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Sample records for duck hepatitis virus

  1. [Overview on duck virus hepatitis A].

    PubMed

    Ren, Liqian; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Can; Zhang, Dabing; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-07-01

    This article describes the nomenclature, history and genetic evolution of duck hepatitis A virus, and updates the epidemiology, clinical symptom and surveillances of duck virus hepatitis A. It also summarizes the present status and progress of duck virus hepatitis A and illustrated the necessity and urgency of its research, which provides rationale for the control of duck hepatitis A virus disease in China.

  2. Genetic characterization of Duck Hepatitis A Viruses isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Can; Yang, Limin; Ding, Chan; Liu, Wenjun

    2013-12-26

    In recent years, the spread of Duck Hepatitis A Viruses (DHAVs) has represented a serious threat and significant economic impact in duck industry of China. The sixteen reported DHAV isolates (15 DHAV-1 strains and one DHAV-3) were identified from infected ducks with clinical symptoms in China between 2009 and 2012. In the present study, the virulence of these viruses and complete sequences of the virion protein 1 (VP1) genes of the 16 DHAVs were characterized. The median embryonic lethal doses (ELD50) of the second generation duck embryo allantoic fluid of the 16 DHAV isolates were calculated on duck and chicken embryos. The results demonstrated that the various DHAV-1 strains have shown different pathogenic ability in embryos, and duck eggs were more susceptible to DHAV than chicken eggs. The histopathological examination revealed significant signs of virus infection, severe vacuolation, and hepatocyte necrosis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the 15 DHAV-1 viruses display significant correlation in their geographic distribution. The DHAV-1 strains isolated from Shandong Province were more evolutionarily divergent than the JX strains. There were two hypervariable regions in the VP1 protein, which may determine the virulence of DHAV-1 isolates in chicken eggs but not virulence in duck eggs. These results demonstrate the genetic and biological diversity of DHAVs in China and aid in understanding the epidemiology and evolution of DHAVs.

  3. Apoptosis induction in duck tissues during duck hepatitis A virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Sheng, X D; Zhang, W P; Zhang, Q R; Gu, C Q; Hu, X Y; Cheng, G F

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the role of apoptosis in duck viral hepatitis pathogenesis, 4- and 21-d-old ducks were inoculated with duck hepatitis A virus serotype 1 and killed at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h postinfection. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling was used to detect apoptosis cells. Expression profiles of apoptosis-related genes including caspase-3, -8, -9, and Bcl-2 in spleen, bursa of Fabricius, liver, and the quantity of virus in blood were examined using real-time PCR. The TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis indicated there was a significant difference of apoptotic cells between treatments and controls. The same difference also appeared in virus amount variation in blood during infection. Gene expression analysis revealed that the apoptosis-related gene expression profile was different in the 2 groups, and also different between various organs. This study suggested that apoptosis may play an important role in duck hepatitis A virus serotype 1 infection, and apoptosis suppression might facilitate virus multiplication, resulting in the highest virus concentration in the host.

  4. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies.

  5. Epidemiology and molecular characterisation of duck hepatitis A virus from different duck breeds in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Erfan, Ahmed M; Selim, Abdullah A; Moursi, Mohamed K; Nasef, Soad A; Abdelwhab, E M

    2015-06-12

    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is an acute highly contagious disease of ducklings caused by three distinct serotypes of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the RNA family Picornaviridae, where serotype 1 is the most widespread serotype worldwide. To date, little if any is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV outside Asia. The current study describes surveillance on DHV in 46 commercial duck farms in Egypt with a history of high mortality in young ducklings from 3 to 15 day-old from 2012 to 2014. Clinical samples were examined by generic RT-PCR assays followed by partial sequence analysis of the 5'UTR, VP1 and 3D genes of the vaccine strain and 15 field viruses. The overall positive rate was 37% (n=17/46). All duck breeds (Pekin, Muscovy, Mallard and Green Winged) were susceptible to the disease with mortality ranged from 15% to 96.7%. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Egyptian strains cluster in the DHAV serotype 1 with Asian viruses and distinguishable from the vaccine strains. So far, this is the first report on the genetic characterisation of DHAV in Egypt. This study may be useful to better understand the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV.

  6. Live Attenuated Vaccine Based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhong; Ma, Ji; Huang, Kun; Chen, Huanchun; Liu, Ziduo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1) containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1) and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3) between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as 3 days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as 1 week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. PMID:27777571

  7. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  8. The prevalence of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 and 3 on Korean duck farms.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Mahmoud; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Lee, Min-Hee; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Deok-Song; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Kwon, Joseph; Choi, Jong-Soon; Lim, Jong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Sung; Lee, Tae-Uk; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Kang, Mun-Il

    2015-02-01

    This study reports the prevalence of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) types 1 and 3 on Korean duck farms. By RT-nested PCR assays specific for DHAV-1 or DHAV-3, DHAV-1 was detected in 9 of 157 liver samples (5.7 %) from 2 of 30 farms (6.7 %), and DHAV-3 was positive in 104 of 157 liver samples (66.2 %) from 23 of 30 farms (76.7 %). Dual infections with DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 were detected in 23 of 157 samples (14.6 %) from 5 of 30 farms (16.7 %). The data indicate that DHAV-3 infections are prevalent and that DHAV-1 reemerged in Korea, resulting in dual infections on several farms. Our data will help to establish a vaccination policy against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in Korea.

  9. Complete genome sequence of a novel duck hepatitis A virus discovered in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-ya; Su, Shuo; Huang, Zhen; Zhu, Wan-jun; Chen, Ji-dang; Zhao, Fu-rong; Wang, Yan-jing; Xie, Jie-xiong; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guihong

    2012-09-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) isolated from mixed infections with DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) and DHAV-3 in ducklings in Southern China. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology with the sequence of DHAV-3 (GenBank accession number DQ812093) (96.2%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of gene rearrangement between DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and it will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck hepatitis A virus in Southern China.

  10. Enrichment of a Precore-Minus Mutant of Duck Hepatitis B Virus in Experimental Mixed Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Yuan; Summers, Jesse

    1999-01-01

    A precore-deficient mutant of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) produced by site-directed mutagenesis was tested for its ability to compete with wild-type virus in a mixed infection of 3-day-old ducklings. The mutation was shown to produce a cis-acting defect, resulting in a replication rate that was about one-half that of wild-type virus. Accordingly, wild-type virus was rapidly selected during the spread of infection. During the chronic phase of the infection, however, two selection patterns were seen. In 4 of 10 ducks, the wild-type virus slowly replaced the precore mutant. In another four ducks, the precore mutant virus slowly replaced the wild-type virus. In the remaining two ducklings, ratios of wild-type and precore mutant virus fluctuated, with wild-type virus slowly predominating. The replacement of wild-type virus was not due to the emergence of a rapidly replicating variant of the precore mutant, since genomes cloned from the infected ducks retained their original replication defect. Replacement of wild-type virus, however, correlated with elevated anti-core antibody titers, which continued to increase with time. The selection of a precore-negative strain of DHBV may be analogous to the selection for precore mutants of HBV during chronic hepatitis in humans. PMID:10196253

  11. [Molecular characteristic of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 causing pancreatitis ].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanghua; Huang, Yu; Fu, Qiuling; Cheng, Longfei; Wan, Chunhe; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Lin, Jiansheng; Lin, Fang

    2014-09-04

    [OBJECTIVE] We studied the molecular characteristics of the full-length genome of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 causing pancreatitis in Muscovy ducklings. [METHODS] We determined the entire genomic sequence of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 strain MPZJ1206 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and analyzed the bioinformatics of the viral genome sequence. [ RESULTS] The genome length of strain MPZJ1206 comprised 7703 bases, with a G + C content of 43.05%. The genome of MPZJ1206 contains a single, long open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2249 amino acids, with a genomic orgariization similar to those of other isolates of duck hepatitis A virus type 1. MPZJ1206 is identical with previously isolates by 93. 5% - 99. 6% in nucleotide sequence and 97. 9% - 99. 6% in amino acid sequence and shares genetic distance no more than 7%. Phylogenetic analysis based on genome sequence indicates that MPZJ1206 shares a close genetic relationship with two strains isolated in 2011. [CONCLUSION] Although pathotype caused by MPZJ1206 strain is significantly distinct from those induced by classical isolates of duck hepatitis A virus type 1, the genome of MPZJ1206 shares high homology with those of previous isolates. The change of pathotype may result from an alteration in viral tissue tropism of MPZJ1206.

  12. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver

    SciTech Connect

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y.; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A.; Mason, William S.; Litwin, Samuel; Jilbert, Allison R.

    2013-11-15

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10{sup 5}-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. - Highlights: • The hepatitis B virus nuclear template is covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. • Virus DNA replication and new cccDNA synthesis were inhibited with Entecavir. • At least 49% of cccDNA appeared to survive hepatocyte mitosis. • Low level virus DNA synthesis may contribute to survival of cccDNA through mitosis.

  13. Vaccination of ducks with a whole-cell vaccine expressing duck hepatitis B virus core antigen elicits antiviral immune responses that enable rapid resolution of de novo infection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darren S; Halpern, Michael; Kotlarski, Ieva; Jilbert, Allison R

    2006-05-10

    As a first step in developing immuno-therapeutic vaccines for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, we examined the ability of a whole-cell vaccine, expressing the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core antigen (DHBcAg), to target infected cells leading to the resolution of de novo DHBV infections. Three separate experiments were performed. In each experiment, ducks were vaccinated at 7 and 14 days of age with primary duck embryonic fibroblasts (PDEF) that had been transfected 48 h earlier with plasmid DNA expressing DHBcAg with and without the addition of anti-DHBcAg (anti-DHBc) antibodies. Control ducks were injected with either 0.7% NaCl or non-transfected PDEF. The ducks were then challenged at 18 days of age by intravenous inoculation with DHBV (5 x 10(8) viral genome equivalents). Liver biopsies obtained on day 4 post-challenge demonstrated that vaccination did not prevent infection of the liver as similar numbers of infected hepatocytes were detected in all vaccinated and control ducks. However, analysis of liver tissue obtained 9 or more days post-challenge revealed that 9 out of 11 of the PDEF-DHBcAg vaccinated ducks and 8 out of 11 ducks vaccinated with PDEF-DHBcAg plus anti-DHBc antibodies had rapidly resolved the DHBV infection with clearance of infected cells. In contrast, 10 out of 11 of the control unvaccinated ducks developed chronic DHBV infection. In conclusion, vaccination of ducks with a whole-cell PDEF vaccine expressing DHBcAg elicited immune responses that induced a rapid resolution of DHBV infection. The results establish that chronic infection can be prevented via the vaccine-mediated induction of a core-antigen-specific immune response.

  14. Rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus type-1 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Song, Cuiping; Wan, Hongquan; Yu, Shengqing; Han, Xiangan; Qiu, Xusheng; Hu, Qinghai; Tan, Lei; Ding, Chan

    2012-06-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of duck hepatitis virus type-1 (DHV-1) was established. Using primers specific to the highly conserved 3D gene of DHV-1, the developed RT-LAMP assay detected the viral RNA of DHV-1 extracted from both allantoic fluid and liver samples of infected ducks. The assay is as sensitive as RT-PCR, and shows no cross-reaction with other common avian viral and bacterial pathogens. In addition to detection via ethidium bromide staining following gel electrophoresis, naked-eye observation after staining with SYBR Green I dye can be used to detect RT-LAMP products; this enables field application of this assay. The findings demonstrate that RT-LAMP can serve as a helpful tool for the detection and surveillance of DHV-1 in the poultry industry.

  15. Development of a real-time quantitative PCR for detecting duck hepatitis a virus genotype C.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuxue; Yue, Hua; Zhang, Bin; Nie, Peiting; Tang, Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Recently, duck hepatitis A virus genotype C (DHAV-C), a causative agent of duck viral hepatitis, has been responsible for increasing economic losses in the duck industry in China and South Korea. In this study, a real-time PCR assay targeting the 2C gene for detecting DHAV-C was developed. The assay was confirmed to be specific and sensitive, and the minimum detection limit was 3.36 × 10(3) copies per reaction, making this assay suitable for rapid diagnosis of DHAV-C infection from clinical samples. In addition, the dynamics of the viral loads in tissues of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) ducklings infected with DHAV-C were investigated using this method. The DHAV-C could be detected earliest in the liver within 12 h postinfection. Moreover, high viral loads were identified in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, thymus, pancreas, brain, and small intestine after 24 h postinfection. Taking the data collectively, the study described in this report is the first to have developed a real-time PCR method for detection of DHAV-C and thus contributes to pathogenicity research.

  16. Recombinant VP1 protein of duck hepatitis virus 1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its immunogenicity in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Li, X K; Wu, T C; Wang, Y; Zhang, C J; Cheng, X C; Chen, P Y

    2014-01-01

    The VP1 gene of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) strain VJ09 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR from the liver of a duckling with clinical symptoms of viral hepatitis. The resulting VP1 cDNA was 720 bp in length and encoded a 240-amino-acid protein. In VP1 gene-based phylogenetic analysis, the VJ09 strain grouped with DHV-1 genotype C. The VP1 gene was inserted into the expression vector pPICZαA and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The expressed VP1 protein was purified and identified by western blot analysis. To evaluate the recombinant VP1's immunogenic potential in ducklings, the antibodies raised in the immunized ducklings were titrated by ELISA, and lymphocyte proliferation and virus neutralization assays were performed. The results show that the recombinant VP1 protein induced a significant immune response in ducklings and this could be a candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine against DHV-1 genotype C.

  17. Duck Hepatitis A virus possesses a distinct type IV internal ribosome entry site element of picornavirus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Meng; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Hanchun

    2012-01-01

    Sequence analysis of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) led to its classification as the only member of a new genus, Avihepatovirus, of the family Picornaviridae, and so was renamed duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV). The 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) plays an important role in translation initiation and RNA synthesis of the picornavirus. Here, we provide evidence that the 651-nucleotide (nt)-long 5' UTR of DHAV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently in vitro and within BHK cells. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the 3' part of the DHAV 5' UTR is similar to the porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1) IRES in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Further mutational analyses of the predicted domain IIId, domain IIIe, and pseudoknot structure at the 3' end of the DHAV IRES support our predicted secondary structure. However, unlike the case for the PTV-1 IRES element, analysis of various deletion mutants demonstrated that the optimally functional DHAV IRES element with a size of approximately 420 nt is larger than that of PTV-1 and contains other peripheral domains (Id and Ie) that do not exist within the type IV IRES elements. The domain Ie, however, could be removed without significant loss of activity. Surprisingly, like the hepatitis A virus (HAV) IRES element, the activity of DHAV IRES could be eliminated by expression of enterovirus 2A protease. These findings indicate that the DHAV IRES shares common features with type IV picornavirus IRES elements, whereas it exhibits significant differences from type IV IRESs. Therefore, we propose that DHAV possesses a distinct type IV IRES element of picornavirus.

  18. Molecular detection and typing of duck hepatitis A virus directly from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Pan, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yongliang; Yang, Hanchun; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-10-15

    To develop a new approach for the detection and typing of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a pair of non-degenerate primers was designed to amplify a approximately 250-bp genomic region in the 5'UTR. 3 reference strains and 6 duck embryo-derived isolates from various regions in China, involving 2 serotypes, were successfully amplified with the primer set. By determining the nucleotide sequence of the amplicon, a molecular typing method was developed. If isolate sequences were compared to DHAV 5'UTR sequences available in public databases, nucleotide identity was > or =94% with homologous serotype and < or =73% with heterologous serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed monophyletic clustering of 5'UTR sequences of a homologous serotype, confirming the new classification of DHAV (serotype 1 and the two new serotypes recently described in Taiwan and South Korea, respectively) into three genotypes (A, B and C) defined by the capsid coding region. Analysis of the results showed that the primer pair should aid in the detection of DHAV, and that the amplicon sequence contains type-specific information and can be used for effective and rapid molecular typing. The molecular methods proved their utility through the detection and typing of DHAV directly from 28 liver specimens collected from dead ducklings during duck viral hepatitis outbreaks in different regions of China between 2001 and 2007. The results confirmed the presence of DHAV in all of the 28 samples and demonstrated that genotypes A (13/28) and C (15/28) of DHAV are co-circulating in China.

  19. Comparison of the anti-duck hepatitis A virus activities of phosphorylated and sulfated Astragalus polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixuan; Chen, Yun; Du, Hongxu; Yang, Jingjing; Ming, Ke; Song, Meiyun; Liu, Jiaguo

    2017-02-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) (Picornaviridae) causes an infectious disease in ducks which results in severe losses in duck industry. However, the proper antiviral supportive drugs for this disease have not been discovered. Polysaccharide is the main ingredient of Astragalus that has been demonstrated to directly and indirectly inhibit RNA of viruses replication. In this study, the antiviral activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and its derivatives against DHAV were evaluated and compared. APS was modified via the sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate (STMP-STPP) method and chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain its phosphate (pAPS) and sulfate (sAPS), respectively. The infrared structures of APS, pAPS, and sAPS were analyzed with the potassium bromide disc method. Additionally, the antiviral activities were evaluated with the MTT ((4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) method in vitro and the artificial inoculation method in vivo. The clinical therapy effects were evaluated by mortality rate, liver function-related biochemical indicators, and visual changes in pathological anatomy. The anti-DHAV proliferation effects of APS, pAPS, and sAPS on the viral multiplication process in cell and blood were observed with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. The results revealed that pAPS inhibited DHAV proliferation more efficiently in the entire process of viral multiplication than APS and sAPS. Moreover, only pAPS significantly improved the survival rate to 33.5% and reduced the DHAV particle titer in the blood as well as liver lesions in clinical trials. The results indicated that pAPS exhibited greater anti-DHAV activity than APS and sAPS both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. A novel transcriptional element in circular DNA monomers of the duck hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Beckel-Mitchener, A; Summers, J

    1997-01-01

    We report the presence of two elements, pet and net, that are required for proper transcription of the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). These regions were previously identified by using plasmid clones of the virus in transient expression assays (M. Huang and J. Summers, J. Virol. 68:1564-1572, 1994). In this study, we further analyzed these regions by using in vitro-synthesized circular DHBV DNA monomers to mimic the authentic transcriptional template. We observed that pet was required for pregenome transcription from circular viral monomers, and in the absence of pet-dependent transcription, expression of the viral envelope genes was increased. We found that deletion of net in circularized DNA monomers led to the production of abnormally long transcripts due to a failure to form 3' ends during transcription. In addition, we report the presence of a net-like region in the mammalian hepadnavirus woodchuck hepatitis virus. These results are consistent with a model that net is a region involved in transcription termination and that in DHBV, pet is required for transcription complexes to read through this region during the first pass through net. PMID:9311882

  1. Development of duck hepatitis A virus type 3 vaccine and its use to protect ducklings against infections.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lindberg, A Michael; Joh, Seong-Joon; Kwon, Hyuk-Man; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2009-11-12

    A variant type of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), DHAV-3 was recently discovered in South Korea and China. Sequence analyses verified that the variant is genetically or serologically different from the DHAV-1 and DHAV-2 types. Duck hepatitis had been reported in South Korea since 1985 and an attenuated DHAV-1 vaccine had efficiently prevented epidemics of DHAV-1 until 2002. Despite the DHAV-1 based vaccine in use the novel DHAV-3 circulating in South Korea remains to be a threat to duckling farming. To develop a live attenuated vaccine against DHAV-3, a representative isolate, AP-04203, was therefore attenuated by repeated passages in SPF chicken embryos 100 times. The 100th passaged virus, AP-04203P100, did not cause clinical sign and mortality in 1-day-old ducklings as well as reversion of virulence capacity. The ducklings vaccinated with AP-04203P100 virus (10(3.0)ELD(50)/0.2ml) on 1-day-old age via the intramuscular injection were well protected from 2 days after challenge with pathogenic AP04203P1 virus via the intramuscular route. In addition, the vaccine candidate also exhibited complete protection against currently circulating pathogenic DHAV-3 isolates. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the live attenuated virus, AP-04203P100, is a promising vaccine candidate facilitating the prevention of duck hepatitis caused by DHAV-3 around East Asia including South Korea.

  2. Multiple functions of capsid protein phosphorylation in duck hepatitis B virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, M; Summers, J

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the role of phosphorylation of the capsid protein of the avian hepadnavirus duck hepatitis B virus in viral replication. We found previously that three serines and one threonine in the C-terminal 24 amino acids of the capsid protein serve as phosphorylation sites and that the pattern of phosphorylation at these sites in intracellular viral capsids is complex. In this study, we present evidence that the phosphorylation state of three of these residues affects distinct steps in viral replication. By substituting these residues with alanine in order to mimic serine, or with aspartic acid in order to mimic phosphoserine, and assaying the effects of these substitutions on various steps in virus replication, we were able to make the following inferences. (i) The presence of phosphoserines at residues 245 and 259 stimulates DNA synthesis within viral nucleocapsids. (ii) The absence of phosphoserine at residue 257 and at residues 257 and 259 stimulates covalently closed circular DNA synthesis and virus production, respectively. (iii) The presence of phosphoserine at position 259 is required for initiation of infection. The results implied that both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated capsid proteins were necessary for a nucleocapsid particle to carry out all its functions in virus replication, explaining why differential phosphorylation of the capsid protein occurs in hepadnaviruses. Whether these differentially phosphorylated proteins coexist on the same nucleocapsid, or whether the nucleocapsid acquires sequential functions through selective phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, is discussed. Images PMID:8207809

  3. Cloning, expression and purification of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core protein and its use in the development of an indirect ELISA for serologic detection of DHBV infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Huang, Juan; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Wang, Yin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2014-05-01

    Infecting ducks with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is widely accepted as a relevant model for studying aspects of human HBV infection. However, efficient and sensitive diagnostic methods for the various infection models are limited. In order to provide a more simple and convenient method for serologic diagnosis, we improved the production of recombinant DHBV viral capsid protein (core protein) and then used it to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-DHBc antibodies (DHBcAg ELISA) in DHBV-infected ducks. Given the positive/negative cut-off value, the maximum dilution of duck sera in which anti-DHBc antibodies could be detected was 1:12,800. In addition, the DHBcAg ELISA displayed no cross reactivity with duck antisera against duck circovirus (DuCV), duck plague virus (DPV), duck hepatitis virus (DHV), duck swollen head septicemia virus (DSHSV), avian influenza virus (AIV), Riemerella anatipestifer, Salmonella anatum, or Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the coefficients of variation (CVs) of inter-assay and intra-assay experiments were both below than 10 %. When compared to PCR for accuracy on clinical samples from cases of suspected DHBV infection, the DHBcAg showed 95.45 % coincidence with PCR. In conclusion, recombinant DHBc was readily produced and used to establish a simple DHBcAg ELISA that provided a highly specific and sensitive method for analysis of clinical samples.

  4. Glucagon Treatment Interferes with an Early Step of Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hild, Marc; Weber, Olaf; Schaller, Heinz

    1998-01-01

    The effect of glucagon on the establishment of hepadnavirus infection was studied in vitro with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) model. The presence of the peptide hormone throughout infection or starting up to 8 h after virus uptake resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of intra- and extracellular viral gene products and of secreted virions. Treatment with forskolin or dibutyryl-cyclic AMP, two drugs that also stimulate the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction pathway, resulted in comparable inhibition, suggesting that the inhibitor effect is related to changes in the activity of protein kinase A. In persistently infected hepatocytes, only a slight, but continuous, decrease in viral replication was observed upon prolonged drug treatment. Time course analysis, including detection of DHBV covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA templates, revealed that glucagon acts late during the establishment of infection, at a time when the virus is already internalized, but before detectable ccc DNA accumulation in the nucleus. These data suggest that nuclear import (and reimport) of DHBV DNA genomes from cytosolic capsids is subject to cAMP-mediated regulation by cellular factors responding to changes in the state of the host cell. PMID:9525576

  5. Isolation and characterization of a low pathogenic duck hepatitis A virus 3 from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Roh, Jae-Hee; Kang, Min; Kim, Bumseok; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2013-02-22

    The D11-JW-018 strain of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) was isolated from 7-day-old ducklings in Kyeonggi province, South Korea with no clinical signs of typical hepatitis. Phylogenetic analyzed of whole genome showed that D11-JW-018 strain was belonged to DHAV-3 genotype. The pathogenicity of the D11-JW-018 strain in 1-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day-old ducklings was examined. Mortality of D11-JW-018 strain was lower than DRL-62 (DHAV-1) age-dependent but incubation period was longer in 1-day-old ducklings. Unlike DRL-62 strain infection, D11-JW-018 strain induced only liver discoloration without hemorrhagic mottling and lymphocyte infiltration and bile duct hyperplasia in histological lesion. The D11-JW-018 strain was detected only in the heart, liver, spleen, gall bladder, pancreas, and kidney among 12 organs in infected 1-day-old ducklings. Serum biochemical analyses revealed a significant difference in aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase between the D11-JW-018 strain-infected ducklings and those infected with the DRL-62 strain (P<0.05). We identified the D11-JW-018 strain in South Korean ducklings and provide the characteristics of DHAV-3.

  6. An experimental study of the pathogenicity of a duck hepatitis A virus genotype C isolate in specific pathogen free ducklings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanrong; Pi, JinKui; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Yang, Falong

    2012-12-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus genotype C (DHAV-C), recognized recently, is one of the pathogens causing fatal duck viral hepatitis in ducklings, especially in Asia. To demonstrate the pathogenesis of the DHAV-C isolate, 3-day-old specific pathogen free ducklings were inoculated subcutaneously with a DHAV-C isolate and the clinical signs were observed. Virus distribution, histological and apoptotic morphological changes of various tissues were examined at different times post inoculation. The serial, characteristic changes included haemorrhage and swelling of the liver. Apoptotic cells and virus antigen staining were found in all of the tissues examined. Where more virus antigen staining was detected, there were more severe histopathological and apoptotic changes. The amount of virus antigen and the histological and apoptotic morphological changes agreed with each other and became increasingly severe with length of time after infection. Apoptotic cells were ubiquitously distributed, especially among lymphocytes, macrophages and monocytes in immune organs such as the bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen, and in liver, kidney and cerebral cells. Necrosis was also observed within 72 h post inoculation in all organs examined, except the cerebrum, and was characterized by cell swelling and collapsed plasma membrane. These results suggest that the recent outbreak of disease caused by DHAV-C virus is pantropic, causing apoptosis and necrosis of different organs. The apoptosis and necrosis caused by the DHAV-C field strain in this study is associated with pathogenesis and DHAV-C-induced lesions.

  7. Virulent and attenuated strains of duck hepatitis A virus elicit discordant innate immune responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Song, Cuiping; Liao, Ying; Gao, Wei; Yu, Shengqing; Sun, Yingjie; Qiu, Xvsheng; Tan, Lei; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Ma, Zhiyong; Ding, Chan

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies of duck hepatitis A virus infection have focused only on the pathogenicity and host response of one strain. Here, we show that the virulent SH strain and the attenuated FC64 strain induced varied pathogenicity, apoptosis and immune responses in the livers of 1-day-old ducklings. SH infection caused apoptosis and visible lesions in the liver; serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase and total bilirubin activities were markedly upregulated; and ducklings died at 36 h post-infection (p.i.). However, FC64 infection did not induce significant symptoms or impair liver function, and all of the infected ducklings remained healthy. In addition, both virus strains replicated well in the liver, spleen and intestine, whilst the SH strain replicated more efficiently than FC64. IFN-γ, IL-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide were strongly induced by SH infection, and may be associated with the pathogenicity of the SH strain. IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-stimulated transmembrane protein 1, IFN-stimulated gene 12, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-like and IL-6 were moderately induced by SH infection at 24 h p.i., and dramatically induced by FC64 infection at 36 h p.i. The intensive induction of cytokines by FC64 may be involved in restriction of virus replication and stimulation of adaptive immune responses. Ducklings inoculated with FC64 produced high levels of antiviral antibodies within 45 days p.i. The low virulence and strong immune response of FC64 rendered this strain a good vaccine candidate, as confirmed by a protective assay in this study.

  8. Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) genotype definition: comment on the article by Cha et al.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huiqiang; Han, Lingxia; Zhang, Xiaona; Lian, Chuanjiang; Zhao, Lili; Si, Changde; Chen, Hongyan

    2014-06-04

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is genetically divided into three different genotypes: the original type DHAV-1, a type recently isolated in Taiwan (DHAV-2), and a recently described type isolated in South Korea and China (DHAV-3). Recently, Cha et al. (2013) concluded that the existence that both DHAV-1 and DHAV-2 had been classified into one branch, with DHAV genotype 3 (DHAV-3) in another, and that the phylogenetic distance unit showed was 0.5, a tremendous value. However, there might be some concerns on the methodology application to define the genotypes of DHAV. Based on 110 genomic and 100 amino acid sequences of DHAV which included all the sequences from Cha et al. (2013) respectively, phylogenetic analysis in the present study showed a distinct and proposed DHAV genotype definition, that both DHAV-2 and DHAV-3 were clustered in one branch while DHAV-1 in another branch only, and that the phylogenetic distance unit of 0.02 was confirmed, which was much smaller than the value 0.5. Taking into account the genotype definition of DHAV, we also conducted the pairwise sequence comparisons (PASC) analysis of 110 genomic sequences, and proposed that the distance genotype definition threshold was 0.045.

  9. Duck Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA Amplification Efficiency in Natural Infection Is Regulated by Virus Secretion Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous mutation based studies showed that ablating synthesis of viral envelope proteins led to elevated hepadnaviral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) amplification, but it remains unknown how cccDNA amplification is regulated in natural hepadnaviral infection because of a lack of research system. In this study we report a simple procedure to prepare two identical duck hepatitis B virus inocula, but they possess 10-100-fold difference in cccDNA amplification in infected cell culture. We demonstrate that the infected cells with higher cccDNA amplification significantly reduce the virus secretion efficiency that results in higher accumulation of relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA) and DHBsAg in the cells. The infected cells with lower cccDNA amplification significantly increase the virus secretion efficiency that leads to lower intracellular rcDNA and DHBsAg accumulation. In contrast with the findings generated in the mutation based experimental system, the regulation of cccDNA amplification in natural hepadnaviral infection bypasses direct regulation of the cellular envelope proteins concentration, instead it modulates virus secretion efficiency that ultimately impacts the intracellular rcDNA concentration, an important factor determining the destination of the synthesized rcDNA in infected cells. PMID:26713436

  10. Recovery of duck hepatitis A virus 3 from a stable full-length infectious cDNA clone.

    PubMed

    Pan, Meng; Yang, Xiaorong; Du, Jige; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Hanchun

    2011-09-01

    Recently, duck hepatitis A virus 3 (DHAV-3) with genetically distinct characteristics from DHAV-1 and DHAV-2 was recognized in South Korea and China. In this short communication, we successfully constructed a stable full-length infectious cDNA clone derived from DHAV-3 by solving instability of cloned full-length cDNA in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The cDNA fragments amplified from the genome of DHAV-3 were assembled and inserted into a low-copy-number plasmid. Finally, a full-length cDNA clone containing an engineered SacII site that served as a genetic marker was obtained. The cDNA clone showed stable by serial passages in E. coli when propagated at 25°C under low level of antibiotic selection. BHK-21 cells were transfected with transcribed RNA from the full-length cDNA clone; infectious viral particles were rescued, showing its fatality to 10-day-old duck embryos. The results indicated that the constructed full-length cDNA clone of DHAV-3 is infectious. By various virological assays, our results indicated that the rescued virus exhibited similar biological properties with the parental virus. Animal experiments revealed that the rescued virus retained the high pathogenicity to 1-day-old ducklings and could induce a fatal hepatitis indistinguishable from its parental virus. Our present studies provide a useful tool for future research on genomic functions and molecular pathogenesis of DHAV-3.

  11. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver.

    PubMed

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A; Mason, William S; Litwin, Samuel; Jilbert, Allison R

    2013-11-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10(5)-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis.

  12. Identification of a Conserved B-Cell Epitope on Duck Hepatitis A Type 1 Virus VP1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoying; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qingshan; Wulin, Shaozhou; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Yue; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background The VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in ducks; however, B-cell epitopes on the VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A genotype 1 virus (DHAV-1) have not been characterized. Methods and Results To characterize B-cell epitopes on VP1, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2D10 against Escherichia coli-expressed VP1 of DHAV-1. In vitro, mAb 2D10 neutralized DHAV-1 virus. By using an array of overlapping 12-mer peptides, we found that mAb 2D10 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif LPAPTS. Sequence alignment showed that the epitope 173LPAPTS178 is highly conserved among the DHAV-1 genotypes. Moreover, the six amino acid peptide LPAPTS was proven to be the minimal unit of the epitope with maximal binding activity to mAb 2D10. DHAV-1–positive duck serum reacted with the epitope in dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of the six amino acids of the epitope for antibody-epitope binding. Competitive inhibition assays of mAb 2D10 binding to synthetic LPAPTS peptides and truncated VP1 protein fragments, detected by Western blotting, also verify that LPAPTS was the VP1 epitope. Conclusions and Significance We identified LPAPTS as a VP1-specific linear B-cell epitope recognized by the neutralizing mAb 2D10. Our findings have potential applications in the development of diagnostic techniques and epitope-based marker vaccines against DHAV-1. PMID:25706372

  13. Merocyanine 540 and Photofrin II as photosensitizers for in vitro killing of duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Shien, Yong-Shau; Kao, Ming-Chien

    1994-03-01

    The feasibility of using merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and Photofrin II (PII) as effective photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents for killing hepatoma cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vitro was investigated. Cultured duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV and hepatoma cells, Hep 3B and HCC 36, were used as models. MC 540 and PII effectively inhibits the DHBV growth by 90 - 99% in a dose- and light-dependent manner. Photodynamic killing of MC 540 in the two hepatoma cell lines results in 94 - 99% growth inhibition. However, both photosensitizers exhibit dark cytotoxicity (37 - 56%). The present results suggest that MC 540 and PII could be promising and effective photodynamic agents for killing HBV and hepatoma cells.

  14. Assessment of a Flavone-Polysaccharide Based Prescription for Treating Duck Virus Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongxu; Zhang, Shuaibing; Song, Meiyun; Wang, Yixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Yun; Xiong, Wen; Yang, Jingjing; Yao, Fangke; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-01-01

    Because polysaccharide and flavone ingredients display good antiviral activity, we developed a flavone/polysaccharide-containing prescription that would be effective against duck viral hepatitis (DVH) and investigated its hepatoprotective effects. Flavones were derived from Hypericum japonicum (HJF) (entire herb of Hypericum japonicum Thunb) and Salvia plebeia (SPF) (entire herb of Salvia plebeia R. Br.), and polysaccharides were derived from Radix Rehmanniae Recens (RRRP) (dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch). This prescription combination was based on the theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment in traditional Chinese veterinary medicine. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using the three single ingredients compared to the combined HRS prescription to determine their anti-duck hepatitis A viral (anti-DHAV) activity. The results showed that all experimental conditions displayed anti-DHAV activity, but the HRS prescription presented the best effect. To further investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the HRS prescription on DHAV-induced hepatic injury, we tested the mortality rate, the hepatic pathological severity score, plasma biochemical indexes of hepatic function, blood DHAV gene expression levels and peroxidation damage evaluation indexes and then analyzed correlations among these indexes. The results demonstrated that the HRS prescription significantly decreased the mortality rate, reduced the severity of hepatic injury, decreased the hepatic pathological severity score, depressed blood DHAV gene expression levels, and returned the indexes of hepatic function and peroxidation almost to a normal level. These results indicate that the HRS prescription confers an outstanding hepatoprotective effect, and we expect that it will be developed into a new candidate anti-DHAV drug. PMID:26731101

  15. Therapeutic Antiviral Effect of the Nucleic Acid Polymer REP 2055 against Persistent Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Noordeen, Faseeha; Scougall, Catherine A; Grosse, Arend; Qiao, Qiao; Ajilian, Behzad B; Reaiche-Miller, Georget; Finnie, John; Werner, Melanie; Broering, Ruth; Schlaak, Joerg F; Vaillant, Andrew; Jilbert, Allison R

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) have both entry and post-entry inhibitory activity against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. The inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs prevented DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes in vitro and protected ducks from DHBV infection in vivo and did not result from direct activation of the immune response. In the current study treatment of primary human hepatocytes with NAP REP 2055 did not induce expression of the TNF, IL6, IL10, IFNA4 or IFNB1 genes, confirming the lack of direct immunostimulation by REP 2055. Ducks with persistent DHBV infection were treated with NAP 2055 to determine if the post-entry inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs could provide a therapeutic effect against established DHBV infection in vivo. In all REP 2055-treated ducks, 28 days of treatment lead to initial rapid reductions in serum DHBsAg and DHBV DNA and increases in anti-DHBs antibodies. After treatment, 6/11 ducks experienced a sustained virologic response: DHBsAg and DHBV DNA remained at low or undetectable levels in the serum and no DHBsAg or DHBV core antigen positive hepatocytes and only trace amounts of DHBV total and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were detected in the liver at 9 or 16 weeks of follow-up. In the remaining 5/11 REP 2055-treated ducks, all markers of DHBV infection rapidly rebounded after treatment withdrawal: At 9 and 16 weeks of follow-up, levels of DHBsAg and DHBcAg and DHBV total and cccDNA in the liver had rebounded and matched levels observed in the control ducks treated with normal saline which remained persistently infected with DHBV. These data demonstrate that treatment with the NAP REP 2055 can lead to sustained control of persistent DHBV infection. These effects may be related to the unique ability of REP 2055 to block release of DHBsAg from infected hepatocytes.

  16. DNA vaccines expressing the duck hepatitis B virus surface proteins lead to reduced numbers of infected hepatocytes and protect ducks against the development of chronic infection in a virus dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darren S; Kotlarski, Ieva; Jilbert, Allison R

    2006-07-20

    We tested the efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) pre-surface (pre-S/S) and surface (S) proteins in modifying the outcome of infection in 14-day-old ducks. In two experiments, Pekin Aylesbury ducks were vaccinated on days 4 and 14 of age with plasmid DNA vaccines expressing either the DHBV pre-S/S or S proteins, or the control plasmid vector, pcDNA1.1Amp. All ducks were then challenged intravenously on day 14 of age with 5 x 10(7) or 5 x 10(8) DHBV genomes. Levels of initial DHBV infection were assessed using liver biopsy tissue collected at day 4 post-challenge (p.c.) followed and immunostained for DHBV surface antigen to determine the percentage of infected hepatocytes. All vector vaccinated ducks challenged with 5 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(8) DHBV genomes had an average of 3.21% and 20.1% of DHBV-positive hepatocytes respectively at day 4 p.c. and 16 out of 16 ducks developed chronic DHBV infection. In contrast, pre-S/S and S vaccinated ducks challenged with 5 x 10(7) DHBV genomes had reduced levels of initial infection with an average of 1.38% and 1.93% of DHBV-positive hepatocytes at day 4 p.c. respectively and 10 of 18 ducks were protected against chronic infection. The pre-S/S and the S DNA vaccinated ducks challenged with 5 x 10(8) DHBV genomes had an average of 31.5% and 9.2% of DHBV-positive hepatocytes on day 4 p.c. respectively and only 4 of the 18 vaccinated ducks were protected against chronic infection. There was no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the DHBV pre-S/S or S DNA vaccines. In conclusion, vaccination of young ducks with DNA vaccines expressing the DHBV pre-S/S and S proteins induced rapid immune responses that reduced the extent of initial DHBV infection in the liver and prevented the development of chronic infection in a virus dose-dependent manner.

  17. Three novel Anas platyrhynchos avian β-defensins, upregulated by duck hepatitis virus, with antibacterial and antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Lin, Lijuan; Zhang, Kexin; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shengwang

    2011-10-01

    Three novel Anas platyrhynchos avian β-defensins (Apl_AvBDs), Apl_AvBD4, 7 and 12, were identified successfully and characterized in tissues from Peking ducks in the present study. The cDNA fragment of Apl_AvBD4 contained 171 bp, and encoded 56 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequences of Apl_AvBD7 and 12 contained 204 bp and 198 bp open reading frames, which encoded 67 and 65 amino acids, respectively. Both recombinant and synthetic forms of the three Apl_AvBDs showed antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria investigated, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Salmonella choleraesuis. In addition, the antibacterial activity of all the three Apl_AvBDs decreased significantly in 150 mM NaCl. Significant antiviral activity of the three Apl_AvBDs was shown against duck hepatitis virus (DHV). However, none of the Apl_AvBDs showed significant hemolytic activity. Additionally, the expressions of the three Apl_AvBDs in response to DHV infection was highly variable, and significant upregulation of Apl_AvBD7 in liver was found in response to infection at different time points. Expression of Apl_AvBD4 in thymus, and of Apl_AvBD7 in bone marrow was induced in a time-dependent fashion by DHV infection. In contrast, expression of Apl_AvBD12 was found to be significantly decreased, and was hard to detect in cecal tonsil, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of ducks at some time points after DHV infection. The present results demonstrate that Apl_AvBDs play vital roles in the immune response of ducks against bacterial and viral pathogens.

  18. Rapid detection of duck hepatitis A virus genotype C using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Chen, Zongyan; Meng, Chunchun; Liu, Guangqing

    2014-02-01

    A one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was used and optimized to develop a rapid and sensitive detection system for duck hepatitis A virus genotype C (DHAV-C) RNA. A set of four specific primers was designed against highly conserved sequences located within the 3D gene from DHAV (strain GX1201). Under optimal reaction conditions, the sensitivity of DHAV-C-specific RT-LAMP was 100-fold higher than that of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with a detection limit of 0.3pg (6.59×10(4) copies) per reaction. No cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other duck viruses, which is in good accordance with RT-PCR. Furthermore, a positive reaction can be visually inspected by observing turbidity or color change after the addition of SYBR green I dye. The DHAV-C-specific RT-LAMP assay was applied to the samples and compared with RT-PCR. The positive-sample ratios were 26.7% (12 of 45) by RT-LAMP and 20% (9 of 45) by RT-PCR. Therefore, the newly developed RT-LAMP assay is a rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost-effective method of DHAV-C detection. This assay has potential applications in both clinical diagnosis and field surveillance of DHAV-C infection.

  19. Duck hepatitis A virus serotype 1 minigenome: a model for studying the viral 3'UTR effect on viral translation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ruiying; Li, Chuanfeng; Jin, Hongyan; Meng, Chunchun; Chen, Zongyan; Zhu, Jie; Miao, Qiuhong; Ding, Chan; Liu, Guangqing

    2015-12-01

    To date, the genetic replication and translation mechanisms as well as the pathogenesis of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) have not been adequately characterized due to the lack of a reliable and efficient cell culture system. Although the full-length infections clone system is the best platform to manipulate the virus, it is relatively difficult to assemble this system due to the lack of a suitable cell line. It has been proven that the minigenome system an efficient reverse genetics system for the study of RNA viruses. In some cases, it can be used to displace the infectious clone of RNA viruses. Here, we generated a minigenome for DHAV-1 with two luciferase reporter genes, firefly luciferase (Fluc) and Renilla luciferase (Rluc). The Rluc gene was used as a reference gene for the normalization of the Fluc gene expression in transfected cells, which provided a platform for studying the regulatory mechanisms of DHAV-1. Furthermore, to investigate the role of DHAV-3'UTR in the regulation of viral protein translation, deletions in the 3'UTR were introduced into the DHAV-1 minigenome. Luciferase activity, an indicator of virus translation, was then determined. These results showed that a minigenome system for DHAV-1 was successfully constructed for the first time and that the complete or partial deletion of the DHAV-3'UTR did not affect the expression level of the reporter gene, indicating that DHAV-1 translation may not be modulated by the viral genomic 3'UTR sequence.

  20. Enzymatic treatment of duck hepatitis B virus: Topology of the surface proteins for virions and noninfectious subviral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Claudia; Matschl, Urte; Bruns, Michael . E-mail: mbruns@hpi.uni-hamburg.de

    2007-03-01

    The large surface antigen L of duck hepatitis B virus exhibits a mixed topology with the preS domains of the protein alternatively exposed to the particles' interior or exterior. After separating virions from subviral particles (SVPs), we compared their L topologies and showed that both particle types exhibit the same amount of L with the following differences: 1-preS of intact virions was enzymatically digested with chymotrypsin, whereas in SVPs only half of preS was accessible, 2-phosphorylation of L at S118 was completely removed by phosphatase treatment only in virions, 3-iodine-125 labeling disclosed a higher ratio of exposed preS to S domains in virions compared to SVPs. These data point towards different surface architectures of virions and SVPs. Because the preS domain acts in binding to a cellular receptor of hepatocytes, our findings implicate the exclusion of SVPs as competitors for the receptor binding and entry of virions.

  1. Circulation and in vivo distribution of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 and 3 in infected ducklings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao-Li; Cong, Ri-Chao; Zhang, Rui-Hua; Chen, Jun-Hao; Xia, Lin-Lin; Xie, Zhi-Jing; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Yan-Li; Jiang, Shi-Jin

    2016-02-01

    The circulation of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 (DHAV-1) and 3 (DHAV-3) in Southeast Asia has resulted in a continuously changing epidemiological scenario. In this study, a duplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous quantitative detection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 was established, and 200 liver samples from dead ducklings collected from 31 different flocks in Shandong province, China, were tested. Fifty-eight (29.0 %) samples from 13 flocks were positive for DHAV-1 single infection, 113 (56.5 %) samples from 13 other flocks were positive for DHAV-3 single infection, and 24 samples (12.0 %) from four flocks were positive for both viruses. DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 were detected with high viral loads in all of the organs tested (liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and brain). No significant difference in DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 viral loads was found between singly infected and coinfected samples, and there was no correlation between the viral loads of the two viruses and the age of dead ducklings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the in vivo distribution of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in clinically infected ducklings.

  2. Identification of a conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope in the VP1 proteins of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruihua; Zhou, Guomei; Xin, Yinghao; Chen, Junhao; Lin, Shaoli; Tian, Ye; Xie, Zhijing; Jiang, Shijin

    2015-11-18

    Duck virus hepatitis (DVH), mainly caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), is a severe disease threaten to duck industry and has worldwide distribution. As the major structural protein, the VP1 protein of DHAV is able to induce neutralizing antibody in ducks. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4F8 against the intact DHAV-1 particles was used to identify the possible epitope in the three serotypes of DHAV. The mAb 4F8 had weak neutralizing activities to both DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and reacted with the conserved linear B-cell epitopes of (75)GEIILT(80) in DHAV-1 VP1 and (75)GEVILT(80) in DHAV-3 VP1 protein, respectively, while not with DHAV-2 VP1. This was the first report about identification of the common conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, which will facilitate understanding of the antigenic structure of VP1 and the serologic diagnosis of DHAV infection.

  3. The 2A2 protein of Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 induces apoptosis in primary cell culture.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingyu; Ou, Xumin; Zhu, Dekang; Ma, Guangpeng; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2016-12-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1, (DHAV-1) 2A2(pro), is one of the most highly conserved viral proteins within the DHAV serotypes. However, its effect on host cells is unclear. We predicted that DHAV-1 2A2(pro) was a GTPase-like protein based on the results of multiple sequence alignment and homologous modeling analysis. Upon transfection of a recombinant plasmid expressing DHAV-1 2A2, cells displayed fragmented nuclei, chromatin condensation, oligonucleosome-sized DNA ladder, and positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining; hence, cell death has the characteristics of apoptosis. By staining cells with fluorescein Annexin V-FITC and PI, it is possible to distinguish and quantitatively analyze nonapoptotic cells, early apoptotic cells, late apoptotic/necrotic cells, and dead cells through flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The percentage of apoptotic cells gradually increased and reached a maximum after 48 h of transfection. In conclusion, apoptosis induced by this GTPase-like protein may contribute to DHAV-1 pathogenesis.

