestration of several important cellular functions and contributes to the pathogenesis of human liver disease.

  3. Toward unraveling the complexity of simple epithelial keratins in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Omary, M. Bishr; Ku, Nam-On; Strnad, Pavel; Hanada, Shinichiro

    2009-01-01

    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are found primarily in single-layered simple epithelia and include keratin 7 (K7), K8, K18–K20, and K23. Genetically engineered mice that lack SEKs or overexpress mutant SEKs have helped illuminate several keratin functions and served as important disease models. Insight into the contribution of SEKs to human disease has indicated that K8 and K18 are the major constituents of Mallory-Denk bodies, hepatic inclusions associated with several liver diseases, and are essential for inclusion formation. Furthermore, mutations in the genes encoding K8, K18, and K19 predispose individuals to a variety of liver diseases. Hence, as we discuss here, the SEK cytoskeleton is involved in the orchestration of several important cellular functions and contributes to the pathogenesis of human liver disease. PMID:19587454

  4. Keratin 17 null mice exhibit age- and strain-dependent alopecia

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Kevin M.; Tong, Xuemei; Colucci-Guyon, Emma; Langa, Francina; Babinet, Charles; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2002-01-01

    Onset of type I keratin 17 (K17) synthesis marks the adoption of an appendageal fate within embryonic ectoderm, and its expression persists in specific cell types within mature hair, glands, and nail. We report that K17 null mice develop severe alopecia during the first week postbirth, correlating with hair fragility, alterations in follicular histology, and apoptosis in matrix cells. These alterations are incompletely penetrant and normalize starting with the first postnatal cycle. Absence of a hair phenotype correlates with a genetic strain-dependent compensation by related keratins, including K16. These findings reveal a crucial role for K17 in the structural integrity of the first hair produced and the survival of hair-producing cells. Given that identical inherited mutations in this gene can cause either pachyonychia congenita or steatocystoma multiplex, the features of this mouse model suggest that this clinical heterogeneity arises from a cell type-specific, genetically determined compensation by related keratins. PMID:12050118

  5. Keratin 17 null mice exhibit age- and strain-dependent alopecia.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Kevin M; Tong, Xuemei; Colucci-Guyon, Emma; Langa, Francina; Babinet, Charles; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2002-06-01

    Onset of type I keratin 17 (K17) synthesis marks the adoption of an appendageal fate within embryonic ectoderm, and its expression persists in specific cell types within mature hair, glands, and nail. We report that K17 null mice develop severe alopecia during the first week postbirth, correlating with hair fragility, alterations in follicular histology, and apoptosis in matrix cells. These alterations are incompletely penetrant and normalize starting with the first postnatal cycle. Absence of a hair phenotype correlates with a genetic strain-dependent compensation by related keratins, including K16. These findings reveal a crucial role for K17 in the structural integrity of the first hair produced and the survival of hair-producing cells. Given that identical inherited mutations in this gene can cause either pachyonychia congenita or steatocystoma multiplex, the features of this mouse model suggest that this clinical heterogeneity arises from a cell type-specific, genetically determined compensation by related keratins.

  6. Giant axonal neuropathy alters the structure of keratin intermediate filaments in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Asfia; Alsop, Richard J.; Negishi, Atsuko; Kreplak, Laurent; Fudge, Douglas; Kuczmarski, Edward R.; Goldman, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) follows an autosomal recessive genetic inheritance and impedes the peripheral and central nervous system due to axonal swellings that are packed with neurofilaments. The patients display a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, muscle weakness, decreased reflexes, ataxia, seizures, intellectual disability, pale skin and often curled hair. We used X-ray diffraction and tensile testing to determine potential changes to the structure of keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) in the hair of patients with GAN. A statistically significant decrease in the 47 and the 27 Å diffraction signals were observed. Tensile tests determined that the hair was slightly stiffer, stronger and more extensible in GAN patients. These results suggest that the structure of keratin IFs in hair is altered in GAN, and the findings are compatible with an increased positional disorder of the keratin tetramers within the hair fibres. PMID:28424304

  7. Giant axonal neuropathy alters the structure of keratin intermediate filaments in human hair.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Asfia; Alsop, Richard J; Negishi, Atsuko; Kreplak, Laurent; Fudge, Douglas; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Goldman, Robert D; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2017-04-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) follows an autosomal recessive genetic inheritance and impedes the peripheral and central nervous system due to axonal swellings that are packed with neurofilaments. The patients display a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, muscle weakness, decreased reflexes, ataxia, seizures, intellectual disability, pale skin and often curled hair. We used X-ray diffraction and tensile testing to determine potential changes to the structure of keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) in the hair of patients with GAN. A statistically significant decrease in the 47 and the 27 Å diffraction signals were observed. Tensile tests determined that the hair was slightly stiffer, stronger and more extensible in GAN patients. These results suggest that the structure of keratin IFs in hair is altered in GAN, and the findings are compatible with an increased positional disorder of the keratin tetramers within the hair fibres. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Chicken feather fiber as an additive in MDF composites

    Treesearch

    Jerrold E. Winandy; James H. Muehl; Jessie A. Glaeser; Walter Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels were made with aspen fiber and 0-95% chicken feather fiber (CFF) in 2.5%, 5%, or 25% increments, using 5% phenol formaldehyde resin as the adhesive. Panels were tested for mechanical and physical properties as well as decay. The addition of CFF decreased strength and stiffness of MDF-CFF composites compared with that of all-wood...

  9. Shrimp pond wastewater treatment using pyrolyzed chicken feather as adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.

  10. Melanosome evolution indicates a key physiological shift within feathered dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanguo; Clarke, Julia A; Gao, Ke-Qin; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Meng, Qingjin; Li, Daliang; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2014-03-20

    Inference of colour patterning in extinct dinosaurs has been based on the relationship between the morphology of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) and colour in extant bird feathers. When this relationship evolved relative to the origin of feathers and other novel integumentary structures, such as hair and filamentous body covering in extinct archosaurs, has not been evaluated. Here we sample melanosomes from the integument of 181 extant amniote taxa and 13 lizard, turtle, dinosaur and pterosaur fossils from the Upper-Jurassic and Lower-Cretaceous of China. We find that in the lineage leading to birds, the observed increase in the diversity of melanosome morphologies appears abruptly, near the origin of pinnate feathers in maniraptoran dinosaurs. Similarly, mammals show an increased diversity of melanosome form compared to all ectothermic amniotes. In these two clades, mammals and maniraptoran dinosaurs including birds, melanosome form and colour are linked and colour reconstruction may be possible. By contrast, melanosomes in lizard, turtle and crocodilian skin, as well as the archosaurian filamentous body coverings (dinosaur 'protofeathers' and pterosaur 'pycnofibres'), show a limited diversity of form that is uncorrelated with colour in extant taxa. These patterns may be explained by convergent changes in the key melanocortin system of mammals and birds, which is known to affect pleiotropically both melanin-based colouration and energetic processes such as metabolic rate in vertebrates, and may therefore support a significant physiological shift in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  11. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  12. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold weremore » observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.« less