  4. Detection, differentiation, and VP1 sequencing of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and type 3 by a 1-step duplex reverse-transcription PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Wen, X J; Cheng, A C; Wang, M S; Jia, R Y; Zhu, D K; Chen, S; Liu, M F; Liu, F; Chen, X Y

    2014-09-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is an infectious pathogen causing fatal duck viral hepatitis in ducklings. Although both the inactivated vaccines and live attenuated vaccines have been used to protect ducklings, DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 still cause significant serious damage to the duck industry in China and South Korea. For rapid detection, differentiation, and epidemic investigation of DHAV in China, a genotype-specific 1-step duplex reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay was established in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of the developed RT-PCR assay was evaluated with nucleic acids extracted from 2 DHAV reference strains, and 9 other infectious viruses and bacteria. The genotype-specific primers amplified different size DNA fragments encompassing the complete VP1 gene of the DHAV-1 or DHAV-3. The assay detected the liver samples collected from experimentally infected ducklings and dead ducklings collected from different regions of China. Sequence analysis of these DNA fragments indicated that VP1 sequences of DHAV-1 can be used to distinguish wild type and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences indicated that the developed RT-PCR assay can be used for epidemic investigation of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. The developed RT-PCR assay can be used as a specific molecular tool for simultaneous detection, differentiation, and sequencing the VP1 gene of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, which can be used for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV.

  5. The development of persistent duck hepatitis B virus infection can be prevented using antiviral therapy combined with DNA or recombinant fowlpoxvirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Teoh, Chee Quin; Qiao, Qiao; Boyle, David; Jilbert, Allison R

    2010-10-28

    We recently reported the development of a successful post-exposure combination antiviral and "prime-boost" vaccination strategy using the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) model of human hepatitis B virus infection. The current study aimed to simplify the vaccination strategy and to test the post-exposure efficacy of combination therapy with the Bristol-Myers Squibb antiviral drug, entecavir (ETV) and either a single dose of DHBV DNA vaccines on day 0 post-infection (p.i.) or a single dose of recombinant fowlpoxvirus (rFPV-DHBV) vaccines on day 7 p.i. Whilst untreated control ducks infected with an equal dose of DHBV all developed persistent and wide spread DHBV infection of the liver, ducks treated with ETV combined with either the DHBV DNA vaccines on day 0 p.i. or the rFPV-DHBV vaccines on day 7 p.i. had no detectable DHBV-infected hepatocytes by day 14 p.i. and were protected from the development of persistent DHBV infection.

  6. A one-step duplex rRT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of duck hepatitis A virus genotypes 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin; Zhu, Dekang; Ma, Guangpeng; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2016-10-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes significant bleeding lesions in the viscera of ducklings less than 3 weeks old. There are three serotypes of DHAV: serotype 1 (DHAV-1), serotype 2 (DHAV-2) and serotype 3 (DHAV-3). These serotypes have no cross-antigenicity with each other. To establish an rRT-PCR assay for the rapid detection of a mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, two pairs of primers and a pair of matching TaqMan probes were designed based on conserved regions of DHAV-1 VP0 and DHAV-3 VP3. Finally, we established a one-step duplex rRT-PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity for the simultaneous detection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. This method showed no cross-antigenicity with the other pathogens tested, including duck plague virus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, Riemerella anatipestifer, and pathogenic E. coli from ducks. Sensitivity tests identified the minimum detection limits of this method as 98 (DHAV-1) and 10 (DHAV-3) copies/reaction. To validate the method, thirty-eight clinical samples and thirty artificially infected samples collected from dead duck embryos were studied. Thirty-seven samples were positive for DHAV-1, seventeen samples were positive for DHAV-3, and fourteen samples were positive for a mixed infection using the duplex rRT-PCR method. The method established in this study is specific, sensitive, convenient and timesaving and is a powerful tool for detecting DHAV-1, DHAV-3, and their mixed infection and for conducting surveys of pandemic virus strains.

  7. Development and application of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of Duck hepatitis A virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limin; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Xu, Lei; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-12-01

    We developed and evaluated a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detecting Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1). The amplification could be finished in 1 h under isothermal conditions at 63 °C by employing a set of four primers targeting the 2C gene of DHAV-1. The RT-LAMP assay showed higher sensitivity than the RT-PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 ELD(50) 0.1 ml(-1) of DHAV-1. The RT-LAMP assay was highly specific; no cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses, bacteria, allantoic fluid of normal chicken embryos, or the livers of uninfected ducks. Thirty clinical samples were subjected to detection by RT-LAMP, RT-PCR, and virus isolation, which obtained completely consistent, positive results. As a simple, rapid, and accurate detection method, this RT-LAMP assay has important potential applications in the clinical diagnosis of DHAV-1.

  8. Genetic variation of the VP1 gene of the virulent duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) isolates in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiming; Chen, Junhao; Si, Xingkui; Xie, Zhijing; Zhu, Yanli; Zhang, Xingxiao; Wang, Shujing; Jiang, Shijin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the relationship of the variation of virulence and the external capsid proteins of the pandemic duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) isolates, the virulence, cross neutralization assays and the complete sequence of the virion protein 1 (VP1) gene of nine virulent DHAV-1 strains, which were isolated from infected ducklings with clinical symptoms in Shandong province of China in 2007-2008, were tested. The fifth generation duck embryo allantoic liquids of the 9 isolates were tested on 12-day-old duck embryos and on 7-day-old ducklings for the median embryonal lethal doses (ELD(50)s) and the median lethal doses (LD(50)s), respectively. The results showed that the ELD(50)s of embryonic duck eggs of the 9 DHAV-1 isolates were between 1.9 × 10(6)/mL to 1.44 × 10(7)/mL, while the LD(50)s were 2.39 × 10(5)/mL to 6.15 × 10(6)/mL. Cross-neutralization tests revealed that the 9 DHAV-1 isolates were completely neutralized by the standard serum and the hyperimmune sera against the 9 DHAV-1 isolates, respectively. Compared with other virulent, moderate virulent, attenuated vaccine and mild strains, the VP1 genes of the 9 strains shared 89.8%-99.7% similarity at the nucleotide level and 92.4%-99.6% at amino acid level with other DHAV-1 strains. There were three hypervariable regions at the C-terminus (aa 158-160, 180-193 and 205-219) and other variable points in VP1 protein, but which didn't cause virulence of DHAV-1 change.

  9. Molecular Evolution and Genetic Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein VP1 of Duck Hepatitis A Viruses: Implications for Antigenic Stability.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiuli; Sheng, Zizhang; Huang, Bing; Qi, Lihong; Li, Yufeng; Yu, Kexiang; Liu, Cunxia; Qin, Zhuoming; Wang, Dan; Song, Minxun; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the family Picornaviridae, is the major cause of outbreaks with high mortality rates in young ducklings. It has three distinctive serotypes and among them, serotypes 1 (DHAV-1) and 3 (DHAV-3) were recognized in China. To investigate evolutionary and antigenic properties of the major capsid protein VP1 of these two serotypes, a primary target of neutralizing antibodies, we determined the VP1 coding sequences of 19 DHAV-1 (spanning 2000-2012) and 11 DHAV-3 isolates (spanning 2008-2014) associated with disease outbreaks. By bioinformatics analysis of VP1 sequences of these isolates and other DHAV strains reported previously, we demonstrated that DHAV-1 viruses evolved into two genetic lineages, while DHAV-3 viruses exhibited three distinct lineages. The rate of nucleotide substitution for DHAV-1 VP1 genes was estimated to be 5.57 x 10(-4) per site per year, which was about one-third times slower than that for DHAV-3 VP1 genes. The population dynamics analysis showed an upward trend for infection of DHAV-1 viruses over time with little change observed for DHAV-3 viruses. Antigenic study of representative DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains covering all observed major lineages revealed no detectable changes in viral neutralization properties within the serotype, despite the lack of cross-neutralization between serotypes 1 and 3 strains. Structural analysis identified VP1 mutations in DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 viruses that underpin the observed antigenic phenotypes. Results of our experiments described here shall give novel insights into evolution and antigenicity of duck picornaviruses.

  10. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  11. Improved duplex RT-PCR assay for differential diagnosis of mixed infection of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and type 3 in ducklings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Lin; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Rui-Hua; Yang, Lei; Li, Jing-Xin; Xie, Zhi-Jing; Zhu, Yan-Li; Jiang, Shi-Jin; Si, Xing-Kui

    2013-09-01

    Infection with duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) causes an acute, rapidly spreading, and fatal disease of young ducklings. DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) have been identified in China. In this study, a duplex RT-PCR assay was developed to identify DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 with mixed infection. The method was shown to be high specificity and sensitivity. The minimum detection limit of the method has been determined to be 10pg total RNA templates extracted from duck liver samples or 10² copies viral RNA of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 respectively. Using the method, from 60 clinical liver samples of 26 duckling flocks in Shandong, Guangdong, Sichuan and Henan provinces of China, 15 (57.7%) flocks were identified as mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and 9 (34.6%) flocks were DHAV-1 or DHAV-3 single infection. Among them, 38.3% (23/60) of duckling samples were detected as mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and 48.3% (29/60) of samples were DHAV-1 or DHAV-3 single infection. These results indicated that the improved duplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid and cost-effective laboratory differential diagnosis for mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in ducklings.

  12. Genetic diversity of the VP1 gene of duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-I) isolates from southeast China is related to isolate attenuation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangqing; Wang, Fei; Ni, Zheng; Yun, Tao; Yu, Bin; Huang, Jionggang; Chen, Jianping

    2008-10-01

    The complete sequence of an isolate (ZJ-V) of Duck hepatitis virus I (DHV-I), originally taken from the field in southeast China was determined. It was 7691 nucleotides long and had 5'- and 3'-terminal non-coding regions of 626 and 315 nucleotides, respectively. The poly(A) tail contained at least 22 residues and the single open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 2249 amino acids. The VP1 gene was also sequenced from nine southeast China field isolates and three attenuated DHV-I vaccine strains. In phylogenetic analysis of the isolates and other published sequences, attenuated and tissue-adapted isolates (including ZJ-V) clustered as genotypes significantly different from the field isolates that had not been passaged in chicken/duck embryos. There were two consistent amino acid substitutions (E(129)-->V(129) and A(142)-->S(142)) between all the field isolates and all the tissue-adapted ones. The carboxyl terminal region was generally the most variable and here the four attenuated Chinese isolates showed six consistent differences from the field isolates (S(181)-->L(181), H(183)K(184)-->R(183)G(1841), N(193)-->D(193), E(205)-->K(205), R(217)-->K(217), N(235)-->D(235)). It seems likely that at least some of these differences result from mutations leading to isolate attenuation.

  13. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, T.M.; Burgess, E.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  14. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  15. Development and evaluation of indirect ELISAs for the detection of IgG, IgM and IgA1 against duck hepatitis A virus 1.

    PubMed

    Mao, Sai; Ou, XuMin; Zhu, DeKang; Chen, Shun; Ma, GuangPeng; Wang, MingShu; Jia, RenYong; Liu, MaFeng; Sun, KunFeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, XiaoYue; Cheng, AnChun

    2016-11-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1) is the principal pathogen that causes duck viral hepatitis (DHV), a highly fatal infectious disease in ducklings. Given the importance of the humoral immune response in the clearance of DHAV-1, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (I-ELISAs) to detect immune indices, including IgG, IgM and IgA1, were developed and evaluated in this study. The optimal concentrations of coating-antigen were 1.79μg/ml, 2.23μg/ml and 2.23μg/ml for IgG, IgM and IgA1, respectively. Meanwhile, the optimal dilutions of sera were 1:80, 1:40 and 1:40, respectively; and of the conjugates were 1:300, 1:1800 and 1:800, respectively. Based on these conditions, three linear regression equations, y=1.363+1.954x (r(2)=0.983), y=1.141+2.228x (r(2)=0.970) and y=1.103+1.559x (r(2)=0.995) were derived for IgG, IgM and IgA1, respectively. Analytical sensitivities of the new methods were 1:2560, 1:1280 and 1:640 for IgG, IgM and IgA1, respectively. The concordances between the I-ELISAs and serum-neutralization were 95.2% for IgG and IgA1, and 75% for IgM. Although there was a weak cross-reaction with DHAV-3 positive serum for the IgG and IgA1 tests, it didn't affect the ability to detect DHAV-1 specific antibodies. Thus, these new I-ELISAs were shown to be potentially convenient methods to survey the status of humoral immune response to DHAV-1.

  16. [Sequence analysis of VP1 gene of the duck hepatitis A virus type 3 strains isolated from Shandong Province of China in 2012].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Chen, Lin-lin; Zhang, Rui-hua; Yang, Lei; Xie, Zhi-jing; Zhu, Yan-li; Jiang, Shi-jin; Si, Xing-kui

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the genetic variation of the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene of the duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3), the VP1 gene of 13 virulent DHAV-3 strains isolated from Shandong province of China in 2012 were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that all the VP1 genes of the 13 isolates contained 720 nucleotides encoding 240 amino acids, and shared with nucleotide identities of 94. 6%-99.9% and amino acid identities of 95.0%-100%. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence homologies between the 13 DHAV-3 isolates and other 31 DHAV-3 reference strains were 92.5%-100% and 90. 8%-100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the VP1 gene of DHAV-3 had distinct geographical characteristics. Distribution of genotypes of the 44 DHAV-3 strains was as follows: except the vaccine strain B63, all the other Chinese isolates belonged to genotype I (GI), Vietnamese wild isolates mainly belonged to subtype 1 (S1) of genotype II (GII), and all Korean isolates belonged to subtype 2 (S2) of GII.

  17. Development of an indirect ELISA method based on the VP3 protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) for dual detection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Youlin; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) based on the recombinant VP3 protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) was developed and evaluated in this study. The optimal antigen, serum and enzyme-labeled antibody dilutions were 1:160 (0.94μg), 1:160 and 1:2000, respectively. The optimal blocking buffer was 1% gelatin. The cutoff value was determined to be 0.332, and the analytical sensitivity was 1:1280 (OD450-630=0.37). The results of the specificity evaluation showed that no cross-reactivity existed between DHAV-1 antiserum and other common duck-sensitive pathogens, except for duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3), suggesting that this could be a common approach for the simultaneous detection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 antibodies. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for all of the tested samples were lower than 10%. The concordance between the I-ELISA based on the VP3 subunit of DHAV-1 and that based on the whole DHAV-1 particle was 96%. These results indicate that the VP3-based I-ELISA method has high sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability and is as effective as the DHAV-1-based I-ELISA method for sero-surveillance. Thus, it may be a convenient and novel method for DHAV antibody detection and epidemiological surveillance of DHAV prevalence.

  18. Efficient strategy for constructing duck enteritis virus-based live attenuated vaccine against homologous and heterologous H5N1 avian influenza virus and duck enteritis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong; Hu, Yong; Liu, Zhigang; Zhong, Wei; Cao, Hangzhou; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-04-16

    Duck is susceptible to many pathogens, such as duck hepatitis virus, duck enteritis virus (DEV), duck tembusu virus, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in particular. With the significant role of duck in the evolution of H5N1 HPAIV, control and eradication of H5N1 HPAIV in duck through vaccine immunization is considered an effective method in minimizing the threat of a pandemic outbreak. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against these pathogens should be determined. In this study, the DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1, and its potential as a polyvalent vaccine was evaluated. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the gB and UL26 gene junction of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The HA gene of A/duck/Hubei/xn/2007 (H5N1) was inserted into the C-KCE genome via the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) to generate the recombinant vector pBAC-C-KCE-HA. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-HA was developed by eliminating the BAC backbone. Ducks immunized with C-KCE-HA induced both the cross-reactive antibodies and T cell response against H5. Moreover, C-KCE-HA-immunized ducks provided rapid and long-lasting protection against homologous and heterologous HPAIV H5N1 and DEV clinical signs, death, and primary viral replication. In conclusion, our BAC-C-KCE is a promising platform for developing a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine.

  19. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  20. Cryptic protein priming sites in two different domains of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase for initiating DNA synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boregowda, Rajeev K; Lin, Li; Zhu, Qin; Tian, Fang; Hu, Jianming

    2011-08-01

    Initiation of reverse transcription in hepadnaviruses is accomplished by a unique protein-priming mechanism whereby a specific Y residue in the terminal protein (TP) domain of the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) acts as a primer to initiate DNA synthesis, which is carried out by the RT domain of the same protein. When separate TP and RT domains from the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) RT protein were tested in a trans-complementation assay in vitro, the RT domain could also serve, unexpectedly, as a protein primer for DNA synthesis, as could a TP mutant lacking the authentic primer Y (Y96) residue. Priming at these other, so-called cryptic, priming sites in both the RT and TP domains shared the same requirements as those at Y96. A mini RT protein with both the TP and RT domains linked in cis, as well as the full-length RT protein, could also initiate DNA synthesis using cryptic priming sites. The cryptic priming site(s) in TP was found to be S/T, while those in the RT domain were Y and S/T. As with the authentic TP Y96 priming site, the cryptic priming sites in the TP and RT domains could support DNA polymerization subsequent to the initial covalent linkage of the first nucleotide to the priming amino acid residue. These results provide new insights into the complex mechanisms of protein priming in hepadnaviruses, including the selection of the primer residue and the interactions between the TP and RT domains that is essential for protein priming.

  1. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of α-DDB-FNC, a novel nucleoside-biphenyldicarboxylate compound in cells and ducks, and its anti-immunological liver injury effect in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinghua; Zhao, Xuejie; Zang, Limin; Fang, Xianzhen; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Xiaorui; Wang, Qingduan; Zheng, Liyun; Chang, Junbiao

    2012-12-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be a major global cause of acute and chronic liver disease with high mortality. Herein, we examined both the anti-HBV and hepatoprotective activity of α-DDB-FNC. In human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG2.2.15, α-DDB-FNC effectively suppressed the secretion of HBV antigens in a time and dose-dependent manner with 25.11% inhibition on HBeAg and 43.68% on HBsAg at 2.5 μM on day 9. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, α-DDB-FNC (2.5 μM) also reduced HBV DNA level by 77.74% extracellularly and 78.94% intracellularly on day 9. In the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected ducks, after α-DDB-FNC was given once daily for 10 days, the serum and liver DHBV DNA levels were reduced markedly with 96.81% and 97.21% at 10 mgkg(-1) on day 10, respectively. In Con A-induced immunological liver-injury mice, α-DDB-FNC significantly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT, AST, TBiL and liver MDA, NO levels. Furthermore, significant improvement of the liver was observed after α-DDB-FNC treatment both in ducks and mice, as evaluated by the histopathological analysis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that α-DDB-FNC possesses both antiviral activity against HBV and hepatoprotective effect to Con A-induced liver-injury mice.

  2. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on hepatic function in the duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, J.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    1. The indocyanine green dye clearance test for hepatic function was determined in mallard ducks before and during the chronic ingestion (7 months) of representative paraffinic or aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (PH). 2. No mortality or visible symptoms of toxicity occured in any of the tests. Ingestion of 4000 ppm aromatic PH produced significant increases in liver (25%), plasma clearance of indocyanine green (33%) and hepatic blood flow (30%). 3. Although the aromatics elicited a greater hepatic stress response than the paraffins, the ducks tolerated high concentrations of PH for extended periods.

  3. Methodological approaches to disinfection of human hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Prince, D L; Prince, H N; Thraenhart, O; Muchmore, E; Bonder, E; Pugh, J

    1993-01-01

    Three commercial disinfectants (two quaternary formulations and one phenolic) were tested against human hepatitis B virus (HHBV). The treated virus was assayed for infectivity by the chimpanzee assay and for morphological alteration by the Morphological Alteration and Disintegration Test. The same agents were tested against duck hepatitis B virus in a duck hepatocyte infectivity assay. It is apparent that human and duck hepatitis viruses were relatively susceptible to disinfection, becoming noninfectious after < or = 10 min of contact with the disinfectant. The Morphological Alteration and Disintegration Test accurately predicted activity in the two infectivity tests. The anti-human hepatitis B virus effect of the low-level quaternary ammonium germicides is a novel finding and suggest that members of the family Hepadnaviridae are relatively susceptible to chemical agents. Images PMID:8308123

  4. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  5. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  6. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  7. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5-7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-weeks-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One-week-old ducks showed endocardial hemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver, and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three-weeks-old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-weeks-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-weeks-old ducks at 3-5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P < 0.05). More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  8. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  9. Complete genome sequence of duck Tembusu virus, isolated from Muscovy ducks in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Jidang; Wei, Chunya; Wang, Heng; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Minze; Tang, Fengfeng; Xie, Jiexiong; Liang, Huanbin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo

    2012-12-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) WJ-1 strain, isolated from Muscovy ducks. This is the first complete genome sequence of DTMUV reported in southern China. Compared with the other strains (TA, GH-2, YY5, and ZJ-407) that were previously found in eastern China, WJ-1 bears a few differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We found that there are 47 mutations of amino acids encoded by the whole open reading frame (ORF) among these five strains. The whole-genome sequence of DTMUV will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck Tembusu virus in southern China.

  10. Different outcomes of infection of chickens and ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, C C; Diao, Y X; Sun, X Y; Hao, D M; Liu, X; Ge, P P

    2014-01-01

    As the major aquatic and terrestrial hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), ducks and chickens play a critical role in the evolution and spread of the H9N2 virus. However, the outcomes of infection of ducks and chickens with the H9N2 virus are not sufficiently documented. In this study, we compared the outcomes of infection of chickens and Peking ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 virus. The results showed that this virus caused more pronounced clinical signs and histological lesions in chickens. As for the virus shedding, chickens shed more virus in the trachea and less virus in the cloaca in levels of interferon (IFN) γ were found in the trachea of ducks compared with chickens, while comparison with ducks. As for cytokines, namely IFNs and interleukins (IL), higher higher levels of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 were observed in the ileum of chickens compared with ducks. Eventually, serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were higher in chickens than in ducks. Taken together, ducks and chickens use different strategies in response to the H9N2 virus infection in tissues representing main replication sites of low-pathogenic AIVs. Given the different outcomes of the H9N2 virus infection in ducks and chickens, different measures should be taken in vaccination and treatment.

  11. The sequential tissue distribution of duck Tembusu virus in adult ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Ding, Leilei; Lin, Yuan; Li, Qimeng; He, Xijun; Chen, Qiusheng; Chen, Hualan

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a novel Tembusu virus (TMUV) that caused a severe decrease in the egg production of ducks was isolated in southeast China. Given the novelty of this duck pathogen, little information is available regarding its pathogenesis. Here, we systematically investigated the replication kinetics of TMUV PTD2010 in adult male and female ducks. We found that PTD2010 was detectable in most of the parenchymatous organs as well as the oviduct and intestinal tract from days 1 to 7 after inoculation. Viral titers were maintained at high levels for at least 9 days in the spleen, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, brain, and ovary. No virus was detected in any of these organs or tissues at 18 days after inoculation. PTD2010, thus, causes systemic infections in male and female ducks; its replication kinetics show similar patterns in most organs, with the exception of the ovaries and testes.

  12. Evidence of possible vertical transmission of Tembusu virus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiuli; Chen, Hao; Ti, Jinfeng; Yang, Guoping; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Yunjian; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-09-30

    In 2013, Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection was successively observed on several breeding duck farms in Shandong province, China. Affected ducks showed consistently acute anorexia, diarrhea and egg production drop. 125 hatching eggs produced by TMUV infected breeding ducks from four duck farms were collected. Among them, 35 hatching eggs were selected randomly from all before incubation for vitelline membrane samples collection. The rest of 90 hatching eggs were incubated routinely. As a result, 16 hatching eggs were found non-embryonated, 28 duck embryos died during incubation and 46 newly hatched ducklings were obtained. Vitelline membranes of non-embryonated hatching eggs, vitelline membrane, brain or liver samples of dead embryos and brain samples of newly hatched ducklings were collected for virus detection. Samples collected from one egg, embryo or duckling were treated as one. Consequently, 18 of 35 (51.43%) hatching eggs, 2 of 16 (12.50%) non-embryonated duck eggs, 17 of 28 (60.71%) dead duck embryos and 5 of 46 (10.87%) newly hatched ducklings were detected positive for TMUV using NS3-based RT-PCR. Overall, 42 of 125 (33.6%) eggs were positive for TMUV. A virus strain, designated as TMUV-SDDE, was isolated from one of these dead duck embryos which were detected TMUV positive. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that E gene of TMUV-SDDE virus was closely related to other TMUV strains isolated in China during 2010-2013. Pathogenicity studies showed that TMUV-SDDE strain was virulent to ducklings. This is the first report that TMUV is isolated from duck embryos. The findings provide evidence of possible vertical transmission of TMUV from breeding ducks to ducklings.

  13. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  14. Pathogenicity of duck plague and innate immune responses of the Cherry Valley ducks to duck plague virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Guo, Mengjiao; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-08-24

    Duck plague caused by duck plague virus (DPV) is an acute and contagious disease. To better understand the pathogenic mechanism of duck plague virus in ducklings, an infection experiment was performed. Our results showed that typical symptoms were observed in the infected ducklings. DPV could replicate quickly in many tissues, leading to pathological lesions, especially on the spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that expression of many innate immune-related genes was mostly up-regulated in the brain, and the antiviral innate immune response was established, but not sufficient to restrict viral replication. In contrast, although the expression of many major pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) increased in the spleen, the expression of most cytokines was declined. Our study indicates that DPV is a pantropic virus that can replicate rapidly in tissues, causing serious pathological lesions but the immune responses are different in the spleen and brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to systematically explore the expression profiles of the immune genes in the DPV-infected ducks. Our data provide a foundation for further study of the pathogenicity of duck plague.

  15. Liposomes containing recombinant E protein vaccine against duck Tembusu virus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Liu, Yongxia; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Yanhan; Fan, Wentao; Cheng, Ziqiang; Niu, Xudong; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-04-27

    To obtain an effective vaccine candidate against duck Tembusu viral (DTMUV) disease which causes egg-drop and great economical loss in the Chinese duck industry, liposome vaccines containing recombinant E protein were prepared and assessed in this study. The recombinant plasmid (PET28a-E) was constructed and transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells to produce E proteins. The recombinant E proteins were purified and entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. Eighty-four cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into seven groups and inoculated intramuscularly at one- or seven-day-old with liposomes-E protein or Freund's adjuvant-E protein vaccine. Blood samples were collected from the first week to the tenth week for serum antibody, plasma for viremia, as well as oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs for virus shedding analyses after being challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of duck Tembusu virus. Results showed that serum antibody level of the liposomes vaccine was higher than the Freund's adjuvant vaccine, and inoculating twice was superior to once; furthermore, the viremia and virus shedding tests also proved that the liposomes vaccine can provide complete protection against DTMUV challenge. These results demonstrated that the liposomes-E protein vaccine could be used as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  16. Pathogenicity and genetic characterization of a duck Tembusu virus associated with egg-dropping in Muscovy ducks.

    PubMed

    Shen, Han-Qin; Lin, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Zhan-Xin; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo; Chen, Feng

    2016-09-02

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has spread to the major duck-farming region in China, causing acute egg-production drop in Chinese duck population. In this study, we characterized a DTMUV strain (named GD2014) isolated from an egg-production drop duck farm in Guangdong province, South China. The virus was pathogenic to Muscovy duck embryos and caused severe egg production drop for laying Muscovy ducks. The genome sequence of GD2014 shared 97-99% homologies with other waterfowl-origin Tembusu viruses, and shared 89% identities with MM1775 strain isolated from mosquito. Phylogenetic analysis of entire open reading frame (ORF), E gene and NS5 gene indicated that GD2014 belonged to Ntaya group. These results have implications for understanding the orgin, emergence and pathogenicity of DTMUV as well as for the development of vaccines and diagnostics based on epidemiological data.

  17. Complete genome sequence of a novel flavivirus, duck tembusu virus, isolated from ducks and geese in china.

    PubMed

    Yun, Tao; Zhang, Dabing; Ma, Xuejun; Cao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Liu; Ni, Zheng; Ye, Weicheng; Yu, Bin; Hua, Jionggang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cun

    2012-03-01

    Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. We report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2, isolated from Shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in China. The genomes of YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. It is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.

  18. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  19. Genes involved in the establishment of hepatic steatosis in Muscovy, Pekin and mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Annabelle; Davail, Stéphane; Ricaud, Karine; Bernadet, Marie-Dominique; Gontier, Karine

    2017-01-01

    Our main objectives were to determine the genes involved in the establishment of hepatic steatosis in three genotypes of palmipeds. To respond to this question, we have compared Muscovy ducks, Pekin ducks and their crossbreed the mule duck fed ad libitum or overfed. We have shown a hepatic overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and di-acyl glycerol acyl transferase 2 (DGAT2) in overfed individuals, where DGAT2 seemed to be more regulated. This increase in lipogenesis genes is associated with a decrease of lipoprotein formation in Muscovy and mule ducks, especially apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTTP), leading to lipid accumulation in liver. In Pekin ducks, MTTP expression is upregulated suggesting a better hepatic lipids exportation. Regarding lipids re-uptake, fatty acid-binding protein 4 and very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor are overexpressed in liver of mule ducks at the end of the overfeeding period. This phenomenon puts light on a mechanism unknown until today. In fact, mule can incorporate more lipids in liver than the two other genotypes leading to an intensified hepatic steatosis. To conclude, our results confirmed the genotype variability to overfeeding. Furthermore, similar observations are already described in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in human, and ask if ducks could be an animal model to study hepatic triglyceride accumulation.

  20. Expression and distribution of the duck enteritis virus UL51 protein in experimentally infected ducks.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chanjuan; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xu, Chao; Jia, Renyong; Chen, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Dekang; Luo, Qihui; Cui, Hengmin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yin; Xu, Zhiwen; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2010-06-01

    To determine the expression and distribution of tegument proteins encoded by duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL51 gene in tissues of experimentally infected ducks, for the first time, an immunoperoxidase staining method to detect UL51 protein (UL51p) in paraffin-embedded tissues is reported. A rabbit anti-UL51 polyclonal serum, raised against a recombinant 6-His-UL51 fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli, was prepared, purified, and used as primary antibodies. Fifty-eight 30-day-old DEV-free ducks were intramuscularly inoculated with the pathogenic DEV CHv strain as infection group, and two ducks were selected as preinfection group. The tissues were collected at sequential time points between 2 and 480 hr postinoculation (PI) and prepared for immunoperoxidase staining. DEV UL51p was first found in the spleen and liver at 8 hr PI; in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus at 12 hr PI; in the Harders glands, esophagus, small intestine (including the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and large intestine (including the caecum and rectum) at 24 hr PI; in the glandularis ventriculus at 48 hr PI; and in the pancreas, cerebrum, kidney, lung, and myocardium at 72 hr PI. Throughout the infection process, the UL51p was not seen in the muscle. Furthermore, the intensity of positive staining of DEV UL51p antigen in various tissues increased sharply from 8 to 96 hr PI, peaked during 120-144 hr PI, and then decreased steadily from 216 to 480 hr PI, suggesting that the expressional levels of DEV UL51p in systemic organs have a close correlation with the progression of duck virus enteritis (DVE) disease. A number of DEV UL51p was distributed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, liver, esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine of DEV-infected ducks, whereas less DEV UL51p was distributed in the Harders glands, glandularis ventriculus, cerebrum, kidney, lung, pancreas, and myocardium of DEV-infected ducks. Moreover, DEV UL51p can be expressed in the cytoplasm of various types

  1. Expression and immunohistochemical distribution of duck plague virus glycoprotein gE in infected ducks.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hua; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xiang, Jun; Xie, Wei; Shen, Fuxiao; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Luo, Qihui; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2011-03-01

    To determine the distribution of duck plague virus (DPV) gE protein in paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally DPV-infected ducks, an indirect immunoperoxidase assay was established to detect glycoprotein E (gE) protein for the first time. The rabbit anti-His-gE serum, raised against the recombinant His-gE fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), was prepared and purified. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that the anti-His-gE serum had a high level of reactivity and specificity and could be used as the first antibody for further experiments to study the distribution of DPV gE protein in DPV-infected tissues. A number of DPV gE proteins were distributed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, liver, esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and kidney of DPV-infected ducks and a few DPV gE were distributed in the Harders glands, myocardium, cerebrum, and lung, whereas the gE was not seen in the skin, muscle, and pancreas. Moreover, DPV gE was expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes, reticulum cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, and hepatocytes. The present study may be useful not only for describing the characteristics of gE expression and distribution in infected ducks but also for understanding the pathogenesis of DPV.

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Biology

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Christoph; Mason, William S.

    2000-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses) cause transient and chronic infections of the liver. Transient infections run a course of several months, and chronic infections are often lifelong. Chronic infections can lead to liver failure with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The replication strategy of these viruses has been described in great detail, but virus-host interactions leading to acute and chronic disease are still poorly understood. Studies on how the virus evades the immune response to cause prolonged transient infections with high-titer viremia and lifelong infections with an ongoing inflammation of the liver are still at an early stage, and the role of the virus in liver cancer is still elusive. The state of knowledge in this very active field is therefore reviewed with an emphasis on past accomplishments as well as goals for the future. PMID:10704474

  3. Determinants of pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks have been implicated in the dissemination and evolution of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in domestic ducks has increased over time with some viruses producing 100% mortality in very short time. The determinants of pathogenic...

  4. Avian influenza virus-induced regulation of duck fibroblast gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have been non-pathogenic in ducks causing no disease or mild respiratory infections. However, in 2002, new viruses emerged causing systemic disease and death. To better understand the differences in pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in ducks, we in...

  5. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  6. Pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses from Vietnam in chickens and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks and other wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza type A viruses, and influenza viruses in these species normally is an asymptomatic infection. Even the viruses that are highly pathogenic for chickens typically can infect but do not cause disease in domestic ducks. However,...

  7. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Junyan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qingshan; Hua, Ronghong; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-11-10

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas (221)LD/NLPW(225) was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  8. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Junyan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qingshan; Hua, Ronghong; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to 221LD/NLPW225 and 87YAEYI91 by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV. PMID:27834908

  9. Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Arthur

    2016-09-06

    This issue provides a clinical overview of hepatitis C virus, focusing on transmission, prevention, screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  10. Hepatitis G virus: is it a hepatitis virus?

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, R C; Keeffe, E B; Greenberg, H B

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis G virus (HGV) and GB virus C (GBV-C) are two newly discovered viral agents, different isolates of a positive-sense RNA virus that represents a new genus of Flaviviridae. The purpose of this review is to analyze new data that have recently been published on the epidemiology and associations between HGV and liver diseases such as posttransfusion hepatitis, acute and chronic non-A-E hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of HGV in coinfection with other hepatitis viruses, the response to antiviral therapy, and the impact of HGV on liver transplantation are also discussed. HGV is a transmissible blood-borne viral agent that frequently occurs as a coinfection with other hepatitis viruses due to common modes of transmission. The prevalence of HGV ranges from 0.9 to 10% among blood donors throughout the world and is found in 1.7% of volunteer blood donors in the United States. The majority of patients infected with HGV by blood transfusion do not develop chronic hepatitis, but hepatitis G viremia frequently persists without biochemical evidence of hepatitis. Serum HGV RNA has been found in 0 to 50% of patients with fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology and 14 to 36% of patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis. The association between HGV and chronic non-A-E hepatitis remains unclear. Although HGV appears to be a hepatotrophic virus, its role in independently causing acute and chronic liver diseases remains uncertain. PMID:9265860

  11. The vaccine efficacy of recombinant duck enteritis virus expressing secreted E with or without PrM proteins of duck tembusu virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pucheng; Liu, Jinxiong; Jiang, Yongping; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Qimeng; Wu, Li; He, Xijun; Chen, Hualan

    2014-09-15

    A newly emerged tembusu virus that causes egg-drop has been affecting ducks in China since 2010. Currently, no vaccine is available for this disease. A live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine has been used routinely to control lethal DEV in ducks since the 1960s. Here, we constructed two recombinant DEVs by transfecting overlapping fosmid DNAs. One virus, rDEV-TE, expresses the truncated form of the envelope glycoprotein (TE) of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), and the other virus, rDEV-PrM/TE, expresses both the TE and pre-membrane proteins (PrM). Animal study demonstrated that both recombinant viruses induced measurable anti-DTMUV neutralizing antibodies in ducks. After two doses of recombinant virus, rDEV-PrM/TE completely protected ducks from DTMUV challenge, whereas rDEV-TE only conferred partial protection. These results demonstrate that recombinant DEV expressing the TE and pre-membrane proteins is protective and can serve as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  12. Characterization of duck H5N1 influenza viruses with differing pathogenicity in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yinghua; Wu, Peipei; Peng, Daxin; Wang, Xiaobo; Wan, Hongquan; Zhang, Pinghu; Long, Jinxue; Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Xiufan

    2009-12-01

    A number of H5N1 influenza outbreaks have occurred in aquatic birds in Asia. As aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses and do not usually show clinical disease upon infection, the repeated H5N1 outbreaks have highlighted the importance of continuous surveillance on H5N1 viruses in aquatic birds. In the present study we characterized the biological properties of four H5N1 avian influenza viruses, which had been isolated from ducks, in different animal models. In specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, all four isolates were highly pathogenic. In SPF mice, the S and Y isolates were moderately pathogenic. However, in mallard ducks, two isolates had low pathogenicity, while the other two were highly pathogenic and caused lethal infection. A representative isolate with high pathogenicity in ducks caused systemic infection and replicated effectively in all 10 organs tested in challenged ducks, whereas a representative isolate with low pathogenicity in ducks was only detected in some organs in a few challenged ducks. Comparison of complete genomic sequences from the four isolates showed that the same amino acid residues that have been reported to be associated with virulence and host adaption/restriction of influenza viruses were present in the PB2, HA, NA, M and NS genes, while the amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site were diverse. From these results it appeared that the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses was increased for ducks and that amino acid substitutions at the HA cleavage site might have contributed to the differing pathogenicity of these isolates in mallards. A procedure for the intravenous pathogenicity index test in a mallard model for assessing the virulence of H5/H7 subtype avian influenza viruses in waterfowl is described.

  13. The effect of NS1 gene exchange on the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused only mild respiratory infections in ducks. Since then, new viruses have emerged that cause systemic disease and high mortality in ducks and other waterfowl. Studies on HPAI virus pathogenicity in ducks have been limited and t...

  14. The role of NS protein in the pathogenicity of HPAI H5N1 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until 2002, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses caused no disease or only mild respiratory infections in ducks. Since then, new viruses have emerged that cause systemic disease and high mortality in ducks and other waterfowl. Studies on HPAI virus pathogenicity in ducks have been...

  15. Possible waterborne transmission and maintenance of influenza viruses in domestic ducks.

    PubMed Central

    Markwell, D D; Shortridge, K F

    1982-01-01

    Two duck farms in Hong Kong were examined monthly for 1 year for the occurrence and persistence of influenza viruses within the duck communities. The predominant virus in one community was H3N2, a virus antigenically related to the pandemic Hong Kong strain. This virus was isolated monthly throughout the year from feces or pond water or both, indicating a cycle of waterborne transmission. Viruses of the same antigenic combination were isolated 1 and 2 years after the last sampling occasion, implying persistence in the community. Infection was asymptomatic. Maintenance of virus appeared to be dependent upon the continual introduction of ducklings susceptible to infection onto virus-contaminated water; the feces of ducks 70 to 80 days old were generally free of detectable virus despite the exposure of the ducks to virus in pond water. In the second community, in which ducklings were not introduced after the initial sampling, the prevailing viruses, H7N1 and H7N2, also present asymptomatically, ceased to be detected once the ducks were 70 to 80 days old. The normal practice of raising ducks of different ages on the same farm, wherein the water supplies are shared, as typified by the first community, appears to be instrumental in maintaining a large reservoir of influenza viruses in the duck population of southern China. PMID:7055370

  16. Duck enteritis virus glycoprotein D and B DNA vaccines induce immune responses and immunoprotection in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks.

  17. The pathogenesis of duck virus enteritis in experimentally infected ducks: a quantitative time-course study using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Xuefeng, Qi; Xiaoyan, Yang; Anchun, Cheng; Mingshu, Wang; Dekang, Zhu; Renyong, Jia

    2008-06-01

    Duck virus enteritis is an acute and contagious herpesvirus infection of duck, geese and swans with high morbidity and mortality. The kinetics of viral DNA loads and immunohistochemical localization of virulent duck enteritis virus, as well as histopathological examination in various tissues of ducks following oral infection, were investigated. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in various tissues was coincident with the levels of duck enteritis virus at the various sites, suggesting that the levels of duck enteritis virus in systemic organs have a close correlation with the progression of disease. The abundance of target epithelial and lymphoid cells may contribute to the high levels of virus infection and replication in lymphoid and intestinal tissues.

  18. Studies on vertical and horizontal transmission of duck plague virus in apparently healthy waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgess, Elizabeth C.

    1978-01-01

    Healthy waterfowl were found to be carriers of duck plague (DP) virus. Black ducks (Anas rubripes) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) surviving a natural outbreak of DP at Coloma, Wisconsin, in 1973 yielded DP virus in cloacal swabs taken four years postinfection. Experimental infection of previously unexposed mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynochos) with the Coloma strain of DP virus CO-WI (73) also produced cloacal virus shedding for up to four years after infection. A second DP virus strain, LA-SD (73) from the Lake Andes, South Dakota, epornitic, was detected from cloacal swabs of pintail ducks (Anas acuta), gadwall ducks (Anas strepera), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and Canada geese infected experimentally one year before. The frequency of swabs positive for DP virus varied between individuals within each of the tested species. The amount of detectable DP virus shed was about 100 plaqueforming units of virus percloacal swab. Oral erosions were present in all species tested except Canada geese and gadwall ducks. Erosions occurred at the openings of the sublingual salivary gland ducts. DP virus was isolated from erosions. All ducks with lesions proved to shed DP virus, although not necessarily at the time they had the lesion. Three pintail ducks treated with dexamethasone for ten days, shed DP virus daily for 19 days after the first day of treatment. These birds also shed DP virus the one time they were tested prior to dexamethosone treatment. An acute lethal outbreak occurred in CO-WI (73) carrier birds. Both DP virus and specific lesions were found in dead birds. The deaths coincided with a change in housing and with the simultaneous introduction of co-housed LA-SD (73) infected ducklings. DP virus was isolated from the chorio-allantoic (CA) fluid of a fourteen day pekin embryo and from five of ten infertile pekin eggs laid by DP carrier birds.

  19. A duck enteritis virus-vectored bivalent live vaccine provides fast and complete protection against H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-11-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 10(6) PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks.

  20. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  1. SURVEY FOR WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN WILD DUCKS, 2004-06, USA.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Jankowski, Mark D; Goldberg, Diana; Franson, J Christian

    2016-04-28

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004-06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon ( Anas americana ), Mallard ( Anas platyrhynchos ), and Northern Pintail ( Anas acuta ) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks ( Aix sponsa ) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  2. Differential channelling of liver lipids in relation to susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in two species of ducks.

    PubMed

    Hermier, Dominique; Guy, Gérard; Guillaumin, Solange; Davail, Stéphane; André, Jean-Marc; Hoo-Paris, Robert

    2003-08-01

    In the human, hepatic steatosis can be associated with an imbalance between synthesis, secretion and storage of hepatic lipids, and exhibits a genetic susceptibility. The effect of overfeeding on hepatic lipid channelling was investigated in two genotypes of ducks that differ in their susceptibility to fatty liver, i.e. the common duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and the Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata. Before overfeeeding, the Muscovy duck exhibited a lower subcutaneous adiposity and a higher muscular development, whereas hepatic composition was similar in both genotypes (>5% lipids and triglycerides accounting for 6-10% lipids). In the plasma lipoprotein profile, HDL predominated (5.5-7.8 g/l) over VLDL (0.09-0.25 g/l) and LDL (0.65-1.06 g/l). All lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were lower in the Muscovy duck. In response to overfeeding, the Muscovy duck exhibited a higher degree of hepatic steatosis (62 vs. 50% lipids), and a lower increase in adiposity and in the concentration of plasma triglycerides (6-fold vs. 10-fold) and VLDL (23-fold vs. 34-fold). Thus, certain genotypes may be more responsive to the dietary induction of fatty liver because of a less efficient channelling of hepatic lipids towards secretion into plasma and adipose storage, and the duck may represent a suitable model in which to study the development of hepatic steatosis and its pathogenesis.

  3. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  4. Construction of a recombinant duck enteritis virus vaccine expressing hemagglutinin of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluation of its efficacy in ducks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Yang, Chenghuai; Li, Junping; Li, Ling; Cao, Minghui; Li, Qihong; Li, Huijiao

    2017-01-01

    H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) remain a significant burden in the poultry industry and are considered to be one of the most likely causes of any new influenza pandemic in humans. As ducks play an important role in the maintenance of H9 viruses in nature, successful control of the spread of H9 AIVs in ducks will have significant beneficial effects on public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination. In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV, rDEV-∆UL2-HA, inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from duck-origin H9N2 AIV into the UL2 gene by homologous recombination. One-step growth analyses showed that the HA gene insertion had no effect on viral replication and suggested that the UL2 gene was nonessential for virus growth in vitro. In vivo tests further showed that the insertion of the HA gene in place of the UL2 gene did not affect the immunogenicity of the virus. Moreover, a single dose of 10(3) TCID50 of rDEV-∆UL2-HA induced solid protection against lethal DEV challenge and completely prevented H9N2 AIV viral shedding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a DEV-vectored vaccine providing robust protection against both DEV and H9N2 AIV virus infections in ducks.

  5. Tembusu virus infection in Cherry Valley ducks: the effect of age at infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, X Y; Diao, Y X; Wang, J; Liu, X; Lu, A L; Zhang, L; Ge, P P; Hao, D M

    2014-01-10

    Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 5 day, 2 week and 5 week of age were intranasally infected with the WFCL strain of Tembusu virus (TMUV) to investigate the effect of host age on the outcome of TMUV infection. For each age group, clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, viral copy numbers in tissues and serum neutralizing antibody titers were recorded. Age-related differences in the resistance to TMUV infection were observed with younger ducks being more susceptible. Some ducks infected at 5 day and 2 week of age developed severe clinical signs, including severe neurological dysfunction and death. However, subclinical signs and no mortality were observed in ducks infected at 5 week of age. A decline in the severity of gross and microscopic lesions was observed as ducks mature. Systemic infections were established in the three age groups post challenge. Higher viral copy numbers in the tissues, especially in vital organs such as the brain and the heart, were developed in the ducks infected at 5 day of age than older ducks, correlating with the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the tissues. Furthermore, ducks infected at 5 week of age developed significantly higher serum neutralizing antibody titers than ducks infected at 5 day of age as determined by serum neutralization test. Therefore, age-related differences in the resistance to TMUV infection should be considered when studying the pathogenicity, pathogenesis, formulation of the vaccination and therapy strategies of TMUV infection in ducks.

  6. Experimental susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik; Porter, Robert E; Franson, J Christian

    2015-04-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 10(4.54) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 10(2) and 10(2.9) PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that they play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  7. Adaptation and transmission of a duck-origin avian influenza virus in poultry species.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinling; zu Dohna, Heinrich; Anchell, Nichole L; Adams, Sean C; Dao, Nguyet T; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol J

    2010-01-01

    A duck-origin avian influenza virus (AIV) was used to study viral adaptation and transmission patterns in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). Inoculated birds were housed with naïve birds of the same species and all birds were monitored for infection. The inoculating duck virus was transmitted effectively by contact in both species. Viruses recovered from infected birds showed mutations as early as 1 or 3 days after inoculation in chickens and ducks, respectively. Amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) or deletions in neuraminidase (NA) stalk regions were identified in chicken isolates, but only substitutions in HA were identified in duck isolates. HA substitution-containing viruses replicated more efficiently than those with NA stalk deletions. NA deletion mutants were not recovered from contact chickens, suggesting inefficient transmission. Amino acid substitutions in HA proteins appeared in pairs in chickens, but were independent in ducks, indicating adaptation in chickens. In addition, our findings showed that a duck-origin virus can rapidly adapt to chickens, suggesting that the emergence of new epidemic AIV can be rapid.