  13. Ultrastructural study of liver and lead tissue concentrations in young mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after ingestion of single lead shot.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Plouzeau, Eric; Fernandez, Béatrice; Quellard, Nathalie; Levillain, Pierre; Guillard, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) represents a serious threat to wildlife and ecosystems. The aim of this study was to examine the subcellular effects of dietary Pb pellet ingestion on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) livers. After ingestion of a single Pb shot (LS4 size class: 0.177 ± 0.03 g) in 41 mallard ducks (22 males and 19 females) versus 10 controls (5 males and 5 females), all 7-week old, a morphologic study was conducted by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) of liver at the subcellular level. The results in treated mallards showed at a magnification of 2500 X that hepatic parenchyma was altered as evidenced by intralysosomal electron-dense deposits, which are compatible with Pb deposits. Further, at a higher magnification (15,000 X) in both genders, deterioration of mitochondria was observed in which the crests and, to a lesser extent, outer membrane were lysed. While the rough endoplasmic reticulum was fragmented, intracytoplasmic electron-dense material compatible with Pb deposits was maximally visible, thereby underscoring the deeply destructive effect of this metal on the subcellular architecture of the liver. In addition, applying an optimized and validated method in a clean room using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) with Zeeman background correction, the objective was to improve and refine certain indispensable measurements pertaining to Pb impregnation in tissues other than liver such as kidneys, bones, and feathers of mallards. Data demonstrated show that compared with controls, Pb accumulation increases significantly, not only in the liver (3-fold), but also in the bones and the feathers (14-fold). No significant difference was noted between males and females. Bearing in mind the marked subcellular toxicity attributed to Pb, this study reinforces present-day arguments advocating limitation of game consumption.

  14. Immunoelectron microscopic localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigens in normal and neoplastic urothelium.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D; Nathrath, W B; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscope cytochemistry was carried out on 2% paraformaldehyde fixed, 50 mu sections of normal urothelium and bladder carcinoma cells in culture using antisera raised in rabbits to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal "broad spectrum" keratin and calf urothelial "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) Both the unconjugated and indirect immunoperoxidase-DAB techniques were used before routine embedding. The localisation of both keratin and luminal epithelial antigen (LEA) was similar in normal and neoplastic cells and reaction product was associated not only with tonofilaments but also lining membrane vesicles and on fine filaments in the cytoplasmic ground substance.

  15. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  16. Do wintering Harlequin Ducks forage nocturnally at high latitudes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, D.J.; Esler, Daniel N.; Roby, D.D.; Jarvis, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    We monitored radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to determine whether nocturnal feeding was part of their foraging strategy during winter in south-central Alaska. Despite attributes of our study site (low ambient temperatures, harsh weather, short day length) and study species (small body size, high daytime foraging rates) that would be expected to favor nocturnal foraging, we found no evidence of nocturnal dive-feeding. Signals from eight radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks never exhibited signal loss due to diving during a total of 780 minutes of nocturnal monitoring. In contrast, the same eight birds exhibited signal loss during 62 ± 7% (SE) of 5-minute diurnal monitoring periods (total of 365 minutes of monitoring). Our results suggest that Harlequin Ducks in south-central Alaska face a stringent time constraint on daytime foraging during midwinter. Harlequin Ducks wintering at high latitudes, therefore, may be particularly sensitive to factors that increase foraging requirements or decrease foraging efficiency.

  17. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  18. Decreased hydrophobicity of iridescent feathers: a potential cost of shiny plumage.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Chad M; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2011-07-01

    Honest advertisement models posit that sexually selected traits are costly to produce, maintain or otherwise bear. Brightly coloured feathers are thought to be classic examples of these models, but evidence for a cost in feathers not coloured by carotenoid pigments is scarce. Unlike pigment-based colours, iridescent feather colours are produced by light scattering in modified feather barbules that are characteristically flattened and twisted towards the feather surface. These modifications increase light reflectance, but also expose more surface area for water adhesion, suggesting a potential trade-off between colour and hydrophobicity. Using light microscopy, spectrometry, contact angle goniometry and self-cleaning experiments, we show that iridescent feathers of mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, are less hydrophobic than adjacent non-iridescent feathers, and that this is primarily caused by differences in barbule microstructure. Furthermore, as a result of this decreased hydrophobicity, iridescent feathers are less efficient at self-cleaning than non-iridescent feathers. Together, these results suggest a previously unforeseen cost of iridescent plumage traits that may help to explain the evolution and distribution of iridescence in birds.

  19. Ecology and conservation of North American sea ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Harvest history The book presents a comprehensive synthesis of sea duck ecology, documents factors that have caused population declines of some species, and provides managers with measures to enhance recovery of depressed populations of sea ducks in North America. Capturing the current state of knowledge of this unique tribe, it provides a benchmark for where we are in conservation efforts and suggests future directions for researchers, managers, students, conservationists, and avian enthusiasts.

  20. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic association between free grazing duck census counts and current statistics on the spatial distribution of rice crops in Thailand, in particular the crop calendar of rice production. The analysis was carried out using both district level rice statistics and rice distribution data predicted with the aid of remote sensing, using a rice-detection algorithm. The results indicated a strong association between the number of free grazing ducks and the number of months during which second-crop rice harvest takes place, as well as with the rice crop intensity as predicted by remote sensing. These results confirmed that free grazing duck husbandry was strongly driven by agricultural land use and rice crop intensity, and that this later variable can be readily predicted using remote sensing. Analysis of rice cropping patterns may provide an indication of the location of populations of free grazing ducks in other countries with similar mixed duck and rice production systems and less detailed duck census data. Apart from free ranging ducks and rice cropping, the role of hydrology and seasonality of wetlands and water bodies in the HPAI risk analysis is also discussed in relation to the presumed dry season aggregation of wild waterfowl and aquatic poultry offering much scope for virus transmission. PMID:18418464

  1. Comparison of acellular dermal graft and palatal autograft in the reconstruction of keratinized gingiva around dental implants: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Jong; Tsai, Alex Yi-Min; Wong, Man-Ying; Hou, Lein-Tuan

    2006-06-01

    The use of autogenous gingival grafts has proved to be an effective and predictable way to increase the amount of keratinized gingiva. However, discomfort and pain at the donor site are unavoidable. Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allograft can be used as a donor tissue to eliminate the need for another surgical site and alleviate pain and trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ADM allograft in increasing the width of keratinized gingiva around dental implants. A patient with inadequate keratinized gingiva around dental implants in maxillary and mandibular anterior regions received either an ADM graft or palatal autograft by random allocation. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical periodontal parameters were recorded initially and at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Both grafts provided satisfactory results. The width of keratinized tissues was increased by using the ADM allograft, but by a lesser amount than seen with the autogenous gingival graft.