  8. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Duck Ovarian Follicles Infected with Duck Tembusu Virus by Label-Free LC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kaikai; Zhao, Dongmin; Liu, Yuzhuo; Liu, Qingtao; Huang, Xinmei; Yang, Jing; An, Fengjiao; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. DTMUV infection mainly results in significant decreases in egg production in egg-laying ducks within 1–2 weeks post infection. However, information on the comparative protein expression of host tissues in response to DTMUV infection is limited. In the present study, the cellular protein response to DTMUV infection in duck ovarian follicles was analyzed using nano-flow high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed 131 differentially expressed proteins, among which 53 were up regulated and 78 were down regulated. The identified proteins were involved in the regulation of essential processes such as cellular structure and integrity, RNA processing, protein biosynthesis and modification, vesicle transport, signal transduction, and mitochondrial pathway. Some selected proteins that were found to be regulated in DTMUV-infected tissues were screened by quantitative real-time PCR to examine their regulation at the transcriptional level, western blot analysis was used to validate the changes of some selected proteins on translational level. To our knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the proteomic changes in duck ovarian follicles following DTMUV infection. The protein-related information obtained in this study may be useful to understand the host response to DTMUV infection and the inherent mechanism of DTMUV replication and pathogenicity. PMID:27066001

  9. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring. Images Figure PMID:3970570

  10. Effect of age on pathogenesis and innate immune responses in Pekin ducks infected with different H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks varies between different viruses and is affected by the age of the ducks, with younger ducks presenting more severe disease. In order to better understand the pathobiology of H5N1 HPAI in ducks, including t...

  11. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus in Ruddy ducks and Lesser Scaup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV) has not been characterized in numerous duck species, especially diving ducks, some of which migrate across the continental U.S. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N2 AIV was characterized in two diving duck species, Ruddy ...

  12. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    PubMed Central

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in mid-1982. An inactivated hepatitis B vaccine that was licensed in the United States in November 1981 has been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and effective. When this vaccine becomes available for use in July 1982, it will be recommended for persons who are considered to be at increased risk of contracting hepatitis B infection. Future generations of hepatitis B vaccines may be prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen derived from DNA recombinant technology or by in vitro synthesis of HBs Ag determinants by chemical means. PMID:6295013

  13. Sentinel model for influenza A virus monitoring in free-grazing ducks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Chaiyawong, Supassama; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Jairak, Waleemas; Prakairungnamthip, Duangduean; Bunpapong, Napawan; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) can cause influenza in birds and mammals. In Thailand, free-grazing ducks are known IAV reservoirs and can spread viruses through frequent movements in habitats they share with wild birds. In this study, the sentinel model for IAV monitoring was conducted over 4 months in two free-grazing duck flocks. IAV subtypes H4N6 (n=1) and H3N8 (n=5) were isolated from sentinel ducks at the ages of 13 and 15 weeks. Clinical signs of depression and ocular discharge were observed in the infected ducks. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic characterization of the isolated IAVs indicated that all Thai IAVs were clustered in the Eurasian lineage and pose low pathogenic avian influenza characteristics. Serological analysis found that antibodies against IAVs could be detected in the ducks since 9-weeks-old. In summary, our results indicate that the sentinel model can be used for IAV monitoring in free-grazing duck flocks. Since free-grazing ducks are potential reservoirs and transmitters of IAVs, routine IAV surveillance in free-grazing duck flocks can be beneficial for influenza prevention and control strategies.

  14. Genetic relationship of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in Korea and their pathogenic potential in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Min-Chul; Paek, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kim, Bang-Sil; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2012-03-23

    The H3 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most frequently isolated subtypes in domestic ducks, live poultry markets, and wild birds in Korea. In 2002-2009, a total of 45 H3 subtype AIVs were isolated from the feces of clinically normal domestic ducks (n=28) and wild birds (n=17). The most prevalent subtypes in domestic ducks were H3N2 (35.7%), H3N6 (35.7%), H3N8 (25.0%), and H3N1 (3.6%, novel subtype in domestic duck in Korea). In contrast, H3N8 (70.6%) is the most prevalent subtype in wild birds in Korea. In the phylogenetic analysis, HA genes of the Korean H3 AIVs were divided into 3 groups (Korean duck, wild bird 1, and wild bird 2) and all viruses of duck origin except one were clustered in a single group. However, other genes showed extensive diversity and at least 17 genotypes were circulating in domestic ducks in Korea. When the analysis expanded to viruses of wild bird origin, the genetic diversity of Korean H3 AIVs became more complicated. Extensive reassortments may have occurred in H3 subtype influenza viruses in Korea. When we inoculated chickens and ducks with six selected viruses, some of the viruses replicated efficiently without pre-adaptation and shed a significant amount of viruses through oropharyngeal and cloacal routes. This raised concerns that H3 subtype AIV could be a new subtype in chickens in Korea. Continuous surveillance is needed to prepare the advent of a novel subtype AIV in Korea.

  15. Differences in pathogenicity of A/Duck/Vietnam/201/05 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus reassortants in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand which viral genes contribute to the high virulence of A/Dk/Vietnam/201/05 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in ducks, we used reverse genetics to generate single-gene reassortant viruses with genes from A/Ck/Indonesia/7/03, a virus that produces mild disease ...

  16. Comparison of the pathogenicity of different H5N1 HPAI viruses in chickens and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contrary to what is observed in chickens where infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses produce fatal disease, the Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses have changed from producing mild respiratory infections in ducks to some strains causing systemic disease and death. In order to further ...

  17. Experimental infection of mallard ducks with different subtype H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV’s) remain a threat to poultry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses, including HPAIV, are usually non-pathogenic for ducks and other wild aquatic birds, with the exception of some Asian lineage H5N1 HPAIVs which can cause severe disease in ducks. With ...

  18. Different routes of inoculation impact infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection in chickens and domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Y K; Swayne, D E

    2010-12-01

    The H5N1 type A influenza viruses classified as Qinghai-like virus (clade 2.2) are a unique lineage of type A influenza viruses with the capacity to produce significant disease and mortality in gallinaceous and anseriform birds, including domestic and wild ducks. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis of chickens and domestic ducks to A/Whooper Swan/Mongolia/224/05 (H5N1) high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus when administered through respiratory or alimentary routes of exposure. The chickens and ducks were more susceptible to the H5N1 HPAI virus, as evidenced by low infectious and lethal viral doses, when exposed by intranasal as compared to alimentary routes of inoculation (intragastric or oral-fed infected chicken meat). In the alimentary exposure pathogenesis study, pathologic changes included hemorrhage, necrosis, and inflammation in association with virus detection. These changes were generally observed in most of the visceral organs of chickens, between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (DPI), and are similar to lesions and virus localization seen in birds in natural cases or in experimental studies using the intranasal route. Alimentary exposure to the virus caused systemic infection in the ducks, characterized by moderate lymphocytic encephalitis, necrotized hepatitis, and pancreatitis with a corresponding demonstration of virus within the lesions. In both chickens and ducks with alimentary exposure, lesions, virus, or both were first demonstrated in the upper alimentary tract on 1 DPI, suggesting that the alimentary tract was the initial site affected upon consumption of infected meat or on gavage of virus in liquid medium. However, as demonstrated in the infectivity study in chickens, alimentary infection required higher exposure doses to produce infection as compared to intranasal exposure in chickens. These data suggest that upper respiratory exposure to H5N1 HPAI virus in birds is more likely to result in

  19. Development of a highly immunogenic Newcastle disease virus chicken vaccine strain of duck origin.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.

  20. The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualan; Zhang, Yong; Qian, Wubin; Kim, Heebal; Gan, Shangquan; Zhao, Yiqiang; Li, Jianwen; Yi, Kang; Feng, Huapeng; Zhu, Pengyang; Li, Bo; Liu, Qiuyue; Fairley, Suan; Magor, Katharine E; Du, Zhenlin; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Goodman, Laurie; Tafer, Hakim; Vignal, Alain; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Kyu-Won; Sheng, Zheya; An, Yang; Searle, Steve; Herrero, Javier; Groenen, Martien A M; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Faraut, Thomas; Cai, Qingle; Webster, Robert G; Aldridge, Jerry R; Warren, Wesley C; Bartschat, Sebastian; Kehr, Stephanie; Marz, Manja; Stadler, Peter F; Smith, Jacqueline; Kraus, Robert H S; Zhao, Yaofeng; Ren, Liming; Fei, Jing; Morisson, Mireille; Kaiser, Pete; Griffin, Darren K; Rao, Man; Pitel, Frederique; Wang, Jun; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A viruses. We present the duck genome sequence and perform deep transcriptome analyses to investigate immune-related genes. Our data indicate that the duck possesses a contractive immune gene repertoire, as in chicken and zebra finch, and this repertoire has been shaped through lineage-specific duplications. We identify genes that are responsive to influenza A viruses using the lung transcriptomes of control ducks and ones that were infected with either a highly pathogenic (A/duck/Hubei/49/05) or a weakly pathogenic (A/goose/Hubei/65/05) H5N1 virus. Further, we show how the duck’s defense mechanisms against influenza infection have been optimized through the diversification of its β-defensin and butyrophilin-like repertoires. These analyses, in combination with the genomic and transcriptomic data, provide a resource for characterizing the interaction between host and influenza viruses. PMID:23749191

  1. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species and breeds of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica ducks including Pekin, Mallard-type, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different virulence, given by any one of three routes (intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular), became infected with the viruses. Regardless of the route of inoculation, the outcome of infection was similar for each species but depended on the virulence of the virus used. Muscovy ducks showed more severe clinical signs and higher mortality than the Pekin ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varied by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of H5N1 HPAI surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations. PMID:23876184

  2. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric

    2013-07-22

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species and breeds of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica ducks including Pekin, Mallard-type, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different virulence, given by any one of three routes (intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular), became infected with the viruses. Regardless of the route of inoculation, the outcome of infection was similar for each species but depended on the virulence of the virus used. Muscovy ducks showed more severe clinical signs and higher mortality than the Pekin ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varied by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of H5N1 HPAI surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations.

  3. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David E

    2015-05-15

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it is not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (P<0.01) at 4 days post inoculation (dpi). Co-infection did not affect the number of birds shedding LPAIV, but more LPAIV was shed at 2 dpi (P<0.0001) from ducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (P<0.05) compared to the ducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses.

  4. Hepatic metabolism of glucose and linoleic acid varies in relation to susceptibility to fatty liver in ad libitum-fed Muscovy and Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Saez, Gladys; Baéza, Elisabeth; Davail, Stéphane; Durand, Denys; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    The susceptibility to develop hepatic steatosis is known to differ between duck species, especially between Muscovy and Pekin ducks. This difference could be explained by either differential responses of species to overfeeding or genetic differences in hepatic lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to compare the intensities of the different hepatic pathways (oxidation, lipogenesis, esterification, secretion, etc.) of the two main nutrients (glucose and linoleic acid (LA)) reaching the liver of ad libitum-fed Muscovy (n 6) and Pekin (n 6) ducks using the ex vivo method of liver slices incubated for 16 h with [U-14C]glucose, [1-14C]LA and [35S]methionine added to the survival medium. In such experimental conditions, the lipogenesis pathway from glucose was 2-fold higher (P<0.05) in the liver of the Muscovy duck than in that of the Pekin duck. Furthermore, the hepatic uptake of LA was 2-fold higher (P<0.05) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck leading to a 2-fold higher (P<0.05) esterification of this fatty acid in the liver of the Muscovy duck. The hepatic secretion of VLDL was higher (P<0.01) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck but insufficient to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver of the Muscovy duck. In conclusion, these results show the influence of the species on the hepatic metabolism of ducks in relation to their susceptibility to develop fatty liver. These results should shed light on the metabolic regulations that might underlie susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in the the human liver.

  5. Occult hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Kim, Yoon Jun

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) refers to the presence of HBV DNA in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen. Since OBI was first described in the late 1970s, there has been increasing interest in this topic. The prevalence of OBI varies according to the different endemicity of HBV infection, cohort characteristics, and sensitivity and specificity of the methods used for detection. Although the exact mechanism of OBI has not been proved, intra-hepatic persistence of viral covalently closed circular DNA under the host’s strong immune suppression of HBV replication and gene expression seems to be a cause. OBI has important clinical significance in several conditions. First, OBI can be transmitted through transfusion, organ transplantation including orthotopic liver transplantation, or hemodialysis. Donor screening before blood transfusion, prophylaxis for high-risk organ transplantation recipients, and dialysis-specific infection-control programs should be considered to reduce the risk of transmission. Second, OBI may reactivate and cause acute hepatitis in immunocompromised patients or those receiving chemotherapy. Close HBV DNA monitoring and timely antiviral treatment can prevent HBV reactivation and consequent clinical deterioration. Third, OBI may contribute to the progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease including hepatitis C. Finally, OBI seems to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma by its direct proto-oncogenic effect and by indirectly causing persistent hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this needs further investigation. We review published reports in the literature to gain an overview of the status of OBI and emphasize the clinical importance of OBI. PMID:25544873

  6. Xenotransplantation and Hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. Some of these microorganisms may induce a zoonosis, that is an infectious disease induced by microorganisms transmitted from another species. With exception of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are integrated in the genome of all pigs, the transmission of all other microorganisms can be prevented by specified or designated pathogen-free (spf or dpf, respectively) production of the animals. However, it is becoming clear in the last years that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the viruses which are difficult to eliminate. It is important to note that there are differences between HEV of genotypes (gt) 1 and gt2 on one hand and HEV of gt3 and gt4 on the other. HEV gt1 and gt2 are human viruses, and they induce hepatitis and in the worst case fatal infections in pregnant women. In contrast, HEV gt3 and gt4 are viruses of pigs, and they may infect humans, induce commonly only mild diseases, if any, and are harmless for pregnant women. The goal of this review was to evaluate the risk posed by HEV gt3 and gt4 for xenotransplantation and to indicate ways of their elimination from pigs in order to prevent transmission to the human recipient.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Subgenotype 1b Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Sansui Sheldrake Ducks in Guizhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu; Xu, Houqiang; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Newcastle disease viruses, Sheldrake duck/China/Guizhou/01/2016 and Sheldrake duck/China/Guizhou/02/2016, isolated from Sansui Sheldrake ducks in Guizhou Province, China. The genome of the isolates is 15,198 nucleotides in length. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates are clustered into subgenotype 1b in class I. PMID:27932647

  8. Protective effects of recombinant glycoprotein D based prime boost approach against duck enteritis virus in mice model.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Saravanan, R; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2015-11-01

    Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is an acute herpes viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The method of repeated immunization with a live attenuated vaccine has been used for the prevention and control of duck enteritis virus (DEV). However, the incidence of the disease in vaccinated flocks and latency reactivation are the major constraints in the present vaccination programme. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy afforded by intramuscular inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding DEV glycoprotein D (pCDNA-gD) followed by DEV gD expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisia (rgD) was assessed in a murine model. Compared with mice inoculated with DNA (pCDNA-gD) or protein (rgD) only, mice inoculated with the combination of gD DNA and protein had enhanced ELISA antibody titers to DEV and had accelerated clearance of virus following challenge infection. Furthermore, the highest levels of lymphocyte proliferation response, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ production were induced following priming with the DNA vaccine and boosting with the rgD protein. For instance, the specially designed recombinant DEV vector vaccine would be the best choice to use in ducks. It offers an excellent solution to the low vaccination coverage rate in ducks. We expect that the application of this novel vaccine in the near future will greatly decrease the virus load in the environment and reduce outbreaks of DEV in ducks.

  9. Hepatitis virus C infection, adipokines and hepatic steato-fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ciurtin, Coziana; Stoica, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C viral infection is accompanied by various serum alterations that could explain its molecular impact on hepatic structure and metabolic homeostasis. Recently it has been shown that adipocytokines play a pivotal role in development of hepatic steato-fibrosis, different studies giving a support of the hypothesis that the balance of adipocytokine expression is a key regulator for the progression of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. The association between insulin resistance and hepatitis C virus genotypes and liver fibrosis stage foreshadowed that virus-induced insulin resistance may be a mechanism for fibrogenesis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The main importance of adipocytokine profile detection consists in the prediction of steatosis induction that has clinical relevance, being associated with advanced fibrosis and hyporesponsiveness to antiviral therapy.

  10. Hepatitis B virus taxonomy and hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Stephan

    2007-01-07

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family. Hepadnaviruses can be found in both mammals (orthohepadnaviruses) and birds (avihepadnaviruses). The genetic variability of HBV is very high. There are eight genotypes of HBV and three clades of HBV isolates from apes that appear to be additional genotypes of HBV. Most genotypes are now divided into subgenotypes with distinct virological and epidemiological properties. In addition, recombination among HBV genotypes increases the variability of HBV. This review summarises current knowledge of the epidemiology of genetic variability in hepadnaviruses and, due to rapid progress in the field, updates several recent reviews on HBV genotypes and subgenotypes.

  11. Precursor genes of future pandemic influenza viruses are perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Takada, A; Ito, T; Imai, M; Takakuwa, H; Hatta, M; Ozaki, H; Tanizaki, T; Nagano, T; Ninomiya, A; Demenev, V A; Tyaptirganov, M M; Karatayeva, T D; Yamnikova, S S; Lvov, D K; Kida, H

    2000-01-01

    Influenza A viruses of different subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of ducks in their nesting areas in Siberia in summer from 1996 to 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of the NP genes of the isolates in Siberia and those in Hokkaido, Japan on their flyway of migration from Siberia to the south in autumn revealed that they belong to the Eurasian lineage of avian influenza viruses. It is noted that the genes of the isolates in Siberia are closely related to those of H5N1 influenza virus strains isolated from chickens and humans in Hong Kong in 1997 as well as to those of isolates from domestic birds in southern China. The results indicate that influenza viruses perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia should have contributed genes in the emergence of the H5N1 virus in Hong Kong. Vaccine prepared from avirulent A/duck/Hokkaido/4/96 (H5N3) influenza virus was potent enough to protect mice from challenge with lethal dose of the pathogenic H5N1 virus [19]. Intensive surveillance study of aquatic birds especially in Siberia is, therefore, stressed to provide information on the future pandemic influenza virus strains and for vaccine preparation.

  12. Development and evaluation of an immunochromatographic strip test based on the recombinant UL51 protein for detecting antibody against duck enteritis virus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection causes substantial economic losses to the worldwide duck-producing areas. The monitoring of DEV-specific antibodies is a key to evaluate the effect of DEV vaccine and develop rational immunization programs. Thus, in this study, an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test was developed for detecting DEV serum antibodies. Results The ICS test is based on membrane chromatography, and uses both the purified recombinant UL51 protein conjugated with colloidal gold and goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with colloidal gold as tracers, the purified recombinant UL51 protein as the capture reagent at the test line, and rabbit IgG as the capture reagent at the control line. The specificity of the ICS was evaluated by sera against DEV, Duck hepatitis virus (DHV), Riemerella anatipestifer (RA), Duck E. coli, Muscovy duck parvovirus (MPV), or Duck Influenza viruses (DIV). Only sera against DEV showed the strong positive results. In order to determine the sensitivity of the ICS, anti-DEV serum diluted serially was tested, and the minimum detection limit of 1:128 was obtained. The ICS components, which are provided in a sealed package, require no refrigeration and are stable for 12 months. To evaluate the effect of the ICS, 110 duck serum samples collected from several non-immune duck flocks were simultaneously tested by the ICS test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization test (NT). The results showed that the sensitivity of the ICS test was almost consistent with ELISA and much higher than NT, has low cost, and is rapid (15 min) and easy to perform with no requirement of specialized equipment, reagent or technicians. Conclusions In this work, we successfully developed a simple and rapid ICS test for detecting DEV serum antibodies for the first time. The ICS test was high specific and sensitive for the rapid detection of anti-DEV antibodies, and has great potential to be used for the serological surveillance of DEV

  13. Development and application of an indirect immunoperoxidase assay for the detection of Duck swollen head hemorrhagic disease virus antigen in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Shen, Chanjuan; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Zhang, Na; Zhou, Yi; Zhu, Dekang; Jia, Renyong; Luo, Qihui; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2010-01-01

    An improved indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) was developed to detect antigens of Duck swollen head hemorrhagic disease virus (DSHDV) in paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). This technique used an indirect streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase labeling system with polyclonal antiserum developed against purified DSHDV antigens. Specimens from the experimentally inoculated Pekin ducks with DSHDV and archived paraffin-embedded tissues from natural cases of Duck viral swollen head hemorrhagic disease (DVSHD) were examined by clinical and histological criteria. Positive staining was most widely observed in the cytoplasm of the following organs: immune, digestive, and urinary organs, heart, lung, and trachea, which corresponded to the intracellular distribution of reovirus. The DSHDV antigens were first detected at 4 hr postinoculation in the bursa of Fabricius of infected ducks. Therefore, this method was suitable for the early diagnosis of DVSHD. Immunoperoxidase staining was not present in tissues and organs of sham-inoculated ducks (negative control). The IPA developed in the current study is a convenient, sensitive, and specific means of detecting DSHDV and is applicable to routine diagnosis, retrospective studies, and prospective studies of DSHDV infection in ducks.

  14. Quantitative transmission characteristics of different H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Muscovy ducks.

    PubMed

    Niqueux, Éric; Picault, Jean-Paul; Amelot, Michel; Allée, Chantal; Lamandé, Josiane; Guillemoto, Carole; Pierre, Isabelle; Massin, Pascale; Blot, Guillaume; Briand, François-Xavier; Rose, Nicolas; Jestin, Véronique

    2014-01-10

    EU annual serosurveillance programs show that domestic duck flocks have the highest seroprevalence of H5 antibodies, demonstrating the circulation of notifiable avian influenza virus (AIV) according to OIE, likely low pathogenic (LP). Therefore, transmission characteristics of LPAIV within these flocks can help to understand virus circulation and possible risk of propagation. This study aimed at estimating transmission parameters of four H5 LPAIV (three field strains from French poultry and decoy ducks, and one clonal reverse-genetics strain derived from one of the former), using a SIR model to analyze data from experimental infections in SPF Muscovy ducks. The design was set up to accommodate rearing on wood shavings with a low density of 1.6 ducks/m(2): 10 inoculated ducks were housed together with 15 contact-exposed ducks. Infection was monitored by RNA detection on oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs using real-time RT-PCR with a cutoff corresponding to 2-7 EID50. Depending on the strain, the basic reproduction number (R0) varied from 5.5 to 42.7, confirming LPAIV could easily be transmitted to susceptible Muscovy ducks. The lowest R0 estimate was obtained for a H5N3 field strain, due to lower values of transmission rate and duration of infectious period, whereas reverse-genetics derived H5N1 strain had the highest R0. Frequency and intensity of clinical signs were also variable between strains, but apparently not associated with longer infectious periods. Further comparisons of quantitative transmission parameters may help to identify relevant viral genetic markers for early detection of potentially more virulent strains during surveillance of LPAIV.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a hepatitis B virus endemic in herons.

    PubMed

    Sprengel, R; Kaleta, E F; Will, H

    1988-10-01

    A new hepadnavirus (designated heron hepatitis B virus [HHBV]) has been isolated; this virus is endemic in grey herons (Ardea cinerea) in Germany and closely related to duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) by morphology of viral particles and size of the genome and of the major viral envelope and core proteins. Despite its striking similarities to DHBV, HHBV cannot be transmitted to ducks by infection or by transfection with cloned viral DNA. After the viral genome was cloned and sequenced, a comparative sequence analysis revealed an identical genome organization of HHBV and DHBV (pre-C/C-, pre-S/S-, and pol-ORFs). An open reading frame, designated X in mammalian hepadnaviruses, is not present in DHBV. DHBV and HHBV differ by 21.6% base exchanges, and thus they are less closely related than the two known rodent hepatitis B viruses (16.4%). The nucleocapsid protein and the 17-kilodalton envelope protein sequences of DHBV and HHBV are well conserved. In contrast, the pre-S part of the 34-kilodalton envelope protein which is believed to mediate virus attachment to the cell is highly divergent (less than 50% homology). The availability of two closely related avian hepadnaviruses will now allow us to test recombinant viruses in vivo and in vitro for host specificity-determining sequences.

  16. Genome Sequence of a Virulent Genotype III Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Laying Ducks in China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Guoyuan; Wang, Min; Wang, Honglin; Li, Lintao; Luo, Qingping; Zhang, Tengfei

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain HN1007, isolated from diseased duck flocks in Henan, China, in 2010. The isolate has a genome length of 15,186 nucleotides, and was classified as a member of genotype III of class II. PMID:28034854

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Newcastle Disease Virus Strains Isolated from a Wild Duck and a Pigeon in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Alikina, Tatyana Y.; Yurchenko, Kseniya S.; Glushchenko, Alexandra V.; Gunbin, Konstantin V.; Shestopalov, Alexander M.; Gubanova, Natalya V.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, Adygea/duck/12/2008, from a wild duck in Russia, and Altai/pigeon/777/2010, from a pigeon in Russia. Based on comparative sequence analysis of the F gene, these strains were classified as NDV class II, genotypes VIId and VIb/2, respectively. PMID:27932648

  18. Complete genome sequence of a genotype XVII Newcastle disease virus, isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the f...

  19. Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 A...

  20. Hepatitis E Virus in Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    SAD-A284017 \\ITATION PAGE ""i. *to at. e .. ic. .ewo 1O’ U * p . 21s .ffens. - I. AGENCY USE ONLY tLeav blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES...COVERED 1. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Hepatitis E virus in Indonesia / PE - 62787A PR -ool .Ol 6.AUTHOR(S) Jennings GB; Lubis 1...Listiyaningsih E ; Burans JP; Hyams KC TA- ENX 1AJ - 1438 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMiNG ORGANIZATIONNaval Medical Research

  1. [Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs].

    PubMed

    Fernández del Campo, José Antonio Cabezas

    2004-01-01

    Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs. Within the broad field of Glycopathology and Glycotherapeutics, research on influenza virus types A, B and C from humans and several bird species (particularly migratory birds such as ducks, since they are reservoirs for viruses), as well as the search for improved drugs designed for the prevention or treatment of epidemics/pandemics produced by most of those viruses are issues of relevant interest not only from a scientific point of view but also for repercussions on health and the important economical consequences. The research work begun by the author and collaborators at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Salamanca (Spain) in the middle of the 1970's, developed later in close cooperation with the "(Unité d'Ecologie Virale" of the Pasteur Institute of Paris (Prof. Claude Hannoun and collaborators), has been published in about twenty papers that mainly focus on the theoretic-experimental study of: The sialidase (neuraminidase) activity of human influenza viruses types A and B. The acetylesterase activity of type C virus from humans and dogs. The sialidase activity of type A virus from ducks and pigs, in comparison with that of humans. Certain sialidase inhibitors as useful anti-influenza drugs, especially in the case of possible future influenza pandemics of avian origin.

  2. Recombination in Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    González-Candelas, Fernando; López-Labrador, F. Xavier; Bracho, María Alma

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus. PMID:22069526

  3. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains.

  4. HEPATITIS VIRUS C INFECTION, ADIPOKINES AND HEPATIC STEATO–FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ciurtin, C

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C viral infection is accompanied by various serum alterations that could explain its molecular impact on hepatic structure and metabolic homeostasis. Recently it has been shown that adipocytokines play a pivotal role in development of hepatic steato–fibrosis, different studies giving a support of the hypothesis that the balance of adipocytokine expression is a key regulator for the progression of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. The association between insulin resistance and hepatitis C virus genotypes and liver fibrosis stage foreshadowed that virus–induced insulin resistance may be a mechanism for fibrogenesis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The main importance of adipocytokine profile detection consists in the prediction of steatosis induction that has clinical relevance, being associated with advanced fibrosis and hyporesponsiveness to antiviral therapy. PMID:20108479

  5. Biologic characterization of chicken-derived H6N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Mark W; Suarez, David L; Hilt, Deborah; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Woolcock, Peter; Cardona, Carol

    2010-03-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza H6N2 viruses were biologically characterized by infecting chickens and ducks in order to compare adaptation of these viruses in these species. We examined the clinical signs, virus shedding, and immune response to infection in 4-wk-old white leghorn chickens and in 2-wk-old Pekin ducks. Five H6N2 viruses isolated between 2000 and 2004 from chickens in California, and one H6N2 virus isolated from chickens in New York in 1998, were given intrachoanally at a dose of 1 x 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose per bird. Oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 4, and 7 days postinoculation (PI) and tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for presence of virus. Serum was collected at 7, 14, and 21 days PI and examined for avian influenza virus antibodies by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing. Virus shedding for all of the viruses was detected in the oral-pharyngeal swabs from chickens at 2 and 4 days PI, but only three of the five viruses were detected at 7 days PI. Only two viruses were detected in the cloacal swabs from the chickens. Virus shedding for four of the five viruses was detected in the oral-pharyngeal cavity of the ducks, and fecal shedding was detected for three of the viruses (including the virus not shed by the oral-pharyngeal route) in ducks at 4 and 7 days PI. All other fecal swabs from the ducks were negative. Fewer ducks shed virus compared to chickens. Both the chickens and the ducks developed antibodies, as evidenced by HI and ELISA titers. The data indicate that the H6N2 viruses can infect both chickens and ducks, but based on the number of birds shedding virus and on histopathology, the viruses appear to be more adapted to chickens. Virus shedding, which could go unnoticed in the absence of clinical signs in commercial chickens, can lead to transmission of the virus among poultry. However, the viruses isolated in 2004 did

  6. [Hepatitis E virus: zoonotic implications].

    PubMed

    Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Blázquez, Ana Belén; Saiz, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted primarily by the feco-oral route throughout contaminated water and/or food, and is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. Hepatitis E shows a high mobility but a low mortality rate, except in pregnant women, where it can be as high as 30%. HEV causes sporadic cases and epidemic outbreaks, mainly in Africa, Asia and Central America. In Europe, there is an increase in the number of reported autochthonous cases no related with travel to endemic areas. In addition, HEV also infects animals, including pigs, and its zoonotic potential has been recently demonstrated. In fact, porcine and human strains of the same area are genetically more closely related to each other than to strains of the same species but a different geographical region, and there are data suggesting that people in close contact with pigs presents a higher prevalence of specific anti-HEV antibodies. All together, these data have drove to an increase interest in determining the incidence of the disease in animals, its possible zoonotic risk, and its implications for human health. In the present article we revised the current knowledge about HEV, with special emphasis in the possible consequences of its zoonotic potential.

  7. [Occult hepatitis C virus infection].

    PubMed

    Carreño García, Vicente; Nebreda, Javier Bartolomé; Aguilar, Inmaculada Castillo; Quiroga Estévez, Juan Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the detection of HCV-RNA in liver in the absence of anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA determined by conventional techniques. The development of a new enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against a conserved epitope in the HCV core protein, together with the detection of HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in serum after concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation, allow diagnosis of more than 90% of patients with occult HCV without the need to perform a liver biopsy. Histological damage in occult HCV infection ranges from minimal changes to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, although in general this disease is less severe than classical chronic hepatitis C. A significant prevalence of occult HCV infection has been identified in risk groups such as hemodialysis patients and the family members of patients with occult hepatitis C. This occult HCV infection can also be found in subjects without clinical or biochemical evidence of liver disease.

  8. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  9. Differential immune response of mallard duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells to two highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses with distinct pathogenicity in mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhu; Hu, Jiao; He, Liang; Li, Qunhui; Gu, Min; Wang, Xiaoquan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Huimou; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2014-02-01

    CK10 and GS10 are two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses of similar genetic background but differ in their pathogenicity in mallard ducks. CK10 is highly pathogenic whereas GS10 is low pathogenic. In this study, strong inflammatory response in terms of the expression level of several cytokines was observed in mallard duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with CK10 while mild response was triggered in those by GS10 infection. Two remarkable and intense peaks of immune response were induced by CK10 infection within 24 hours (at 8 and 24 hours post infection, respectively) without reducing the virus replication. Our observations indicated that sustained and intense innate immune responses may be central to the high pathogenicity caused by CK10 in ducks.

  10. Replication of 2 subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus of duck and gull origins in experimentally infected Mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Daoust, P-Y; van de Bildt, M; van Riel, D; van Amerongen, G; Bestebroer, T; Vanderstichel, R; Fouchier, R A M; Kuiken, T

    2013-05-01

    Many subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus circulate in wild bird reservoirs, but their prevalence may vary among species. We aimed to compare by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, histology, and immunohistochemistry the distribution and pathogenicity of 2 such subtypes of markedly different origins in Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos): H2N3 isolated from a Mallard duck and H13N6 isolated from a Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis). Following intratracheal and intraesophageal inoculation, neither virus caused detectable clinical signs, although H2N3 virus infection was associated with a significantly decreased body weight gain during the period of virus shedding. Both viruses replicated in the lungs and air sacs until approximately day 3 after inoculation and were associated with a locally extensive interstitial, exudative, and proliferative pneumonia. Subtype H2N3, but not subtype H13N6, went on to infect the epithelia of the intestinal mucosa and cloacal bursa, where it replicated without causing lesions until approximately day 5 after inoculation. Larger quantities of subtype H2N3 virus were detected in cloacal swabs than in pharyngeal swabs. The possible clinical significance of LPAI virus-associated pulmonary lesions and intestinal tract infection in ducks deserves further evaluation.

  11. Development of a PCR-Based Reverse Genetics System for an Attenuated Duck Tembusu Virus Strain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaogang; Shi, Ying; Yan, Dawei; Li, Xuesong; Yan, Pixi; Gao, Xuyuan; Zhang, Yuee; Yu, Lei; Ren, Chaochao; Li, Guoxin; Yan, Liping; Teng, Qiaoyang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    The infectious disease caused by the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has resulted in massive economic losses to the Chinese duck industry in China since 2010. Research on the molecular basis of DTMUV pathogenicity has been hampered by the lack of a reliable reverse genetics system for this virus. Here we developed a PCR-based reverse genetics system with high fidelity for the attenuated DTMUV strain FX2010-180P. The rescued virus was characterized by using both indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and whole genome sequencing. The rescued virus (rFX2010-180P) grew to similar titers as compared with the wild-type virus in DF-1 cells, and had similar replication and immunogenicity properties in ducks. To determine whether exogenous proteins could be expressed from DTMUV, both an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene were introduced between the NS5 gene and the 3' non-coding sequence of FX2010-180P. A recombinant DTMUV expressing eGFP was rescued, but eGFP expression was unstable after 4 passages in DF-1 cells due to a deletion of 1,294 nucleotides. The establishment of a reliable reverse genetics system for FX2010-180P provides a foundation for future studies of DTMUV. PMID:27248497

  12. Adaptation and growth kinetics study of an Indian isolate of virulent duck enteritis virus in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin M; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2015-01-01

    Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is a viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of the disease is mainly done by vaccination with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the embryo propagated vaccine virus pose a threat of harboring other infectious agents. Seeing these limitations, the present study reports for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of a virulent Indian isolate of duck enteritis virus in Vero cell line. In this study isolation of an outbreak virus from Kerala state was done in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF). Then adapted the DEV isolate in the Vero cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of Vero cells were observed starting from the 7th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in Vero cells was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA and antigen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immuno fluorescent assay (IIFA), respectively. PCR detection of DEV using self designed primers for US4 (gD) and UL30 (DNA Polymerase) gene has been reported for the in the present study. The kinetics of DEV in Vero cells revealed a maximum infectivity titer of 10(5.6) TCID 50/ml after 48hr of viral infection. Compared to chicken embryo adapted DVE vaccine virus, the Vero cell culture system is free from other infectious agents. So it will be a good candidate for cultivation and propagation of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain. Further research studies are suggested to explore the feasibility of utilizing this Vero cell culture adapted DEV isolate for developing an attenuated vaccine virus against duck virus enteritis.

  13. Duck lymphocytes. VIII. T-lymphoblastoid cell lines from reticuloendotheliosis virus-induced tumours.

    PubMed

    Chan, S W; Bando, Y; Warr, G W; Middleton, D L; Higgins, D A

    1999-04-01

    The T strain of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV-T) obtained, along with the helper chicken syncytia virus (CSV), from the CSO4 cell line was highly oncogenic and rapidly fatal in ducks. Tumours were mainly seen in spleen, but neoplastic cells were observed microscopically in many organs. In vitro REV transformation of duck lymphocytes failed to yield stable cell lines, so cells from organs (blood, bone marrow, spleen, lymph node, bursa of Fabricius) of infected birds were used to establish cell lines. Some of these cell lines have been cloned. The success rates of establishment and cloning were increased if cells were cultured in a range of media containing different supplements; however, medium containing 5% foetal calf serum (FCS) and 5% duck serum was generally most efficacious for initial establishment, while spent medium from the parental line supplemented with a further 20% FCS gave best results for cloning. Cloned cell lines had the morphology of lymphoblastoid cells, with irregular nuclei and diffuse chromatin. Analysis of mRNA extracted from these cell lines showed that the uncloned lines were strongly expressing the β chain of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and weakly expressing immunoglobulin (Ig) polypeptides [λ light chain and μ, υ, υ (ΔFc) and α heavy chains in various proportions], suggesting the presence of T and B cells. The cloned cell lines that could be classified were TCR β+ ve T cells. This is the first report of the establishment, cloning and partial characterization of duck lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  14. Host immune responses of ducks infected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of different pathogenicities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangmeng; Jiao, Peirong; Song, Yafen; Cao, Lan; Yuan, Runyu; Gong, Lang; Cui, Jin; Zhang, Shuo; Qi, Wenbao; Yang, Su; Liao, Ming

    2013-10-25

    Our previous studies have illustrated three strains of duck-origin H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) had varying levels of pathogenicity in ducks (Sun et al., 2011). However, the host immune response of ducks infected with those of H5N1 HPAIVs was unclear. Here, we compared viral distribution and mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ducks following infection with the two HPAIV (A/Duck/Guangdong/212/2004, DK212 and A/Duck/Guangdong/383/2008, DK383). DK383 could replicate in the tested tissue of ducks (brain, spleen, lungs, cloacal bursa, kidney, and pancreas) more rapid and efficiently than DK212 at 1 and 2 days post-inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of TLR3, IL-6, IL-8, and MHC class II in brains were higher than those of respective genes in lungs during the early stage of post infection. Furthermore, the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the brain of ducks following infection with DK383 were remarkably higher than those of ducks infected with DK212, respectively. Our results suggest that the shift in the H5N1 HPAIVs to increased virulence in ducks may be associated with efficient and rapid replication of the virus, accompanied by early destruction of host immune responses. These data are helpful to understand the underlying mechanism of the different outcome of H5N1 HPAIVs infection in ducks.

  15. Characterization of recombinant H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from wild ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangjian; Wang, Renjie; Xuan, Fujun; Daszak, Peter; Anthony, Simon J; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Libiao; He, Guimei

    2013-10-25

    Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIV). During active influenza surveillance in Poyang Lake of southeast China, we isolated and characterized 11 H9N2 viruses from two species of wild ducks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 11 isolates were almost identical with 99.3-100% nucleotide homology in their entire genome, and they all closely related in whole eight genes (95.6-99.4% homology) to human H9N2 isolates (HK/33982/2009) and clustered in the same sublineage. The isolates belonged to triple reassortant H9N2 genotype viruses containing Ck/Bei-like NA genes, Y439-like PA genes and six other G1-like genes. We also found that the subtype of virus replicated efficiently in the lungs and tracheas of BALB/c mice and caused mortality in 20-40% of infected groups after 3-6 days, which indicates that the subtype of virus is capable of establishing lethal mammalian infections. However, whether or not the virus has features transmittable from wild ducks to humans is not known. This study showed H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus for the first time in wild birds, and suggests that wild birds may carry the virus along migratory routes, highlighting the need for continued surveillance of wild birds.

  16. [Prevention of virus hepatitis A to E].

    PubMed

    Cornberg, M; Manns, M P

    2011-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to acute hepatitis with the risk of developing liver failure. Chronic viral hepatitis may evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis and its sequels is essential. Vaccination against hepatitis A is successful in almost all individuals. Protective antibodies maintain for at least 20 years. Booster vaccinations are not necessary. Since the introduction of hepatitis A vaccines, the incidence of new HAV-infections has declined significantly. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and highly effective. Special populations such as dialysis patients or immunocompromised patients require special vaccine schedules. New vaccines with improved adjuvants are currently being tested in clinical trials. So far there is no hepatitis C vaccine on the horizon. Prophylaxis of HCV-infections relies primarily on hygiene measures. Early therapy of acute hepatitis C can prevent chronic hepatitis C. HDV-infection can only be established if HBsAg is present. Thus, prevention of hepatitis B or elimination of HBsAg means prevention of hepatitis delta. Hepatitis E vaccines have been evaluated in phase III studies. The development of HEV vaccines becomes more relevant since chronic HEV infections have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals.

  17. Molecular and antigenic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus isolates from domestic ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Huairan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Jiang, Yanyu; Xu, Qianqian; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating diseases to the poultry industry. The causative agents of ND are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which are members of the genus Avulavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Waterfowl, such as ducks and geese, are generally considered potential reservoirs of NDV and may show few or no clinical signs when infected with viruses that are obviously virulent in chickens. However, ND outbreaks in domestic waterfowl have been frequently reported in many countries in the past decade. In this study, 18 NDV strains isolated from domestic ducks in southern and eastern China, between 2005 and 2013, were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and they exhibited genome sizes of 15,186 nucleotides (nt), 15,192 nt, and 15,198 nt, which follow the "rule of six" that is required for the replication of NDV strains. Based on the cleavage site of the F protein and pathogenicity tests in chickens, 17 of our NDV isolates were categorized as lentogenic viruses, and one was characterized as a velogenic virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences of the F gene and the complete genome sequences showed that there are at least four genotypes of NDV circulating in domestic ducks; GD1, AH224, and AH209 belong to genotypes VIId, Ib, and II of class II NDVs, respectively, and the remaining 15 isolates belong to genotype 1b of class I NDVs. Cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition tests demonstrated that the antigenic relatedness between NDV strains may be associated with their genotypes, rather than their hosts. These results suggest that though those NDV isolates were from duck, they still don't form a phylogenetic group because they came from the same species; however, they may play an important role in promoting the evolution of NDVs.

  18. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR.

  19. Pathogenicity of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in the 2010-2011 winter in Japan to mandarin ducks.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kosuke; Usui, Tatsufumi; Uno, Yukiko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses occurred in wild birds in Japan from 2010-2011. Forty out of 63 deceased wild birds belonged to the order Anseriformes, and mandarin duck was one of the dominant species. To estimate the risk of mandarin ducks as a source of virus infection in the environment, we examined the pathogenicity of a causal H5N1 HPAI virus to mandarin ducks. About half of the mandarin ducks died by inoculation with 10(7.0)TCID50 of A/mandarin duck/Miyazaki/22M807-1/2011 (H5N1). Viruses were mainly recovered from the trachea of the ducks sacrificed at three days post inoculation (d.p.i.). Viruses were recovered from the laryngopharyngeal swabs of the observation group until 5 d.p.i. In ducks that died at the late phase of infection, viruses were detected in the systemic organs, such as lung, kidney and colon. Together, these results showed that the H5N1 HPAI viruses, which belonged to clade 2.3.2.1 and are mainly circulating in East Asia, were lethal to mandarin ducks, indicating that mandarin ducks have the potential to disseminate the virus to other bird species. Therefore, wild birds should be kept out of poultry farms to prevent HPAI outbreaks in the future.

  20. Characterizations of H4 avian influenza viruses isolated from ducks in live poultry markets and farm in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Cui, Hongrui; Wang, Junheng; Chi, Qiuyan; Li, Xuesong; Teng, Qiaoyang; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    H4 avian influenza virus is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in birds. The evolution and pathogenicity of H4 AIV in domestic birds of China remain largely unclear. In the present study, a total of eight H4 AIV strains isolated in duck farm and live poultry markets (LPM) were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains are divided into two groups in the Eurasian lineage. Eight genes of MH-2/H4N6 isolated from a duck farm were closely related to three H4N6 viruses from LPM, suggesting a potential AIV link between farms and LPMs. Additionally, the HA, NA, PB2, NP, and NS genes of two other H4N6 viruses isolated in LPM clustered with that of MH-2/H4N6. However, the remaining genes were more closely related to other sublineages, suggesting that MH-2/H4N6-originated viruses reassorted with other viruses in LPM. All H4 viruses replicated in mouse lungs without prior adaptation and all viruses replicated and transmitted among ducks. 29-1/H4N2, MH-2/H4N6, and 420-2/H4N6 viruses caused systemic infection in infected ducks. However, most of the viruses were not adapted in chickens. The present results indicate a potential correlation of AIV between LPMs and farms and suggest that active surveillance of AIV in LPM is warranted in China. PMID:27897216

  1. Study of influenza A virus in wild boars living in a major duck wintering site.

    PubMed

    Vittecoq, Marion; Grandhomme, Viviane; Simon, Gaëlle; Herve, Séverine; Blanchon, Thomas; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; van der Werf, Sylvie

    2012-03-01

    Wild birds, which are reservoirs of influenza viruses, are believed to be the original source of new influenza viruses-including highly pathogenic ones-that can be transmitted to domestic animals as well as humans and represent a potential epizootic and/or pandemic threat. Despite increasing knowledge on influenza A virus dynamics in wild birds, the viral circulation in wild boars remains largely unknown. This is of particular interest since pigs can be infected with both human and avian viruses; upon co-infection, they can act as a mixing vessel through reassortment, a mechanism that resulted in the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 virus in 2009. The Camargue (Southern France) appears as an ideal study area to investigate inter-species transmission of influenza A viruses from wild birds and possibly humans to wild boars. Indeed, the important local wild boar population shares wetland use with humans and the largest concentration of wintering ducks in France, that are both susceptible to infection by influenza A viruses. Additionally, wild boars occasionally prey on ducks. We conducted a virological and serological survey on wild boars in the Camargue (Southern France) between September 2009 and November 2010. No influenza A virus was detected in the collected nasal swabs (n=315) and no influenza specific antibodies were observed in the serological samples (n=20). As the study was mainly focused on viral excretion, which is limited in time, we cannot exclude that low or occasional influenza A virus circulation took place during the study period. Although, wild boars did not seem to be a key element in the dynamics of influenza A virus circulation in the Camargue, wild boar influenza A virus infections should be more widely studied to determine if the pattern observed here represents the normal situation or an exceptional one.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Antigenic Convergence

    PubMed Central

    Campo, David S.; Dimitrova, Zoya; Yokosawa, Jonny; Hoang, Duc; Perez, Nestor O.; Ramachandran, Sumathi; Khudyakov, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine development against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is hindered by poor understanding of factors defining cross-immunoreactivity among heterogeneous epitopes. Using synthetic peptides and mouse immunization as a model, we conducted a quantitative analysis of cross-immunoreactivity among variants of the HCV hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). Analysis of 26,883 immunological reactions among pairs of peptides showed that the distribution of cross-immunoreactivity among HVR1 variants was skewed, with antibodies against a few variants reacting with all tested peptides. The HVR1 cross-immunoreactivity was accurately modeled based on amino acid sequence alone. The tested peptides were mapped in the HVR1 sequence space, which was visualized as a network of 11,319 sequences. The HVR1 variants with a greater network centrality showed a broader cross-immunoreactivity. The entire sequence space is explored by each HCV genotype and subtype. These findings indicate that HVR1 antigenic diversity is extensively convergent and effectively limited, suggesting significant implications for vaccine development. PMID:22355779

  3. Hepatitis C Virus and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Larry; Foont, Julie; Wands, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    This review will focus on the prevalence of hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection in alcoholics with and without liver disease. Evidence will be presented to demonstrate that ethanol and chronic HCV infection synergistically accelerate liver injury. Some of the major postulated mechanisms responsible for disease progression include high rates of apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species with reduced antioxidant capacity of the liver. Acquisition and persistence of HCV infection may be due to the adverse effects of ethanol on humoral and cellular immune responses to HCV. Dendritic cells (DC) appear to be one of the major targets for ethanol’s action and DC dysfunction impairs the ability of the host to generate viral specific cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+) and cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8+) immune responses. There is a relationship between increased alcohol intake and decreased response to interferon (IFN) therapy, which may be reversed by abstinence. Clinical studies are needed to optimize treatment responses in alcoholic patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:19387918

  4. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in parts of the world. However, it’s not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the ...