  2. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A male pintail duck (left) and female pintail (right) look like bookends on a glass-topped table in the winter waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  3. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two female pintail ducks search for food in the winter waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  4. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Male (foreground) and female pintail ducks climb onto a grassy spot in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  5. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A male pintail duck (foreground) paddles in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center while a female behind him bobs for food. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  6. A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the North American Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K D; Ewins, P J; Clark, K E

    1997-11-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three "naturally formed" lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991-1994. Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from chicks (approximately 28-35 days old) appear to be better indicators of local contaminant conditions since spatial patterns of mercury in known prey, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), also collected in these areas, were more similar to chick feathers than to eggs. Mercury levels were less variable in chick feathers than in eggs. Estimates of biomagnification factors using prey of known size at these areas were also less variable in feathers than in eggs. At naturally formed lakes, no significant correlation in mercury levels between eggs and chick feathers from the same nest was apparent, suggesting that the source of mercury contamination was not the same in these two tissues: mercury levels in eggs reflect mercury acquired on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and migratory route; mercury levels in chick feathers reflect local dietary conditions on the breeding grounds. Mercury levels in both osprey eggs and chick feathers were higher at the Ogoki Reservoir than at naturally formed lakes. Adult osprey feathers had higher mercury concentrations than chick feathers. Mercury levels in osprey eggs, chick feathers, and adult feathers did not approach levels associated with toxic reproductive effects.

  7. Homology and Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for the Development of Unique Feather Morphologies in Early Birds

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Chuong, Cheng-ming; Bottjer, David J.; You, Hailu

    2013-01-01

    At least two lineages of Mesozoic birds are known to have possessed a distinct feather morphotype for which there is no neornithine (modern) equivalent. The early stepwise evolution of apparently modern feathers occurred within Maniraptora, basal to the avian transition, with asymmetrical pennaceous feathers suited for flight present in the most basal recognized avian, Archaeopteryx lithographica. The number of extinct primitive feather morphotypes recognized among non-avian dinosaurs continues to increase with new discoveries; some of these resemble feathers present in basal birds. As a result, feathers between phylogenetically widely separated taxa have been described as homologous. Here we examine the extinct feather morphotypes recognized within Aves and compare these structures with those found in non-avian dinosaurs. We conclude that the “rachis dominated” tail feathers of Confuciusornis sanctus and some enantiornithines are not equivalent to the “proximally ribbon-like” pennaceous feathers of the juvenile oviraptorosaur Similicaudipteryx yixianensis. Close morphological analysis of these unusual rectrices in basal birds supports the interpretation that they are modified pennaceous feathers. Because this feather morphotype is not seen in living birds, we build on current understanding of modern feather molecular morphogenesis to suggest a hypothetical molecular developmental model for the formation of the rachis dominated feathers of extinct basal birds. PMID:24003379

  8. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Polar Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Metal and sediment ingestion by dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.; Day, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical analysis of intestinal digesta from hunter-killed carcasses or of wildlife scat is a promising means of estimating the exposure of wildlife to those environmental contaminants that, like lead, are poorly absorbed in the digestive tract. When evaluating contaminants at a site, biologists may find the results of this non-destructive approach more straightforward to interpret in terms of exposure to wildlife than would be analyses of soils, sediments, water, or wildlife tissues. To illustrate the approach, we collected digesta from 47 waterfowl shot by hunters at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, in Delaware, USA. The waterfowl digesta contained an average of approximately 2.4% sediment, estimated from the Al concentrations in the digesta, a marker for sediment. Al concentrations were significantly correlated with concentrations of Cr (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r=0.57), V (r=0.70), Ni (r=0.31), and Pb (r=0.55), and we concluded that these metals were ingested mainly with sediment. American widgeon (Anas americana) ingested sediment at a rate of about four times that of three other species of dabbling ducks (Anas crecca, A. acuta, A. rubripes) and had several times the exposure to the sediment-associated metals. The digesta of one American black duck contained a high concentration of lead (70 mg/kg, dry wt.), presumably from lead shot, but none of the other samples had notably elevated metal concentrations. We suggest that scat and digesta be analyzed more widely by biologists and resource managers seeking a simple, inexpensive assessment of contaminants in local wildlife habitat.

  12. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor P.; Devers, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing) data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south). The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  13. Genotypic characterization of bacteria cultured from duck faeces.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J; Devane, M L; Robson, B; Gilpin, B J

    2005-01-01

    To characterize the bacterial composition of mallard duck faeces and determine if novel bacterial species are present that could be utilized as potential indicators of avian faecal contamination. Combined samples of fresh faeces from four ducks were serially diluted and plated onto six different media selected to allow the growth of a range of organisms at 42 degrees C under three atmospheric conditions: aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic. Forty-seven morphologically dissimilar isolates were purified and partial sequencing of the16S rRNA indicated at least 31 bacterial species. Twenty of these could be identified to the species level including pathogenic species of Bacillus, Campylobacter, Clostridium and Streptococcus. Other species identified included: Enterococcus, Escherichia, Megamonas, Cellulosimicrobium, Neisseria, Staphylococcus and Veillonella. Potentially novel species, which could represent bacteria specific to avian fauna included Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Macrococcus and Peptostreptococcus, while four isolates had <97% similarity to known bacterial species in the available databases. A survey of the natural microflora of the mallard duck and its hybrid with the grey duck identified both bacteria that are potentially human pathogenic and putative novel bacteria species as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. This study provides further evidence that duck faeces is a potential human health hazard, and has identified bacteria potentially useful for distinguishing duck faeces from other faecal sources.