  5. Evaluation of hepatocyteprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus properties of Cichoric acid from Cichorium intybus leaves in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Li; Dai, Ling-Hao; Wu, Yi-Hang; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Guan, Rong-Fa; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world. To date, there is still no complete cure for chronic hepatitis B. Natural caffeic acid analogues possess prominent antiviral activity, especially anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) and anti-human immunodeficiency virus effects. Cichoric acid is a caffeic acid derivative from Cichorium intybus. In the study, the anti-hepatitis B property of cichoric acid was evaluated by the D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced normal human HL-7702 hepatocyte injury model, the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV)-infected duck fetal hepatocytes and the HBV-transfected cell line HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. The results showed that cichoric acid attenuated significantly D-GalN-induced HL-7702 hepatocyte injury at 10-100 µg/mL and produced a maximum protection rate of 56.26%. Moreover, cichoric acid at 1-100 µg/mL inhibited markedly DHBV DNA replication in infected duck fetal hepatocytes. Also, cichoric acid at 10-100 µg/mL reduced significantly the hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen levels in HepG2.2.15 cells and produced the maximum inhibition rates of 79.94% and 76.41%, respectively. Meanwhile, test compound at 50-100 µg/mL inhibited markedly HBV DNA replication. In conclusion, this study verifies the anti-hepatitis B effect of cichoric acid from Cichorium intybus leaves. In addition, cichoric acid could be used to design the antiviral agents.

  6. Evaluation of a high-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza A virus isolated from duck meat.

    PubMed

    Tumpey, T M; Suarez, D L; Perkins, L E L; Senne, D A; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Mo, I P; Sung, H W; Swayne, D E

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of an influenza A virus possessing a novel hemagglutinin (HA) into an immunologically naive human population has the potential to cause severe disease and death. Such was the case in 1997 in Hong Kong, where H5N1 influenza was transmitted to humans from infected poultry. Because H5N1 viruses are still isolated from domestic poultry in southern China, there needs to be continued surveillance of poultry and characterization of virus subtypes and variants. This study provides molecular characterization and evaluation of pathogenesis of a recent H5N1 virus isolated from duck meat that had been imported to South Korea from China. The HA gene of A/Duck/Anyang/AVL-1/01 (H5N1) isolate was found to be closely related to the Hong Kong/97 H5N1 viruses. This virus also contained multiple basic amino acids adjacent to the cleavage site between HA1 and HA2, characteristic of high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAI). The pathogenesis of this virus was characterized in chickens, ducks, and mice. The DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01 isolate replicated well in all species and resulted in 100% and 22% lethality for chickens and mice, respectively. No clinical signs of disease were observed in DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01-inoculated ducks, but high titers of infectious virus could be detected in multiple tissues and oropharyngeal swabs. The presence of an H5N1 influenza virus in ducks bearing a HA gene that is highly similar to those of the pathogenic 1997 human/poultry H5N1 viruses raises the possibility of reintroduction of HPAI to chickens and humans.

  7. Effects of petroleum on adrenocortical activity and on hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorsline, J.; Holmes, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Unstressed mallard ducks (Anas platyrhychos), given uncontaminated food and maintained on a short photoperiod, show two daily maxima in plasma corticosterone concentration ([B]); one occurring early in the light phase and a second just before the onset of darkness. After one week of exposure to food containing 3% (v/w) South Louisiana crude oil, plasma [B] were significantly lowered throughout the day. Similar abrupt declines in plasma [B] also occurred during the first 10 days of exposure to food containing 1% and 0.5% crude oil. Although the plasma [B] in birds consuming food contaminated with 0.5% crude oil increased between 10 and 50 days of exposure, the concentration after 50 days was still lower than normal. During the same interval, normal plasma [B] were restored in birds consuming food containing 1% and 3% crude oil. Significant increases occurred in the naphthalene-metabolizing properties of hepatic microsomes prepared from birds acutely exposed to all levels of petroleum-contaminated food and elevated levels were sustained throughout the first 50 days of exposure. Birds given food containing 3% crude oil for more than 50 days, however, showed steady declines in hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity. After 500 days, the activity was similar to that found in contemporaneous controls. During the same interval, the plasma [B] increased until the levels were higher than normal after 500 days of exposure; at this time, an inverse relationship, similar to that seen during the first week of exposure to contaminated food, was once more established between plasma [B] and the concomitant hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity.

  8. Low-pathogenic influenza A viruses in North American diving ducks contribute to the emergence of a novel highly pathogenic influenza A(H7N8) virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Yifei; Ramey, Andrew M.; Bowman, Andrew S; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Killian, Mary Lea; Krauss, Scott; Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Reeves, Andrew B.; Webby, Richard J.; Stallknecht, David E.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Introductions of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 into poultry from wild birds have the potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, but such viruses' origins are often unclear. In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused an outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the virus's origin, we sequenced the genomes of 441 wild-bird origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) from North America and subjected them to evolutionary analyses. The results showed that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity. Preceding the outbreak, an isolate with six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NA, and NS) sharing >99% sequence identity with those of H7N8 turkey isolates was recovered from a diving duck sampled in Kentucky, USA. H4N8 IAVs from other diving ducks possessed five H7N8-like gene segments (PB2, PB1, NA, MP, and NS; >98% sequence identity). Our findings suggest that viral gene constellations circulating among diving ducks can contribute to the emergence of IAVs that affect poultry. Therefore, diving ducks may serve an important and understudied role in the maintenance, diversification, and transmission of IAVs in the wild-bird reservoir.

  9. [Zoonotic potential of the hepatitis E virus].

    PubMed

    Vasícková, Petra; Pavlík, Ivo

    2010-02-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. The HEV genome is formed by a nonsegmented positive-sense RNA chain with a 3'-terminal polyadenylated tail and a 5'-terminal cap. According to the currently accepted taxonomy, HEV is classified in the genus Hepevirus, the sole member of the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E is usually transmitted by the faecal-oral route due to poor sanitation and contamination of drinking water or water for industrial purposes. This has been reported in developing countries of Asia, Africa, South and Central America. In countries with sporadic hepatitis E, the reported cases have been associated with travelling to the above countries. Recently, zoonotic and foodborne transmission of HEV has been widely discussed.

  10. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling; Castellan, David; Liu, Hualei; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV), designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261), was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM) from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China.

  11. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling; Castellan, David; Liu, Hualei; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV), designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261), was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM) from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3’-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5’. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China. PMID:27391305

  12. Hepatitis C virus associated glomerulopathies

    PubMed Central

    Ozkok, Abdullah; Yildiz, Alaattin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a systemic disorder which is often associated with a number of extrahepatic manifestations including glomerulopathies. Patients with HCV infection were found to have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease. HCV positivity has also been linked to lower graft and patient survivals after kidney transplantation. Various histological types of renal diseases are reported in association with HCV infection including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), membranous nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, fibrillary glomerulonephritis, immunotactoid glomerulopathy, IgA nephropathy, renal thrombotic microangiopathy, vasculitic renal involvement and interstitial nephritis. The most common type of HCV associated glomerulopathy is type I MPGN associated with type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. Clinically, typical renal manifestations in HCV-infected patients include proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, hypertension, acute nephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Three approaches may be suggested for the treatment of HCV-associated glomerulopathies and cryoglobulinemic renal disease: (1) antiviral therapy to prevent the further direct damage of HCV on kidneys and synthesis of immune-complexes; (2) B-cell depletion therapy to prevent formation of immune-complexes and cryoglobulins; and (3) nonspecific immunosuppressive therapy targeting inflammatory cells to prevent the synthesis of immune-complexes and to treat cryoglobulin associated vasculitis. In patients with moderate proteinuria and stable renal functions, anti-HCV therapy is advised to be started as pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin. However in patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and/or progressive kidney injury and other serious extra-renal manifestations, immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide, rituximab, steroid pulses and plasmapheresis should be administrated. PMID:24976695

  13. Reassessing immune control of hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher M; Feng, Zongdi; Lemon, Stanley M

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed interest in hepatitis A virus (HAV) pathogenesis and immunity after 2-3 decades of limited progress. From a public health perspective, the average age at infection has increased in developing countries, resulting in more severe hepatitis that is poorly understood mechanistically. More fundamentally, there is interest in comparing immunity to HAV and hepatitis C virus (HCV): small, positive-strand RNA viruses with very different infection outcomes. Here, we review evidence that circulating HAV virions are cloaked in membranes, with consequences for induction of innate immunity and antibody-mediated neutralization. We also consider the contribution of CD4+ helper versus CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to antiviral immunity and liver injury, and present a model of non-cytotoxic immune control of HAV infection.

  14. Substitution rates in hepatitis delta virus.

    PubMed

    Krushkal, J; Li, W H

    1995-12-01

    Substitution rates were estimated for the coding and noncoding regions of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). The estimated rates of synonymous substitution in HDV were lower than the rates of substitution at non-synonymous sites and in the noncoding region. HDV has lower synonymous substitution rates than the hepatitis C virus, though both are RNA viruses. The relatively low rate of synonymous substitution in HDV may be due to a strong preference of G and C nucleotides at third codon positions. Variation in substitution rate among HDV lineages may be correlated with the clinical development of the HDV-induced hepatitis. The phylogenetic tree inferred for 24 HDV strains reveals similarities between lineages isolated from the same geographic region.

  15. Experimental infection of mandarin duck with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N8 and H5N1) viruses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Heo, Gyeong-Beom; Jung, Joojin; Jang, Il; Bae, You-Chan; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in South Korea in January 2014. Here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of H5 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified H5N1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and 2.3.2.1). However, none of the mandarin ducks infected with H5N8 and H5N1 viruses showed severe clinical signs or mortality, and gross lesions were only observed in a few tissues. Viral replication and shedding were greater in H5N8-infected ducks than in H5N1-infected ducks. Recovery of all viruses from control duck in contact with infected ducks indicated that the highly pathogenic H5 viruses spread horizontally through contact. Taken together, these results suggest that H5N8 viruses spread efficiently in mandarin ducks. Further studies of pathogenicity in wild birds are required to examine possible long-distance dissemination via migration routes.

  16. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein and Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuaichen; Koh, Samantha S. Y.; Lee, Caroline G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most associated factors in hepatocarcinogenesis. HBV is able to integrate into the host genome and encode the multi-functional hepatitis B virus x protein (HBx). Although the mechanism between HBx and carcinogenesis is still elusive, recent studies have shown that HBx was able to influence various signaling pathways, as well as epigenetic and genetic processes. This review will examine and summarize recent literature about HBx’s role in these various processes. PMID:27314335

  17. Hepatitis B and hepatitis delta virus infection in South America.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, J R

    1996-01-01

    About 100,000 cases of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occur annually in South America. The overall prevalence of HBV infection in low risk populations ranges from 6.7% to 41%, while hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) rates range from 0.4% to 13%. In high endemicity aboriginal or rural populations, perinatal transmission may play a major part in the spread of HBV. In urban populations, however, horizontal transmission, probably by sexual contact, is the predominant mode of spread, with higher rates of HBV positivity in lower socioeconomic groups. High risk populations such as health care workers and haemodialysis patients show higher rates of HBV infection than comparable populations elsewhere. The risk of posttransfusion hepatitis B remains high in some areas. Concomitant HBV infection may accelerate the chronic liver disease seen in decompensated hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. In the north, the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection ranks among the highest in the world. In the south, the problem appears negligible although it is increasing within high risk urban communities. HDV superinfection has been the cause of large outbreaks of fulminant hepatitis. The cost of comprehensive or mass vaccination programmes remains unaffordable for most South American countries. Less expensive alternatives such as low dose intradermal schedules of immunisation have been used with success in selected adult subjects. PMID:8786054

  18. Nucleotide sequence of a cloned woodchuck hepatitis virus genome: comparison with the hepatitis B virus sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Galibert, F; Chen, T N; Mandart, E

    1982-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a woodchuck hepatitis virus genome cloned in Escherichia coli was determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. This sequence was found to be 3,308 nucleotides long. Potential ATG initiator triplets and nonsense codons were identified and used to locate regions with a substantial coding capacity. A striking similarity was observed between the organization of human hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. Nucleotide sequences of these open regions in the woodchuck virus were compared with corresponding regions present in hepatitis B virus. This allowed the location of four viral genes on the L strand and indicated the absence of protein coded by the S strand. Evolution rates of the various parts of the genome as well as of the four different proteins coded by hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus were compared. These results indicated that: (i) the core protein has evolved slightly less rapidly than the other proteins; and (ii) when a region of DNA codes for two different proteins, there is less freedom for the DNA to evolve and, moreover, one of the proteins can evolve more rapidly than the other. A hairpin structure, very well conserved in the two genomes, was located in the only region devoid of coding function, suggesting the location of the origin of replication of the viral DNA. Images PMID:7086958

  19. Whole genome sequencing and biological characterization of Duck/JS/10, a new lentogenic class I Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chunchun; Qiu, Xvsheng; Jin, Shiqiang; Yu, Shengqing; Chen, Hongjun; Ding, Chan

    2012-05-01

    A lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Duck/JS/10 (JS10), was isolated from an unvaccinated duck in China. The complete genome of the virus contained 15,198 nucleotides. Based on length of the genome and a partial sequence of the F gene, the virus was classified as a class I genotype 4 NDV. The antigenicity of the virus was compared with that of NDV strain La Sota via hemagglutination inhibition (HI), virus neutralization (VN) assay and animal experiments. Our results show that JS10 generates higher HI and VN titers than La Sota against both class I and II virulent NDV strains. Experiments on animals demonstrate that virus shedding from chickens vaccinated with JS10 is significantly reduced when compared to those vaccinated with La Sota. Overall, this study strongly suggests that JS10 may qualify as a new vaccine candidate against Newcastle disease.

  20. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis B virus in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Mossong, J; Putz, L; Patiny, S; Schneider, F

    2006-08-01

    A prospective seroepidemiological survey was carried out in Luxembourg in 2000-2001 to determine the antibody status of the Luxembourg population against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). One of the objectives of this survey was to assess the impact of the hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in May 1996 and included a catch-up campaign for all adolescents aged 12-15 years. Venous blood from 2679 individuals was screened for the presence of antibodies to HAV antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) using an enzyme immunoassay. Samples positive for anti-HBs were tested for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) using a chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay to distinguish between individuals with past exposure to vaccine or natural infection. The estimated age-standardized anti-HAV seroprevalence was 42.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.8-44.1] in the population >4 years of age. Seroprevalence was age-dependent and highest in adult immigrants from Portugal and the former Yugoslavia. The age-standardized prevalence of anti-HBs and anti-HBc was estimated at 19.7% (95% CI 18.1-21.3) and 3.16% (95% CI 2.2-4.1) respectively. Anti-HBs seroprevalence exceeding 50% was found in the cohorts targeted by the routine hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in 1996. Our study illustrates that most young people in Luxembourg are susceptible to HAV infection and that the hepatitis B vaccination programme is having a substantial impact on population immunity in children and teenagers.

  1. An attenuated duck plague virus (DPV) vaccine induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses to protect ducks against virulent DPV infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Shu, Bing; Yu, Xia; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2014-04-01

    Duck plague (DP) is a severe disease caused by DP virus (DPV). Control of the disease is recognized as one of the biggest challenges in avian medicine. Vaccination is an efficient way to control DPV, and an attenuated vaccine is the main routine vaccine. The attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa is a modified live vaccine, but the systemic and mucosal immune responses induced by this vaccine have been poorly understood. In this study, the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated after subcutaneous immunization of ducks. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were counted by flow cytometry, and humoral and mucosal Ig antibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that high levels of T cells and Ig antibodies were present postimmunization and that there were more CD4(+) T cells than CD8(+) T cells. Titers of humoral IgG were higher than those of humoral IgA. Local IgA was found in each sample, whereas local IgG was found only in the spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, harderian gland, liver, bile, and lung. In a protection assay, the attenuated DPV vaccine completely protected ducks against 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of the lethal DPV strain CHv via oral infection. These data suggest that this subcutaneous vaccine elicits sufficient systemic and mucosal immune responses against lethal DPV challenge to be protective in ducks. This study provides broad insights into understanding the immune responses to the attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa through subcutaneous immunization in ducks.

  2. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Johne, Reimar; Heckel, Gerald; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Kindler, Eveline; Maresch, Christina; Reetz, Jochen; Schielke, Anika

    2010-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus infections may be caused by zoonotic transmission of virus genotypes 3 and 4. To determine whether rodents are a reservoir, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E–like virus from 2 Norway rats in Germany. The sequence suggests a separate genotype for this hepatotropic virus. PMID:20735931

  3. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    PubMed

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family.

  4. Replication strategy of human hepatitis B virus

    SciTech Connect

    Will, H.; Reiser, W.; Weimer, T.; Pfaff, E.; Buescher, M.; Sprengel, R.; Cattaneo, R.; Schaller, H.

    1987-03-01

    To study the replication strategy of the human hepatitis B virus, the 5' end of the RNA pregenome and the initiation sites of DNA plus and minus strands have been mapped. The RNA pregenome was found to be terminally redundant by 120 nucleotides; it is initiated within the pre-C region and may also function as mRNA for synthesis of the major core protein and the hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase. The hepatitis B virus DNA minus strand is initiated within the direct repeat sequence DR1, it contains a terminal redundancy of up to eight nucleotides, and its synthesis does not require any template switch. The DNA plus strand is primed by a short oligoribonucleotide probably derived from the 5' end of the RNA pregenome, and its synthesis is initiated close to the direct repeat sequence DR2. For its elongation to pass the discontinuity in the DNA minus strand an intramolecular template switch occurs using the terminal redundancy of this template. Thus, the route of reverse transcription and DNA replication of hepatitis B viruses is fundamentally different from that of retroviruses.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus and Antiviral Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungtaek; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been intensively investigated to understand its biology and develop effective antiviral therapies. The efforts of the previous 25 years have resulted in a better understanding of the virus, and this was facilitated by the development of in vitro cell culture systems for HCV replication. Antiviral treatments and sustained virological responses have also improved from the early interferon monotherapy to the current all-oral regimens using direct-acting antivirals. However, antiviral resistance has become a critical issue in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, similar to other chronic viral infections, and retreatment options following treatment failure have become important questions. Despite the clinical challenges in the management of chronic hepatitis C, substantial progress has been made in understanding HCV, which may facilitate the investigation of other closely related flaviviruses and lead to the development of antiviral agents against these human pathogens. PMID:27784846

  6. Pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kohla, M; Bonacini, M

    2006-06-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single stranded RNA virus. In 60-80% of patients, it is able to escape innate and adaptive immune surveillance. Thus it establishes itself as an agent of chronic hepatitis. Cytotoxic lymphocytes then contribute to liver injury in an attempt to eradicate the virus. On the other hand, strong multispecific T-lymphocyte reaction against HCV proteins is associated with viral clearance. Both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte functions are important to effect this outcome. In chronic infection, genetic and environmental factors determine the progression of inflammation and fibrosis in individual patients. Of these factors, age, gender, race and alcohol use are the most established ones. The development of hepatocellular carcinoma is mainly restricted to patients with cirrhosis.

  7. Infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in eider ducks and Herring Gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J. Christian; Docherty, Douglas E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Petersen, Margaret R.

    2000-01-01

    We measured antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in blood of nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) females and immature Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in the Baltic Sea, and in blood of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) females nesting in a remote area of western Alaska. Positive (??? 1:16) IBDV titers occurred in 75% of the eiders and 45% of the Herring Gull chicks. In eiders, the prevalence of positive titers differed among locations. We found no evidence that IBDV exposure impaired the immune function of Herring Gull chicks, based on their response to inoculation of sheep red blood cells. We suggest that eider ducks and Herring Gulls have been exposed to IBDV, even in locations where contact with poultry is unlikely. The presence of this virus in wild bird populations is of concern because it causes mortality of up to 30% in susceptible poultry.

  8. Noninvasive Monitoring of Hepatic Damage from Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alavez-Ramírez, J.; Fuentes-Allen, J. L.; López-Estrada, J.

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical model for the dynamics of the hepatitis C proposed in Avendaño et al. (2002), with four populations (healthy and unhealthy hepatocytes, the viral load of the hepatitis C virus, and T killer cells), is revised. Showing that the reduced model obtained by considering only the first three of these populations, known as basic model, has two possible equilibrium states: the uninfected one where viruses are not present in the individual, and the endemic one where viruses and infected cells are present. A threshold parameter (the basic reproductive virus number) is introduced, and in terms of it, the global stability of both two possible equilibrium states is established. Other central result consists in showing, by model numerical simulations, the feasibility of monitoring liver damage caused by HCV, avoiding unnecessary biopsies and the undesirable related inconveniences/imponderables to the patient; another result gives a mathematical modelling basis to recently developed techniques for the disease assessment based essentially on viral load measurements. PMID:21331263

  9. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  10. Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus coinfections.

    PubMed

    Dodig, M; Tavill, A S

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is estimated that 30% to 50% of patients with HIV are coinfected with HCV. Advances in antiretroviral therapy and improved life expectancy of HIV patients have resulted in an emergence of HCV-induced liver disease as a leading cause of significant morbidity and death in this population. Clinically, hepatitis C is a more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals, characterized by rapid progression toward end-stage liver disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is the mainstay of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome management. One of the limiting side effects of combination therapy for HIV is hepatotoxicity, which is more common and often more serious in patients with underlying liver disease. Management of coinfected patients has no strict guidelines, but it is generally accepted that HIV infection needs to be treated before HCV. Hepatitis C in coinfected individuals is probably best treated using combination therapy (interferon alpha and ribavirin). It appears that combination therapy can safely be administered to this population and that previous concerns about ribavirin/zidovudine antagonism are unsubstantiated in clinical practice. Although initial results using only interferon alpha showed poor results in HIV coinfected patients, combination therapy seems to be as effective as in the general population. All HIV-HCV coinfected patients should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and hepatitis A; vaccines are safe and effective.

  11. A plant-derived edible vaccine against hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, J; Modelska, A; Figlerowicz, M; Pniewski, T; Letellier, M; Lisowa, O; Yusibov, V; Koprowski, H; Plucienniczak, A; Legocki, A B

    1999-10-01

    The infectious hepatitis B virus represents 42 nm spherical double-shelled particles. However, analysis of blood from hepatitis B virus carriers revealed the presence of smaller 22 nm particles consisting of a viral envelope surface protein. These particles are highly immunogenic and have been used in the design of hepatitis B virus vaccine produced in yeast. Upon expression in yeast, these proteins form virus-like particles that are used for parenteral immunization. Therefore, the DNA fragment encoding hepatitis B virus surface antigen was introduced into Agrobacterium tumerifacience LBA4404 and used to obtain transgenic lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Burpee Bibb expressing envelope surface protein. Mice that were fed the transgenic lupin tissue developed significant levels of hepatitis B virus-specific antibodies. Human volunteers, fed with transgenic lettuce plants expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen, developed specific serum-IgG response to plant produced protein.

  12. Interregional transmission of the internal protein genes of H2 influenza virus in migratory ducks from North America to Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Hua; Okazaki, Katsunori; Bai, Gui-Rong; Shi, Wei-Min; Mweene, Aaron; Kida, Hiroshi

    2004-08-01

    H2 influenza virus caused a pandemic in 1957 and has the possibility to cause outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolutionary characteristics of H2 influenza viruses isolated from migratory ducks that congregate in Hokkaido, Japan, on their flyway of migration from Siberia in 2001, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among these viruses and avian and human viruses described previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PB2 gene of Dk/Hokkaido/107/01 (H2N3) and the PA gene of Dk/Hokkaido/95/01 (H2N2) belonged to the American lineage of avian virus and that the other genes of the isolates belonged to the Eurasian lineage. These results indicate that the internal protein genes might be transmitted from American to Eurasian avian host. Thus, it is further confirmed that interregional transmission of influenza viruses occurred between the North American and Eurasian birds. The fact that reassortants could be generated in the migratory ducks between North American and Eurasian avian virus lineage further stresses the importance of global surveillance among the migratory ducks.

  13. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  14. Occult hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Carreño, Vicente; Bartolomé, Javier; Castillo, Inmaculada; Quiroga, Juan Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Occult HBV infection is a well-recognised clinical entity characterised by the detection of HBV-DNA in serum and/or in liver in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV infection has been described not only in patients who have resolved an acute or chronic HBV infection but also in patients without any serological markers of a past HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in patients with chronic HCV infection may induce more severe liver disease and lower response rate to interferon treatment. The existence of occult HCV infections has been also reported more recently. Occult HCV infection is characterised by the presence of HCV-RNA in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the absence of detectable serum HCV-RNA. Occult HCV infection may occur under two different clinical situations: in hepatitis C antibody-(anti-HCV) negative and serum HCV-RNA-negative patients with abnormal liver function tests and in anti-HCV-positive patients who have no detectable serum HCV-RNA and who have normal liver enzymes. The clinical relevance of occult HCV infections is still under investigation.

  15. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  16. [Hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol].

    PubMed

    Campollo, Octavio

    2002-10-01

    It was thought that HCV infection was very frequent among alcoholics; some even though that this disease affected nearly 35% of this group. Now there seems to be a consensus among the main investigator groups that the correlation of hepatitis C and alcohol increases the risk of complications, cirrhosis and liver cancer included. Moreover, it's now certain that among patients with HCV infection, alcohol consumption increases the risk of death from live diseases during the first 10 years of the disease. Alcoholism is also considered a predisposing factor for HCV infection, but not for hepatitis B virus infection. Prospective studies about post-transfusional hepatitis C showed the risk of cirrhosis increases from 7.8 to 31.1 times if the patient consumed significant amounts of alcohol (> 80 g a day). One of the recommendations for every patient with HCV infection is to abstain from drinking alcohol.

  17. Hepatitis B virus infection in multitransfused haemophiliacs.

    PubMed Central

    Nebbia, G; Moroni, G A; Simoni, L; Belli, M; Carnelli, V

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 44 haemophilic children, all in a treatment programme with factor concentrates, was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence, characteristics, and evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Twenty four children (55%) (group I) showed signs of HBV infection, while 20 (45%) (group II) did not. Age at onset of treatment, number of infusions, and total amount of concentrate received did not show significant differences between the two groups. In group I only four children (16%) had symptomatic acute hepatitis. Chronic liver disease was present in nine patients (38% of infected children). The early age of infection would seem to be an important factor for predicting chronic evolution. Evidence of delta infection in three children with severe liver disease seemed to confirm the high pathogenicity of this agent. Because of the risks associated with chronic HBV infection a careful follow up of patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen is mandatory. PMID:3089179

  18. Immunological alterations in hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Calvaruso, Vincenza; Craxì, Antonio

    2013-12-21

    A higher prevalence of immunological processes has recently been reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, focusing the attention of physicians and researchers on the close association between HCV and immune disorders. HCV lymphotropism represents the most important step in the pathogenesis of virus-related immunological diseases and experimental, virologic, and clinical evidence has demonstrated a trigger role for HCV both in systemic autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia, and in organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune hepatitis, thyroid disorders and diabetes. This review will outline the principal aspects of such HCV-induced immunological alterations, focusing on the prevalence of these less characterized HCV extrahepatic manifestations.

  19. Update on occult hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays. However, real-time PCR is a more reliable method than PCR. OBI is a great issue for the public health problem and a challenge for the clinical entity worldwide. The persistence of OBI may lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With regard to OBI complications, the screening of HBV DNA by the highly sensitive molecular means should be implemented for: (1) patients with a previous history of chronic or acute HBV infection; (2) patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus; (3) patients undergoing chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy; (4) recipients of organ transplant; (5) blood donors; (6) organ transplant donors; (7) thalassemia and hemophilia patients; (8) health care workers; (9) patients with liver related disease (cryptogenic); (10) hemodialysis patients; (11) patients undergoing lamivudine or interferon therapy; and (12) children in time of HBV vaccination especially in highly endemic areas of HBV. Active HBV vaccination should be implemented for the close relatives of patients who are negative for OBI markers. Thus, the goal of this review is to evaluate the rate of OBI with a focus on status of high risk groups in different regions of the world. PMID:27818588

  20. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, G.; Gilson, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of almost all cases of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (NANBH). HCV is an RNA virus, unrelated to the hepatitis viruses, A, B, D, or E; it was first identified in 1989. Although most infections become chronic, and it may lead to chronic liver disease, most patients with HCV infection are asymptomatic. The predominant modes of transmission are by blood, blood products, or other parenteral exposure, particularly injecting drug use. More contentious is the role of sexual transmission, although evidence for this was provided by studies of NANBH. OBJECTIVE: This review considers the evidence for sexual transmission, and the types of studies used to estimate the rate of transmission and the factors that may influence it. METHOD: A Medline search using the keywords hepatitis C, sex, transmission, and prevalence in MeSH and free text. References in papers were searched, and some unpublished data identified. References were further selected to illustrate different methodologies. FINDINGS: Evidence for sexual transmission is provided by several types of study including prevalence studies in groups at risk of other STDs, investigation of cases identified from surveillance reports, and cross sectional and longitudinal partner studies. Many studies are limited by their small size, the sensitivity and specificity of early assays, lack of controls, or the difficulty of excluding other routes of transmission. One prospective cohort study reported an incidence of 12 per 1000 person years in the sexual partners of HCV infected patients. 1-3% of partners of HCV infected patients are found to be infected in cross sectional studies. Co-infection with HIV, duration of the relationship, or chronic liver disease may be independent cofactors increasing the risk of transmission. A meta-analysis of selected studies may be informative, and further larger prospective studies are required. There is a small but definite risk

  1. Inconclusive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Results in African Sera

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Include Security Classification) Inconclusive hepatitis C virus antibody results in African sera 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hyams KC, Okoth FA, Tukei PM...exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS P All other editions are obsolete. UNCLASS I F I ED 254 CORRESPONDENCE 93-13564 Inconclusive Hepatitis C Virus ...outpatients living on the eastern coast of Kenya were evaluated. Colleagues-in Africa, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus anti- Sera and epidemiologic data

  2. [The molecular biology of hepatitis C virus].

    PubMed

    Koutsoudakis, George; Forns, Xavier; Pérez-Del-Pulgar, Sofía

    2013-04-01

    Since the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a plethora of experimental models have evolved, allowing the virus's life cycle and the pathogenesis of associated liver diseases to be investigated. These models range from inoculation of cultured cells with serum from patients with hepatitis C to the use of surrogate models for the study of specific stages of the HCV life cycle: retroviral pseudoparticles for the study of HCV entry, replicons for the study of HCV replication, and the HCV cell culture model, which reproduces the entire life cycle (replication and production of infectious particles). The use of these tools has been and remains crucial to identify potential therapeutic targets in the different stages of the virus's life cycle and to screen new antiviral drugs. A clear example is the recent approval of two viral protease inhibitors (boceprevir and telaprevir) in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. This review analyzes the advances made in the molecular biology of HCV and highlights possible candidates as therapeutic targets for the treatment of HCV infection.

  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Iran is known as an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, while there are variations in the epidemiology of HEV infection throughout the country. The available epidemiological studies in different regions of Iran show HEV seroprevalence of 1.1%-14.2% among general population, 4.5% -14.3% among blood donors, 6.1%-22.8% among injecting drug users, 6.3%-28.3% among hemodialysis patients, 1.6%-11.3% among patients infected with other hepatitis viruses, 27.5% among patients with chronic liver disease, 30.8% among kidney transplant recipient patients, and 10%-16.4% among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. These variations reflect differences in the status of public health and hygiene, risk factors, and routes of transmission in different regions and groups. Therefore, it is necessary to review the epidemiology of HEV infection to determine the most prevalent risk factors and routes of transmission, and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive strategies employed in the public health services of the country. Moreover, the other epidemiological aspects of HEV, including the genotypic pattern, extra hepatic manifestations, and incidence of chronic infection need to be investigated among Iranian population to expand the current knowledge on the epidemiology of HEV and to clarify the real burden of HEV infection. Therefore, this review was performed to provide a general overview regarding the epidemiology of HEV in Iran. PMID:27298557

  4. [Culture of hepatitis virus B].

    PubMed

    Panouse-Perrin, J; Couroucé-Pauty, A M; Rachman, F

    1975-01-01

    For the last 25 years, numerous attempts have been made to isolate the HBV agent responsible for hepatitis B by means of cultures 'in vitro'. We have undertaken longterm cultures of children's hepatic tissue (C.H.), conjunctive tissue (human adult H.A.F. and human embryonic fibroblasts H.E.F.) and KB cells; these were put in the presence of 7 sera HB + rich in Dane particles. These cells were trypsinized twice a week for almost 3 months and did not present any cytopathogenic effects. Electromicroscopy revealed, 15 days after infection, the presence of icosahedral particles (25 to 27 nm in diameter), free or in dense clusters, but more often empty (20 nm in diameter). These structures seemed to be made up of an assembly of capsomers approximately 5 nm in diameter, joined together in fours to form a ridge. Older cultures revealed clusters of icosahedrons some of which degenerated spontaneously; others were surrounded by proteinic structure having a fringed aspect. Certain rare particles of 35 to 45 nm in diameter are similar to full Dane particles. EID immunological results were positive in the case of sera of patients convalescent from hepatitis B, containing anti-HBc antibodies, on C.H. cells the 27th and 40th days, and negative with anti-HBs antibodies. By immunofluorescence we observed 12 to 20 days after infection of the cells, a clear fluorescence at first nuclear, then essentially cytoplasmic, by means of fluorescent anti-HBc sera of human or animal origin. With the fluorescent anti-HBs antibodies, the reaction is weak and solely cytoplasmic although in DRI, with H.E.F. and KB cells, we obtained from time to time weakly positive results in HBs. The relations between the morphological structures and the immunological results observed are discussed.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infection in Southern Brazil: clinical and epidemiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia Mara; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Beloto, Nayara Carvalho Polido; Demeneck, Henrique; Oliveira, Andre; Largura, Denis; Sagrado, Andressa Gervasoni; Lima, Bárbara Perdonsini; Franzoni, João Paulo; Pedroso, Maria Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus share a similar transmission pathway and are often diagnosed in the same patient. These patients tend to have a faster progression of hepatic fibrosis. This cross-sectional study describes the demographic features and clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis co-infected patients in Paraná, Southern Brazil. A total of 93 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients attending a tertiary care academic hospital in Southern Brazil were included. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data were evaluated. Hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus positive serology was found in 6.6% of patients. The anti-hepatitis C virus serum test was positive in 85% (79/93) of patients, and the infection was confirmed in 72% of the cases. Eighteen patients (19%) were human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus positive (detectable HBsAg). Among co-infected patients, there was a high frequency of drug use, and investigations for the detection of co-infection were conducted late. A low number of patients were eligible for treatment and, although the response to antiretroviral therapy was good, there was a very poor response to hepatitis therapy. Our preliminary findings indicate the need for protocols aimed at systematic investigation of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, thus allowing for early detection and treatment of co-infected patients.

  6. An investigation of duck circovirus and co-infection in Cherry Valley ducks in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingxiao; Jiang, Shijin; Wu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Kong, Yibo; Li, Xiaoxia; Yao, Meiling; Chai, Tongjie

    2009-01-13

    The co-infection of duck circovirus (DuCV) with Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) or/and Escherichia coli (E. coli) or/and duck hepatitis virus I (DHV-I) in Cherry Valley ducks in China's Shandong Province was investigated by using polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based methods. For this study, 742 ducks sampled at random from 70 duck farms during 2006-2007 were examined using PCR and dot-blot hybridisation (DBH) tests. Overall the DuCV infection rate was 33.29%. Compared with those at 2 weeks of age, the ducks at 3-4 weeks of age were more susceptible to DuCV infection. Compared with the DuCV-negative ones, the DuCV-positive ducks had a higher rate of infection by DHV-I (25.5% vs. 7.475%), RA (23.48% vs. 8.28%) and E. coli (16.19% vs. 4.85%). This investigation shows that DuCV infection is common in Cherry Valley ducks on some farms in Shandong Province.

  7. High prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Carreño, Vicente

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the absence of detectable antibodies against HCV and of viral RNA in serum is called occult HCV infection. Its prevalence and clinical significance in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is unknown. HCV RNA was tested for in the liver samples of 52 patients with chronic HBV infection and 21 (40 %) of them were positive for viral RNA (occult HCV infection). Liver fibrosis was found more frequently and the fibrosis score was significantly higher in patients with occult HCV than in negative ones, suggesting that occult HCV infection may have an impact on the clinical course of HBV infection.

  8. Etiological spectrum of viral hepatitis and prevalence of markers of hepatitis A and B virus infection in north India*

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, B. N.; Gandhi, B. M.; Joshi, Y. K.

    1984-01-01

    The etiological spectrum of viral hepatitis and the prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis A and B virus infection in healthy persons in north India were studied. Hepatitis A virus was found to be the most common cause of acute hepatitis in children (67%). It was a less frequent cause of this disease in adults (14%). Hepatitis A virus was only rarely the cause of acute (12%) and subacute (4%) liver failure. It was recorded as the etiological agent in an epidemic among schoolchildren. Exposure to hepatitis A virus occurs in early childhood, and by the age of 10 years, 90% of healthy persons have serological evidence of hepatitis A virus infection. Hepatitis non-A non-B virus was the cause of acute hepatitis in 44% of adults and 24% of children with this disease. This virus was also the most important etiological agent in acute liver failure (55%) and subacute hepatic failure (51%). It was the cause of all the hepatitis epidemics in the general population. Only 9% of hepatitis cases in children were due to hepatitis B virus whereas 42% of cases in adults were attributable to this virus. Hepatitis B virus was the causative agent in 33% of cases of acute hepatic failure and 45% of cases of subacute hepatic failure. The carrier rate for hepatitis B virus was 5% and antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen was found in up to 38% of specific population groups. PMID:6424958

  9. Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) belonging to clade 2.2.

    PubMed

    Guionie, Olivier; Guillou-Cloarec, Cécile; Courtois, David; Bougeard, B Stéphanie; Amelot, Michel; Jestin, Véronique

    2010-03-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) is enzootic in several countries of Asia and Africa and constitutes a major threat, at the world level, for both animal and public health. Ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of AI, including HP H5N1 AI. Although vaccination can be a useful tool to control AI, duck vaccination has not proved very efficient in the field, indicating a need to develop new vaccines and a challenge model to evaluate the protection for duck species. Although Muscovy duck is the duck species most often reared in France, the primary duck-producing country in Europe, and is also produced in Asia, it is rarely studied. Our team recently demonstrated a good cross-reactivity with hemagglutinin from clade 2.2 and inferred that this could be a good vaccine candidate for ducks. Two challenges using two French H5N1 HP strains, 1) A/mute swan/France/06299/06 (Swan/06299), clade 2.2.1, and 2) A/mute swan/France/070203/07 (Swan/070203), clade 2.2 (but different from subclade 2.2.1), were performed (each) on 20 Muscovy ducks (including five contacts) inoculated by oculo-nasal route (6 log10 median egg infectious doses per duck). Clinical signs were recorded daily, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected throughout the assay. Autopsies were done on all dead ducks, and organs were taken for analyses. Virus was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR based on the M gene AI virus. Ducks presented severe nervous signs in both challenges. Swan/070203 strain led to 80% morbidity (12/15 sick ducks) and 73% mortality (11/15 ducks) at 13.5 days postinfection (dpi), whereas Swan/06299 strain produced 100% mortality at 6.5 dpi. Viral RNA load was significantly lower via the cloacal route than via the oropharyngeal route in both trials, presenting a peak in the first challenge at 3.5 dpi and being more stable in the second challenge. The brain was the organ containing the highest viral RNA load in both challenges. Viral RNA load in

  10. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. To improve the control of this disease it’s necessary to better understand the pathog...

  11. Cell entry of hepatitis C virus

    SciTech Connect

    Bartosch, Birke . E-mail: Birke.Bartosch@ens-lyon.fr; Cosset, Francois-Loic . E-mail: Francois-Loic.Cosset@ens-lyon.fr

    2006-04-25

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important human pathogen, is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Cell attachment of flaviviruses generally leads to endocytosis of bound virions. Systems that support HCV replication and particle formation in vitro are emerging only now, 16 years after the discovery of the virus. Albeit this limitation, the route of HCV cell entry as well as 'capture' molecules involved in low-affinity interactions for the initial contact of HCV with target cells and potential high-affinity receptor candidates that may mediate HCV trafficking and fusion has been described. The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of different HCV model systems to our current knowledge about structure of the HCV GPs E1 and E2 and their roles in cell entry comprising cell attachment, interactions with cellular receptors, endocytosis, and fusion.

  12. Low pathogenic H7 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in South Korea and the close association with isolates of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, O-Soo; Bae, You-Chan

    2012-06-01

    We characterized low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of the H7 subtype that were isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in South Korea from 2008 to 2011. A total of 20 H7 viruses were collected from live-bird markets (LBMs), duck farms and wild-bird habitats using avian influenza (AI) surveillance and epidemiological approaches. A phylogenetic analysis of the H7 viruses that were isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds demonstrated that they were separated into 12 genotypes (A-D and Wb-1-8, respectively), indicating genetic diversity. These H7 viruses were related to the recently isolated Eurasian LPAI H7 viruses and various influenza viruses that are circulating in Asia, including southern China and South Korea. The same genotype was not found between domestic poultry and wild-bird isolates; however, most of the H7 viruses in poultry (genotypes B and C) were closely related to the H7 virus isolated from a wild bird (genotype Wb-3). Animal-challenge studies revealed that certain H7 AI viruses replicated well only in chickens or ducks depending on the genotype, indicating that the pathogenicity of H7 viruses has the potential to be altered due to multiple reassortments, and these viruses can potentially expand their host range. Our results are evidence of abundant and frequent reassortment between H7 viruses in poultry and wild birds and emphasize the continuing need to monitor the evolutionary genetics of the influenza virus in poultry and wild birds.

  13. Is there a relationship between the kinetics of lipoprotein lipase activity after a meal and the susceptibility to hepatic steatosis development in ducks?

    PubMed

    Saez, G; Baéza, E; Bernadet, M D; Davail, S

    2010-11-01

    The difference in the ability of Pekin and Muscovy ducks to develop hepatic steatosis could result from a different peripheral lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, which hydrolyses triacylglycerol secreted by the liver. We studied the kinetics of plasma LPL activity in response to a meal at different ages in Pekin and Muscovy ducks. For that purpose, blood samples were taken at 5, 9, 12, 13, and 14 wk of age just before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after a meal. To release LPL into general circulation, an i.v. injection of heparin (400 IU/kg of BW) was administered 10 min before blood collection. For that reason, different ducks per genotype were used for each point of measurement (n = 6). Plasma LPL activity measured before the meal was negatively correlated with the weight of the fatty liver measured in the same ducks at 14 wk of age (r = -0.58, P < 0.001). Plasma triacylglycerol level measured before the meal was negatively correlated with plasma LPL activity measured in the same ducks (r = -0.31, P = 0.025) and was negatively correlated with plasma LPL activity measured in the same ducks for each age and each timing (r = -0.39, P < 0.001). At 14 wk of age for Muscovy and Pekin ducks, we observed that a high plasma LPL activity (>200 IU/L of plasma) corresponded to a relatively low development of fatty liver (190 g) induced by overfeeding, whereas a low plasma LPL activity (<150 IU/L of plasma) corresponded to a high propensity to develop fatty liver (470 g). In conclusion, plasma LPL activity measured just before the meal during the rearing period could be used as a marker of hepatic steatosis development during the overfeeding period.

  14. Nuclear Import of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids and Genome

    PubMed Central

    Gallucci, Lara; Kann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped pararetrovirus with a DNA genome, which is found in an up to 36 nm-measuring capsid. Replication of the genome occurs via an RNA intermediate, which is synthesized in the nucleus. The virus must have thus ways of transporting its DNA genome into this compartment. This review summarizes the data on hepatitis B virus genome transport and correlates the finding to those from other viruses. PMID:28117723

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A if they've been vaccinated against it. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a more serious infection. It may lead ... of which cause severe illness and even death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from person to person ...

  16. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Hepatitis Page Content Article Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of ... it has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool ...

  17. Hepatitis B virus molecular biology and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, R. Jason; Bagga, Sumedha; Bouchard, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses need a host cell to provide a milieu favorable to viral replication. Consequently, viruses often adopt mechanisms to subvert host cellular signaling processes. While beneficial for the viral replication cycle, virus-induced deregulation of host cellular signaling processes can be detrimental to host cell physiology and can lead to virus-associated pathogenesis, including, for oncogenic viruses, cell transformation and cancer progression. Included among these oncogenic viruses is the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite the availability of an HBV vaccine, 350–500 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV, and a significant number of these chronically infected individuals will develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epidemiological studies indicate that chronic infection with HBV is the leading risk factor for the development of HCC. Globally, HCC is the second highest cause of cancer-associated deaths, underscoring the need for understanding mechanisms that regulate HBV replication and the development of HBV-associated HCC. HBV is the prototype member of the Hepadnaviridae family; members of this family of viruses have a narrow host range and predominately infect hepatocytes in their respective hosts. The extremely small and compact hepadnaviral genome, the unique arrangement of open reading frames, and a replication strategy utilizing reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate to generate the DNA genome are distinguishing features of the Hepadnaviridae. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of HBV biology, summarize the model systems used for studying HBV infections, and highlight potential mechanisms that link a chronic HBV-infection to the development of HCC. For example, the HBV X protein (HBx), a key regulatory HBV protein that is important for HBV replication, is thought to play a cofactor role in the development of HBV-induced HCC, and we highlight the functions of HBx that may

  18. Hepatitis B virus infection in immigrant populations

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Macera, Margherita; Sagnelli, Caterina; Zampino, Rosa; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide, with nearly 350 million people chronically infected and 600000 deaths per year due to acute liver failure occurring during acute hepatitis or, more frequently, in HBV-related liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Ongoing immigration from countries with a high HBV endemicity to those with a low HBV endemicity warrants particular attention to prevent the spread of HBV infection to the native population. This review article analyzes the epidemiology and virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in immigrant populations and in their host countries, and suggests prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of this infection. Among the immigrants from different geographical areas, those from South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa show the highest prevalences of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, in accordance with the high endemicity of the countries of origin. The molecular characteristics of HBV infection in immigrants reflect those of the geographical areas of origin: HBV genotype A and D predominate in immigrants from Eastern Europe, B and C in those from Asia and genotype E in those from Africa. The literature data on the clinical course and treatment of HBsAg-positive immigrants are scanty. The management of HBV infection in immigrant populations is difficult and requires expert personnel and dedicated structures for their assistance. The social services, voluntary operators and cultural mediators are essential to achieve optimized psychological and clinical intervention. PMID:26730274

  19. Putative novel genotype of avian hepatitis E virus, Hungary, 2010.

    PubMed

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  20. Hepatitis E virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Richie G; Wallace, Sebastian; Sonderup, Mark; Korsman, Stephen; Chivese, Tawanda; Gavine, Bronwyn; Edem, Aniefiok; Govender, Roxy; English, Nathan; Kaiyamo, Christy; Lutchman, Odelia; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Pas, Suzan D; Webb, Glynn W; Palmer, Joanne; Goddard, Elizabeth; Wasserman, Sean; Dalton, Harry R; Spearman, C Wendy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children’s Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics. Relevant demographic data was captured at the time of sampling using an interviewer-administered confidential questionnaire. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was self-disclosed. HEV IgG testing was performed using the Wantai® assay. RESULTS HEV is endemic in the region with a seroprevalence of 27.9% (n = 324/1161) 95%CI: 25.3%-30.5% (21.9% when age-adjusted) with no significant differences between ethnic groups or HIV status. Seroprevalence in children is low but rapidly increases in early adulthood. With univariate analysis, age ≥ 30 years old, pork and bacon/ham consumption suggested risk. In the multivariate analysis, the highest risk factor for HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 7.679, 95%CI: 5.38-10.96, P < 0.001) was being 30 years or older followed by pork consumption (OR = 2.052, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001). A recent clinical case demonstrates that HEV genotype 3 may be currently circulating in the Western Cape. CONCLUSION Hepatitis E seroprevalence was considerably higher than previously thought suggesting that hepatitis E warrants consideration in any patient presenting with an unexplained hepatitis in the Western Cape, irrespective of travel history, age or ethnicity. PMID:27956810

  1. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bellentani, S; Miglioli, L; Bedogni, G; Crocè, L S; Tiribelli, C

    2005-03-01

    Although a lot of novel information and data on the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are available worldwide, the majority of these information are often fragmentary and sometimes contradictory. This review tries to highlight all the data available on the prevalence (i.e. the number of cases present in a known population), the risk factors, the natural history and the incidence (i.e. the number of new cases that occur every year) of HCV infection in the world, and particularly in Italy.

  2. Biosensors for hepatitis B virus detection

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chun-Yan; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A biosensor is an analytical device used for the detection of analytes, which combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. Recently, an increasing number of biosensors have been used in clinical research, for example, the blood glucose biosensor. This review focuses on the current state of biosensor research with respect to efficient, specific and rapid detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The biosensors developed based on different techniques, including optical methods (e.g., surface plasmon resonance), acoustic wave technologies (e.g., quartz crystal microbalance), electrochemistry (amperometry, voltammetry and impedance) and novel nanotechnology, are also discussed. PMID:25253948

  3. Natural killer cells in hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-fei; Wang, Wen-jing; Gao, Yue-qiu

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer cells are a unique type of lymphocytes with cytotoxic capacity, and play important roles against tumors and infections. Recently, natural killer cells have been increasingly valued in their effects in hepatitis B virus infection. Since hepatitis B virus is not cytopathic, the subsequent antiviral immune responses of the host are responsible for sustaining the liver injury, which may result in cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Many studies have confirmed that natural killer cells participate in anti-hepatitis B virus responses both in the early phase after infection and in the chronic phase via cytolysis, degranulation, and cytokine secretion. However, natural killer cells play dichotomic roles: they exert antiviral and immunoregulatory functions whilst contribute to the pathogenesis of liver injury. Here, we review the roles of natural killer cells in hepatitis B virus infection, introducing novel therapeutic strategies for controlling hepatitis B virus infection via the modulation of natural killer cells.

  4. Recent advances in Hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Meng, X J

    2010-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, belongs to the family Hepeviridae. At least four major genotypes of HEV have been recognized: genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans and associated with epidemics in developing countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and infect humans and several other animals in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from swine, chickens, sika deer, mongeese, and rabbits. The genome of HEV consists of three open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1 codes for nonstructural proteins, ORF2 codes for capsid protein, and ORF3 codes for a small multifunctional protein. The ORF2 and ORF3 proteins are translated from a single bicistronic mRNA and overlap each other but neither overlaps ORF1. The recent determination of the 3D crystal structure of the HEV capsid protein should facilitate the development of vaccines and antivirals. The identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV from pigs and chickens and the demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by swine HEV raise public health concerns for zoonosis. Accumulating evidence indicated that hepatitis E is a zoonotic disease and pigs and more likely other animal species are reservoirs for HEV. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hepatitis E and its causative agent, including nomenclature and genomic organization, gene expression and functions, 3D structure of the virions, changing perspectives on higher mortality during pregnancy and chronic hepatitis E, animal reservoirs, zoonotic risk, food safety, and novel animal models.

  5. Outbreak of duck plague (duck herpesvirus enteritis) in numerous species of captive ducks and geese in temporal conjunction with enforced biosecurity (in-house keeping) due to the threat of avian influenza A virus of the subtype Asia H5N1.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Kuczka, A; Kühnhold, A; Bunzenthal, C; Bönner, B M; Hanka, K; Redmann, T; Yilmaz, A

    2007-01-01

    The continuing westward spread of avian influenza A virus of the subtype H5N1 in free-living and domestic birds forced the European Union and the German federal government to enhance all biosecurity measures including in-house keeping of all captive birds from October 20 to December 15, 2005. Movement of captive ducks and geese of many different species from a free-range system to tight enclosures and maintenance for prolonged times in such overcrowded sheds resulted in pronounced disturbance of natural behaviour, interruption of mating and breeding activities and possibly additional stress. Under these conditions the birds developed signs of severe disease and enhanced mortality twentyfour days later. A total of 17 out of 124 (14%) adult birds and 149 out of 184 year-old birds (81 %) died during the outbreak. A herpesvirus was isolated from many organs of succumbed ducks and geese that was identified as a duck plague herpesvirus by cross neutralization test using known antisera against duck plague virus. The published host range of duck plague comprises 34 species within the order Anseriformes. We report here on additional 14 species of this order that were found to be susceptible to duck plague virus. The exact source of the herpesvirus could not identified. However, low antibody titres in some ducks at day of vaccination indicate that at least some of the birds were latently infected with a duck plague herpesvirus. The remaining healthy appearing birds were subcutaneously vaccinated with a modified live duck plague vaccine (Intervet, Boxmeer, NL) that stopped losses and resulted in seroconversion in most of the vaccinated birds.

  6. Animal model for study of human hepatitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Chayama, Kazuaki; Hayes, C Nelson; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Abe, Hiromi; Tsuge, Masataka; Imamura, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect only chimpanzees and humans. Analysis of both viruses has long been hampered by the absence of a small animal model. The recent development of human hepatocyte chimeric mice has enabled us to carry out studies on viral replication and cellular changes induced by replication of human hepatitis viruses. Various therapeutic agents have also been tested using this model. In the present review, we summarize published studies using chimeric mice and discuss the merits and shortcomings of this model.

  7. Control of Hepatitis B Virus by Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yuchen; Protzer, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health problem worldwide with more than 240 million individuals chronically infected. Current treatments can control HBV replication to a large extent, but cannot eliminate HBV infection. Cytokines have been shown to control HBV replication and contribute to HBV cure in different models. Cytokines play an important role in limiting acute HBV infection in patients and mediate a non-cytolytic clearance of the virus. In this review, we summarize the effects of cytokines and cytokine-induced cellular signaling pathways on different steps of the HBV life cycle, and discuss possible strategies that may contribute to the eradication of HBV through innate immune activation. PMID:28117695

  8. Identification of a New Broadly Cross-reactive Epitope within Domain III of the Duck Tembusu Virus E Protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenxi; Bai, Xiaofei; Meng, Runze; Shaozhou, Wulin; Zhang, Qingshan; Hua, Ronghong; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a pathogenic flavivirus termed duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) caused widespread outbreak of egg-drop syndrome in domesticated ducks in China. Although the glycoprotein E of DTMUV is an important structural component of the virus, the B-cell epitopes of this protein remains uncharacterized. Using phage display and mutagenesis, we identified a minimal B-cell epitope, 374EXE/DPPFG380, that mediates binding to a nonneutralizing monoclonal antibody. DTMUV-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope, and amino acid substitutions revealed the specific amino acids that are essential for antibody binding. Dot-blot assays of various flavivirus-positive sera indicated that EXE/DPPFG is a cross-reactive epitope in most flaviviruses, including Zika, West Nile, Yellow fever, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. These findings indicate that the epitope sequence is conserved among many strains of mosquito-borne flavivirus. Protein structure modeling revealed that the epitope is located in domain III of the DTMUV E protein. Together, these results provide new insights on the broad cross-reactivity of a B-cell binding site of the E protein of flaviviruses, which can be exploited as a diagnostic or therapeutic target for identifying, studying, or treating DTMUV and other flavivirus infections. PMID:27824100

  9. Evaluation of Newcastle disease virus immunoassays for waterfowl using a monoclonal antibody specific for the duck immunoglobulin light chain.

    PubMed

    Kothlow, Sonja; Haüslaigner, Rafaela; Kaspers, Bernd; Grund, Christian

    2008-06-01

    In the present study a monoclonal antibody (mAb 14A3) was tested for its reactivity against serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) of several waterfowl species, and subsequently for its applicability as anti-species antibody in common immunoassays. Western blot analyses demonstrated its broad cross-reactivity with the serum IgY light chain of different duck species: Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), white-winged wood duck (Asarcornis scutulatus), common pintail (Dafila acuta). Reactivity was also evident with IgY of two swan species--mute swan (Cygnus olor) and black-necked swan (Sthenelides melanocoryphus)--and two goose species--domestic goose (Anser anser var. domestica) and red-breasted goose (Rufibrenta ruficollis). Applying the mAb for Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 [APMV-1]) test systems, its functionality within indirect immunoassays was evaluated. Using APMV-1-positive sera of domestic geese and Muscovy ducks, mAb 14A3 facilitated specific staining of APMV-1-infected cells in an immunofluorescence test. In addition, it proved to be functional in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a western blot assay. Thus, the analysed mAb represents an attractive and versatile reagent that offers the opportunity to develop serological tests for waterfowl, allowing a high sample throughput using the ELISA technique or the fine analysis of humoral immune responses using the western blot.

  10. Chaperones in hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; French, Samuel W

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 3% of the world population or more than 185 million people worldwide. Each year, an estimated 350000-500000 deaths occur worldwide due to HCV-associated diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis worldwide. HCV is an enveloped RNA virus classified in the genus Hepacivirus in the Flaviviridae family. The HCV viral life cycle in a cell can be divided into six phases: (1) binding and internalization; (2) cytoplasmic release and uncoating; (3) viral polyprotein translation and processing; (4) RNA genome replication; (5) encapsidation (packaging) and assembly; and (6) virus morphogenesis (maturation) and secretion. Many host factors are involved in the HCV life cycle. Chaperones are an important group of host cytoprotective molecules that coordinate numerous cellular processes including protein folding, multimeric protein assembly, protein trafficking, and protein degradation. All phases of the viral life cycle require chaperone activity and the interaction of viral proteins with chaperones. This review will present our current knowledge and understanding of the role of chaperones in the HCV life cycle. Analysis of chaperones in HCV infection will provide further insights into viral/host interactions and potential therapeutic targets for both HCV and other viruses. PMID:26783419

  11. Coxsackie A10 Virus Infection Among Infectious Hepatitis Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Embil, J. A.; Van Rooyen, C. E.; Nagler, F. P.

    1965-01-01

    During an outbreak of infectious hepatitis at a housing development, Coxsackie A10 virus was recovered from the stools of 45 different contacts and from the blood of four others. Caution should be exercised in attributing an etiological role to any given isolate of a Group A Coxsackie virus in view of the widespread distribution of these organisms. Nevertheless, the recovery of Coxsackie A10 viruses from the blood and stools of contacts with hepatitis cases appears to warrant record. PMID:5829398

  12. [Hepatitis C virus and pulmonary fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Paolo; Salaffi, Fausto; Pesci, Alberto

    2002-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic inflammatory interstitial lung disease characterized by an accumulation of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in the lower respiratory tract, parenchymal injury, and interstitial fibrosis. Although the etiology of IPF is unknown, it has been suggested that viral agents, among which hepatitis C virus (HCV), may be involved in inducing the disease. In patients with chronic hepatitis HCV+ and in those with mixed cryoglobulinemia HCV-associated, HCV may trigger a subclinical lymphocyte alveolitis. Furthermore, pulmonary fibrosis associated with a variety of rheumatic disorders has been reported in 8/300 patients with active chronic hepatitis HCV+. Bronchoalveolar lavage, carried out in 4/8 patients, showed an increased percentage of neutrophils in all of them and a mild increase of lymphocytes in 2 patients. Thoracoscopic lung biopsy was carried out in 2 patients and showed a desquamative interstitial pneumonia; in one case HCV-RNA was found in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although the above observations seem indicate a role for HCV in IFP, further studies are required to define its true importance in the etiopathogenesis of the interstitial lung disease.

  13. A rat model for hepatitis E virus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Niraj; Verbeken, Erik; Ramaekers, Kaat; Dallmeier, Kai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the prime causes of acute viral hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis E is increasingly recognized as an important problem in the transplant setting. Nevertheless, the fundamental understanding of the biology of HEV replication is limited and there are few therapeutic options. The development of such therapies is partially hindered by the lack of a robust and convenient animal model. We propose the infection of athymic nude rats with the rat HEV strain LA-B350 as such a model. A cDNA clone, pLA-B350, was constructed and the infectivity of its capped RNA transcripts was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a subgenomic replicon, pLA-B350/luc, was constructed and validated for in vitro antiviral studies. Interestingly, rat HEV proved to be less sensitive to the antiviral activity of α-interferon, ribavirin and mycophenolic acid than genotype 3 HEV (a strain that infects humans). As a proof-of-concept, part of the C-terminal polymerase sequence of pLA-B350/luc was swapped with its genotype 3 HEV counterpart: the resulting chimeric replicon replicated with comparable efficiency as the wild-type construct, confirming that LA-B350 strain is amenable to humanization (replacement of certain sequences or motifs by their counterparts from human HEV strains). Finally, ribavirin effectively inhibited LA-B350 replication in athymic nude rats, confirming the suitability of the rat model for antiviral studies. PMID:27483350

  14. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  15. Neuralgic amyotrophy and hepatitis E virus infection

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Jeroen J.J.; Madden, Richie G.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Hunter, Jeremy G.; Reimerink, Johan H.J.; Bendall, Richard P.; Pas, Suzan D.; Ellis, Vic; van Alfen, Nens; Beynon, Laura; Southwell, Lucy; McLean, Brendan; Jacobs, Bart C.; van Engelen, Baziel G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between an acute preceding hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), and if so, whether patients with HEV-related NA differ from patients without an associated HEV infection. Methods: HEV testing was conducted in a retrospective cohort of 28 Cornish patients with NA (2011–2013) and a prospective cohort of 38 consecutive Dutch patients with NA (2004–2007). Acute-phase serum samples were analyzed for the presence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG and HEV RNA (quantitative real-time PCR). Results: Five cases (10.6%) of acute hepatitis E infection were identified in a total group of 47 patients with NA of whom serum samples were available. In 4 patients, HEV RNA was detected in serum samples taken at presentation. All patients with HEV-associated NA had clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of bilateral brachial plexus involvement. Anti-HEV IgM positivity was not related to age, sex, disease severity, disease course, or outcome. Conclusions: Acute hepatitis E is found in 10% of patients with NA from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Further research is required to investigate the role of HEV in NA in other geographical locations and to determine pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:24401685

  16. Hepatitis C virus and neurological damage

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Shilu; Faheem, Muhammed; Ibrahim, Sara M; Iqbal, Waqas; Rauff, Bisma; Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection exhibits a wide range of extrahepatic complications, affecting various organs in the human body. Numerous HCV patients suffer neurological manifestations, ranging from cognitive impairment to peripheral neuropathy. Overexpression of the host immune response leads to the production of immune complexes, cryoglobulins, as well as autoantibodies, which is a major pathogenic mechanism responsible for nervous system dysfunction. Alternatively circulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and HCV replication in neurons is another factor that severely affects the nervous system. Furthermore, HCV infection causes both sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy in the mixed cryoglobulinemia as well as known as an important risk aspect for stroke. These extrahepatic manifestations are the reason behind underlying hepatic encephalopathy and chronic liver disease. The brain is an apt location for HCV replication, where the HCV virus may directly wield neurotoxicity. Other mechanisms that takes place by chronic HCV infection due the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders includes derangement of metabolic pathways of infected cells, autoimmune disorders, systemic or cerebral inflammation and alterations in neurotransmitter circuits. HCV and its pathogenic role is suggested by enhancement of psychiatric and neurological symptoms in patients attaining a sustained virologic response followed by treatment with interferon; however, further studies are required to fully assess the impact of HCV infection and its specific antiviral targets associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27134702

  17. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Romero, E; Galindo, P; Bravo, J A; Osorio, J M; Pérez, A; Baca, Y; Ferreira, C; Asensio, C; Osuna, A

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the main cause of liver disease after renal transplantation. Most patients have seroconverted on dialysis to positive RNA. The viral load increases during immunosuppressive therapy. The risk of developing chronic liver disease is related to the histopathologic findings, duration and severity of the disease, immunosuppression, and transplantation time. Hepatitis C virus infection can predict onset, of proteinuria and diabetes. We studied 868 patients who received renal transplants between (1987 and 2006), of whom 18.7% were seropositive for HCV. We observed a higher rate of HCV-seropositive patients related to the duration of hemodialysis therapy. Of the HCV seropositive patients, 77% had received renal allografts before 1998. There was no difference between the sexes; however, the HCV positive patients were younger. Polymerase chain reaction tests results were positive in 91.6% of the patients with HCV antibodies. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among HCV positive patients, as was as the persistence of proteinuria. Cryoglobulins were positive in 30.8%. The incidence of acute rejection episodes in the first year was similar between groups. Of the HCV-positive patients, 80.2% were treated with cyclosporine, most patients continued this therapy throughout the study. We observed no significant difference in mortality end graft survival rate between the two groups. However, renal function differed significantly at some points during the evolution of the clinical course. Renal transplantation is still the best treatment option in patients with chronic renal disease.

  19. Management of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeok; Park, Wanju; Yang, Jin Hyang; You, Kwang Soo

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 2 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHBV) in the United States and are at risk for long-term consequences such as cirrhosis, liver decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Less than 10 years ago, there was no treatment of CHBV infection, but now, new drugs have recently been approved and there is considerable new knowledge about the treatment of CHBV infection. Recently, consensus guidelines for the management of hepatitis B virus infection have been released by the National Institutes of Health and the American Medical Association, addressing the selection of patients and drugs for treatments. Determining what constitutes best practices to manage patients with CHBV is challenging and requires nurses and nurse practitioners to acquire and maintain up-to-date knowledge to understand recently approved drugs and disease management. Nurses and nurse practitioners should know how to identify patients who need treatment and how to educate, counsel, and monitor treatment adherence and side effects; these skills are crucially important. The goal of this article is to provide nurses with the most current consensus guidelines for the management of CHBV infection and their application in nursing practice to optimize treatment to enhance patient outcomes.

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis Virus Infections in an Institution for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Bradley A.; Vazquez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 1,235 residents of Sonoma Developmental Center found 3 residents had hepatitis C virus infections, and 633 had past or current hepatitis B virus infections. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection rose rapidly with longer residence in institutions. Hepatitis A virus infection had occurred in 494 residents. (Contains…

  1. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of DHV-1 in Pekin ducks and on the innate immune responses of ducks to infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Cuiping; Yu, Shengqing; Duan, Yunbing; Hu, Yue; Qiu, Xvsheng; Tan, Lei; Sun, Yingjie; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun; Ding, Chan

    2014-05-01

    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) affects 1-week-old but not 3-week-old ducks, and it causes a more severe disease in the younger ducks. These differences may be partially due to the host response to DHV infection. In order to understand this difference, we characterized the pathobiology of and innate immune response to DHV infection in 1-day-old (1D) and 3-week-old (3 W) ducks. Viral RNA was detected in duck livers at 24, 36 and 72 h after inoculation with DHV at a dose of 10(3) LD50. Virus-induced pathology ranged from no clinical signs to severe disease and death, and it was more severe in the 1D ducks. Infection with DHV induced up-regulation of gene expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7, TLR3, retinoic-acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5), interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-α, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), interferon-stimulated gene 12 (ISG12), and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like gene (OASL) in the livers of 3 W ducks. Of these, IL-6, OASL and ISG12 mRNA levels were more than 100-fold higher in infected 3 W ducks than in mock-infected ducks of the same age. These genes were induced much less in infected 1D ducklings. We present evidence that a lower level of viral replication in the hepatocytes of 3 W ducks, whose basal level of cytokines is higher than that in 1D ducklings, may be related to the strong innate immunity induced. From our data, we conclude that duck age plays an important role in the pathogenicity of and innate immune responses to DHV.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus, Insulin Resistance, and Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kralj, Dominik; Jukić, Lucija Virović; Stojsavljević, Sanja; Duvnjak, Marko; Smolić, Martina; Čurčić, Ines Bilić

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of liver disease worldwide. Liver steatosis is a common finding in many hepatic and extrahepatic disorders, the most common being metabolic syndrome (MS). Over time, it has been shown that the frequent coexistence of these two conditions is not coincidental, since many epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have indicated HCV to be strongly associated with liver steatosis and numerous metabolic derangements. Here, we present an overview of publications that provide clinical evidence of the metabolic effects of HCV and summarize the available data on the pathogenetic mechanisms of this association. It has been shown that HCV infection can induce insulin resistance (IR) in the liver and peripheral tissues through multiple mechanisms. Substantial research has suggested that HCV interferes with insulin signaling both directly and indirectly, inducing the production of several proinflammatory cytokines. HCV replication, assembly, and release from hepatocytes require close interactions with lipid droplets and host lipoproteins. This modulation of lipid metabolism in host cells can induce hepatic steatosis, which is more pronounced in patients with HCV genotype 3. The risk of steatosis depends on several viral factors (including genotype, viral load, and gene mutations) and host features (visceral obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, genetic predisposition, medication use, and alcohol consumption). HCV-related IR and steatosis have been shown to have a remarkable clinical impact on the prognosis of HCV infection and quality of life, due to their association with resistance to antiviral therapy, progression of hepatic fibrosis, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, HCV-induced IR, oxidative stress, and changes in lipid and iron metabolism lead to glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, hyperuricemia, and atherosclerosis, resulting in increased cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27047774

  3. Review: Occult hepatitis C virus infection: still remains a controversy.

    PubMed

    Vidimliski, Pavlina Dzekova; Nikolov, Igor; Geshkovska, Nadica Matevska; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Rostaing, Lionel; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in the liver cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients whose serum samples test negative for HCV RNA, with or without presence of HCV antibodies. The present study reviews the existing literature on the persistence of occult hepatitis C virus infection, with description of the clinical characteristics and methods for identification of occult hepatitis C. Occult hepatitis C virus infection was detected in patients with abnormal results of liver function tests of unknown origin, with HCV antibodies and HCV RNA negativity in serum, and also in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery from hepatitis C. The viral replication in the liver cells and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells was present in all clinical presentations of occult hepatitis C. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells represent an extra-hepatic site of HCV replication. The reason why HCV RNA was not detectable in the serum of patients with occult hepatitis C, could be the low number of circulating viral particles not detectable by the diagnostic tests with low sensitivity. It is uncertain whether occult hepatitis C is a different clinical entity or just a form of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Data accumulated over the last decade demonstrated that an effective approach to the diagnosis of HCV infection would be the implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays, and also, examination of the presence of viral particles in the cells of the immune system.

  4. Differential cellular gene expression in duck trachea infected with a highly or low pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian influenza A (AI) viruses of subtypes H5 can cause serious disease outbreaks in poultry including panzootic due to H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) viruses. These viruses are a threat not only for animal health but also public health due to their zoonotic potential. The domestic duck plays a major role in the epidemiological cycle of influenza virus subtypes H5 but little is known concerning host/pathogen interactions during influenza infection in duck species. In this study, a subtracted library from duck trachea (a primary site of influenza virus infection) was constructed to analyse and compare the host response after a highly or low pathogenic (LP) H5N1-infection. Results Here, we show that more than 200 different genes were differentially expressed in infected duck trachea to a significant degree. In addition, significant differentially expressed genes between LPAI- and HPAI-infected tracheas were observed. Gene ontology annotation was used and specific signalling pathways were identified. These pathways were different for LPAI and HPAI-infected tracheas, except for the CXCR4 signalling pathway which is implicated in immune response. A different modulation of genes in the CXCR4 signalling pathway and TRIM33 was induced in duck tracheas infected with a HPAI- or a LPAI-H5N1. Conclusion First, this study indicates that Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) is an alternative approach to gain insights into the pathogenesis of influenza infection in ducks. Secondly, the results indicate that cellular gene expression in the duck trachea was differently modulated after infection with a LPAI-H5N1 or after infection with a HPAI-H5N1 virus. Such difference found in infected trachea, a primary infection site, could precede continuation of infection and could explain appearance of respiratory symptoms or not. PMID:24015922

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY HEPATITIS E VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a waterborne emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Thus far, an HEV outbreak has not been reported in the U.S., although a swine variant of the virus is common in Midwestern hogs. Because viruses isolated from two ...

  6. Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium delivery of a novel DNA vaccine induces immune responses and provides protection against duck enteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueyan; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Kangpeng; Li, Pei; Liu, Qiong; Zhao, Xinxin; Kong, Qingke

    2016-04-15

    DNA vaccines are widely used to prevent and treat infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmune diseases; however, their relatively low immunogenicity is an obstacle to their use. In this study, we constructed a novel and universal DNA vaccine vector (pSS898) that can be used to build DNA vaccines against duck enteritis virus (DEV) and other viruses that require DNA vaccines to provide protection. This vaccine vector has many advantages, including innate immunogenicity, efficient nuclear trafficking and resistance to attack from nucleases. UL24 and tgB from DEV were chosen as the antigens, and the heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) from Escherichia coli and the IL-2 gene (DuIL-2) from duck were used as adjuvants for the construction of DNA vaccine plasmids. Ducklings that were orally immunized with S739 (Salmonella Typhimurium Δasd-66 Δcrp-24 Δcya-25) and harboring these DEV DNA vaccines produced strong mucosal and systemic immune responses, and they resisted an otherwise lethal DEV challenge. More importantly, S739 (UL24-LTB) provided 90% protection after a priming-boost immunization. This study shows that our novel and universal DNA vaccine vector can be used efficiently in practical applications and may provide a promising method of orally inoculating ducks with a DEV DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium for prevention of DVE.

  7. Viral (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, HIV) persistence and immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q; Jia, Zhan S

    2014-11-01

    Immune homeostasis is a host characteristic that maintains biological balance within a host. Humans have evolved many host defence mechanisms that ensure the survival of individuals upon encountering a pathogenic infection, with recovery or persistence from a viral infection being determined by both viral factors and host immunity. Chronic viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and HIV, often result in chronic fluctuating viraemia in the face of host cellular and humoral immune responses, which are dysregulated by multi-faceted mechanisms that are incompletely understood. This review attempts to illuminate the mechanisms involved in this process, focusing on immune homeostasis in the setting of persistent viral infection from the aspects of host defence mechanism, including interferon-stimulated genes, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3), autophagy and interactions of various immune cells, cytokines and regulatory molecules.

  8. Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis D Virus Entry, Species Specificity, and Tissue Tropism.

    PubMed

    Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji

    2015-08-03

    Entry of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D viruses (HDV) into a host cell represents the initial step of infection. This process requires multiple steps, including the low-affinity attachment of the virus to the cell surface, followed by high-affinity attachment to specific receptor(s), and subsequent endocytosis-mediated internalization. Within the viral envelope, the preS1 region is involved in receptor binding. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as an entry receptor of HBV and HDV by affinity purification using a preS1 peptide. NTCP is mainly or exclusively expressed in the liver, and this membrane protein is at least one of the factors determining the narrow species specificity and hepatotropism of HBV and HDV. However, there are likely other factors that mediate the species and tissue tropism of HBV. This review summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms of HBV/HDV entry.

  9. Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Looking for Interferon Free Regimens

    PubMed Central

    González-Moreno, J.; Payeras-Cifre, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments of new drugs' combinations are changing the treatment paradigm in hepatitis C virus infection. Due to the side effect profile of pegylated interferons, interferon-sparing regimens have become the main target in chronic hepatitis C treatment research. Recent proofs of concept studies have suggested that cure of chronic hepatitis C can be achieved without interferon. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the clinical results recently reported for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with interferon-free regimens, focusing on the most promising new compounds and combinations. PMID:23710151

  10. Innate immune responses to hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Schoggins, John W; Rice, Charles M

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against invading viral pathogens. Incoming viruses are sensed by dedicated host factors that, when triggered, initiate multiple signal transduction pathways. Activation of these pathways leads to the induction of highly orchestrated transcriptional programs designed to limit virus replication and spread. In recent years, our understanding of innate immune responses targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) has increased substantially, largely due to the development of new systems and methodologies to study HCV-host interactions in vitro and in vivo. However, significant gaps still remain. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive view of the innate immune response to HCV, focusing primarily on knowledge gained from cell culture models of HCV infection, as well as data from human patients infected with HCV. While some paradigms of the host response to HCV revealed in cell culture translate to human infection in vivo, others are less clear. Further insight into the similarities and differences in these systems will not only reveal directions for future studies on HCV immunity, but may also guide the development of novel strategies to control HCV and other viral infections.

  11. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ducks represent an important reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses and are partly responsible for the worldwide dissemination of AI. Due to the ability of some low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the hemagglutinin H7 subtype to mutate into a highly pathogenic form o...

  12. Use of genomic interspecies microarray hybridization to detect differentially expressed genes associated with H5N1 avian influenza virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have changed from producing mild respiratory infections in ducks, to some strains producing severe disease and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in host response to infection with H5N1 HPAI viruses w...

  13. Differences in pathogenicity, response to vaccination, and innate immune responses in different types of ducks infected with a virulent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild ducks are reservoirs of avian influenza viruses in nature, and usually don’t show signs of disease. However, some Asian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses can cause disease and death in both wild and domestic ducks. The objective of this study was to compare the cli...

  14. Hepatitis C virus genetic variability and evolution.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Natalia; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar

    2015-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected over 170 million people worldwide and creates a huge disease burden due to chronic, progressive liver disease. HCV is a single-stranded, positive sense, RNA virus, member of the Flaviviridae family. The high error rate of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the pressure exerted by the host immune system, has driven the evolution of HCV into 7 different genotypes and more than 67 subtypes. HCV evolves by means of different mechanisms of genetic variation. On the one hand, its high mutation rates generate the production of a large number of different but closely related viral variants during infection, usually referred to as a quasispecies. The great quasispecies variability of HCV has also therapeutic implications since the continuous generation and selection of resistant or fitter variants within the quasispecies spectrum might allow viruses to escape control by antiviral drugs. On the other hand HCV exploits recombination to ensure its survival. This enormous viral diversity together with some host factors has made it difficult to control viral dispersal. Current treatment options involve pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin as dual therapy or in combination with a direct-acting antiviral drug, depending on the country. Despite all the efforts put into antiviral therapy studies, eradication of the virus or the development of a preventive vaccine has been unsuccessful so far. This review focuses on current available data reported to date on the genetic mechanisms driving the molecular evolution of HCV populations and its relation with the antiviral therapies designed to control HCV infection.

  15. Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Weigand, Kilian; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Encke, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Acute and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a serious health problem worldwide, however, there has been advancement in the treatment of HCV infection due to standard treatment using pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The literature indicates that therapy for HCV is becoming more individualized. In addition to considering genotype and viral RNA levels before treatment, achievement of an early virologic response (EVR) and a rapid virologic response (RVR) is now possible during therapy. Moreover, problem patients, such as non-responders, relapsers, HIV or HBV co-infected patients, patients with liver cirrhosis, and pre- or post-liver transplantation patients are an increasing fraction of the patients requiring treatment. This article reviews the literature regarding standard treatments and problem patients with acute and chronic HCV infection. It also includes discussion on contraindications and side effects of treatment with interferon and ribavirin, as well as new drug development. PMID:17461488

  16. Hepatitis A virus infections in Voyvodina.

    PubMed Central

    Vuković, B. S.; Rončević, N.; Borota, R.; Terzin, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Sera of 1000 persons in Voyvodina were tested with radioimmunoassay for antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The morbidity and age incidence of positive findings have been analysed and compared with relevant findings in other countries. Below the age of 19 years the morbidity rates are higher (0.138 to 0.595 per mill) and the prevalences of seropositives are lower (17.1-64.0%) than the respective frequencies above that age (0.011 to 0.052 per mill and 85.7-98.7% respectively). Below the first year of life seropositivity is more frequent than in 1- to 14-year old children. After the first year until the age of 30-39 years the frequency of seropositives increases with increasing age up to a maximum of about 90%. PMID:6257777

  17. Sofosbuvir treatment and hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masato; Kanda, Tatsuo; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yasui, Shin; Arai, Makoto; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious problem worldwide. The use of interferon-based therapy has made HCV eradication challenging. The recent appearance of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has changed HCV therapy. Combining the use of DAAs with peginterferon and ribavirin has improved treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the combination of different orally administered DAAs has enabled interferon-free therapy with much higher efficacy and safety. In particular, sofosbuvir, a nucleotide-based NS5B inhibitor, prevents HCV RNA synthesis by acting as a “chain terminator”. Treatment with sofosbuvir has attained an extremely high rate of sustained virologic response. The current review summarizes the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir therapy. PMID:26839641

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network.

    PubMed

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein-protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFbeta pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins.

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network

    PubMed Central

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein–protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFβ pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins. PMID:18985028

  20. [Escape mutants of hepatitis B virus].

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos Mario; Navas, María-Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem worldwide. Considering HBV morbidity and mortality and the economic consequences .of this infection, policies and strategies to control it have been implemented, especially in regions where HBV infection is endemic, with high rates of vertical and horizontal infection. One of these strategies is the development of the recombinant vaccine. A 92% of the countries in the world have implemented the vaccine with a global coverage of 69%. The escape variants of HBV correspond to isolates with mutations in the sequence coding for the "a" determinant; these mutations result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the surface antigen (HBsAg) that prevent neutralization of viral particles by antibodies generated in response to vaccination or infection. The escape variants can infect vaccinated individuals and have been identified in the population of countries with different epidemiological patterns.

  1. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Miriam J

    2007-01-01

    Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected an estimated 130 million people, most of whom are chronically infected. HCV-infected people serve as a reservoir for transmission to others and are at risk for developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been estimated that HCV accounts for 27% of cirrhosis and 25% of HCC worldwide. HCV infection has likely been endemic in many populations for centuries. However, the wave of increased HCV-related morbidity and mortality that we are now facing is the result of an unprecedented increase in the spread of HCV during the 20th century. Two 20th century events appear to be responsible for this increase; the widespread availability of injectable therapies and the illicit use of injectable drugs. PMID:17552026

  2. Genetic characterization of an H5N1 avian influenza virus from a vaccinated duck flock in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Vuong Nghia; Ogawa, Haruko; Trinh, Dai Quang; Nguyen, Tham Hong Thi; Pham, Nga Thi; Truong, Duc Anh; Bui, Anh Ngoc; Runstadler, Jonathan; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nguyen, Khong Viet

    2014-10-01

    This study reports the genetic characterization of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 isolated from a moribund domestic duck in central Vietnam during 2012. In the moribund duck's flock, within 6 days after vaccination with a commercial H5N1 vaccine (Re-5) to 59-day-old birds, 120 out of 2,000 ducks died. Genetic analysis revealed a substantial number of mutations in the HA gene of the isolate in comparison with the vaccine strains, Re-1 and Re-5. Similar mutations were also found in selected Vietnamese H5N1 strains isolated since 2009. Mutations in the HA gene involved positions at antigenic sites associated with antibody binding and also neutralizing epitopes, with some of the mutations resulting in the modification of N-linked glycosylation of the HA. Those mutations may be related to the escape of virus from antibody binding and the infection of poultry, interpretations which may be confirmed through a reverse genetics approach. The virus also carried an amino acid substitution in the M2, which conferred a reduced susceptibility to amantadine, but no neuraminidase inhibitor resistance markers were found in the viral NA gene. Additional information including vaccination history in the farm and the surrounding area is needed to fully understand the background of this outbreak. Such understanding and expanded monitoring of the H5N1 influenza viruses circulating in Vietnam is an urgent need to provide updated information to improve effective vaccine strain selection and vaccination protocols, aiding disease control, and biosecurity to prevent H5N1 infection in both poultry and humans.

  3. Expression and characterization of UL16 gene from duck enteritis virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that the UL16 protein and its homologs from herpesvirus were conserved and played similar roles in viral DNA packaging, virion assembly, budding, and egress. However, there was no report on the UL16 gene product of duck enteritis virus (DEV). In this study, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of UL16 using bioinformatics tools and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) induced by isopropy1-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The recombinant protein was produced, purified using a Ni-NTA column and used to generate the polyclonal antibody against UL16. The intracellular distribution of the DEV UL16 product was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results In our study, UL16 gene of DEV was composed of 1089 nucleotides, which encoded 362 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL16 gene was highly conserved in herpesvirus family. The UL16 gene was cloned into a pET prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rossetta (DE3) induced by IPTG. A 60kDa fusion protein band corresponding to the predicted size was produced on the SDS-PAGE, purified using a Ni-NTA column. Anti-UL16 polyclonal sera was prepared by immunizing rabbits, and reacted with a band in the IPTG induced cell lysates with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa. In vivo expression of the UL16 protein in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) was localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions The UL16 gene of DEV was successfully cloned, expressed and detected in DEV infected DEFs for the first time. The UL16 protein localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol in DEV infected DEFs. DEV UL16 shared high similarity with UL16 family members, indicating that DEV UL16 many has similar function with its homologs. All these results may provide some insight for further research about full characterizations

  4. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-10-14

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia.

  5. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia. PMID:26478663

  6. Novel targets for hepatitis B virus therapy.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Barbara; Durantel, David; Zoulim, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Treatment with either pegylated interferon-alpha (pegIFN-α) or last generation nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) successfully leads to serum viral load suppression in most chronically infected hepatitis B (CHB) patients, but HBsAg loss is only achieved in 10% of the cases after a 5-year follow-up. Thus, therapy must be administered long-term and it will not completely eliminate infection because of the persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) minichromosome in infected cells, and cannot completely abolish the risk of developing severe sequelae such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent progress in the development of in vitro and in vivo models of HBV infection have helped renew interest in the investigation of the viral life cycle, as well as specific virus-host cell interactions to identify new targets for the development of new antiviral drugs. This includes either direct inhibition of viral replication by targeting fundamental steps such as entry, cccDNA formation/stability, viral transcripts, capsid assembly and secretion or the manipulation of the host immune system for better defence against infection. Multiple strategies are currently under investigation, including boosting endogenous innate responses and/or restoring adaptive immunity via engineering of HBV-specific T cells or via the use of inhibitors of negative regulators, as well as therapeutic vaccines. It is increasingly clear that multiple therapeutic strategies must be combined to reach a cure of HBV and that the definition of clinical, virological and immunological correlates for the management of treatment are urgently needed.

  7. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  8. Hepatitis B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arbuthnot, Patrick; Kew, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Individuals who are chronic carriers have a greater than 100-fold increased relative risk of developing the tumour. Several mechanisms of HBV-induced HCC have been proposed. Integration of HBV DNA into the genome of hepatocytes occurs commonly, although integration at cellular sites that are important for regulation of hepatocyte proliferation appears to be a rare event. Functions of the HBx protein are also potentially oncogenic. These include transcriptional activation of cellular growth regulatory genes, modulation of apoptosis and inhibition of nucleotide excision repair of damaged cellular DNA. The effects of HBx are mediated by interaction with cellular proteins and activation of cell signalling pathways. Variations in HBV genome sequences may be important in hepatocarcinogenesis, although their significance has not yet been completely elucidated. Necroinflammatory hepatic disease, which often accompanies chronic HBV infection, may contribute indirectly to hepatocyte transformation in a number of ways, including by facilitating HBV DNA integration, predisposing to the acquisition of cellular mutations and generating mutagenic oxygen reactive species. Although HCC is a malignancy with a poor prognosis, the availability of an effective vaccine against HBV infection, and its inclusion in the Expanded Programme of Immunization of many countries, augurs well for the eventual elimination of HBV-associated HCC. PMID:11454100

  9. Immunological aspects of antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Rehermann, Barbara; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause a large proportion of acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. Over the past decades many immunological studies defined host immune responses that mediate spontaneous clearance of acute HBV and HCV infection. However, host immune responses are also relevant in the context of treatment-induced clearance of chronic HBV and HCV infection. First, the pretreatment level of interferon-stimulated genes as well as genetic determinants of innate immune responses, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene, are strong predictors of the response to interferon-alpha (IFN-α)-based therapy. Second, IFN-α, which has been a mainstay of HBV and HCV therapy over decades, and ribavirin, which has also been included in interferon-free direct antiviral therapy for HCV, modulate host immune responses. Third, both IFN-α-based and IFN-α-free treatment regimens of HBV and HCV infection alter the short-term and long-term adaptive immune response against these viruses. Finally, treatment studies have not just improved the clinical outcomes, but also provided opportunities to study virus-host interaction. This review summarizes our current knowledge on how a patient's immune response affects the treatment outcome of HBV and HCV infection and how innate and adaptive immune responses themselves are altered by the different treatment regimens.

  10. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  11. TT virus (TTV)--etiologic agent of acute hepatitis?

    PubMed

    Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof; Modrzewska, Roma; Lyczak, Anna; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata; Rajtar, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    TT virus (TTV) was first isolated in 1997 from the patient with acute posttransfusion hepatitis. This fact led to the conclusion the virus was hepatotropic and could be considered as one of causative agents of acute hepatitis. However, later it was found in other human tissues and serological studies have revealed it is widespread. Multiple tropisms of TTV and the fact the virus is found in high rate of general population, are considered arguments for lack of medical significance of TTV in human pathology. Here we present a report of two cases of acute viral hepatitis in patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Lublin, in whom TTV-DNA was found in serum and serological and virological markers of common primary and secondary hepatotropic viruses were negative. The cases of acute hepatitis we present here should be treated as a preliminary report and the comment in the discussion about the real role of TTV in human pathology.

  12. Characteristics of an outpatient chronic hepatitis B virus infection cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Danyenne Rejane; Tenore, Simone de Barros; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Lewi, David Salomão; Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Abrão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize a chronic hepatitis B cohort based on initial and follow-up clinical evaluations. Methods: A retrospective and descriptive analysis of clinical and laboratory data from chronic HBsAg adult carriers, without HIV, unexposed to treatment, with at least two outpatient visits, between February 2006 and November 2012. Fisher´s exact test, χ², Wilcoxon, Spearman, multiple comparisons and Kappa tests were applied, the level of significance adopted was 5%, with a 95% confidence interval. Results: 175 patients with mean age of 42.95±12.53 years were included: 93 (53.1%) were men, 152 (86.9%) were negative for hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg), 3 (1.7%) had hepatitis C coinfection, 15 (8.6%) had cirrhosis, and 2 (1.1%) had hepatocellular carcinoma. Genotype A predominated. Sixty-six patients (37.7%) had active hepatitis, 6 (3.4%) presented immune tolerance, and 38 (21.7%) were inactive carriers. Exacerbations and/or viral breakthrough were detected in 16 patients (9.1%). In 32 patients (18.3%), hepatitis B virus DNA remained persistently elevated and alanine aminotransferase levels were normal, whereas in 17 (9.7%), there was low hepatitis B virus DNA and alterated alanine aminotransferase. If only initial alanine aminotransferase and hepatitis B virus DNA values were considered, 15 cases of active hepatitis would not have been detected. Advanced fibrosis was more common in HBeAg-positive patients, and it was significantly associated with transaminases, hepatitis B virus DNA, and age. Conclusion: Many patients had active hepatitis, but almost 25%, who were HBeAg non-reactive, were only identified because of combined analyses of the hepatitis B virus DNA and transaminases levels, sometimes associated with histological data, after clinical follow-up. PMID:26154539

  13. Genetic characterization of a novel astrovirus in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qinfeng; Liu, Ning; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Fumin; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-06-01

    Three divergent groups of duck astroviruses (DAstVs), namely DAstV-1, DAstV-2 (formerly duck hepatitis virus type 3) and DAstV-3 (isolate CPH), and other avastroviruses are known to infect domestic ducks. To provide more data regarding the molecular epidemiology of astroviruses in domestic ducks, we examined the prevalence of astroviruses in 136 domestic duck samples collected from four different provinces of China. Nineteen goose samples were also included. Using an astrovirus-specific reverse transcription-PCR assay, two groups of astroviruses were detected from our samples. A group of astroviruses detected from Pekin ducks, Shaoxing ducks and Landes geese were highly similar to the newly discovered DAstV-3. More interestingly, a novel group of avastroviruses, which we named DAstV-4, was detected in Pekin ducks. Following full-length sequencing and sequence analysis, the variation between DAstV-4 and other avastroviruses in terms of lengths of genome and internal component was highlighted. Sequence identity and phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of the three open reading frames (ORFs) clearly demonstrated that DAstV-4 was highly divergent from all other avastroviruses. Further analyses showed that DAstV-4 shared low levels of genome identities (50-58%) and high levels of mean amino acid genetic distances in the ORF2 sequences (0.520-0.801) with other avastroviruses, suggesting DAstV-4 may represent an additional avastrovirus species although the taxonomic relationship of DAstV-4 to DAstV-3 remains to be resolved. The present works contribute to the understanding of epidemiology, ecology and taxonomy of astroviruses in ducks.

  14. Posttransfusion hepatitis B transmitted by blood from a hepatitis B surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus carrier.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J; Hetland, G; Skaug, K

    1990-06-01

    A female blood donor at our institution was implicated in three cases of clinical posttransfusion hepatitis B. She had given blood 25 times in 8 years. Twenty-seven recipients were followed up, and about one-half of those who were still living had serologic markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The donor was repeatedly negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody, but she had high titers of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. We conclude that blood from this HBsAg-negative blood donor was capable of transmitting hepatitis B.

  15. Advanced Molecular Surveillance of Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves Rossi, Livia Maria; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Rahal, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. HCV exploits complex molecular mechanisms, which result in a high degree of intrahost genetic heterogeneity. This high degree of variability represents a challenge for the accurate establishment of genetic relatedness between cases and complicates the identification of sources of infection. Tracking HCV infections is crucial for the elucidation of routes of transmission in a variety of settings. Therefore, implementation of HCV advanced molecular surveillance (AMS) is essential for disease control. Accounting for virulence is also important for HCV AMS and both viral and host factors contribute to the disease outcome. Therefore, HCV AMS requires the incorporation of host factors as an integral component of the algorithms used to monitor disease occurrence. Importantly, implementation of comprehensive global databases and data mining are also needed for the proper study of the mechanisms responsible for HCV transmission. Here, we review molecular aspects associated with HCV transmission, as well as the most recent technological advances used for virus and host characterization. Additionally, the cornerstone discoveries that have defined the pathway for viral characterization are presented and the importance of implementing advanced HCV molecular surveillance is highlighted. PMID:25781918

  16. Calsyntenin-1 mediates hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zunaira; Tay, Enoch S E; Eyre, Nicholas S; Wu, Lindsay E; Beard, Michael R; Boo, Irene; Drummer, Heidi E; George, Jacob; Douglas, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome of 9.6 kb encodes only 10 proteins, and so is highly dependent on host hepatocyte factors to facilitate replication. We aimed to identify host factors involved in the egress of viral particles. By screening the supernatant of HCV-infected Huh7 cells using SILAC-based proteomics, we identified the transmembrane protein calsyntenin-1 as a factor specifically secreted by infected cells. Calsyntenin-1 has previously been shown to mediate transport of endosomes along microtubules in neurons, through interactions with kinesin light chain-1. Here we demonstrate for the first time, we believe, a similar role for calsyntenin-1 in Huh7 cells, mediating intracellular transport of endosomes. In HCV-infected cells we show that calsyntenin-1 contributes to the early stages of the viral replication cycle and the formation of the replication complex. Importantly, we demonstrate in our model that silencing calsyntenin-1 disrupts the viral replication cycle, confirming the reliance of HCV on this protein as a host factor. Characterizing the function of calsyntenin-1 will increase our understanding of the HCV replication cycle and pathogenesis, with potential application to other viruses sharing common pathways.

  17. Advanced molecular surveillance of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Livia Maria Gonçalves; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Rahal, Paula

    2015-03-13

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. HCV exploits complex molecular mechanisms, which result in a high degree of intrahost genetic heterogeneity. This high degree of variability represents a challenge for the accurate establishment of genetic relatedness between cases and complicates the identification of sources of infection. Tracking HCV infections is crucial for the elucidation of routes of transmission in a variety of settings. Therefore, implementation of HCV advanced molecular surveillance (AMS) is essential for disease control. Accounting for virulence is also important for HCV AMS and both viral and host factors contribute to the disease outcome. Therefore, HCV AMS requires the incorporation of host factors as an integral component of the algorithms used to monitor disease occurrence. Importantly, implementation of comprehensive global databases and data mining are also needed for the proper study of the mechanisms responsible for HCV transmission. Here, we review molecular aspects associated with HCV transmission, as well as the most recent technological advances used for virus and host characterization. Additionally, the cornerstone discoveries that have defined the pathway for viral characterization are presented and the importance of implementing advanced HCV molecular surveillance is highlighted.