  14. Presence of keratin-specific antibody-forming cells in palatine tonsils of patients with pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP) and its correlation with prognosis after tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yoichiro; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tanaka, Norimitsu; Ohori, Jun-Ichiro; Tanimoto, Yukari; Kurono, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils may be associated with the pathogenesis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP). Evaluation of keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils might be useful to predict the effectiveness of tonsillectomy for patients with PPP. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of keratin-specific immune responses in the pathogenesis of PPP in tonsils. It has been reported that anti-keratin antibodies in serum were higher in patients with PPP and decreased after tonsillectomy, indicating that anti-keratin antibodies might be generated in tonsils. In order to demonstrate the presence of keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils, the numbers of keratin-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) in tonsillar and peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The prognosis of PPP was compared after tonsillectomy. The numbers of keratin-specific IgM and IgG AFCs in tonsils and of IgG AFCs in peripheral blood were significantly increased in patients with PPP. The numbers of keratin-specific IgG AFCs in peripheral blood correlated positively with tonsil and serum IgG antibodies specific to keratin. Our data show that a good prognosis in patients with PPP depended on the numbers of keratin-specific IgG and IgM AFCs in peripheral blood and the levels of keratin-specific IgG antibodies in serum being significantly decreased 6 months after tonsillectomy.

  15. Duck Enteritis Virus Glycoprotein D and B DNA Vaccines Induce Immune Responses and Immunoprotection in Pekin Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks. PMID:24736466

  16. Duck enteritis virus glycoprotein D and B DNA vaccines induce immune responses and immunoprotection in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks.

  17. Cryptic Patterning of Avian Skin Confers a Developmental Facility for Loss of Neck Feathering

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Chunyan; Pitel, Frederique; Gourichon, David; Vignoles, Florence; Tzika, Athanasia; Tato, Patricia; Yu, Le; Burt, Dave W.; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Painter, Kevin J.; Headon, Denis J.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate skin is characterized by its patterned array of appendages, whether feathers, hairs, or scales. In avian skin the distribution of feathers occurs on two distinct spatial levels. Grouping of feathers within discrete tracts, with bare skin lying between the tracts, is termed the macropattern, while the smaller scale periodic spacing between individual feathers is referred to as the micropattern. The degree of integration between the patterning mechanisms that operate on these two scales during development and the mechanisms underlying the remarkable evolvability of skin macropatterns are unknown. A striking example of macropattern variation is the convergent loss of neck feathering in multiple species, a trait associated with heat tolerance in both wild and domestic birds. In chicken, a mutation called Naked neck is characterized by a reduction of body feathering and completely bare neck. Here we perform genetic fine mapping of the causative region and identify a large insertion associated with the Naked neck trait. A strong candidate gene in the critical interval, BMP12/GDF7, displays markedly elevated expression in Naked neck embryonic skin due to a cis-regulatory effect of the causative mutation. BMP family members inhibit embryonic feather formation by acting in a reaction-diffusion mechanism, and we find that selective production of retinoic acid by neck skin potentiates BMP signaling, making neck skin more sensitive than body skin to suppression of feather development. This selective production of retinoic acid by neck skin constitutes a cryptic pattern as its effects on feathering are not revealed until gross BMP levels are altered. This developmental modularity of neck and body skin allows simple quantitative changes in BMP levels to produce a sparsely feathered or bare neck while maintaining robust feather patterning on the body. PMID:21423653

  18. Particles from bird feather: a novel application of an ionic liquid and waste resource.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Liu, Zhao-Tie; Liu, Zhong-Wen

    2009-10-30

    The dissolution and regeneration of the waste chicken feathers in an ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) were demonstrated for preparing chicken feather based particles. The structure and properties of the regenerated chicken feathers were investigated by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, BET and water contact angle. The crystallinity of the regenerated chicken feathers was decreased, and the content of beta-sheet was 31.71%, which was clearly lower than the raw feather (47.19%). The surface property of chicken feather changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity after regenerated from [BMIM]Cl as indicated by the change of the water contact angle from 138 to 76 degrees . The chicken feather particles regenerated from [BMIM]Cl showed an excellent efficiency (63.5-87.7%) for removing Cr(VI) ions in wastewater at the concentrations from 2 to 80 ppm. The Freundlich constant (k(F)) for the adsorption of Cr(VI) ion by the particles of the regenerated chicken feather was four times larger than that of the raw chicken feather, the possible reason is the hydrophilic groups such as amino and carboxyl groups were tend to self-assemble towards surface when the dissolved CF were regenerated by water, amino group will partly hydrate to cationic amino and Cr(VI) ion occurs as an anion in the aqueous phase, so the cationic amino will adsorb the anionic Cr(VI) ion onto the RCF particles through electrostatic attraction. This work demonstrated a new application of the ionic liquid for dissolving chicken feather and a renewable application of waste chicken feather for removing Cr(VI) ion in water.

  19. The Ratios of Pre-emulsified Duck Skin for Optimized Processing of Restructured Ham.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Yun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of duck ham formulated with duck skin through the pre-emulsification process. The experiments to investigate the quality characteristics of duck ham were carried out to measure proximate composition, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics. Duck ham was prepared with various ratios of duck skin in pre-emulsion as follows: Control (duct skin 30%), T1 (duck skin 20% + pre-emulsified duck skin 10%), T2 (duck skin 15% + pre-emulsified duck skin 15%), T3 (duck skin 10% + pre-emulsified duck skin 20%), and T4 (pre-emulsified duck skin 30%). As the ratio of duck skin to pre-emulsified skin changed, the quality of duck ham in terms of moisture content, fat content, cooking loss, emulsion stability, lightness, textural analysis, apparent viscosity, and overall acceptability changed. The moisture content of T2 was the highest ( p <0.05) and that of the control and T4 was the lowest ( p <0.05). The fat content of control was higher than all treatments ( p <0.05). T2 had the lowest values in cooking loss, total expressible fluid, fat separation, hardness, springiness, and gumminess ( p <0.05). The score of overall acceptability of all treatments with pre-emulsified skin was higher than control ( p <0.05). Therefore, the pre-emulsification process can improve the quality characteristics of duck ham and 1:1 ratio of duck skin and pre-emulsified skin was the proper ratio to improve the quality characteristics of duck ham.