  18. Reduced antibody reactivity to hepatitis C virus antigens in hemodialysis patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Devesa, M; Khudyakov, Y E; Capriles, F; Blitz, L; Fields, H A; Liprandi, F; Pujol, F H

    1997-01-01

    Antibody reactivities to hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens and to synthetic peptides derived from different parts of the HCV genome (core, NS4, and NS5) were evaluated in HCV-infected hemodialysis patients. In the RIBA 3 assay, NS5 was significantly less recognizable by sera of hemodialysis patients compared to other HCV-infected subjects. Among hemodialysis patients, those coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (positive for hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg+]) showed a reduction in reactivity to C33 and C100. Sera of only 23% of the hemodialysis patients (37 of 161) reacted with more than three of eight peptides tested, significantly fewer than the 60% (12 of 20) of the sera of other HCV-infected patients tested (P = 0.001). This immunosuppression was also manifested by a reduced frequency of recognition of additional peptides on follow-up. An even more reduced reactivity was observed among the HBV-coinfected patients (HBsAg+). The low-responder hemodialysis patients were not infected with any particular genotype of HCV, and the same HCV genotypes observed in the whole group of hemodialysis patients (1a, 1b, 2a, and 3a) were found circulating in the low-responder group. Even in this low-responder population, the good performance of two peptides (peptide 716, corresponding to a portion of the core, and peptide 59, corresponding to a portion of NS4) corroborates the immunodominance of the conserved epitopes within these peptides. PMID:9384281

  19. Non-B hepatitis in Melbourne: a serological study of hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Gust, I D; Dienstag, J L; Purcell, R H; Lucas, C R

    1977-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the value of immune adherence haemagglutination tests for antibody to hepatitis A virus in the diagnosis of non-B hepatitis. Infection with hepatitis A virus was confirmed in 14 out of 16 patients from six families and seven out of nine patients in whom the source of infection was unknown. One additional patient, who had had two episodes of jaundice, was shown to have had an attack of hepatitis A followed by an attack of hepatitis B. In patients with acute hepatitis A antibody detectable by immune adherence haemagglutination becomes detectable three or four weeks after the onset of symptoms and reaches peak levels about five weeks later. PMID:188515

  20. Infection with hepatitis A, B, C, and delta viruses among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Takahashi, Masaharu; Endo, Kazunori; Buyankhuu, Osorjin; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2006-05-01

    One hundred ten consecutive patients (60 males and 50 females; age, mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 22.6 +/- 6.4 years; range 16-48 years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis between December 2004 and January 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected in 18 patients (16.4%), IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc IgM) in 38 patients (34.5%) including two patients with concurrent hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, and hepatitis C virus RNA in nine patients (8.2%). There were 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who had detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HDV but were negative for anti-HBc IgM, suggesting that they acquired type D acute hepatitis due to superinfection of HDV on a background of chronic HBV infection. None had IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Consequently, 16.4, 32.7, 6.4, 1.8, and 27.3% of the patients were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis of type A, B, C, type B + D (HBV/HDV coinfection), and type D (superinfection of HDV), respectively. The cause of hepatitis was not known in the remaining 17 patients (15.5%). All 18 HAV isolates were genotyped as IA, all 9 HCV isolates were genotyped as 1b, and all 32 HDV isolates were classified into genotype I. The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 67 HBV isolates was A (1.5%, n = 1) and D (98.5%, n = 66). The present study indicates that de novo infections of HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV are prevalent among young adults in Mongolia.

  1. Evidence of Intercontinental Spread and Uncommon Variants of Low-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Ducks Overwintering in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana S.; Nelson, Martha I.; Angel, Mathew; Müller, Maria L.; Ortiz, Lucia; Dutta, Jayeeta; van Bakel, Harm

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over a hundred species of aquatic birds overwinter in Central America’s wetlands, providing opportunities for the transmission of influenza A viruses (IAVs). To date, limited IAV surveillance in Central America hinders our understanding of the evolution and ecology of IAVs in migratory hosts within the Western Hemisphere. To address this gap, we sequenced the genomes of 68 virus isolates obtained from ducks overwintering along Guatemala’s Pacific Coast during 2010 to 2013. High genetic diversity was observed, including 9 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes, 7 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes, and multiple avian IAV lineages that have been detected at low levels (<1%) in North America. An unusually large number of viruses with the rare H14 subtype were identified (n = 14) over two consecutive seasons, the highest number of H14 viruses ever reported in a single location, providing evidence for a possible H14 source population located outside routinely sampled regions of North America. Viruses from Guatemala were positioned within minor clades divergent from the main North American lineage on phylogenies inferred for the H3, H4, N2, N8, PA, NP, and NS segments. A time-scaled phylogeny indicates that a Eurasian virus PA segment introduced into the Americas in the early 2000s disseminated to Guatemala during ~2007.1 to 2010.4 (95% highest posterior density [HPD]). Overall, the diversity detected in Guatemala in overwintering ducks highlights the potential role of Central America in the evolution of diverse IAV lineages in the Americas, including divergent variants rarely detected in the United States, and the importance of increasing IAV surveillance throughout Central America. IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic H7N3, H5Nx, and H7N8 avian influenza viruses in North America were introduced by migratory birds, underscoring the importance of understanding how wild birds contribute to the dissemination and evolution of IAVs in nature. At least four of the main

  2. High incidences of malignant lymphoma in patients infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Takeuchi, Kengo; Kishi, Yukiko; Murashige, Naoko; Kami, Masahiro

    2004-03-01

    It is still not clear whether there is an association between malignant lymphomas and hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infections. Most studies from Italy and Japan support this association, but studies from other countries generally do not. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate this association and show a significant association between the development of malignant lymphoma and infections by these viruses.

  3. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza H5N2 Viruses with Intra- and Inter-Duck Variations in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao-Tsun; Lai, Ching-Yu; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Yang, Chinglai; Wang, Won-Bo; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Background Human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have frequently raised global concerns of emerging, interspecies-transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Waterfowl, the predominant reservoir of influenza viruses in nature, harbor precursors of different genetic lineages that have contributed to novel pandemic influenza viruses in the past. Methods Two duck influenza H5N2 viruses, DV518 and DV413, isolated through virological surveillance at a live-poultry market in Taiwan, showed phylogenetic relatedness but exhibited different replication capabilities in mammalian Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. This study characterizes the replication properties of the two duck H5N2 viruses and the determinants involved. Results The DV518 virus replicated more efficiently than DV413 in both MDCK and chicken DF1 cells. Interestingly, the infection of MDCK cells by DV518 formed heterogeneous plaques with great differences in size [large (L) and small (S)], and the two viral strains (p518-L and p518-S) obtained from plaque purification exhibited distinguishable replication kinetics in MDCK cells. Nonetheless, both plaque-purified DV518 strains still maintained their growth advantages over the plaque-purified p413 strain. Moreover, three amino acid substitutions in PA (P224S), PB2 (E72D), and M1 (A128T) were identified in intra-duck variations (p518-L vs p518-S), whereas other changes in HA (N170D), NA (I56T), and NP (Y289H) were present in inter-duck variations (DV518 vs DV413). Both p518-L and p518-S strains had the N170D substitution in HA, which might be related to their greater binding to MDCK cells. Additionally, polymerase activity assays on 293T cells demonstrated the role of vRNP in modulating the replication capability of the duck p518-L viruses in mammalian cells. Conclusion These results demonstrate that intra-host phenotypic variation occurs even within an individual duck. In view of recent human infections by low pathogenic AIVs, this study

  4. Indocyanine green: A test of hepatic function and a measure of plasma volume in the duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    1. 1. The exponential removal of ICG from the plasma by the mallard duck liver made possible the measurement of fractional dye clearance (K), plasma volume (PV) and plasma clearance (PC). 2. 2. Values obtained for K (14.9%/min), PV (39.2 ml/kg) and PC (5.8 ml/min per kg) agreed with those obtained by other techniques used in a number of species. 3. 3. Sex did not affect the removal of ICG by the liver. However, increases in K, PV and PC were noted in hen mallards in laying condition. 4. 4. The data should prove useful as baseline values for physiological and pathological studies on the avian liver

  5. [Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection in Spain].

    PubMed

    Echevarría, José Manuel; Fogeda, Marta; Avellón, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The general features of the epidemiology and ecology of hepatitis E virus in Spain are already known after 20 years of investigations. Genotype 3 strains, mainly from sub-genotype 3f, circulated among swine livestock and certain wild mammals, and would be sporadically transmitted to humans through direct contact with the reservoirs or by consumption of foods derived from them. Bivalve shellfish contaminated by hepatitis E virus from sewage could also play a role in transmission. Although the interpretation of results from seroprevalence studies in low endemic settings is still controversial, antibody to hepatitis E virus displays an overall prevalence less than 10% among the population of Spain, increasing significantly with age. From the, approximately, 150 cases of acute hepatitis E recorded in the international literature, males older than 40 years, suffering a mild, locally acquired disease predominate. In addition, hepatitis E might be more frequent in the North of the country than in other regions. Although the disease does not usually have a great clinical relevance, the occasional finding of cases of fulminant hepatitis, and of ribavirin-resistant, chronic hepatitis E virus infections among the immunocompromised would recommend the surveillance of the infection by the public health authority and a better implementation of specific diagnostic procedures in clinical laboratories.

  6. Regulatory T Cells in Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are hepatotropic viruses that establish chronic persistent infection by effectively escaping the host immune response and can cause immune-mediated liver injury. It has recently become apparent that regulatory T (Treg) cells, specifically CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, modulate viral diseases by suppressing antiviral immune responses and regulating inflammatory host injury. The roles of Treg cells in HBV and HCV infections range from suppressing antiviral T cell responses to protecting the liver from immune-mediated damage. This review describes Treg cells and subpopulations and focuses on the roles of these cells in HBV and HCV infections. PMID:28035208

  7. Deep sequencing in the management of hepatitis virus infections.

    PubMed

    Quer, Josep; Rodríguez-Frias, Francisco; Gregori, Josep; Tabernero, David; Soria, Maria Eugenia; García-Cehic, Damir; Homs, Maria; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa María; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2016-12-28

    The hepatitis viruses represent a major public health problem worldwide. Procedures for characterization of the genomic composition of their populations, accurate diagnosis, identification of multiple infections, and information on inhibitor-escape mutants for treatment decisions are needed. Deep sequencing methodologies are extremely useful for these viruses since they replicate as complex and dynamic quasispecies swarms whose complexity and mutant composition are biologically relevant traits. Population complexity is a major challenge for disease prevention and control, but also an opportunity to distinguish among related but phenotypically distinct variants that might anticipate disease progression and treatment outcome. Detailed characterization of mutant spectra should permit choosing better treatment options, given the increasing number of new antiviral inhibitors available. In the present review we briefly summarize our experience on the use of deep sequencing for the management of hepatitis virus infections, particularly for hepatitis B and C viruses, and outline some possible new applications of deep sequencing for these important human pathogens.

  8. Evaluation of avian influenza virus isolated from ducks as a potential live vaccine candidate against novel H7N9 viruses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Liu, Hua-Lei; Yu, Jian-Min; Du, Xiang; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-11-12

    Recent outbreaks of a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus in humans in China raise pandemic concerns and underscore an urgent need to develop effective vaccines. Theoretically, live influenza vaccines are of multiple advantages over traditional inactivated influenza vaccines to be used in a pandemic, because they can be produced rapidly, safely, and inexpensively. However, studies on live vaccines against the novel H7N9 virus are limited. In this study, we evaluated a potential live influenza vaccine candidate using an H7N3 avian influenza virus isolated from ducks with controls of two recombinant viruses generated through reverse genetics. The potential candidate could be produced efficiently using chicken embryonated eggs, and is homogenous to the novel H7N9 virus in their viral hemagglutinin genes. The potential candidate is likely low pathogenic to birds and mammals, and likely sensitive to oseltamivir and amantadine, as suggested by its genomic sequences. Its low pathogenicity was further supported through inoculation in mice, chicken embryonated eggs and chickens. Specific antibodies elicited in mice were detectable at least during the period between day 14 and day 56 after intranasal administration of the candidate for one time. Titers of the specific antibodies increased significantly with a boost intranasal administration or a higher inoculation dose. The induced specific antibodies were of substantial cross-reactivity with the novel H7N9 virus. These primary but promising evaluation data suggest that the duck influenza virus could be used as a potential live vaccine candidate, favorably through a prime-boost route, to mitigate the severity of the possible pandemic caused by the newly emerging H7N9 virus, and is valuable to be further evaluated.

  9. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Win, Nan Nwe; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar is adjacent to India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos and China. In Myanmar, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is 2%, and HCV infection accounts for 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we reviewed the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar. HCV genotypes 1, 3 and 6 were observed in volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Although there are several reports of HCV genotype 6 and its variants in Myanmar, the distribution of the HCV genotypes has not been well documented in areas other than Yangon. Previous studies showed that treatment with peginterferon and a weight-based dose of ribavirin for 24 or 48 wk could lead to an 80%-100% sustained virological response (SVR) rates in Myanmar. Current interferon-free treatments could lead to higher SVR rates (90%-95%) in patients infected with almost all HCV genotypes other than HCV genotype 3. In an era of heavy reliance on direct-acting antivirals against HCV, there is an increasing need to measure HCV genotypes, and this need will also increase specifically in Myanmar. Current available information of HCV genotypes were mostly from Yangon and other countries than Myanmar. The prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar should be determined. PMID:27468202

  10. [Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence: a reappraisal].

    PubMed

    Covarrubías, Natalia; Hurtado, Carmen; Díaz, Alex; Mezzano, Gabriel; Brahm, Javier; Venegas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Reported seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in developed countries is between 0.3-53%. Published data relies on the assays used and its technical performance. Sensitivity on new available tests has improved, which has changed HEV seroprevalence around the world. We re-evaluated retrospectively, 178 serum samples of patients with previous anti HEV IgG determination between 2009 and 2012. Initial analysis was performed with ELISA kit Genelabs (Singapore), with 7.3% positivity. The reevaluation was done with ELISA kit AccuDiag TM HEV-IgG (Diagnostic Automation, United States), with reported sensitivity and specificity over 99.8%. With the new assay, 32.6% positive samples were found, significantly greater to the previous result (p<0.001) (4.5 times more). There were no differences in gender but a significant association between age and HEV IgG seropositivity was found (p<0.001). This suggests that previous testing might have underestimated HEV seroprevalence in Chile, which should be reevaluated using the new available test.

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In Iran, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low according to the population-based epidemiological studies. However, the epidemiology of HCV is changing and the rate of HCV infection is increasing due to the growth in the number of injecting drug users in the society. In addition, a shift has occurred in the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes among HCV-infected patients in Iran. Genotype 1a is the most prevalent genotype in Iran, but in recent years, an increase in the frequency of 3a and a decrease in 1a and 1b have been reported. These variations in the epidemiology of HCV reflect differences in the routes of transmission, status of public health, lifestyles, and risk factors in different groups and geographic regions of Iran. Health policy makers should consider these differences to establish better strategies for control and prevention of HCV infection. Therefore, this review was conducted to present a clear view regarding the current epidemiology of HCV infection in Iran. PMID:26478671

  12. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2015-10-14

    In Iran, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low according to the population-based epidemiological studies. However, the epidemiology of HCV is changing and the rate of HCV infection is increasing due to the growth in the number of injecting drug users in the society. In addition, a shift has occurred in the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes among HCV-infected patients in Iran. Genotype 1a is the most prevalent genotype in Iran, but in recent years, an increase in the frequency of 3a and a decrease in 1a and 1b have been reported. These variations in the epidemiology of HCV reflect differences in the routes of transmission, status of public health, lifestyles, and risk factors in different groups and geographic regions of Iran. Health policy makers should consider these differences to establish better strategies for control and prevention of HCV infection. Therefore, this review was conducted to present a clear view regarding the current epidemiology of HCV infection in Iran.

  13. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Tengan, F M; Eluf-Neto, J; Cavalheiro, N P; Barone, A A

    2001-01-01

    In order to contribute to a better understanding of the forms of acquisition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Brazil, with special emphasis on sexual transmission, we determined the presence of HCV infection in regular partners and in non-sexual home communicants of blood donors seen at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo from January 1992 to July 1996. Of 154 blood donors with HCV infection (index cases), 111 had had regular partners for at least 6 months. Sixty-eight of 111 partners were evaluated for HCV infection. Of these, 8 (11.76%) were considered to have current or previous HCV infection; a history of sexually transmissible diseases and index cases with a positive HCV-RNA test were more prevalent among partners with HCV infection. Of the 68 index cases whose partners were studied, 56 had non-sexual home communicants. Of the total of 81 home communicants, 66 accepted to be evaluated for HCV infection. None of them was HCV-positive, suggesting that the high prevalence of HCV infection among partners may be attributed at least partially to sexual transmission.

  14. [Hepatitis C virus in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Jendro, M C; Hülsemann, J L; Zeidler, H

    1997-10-01

    HCV-infection is an important infectious disease in rheumatology. It is the cause of mixed cryoglobulinemia and other rheumatic manifestations develop frequently during HCV-infection. These comprise: Sicca-syndrome, thromboembolic events associated with anti-cardiolipin antibodies and fibromyalgia. Also associated with HCV-infection is a non-erosive polyarthritis. This synovitis often fulfills the ACR-criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, but the disease course is different with frequent remissions and non-erosive joint involvement. The following autoantibodies are associated with HCV-infection: Cryoglobulins, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antismooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-phospholipid-antibodies and anti-thyroid-antibodies. In HCV-associated sicca-syndrom, antibodies against Ro (SSA) and La (SSB) are not detected. The course of HCV-infection is often occult, without elevation of liver enzymes. We summarize the clinical and serological signs and symptoms when HCV-infection should be suspected and when HCV-testing should be performed in a rheumatological setting. The identification of HCV-infection in rheumatic patients is important to minimize the risk of aggravating hepatitis by prescription of hepatotoxic drugs and because of the availability of alpha-interferon as a potential virus eradicating agent.

  15. Hepatitis C virus and cardiovascular: A review.

    PubMed

    Petta, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a systemic disease that leads to increased risks of cirrhosis and its complications, as well as extrahepatic disturbances, including immune-related disorders and metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance and steatosis. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that HCV infection can increase cardiovascular risk, and that viral eradication can improve cardiovascular outcomes in the clinical setting. These data are strengthened by evidence identifying potential mechanisms (in)directly linking HCV infection to vascular damage. However, the high prevalence of both HCV infection and cardiovascular alterations, as well as the presence of contrasting results not identifying any association between HCV infection and cardiovascular dysfunction, provides uncertainty about a direct association of HCV infection with cardiovascular risk. Further studies are needed to clarify definitively the role of HCV infection in cardiovascular alterations, as well as the impact of viral eradication on cardiovascular outcomes. These features are now more attractive, considering the availability of new, safe, and very effective interferon-free antiviral agents for the treatment of HCV infection. This review aims to discuss carefully available data on the relationship between HCV infection and cardiovascular risk.

  16. Multiplex hydrolysis probe real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Cao, Jingyuan; Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Bi, Shengli

    2014-05-30

    Detection of hepatitis viral infections has traditionally relied on the circulating antibody test using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, multiplex real-time PCR has been increasingly used for a variety of viral nucleic acid detections and has proven to be superior to traditional methods. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the major causes of acute hepatitis worldwide; both HAV and HEV infection are a main public health problem. In the present study, a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay using hydrolysis probes was developed for simultaneously detecting HAV and HEV. This novel detection system proved specific to the target viruses, to be highly sensitive and to be applicable to clinical sera samples, making it useful for rapid, accurate and feasible identification of HAV and HEV.

  17. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection in healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Nicola; De Pascalis, Stefania; Onorato, Lorenzo; Calò, Federica; Sagnelli, Caterina; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 3 million healthcare workers per year receive an injury with an occupational instrument, with around 2000000 exposures to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 1000000 to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although an effective HBV vaccine has been available since the early eighties, and despite the worldwide application of universal vaccination programs started in the early nineties, HBV still remains a prominent agent of morbidity and mortality. There is no vaccine to limit the diffusion of HCV infection, which progresses to chronicity in the majority of cases and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to a chronic liver disease. Healthcare workers are frequently exposed by a mucosal-cutaneous or percutaneous route to accidental contact with human blood and other potentially infectious biological materials while carrying out their occupational duties. Mucosal-cutaneous exposure occurs when the biological material of a potentially infected patient accidentally comes in contact with the mucous membranes of the eyes or mouth or with the skin of a healthcare worker. Percutaneous exposure occurs when an operator accidentally injures himself with a sharp contaminated object, like a needle, blade or other sharp medical instrument. About 75% of the total occupational exposure is percutaneous and 25% mucosal-cutaneous, the risk of infecting a healthcare worker being higher in percutaneous than in mucosal-cutaneous exposure. All healthcare workers should be considered for HBV vaccination and should meticulously apply the universal prophylactic measures to prevent exposure to HBV and HCV. PMID:26925201

  18. Hepatitis C Virus in Arab World: A State of Concern

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Mohamed A.; Dau, Aghnaya A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus has been considered to be one of the most important devastating causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic cellular carcinoma. The prevalence of such virus varies greatly over the world. Arab world has a unique geography and consists over nineteen countries who share the same heritage and customs and do speak the same language. In this area, the epidemiology of hepatitis C is not well understandable. Hepatitis C virus was found to be endemic in Arabia. The serostatus of such virus was found to be variable among these countries with uniform patterns of genotypes. Such prevalence varies tremendously according to the risk factors involved. Blood and blood products, haemodialysis, intravenous, and percutaneous drug users, and occupational, habitual, and social behavior were found to be the important factors involved. Hepatitis C will have major social, economic, and even political burdens on such young and dynamic societies. Thus, strategies and clear policy of intervention are urgently needed to combat the consequences of HCV both regionally and at state level of each country. PMID:22629189

  19. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild waterfowl, including ducks, represent the classic reservoir for low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and play a major role in the worldwide dissemination of AIV. AIVs belonging to the hemagglutinin (H) 7 subtype are of epidemiological and economic importance due to their potential to mutate into a highly pathogenic form of the virus. Thus far, however, relatively little work has been conducted on elucidating the host-pathogen interactions of ducks and H7 LPAIVs. In the current study, three H7 LPAIVs isolated from either chicken, duck, or turkey avian species were evaluated for their comparative effect on the transcriptional innate immune response of ducks. Results Three H7 LPAIV isolates, chicken-origin (A/chicken/Maryland/MinhMa/2004), duck-origin (A/pintail/Minnesota/423/1999), and turkey-origin (A/turkey/Virginia/SEP-67/2002) were used to infect Pekin ducks. At 3 days post-infection, RNA from spleen tissue was used for transcriptional analysis using the Avian Innate Immune Microarray (AIIM) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Microarray analysis revealed that a core set of 61 genes was differentially regulated in response to all three LPAIVs. Furthermore, we observed 101, 135, and 628 differentially expressed genes unique to infection with the chicken-, duck-, or turkey-origin LPAIV isolates, respectively. qRT-PCR results revealed significant (p<0.05) induction of IL-1β, IL-2, and IFNγ transcription, with the greatest induction observed upon infection with the chicken-origin isolate. Several key innate immune pathways were activated in response to LPAIV infection including the toll-like receptor and RIG-I-like receptor pathways. Conclusions Pekin ducks elicit a unique innate immune response to different species-of-origin H7 LPAIV isolates. However, twelve identifiable genes and their associated cell signaling pathways (RIG-I, NOD, TLR) are differentially expressed regardless of isolate origin. This core set of genes are

  20. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Sharafi, Heidar; Keyvani, Hossein; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi-Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharifi Olyaie, Roghiyeh; Keshvari, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are known as the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world, especially in developing countries. There is a lack of updated data on HAV and HEV seroprevalence in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of the blood donors. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence increased by age. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of anti-HAV and anti-HEV status. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly related to the level of education, where the donors with higher level of education had lower rate of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly higher in regular and lapsed donors than in first-time donors. Conclusions The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran. PMID:27110256

  1. Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provides lack of evidence for epidemiological peak of infection.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wasley, Jeff; Esler, Daniel N.; Stalknecht, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provided no evidence for an epidemiologic peak of infection. Isolates were recovered, however, that provide information on viral diversity and dispersal that may not be realized through sampling efforts focused on other avian taxa.

  2. 75 FR 59724 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Transfusion-Transmitted Retrovirus and Hepatitis Virus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...-Transmitted Retrovirus and Hepatitis Virus Rates and Risk Factors: Improving the Safety of the U.S. Blood... and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Transfusion-transmitted retrovirus and hepatitis virus...

  3. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ( ... Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults. This final recommendation statement applies only ...

  4. [Gallbladder motor activity in patients with virus hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Mamos, Arkadiusz; Wichan, Paweł; Chojnacki, Jan; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2003-12-01

    In acute stage of virus hepatitis B patients often complain of dyspeptic discomfort. They may be a consequence of alimentary tract motor activity disorders including these of gallbladder. Routine ultrasonography in an early phase of virus hepatitis often reveals gallbladder wall thickening what may confirm the above thesis. Thus, a group of 15 patients in an acute phase of virus hepatitis B was subjected to examinations. Gallbladder motor activity was assessed by ultrasonographic method determining its total volume and ejection fraction and volume after test meal stimulus. First examination was performed in the first week since the appearance of yellowing of the walls, successive in 4 and 8 week of the disease. Obtained results were compared to the values obtained in the group of 25 healthy volunteers. It was found out that gallbladder volume was significantly decreased and ejection fraction increased in the acute phase of virus hepatitis B than in the controls. This may speak for gallbladder hyperreactivity in patients in the course of virus hepatitis B. These disorders decreased during two-month observation but even in the 8 week the investigated parameters differed from those found in the control group.

  5. [Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Young; Park, Eui Ju

    2013-09-01

    Occult HBV infection is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing negative for HBsAg. Studies on occult HBV infection in hepatitis C patients have reported highly variable prevalence, because the prevalence of occult HBV infection varies depending on the hepatitis B risk factors and methodological approaches. The most reliable diagnostic approach for detecting occult HBV detection is through examination of liver DNA extracts. HCV has been suspected to strongly suppress HBV replication up to the point where it may be directly responsible for occult HBV infection development. However, more data are needed to arrive at a definitive conclusion regarding the role of HCV in inducing occult HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients is a complex biological entity with possible relevant clinical implications. Influence of occult HBV infection on the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C may be considered negative. However, recent studies have shown that occult HBV infection could be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to the worsening of the course of chronic liver disease over time in chronic hepatitis C patients. Nevertheless, the possible role of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C is still unresolved and no firm conclusion has been made up until now. It still remains unclear how occult HBV infection affects the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Therefore, in order to resolve current controversies and understand the pathogenic role and clinical impacts of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients, well-designed clinical studies are needed.

  6. Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR. PMID:24904547

  7. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in medical waste handlers in Tripoli, Libya.

    PubMed

    Franka, E; El-Zoka, A H; Hussein, A H; Elbakosh, M M; Arafa, A K; Ghenghesh, K S

    2009-07-01

    Medical waste handlers (MWHs) are at risk of exposure to serious viral infections. No data are available on the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among MWHs in Libya. During a one-year period (January to December 2004) blood samples from 300 (59 females) MWHs employed by a local contractor in Tripoli and 300 blood samples from non-medical waste handlers (NMWHs) who had no direct or indirect contact with medical waste were examined for HBV, HCV and HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HBV was detected in 7 (2.3%) and 1 (0.3%) and HCV in 8 (2.7%) and 0 (0.0%) of MWHs and NMWHs, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the detection rates of HBV (OR: 7.14; P<0.04) and HCV (OR: undefined; P<0.005) in MWHs when compared with NMWHs. HIV was not detected in both groups. Of the MWHs studied, 21% were immunised against HBV and 7% were trained to handle medical waste. In addition, 99.7% wore overalls, 57.7% thick disposable gloves, 55% boots and 17.7% masks while handling medical waste. In conclusion, prevalence rates of HBV and HCV were significantly higher in MWHs than those in NMWHs examined. Training, immunisation, and post-exposure protection of MWHs, in addition to proper management of medical waste by the health authorities, may significantly reduce the risk of acquiring infectious agents by MWHs in Libya.

  8. Characterization of the Pathogenesis of H10N3, H10N7, and H10N8 Subtype Avian Influenza Viruses Circulating in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Zhang, Xingxing; Xu, Kaidi; Teng, Qiaoyang; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Xuesong; Yang, Jianmei; Xu, Jianqing; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    Three H10 subtype avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic ducks in China, designated as SH602/H10N8, FJ1761/H10N3 and SX3180/H10N7, with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 0.39, 1.60, and 1.27, respectively. These H10 viruses showed a complex pathology pattern in different species, although full genome characterizations of the viruses could not identify any molecular determinant underlying the observed phenotypes. Our findings describe the pathobiology of the three H10 subtype AIVs in chickens, ducks, and mice. FJ1761/H10N3 evolved E627K and Q591K substitutions in the gene encoding the PB2 protein in infected mice with severe lung damage, suggesting that H10 subtype avian influenza viruses are a potential threat to mammals. PMID:27678170

  9. Hepatitis C virus infection: knowledge in the orthopedic community.

    PubMed

    Flowerdew, J M; McGrory, B J

    2000-04-01

    A survey with 14 questions pertaining to the natural history, infectiveness, and diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C viral infection was given to all practicing orthopedic surgeons in Portland, Maine. Possible responses were "true," "false," or "don't know" to the 14 statements. A question regarding any interest in learning more about the hepatitis C virus was also posed. Most (82%, 23/28) surgeons completed the questionnaire. A total of 72% of the responses were either wrong or marked "don't know"; most (83%) of the respondents wanted to know more about the infection about hepatitis C viral infection. Not only are orthopedic surgeons at risk for exposure to this virus, but also they are often the first to notify a patient of a positive result after routine hepatitis C testing of autologous predonated blood. Education programs and journal reviews should be directed toward this goal.

  10. Candida oesophagitis with hepatitis C virus: an uncommon association.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Hussainy, Akbar S

    2003-06-01

    Candida oesophagitis is an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness. We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with Candida oesophagitis with underlying chronic hepatitis C. The patient presented with anorexia and weakness and was noted to have raised serum transaminases. Upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed Candida oesophagitis involving the whole oesophagus. Oesophageal biopsy demonstrated changes consistent with Candida oesophagitis. Serology was positive for hepatitis C antibodies, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyped hepatitis C virus (HCV) as genotype 3. Liver biopsy revealed chronic hepatitis with moderately active portal inflammation. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test was non-reactive for types 1 and 2. The development of Candida oesophagitis in a patient with chronic HCV infection demands prompt consideration of general debility and immunosuppression as effects of HCV that led to an occurrence of opportunistic infection. Evaluation of this case provides insight into various mechanisms of immune suppression associated with HCV infection.

  11. Experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Kohei; Endo, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Motohashi, Yurie; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Ichikawa, Takaya; Nishi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuri; Matsuno, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanigawa, Tsutomu; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. Determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. It has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of HPAIVs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming settings. Therefore, we conducted experimental infections of HPAIVs and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) to chickens, domestic ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats to evaluate their roles in virus transmission. The results showed that chickens, ducks, sparrows, and crows were highly susceptible to HPAIV infection. Significant titers of virus were recovered from the sparrows and crows infected with HPAIVs, which suggests that they potentially play roles of transmission of HPAIVs to poultry. In contrast, the growth of LPAIVs was limited in each of the animals tested compared with that of HPAIVs. The present results indicate that these common synanthropes play some roles in influenza virus transmission from wild birds to poultry.

  12. 21 CFR 610.47 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... Disease Agents § 610.47 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an establishment... after a donor tests reactive for evidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection when tested under §...

  13. 21 CFR 610.47 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... Disease Agents § 610.47 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an establishment... after a donor tests reactive for evidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection when tested under §...

  14. 21 CFR 610.47 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... Disease Agents § 610.47 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an establishment... after a donor tests reactive for evidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection when tested under §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or...

  19. 21 CFR 610.47 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... Disease Agents § 610.47 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an establishment... after a donor tests reactive for evidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection when tested under §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or...

  1. 21 CFR 610.47 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... Disease Agents § 610.47 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an establishment... after a donor tests reactive for evidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection when tested under §...

  2. [Immune response in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection].

    PubMed

    Chalupa, P; Holub, M; Davidová, A; Arientová, S; Beran, O

    2015-10-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is regulated by the host immunity and several metabolic factors affecting liver metabolism, including oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Both innate and adaptive immunity play an important role in HCV infection. Cytotoxic lymphocytes have a crucial role in viral eradication or viral persistence. Major cause of viral persistence during HCV infection could be the development of a weak antiviral immune response to the viral antigens, with corresponding inability to eradicate infected cells.

  3. Evidence of hepatitis E virus transmission by renal graft.

    PubMed

    Pourbaix, Annabelle; Ouali, Nacera; Soussan, Patrick; Roque Afonso, Anne Marie; Péraldi, Marie-Noelle; Rondeau, Eric; Peltier, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause chronic infection among immunocompromised patients, especially solid organ transplant recipients, and can evolve to cirrhosis. Several modes of transmission are known. Here we describe the first two cases, to our knowledge, of HEV infection transmitted by a kidney graft from the same infected donor that led to chronic hepatitis. Consequently, systematic screening of donors by HEV serology and HEV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction, particularly in endemic regions, should be considered.

  4. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-05-15

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-/sup +/g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state.

  5. Using Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) As Surrogate for Human Hepatitis C Virus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This test is designed to validate virucidal effectiveness claims for a product to be registered as a virucide. It determines the potential of the test agent to disinfect hard surfaces contaminated with human Hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  6. Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classification, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes

    PubMed Central

    Doceul, Virginie; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; Demange, Antonin; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible animal reservoirs play in human infections. The aim of this review is to present the recent discoveries of animal HEVs and their classification within the Hepeviridae family, their zoonotic and species barrier crossing potential, and possible use as models to study hepatitis E pathogenesis. Lastly, this review describes the transmission pathways identified from animal sources. PMID:27706110

  7. [Vaccination and serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infection].

    PubMed

    Salmeron Garcia, F; Echevarria Mayo, J M

    1990-01-01

    As a result of the Decree regulating the use of the Hepatitis B vaccination having been repealed, the usefulness of the study of infection markers for said virus prior to vaccination has been reviewed. The significance of the presence of isolated infection markers (surface antigen and antibodies as opposed to the surface antigens and those of the core of the Hepatitis B virus), and a sequential type study is discussed. It is considered that vaccination must be recommended whenever it is not possible to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of the surface antigen and antibodies as opposed to the core antigen or said antibodies and those corresponding to the surface antigen.

  8. Screening for hepatitis B virus DNA in serum of organ donors and renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Miédougé, M; Rostaing, L; Mansuy, J M; Sandres-Sauné, K; Boudet, F; Izopet, J

    2003-04-01

    In order to determine the impact of screening potential organ donors for hepatitis B virus DNA using a standardized test, the serum of 145 donor candidates was tested. All of the candidates were negative for hepatitis B virus DNA, but the status of one donor was doubtful for hepatitis B virus surface antigen and seven donors tested positive for hepatitis B virus core antibody without hepatitis B virus surface antigen. Nine transplant recipients tested positive for hepatitis B virus surface antibody; they were given kidneys from the donor with a doubtful hepatitis B virus surface antigen result and from four of the seven donors who tested positive for hepatitis B core antibody. Follow-up revealed no case of hepatitis B transmission. In this study, screening for hepatitis B virus DNA was useful and did not lead to donor organ shortage. Patients with hepatitis B virus surface antibodies can safely be given kidneys from donors who are positive for hepatitis B core antibody but negative for hepatitis B virus DNA.

  9. [Prokaryotic expression of vp3 gene of Muscovy duck parvovirus, and its antiserum preparation for detection of virus multiplication].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Zhu, Yumin; Dong, Shijuan; Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Yuanshu; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    New epidemic broke out in recent year which was suspected to be caused by variant Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). For this reason, new MDPV detection methods are needed for the new virus strains. In this study, a pair of primers were designed according to the full-length genome of MDPV strain SAAS-SHNH, which were identified in 2012, and were used to amplify the vp3 gene of MDPV by polymerase chain reaction. After being sequenced, the vp3 gene was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector PET28a. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 and induced with IPTG. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis showed the MDPV vp3 gene was successfully expressed. After being purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography system, the recombinant protein was used as antigen to immunize rabbits to obtain antiserum. Western blotting analysis showed that the acquired antiserum could react specifically with VP3 protein of J3D6 strain and MDPV vaccine strain. The antiserum could also be used for detection of cultured MDPV from primary duck embryo fibroblasts by immune fluorescence assay (IFA). It could be concluded that the VP3 protein and its antibody prepared in the research could be used for detection of VP3 antiserum and antigen respectively.

  10. Genotype characterization of occult hepatitis B virus strains among Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Kishk, R; Atta, H Aboul; Ragheb, M; Kamel, M; Metwally, L; Nemr, N

    2014-03-13

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection combined with occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been associated with increased risk of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection among Egyptian chronic HCV patients, the genotype and occurrence of surface gene mutations of HBV and the impact of co-infection on early response to treatment. The study enrolled 162 chronic HCV patients from Ismailia Fever Hospital, Egypt, who were HBV surface antigen-negative. All patients were given clinical assessment and biochemical, histological and virological examinations. HBV-DNA was detectable in sera from 3 patients out of the 40 patients who were positive for hepatitis B core antibody. These 3 patients were responsive to combination therapy at treatment week 12; only 1 of them had discontinued therapy by week 24. HBV genotype D was the only detectable genotype in those patients, with absence of "a" determinant mutations among those isolates.

  11. Cytokine profiles and hepatic injury in occult hepatitis C versus chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mousa, N; Eldars, W; Eldegla, H; Fouda, O; Gad, Y; Abousamra, N; Elmasry, E; Arafa, M

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new entity that should be considered when diagnosing patients with abnormal liver functions of unknown origin. This work was carried out to evaluate T-helper 1/T-helper 2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine profiles in patients with occult HCV infection versus chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, also to investigate any association between theses cytokines and liver histological features in both groups. Serum levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) were measured in 35 patients with occult HCV infection compared to 50 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and 30 healthy controls. We have found that Th1 cytokines were significantly increased in patients with CHC infection than in both occult HCV infection and control groups (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, serum IL-4 levels were higher in occult HCV infection than in CHC and control groups (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, serum IL-10 levels were higher in both patient groups vs control group (pless than 0.001), with no significant difference between CHC and occult HCV groups. Finally, only serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher among patients with high activity (A2-A3) than those with low activity (A0-A1) in both CHC and occult HCV groups (p=0.038, p=0.025, respectively). Patients with occult HCV infection exhibited a distinct immunoregulatory cytokine pattern that is shifted towards the Th2 arm.

  12. Avian hepatitis E virus in chickens, Taiwan, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ingrid W-Y; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2014-01-01

    A previously unidentified strain of avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is now endemic among chickens in Taiwan. Analysis showed that the virus is 81.5%-86.5% similar to other aHEVs. In Taiwan, aHEV infection has been reported in chickens without aHEV exposure, suggesting transmission from asymptomatic cases or repeated introduction through an unknown common source(s).

  13. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Essam A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI) in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1) and the other fifteen (Group 2) were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1). The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis). Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1) became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs. PMID:27047014

  14. Hepatitis C virus comes for dinner: How the hepatitis C virus interferes with autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ploen, Daniela; Hildt, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly-regulated, conserved cellular process for the degradation of intracellular components in lysosomes to maintain the energetic balance of the cell. It is a pro-survival mechanism that plays an important role during development, differentiation, apoptosis, ageing and innate and adaptive immune response. Besides, autophagy has been described to be involved in the development of various human diseases, e.g., chronic liver diseases and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases. It has recently been described that HCV, like other RNA viruses, hijacks the autophagic machinery to improve its replication. However, the mechanisms underlying its activation are conflicting. HCV replication and assembly occurs at the so-called membranous web that consists of lipid droplets and rearranged endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranes including single-, double- and multi-membrane vesicles. The double-membrane vesicles have been identified to contain NS3, NS5A, viral RNA and the autophagosomal marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, corroborating the involvement of the autophagic pathway in the HCV life-cycle. In this review, we will highlight the crosstalk of the autophagosomal compartment with different steps of the HCV life-cycle and address its implications on favoring the survival of infected hepatocytes. PMID:26229393

  15. Hepatitis B virus replication in steroid-treated severe HBsAg-positive chronic active hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, G L; Czaja, A J; Taswell, H F; Ludwig, J; Go, V L

    1985-02-01

    To determine the effect of corticosteroids on the replication of hepatitis B virus and to assess the relationship between virus replication and prognosis, the behavior of serum and tissue HBcAg was evaluated in 16 patients with severe HBsAg-positive chronic active hepatitis who were treated with prednisone and followed for up to 10 years (mean +/- SEM, 66 +/- 9 months). Hepatitis B virus replication was assessed in serum by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay of Dane particle-associated HBcAg and in liver tissue by indirect immunoperoxidase staining for HBcAg. Despite the presence of severe inflammatory activity, only low levels of hepatitis B virus replication were demonstrated. Mean serum HBcAg levels were low at accession and remained essentially unchanged or gradually decreased during corticosteroid therapy. Serum HBcAg appeared in only one patient in whom no virus replication was detected prior to therapy. HBeAg was frequently detected at low titers by radioimmunoassay when serum HBcAg was undetectable. Loss of HBcAg preceded loss of HBeAg by radioimmunoassay, and disappearance of both markers was a prerequisite for sustained histologic remission. In eight patients, inflammation was present despite absence of serum or tissue HBcAg; in three of these, disease activity continued after loss of HBeAg. We conclude that low levels of hepatitis B virus replication may be associated with severe inflammatory activity, and these levels are not increased by long-term corticosteroid therapy. Inflammation can continue despite loss of HBeAg and absence of detectable virus replication.

  16. Genetic relatedness of H6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks in Korea and their pathogenicity in animals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Mun-Han; Lee, O-Soo; Park, Choi-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We report the genetic characterization of H6 avian influenza (AI) viruses isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in Korea between April 2008 and April 2009. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the H6N1 viruses of wild birds and domestic ducks were of the same genotype (K-1) and were similar to the H6N1 virus isolated from a live poultry market in 2003, as six of the eight gene segments of those viruses had a common source. However, the H6N2 viruses of domestic poultry were separated into four genotypes (K-2a, K-2b, K-2c and K-2d) by at least a triple reassortment between influenza viruses of low pathogenicity from Korean poultry (H9N2 and H3N2) and viruses from aquatic birds. In an experimental infection of animals, certain H6 AI viruses replicated well in chickens and mice without pre-adaptation, indicating that H6 virus pathogenicity has the potential to be altered due to multiple reassortments, and that these reassortments could result in interspecies transmission to mammals.

  17. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/Mexico/2007 is atypical. PMID:23820212

  18. Does Tyrosyl DNA Phosphodiesterase-2 Play a Role in Hepatitis B Virus Genome Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Rajeev; Sohn, Ji A.; Ledesma, Felipe Cortes; Caldecott, Keith W.; Seeger, Christoph; Hu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and persistence are sustained by a nuclear episome, the covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA, which serves as the transcriptional template for all viral RNAs. CCC DNA is converted from a relaxed circular (RC) DNA in the virion early during infection as well as from RC DNA in intracellular progeny nucleocapsids via an intracellular amplification pathway. Current antiviral therapies suppress viral replication but cannot eliminate CCC DNA. Thus, persistence of CCC DNA remains an obstacle toward curing chronic HBV infection. Unfortunately, very little is known about how CCC DNA is formed. CCC DNA formation requires removal of the virally encoded reverse transcriptase (RT) protein from the 5’ end of the minus strand of RC DNA. Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase-2 (Tdp2) was recently identified as the enzyme responsible for cleavage of tyrosyl-5’ DNA linkages formed between topoisomerase II and cellular DNA. Because the RT-DNA linkage is also a 5’ DNA-phosphotyrosyl bond, it has been hypothesized that Tdp2 might be one of several elusive host factors required for CCC DNA formation. Therefore, we examined the role of Tdp2 in RC DNA deproteination and CCC DNA formation. We demonstrated Tdp2 can cleave the tyrosyl-minus strand DNA linkage using authentic HBV RC DNA isolated from nucleocapsids and using RT covalently linked to short minus strand DNA produced in vitro. On the other hand, our results showed that Tdp2 gene knockout did not block CCC DNA formation during HBV infection of permissive human hepatoma cells and did not prevent intracellular amplification of duck hepatitis B virus CCC DNA. These results indicate that although Tdp2 can remove the RT covalently linked to the 5’ end of the HBV minus strand DNA in vitro, this protein might not be required for CCC DNA formation in vivo. PMID:26079492

  19. Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus without Core Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Joaquim; Araújo, Fernando; Santos, Lurdes; Sarmento, António

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a male patient not vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and with reactivity to a surface antibody who, after immunosuppression for a multiple myeloma, had HBV reactivation. Pharmacological HBV suppression was tried, but viremia could not be suppressed. Production-detection core mutations or immunity issues can explain this clinical phenomenon. PMID:25631798

  20. Resistance to hepatitis C virus: potential genetic and immunological determinants.

    PubMed

    Mina, Michael M; Luciani, Fabio; Cameron, Barbara; Bull, Rowena A; Beard, Michael R; Booth, David; Lloyd, Andrew R

    2015-04-01

    Studies of individuals who were highly exposed but seronegative (HESN) for HIV infection led to the discovery that homozygosity for the Δ32 deletion mutation in the CCR5 gene prevents viral entry into target cells, and is associated with resistance to infection. Additionally, evidence for protective immunity has been noted in some HESN groups, such as sex workers in The Gambia. Population studies of individuals at high risk for hepatitis C virus infection suggest that an HESN phenotype exists. The body of evidence, which suggests that protective immunity allows clearance of hepatitis C virus without seroconversion is growing. Furthermore, proof-of-principle evidence from in-vitro studies shows that genetic polymorphisms can confer resistance to establishment of infection. This Review discusses the possibility that genetic mutations confer resistance against hepatitis C virus, and also explores evidence for protective immunity, including via genetically programmed variations in host responses. The data generally strengthens the notion that investigations of naturally arising polymorphisms within the hepatitis C virus interactome, and genetic association studies of well characterised HESN individuals, could identify potential targets for vaccine design and inform novel therapies.

  1. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients, France

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Bardiaux, Laurent; Abravanel, Florence; Gallian, Pierre; Kamar, Nassim

    2017-01-01

    The rate of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) in transplant recipients is unknown. We identified 60 HEV-positive solid organ transplant patients and retrospectively assessed their blood transfusions for HEV. Seven of 60 patients received transfusions; 3 received HEV-positive blood products. Transfusion is not the major route of infection in this population. PMID:28098552

  2. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  3. Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-09-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  4. Persistent cryoglobulinemic vasculitis following successful treatment of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Levine, James W; Gota, Carmen; Fessler, Barri J; Calabrese, Leonard H; Cooper, Sheldon M

    2005-06-01

    There is a well established link between type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and HCV is believed to be the cause of cryoprotein formation and tissue deposition. Successful treatment of HCV infection has resulted in resolution of cryoglobulinemia and vasculitis. We describe 4 patients who had persistent MC and vasculitis despite successful eradication of HCV with antiviral therapy.

  5. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H.; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication. PMID:27047986

  6. Candida Esophagitis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Positive Elite Controller With Hepatitis C Virus Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Anders; Shieh, Eugenie; Brinkley, Sherilyn; Blankson, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of Candida esophagitis in a human immunodeficiency virus elite controller with a preserved CD4 count, a population in which opportunistic infections are almost never seen. The patient has hepatitis C virus coinfection and compensated cirrhosis, suggesting a possible multifactorial etiology of immune dysregulation. PMID:25734179

  7. Immigration and hepatitis B virus: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, E; Scotto, G; Cibelli, D C; Faleo, G; Saracin, A; Angarano, G

    2008-01-01

    This study in Italy aimed to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a population of recent (< 6 months) immigrants. Between February 2003 and December 2004, 83 (9.3%) out of 890 immigrants tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. All were men and 62.6% came-from Africa, 21.6% from Asia and 16.8% from Eastern Europe. About half (54.3%) of the patients had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels and detectable serum HBV DNA. Genotype distribution was as follows: E (20 cases), D (14 cases) and A (11 cases). Our study underscores the potential of migratory flow to introduce genotype non-D hepatitis B virus into our country.