  20. Cross-sectional serosurvey of avian influenza antibodies presence in domestic ducks of Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Manandhar, S; Ivanek, R

    2014-09-01

    Kathmandu, Nepal has been classified as a high-risk area for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) by the Nepali Government. While ducks have an important role in the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV), including HPAI, seroprevalence of antibodies to AIV in domestic ducks of Kathmandu has never been assessed. The objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the prevalence of seroconversion to AIV in domestic ducks in major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and (ii) to assess the effect of age, sex, presence of swine and the number of ducks on the farm on the carriage of antibodies to AIV in these ducks. From April through July of 2011, a cross-sectional study was conducted and a total of 310 ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu were sampled. The estimated prevalence of AIV antibodies was 27.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 24.6-29.5]. Of 62 enrolled farms, 42% had at least one seropositive duck. Half of the enrolled farms also kept pigs of which 52% had at least one seropositive duck. Bivariate analysis indicated association between ducks' seroconversion to AIV and their age, sex and farm size. However, the final multivariable model, after controlling for clustering of ducks within farms, identified age as the only significant risk factor. Based on this model, ducks older than 1 year of age were more likely to be seropositive compared to ducks <6 months of age [odds ratio = 2.17 (1.07-4.39)]. These results provide baseline information about the AIV seroprevalence in domestic ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and identify a high-risk group that can be targeted in surveillance activities. Future studies should be conducted to differentiate the subtypes of AIV present among domestic ducks in Kathmandu, with particular interest in the presence of HPAI viruses. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Heo, Kang Nyung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat. PMID:26761808

  2. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Heo, Kang Nyung; Song, Ji Eun; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat.

  3. Sensitivity of embryos of chicken, domestic duck, and common eider duck to polychlorinated and non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstroem, B.

    Embryos of chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos), and common eider duck (Somateria mollissima) were exposed in ovo to PCBs and to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Two coplanar PCBs, 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB {number_sign}77) and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB {number_sign}126), were considerably more lethal and potent as inducers of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) than in embryos of the other two species. In chicken embryos, these compounds caused edema and eye and beak deformities. An artificial mixture of 18 PAHs which all have been detected in environmental samples, was slightly more toxic to embryos of the domestic duck and the commonmore » eider duck than to chicken embryos. The most potent compound in the mixture was benzo(k)fluoranthene. When chicken embryo livers were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in vitro, EROD was induced by very low concentrations and the EC{sub 50} value obtained was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} M. Livers from embryos of eider ducks and domestic ducks were 2--4 orders of magnitude less responsive to TCDD than chicken embryo livers in terms of EROD induction in vitro.« less

  4. Live Attenuated Vaccine Based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhong; Ma, Ji; Huang, Kun; Chen, Huanchun; Liu, Ziduo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1) containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1) and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3) between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as 3 days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as 1 week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. PMID:27777571

  5. Treatment of duck house wastewater by a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor system for sustainable duck production.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Huang, Jeng-Fang; Wang, Yi-Lei; Hong, Yu-Ya

    2018-06-15

    The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0.5 d, respectively. In addition, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 99.6, 99.3, 90.4, and 58.0%, respectively. The pilot-scale SBR system was effective and deemed capable to be applied to treat duck house wastewater. It is feasible to apply an automatic SBR system on site based on the previous case study of the farm-scale automatic SBR systems for piggery wastewater treatment.

  6. Novel keratin modified bacterial cellulose nanocomposite production and characterization for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Zalike; Sendemir Urkmez, Aylin; Hames, E Esin

    2017-06-01

    As it is known that bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biocompatible and natural biopolymer due to which it has a large set of biomedical applications. But still it lacks some desired properties, which limits its uses in many other applications. Therefore, the properties of BC need to be boosted up to an acceptable level. Here in this study for the first time, a new natural nanocomposite was produced by the incorporating keratin (isolated from human hair) to the BC (produced by Acetobacter xylinum) to enhance dermal fibroblast cells' attachment. Two different approaches were used in BC based nanocomposite production: in situ and post modifications. BC/keratin nanocomposites were characterized using SEM, FTIR, EDX, XRD, DSC and XPS analyses. Both production methods have yielded successful results for production of BC based nanocomposite-containing keratin. In vitro cell culture experiments performed with human skin keratinocytes and human skin fibroblast cells indicate the potential of the novel BC/keratin nanocomposites for use in skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Loss of keratin K2 expression causes aberrant aggregation of K10, hyperkeratosis, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Heinz; Langbein, Lutz; Reichelt, Julia; Praetzel-Wunder, Silke; Buchberger, Maria; Ghannadan, Minoo; Tschachler, Erwin; Eckhart, Leopold

    2014-10-01

    Keratin K2 is one of the most abundant structural proteins of the epidermis; however, its biological significance has remained elusive. Here we show that suprabasal type II keratins, K1 and K2, are expressed in a mutually exclusive manner at different body sites of the mouse, with K2 being confined to the ear, sole, and tail skin. Deletion of K2 caused acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the ear and the tail epidermis, corneocyte fragility, increased transepidermal water loss, and local inflammation in the ear skin. The loss of K2 was partially compensated by upregulation of K1 expression. However, a significant portion of K2-deficient suprabasal keratinocytes lacked a regular cytoskeleton and developed massive aggregates of the type I keratin, K10. Aggregate formation, but not hyperkeratosis, was suppressed by the deletion of both K2 and K10, whereas deletion of K10 alone caused clumping of K2 in ear skin. Taken together, this study demonstrates that K2 is a necessary and sufficient binding partner of K10 at distinct body sites of the mouse and that unbalanced expression of these keratins results in aggregate formation.

  8. Keratin pattern of acanthosis nigricans in syndromelike association with polythelia, polycystic kidneys, and syndactyly.

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Spangenberger, H; Mahrle, G; Krieg, T

    1993-09-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) comprises a broad spectrum of etiologic subtypes. The underlying pathomechanisms have not yet been completely clarified. We present a patient affected with a syndromelike AN subtype including disturbed epidermopoiesis as evidenced by immunohistologic findings and in situ hybridization. A 54-year-old white man contracted AN during childhood. There were connate malformations consisting of webbed toes II/III on the right side and a supernumerary left mammilla. As an adult he developed psoriasis vulgaris, obesity, and latent diabetes mellitus, polycystic kidney and liver disease. With regard to keratin 6 mRNA, and the protein expression of keratin 6/16, KI-67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, the AN lesion showed moderate hyperproliferation. A much higher degree of hyperproliferation was evident in psoriatic areas of the patient's skin. In contrast to psoriatic tissue, basal keratinocytes of the AN showed an unusually high expression of keratin 18 and 19 protein. The observation thus deals with a unique, syndromelike constellation of AN characterized by a particular epidermal pattern of moderate hyperproliferation. A further dysregulation of protein expression in the epidermis is indicated by the demonstration of the rare keratins 18 and 19 in basal keratinocytes of the AN lesion.