  8. Hepatitis E virus as an emerging zoonotic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Ahn, Hee-Seop; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Yoo, Han-Sang; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis E outbreaks are a serious public health concern in developing countries. The disease causes acute infections, primarily in young adults. The mortality rate is approximately 2%; however, it can exceed 20% in pregnant women in some regions in India. The causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), has been isolated from several animal species, including pigs. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have been isolated from both humans and animals, and are recognized as zoonotic pathogens. Seroprevalence studies in animals and humans indirectly suggest that HEV infections occur worldwide. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans via undercooked animal meats in developed countries. Moreover, transfusion- and transplantation-mediated HEV infections have recently been reported. This review summarizes the general characteristics of hepatitis E, HEV infection status in animals and humans, the zoonotic transmission modes of HEV, and HEV vaccine development status.

  9. Hepatitis E virus as an emerging zoonotic pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Ahn, Hee-Seop; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Yoo, Han-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E outbreaks are a serious public health concern in developing countries. The disease causes acute infections, primarily in young adults. The mortality rate is approximately 2%; however, it can exceed 20% in pregnant women in some regions in India. The causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), has been isolated from several animal species, including pigs. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have been isolated from both humans and animals, and are recognized as zoonotic pathogens. Seroprevalence studies in animals and humans indirectly suggest that HEV infections occur worldwide. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans via undercooked animal meats in developed countries. Moreover, transfusion- and transplantation-mediated HEV infections have recently been reported. This review summarizes the general characteristics of hepatitis E, HEV infection status in animals and humans, the zoonotic transmission modes of HEV, and HEV vaccine development status. PMID:27051334

  10. Detection of pathogenic viruses in sewage provided early warnings of hepatitis A virus and norovirus outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Heléne

    2014-11-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care.

  11. In vitro cultivation and cryopreservation of duck embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Schacke, M; Glück, B; Wutzler, P; Sauerbrei, A

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis B-virucidal testing of biocides in quantitative suspension tests using duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) requires primary duck embryonic hepatocytes for viral propagation. To improve the test system and availability of these cells, commercial culture plates with different growth surfaces were tested for cell cultivation and different approaches for cryopreservation of hepatocyte suspension were examined. After 12 days of culture, the largest amounts of hepatocytes were grown in CellBIND and TTP plates and CellBIND surface showed the lowest tendency of monolayer detachment nearly comparable with collagen 1-coated CELLCOAT plates. For cryopreservation of hepatocyte suspension, the use of growth medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (ME(2)SO), FCS supplemented with ME(2)SO or cryosafe-1 as cryoprotective agents provided the highest rates of surviving cells after thawing. The freezing-thawing process did not significantly reduce the susceptibility of hepatocytes to infection with DHBV. In conclusion, plates without collagen 1 such as CellBIND are recommended for cultivation of primary duck embryonic hepatocytes in infectivity experiments of DHBV for virucidal testing of biocides. The use of cryopreserved hepatocytes is possible when freshly isolated cells from the liver of duck embryos are not available.

  12. Emerging concepts in immunity to hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Hugo R

    2013-10-01

    Since the discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by molecular cloning almost a quarter of a century ago, unprecedented at the time because the virus had never been grown in cell culture or detected serologically, there have been impressive strides in many facets of our understanding of the natural history of the disease, the viral life cycle, the pathogenesis, and antiviral therapy. It is apparent that the virus has developed multiple strategies to evade immune surveillance and eradication. This Review covers what we currently understand of the temporal and spatial immunological changes within the human innate and adaptive host immune responses that ultimately determine the outcomes of HCV infection.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses: Cocirculation of Avian Influenza Viruses with Allele A and B Nonstructural Gene in Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) Ducks Wintering in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Alam; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Sultana, Nadia; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus strains of 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2), and 2009 (H1N1) have genes related to avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The nonstructural (NS) gene of AIVs plays a significant role in host-viral interaction. However, little is known about the degree of diversity of this gene in Northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks wintering in Japan. This study describes characteristics of pintail-originated H1N1, H1N2, H1N3, H5N2, H5N3, H5N9, and H7N7 viruses. Most of the viruses were revealed to be avian strains and not related to pandemic and seasonal flu strains. Nevertheless, the NP genes of 62.5% (5/8) viruses were found closely related to a A/swine/Korea/C12/08, indicating exchange of genetic material and ongoing mammalian-linked evolution of AIVs. Besides, all the viruses, except Aomori/422/07 H1N1, contain PSIQSR∗GLF motif usually found in avian, porcine, and human H1 strains. The Aomori/422/07 H1N1 has a PSVQSR∗GLF motif identical to a North American strain. This findings linked to an important intercontinental, Asian-American biogeographical interface. Phylogenetically all the viruses were clustered in Eurasian lineage. Cocirculation of allele A and B (NS gene) viruses was evident in the study implying the existence of a wide reservoir of influenza A viruses in pintail wintering in Japan.

  14. Dual Infection with Hepatitis B and Epstein-Barr Virus Presenting with Severe Jaundice, Coagulopathy, and Hepatitis B Virus Chronicity Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sirish C.; Ashraf, Imran; Mir, Fazia; Samiullah, Sami; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 34 Final Diagnosis: HBV and EBV dual infection Symptoms: Jaundice • fatigue • anorexia • subjective weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported as a coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Case Report: A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with epigastric pain and severe acute hepatitis manifested as jaundice associated with hyperbilirubinemia, elevated transaminases, and coagulopathy. The patient was diagnosed with acute HBV with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection leading to subsequent chronic hepatitis B. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this patient case is the first reported case of HBV and EBV coinfection reported in the literature. HBV and EBV coinfection may cause severe acute hepatitis with HBV chronicity. PMID:28202897

  15. Hepatitis E Virus in Industrialized Countries: The Silent Threat

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Gonzalez, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Its presence in developing countries has been documented for decades. Developed countries were supposed to be virus-free and initially only imported cases were detected in those areas. However, sporadic and autochthonous cases of HEV infection have been identified and studies reveal that the virus is worldwide spread. Chronic hepatitis and multiple extrahepatic manifestations have also been associated with HEV. We review the data from European countries, where human, animal, and environmental data have been collected since the 90s. In Europe, autochthonous HEV strains were first detected in the late 90s and early 2000s. Since then, serological data have shown that the virus infects quite frequently the European population and that some species, such as pigs, wild boars, and deer, are reservoirs. HEV strains can be isolated from environmental samples and reach the food chain, as shown by the detection of the virus in mussels and in contaminated pork products as sausages or meat. All these data highlight the need of studies directed to control the sources of HEV to protect immunocompromised individuals that seem the weakest link of the HEV epidemiology in industrialized regions. PMID:28070522

  16. Clinical significance of occult hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Romero, Miriam; Madejón, Antonio; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado; García-Samaniego, Javier

    2011-03-28

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable HBV DNA in serum) for individuals testing HBV surface antigen negative. Until recently, the clinical effect of OBI was unclear on the progression of liver disease; on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma; and on the risk for reactivation or transmission of HBV infection. Several studies suggest a high prevalence of OBI among patients with cryptogenic chronic liver disease, but its role in the progression to cirrhosis remains unclear. Although OBI has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, especially among those coinfected with hepatitis C virus, further studies are needed to determine its current clinical impact in HIV setting.

  17. HDVDB: a data warehouse for hepatitis delta virus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarita; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Nischal, Anuradha; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Seth, Prahlad Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is an RNA virus and causes delta hepatitis in humans. Although a lot of data is available for HDV, but retrieval of information is a complicated task. Current web database 'HDVDB' provides a comprehensive web-resource for HDV. The database is basically concerned with basic information about HDV and disease caused by this virus, genome structure, pathogenesis, epidemiology, symptoms and prevention, etc. Database also supplies sequence data and bibliographic information about HDV. A tool 'siHDV Predict' to design the effective siRNA molecule to control the activity of HDV, is also integrated in database. It is a user friendly information system available at public domain and provides annotated information about HDV for research scholars, scientists, pharma industry people for further study.

  18. Identification of hepatitis B virus indigenous to chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaolei; Margolis, Harold S.; Purcell, Robert H.; Ebert, James; Robertson, Betty H.

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis B viruses (HBV) and related viruses, classified in the Hepadnaviridae family, are found in a wide variety of mammals and birds. Although the chimpanzee has been the primary experimental model of HBV infection, this species has not been considered a natural host for the virus. Retrospective analysis of 13 predominantly wild-caught chimpanzees with chronic HBV infection identified a unique chimpanzee HBV strain in 11 animals. Nucleotide and derived amino acid analysis of the complete HBV genome and the gene coding for the hepatitis B surface antigen (S gene) identified sequence patterns that could be used to reliably identify chimpanzee HBV. This analysis indicated that chimpanzee HBV is distinct from known human HBV genotypes and is closely related to HBVs previously isolated from a chimpanzee, gibbons, gorillas, and orangutans. PMID:10677515

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis viruses in patients with acute hepatitis and characterization of the detected genotype 4 hepatitis E virus sequences in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Baasanjav, Nachin; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E is considered to be a worldwide public health problem. Although the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies in healthy individuals is noted to be 11%, no patients with acute hepatitis E have previously been identified in Mongolia. Three hundred two consecutive patients (183 males and 119 females; median age of 22.0 [Interquartile range: 18.3-25.0] years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis during 2012-2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. By serological and/or molecular approaches, 77 (25.5%), 93 (30.8%), 19 (6.3%), 48 (15.9%), and 12 (4.0%) of the patients were diagnosed with acute hepatitis of types A, B, C, D (superinfection of hepatitis delta virus on a background of chronic hepatitis B virus infection) and E, respectively, while the cause of hepatitis was unknown in the remaining 53 patients (17.5%). The 12 hepatitis E patients had no history of travel abroad in the 3 months before the onset of disease, and lived separately in fixed or movable houses with water supplied via pipe, tank or well, denying transmission from a common water supply. The 12 HEV isolates obtained from the patients showed high nucleotide identities of 99.7-100%, and a representative HEV isolate, MNE13-227, was closest to the Chinese isolates of genotype 4, with the highest identity of 97.3% in the 304-nt ORF2 sequence and 92.1% over the entire genome. The present study revealed the occurrence of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in Mongolia, caused by a monophyletic genotype 4 HEV strain.

  20. Amino acids responsible for the absolute sialidase activity of the influenza A virus neuraminidase: relationship to growth in the duck intestine.

    PubMed

    Kobasa, D; Wells, K; Kawaoka, Y

    2001-12-01

    The 1957 human pandemic strain of influenza A virus contained an avian virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), both of which acquired specificity for the human receptor, N-acetylneuraminic acid linked to galactose of cellular glycoconjugates via an alpha2-6 bond (NeuAcalpha2-6Gal). Although the NA retained considerable specificity for NeuAcalpha2-3Gal, its original substrate in ducks, it lost the ability to support viral growth in the duck intestine, suggesting a growth-restrictive change other than a shift in substrate specificity. To test this possibility, we generated a panel of reassortant viruses that expressed the NA genes of human H2N2 viruses isolated from 1957 to 1968 with all other genes from the avian virus A/duck/Hong Kong/278/78 (H9N2). Only the NA of A/Singapore/1/57 supported efficient viral growth in the intestines of orally inoculated ducks. The growth-supporting capacity of the NA correlated with a high level of enzymatic activity, comparable to that found to be associated with avian virus NAs. The specific activities of the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 and A/England/12/62 NAs, which showed greatly restricted abilities to support viral growth in ducks, were only 8 and 5%, respectively, of the NA specific activity for A/Singapore/1/57. Using chimeric constructs based on A/Singapore/1/57 and A/England/12/62 NAs, we localized the determinants of high specific NA activity to a region containing six amino acid substitutions in A/England/12/62: Ser331-->Arg, Asp339-->Asn, Asn367-->Ser, Ser370-->Leu, Asn400-->Ser, and Pro431-->Glu. Five of these six residues (excluding Asn400) were required and sufficient for the full specific activity of the A/Singapore/1/57 NA. Thus, in addition to a change in substrate specificity, a reduction in high specific activity may be required for the adaptation of avian virus NAs to growth in humans. This change is likely needed to maintain an optimal balance between NA activity and the lower affinity shown by human virus HAs

  1. Hepatitis E virus infection: Epidemiology and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ga Young; Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Intharasongkroh, Duangnapa; Sa-nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Chirathaworn, Chintana; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is now established as an emerging enteric viral hepatitis. Standard treatments in acute and chronic hepatitis E remain to be established. This study undertakes a review of the epidemiology, treatment implication and vaccine prevention from published literature. HEV infection is a worldwide public health problem and can cause acute and chronic hepatitis E. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are primarily found in developing countries due to waterborne transmission, while the zoonotic potential of genotypes 3 and 4 affects mostly industrialized countries. An awareness of HEV transmission through blood donation, especially in the immunocompromised and solid organ transplant patients, merits an effective anti-viral therapy. There are currently no clear indications for the treatment of acute hepatitis E. Despite concerns for side effects, ribavirin monotherapy or in combination with pegylated interferon alpha for at least 3 mo appeared to show significant efficacy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis E. However, there are no available treatment options for specific patient population groups, such as women who are pregnant. Vaccination and screening of HEV in blood donors are currently a global priority in managing infection. New strategies for the treatment and control of hepatitis E are required for both acute and chronic infections, such as prophylactic use of medications, controlling large outbreaks, and finding acceptable antiviral therapy for pregnant women and other patient groups for whom the current options of treatment are not viable. PMID:26568916

  2. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hori, T; Ogura, Y; Okamoto, S; Nakajima, A; Kami, K; Iwasaki, J; Yonekawa, Y; Ogawa, K; Oike, F; Takada, Y; Egawa, H; Nguyen, J H; Uemoto, S

    2010-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis has a fatal impact on the outcome of organ transplanted recipients. Here, we present a thought-provoking case of HSV hepatitis in a high-risk recipient after living-related liver transplantation (LRLT). A 1-month-old female newborn infant was affected by HSV encephalitis. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) of unknown etiology occurred suddenly at 4.4 years of age. Viral infections were ruled out as the cause of FHF. Intensive care including plasma exchange (PE) was started, and the preoperative treatments for ABO incompatibility were performed. Thereafter, LRLT was performed emergently. Although strong immunosuppression for ABO incompatibility was continued after LRLT, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred on postoperative day (POD) 4. PE was repeated and improvements were obtained. However, liver dysfunction appeared on POD 8. Histopathological findings of liver needle biopsy clearly revealed HSV hepatitis, although the results of HSV DNA and antibody titer in blood sample did not clearly indicate HSV infection. On POD 21, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurred and the plasma and immunoglobulin were replenished. Our pediatric recipient recovered successfully from AMR, HSV hepatitis, TMA, and repeated sepsis. We conclude that well considered therapy based on the real-time detection of HSV hepatitis is indispensable for the further improvements of outcome in HSV hepatitis after LRLT.

  3. Hepatitis C virus: Promising discoveries and new treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Padilla, Marina Aiello; Caserta, Leonardo Cardia; Miotto, Noelle; Vigani, Aline Gonzalez; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in therapy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains an important global health issue. It is estimated that a significant part of the world population is chronically infected with the virus, and many of those affected may develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. The virus shows considerable variability, a characteristic that directly interferes with disease treatment. The response to treatment varies according to HCV genotype and subtype. The continuous generation of variants (quasispecies) allows the virus to escape control by antivirals. Historically, the combination of ribavirin and interferon therapy has represented the only treatment option for the disease. Currently, several new treatment options are emerging and are available to a large part of the affected population. In addition, the search for new substances with antiviral activity against HCV continues, promising future improvements in treatment. Researchers should consider the mutation capacity of the virus and the other variables that affect treatment success. PMID:27605875

  4. Hepatitis C virus: Promising discoveries and new treatments.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Padilla, Marina Aiello; Caserta, Leonardo Cardia; Miotto, Noelle; Vigani, Aline Gonzalez; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2016-07-28

    Despite advances in therapy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains an important global health issue. It is estimated that a significant part of the world population is chronically infected with the virus, and many of those affected may develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. The virus shows considerable variability, a characteristic that directly interferes with disease treatment. The response to treatment varies according to HCV genotype and subtype. The continuous generation of variants (quasispecies) allows the virus to escape control by antivirals. Historically, the combination of ribavirin and interferon therapy has represented the only treatment option for the disease. Currently, several new treatment options are emerging and are available to a large part of the affected population. In addition, the search for new substances with antiviral activity against HCV continues, promising future improvements in treatment. Researchers should consider the mutation capacity of the virus and the other variables that affect treatment success.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Host Resembling Hepatic Pyogenic Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amit; Salama, Gayle; Hissong, Erika; Rosenblatt, Russell; Cantor, Michael; Helfgott, David; Marks, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis represents a rare complication of HSV infection, which can progress to acute liver failure and, in some cases, death. We describe an immunocompetent 67-year-old male who presented with one week of fever and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen showed multiple bilobar hepatic lesions, some with rim enhancement, compatible with liver abscesses. Subsequent liver biopsy, however, revealed hepatocellular necrosis, HSV-type intranuclear inclusions, and immunostaining positive for herpes virus type 2 (HSV-2). Though initially treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, following histologic diagnosis of HSV hepatitis, the patient was transitioned to intravenous acyclovir for four weeks and he achieved full clinical recovery. Given its high mortality and nonspecific presentation, one should consider HSV hepatitis in all patients with acute hepatitis with multifocal hepatic lesions of unknown etiology. Of special note, this is only the second reported case of HSV liver lesions mimicking pyogenic abscesses on CT and MRI. PMID:27872770

  6. Immunization with live nonpathogenic H5N3 duck influenza virus protects chickens against highly pathogenic H5N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Gambaryan, A S; Boravleva, E Y; Lomakina, N F; Kropotkina, E A; Gordeychuk, I V; Chvala, I A; Drygin, V V; Klenk, H-D; Matrosovich, M N

    Development of an effective, broadly-active and safe vaccine for protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) remains an important practical goal. In this study we used a low pathogenic wild aquatic bird virus isolate А/duck/Moscow/4182/2010 (H5N3) (dk/4182) as a live candidate vaccine. We compared this virus with four live 1:7 reassortant anti-H5N1 candidate vaccine viruses with modified hemagglutinin from either A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) or A/Kurgan/3/05 (H5N1) and the rest of the genes from either H2N2 cold-adapted master strain A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (rVN-Len and rKu-Len) or H6N2 virus A/gull/Moscow/3100/2006 (rVN-gull and rKu-gull). The viruses were tested in parallel for pathogenicity, immunogenicity and protective effectiveness in chickens using aerosol, intranasal and oral routes of immunization. All five viruses showed zero pathogenicity indexes in chickens. Viruses rVN-gull and rKu-gull were immunogenic and protective, but they were insufficiently attenuated and caused significant mortality of 1-day-old chickens. The viruses with cold-adapted backbones (rVN-Len and rKu-Len) were completely nonpathogenic, but they were significantly less immunogenic and provided lower protection against lethal challenge with HPAIV A/Chicken/Kurgan/3/05 (H5N1) as compared with three other vaccine candidates. Unlike other four viruses, dk/4182 was both safe and highly immunogenic in chickens of any age regardless of inoculation route. Single administration of 106 TCID50 of dk/4182 virus via drinking water provided complete protection of 30-days-old chickens from 100 LD50 of the challenge virus. Our results suggest that low pathogenic viruses of wild aquatic birds can be used as safe and effective live poultry vaccines against highly pathogenic avian viruses.

  7. Genetic characterization of hepadnaviruses associated with histopathological changes in the liver of duck and goose embryos.

    PubMed

    Biđin, Marina; Tišljar, Marina; Biđin, Zdenko; Lojkić, Ivana; Majnarić, Darko

    2014-12-05

    Avian hepadnaviruses are etiological agents of hepatitis B, that has been identified primarily in ducks, and more recently in various avian species. In this paper, 16 hepadnaviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the field samples from dead embryos of commercially reared domestic duck and goose. Based on the molecular analysis of the S-protein gene sequences and phylogenetic Neighbor-joining tree, identified viruses were clustered in the same genetic group, indicating no host-related diversity. Both duck and goose-origin hepadnaviruses were grouped within the cluster consisting of "Western-country" and "Chinese" duck hepatitis B (DHBV) isolates, showing more evolutionary distances with other known avian hepadnaviruses. Histopathologically, the lesions observed in the liver tissue from hepadnavirus positive duck and goose embryos varied from low to mild degree of perivascular mononuclear cells and mixed cell infiltrations, followed by mild vacuolar changes. Small focal necrotic changes in the liver parenchyma, and bile ductular proliferation were also found in examined liver samples. Generally, the microscopic findings resemble those described in experimentally infected ducks, while this was the first description of hepadnavirus associated lesions in domestic goose. Although hepadnaviruses are considered to have a very narrow host range, this study showed that domestic ducks and geese are susceptible to infection with genetically almost identical hepadnaviruses, that were likely to produce similar microscopic changes in the liver of both duck and goose embryos. The impact of naturally occurred hepadnavirus infection and possible synergistic interactions with other infectious or non-infectious agents on embryo viability needs further investigation.

  8. New models of hepatitis E virus replication in human and porcine hepatocyte cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute, enterically-transmitted hepatitis. It is associated with large epidemics in tropical and subtropical regions where it is endemic or with sporadic cases in non-endemic regions. Unlike other hepatitis viruses, HEV has several animal reservoirs. Phylogenetic studie...

  9. [Risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Hannachi, N; Bahri, O; Ben Fredj, N; Boukadida, J; Triki, H

    2010-01-01

    The risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) varies with type of viral endemicity, degree of maternal infection and genomic characteristics of the virus. The aim of this study is to estimate this risk in Tunisia using serological and molecular methods to evaluate HBV replication, to determine viral genotypes and to detect presence of occult hepatitis in 2709 pregnant women. Serological markers were detected by ELISA methods, Genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP and occult hepatitis by nested-PCR. Four percent of women were positive for HBsAg; only 3% of them were also positive for HBeAg. Viral replication, over than 10(3) copies/ml, was detected in 61% of positive HBsAg patients. Three viral genotypes were detected: D (95%), B (3%) and A (3%). Occult hepatitis was detected in 4% of sera with "anti-HBc isolated" profile. In conclusion, the risk of vertical transmission of HBV exists in Tunisia. It increases by frequency of precore mutants, predominance of the genotype previously associated with high levels of replication and possibility of occult hepatitis B. These results show the importance of screening by serological HBV markers systematically during pregnancy with evaluation of viral replication in order to prevent vertical risk by efficient tools.

  10. Tracking Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cells during and after Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pfafferot, Katja; Heeg, Malte H.J.; Gaudieri, Silvana; Grüner, Norbert; Rauch, Andri; Gerlach, J. Tilman; Jung, Maria-Christina; Zachoval, Reinhart; Pape, Gerd R.; Schraut, Winfried; Santantonio, Teresa; Nitschko, Hans; Obermeier, Martin; Phillips, Rodney; Scriba, Thomas J.; Semmo, Nasser; Day, Cheryl; Weber, Jonathan N.; Fidler, Sarah; Thimme, Robert; Haberstroh, Anita; Baumert, Thomas F.; Klenerman, Paul; Diepolder, Helmut M.

    2007-01-01

    Background CD4+ T cell help is critical in maintaining antiviral immune responses and such help has been shown to be sustained in acute resolving hepatitis C. In contrast, in evolving chronic hepatitis C CD4+ T cell helper responses appear to be absent or short-lived, using functional assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we used a novel HLA-DR1 tetramer containing a highly targeted CD4+ T cell epitope from the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 4 to track number and phenotype of hepatitis C virus specific CD4+ T cells in a cohort of seven HLA-DR1 positive patients with acute hepatitis C in comparison to patients with chronic or resolved hepatitis C. We observed peptide-specific T cells in all seven patients with acute hepatitis C regardless of outcome at frequencies up to 0.65% of CD4+ T cells. Among patients who transiently controlled virus replication we observed loss of function, and/or physical deletion of tetramer+ CD4+ T cells before viral recrudescence. In some patients with chronic hepatitis C very low numbers of tetramer+ cells were detectable in peripheral blood, compared to robust responses detected in spontaneous resolvers. Importantly we did not observe escape mutations in this key CD4+ T cell epitope in patients with evolving chronic hepatitis C. Conclusions/Significance During acute hepatitis C a CD4+ T cell response against this epitope is readily induced in most, if not all, HLA-DR1+ patients. This antiviral T cell population becomes functionally impaired or is deleted early in the course of disease in those where viremia persists. PMID:17653276

  11. Muscovy duck retinoic acid-induced gene I (MdRIG-I) functions in innate immunity against H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) infections.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuqiang; Huang, Qingqing; Ji, Wenhui; Du, Bin; Fu, Qiang; An, Huiting; Li, Jing; Wang, Hengan; Yan, Yaxian; Ding, Chan; Sun, Jianhe

    2015-02-15

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) is a large duck different from other species of ducks, and is more susceptible to some microbial pathogens. In this study, the Muscovy duck RIG-I gene (MdRIG-I) was identified. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that MdRIG-I mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues, especially in those with mucosa. RIG-I null DF-1 cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding MdRIG-I or CARDs domain can activate IRF-3 and NF-κB to up-regulated activity of IFN-β promoter. The components of the signaling pathway downstream of RIG-I in mammalian cells including IRF-3, NF-κB, IFN-β and the IFN-stimulated genes Mx-1, PKR and MDA5 were significantly up-regulated in CARDs-overexpressing-DF-1 cells. Implicating RIG-I in the antiviral response to an infection in vivo, we found that RIG-I expression in brain, spleen, lung and bursa were up-regulated in ducks challenged with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV), whose six internal genes were closely related to the H7N9 and H10N8 AIV. In vitro, DF-1 cells transfected with MdRIG-I plasmid can respond significantly to H9N2 AIV, evident through enhancement of IFN-β promoter activity and decreased virus titer. Altogether, these results indicated that MdRIG-I is a novel member of RLR gene family, engaging in the early stage of antiviral innate immunity.

  12. Hepatitis C virus load in parenchyma cells correlates with hepatic injury in infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Lin, Ji-Zong; Lin, Guo-Li; Wei, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Ying; Ke, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The association between serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients has been extensively investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the association between HCV load in hepatic parenchyma cells and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients. A total of 56 HCV-infected patients were included in the present retrospective study. The serum HCV mRNA was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while the hepatic parenchyma cell volume and HCV mRNA in hepatic parenchyma cells were also determined. Hepatic injury was evaluated on the basis of the severity of inflammation and fibrosis. The results demonstrated that there were evident differences in the mean serum HCV RNA levels and the HCV load/parenchyma cell volume among the various grades of hepatic inflammation (G1-G4) when groups with the least and most inflammation were compared (G1 vs. G4; P<0.05). Significant differences in the HCV load existed between groups divided according to the fibrosis grade; in addition, differences existed between fibrosis grades S1 and S2, and S2 and S4 when comparing serum HCV RNA levels (P<0.05). Similarly, differences existed between every two fibrosis stages (S0 vs. S4, S2 vs. S3, and S2 vs. S4; P<0.05) when viral loads and parenchyma cell volumes were compared (F=2.860, P<0.05). Furthermore, the fibrosis staging was correlated with the viral load/parenchyma cell volume (F=2.670, P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic fibrosis grade was found to be associated with HCV load in parenchyma cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the viral load in parenchyma cells is a more appropriate index compared with the serum viral load for evaluating HCV replication in hepatocytes, and may function as an important factor in HCV-infected hepatic injury evaluation. PMID:28123484

  13. Hepatitis C virus load in parenchyma cells correlates with hepatic injury in infected patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Lin, Ji-Zong; Lin, Guo-Li; Wei, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Ying; Ke, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The association between serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients has been extensively investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the association between HCV load in hepatic parenchyma cells and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients. A total of 56 HCV-infected patients were included in the present retrospective study. The serum HCV mRNA was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while the hepatic parenchyma cell volume and HCV mRNA in hepatic parenchyma cells were also determined. Hepatic injury was evaluated on the basis of the severity of inflammation and fibrosis. The results demonstrated that there were evident differences in the mean serum HCV RNA levels and the HCV load/parenchyma cell volume among the various grades of hepatic inflammation (G1-G4) when groups with the least and most inflammation were compared (G1 vs. G4; P<0.05). Significant differences in the HCV load existed between groups divided according to the fibrosis grade; in addition, differences existed between fibrosis grades S1 and S2, and S2 and S4 when comparing serum HCV RNA levels (P<0.05). Similarly, differences existed between every two fibrosis stages (S0 vs. S4, S2 vs. S3, and S2 vs. S4; P<0.05) when viral loads and parenchyma cell volumes were compared (F=2.860, P<0.05). Furthermore, the fibrosis staging was correlated with the viral load/parenchyma cell volume (F=2.670, P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic fibrosis grade was found to be associated with HCV load in parenchyma cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the viral load in parenchyma cells is a more appropriate index compared with the serum viral load for evaluating HCV replication in hepatocytes, and may function as an important factor in HCV-infected hepatic injury evaluation.

  14. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-02-21

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection.

  15. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection. PMID:26900289

  16. The hepatitis B virus and its DNA polymerase: the prototype three-D virus.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, S Z

    1979-07-15

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV), the causal agent of serum hepatitis, has a diameter of 42 nm and is comprised of an outer surface coat and a 27 nm core. A unique DNA-dependent DNA polymerase is associated with the core of the virus. The core also houses a circular DNA that contains both double-stranded and single-stranded regions. In the endogenous reaction, the DNA polymerase repairs the single-stranded gaps of the viral DNA. The surface protein of the virus, called hepatitis B surface antigen, contains both lipid and carbohydrate, and is often present in particulate form in the blood of infected patients. In Asia and Africa HBV infection is associated with subsequent development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Although most patients recover completely from acute illness, the hepatitis B virus may cause chronic infection. Recently, a virus similar to human HBV was discovered in woodchucks. HBV has not yet been propagated in a cell culture system and the mode of replication of this unusual virus in hepatocytes is still moot. Although reliable therapy has not yet been provided, the problem of this world-wide infection has led to many interesting approaches to both vaccine production and anti-viral chemotherapy.

  17. The CD8α gene in duck (Anatidae): cloning, characterization, and expression during viral infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Chen, Yang; Zhao, Wen Ming; Huang, Zheng Yang; Duan, Xiu Jun; Tong, Yi Yu; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiu; Chang, Guo Bin; Chen, Guo Hong

    2015-02-01

    Cluster of differentiation 8 alpha (CD8α) is critical for cell-mediated immune defense and T-cell development. Although CD8α sequences have been reported for several species, very little is known about CD8α in ducks. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses of ducks, we cloned CD8α coding sequences from domestic, Muscovy, Mallard, and Spotbill ducks using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Each sequence consisted of 714 nucleotides and encoded a signal peptide, an IgV-like domain, a stalk region, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. We identified 58 nucleotide differences and 37 amino acid differences among the four types of duck; of these, 53 nucleotide and 33 amino acid differences were between Muscovy ducks and the other duck species. The CD8α cDNA sequence from domestic duck consisted of a 61-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 714-nucleotide open reading frame, and an 849-nucleotide 3' UTR. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the amino acid sequence of CD8α is conserved in vertebrates. RT-PCR revealed that expression of CD8α mRNA of domestic ducks was highest in the thymus and very low in the kidney, cerebrum, cerebellum, and muscle. Immunohistochemical analyses detected CD8α on the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath of the spleen. CD8α mRNA in domestic ducklings was initially up-regulated, and then down-regulated, in the thymus, spleen, and liver after treatment with duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-1) or the immunostimulant polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C).

  18. Influenza-A Viruses in Ducks in Northwestern Minnesota: Fine Scale Spatial and Temporal Variation in Prevalence and Subtype Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Knutsen, Gregory A.; Berdeen, James; Goekjian, Virginia; Poulson, Rebecca; Goyal, Sagar; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Cardona, Carol; Berghaus, Roy D.; Swayne, David E.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 AIV subtypes during 2007 and 31 during 2008. Ten hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes were detected each year (i.e., H1, 3–8, and 10–12 during 2007; H1-8, 10 and 11 during 2008). All neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were detected during each year of the study. Subtype diversity varied between years and increased with prevalence into September. Predominant subtypes during 2007 (comprising ≥5% of subtype diversity) included H1N1, H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H7N3, H10N7, and H11N9. Predominant subtypes during 2008 included H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7. Additionally, within each HA subtype, the same predominant HA/NA subtype combinations were detected each year and included H1N1, H3N8, H4N6, H5N2, H6N1, H7N3, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N9. The H2N3 and H12N5 viruses also predominated within the H2 and H12 subtypes, respectively, but only were detected during a single year (H2 and H12 viruses were not detected during 2007 and 2008, respectively). Mallards were the predominant species sampled (63.7% of the total), and 531 AIV were isolated from this species (80.5% of the total isolates). Mallard data collected during both years adequately described the observed temporal and spatial prevalence from the total sample and also adequately represented subtype diversity. Juvenile mallards also were adequate in describing the temporal and spatial prevalence of AIV as well as subtype diversity. PMID:21931636

  19. Effect of swine hepatitis E virus on the livers of experimentally infected Mongolian gerbils by swine hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Mao, Jingjing; Du, Fang; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Can

    2015-10-02

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted between rats, pigs, cattle, rabbits, chicken, cats, and deer. Because wild and domestic rodents have anti-HEV antibodies, they are considered potential reservoirs of HEV. In the current study, Mongolian gerbils were experimentally infected with swine hepatitis E virus and the effects of this infection were investigated. After inoculation with HEV, the liver-to-body weight ratio increased at 7 dpi. Mongolian gerbils demonstrated significant increase (p<0.05) in Aspartate Transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) concentrations in the sera, and HEV IgG was detected at 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Real-time PCR revealed that the copies of HEV RNA in the liver were detected at 7 dpi, and peaked at 28 dpi at a concentration of 7.73 logs g(-1). Using both light and electron microscopy, hepatic lesions were observed in the HEV inoculated animals. In the experimental group, characteristic viral hepatitis lesions were prominent in the liver. HEV antigen was detected in the liver by immunohistochemistry, and HEV ORF3 antigen was detectable in liver by Western blot. These results clearly demonstrate that viral load of HEV in livers was dynamic, and ultrastructural hepatic injury in HEV infected Mongolian gerbils and anti-HEV IgG positive seroconversion were observed during infection.

  20. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Turkey Herpes Virus (rHVT-H5) and Inactivated H5N1 Vaccines in Commercial Mulard Ducks against the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Clade 2.2.1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kilany, Walid H.; Safwat, Marwa; Mohammed, Samy M.; Salim, Abdullah; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Fasanmi, Olubunmi G.; Shalaby, Azhar G.; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hassan, Mohammed K.; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma M.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge. PMID:27304069

  1. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  2. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  3. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  4. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  5. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  6. Frequent hepatitis E virus contamination in food containing raw pork liver, France.

    PubMed

    Pavio, Nicole; Merbah, Thiziri; Thébault, Anne

    2014-11-01

    Food products containing raw pork liver are suspected to be vehicles for transmission of hepatitis E virus. Four categories of food products, comprising 394 samples, were analyzed to determine hepatitis E virus prevalence. Virus was detected in 3%-30% of the different categories. Phylogenetic analysis showed high identity with human and swine sequences.

  7. [Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Simon, N

    1995-10-01

    The surveillance of HCV infections is now a must in the clinical management of hemodialysis patients. The natural history of HCV has shown acute hepatitis to be a constant feature although rarely symptomatic. Progression to chronicity occurs in 90% of the cases with detectable viremia in 80% of the cases. The long-term impact of the liver disease in chronic hemodialyzed patients remains to be defined. HCV is responsible for more than 90% of the non-A, non-B hepatitis case diagnosed among hemodialyzed patients. The transmission is either transfusional or nosocomial. Following recent transfusion safety regulations, the nosocomial risk became the predominant residual risk. Thus, all efforts should target HCV eradication. In the absence of specific prophylaxis, this can only be achieved by enforcement of very stringent precautions.

  8. Genetic recombination of the hepatitis C virus: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Morel, V; Fournier, C; François, C; Brochot, E; Helle, F; Duverlie, G; Castelain, S

    2011-02-01

    Genetic recombination is a well-known feature of RNA viruses that plays a significant role in their evolution. Although recombination is well documented for Flaviviridae family viruses, the first natural recombinant strain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified as recently as 2002. Since then, a few other natural inter-genotypic, intra-genotypic and intra-subtype recombinant HCV strains have been described. However, the frequency of recombination may have been underestimated because not all known HCV recombinants are screened for in routine practice. Furthermore, the choice of treatment regimen and its predictive outcome remain problematic as the therapeutic strategy for HCV infection is genotype dependent. HCV recombination also raises many questions concerning its mechanisms and effects on the epidemiological and physiopathological features of the virus. This review provides an update on recombinant HCV strains, the process that gives rise to recombinants and clinical implications of recombination.

  9. Lethal Mutagenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Induced by Favipiravir.

    PubMed

    de Ávila, Ana I; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles M; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral approach that consists in extinguishing a virus by an excess of mutations acquired during replication in the presence of a mutagen. Here we show that favipiravir (T-705) is a potent mutagenic agent for hepatitis C virus (HCV) during its replication in human hepatoma cells. T-705 leads to an excess of G → A and C → U transitions in the mutant spectrum of preextinction HCV populations. Infectivity decreased significantly in the presence of concentrations of T-705 which are 2- to 8-fold lower than its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50). Passaging the virus five times in the presence of 400 μM T-705 resulted in virus extinction. Since T-705 has undergone advanced clinical trials for approval for human use, the results open a new approach based on lethal mutagenesis to treat hepatitis C virus infections. If proven effective for HCV in vivo, this new anti-HCV agent may be useful in patient groups that fail current therapeutic regimens.

  10. Lethal Mutagenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Induced by Favipiravir

    PubMed Central

    de Ávila, Ana I.; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles M.; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral approach that consists in extinguishing a virus by an excess of mutations acquired during replication in the presence of a mutagen. Here we show that favipiravir (T-705) is a potent mutagenic agent for hepatitis C virus (HCV) during its replication in human hepatoma cells. T-705 leads to an excess of G → A and C → U transitions in the mutant spectrum of preextinction HCV populations. Infectivity decreased significantly in the presence of concentrations of T-705 which are 2- to 8-fold lower than its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50). Passaging the virus five times in the presence of 400 μM T-705 resulted in virus extinction. Since T-705 has undergone advanced clinical trials for approval for human use, the results open a new approach based on lethal mutagenesis to treat hepatitis C virus infections. If proven effective for HCV in vivo, this new anti-HCV agent may be useful in patient groups that fail current therapeutic regimens. PMID:27755573

  11. The impact of hepatitis C virus entry on viral tropism

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qiang; von Schaewen, Markus; Ploss, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Uptake of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into hepatocytes is an orchestrated process, involving numerous host factors, virion-associated lipoproteins and a growing number of cell-associated factors. Several of these factors likely contribute to the hepatotropism and limited host range of this virus. Discerning the minimal set of human-specific factors required for viral uptake into non-human cells has facilitated the development of small animal models with inheritable HCV susceptibility. This review summarizes current knowledge of host factors required for HCV entry, the molecular mechanisms underlying HCV entry into hepatocytes, and aspects of viral entry contributing to HCV host tropism. PMID:25525789

  12. Molecular biology and inhibitors of hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    Debing, Yannick; Neyts, Johan; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan

    2014-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a faeco-orally transmitted picornavirus and is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. An overview of the molecular biology of HAV is presented with an emphasis on recent findings. Immune evasion strategies and a possible correlation between HAV and atopy are discussed as well. Despite the availability of efficient vaccines, antiviral drugs targeting HAV are required to treat severe cases of fulminant hepatitis, contain outbreaks, and halt the potential spread of vaccine-escape variants. Additionally, such drugs could be used to shorten the period of illness and decrease associated economical costs. Several known inhibitors of HAV with various mechanisms of action will be discussed. Since none of these molecules is readily useable in the clinic and since the availability of an anti-HAV drug would be of clinical importance, increased efforts should be targeted toward discovery and development of such antivirals.

  13. Genetic variation of occult hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui-Lan; Li, Xu; Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI), characterized as the persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) seronegativity and low viral load in blood or liver, is a special form of HBV infection. OBI may be related mainly to mutations in the HBV genome, although the underlying mechanism of it remains to be clarified. Mutations especially within the immunodominant “α” determinant of S protein are “hot spots” that could contribute to the occurrence of OBI via affecting antigenicity and immunogenicity of HBsAg or replication and secretion of virion. Clinical reports account for a large proportion of previous studies on OBI, while functional analyses, especially those based on full-length HBV genome, are rare. PMID:27053845

  14. Occupational hepatitis B virus infection in sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Constantinidis, T C; Doutsos, J; Mandraveli, K; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1998-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the employees of a Sewage Company were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers--HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc--to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and assess the risk of exposed sewage workers becoming infected, so as to evaluate the necessity for appropriate vaccination. The overall prevalence of HBV markers was 43.9% and 6.6% of the employees were HBsAg carriers. In the univariate analysis the prevalence of past and current infection was significantly associated with exposure to sewage (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001) and with educational level (p < 0.001). However, the logistic regression analysis confirmed that only exposure to sewage was independently associated with positivity for HBV infection (p < 0.001). Workers exposed to sewage should therefore be considered for vaccination against hepatitis B virus.

  15. Hepatitis B virus infection and primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Feitelson, M

    1992-01-01

    For many years, epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC). Other hepatocarcinogens such as hepatitis C virus and aflatoxin also contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis either in conjunction with HBV infection or alone. Cellular and molecular biological studies are providing explanations for the HBV-PHC relationship, and models are now being formulated to further test the relative importance of various factors such as viral DNA integration, activation of oncogenes, genetic instability, loss of tumor suppressor genes, and trans-activating properties of HBV to the pathogenesis of PHC. Further research will probably define more than a single mechanism whereby chronic HBV infection results in PHC. PMID:1323384

  16. Sources of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Lodder, Willemijn J.; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; van den Berg, Harold H.J.L.; Vennema, Harry; Duizer, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Non–travel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 infections in persons in the Netherlands may have a zoonotic, foodborne, or water-borne origin. Possible reservoirs for HEV transmission by water, food, and animals were studied. HEV genotype 3/open reading frame 2 sequences were detected in 53% of pig farms, 4% of wild boar feces, and 17% of surface water samples. HEV sequences grouped within 4 genotype 3 clusters, of which 1 is so far unique to the Netherlands. The 2 largest clusters contained 35% and 43% of the animal and environmental sequences and 75% and 6%, respectively, of human HEV sequences obtained from a study on Dutch hepatitis E patients. This finding suggests that infection risk may be also dependent on transmission routes other than the ones currently studied. Besides the route of exposure, virus characteristics may be an important determinant for HEV disease in humans. PMID:19239749

  17. Diagnosis of Hepatitis A Virus Infection: a Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nainan, Omana V.; Xia, Guoliang; Vaughan, Gilberto; Margolis, Harold S.

    2006-01-01

    Current serologic tests provide the foundation for diagnosis of hepatitis A and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Recent advances in methods to identify and characterize nucleic acid markers of viral infections have provided the foundation for the field of molecular epidemiology and increased our knowledge of the molecular biology and epidemiology of HAV. Although HAV is primarily shed in feces, there is a strong viremic phase during infection which has allowed easy access to virus isolates and the use of molecular markers to determine their genetic relatedness. Molecular epidemiologic studies have provided new information on the types and extent of HAV infection and transmission in the United States. In addition, these new diagnostic methods have provided tools for the rapid detection of food-borne HAV transmission and identification of the potential source of the food contamination. PMID:16418523

  18. Hepatitis B virus X protein regulates hepatic glucose homeostasis via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Jun; Park, Young-Ho; Kim, Sun-Uk; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Park, Do Sim; Han, Ying-Hao; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Dong-Seok; Song, In-Sung; Lee, Dae Ho; Kim, Minhye; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Dae-Ghon; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yo Na; Kim, Su Sung; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Young-Bum; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2011-08-26

    Dysregulation of liver functions leads to insulin resistance causing type 2 diabetes mellitus and is often found in chronic liver diseases. However, the mechanisms of hepatic dysfunction leading to hepatic metabolic disorder are still poorly understood in chronic liver diseases. The current work investigated the role of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in regulating glucose metabolism. We studied HBx-overexpressing (HBxTg) mice and HBxTg mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Here we show that gene expressions of the key gluconeogenic enzymes were significantly increased in HepG2 cells expressing HBx (HepG2-HBx) and in non-tumor liver tissues of hepatitis B virus patients with high levels of HBx expression. In the liver of HBxTg mice, the expressions of gluconeogenic genes were also elevated, leading to hyperglycemia by increasing hepatic glucose production. However, this effect was insufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance. Importantly, the actions of HBx on hepatic glucose metabolism are thought to be mediated via iNOS signaling, as evidenced by the fact that deficiency of iNOS restored HBx-induced hyperglycemia by suppressing the gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes. Treatment of HepG2-HBx cells with nitric oxide (NO) caused a significant increase in the expression of gluconeogenic genes, but JNK1 inhibition was completely normalized. Furthermore, hyperactivation of JNK1 in the liver of HBxTg mice was also suppressed in the absence of iNOS, indicating the critical role for JNK in the mutual regulation of HBx- and iNOS-mediated glucose metabolism. These findings establish a novel mechanism of HBx-driven hepatic metabolic disorder that is modulated by iNOS-mediated activation of JNK.

  19. Hepatitis C Virus-related Arthritis: Bone Scintigraphic Appearances

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Gul Ege; Sarikaya, Ali; Kandemir, Ozan

    2017-01-01

    A symptomatic joint involvement and arthralgia are frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, HCV infection-related arthritis (HCVrA) affects up to 4-11% of the subjects suffering from disease. We reported a patient with HCVrA presented with the commonly accepted diagnostic clinical signs and laboratory parameters. The painful joints distinctly demonstrated increased uptake of Tc-99 m methylene diphosphonate in scintigraphy and normal findings in radiography. PMID:28242981

  20. Aspirin inhibits hepatitis C virus entry by downregulating claudin-1.

    PubMed

    Yin, P; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin has previously been reported to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aspirin is involved in blocking HCV entry. We found that aspirin inhibits the entry of HCVpp and infectious HCV. The level of claudin-1, an HCV receptor, is reduced by aspirin. Our results extend the anti-HCV effect of aspirin to the HCV entry step and further reinforce the anti-HCV role of aspirin.

  1. Molecular Biology and Infection of Hepatitis E Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Yuchen; Zhang, Yan-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a viral pathogen transmitted primarily via fecal-oral route. In humans, HEV mainly causes acute hepatitis and is responsible for large outbreaks of hepatitis across the world. The case fatality rate of HEV-induced hepatitis ranges from 0.5 to 3% in young adults and up to 30% in infected pregnant women. HEV strains infecting humans are classified into four genotypes. HEV strains from genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic, whereas those from genotypes 1 and 2 have no known animal reservoirs. Recently, notable progress has been accomplished for better understanding of HEV biology and infection, such as chronic HEV infection, in vitro cell culture system, quasi-enveloped HEV virions, functions of the HEV proteins, mechanism of HEV antagonizing host innate immunity, HEV pathogenesis and vaccine development. However, further investigation on the cross-species HEV infection, host tropism, vaccine efficacy, and HEV-specific antiviral strategy is still needed. This review mainly focuses on molecular biology and infection of HEV and offers perspective new insight of this enigmatic virus. PMID:27656178

  2. Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Ponterio, Eleonora; Angeloni, Giorgia; Trevisani, Marcello; Ostanello, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis E is an infectious viral disease with clinical and morphological features of acute hepatitis. The disease represents an important public health problem in developing countries, where it is often related to outbreaks mainly associated with consumption of contaminated water. During recent years, an increasing number of sporadic cases have also been described in industrialized countries. Besides humans, the hepatitis E virus (HEV) has also been identified in animals. In 1997, the virus was first detected in swine, and is now considered ubiquitous. Human and swine HEV strains from the same geographical region present a high level of nucleotide identity, and experimental infections have confirmed the cross-species transmission of swine strains to humans and of human strains to non-human primates. Studies on anti-HEV antibodies detection have demonstrated that people working in contact with swine or wild boar have a higher risk of infection than normal blood donors. In Japan and more recently in France, cases of hepatitis E have been associated with ingestion of uncooked meat from pigs, wild boar, or deer. The disease is currently considered an emerging zoonosis.