  9. Regenerated keratin membrane to match the in vitro drug diffusion through human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Selmin, Francesca; Cilurzo, Francesco; Aluigi, Annalisa; Franzè, Silvia; Minghetti, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to develop membranes made of regenerated keratin and ceramides (CERs) to match the barrier property of the human stratum corneum in in vitro percutaneous absorption studies. The membrane composition was optimized on the basis of the in vitro drug diffusion profiles of ibuprofen, propranolol and testosterone chosen as model drugs on the basis of their different diffusion and solubility properties. The data were compared to those obtained using human epidermis. The ATR-FTIR and SEM analyses revealed that CERs were suspended into the regenerated keratin matrix, even if a partial solubilization occurred. It resulted in the membranes being physically stable after exposure to aqueous buffer and/or mineral oil and the fluxes of ibuprofen and propranolol from these vehicles through membranes and human skin were of the same order of magnitude. The best relationship with human epidermis data was obtained with 180 μm-thick membrane containing 1% ceramide III and 1% ceramide VI. The data on the testosterone diffusion were affected by the exposure of the membrane to a water/ethanol solution over a prolonged period of time, indicating that such an organic solvent was able to modify the supermolecular organization of keratin and CERs. The keratin/CER membranes can represent a simplified model to assay the in vitro skin permeability study of small molecules. PMID:25755997

  10. Keratins 17 and 19 expression as prognostic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coelho, B A; Peterle, G T; Santos, M; Agostini, L P; Maia, L L; Stur, E; Silva, C V M; Mendes, S O; Almança, C C J; Freitas, F V; Borçoi, A R; Archanjo, A B; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-11-25

    Five-year survival rates for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are 30% and the mortality rate is 50%. Immunohistochemistry panels are used to evaluate proliferation, vascularization, apoptosis, HPV infection, and keratin expression, which are important markers of malignant progression. Keratins are a family of intermediate filaments predominantly expressed in epithelial cells and have an essential role in mechanical support and cytoskeleton formation, which is essential for the structural integrity and stability of the cell. In this study, we analyzed the expressions of keratins 17 and 19 (K17 and K19) by immunohistochemistry in tumoral and non-tumoral tissues from patients with OSCC. The results show that expression of these keratins is higher in tumor tissues compared to non-tumor tissues. Positive K17 expression correlates with lymph node metastasis and multivariate analysis confirmed this relationship, revealing a 6-fold increase in lymph node metastasis when K17 is expressed. We observed a correlation between K17 expression with disease-free survival and disease-specific death in patients who received surgery and radiotherapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that low expression of K17 was an independent marker for early disease relapse and disease-specific death in patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy, with an approximately 4-fold increased risk when compared to high K17 expression. Our results suggest a potential role for K17 and K19 expression profiles as tumor prognostic markers in OSCC patients.

  11. Intratarsal keratinous eyelid cysts in Gorlin syndrome: A review and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Natalie; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Yoon, Michael K

    2017-12-27

    A 38-year-old woman presented with multiple bilateral recurrent eyelid cysts. Her medical history was notable for Gorlin (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) syndrome. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the lesions were intratarsal keratinous cysts. They were similar in appearance to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts and closely resembled odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw. Eyelid cysts occur in up to 40% of patients with Gorlin syndrome; however, their description has been cursory and, for the most part, outside of the ophthalmic literature. Although ophthalmologists are familiar with the periocular basal cell carcinomas that occur in patients with Gorlin syndrome, up to 10% of patients never develop a basal cell carcinoma, but they may manifest other ophthalmic findings. Awareness of these other features may contribute to the earlier diagnosis of the syndrome. We discuss the clinical and histopathologic features of intratarsal keratinous cysts in Gorlin syndrome, comparing them to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts, other eyelid cysts, and jaw cysts that also characterize this syndrome. We briefly review the ocular and systemic manifestations of Gorlin syndrome and recent genetic and therapeutic developments so that the eyelid cysts may be appreciated within the appropriate context of Gorlin syndrome as a whole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium phosphate coated Keratin-PCL scaffolds for potential bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinxin; Lui, Yuan Siang; Choo, Caleb Kai Chuen; Sow, Wan Ting; Huang, Charlotte Liwen; Ng, Kee Woei; Tan, Lay Poh; Loo, Joachim Say Chye

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles within or on the surface of electrospun polymeric scaffolds is a popular approach for bone tissue engineering. However, the fabrication of osteoconductive composite scaffolds via benign processing conditions still remains a major challenge to date. In this work, a new method was developed to achieve a uniform coating of calcium phosphate (CaP) onto electrospun keratin-polycaprolactone composites (Keratin-PCL). Keratin within PCL was crosslinked to decrease its solubility, before coating of CaP. A homogeneous coating was achieved within a short time frame (~10min) by immersing the scaffolds into Ca(2+) and (PO4)(3-) solutions separately. Results showed that the incorporation of keratin into PCL scaffolds not only provided nucleation sites for Ca(2+) adsorption and subsequent homogeneous CaP surface deposition, but also facilitated cell-matrix interactions. An improvement in the mechanical strength of the resultant composite scaffold, as compared to other conventional coating methods, was also observed. This approach of developing a biocompatible bone tissue engineering scaffold would be adopted for further in vitro osteogenic differentiation studies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Utility of Naphthyl-Keratin Adducts as Biomarkers for Jet-Fuel Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the association between biomarkers of dermal exposure, naphthyl-keratin adducts (NKA), and urine naphthalene biomarker levels in 105 workers routinely exposed to jet-fuel. A moderate correlation was observed between NKA and urine naphthalene levels (p = 0.061). Th...

  14. Nonbreeding duck use at Central Flyway National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American

  15. Genetic variants in pachyonychia congenita-associated keratins increase susceptibility to tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Carlson, Jenna C; Karacz, Chelsea M; Schwartz, Mary E; Cross, Michael A; Marazita, Mary L; Shaffer, John R; Morasso, Maria I

    2018-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a cutaneous disorder primarily characterized by nail dystrophy and painful palmoplantar keratoderma. PC is caused by mutations in KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT16, and KRT17, a set of keratin genes expressed in the nail bed, palmoplantar epidermis, oral mucosal epithelium, hair follicle and sweat gland. RNA-seq analysis revealed that all PC-associated keratins (except for Krt6c that does exist in the mouse genome) are expressed in the mouse enamel organ. We further demonstrated that these keratins are produced by ameloblasts and are incorporated into mature human enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 573 adults and 449 children, we identified several missense polymorphisms in KRT6A, KRT6B and KRT6C that lead to a higher risk for dental caries. Structural analysis of teeth from a PC patient carrying a p.Asn171Lys substitution in keratin-6a (K6a) revealed disruption of enamel rod sheaths resulting in altered rod shape and distribution. Finally, this PC-associated substitution as well as more frequent caries-associated SNPs, found in two of the KRT6 genes, that result in p.Ser143Asn substitution (rs28538343 in KRT6B and rs151117600 in KRT6C), alter the assembly of K6 filaments in ameloblast-like cells. These results identify a new set of keratins involved in tooth enamel formation, distinguish novel susceptibility loci for tooth decay and reveal additional clinical features of pachyonychia congenita.

  16. Genetic variants in pachyonychia congenita-associated keratins increase susceptibility to tooth decay

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jenna C.; Karacz, Chelsea M.; Schwartz, Mary E.; Cross, Michael A.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2018-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a cutaneous disorder primarily characterized by nail dystrophy and painful palmoplantar keratoderma. PC is caused by mutations in KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT16, and KRT17, a set of keratin genes expressed in the nail bed, palmoplantar epidermis, oral mucosal epithelium, hair follicle and sweat gland. RNA-seq analysis revealed that all PC-associated keratins (except for Krt6c that does exist in the mouse genome) are expressed in the mouse enamel organ. We further demonstrated that these keratins are produced by ameloblasts and are incorporated into mature human enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 573 adults and 449 children, we identified several missense polymorphisms in KRT6A, KRT6B and KRT6C that lead to a higher risk for dental caries. Structural analysis of teeth from a PC patient carrying a p.Asn171Lys substitution in keratin-6a (K6a) revealed disruption of enamel rod sheaths resulting in altered rod shape and distribution. Finally, this PC-associated substitution as well as more frequent caries-associated SNPs, found in two of the KRT6 genes, that result in p.Ser143Asn substitution (rs28538343 in KRT6B and rs151117600 in KRT6C), alter the assembly of K6 filaments in ameloblast-like cells. These results identify a new set of keratins involved in tooth enamel formation, distinguish novel susceptibility loci for tooth decay and reveal additional clinical features of pachyonychia congenita. PMID:29357356

  17. Deregulated HOX genes in ameloblastomas are located in physical contiguity to keratin genes.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, Giulia; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Cantile, Monica; Procino, Alfredo; Di Giovanni, Stefano; Valletta, Rossella; Terracciano, Luigi; Baumhoer, Daniel; Jundt, Gernot; Cillo, Clemente

    2011-11-01

    The expression of the HOX gene network in mid-stage human tooth development mostly concerns the epithelial tooth germ compartment and involves the C and D HOX loci. To further dissect the HOX gene implication with tooth epithelium differentiation we compared the expression of the whole HOX network in human ameloblastomas, as paradigm of epithelial odontogenic tumors, with tooth germs. We identified two ameloblastoma molecular types with respectively low and high number of active HOX C genes. The highly expressing HOX C gene ameloblastomas were characterized by a strong keratinized phenotype. Locus C HOX genes are located on chromosome 12q13-15 in physical contiguity with one of the two keratin gene clusters included in the human genome. The most posterior HOX C gene, HOX C13, is capable to interact with hair keratin genes located on the other keratin gene cluster in physical contiguity with the HOX B locus on chromosome 17q21-22. Inside the HOX C locus, a 2.2 kb ncRNA (HOTAIR) able to repress transcription, in cis, along the entire HOX C locus and, in trans, at the posterior region of the HOX D locus has recently been identified. Interestingly both loci are deregulated in ameloblastomas. Our finding support an important role of the HOX network in characterizing the epithelial tooth compartment. Furthermore, the physical contiguity between locus C HOX and keratin genes in normal tooth epithelium and their deregulation in the neoplastic counterparts suggest they may act on the same mechanism potentially involved with epithelial tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force-induced stress fiber reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-03-15

    Mechanical force-induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch-induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force-induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force-induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. © 2016 Fujiwara et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Feathers at nests are potential female signals in the spotless starling.

    PubMed

    Veiga, José P; Polo, Vicente

    2005-09-22

    Although the presence of feathers in the nest is widespread among birds, it has not been previously suggested that feathers can be used as sexual signals. Females of the spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor) regularly carry feathers to their nest, mostly during laying and incubation. We show that the arrangement of these feathers was non-random with respect to the side (obverse or reverse) placed upwards (which can be viewed from the nest entrance). Feathers of the wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) and the spotless starling, which exhibit higher ultraviolet and visible reflectance on their reverse side, were predominantly placed with this side upwards. On the contrary, feathers of the jay (Garrulus glandarius) were predominantly found exhibiting the obverse side, which possesses higher reflectance in this species. Feathers of the azure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyana), with similar reflectance values on either side, were placed indiscriminately in obverse and reverse positions. The results suggest that feathers are arranged to maximize their conspicuousness within the nest and hence that they might be potentially used as intraspecific signals.

  20. Feathers at nests are potential female signals in the spotless starling

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, José P; Polo, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    Although the presence of feathers in the nest is widespread among birds, it has not been previously suggested that feathers can be used as sexual signals. Females of the spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor) regularly carry feathers to their nest, mostly during laying and incubation. We show that the arrangement of these feathers was non-random with respect to the side (obverse or reverse) placed upwards (which can be viewed from the nest entrance). Feathers of the wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) and the spotless starling, which exhibit higher ultraviolet and visible reflectance on their reverse side, were predominantly placed with this side upwards. On the contrary, feathers of the jay (Garrulus glandarius) were predominantly found exhibiting the obverse side, which possesses higher reflectance in this species. Feathers of the azure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyana), with similar reflectance values on either side, were placed indiscriminately in obverse and reverse positions. The results suggest that feathers are arranged to maximize their conspicuousness within the nest and hence that they might be potentially used as intraspecific signals. PMID:17148200

  1. Parallel evolution of early and late feathering in turkey and chicken, same gene, different mutation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sex-linked slow (SF) and fast (FF) feathering rate at hatch has been widely used in poultry breeding for autosexing at hatching. In chicken, the sex-linked K (SF), and k+ (FF) alleles are responsible for the feathering rate phenotype in chicken. The K allele is dominant and a partial duplication...

  2. 76 FR 76115 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of..., Regulatory Planning and Review The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted this regulatory action...

  3. New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers.

    PubMed

    Foth, Christian; Tischlinger, Helmut; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2014-07-03

    Discoveries of bird-like theropod dinosaurs and basal avialans in recent decades have helped to put the iconic 'Urvogel' Archaeopteryx into context and have yielded important new data on the origin and early evolution of feathers. However, the biological context under which pennaceous feathers evolved is still debated. Here we describe a new specimen of Archaeopteryx with extensive feather preservation, not only on the wings and tail, but also on the body and legs. The new specimen shows that the entire body was covered in pennaceous feathers, and that the hindlimbs had long, symmetrical feathers along the tibiotarsus but short feathers on the tarsometatarsus. Furthermore, the wing plumage demonstrates that several recent interpretations are problematic. An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of pennaceous feathers on the tail, hindlimb and arms of advanced maniraptorans and basal avialans strongly indicates that these structures evolved in a functional context other than flight, most probably in relation to display, as suggested by some previous studies. Pennaceous feathers thus represented an exaptation and were later, in several lineages and following different patterns, recruited for aerodynamic functions. This indicates that the origin of flight in avialans was more complex than previously thought and might have involved several convergent achievements of aerial abilities.

  4. Dissecting the Molecular Mechanism of Ionizing Radiation-Induced Tissue Damage in the Feather Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Liao, Chunyan; Chu, Qiqi; Zhou, Guixuan; Lin, Xiang; Li, Xiaobo; Lu, Haijie; Xu, Benhua; Yue, Zhicao

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a common therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. It damages normal tissue and causes side effects including dermatitis and mucositis. Here we use the feather follicle as a model to investigate the mechanism of IR-induced tissue damage, because any perturbation of feather growth will be clearly recorded in its regular yet complex morphology. We find that IR induces defects in feather formation in a dose-dependent manner. No abnormality was observed at 5 Gy. A transient, reversible perturbation of feather growth was induced at 10 Gy, leading to defects in the feather structure. This perturbation became irreversible at 20 Gy. Molecular and cellular analysis revealed P53 activation, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the pathobiology. IR also induces patterning defects in feather formation, with disrupted branching morphogenesis. This perturbation is mediated by cytokine production and Stat1 activation, as manipulation of cytokine levels or ectopic Stat1 over-expression also led to irregular feather branching. Furthermore, AG-490, a chemical inhibitor of Stat1 signaling, can partially rescue IR-induced tissue damage. Our results suggest that the feather follicle could serve as a useful model to address the in vivo impact of the many mechanisms of IR-induced tissue damage. PMID:24586618

  5. Metals in albatross feathers from Midway Atoll: Influence of species, age, and nest location

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper the authors examine the concentrations of metals (heavy metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, tin; and metalloids, arsenic and selenium), in the down and contour (body) feathers of half-grown young albatrosses, and contour feathers of one of their parents. They collected feathers from Laysan Diomedea immutabilis and black-footed Diomedea nigripes albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean. The authors test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in metal levels as a function of species, age, feather type, and location on the island. Using linear regression they found significant models accounting for the variationmore » in the concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese (but not arsenic or tin) as a function of feather type (all metals), collection location (all metals but lead), species (selenium only), and interactions between these factors. Most metals (except mercury, arsenic, and tin) were significantly higher in down than in the contour feathers of either chicks or adults. Comparing the two species, black-footed albatross chicks had higher levels of most elements (except arsenic) in their feathers and/or down. Black-footed adults had significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium. They also collected down and feathers from Laysan albatross chicks whose nests were close to buildings, including buildings with flaking lead paint and those that had been lead-abated.« less

  6. Microorganisms associated with feathers of barn swallows in radioactively contaminated areas around chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-08-01

    The Chernobyl catastrophe provides a rare opportunity to study the ecological and evolutionary consequences of low-level, environmental radiation on living organisms. Despite some recent studies about negative effects of environmental radiation on macroorganisms, there is little knowledge about the effect of radioactive contamination on diversity and abundance of microorganisms. We examined abundance patterns of total cultivable bacteria and fungi and the abundance of feather-degrading bacterial subset present on feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), a colonial migratory passerine, around Chernobyl in relation to levels of ground level environmental radiation. After controlling for confounding variables, total cultivable bacterial loads were negatively correlated with environmental radioactivity, whereas abundance of fungi and feather-degrading bacteria was not significantly related to contamination levels. Abundance of both total and feather-degrading bacteria increased with barn swallow colony size, showing a potential cost of sociality. Males had lower abundance of feather-degrading bacteria than females. Our results show the detrimental effects of low-level environmental radiation on total cultivable bacterial assemblage on feathers, while the abundance of other microorganism groups living on barn swallow feathers, such as feather-degrading bacteria, are shaped by other factors like host sociality or host sex. These data lead us to conclude that the ecological effects of Chernobyl may be more general than previously assumed and may have long-term implications for host-microbe interactions and overall ecosystem functioning.

  7. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  8. Constitutive heterochromatin in chromosomes of duck hybrids and goose hybrids.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, E; Smalec, E

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is a highly condensed fraction of chromatin in chromosomes. It is characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. Heterochromatin is located in the centromeric, telomeric, and interstitial parts of chromosomes. We used the CBG ( C: banding using B: arium hydroxide by G: iemsa) staining technique to identify heterochromatin in chromosomes. Analysis of karyotypes of F1 hybrids resulting from intergeneric hybridization of ducks (A. platyrhynchos × C. moschata) and interspecific crosses of geese (A. anser × A. cygnoides) were used to compare the karyotypes of 2 species of duck and 2 species of geese, as well as to compare the hybrids with the parent species. The localization of C-bands and their size were determined. In the duck hybrid, greater amounts of heterochromatin were noted in the homologous chromosomes from the duck A. platyrhynchos than in the chromosomes from the duck C. moschata. In the goose hybrid more heterochromatin was observed in the homologous chromosomes from the goose A. cygnoides than in the chromosomes from the goose A. anser. Comparison of chromosomes from the duck hybrid with chromosomes of the ducks A. platyrhynchos and C. moschata revealed nearly twice as much constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of the hybrid. When chromosomes from the goose hybrid were compared with those of the geese A. anser and A. cygnoides, differences in the average content of heterochromatin were observed on only a few chromosomes. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Arne; Metzner, Martin; Köhler-Repp, Dagmar; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) was thus far only known as a pathogen for broilers and broiler breeders. Recently there was evidence of EC field outbreaks in Pekin duck flocks in Germany. In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds displayed pneumonia, airsacculitis, pericarditis and splenitis and EC was re-isolated from these organs. Surviving birds of all groups apart from the orally infected ducks demonstrated clinical signs such as huddling, reduced mobility and diarrhoea. Furthermore, they showed gross pathological lesions including airsacculitis and splenitis and lower bodyweights than the control group at necropsy on days 7, 14 and 21 post infection. The present study clearly confirms that EC is pathogenic for Pekin ducks after experimental infection via the intravenous route or the respiratory tract. EC therefore has to be considered as an emerging avian pathogen not only in broilers but also in Pekin ducks.

  10. FAM83H and casein kinase I regulate the organization of the keratin cytoskeleton and formation of desmosomes