  3. Hepatitis C virus risk factors in the Turkish community.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Beytullah; Tahan, Veysel; Ozaras, Resat; Aytekin, Huseyin; Mert, Ali; Tabak, Fehmi; Senturk, Hakan

    2005-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the worldwide. This infection is often insidious and one-half of infected patients are asymptomatic. Determination of risk factors for HCV transmission is very important. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors, transmission to spouses and children for HCV infection in Turkish population. One hundred and fifty-one patients with chronic hepatitis C and 151 control cases were investigated for the probable risk factors of HCV infection. Complete blood count, ALT, AST, albumin, prothrombin time, upper abdomen ultrasonography assessment and percutaneous liver biopsy (not for cirrhotics) were performed in all patients with chronic hepatitis C. Anti-HCV testing was done by using second-generation ELISA in 302 cases. Minor surgical operation (p < 0.001), major surgical operation (p = 0.001), blood transfusion (p < 0.001), multi-partner sex (p < 0.05), frequent dental therapy (p < 0.05), and dental extraction (p < 0.001) in patients with a chronic HCV infection were found to be higher than the control group. No significant difference was found in other risk factors. The rate of hepatitis C virus in index cases was found to be 1.8% in their spouses and 1.2% in their children. Our study showed that surgical operation, frequent dental therapy, dental extraction, multi-partner sex, and blood transmission are the main risk factors for HCV infection in Turkish community.

  4. Hepatitis in Mice Infected with Coxsackie Virus B1*

    PubMed Central

    Burch, G. E.; Tsui, C. Y.; Harb, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The livers of mice of different ages were readily damaged by Coxsackie virus B1 infection. The severity of liver damage decreased as the age of the mice increased. Coxsackie B1 viral crystals were not found in the damaged liver cells in spite of severe pathological changes of the liver, both histologically and electron microscopically, and even though characteristic crystal formation was observed in the pancreas of three of these same animals. Nevertheless, the hepatic damage was considered to be due to direct viral invasion of the hepatic cells. This injury was followed by a variety of degenerative and necrotic processes displaying somewhat characteristic morphological manifestations. The severe hepatic infection produced in the newborn mice resulted in their death from a rather fulminating illness, whereas in the older mice there was recovery from mild to moderate hepatic injury with cellular regeneration by the fourth day after viral inoculation. The experimental preparation used here provides an excellent means for the study of the processes of injury and healing of the liver infected with a virus that is also infectious for man. ImagesFigs. 6-7Fig. 1Figs. 2-3Figs. 4-5 PMID:4718266

  5. Bilateral Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat; Thadanipon, Kunlawat

    2010-09-11

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. We report a first case of lichen planus pigmentosus with bilateral linear distribution associated with hepatitis C virus infection. The lesion was improved after sun avoidance and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. This case stresses the importance of screening for hepatitis C virus infection as lichen planus pigmentosus can be an associated condition.

  6. Bilateral Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat; Thadanipon, Kunlawat

    2010-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. We report a first case of lichen planus pigmentosus with bilateral linear distribution associated with hepatitis C virus infection. The lesion was improved after sun avoidance and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. This case stresses the importance of screening for hepatitis C virus infection as lichen planus pigmentosus can be an associated condition. PMID:21060775

  7. Immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of hepatitis E virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; Jagya, N; Pabhu, S B; Durgapal, H; Acharya, S K; Panda, S K

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen and the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis all over the world. We describe here an immunohistochemical method for the detection of HEV antigens (pORF2 and pORF3) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues using monoclonal antibodies raised against two of the virus proteins (pORF2 and pORF3). We analysed their specificity and sensitivity in comparison with serology and nucleic acid detection in cases of acute liver failure (ALF). We used this test on 30 liver biopsies collected post-mortem from the patients of ALF caused by HEV infection. These cases were selected on the basis of positive results for enzyme immunoassay (IgM anti-HEV). Of the 30 cases taken from the archives of the Department of Pathology, the antibodies successfully stained all. However, only 25 serum samples (83.3%) of these were positive for HEV RNA. Fifteen controls used (Five noninfected liver tissues, five HBV- and five hepatitis C virus-infected liver tissues) were all negative. The immunohistochemical assay described here may prove a valuable tool for the detection of HEV infection in biopsy, autopsy and explant liver tissues and can serve as a link along with other available tests to delineate the extent of HEV-associated problem worldwide.

  8. Preclinical evaluation of AMPLICOR hepatitis C virus test for detection of hepatitis C virus RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, F S; Thurmond, C; Fried, M W

    1995-01-01

    We compared a single-enzyme, combined reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR; AMPLICOR HCV Test; Roche Molecular Systems, Branchburg, N.J.) with an independent, two-enzyme, standard RT-PCR (SRT-PCR) assay for the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum and plasma. Test samples included a proficiency testing panel consisting of 10 undiluted plasma samples, three separate dilution series, and sera from 99 patients with chronic liver disease. The quantity of HCV RNA in each patient serum sample was determined by a branched DNA (bDNA) signal amplification assay (Quantiplex HCV-RNA assay; Chiron, Emeryville, Calif.). There was complete concordance between the results of the RT-PCR assays with the 10 undiluted plasma samples used for proficiency testing (3 positive and 7 negative samples). However, the analytical sensitivity of SRT-PCR was 4- to 10-fold greater than that of the AMPLICOR test in the dilution series. HCV RNA was detected in 44, 45, and 40 of the patient serum samples, by SRT-PCR, the AMPLICOR test, and the bDNA assay, respectively. There was 97% agreement between the results of the RT-PCR assays, with only three discrepancies. Review of the patients' medical records resolved all three discrepancies in favor of the AMPLICOR results (two false-negative SRT-PCR results and one false-positive SRT-PCR result). The quantity of HCV RNA in sera from five (11%) patients with viremia detected by AMPLICOR was below the bDNA assay cutoff (< 3.5 x 10(5) RNA equivalents per ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665645

  9. [Meeting Report: 20 years after the First International Symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elena; Díez, Juana; Fortes, Purificación; Gastaminza, Pablo; Majano, Pedro; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Pérez-del-Pulgar, Sofía; Quer, Josep; López-Labrador, F Xavier

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered by the team of Michael Houghton at Chiron Corporation in 1989 and the first symposium on HCV and related viruses was held in Venice, Italy, shortly after, in 1992. This conference was organized to advance knowledge on what then was a mysterious virus responsible for most cases of «non-A, non-B» hepatitis. During the 20 years since the first conference, the scientific quality of presentations has steadily increased, together with the tremendous advances in basic and clinical research and epidemiology. What started as a small conference on a new virus, about which there were very few data, has today become a first-in-class congress: a meeting place for basic researchers, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health experts, and industry members to present the most important advances and their application to HCV treatment and control. The nineteenth HCV symposium was held in September 2012, once again in Venice.

  10. Morphology and morphogenesis of hepatitis E virus (strain 87A).

    PubMed

    Li, D; Huang, R; Tian, X; Yin, S; Wei, J; Huang, X; Wang, B; Li, R; Li, Y

    1995-02-01

    The morphology and morphogenesis of isolated hepatitis E virus (HEV, strain 87A) were observed by electron microscopy (EM) and immune electron microscopy (IEM). Progressively developing local vesicles, virions accumulation in crystalline arrays and viroplasmic focus were seen in cytoplasm of infected cells. Replication and assembly of the new generation viruses were closely associated with rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), inclusion body (IB) and microfibrils. Condensation and margination of chromatin, dispersion of nucleolar material, nuclear membrane alteration and masses of threads, granular material, and fibrillar component of the nucleus were frequently found. These changes revealed that this strain virus was confirmed as a RNA virus. The shape of the virus particles appeared approximately spherical whether the specimens were from the tissue culture crude suspension or purified highly concentrated preparations. The size of the virion was about 30 nm in diameter. The viral particles appeared unsmooth and irregular in outline. The spike-like structures may be occasionally observed on the surface of some viral capsides. The diameter of the strain 87 A virus is larger than the picornavirus and smaller than the calicivirus. This strain virus is different from classical calicivirus in without the cup-shaped surface depressions. The new genus, heparnavirus genus of caliciviridae family should be proposed for HEV.

  11. TIM-1 Promotes Hepatitis C Virus Cell Attachment and Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Qiao, Luhua; Hou, Zhouhua; Luo, Guangxiang

    2017-01-15

    Human TIM and TAM family proteins were recently found to serve as phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors which promote infections by many different viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Zika virus. In the present study, we provide substantial evidence demonstrating that TIM-1 is important for efficient infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The knockdown of TIM-1 expression significantly reduced HCV infection but not HCV RNA replication. Likewise, TIM-1 knockout in Huh-7.5 cells remarkably lowered HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. More significantly, the impairment of HCV infection in the TIM-1 knockout cells could be restored completely by ectopic expression of TIM-1 but not TIM-3 or TIM-4. Additionally, HCV infection and cell attachment were inhibited by PS but not by phosphatidylcholine (PC), demonstrating that TIM-1-mediated enhancement of HCV infection is PS dependent. The exposure of PS on the HCV envelope was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of HCV particles with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TIM-1 promotes HCV infection by serving as an attachment receptor for binding to PS exposed on the HCV envelope.

  12. Hepatitis A virus and the origins of picornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhongyu; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains enigmatic, despite some 1.4 million cases worldwide annually1. It differs radically from other picornaviruses, existing in an enveloped form2 and being unusually stable, both genetically and physically3, but has proved difficult to study. We report high-resolution X-ray structures for the mature virus and empty particles. The structures of the two particles are indistinguishable, apart from some disorder on the inside of the empty particle. The full virus contains the small viral protein VP4, while the empty particle harbors only the uncleaved precursor, VP0. The smooth particle surface is devoid of depressions which might correspond to receptor binding sites. Peptide scanning data extends the previously reported VP3 antigenic site4, while structure-based predictions5 suggest further epitopes. HAV contains no pocket factor, can withstand remarkably high temperature and low pH, with empty particles being even more robust than full particles. The virus probably uncoats via a novel mechanism, being built differently to other picornaviruses. It utilizes a VP2 ‘domain swap’ characteristic of insect picorna-like viruses6,7 and structure-based phylogenetic analysis places HAV between typical picornaviruses and the insect viruses. The enigmatic properties of HAV may reflect its position as a link between ‘modern’ picornaviruses and the more ‘primitive’ precursor insect viruses, for instance HAV retains the ability to move from cell-to-cell by transcytosis8,9. PMID:25327248

  13. Characterization of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds (mandarin duck and Eurasian eagle owl) in 2010 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-04-23

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  14. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. PMID:23611846

  15. [The diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection].

    PubMed

    Gervain, Judit

    2014-06-29

    The successful therapy of hepatitis C viral infection requires that the illness is diagnosed before the development of structural changes of the liver. Testing is stepwise consisting of screening, diagnosis, and anti-viral therapy follow-up. For these steps there are different biochemical, serological, histological and molecular biological methods available. For screening, alanine aminotransferase and anti-HCV tests are used. The diagnosis of infection is confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction of the viral nucleic acid. Before initiation of the therapy liver biopsy is recommended to determine the level of structural changes in the liver. Alternatively, transient elastography or blood biomarkers may be also used for this purpose. Differential diagnosis should exclude the co-existence of other viral infections and chronic hepatitis due to other origin, with special attention to the presence of autoantibodies. The outcome of the antiviral therapy and the length of treatment are mainly determined by the viral genotype. In Hungary, most patients are infected with genotype 1, subtype b. The polymorphism type that occurs in the single nucleotide located next to the interleukin 28B region in chromosome 19 and the viral polymorphism type Q80K for infection with HCV 1a serve as predictive therapeutic markers. The follow-up of therapy is based on the quantitative determination of viral nucleic acid according to national and international protocols and should use the same method and laboratory throughout the treatment of an individual patient.

  16. Persistence of Hepatitis C Virus Traces after Spontaneous Resolution of Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Annie Y.; Hoare, Matthew; Shankar, Arun N.; Allison, Michael; Alexander, Graeme J. M.; Michalak, Tomasz I.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently causes chronic hepatitis, while spontaneous recovery from infection is infrequent. Persistence of HCV after self-limited (spontaneous) resolution of hepatitis C was rarely investigated. The current study aimed to assess incidence and robustness of HCV persistence after self-resolved hepatitis C in individuals with normal liver enzymes and undetectable virus by conventional tests. Applying high sensitivity HCV RNA detection approaches, we analyzed plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals with previous hepatitis C infection. Parallel plasma and PBMC from 24 such non-viraemic individuals followed for 0.3–14.4 (mean 6.4) years were examined. Additional samples from 9 of them were obtained 4.5–7.2 (mean 5.9) years later. RNA was extracted from 250 μl plasma and, if HCV negative, from ~5 ml after ultracentrifugation, and from ex vivo stimulated PBMC. PBMC with evidence of HCV replication from 4 individuals were treated with HCV protease inhibitor, telaprevir. HCV RNA was detected in 14/24 (58.3%) plasma and 11/23 (47.8%) PBMC obtained during the first collection. HCV RNA replicative strand was evident in 7/11 (63.6%) PBMC. Overall, 17/24 (70.8%) individuals carried HCV RNA at mean follow-up of 5.9 years. Samples collected 4.5–7.2 years later revealed HCV in 4/9 (44.4%) plasma and 5/9 (55.5%) PBMC, while 4 (80%) of these 5 PBMC demonstrated virus replicative strand. Overall, 6/9 (66.7%) individuals remained viraemic for up to 20.7 (mean 12.7) years. Telaprevir entirely eliminated HCV replication in the PBMC examined. In conclusion, our results indicate that HCV can persist long after spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C at levels undetectable by current testing. An apparently effective host immune response curtailing hepatitis appears insufficient to completely eliminate the virus. The long-term morbidity of asymptomatic HCV carriage should be examined even in individuals who achieve undetectable HCV

  17. Detection of SENV Virus in Healthy, Hepatitis B- and Hepatitis C-Infected Individuals in Yazd Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sayedeh Azimeh; Bouzari, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: SEN virus (SENV) is the latest virus proposed as a cause of unknown hepatitis cases. Among nine detected genotypes of the virus, genotypes D and H are more frequent in hepatitis cases of unknown origin. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SENV-D and SENV-H genotypes in the sera of healthy individuals and hepatitis B and C patients. Methods: Totally, 200 serum samples from healthy individuals as well as 50 hepatitis B and 50 hepatitis C patients were collected. Anti-HCV (hepatitis C virus), anti-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBV (hepatitis B virus) core antigen were detected, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. Viral DNA was subjected to nested PCR. Fisher's exact and unpaired ANOVA tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: SENV was detected in 90%, 66%, and 46% of the healthy individuals HBV and HCV-positive individuals, respectively. The frequency of SENV and its two genotypes were significantly lower in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients (P<0.01). Also, the frequency of SENV-H was higher than SENV-D in all studied groups. In SENV-positive HBV patients, the level of ALT and AST enzymes were significantly less than SENV-negative patients (P<0.05). It was the same for SENV-H-negative and -positive cases. Conclusions: The levels of liver enzymes were significantly lower in HBV patients co-infected with SENV compared to HBV patients (P<0.05), indicating a positive impact of the virus in liver pathology by decreasing liver damage and thus decreasing the liver enzymes. PMID:26948255

  18. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is not associated with disease progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. RESULTS The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively (P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. CONCLUSION The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans. PMID:27895431

  19. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  20. Despotic Ducks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2008-01-01

    This field experiment is designed to test for despotic behavior in Mallards ("Anas platyrhynchos"), and to examine how ducks distribute themselves relative to their resources. Students present Mallards with food patches differing in profitability in order to examine whether ducks distribute themselves ideal freely or ideal despotically. Students…

  1. Optimal management of hepatitis B virus infection - EASL Special Conference.

    PubMed

    Lampertico, Pietro; Maini, Mala; Papatheodoridis, George

    2015-11-01

    There have been great strides in the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but considerable challenges remain. The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) convened a special conference focusing on all clinical aspects of the management of this disease. Immigration patterns are having a huge effect on the incidence, prevalence and genotype predominance of HBV in many European countries. In recent years there has been significant progress in our understanding of the virology and immunopathology of HBV, particularly the identification of the entry receptor for HBV conferring its hepatotropism, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide, and a better understanding of the regulation of the covalently closed circular DNA form of HBV - the major barrier to cure. However, more fundamental scientific research is needed. Serum biomarkers and transient elastography offer equivalent performance in the grading of disease stage and progression and monitoring of treatment. Occult HBV infection is often overlooked, but has many important implications for e.g., immuno-suppression, liver transplantation and the progression and severity of liver diseases from other causes. Hepatitis B e antigen positive immunotolerant patients, who are a significant source of horizontal and vertical transmission, are at risk for developing active chronic hepatitis B, but current treatment options are ineffective. Pegylated interferon therapy, given for a finite duration, offers sustained off-treatment responses in a minority of patients. Nucleos(t)ide analogues suppress the virus, improve liver histological lesions, reverse cirrhosis in the majority of cases, and improve survival, but 'cure' cannot be achieved. There is also a pressing need for novel HBV/hepatitis D virus co-infection therapies. Novel therapeutic strategies, e.g. immunomodulation, RNA interference and viral entry inhibition have demonstrated promising early results.

  2. Prospects for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Feinstone, Stephen M; Hu, Dale J; Major, Marian E

    2012-07-01

    Natural cross-protective immunity is induced after spontaneous clearance of primary hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Although this suggests that effective prophylactic vaccines against HCV are possible, there are still several areas that require further study. Current data indicate that, at best, vaccine-induced immunity may not completely prevent HCV infection but rather prevent persistence of the virus. However, this may be an acceptable goal, because chronic persistence of the virus is the main cause of pathogenesis and the development of serious liver conditions. Therapeutic vaccine development is also highly challenging; however, strategies have been pursued in combination with current or new treatments in an effort to reduce the costs and adverse effects associated with antiviral therapy. This review summarizes the current state of HCV vaccines and the challenges faced for future development and clinical trial design.

  3. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A, hepatitis B and varicella virus in people living with HIV in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sadlier, Corinna; O'Rourke, Anna; Carr, Alison; Bergin, Colm

    2017-03-13

    Epidemiological studies investigating seroprevalence of vaccine preventable infections at both individual and population level are important in guiding screening and vaccination practices. Data on seroprevalence of common vaccine preventable infections in HIV-infected individuals is lacking. We carried out a retrospective cohort study to investigate serological immunity and factors associated with immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and varicalla virus (VZV) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals attending a large ambulatory HIV specialist centre in Ireland. Basic demographic data including risk of acquisition of HIV and region of origin was recorded. Between-group prevalence was compared using the Chi2 test and Wilkoxin signed rank test. Univariate variables with p<0.2 were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model. Of 1287 HIV-infected individuals included in this study (median [SD] age 39 [10] years, 68% male, 46% Irish), 75% were hepatitis A IgG positive, 94% were VZV IgG positive, 3% were HBV surface antigen (sAg) positive while 29% were HBV core antibody (cAb) positive. This study identifies a significant proportion of HIV infected who were susceptible to common vaccine preventable infections. These results highlight the importance of proactive screening and immunization of HIV-infected individuals to ensure optimal protect ionagainst vaccine preventable diseases in this at risk patient group.

  4. Hepatitis B virus and its sexually transmitted infection - an update

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takako; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology: incidence and prevalence: About 5% of the world’s population has chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and nearly 25% of carriers develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is 5%-15%; HIV/HBV coinfected individuals have a higher level of HBV replication, with higher rates of chronicity, reactivation, occult infection, and HCC than individuals with HBV only. The prevalence of HBV genotype A is significantly higher among men who have sex with men (MSM), compared with the rest of the population. Molecular mechanisms of infection, pathology, and symptomatology: HBV replication begins with entry into the hepatocyte. Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide was identified in 2012 as the entry receptor of HBV. Although chronic hepatitis B develops slowly, HIV/HBV coinfected individuals show more rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Transmission and protection: The most common sources of HBV infection are body fluids. Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is recommended for all children and adolescents, and all unvaccinated adults at risk for HBV infection (sexually active individuals such as MSM, individuals with occupational risk, and immunosuppressed individuals). Although HB vaccination can prevent clinical infections (hepatitis), it cannot prevent 100% of subclinical infections. Treatment and curability: The goal of treatment is reducing the risk of complications (cirrhosis and HCC). Pegylated interferon alfa and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are the current treatments for chronic HBV infection. NAs have improved the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and HCC, and decreased the incidence of acute liver failure. PMID:28357379

  5. The pathogenesis of H3N8 canine influenza virus in chickens, turkeys and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) of the H3N8 subtype has emerged in dog populations throughout the U.S. where is has become endemic in kennels and animal shelters in some regions. It has not previously been determined whether the canine adapted virus can be transmitted to domestic poultry, which are su...

  6. Design and evaluation of a polytope construct with multiple B and T epitopes against Tembusu virus infection in ducks.

    PubMed

    Han, Kaikai; Zhao, Dongmin; Liu, Yuzhuo; Huang, Xinmei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qingtao; An, Fengjiao; Li, Yin

    2016-02-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that is causing massive economic loss in Chinese poultry industry; until now, there is no effective vaccine or drug for its prevention. Epitope-based vaccination is a promising approach to achieve protective immunity and to avoid immunopathology. In present study, based on in silico epitope selection, we optimized and proposed a polytope DNA vaccine (pVAX1-rTEM) consisting B-cell and T cell epitopes from the TMUV envelope (E) protein. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of constructed polytope DNA vaccine was assessed by in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro assays, the expressed pVAX1-rTEM showed reactivity with Tembusu positive serum. Its protective efficacy against TMUV infection was evaluated in ducks. The results showed that pVAX1-rTEM was highly immunogenic and could elicit high titer neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses. These results indicate that pVAX1-rTEM may be a promising candidate vaccine for prevention of TMUV infection.

  7. The transcription analysis of duck enteritis virus UL49.5 gene using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Gao, Xinghong; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Wang, Yin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2013-10-01

    Duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL49.5 encoding glycoprotein N was a conserved gene. The transcription dynamic process of UL49.5 homologous genes in herpesviruses was reported. However, the transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene has not yet been established. In this study, a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) assay was established to test the transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene, and the recombinant plasmid pUCm-T/UL49.5 was constructed as the standard DNA. The samples prepared from DEV-infected (at different time points) and uninfected cell were detected and calculated. The results demonstrated that the real-time qRT-PCR assay was successfully established. The transcription product of DEV UL49.5 gene was first detected at 0.5 h post infection (p.i.), increased at 8 h p.i. and reached a peak at 60 h p.i. Our results illustrated that DEV UL49.5 gene could be regarded as a late gene. The transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene may provide a significant clue for further studies of DEV UL49.5 gene.

  8. Links between human LINE-1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.

  9. Genetic characterization of influenza A virus subtypes H1N3 and H1N9 isolated from free-grazing ducks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiyawong, Supassama; Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Jairak, Waleemas; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Bunpapong, Napawan; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2016-10-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) subtype H1 has been reported to infect birds, pigs and humans. In this study, we characterized IAVs subtype H1N3 and H1N9 isolated from free-grazing ducks in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thai IAV-H1 isolates cluster with avian Eurasian-lineage but not pandemic H1N1 viruses. Analysis of the viruses indicated low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) characteristics. This study is the first report of avian H1N3 and H1N9 in Thailand. Although Thai IAV-H1 viruses do not pose a risk of a pandemic, routine surveillance and genetic monitoring of IAVs should be conducted.

  10. IFN-γ increases efficiency of DNA vaccine in protecting ducks against infection

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jian-Er; Huang, Li-Na; Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Qu, Di

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the effects of DNA vaccines in combination with duck IFN-γ gene on the protection of ducks against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. METHODS: DuIFN-γ cDNA was cloned and expressed in COS-7 cells, and the antiviral activity of DuIFN-γ was detected and neutralized by specific antibodies. Ducks were vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone or co-immunized with plasmid expressing DuIFN-γ. DuIFN-γ mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from immunized ducks was detected by semi-quantitative competitive RT-PCR. Anti-DHBpreS was titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DHBV DNA in sera and liver was detected by Southern blot hybridization, after ducks were challenged with high doses of DHBV. RESULTS: DuIFN-γ expressed by COS-7 was able to protect duck fibroblasts against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in a dose-dependent fashion, and anti-DuIFN-γ antibodies neutralized the antiviral effects. DuIFN-γ in the supernatant also inhibited the release of DHBV DNA from LMH-D2 cells. When ducks were co-immunized with DNA vaccine expressing DHBpreS/S and DuIFN-γ gene as an adjuvant, the level of DuIFN-γ mRNA in PBMCs was higher than that in ducks vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone. However, the titer of anti-DHBpreS elicited by DHBpreS/S DNA alone was higher than that co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA. After being challenged with DHBV at high doses, the load of DHBV in sera dropped faster, and the amount of total DNA and cccDNA in the liver decreased more significantly in the group of ducks co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA than in other groups. CONCLUSION: DHBV preS/S DNA vaccine can protect ducks against DHBV infection, DuIFN-γ gene as an immune adjuvant enhances its efficacy. PMID:16124047

  11. [Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for virus-like partical vaccine: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Yu; Bo, Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2012-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) is a major viral nucleocapsid protein of HBV. It is a 21-22kD protein consisting of 183-185 amino acids. Because of its easy purification, strong immunogenicity, high expression level, and self-assembles into the virus-like particles (VLP), HBcAg could be an efficient and safe VLP carrier for developing vaccines for various pathogens. Up to now, HBcAg VLP carrier has been an important system to develop novel vaccines and many antigen epitope genes from viruses, bacteria and parasites were expressed successfully using the system.

  12. Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on hepatic metabolic signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi-Xian; Huang, Chen-Jie; Yang, Zheng-Gang

    2016-09-28

    A growing body of epidemiologic research has demonstrated that metabolic derangement exists in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, indicating that there are clinical associations between HBV infection and host metabolism. In order to understand the complex interplay between HBV and hepatic metabolism in greater depth, we systematically reviewed these alterations in different metabolic signaling pathways due to HBV infection. HBV infection interfered with most aspects of hepatic metabolic responses, including glucose, lipid, nucleic acid, bile acid and vitamin metabolism. Glucose and lipid metabolism is a particular focus due to the significant promotion of gluconeogenesis, glucose aerobic oxidation, the pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid synthesis or oxidation, phospholipid and cholesterol biosynthesis affected by HBV. These altered metabolic pathways are involved in the pathological process of not only hepatitis B, but also metabolic disorders, increasing the occurrence of complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver steatosis. Thus, a clearer understanding of the hepatic metabolic pathways affected by HBV and its pathogenesis is necessary to develop more novel therapeutic strategies targeting viral eradication.

  13. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Colombia: Survey in Patients with Clinical Diagnosis of Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Julio; Hoyos, Maria Cristina; di Filippo, Diana; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Mantilla, Carolina; Velasquez, Maria Mercedes; Sepulveda, Maria Elsy; Restrepo, Juan Carlos; Jaramillo, Sergio; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Correa, Gonzalo; Navas, Maria-Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus is a major cause of outbreaks as well as sporadic hepatitis cases worldwide. The epidemiology of this enterically transmitted infection differs between developing and developed countries. The aims of this study were to describe HEV infection in Colombian patients and to characterize the genotype. Methods A prospective study was carried out on 40 patients aged over 15 with a clinical diagnosis of viral hepatitis, recruited from five primary health units in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Fecal samples obtained from the 40 consecutives cases were analyzed for HEV RNA using nested reverse transcription PCR for both ORF1 and ORF2-3. The amplicons were sequenced for phylogenetic analyses. Results Nine (22.5%) cases of HEV infection were identified in the study population. Three HEV strains obtained from patients were classified as genotype 3. No significant association was found between cases of Hepatitis E and the variables water drinking source, garbage collection system and contact with pigs. Conclusions This is the first prospective study of hepatitis E in Colombian patients. The circulation of the genotype 3 in this population is predictable considering the reports of the region and the identification of this genotype from pigs in the state of Antioquia, of which Medellin is the capital. Further studies are necessary to establish whether zoonotic transmission of HEV is important in Colombia. PMID:26886728

  14. Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on hepatic metabolic signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi-Xian; Huang, Chen-Jie; Yang, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of epidemiologic research has demonstrated that metabolic derangement exists in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, indicating that there are clinical associations between HBV infection and host metabolism. In order to understand the complex interplay between HBV and hepatic metabolism in greater depth, we systematically reviewed these alterations in different metabolic signaling pathways due to HBV infection. HBV infection interfered with most aspects of hepatic metabolic responses, including glucose, lipid, nucleic acid, bile acid and vitamin metabolism. Glucose and lipid metabolism is a particular focus due to the significant promotion of gluconeogenesis, glucose aerobic oxidation, the pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid synthesis or oxidation, phospholipid and cholesterol biosynthesis affected by HBV. These altered metabolic pathways are involved in the pathological process of not only hepatitis B, but also metabolic disorders, increasing the occurrence of complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver steatosis. Thus, a clearer understanding of the hepatic metabolic pathways affected by HBV and its pathogenesis is necessary to develop more novel therapeutic strategies targeting viral eradication. PMID:27688657

  15. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against duck Tembusu virus E protein: an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of Tembusu virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaofei; Shaozhou, Wulin; Zhang, Qingshan; Li, Chenxi; Qiu, Na; Meng, Runzhe; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2015-03-01

    The E protein of flaviviruses is the primary antigen that induces protective immunity, but a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the E protein of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has never been characterized. Six hybridoma cell lines secreting DTMUV anti-E mAbs were prepared and designated 2A5, 1F3, 1G2, 1B11, 3B6, and 4F9, respectively. An immunofluorescence assay indicated that the mAbs could specifically bind to duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells infected with DTMUV and that the E protein was distributed in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. Immunoglobulin isotyping differentiated the mAbs as IgG1 (1G2, 1B11, 4F9, 1F3, and 2A5) and IgG2b (3B6). The mAbs were used to identify three epitopes, A (2A5, 1F3, and 1G2), B (1B11 and 4F9), and C (3B6) on the E protein on the basis of a competitive binding assay. By using mAbs 1F3 and 3B6, we developed an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) to detect E antigen from clinical samples. The AC-ELISA did not react with other known pathogens, indicating that the mAbs are specific for DTMUV. Compared to RT-PCR, the specificity and sensitivity of the AC-ELISA was 94.1 % and 98.0 %, respectively. This AC-ELISA thus represents a sensitive and rapid method for detecting DTMUV infection in birds.

  16. National treatment programme of hepatitis C in Egypt: Hepatitis C virus model of care.

    PubMed

    El-Akel, W; El-Sayed, M H; El Kassas, M; El-Serafy, M; Khairy, M; Elsaeed, K; Kabil, K; Hassany, M; Shawky, A; Yosry, A; Shaker, M K; ElShazly, Y; Waked, I; Esmat, G; Doss, W

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem in Egypt as the nation bears the highest prevalence rate worldwide. This necessitated establishing a novel model of care (MOC) to contain the epidemic, deliver patient care and ensure global treatment access. In this review, we describe the process of development of the Egyptian model and future strategies for sustainability. Although the magnitude of the HCV problem was known for many years, the HCV MOC only came into being in 2006 with the establishment of the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) to set up and implement a national control strategy for the disease and other causes of viral hepatitis. The strategy outlines best practices for patient care delivery by applying a set of service principles through identified clinical streams and patient flow continuums. The Egyptian national viral hepatitis treatment programme is considered one of the most successful and effective public health programmes. To date, more than one million patients were evaluated and more than 850 000 received treatment under the umbrella of the programme since 2006. The NCCVH has been successful in establishing a strong infrastructure for controlling viral hepatitis in Egypt. It established a nationwide network of digitally connected viral hepatitis-specialized treatment centres covering the country map to enhance treatment access. Practice guidelines suiting local circumstances were issued and regularly updated and are applied in all affiliated centres. This review illustrates the model and the successful Egyptian experience. It sets an exemplar for states, organizations and policy-makers setting up programmes for care and management of people with hepatitis C.

  17. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nigerian Blood Donors and Hepatitis B Virus Transmission Risks

    PubMed Central

    Fagbami, Ademola H.; Adekanle, Olusegun; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Bock, C.-Thomas; Kremsner, Peter G.; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg remains a potential threat in blood safety. We investigated the actual prevalence, viral factors and genotype of OBI infections in Nigerian blood donors. Methods Serum collected from two blood banks were reconfirmed as HBsAg seronegative by ELISA. Forty HBsAg positive samples were employed as controls. HBV-DNA was amplified from all donors and viral loads were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Antibodies to the HBV core, surface and HBe antigen (anti-HBc,anti-HBs,HBeAg) were measured. The PreS/S and PreC/C regions of the HBV genome were sequenced. Results Of the 429 blood donors, 72(17%) were confirmed as OBI by DNA detection in different reference labs and excluded the concern of possible contamination. Of the 72 OBI samples, 48(67%) were positive for anti-HBc, 25(35%) positive for anti-HBs, and 2(3%) positive for HBeAg. Of the 72 OBI samples, 31(43%) were seropositive for either anti-HBc, anti-HBs or HBeAg, 21 (30%) positive for both anti-HBc and anti-HBs,one positive for both anti-HBc and HBeAg. None of the OBI samples were positive for all three serological markers. The viral load was <50copies/ml in the OBI samples and genotype E was predominant. The L217R polymorphism in the reverse transcriptase domain of the HBV polymerase gene was observed significantly higher in OBI compared with HBsAg positive individuals (P<0.0001). Conclusion High incidence of OBI is relevant in high endemic areas worldwide and is a general burden in blood safety. This study signifies the high prevalence of OBI and proposes blood donor samples in Nigeria should be pre-tested for OBI by nucleic acid testing (NAT) and/or anti-HBc prior to transfusion to minimize the HBV infection risk. PMID:26148052

  18. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, Venkatakrishna

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI), a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP) and occult HBV infections (OBI). Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID) format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases. PMID:24678167

  19. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Resuli, Bashkim; Prifti, Skerdi; Kraja, Bledar; Nurka, Tatjana; Basho, Mimoza; Sadiku, Edita

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Albania. METHODS: Blood samples from 410 unselected schoolboys, 666 students, 500 military personnel, 1286 casual blood donors, 378 voluntary blood donors and 640 pregnant women (total 3880 non-vaccinated residents of rural and metropolitan areas from all over Albania; 2354 (60.7%) male and 1526 (39.3%) female; mean age of 26.3 years) were tested during 2004-2006 for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs) by ELISA. RESULTS: The HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence were 9.5% and 28.7%, respectively. The highest HBsAg prevalence was evident in the younger age group, such as in schoolchildren (11.8%) and the military (10.6%). Consequently, the anti-HBs prevalence increased with age, from 21.2% in schoolchildren (mean age: 15.7 years), to 36.3% in pregnant women (mean age: 26.3 years) and 29.7% in voluntary blood donors (mean age: 40.1 years). There were no significant differences between males and females. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated two-fold reduction of HBsAg prevalence in the general population from about 18%-19% to 9.5%, Albania remains a highly endemic country (i.e. over 8% of HBsAg prevalence rate). PMID:19230046

  20. Thermal inactivation kinetics of hepatitis A virus in spinach.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Hayriye; Ye, Xiaofei; Harte, Federico; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael

    2015-01-16

    Leafy vegetables have been recognized as important vehicles for the transmission of foodborne viral pathogens. To control hepatitis A viral foodborne illness outbreaks associated with mildly heated (e.g., blanched) leafy vegetables such as spinach, generation of adequate thermal processes is important both for consumers and the food industry. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the thermal inactivation behavior of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in spinach, and provide insights on HAV inactivation in spinach for future studies and industrial applications. The D-values calculated from the first-order model (50-72 °C) ranged from 34.40 ± 4.08 to 0.91 ± 0.12 min with a z-value of 13.92 ± 0.87 °C. The calculated activation energy value was 162 ± 11 kJ/mol. Using the information generated in the present study and the thermal parameters of industrial blanching conditions for spinach as a basis (100 °C for 120-180 s), the blanching of spinach in water at 100 °C for 120-180 s under atmospheric conditions will provide greater than 6 log reduction of HAV. The results of this study may be useful to the frozen food industry in designing blanching conditions for spinach to inactivate or control hepatitis A virus outbreaks.

  1. Therapeutic Targets for the Treatment of Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Scott P.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most common causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world with an estimated 20 million infections per year. Although the mortality rate is less than 1% among the general population, pregnant women can have a fatality rate of up to 30%. Additionally, chronic hepatitis E has increasingly become a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals. Effective antivirals against HEV are needed. Areas covered This review article addresses the current state of knowledge of HEV infections with regard to animal and cell culture model systems that are important for antiviral discovery and testing, our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus replication, our understanding of how each viral protein functions, and areas that can potentially be exploited as therapeutic targets. Expert opinion Lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV propagation, the limited knowledge of HEV lifecycle, and the inherent self-limiting infection within the normal populace make the development of new therapeutic agents against HEV challenging. There are many promising therapeutic targets, and the tools for identifying and testing potential antivirals are rapidly evolving. The development of effective therapeutics against HEV in immunocompromised and pregnant patient populations is warranted. PMID:26073772

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Nicola F; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Jennings, Elliott; Osburn, William; Lissauer, Samantha; Wilson, Garrick K; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D; Baumert, Thomas F; Balfe, Peter; Afford, Simon; McKeating, Jane A

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects the liver and hepatocytes are the major cell type supporting viral replication. Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes derive from a common hepatic progenitor cell that proliferates during inflammatory conditions, raising the possibility that cholangiocytes may support HCV replication and contribute to the hepatic reservoir. We screened cholangiocytes along with a panel of cholangiocarcinoma-derived cell lines for their ability to support HCV entry and replication. While primary cholangiocytes were refractory to infection and lacked expression of several entry factors, two cholangiocarcinoma lines, CC-LP-1 and Sk-ChA-1, supported efficient HCV entry; furthermore, Sk-ChA-1 cells supported full virus replication. In vivo cholangiocarcinomas expressed all of the essential HCV entry factors; however, cholangiocytes adjacent to the tumour and in normal tissue showed a similar pattern of receptor expression to ex vivo isolated cholangiocytes, lacking SR-BI expression, explaining their inability to support infection. This study provides the first report that HCV can infect cholangiocarcinoma cells and suggests that these heterogeneous tumours may provide a reservoir for HCV replication in vivo.

  3. Epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Yang, Hwai-I; Yuan, Yong; L’Italien, Gilbert; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects 130-210 million people worldwide and is one of the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Globally, at least one third of hepatocellular carcinoma cases are attributed to HCV infection, and 350000 people died from HCV related diseases per year. There is a great geographical variation of HCV infection globally, with risk factors for the HCV infection differing in various countries. The progression of chronic hepatitis C to end-stage liver disease also varies in different study populations. A long-term follow-up cohort enrolling participants with asymptomatic HCV infection is essential for elucidating the natural history of HCV-caused hepatocellular carcinoma, and for exploring potential seromarkers that have high predictability for risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, prospective cohorts comprising individuals with HCV infection are still uncommon. The risk evaluation of viral load elevation and associated liver disease/cancer in HCV (REVEAL-HCV) study has followed a cohort of 1095 residents seropositive for antibodies against hepatitis C virus living in seven townships in Taiwan for more than fifteen years. Most of them have acquired HCV infection through iatrogenic transmission routes. As the participants in the REVEAL-HCV study rarely receive antiviral therapies, it provides a unique opportunity to study the natural history of chronic HCV infection. In this review, the prevalence, risk factors and natural history of HCV infection are comprehensively reviewed. The study cohort, data collection, and findings on liver disease progression of the REVEAL-HCV study are described. PMID:25071320

  4. Innate immune responses in hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Lemon, Stanley M

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide and thus poses a significant public health threat. A hallmark of HCV infection is the extraordinary ability of the virus to persist in a majority of infected people. Innate immune responses represent the front line of defense of the human body against HCV immediately after infection. They also play a crucial role in orchestrating subsequent HCV-specific adaptive immunity that is pivotal for viral clearance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the host has evolved multifaceted innate immune mechanisms to sense HCV infection and elicit defense responses, while HCV has developed elaborate strategies to circumvent many of these. Defining the interplay of HCV with host innate immunity reveals mechanistic insights into hepatitis C pathogenesis and informs approaches to therapy. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding innate immune responses to HCV infection, focusing on induction and effector mechanisms of the interferon antiviral response as well as the evasion strategies of HCV.

  5. Evaluation of two different swab transport systems in the detection of avian influenza virus excretion from infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Roelandt, Sophie; Outtrim, Linzy; Browning, Clare; Alexander, Dennis J; Brown, Ian H; Irvine, Richard M

    2012-09-01

    The role of wild birds in the epidemiology and ecology of influenza A viruses has long been recognised (Alexander, 2007a). As a result of the emergence of a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and the apparent role of wild birds in its spread across Asia, Europe and Africa, avian influenza (AI) wild bird surveillance has been implemented in many countries including, since February 2006, a mandatory programme in the European Union (CEC, 2006a). In the present study the detection of virus excreted from Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally with A/mallard/England/2126/07 (H3N6) was investigated over a fourteen day period post-infection using cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs, with (wet) and without (dry) viral transport medium which were collected from each duck in alternating order. For influenza A virus matrix gene RNA detection, wet oropharyngeal swabs were significantly more sensitive than dry oropharyngeal on days 4-5 after infection. For cloacal samples, dry swabs were equivalent or superior to wet swabs throughout the study. Although differences in detection between dry and wet swabs were observed, the qualitative bird-level results were unaffected, meaning that the infection status of individual birds was correctly determined.

  6.  Association between hepatitis B virus and chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Donato, Francesca M; Messa, Piergiorgio

     Background. Hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease are prevalent and remain a major public health problem worldwide. It remains unclear how infection with hepatitis B virus impacts on the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.

  7. SPF rabbits infected with rabbit hepatitis E virus isolate experimentally showing the chronicity of hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits.

  8. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus at a Community Fair: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Garmen A.; Hill, Mary A.; de Medina, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recommendations for screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), most individuals are still unaware of their infection status. The disparities in screening for HBV and HCV can be attributed to lack of awareness, language barriers, and difficulty in accessing healthcare. To address these issues, an exhibit booth was set up at an annual cultural festival to promote awareness about HBV and HCV and also provide free screening for a local Floridian community. Recruitment was conducted in various languages by physicians and nurses who specialize in hepatology. All materials associated with the screening process were sponsored by the Schiff Center for Liver Diseases, which is located at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida. In the first year of the screening initiative, 173 of 11,000 fair attendees were screened for HBV. Twenty-nine (17%) of those screened tested positive for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and only 1 individual tested positive for chronic HBV, with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Screening for HCV and an extended patient questionnaire were added to the screening program in the second year of the initiative. A total 231 of 9,000 fair attendees volunteered to be screened for both HBV and HCV. Twenty-nine (13%) of these people tested positive for anti-HBc, and 3 tested positive for HBsAg. Only 1 person tested positive for anti-HCV, but this individual had undetectable HCV RNA levels. Our single-center experience illustrates that, despite efforts to improve access to screening, only 2-3% of attendees at a cultural fair embraced the screening efforts. Other strategies will be required to enhance participation in screening programs for viral hepatitis. PMID:23943664

  9. Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an important disease in many developing countries of Asia and Africa with large explosive outbreaks and is also endemic with sporadic or cluster cases of hepatitis in many industrialized countries. The causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), is currently classified in the family Hepeviridae. Thus far, four putative genera of HEV representing mammalian, avian, and fish species have been identified and characterized worldwide. Within the mammalian HEV that infects humans, genotypes 1 and 2 are associated with epidemics and restricted to humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and associated with sporadic and cluster cases of hepatitis E. As a fecal-orally transmitted disease, waterborne transmission is still an important route of HEV transmission especially for large outbreaks associated with genotypes 1 and 2. However, genetic identification of numerous animal strains of HEV and the demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by these animal strains have significantly broadened the host range and diversity of HEV and raised public health concerns for zoonosis and food safety associated with genotypes 3 and 4 HEV infection. Pigs and likely other animal species serve as reservoirs for HEV. Direct contact with infected pigs and other animals and consumption of contaminated animal meat and meat products pose risks for HEV infection. In this article, the current understanding of the zoonotic and foodborne transmissions of HEV as well as strategies to prevent zoonosis and ensure food safety is discussed.

  10. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Karoney, Mercy Jelagat; Siika, Abraham Mogisi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viral pandemic and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. This review highlights the epidemiology and management of Hepatitis C in Africa. We searched for articles on medline using the terms, "Hepatitis C", "Prevalence", "Epidemiology", "Africa" and "Treatment". The bibliographies of the articles found were used to find other references. We included articles published after 1995 only. The data was summarized and presented in tables and figures. Africa has the highest WHO estimated regional HCV prevalence (5.3%). Egypt has the highest prevalence (17.5%) of HCV in the world. Genotypes commonly found in Africa are 1, 4 and 5. Genotype 3 is found in Egypt and parts of Central Africa. Blood transfusion is a major means of acquisition of HCV infection. While treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin is recommended for patients with chronic HCV, no data were found on their use in Africa. Neither were there any data on definitive management (liver transplantation) for those with end stage disease. Data on HCV infection in Africa are scarce. This suggests that hepatitis C is still a neglected disease in many countries. Limited data exist in literature on HCV in Africa.

  11. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samuel S.; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Gillies, Robert D.; Foster, Andrew L.; Barbati, Zachary R.; Smith, Davey M.; Fierer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods. We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results. Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions. One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  12. Viruses in cancer cell plasticity: the role of hepatitis C virus in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are considered as causative agents of a significant proportion of human cancers. While the very stringent criteria used for their classification probably lead to an underestimation, only six human viruses are currently classified as oncogenic. In this review we give a brief historical account of the discovery of oncogenic viruses and then analyse the mechanisms underlying the infectious causes of cancer. We discuss viral strategies that evolved to ensure virus propagation and spread can alter cellular homeostasis in a way that increases the probability of oncogenic transformation and acquisition of stem cell phenotype. We argue that a useful way of analysing the convergent characteristics of viral infection and cancer is to examine how viruses affect the so-called cancer hallmarks. This view of infectious origin of cancer is illustrated by examples from hepatitis C infection, which is associated with a high proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25691824

  13. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland.

    PubMed

    Larska, M; Krzysiak, M K; Jabłoński, A; Kęsik, J; Bednarski, M; Rola, J

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos). HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 44.4% (95% CI 38.3-50.7) serum samples originated only from wild boars. The percentage of seropositive wild boars differed significantly between the provinces and was positively correlated with the wild boar density and rurality of the area. This study showed that HEV circulates among wild boar population in Poland, and this species should be considered as an important reservoir of the virus.

  14. Novel mechanism for reverse transcription in hepatitis B viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, G H; Seeger, C

    1993-01-01

    Reverse transcription of all retroviruses and most retroid elements requires tRNA as a primer for DNA synthesis. However, in hepatitis B viruses the viral polymerase itself acts as a primer for reverse transcription (G.-H. Wang and C. Seeger, Cell 71:663-670, 1992). We have now demonstrated that in order to prime DNA synthesis, the polymerase binds to an RNA hairpin, which then serves as a template for the formation of a short DNA primer that is covalently linked to protein. Following its synthesis, the nascent DNA strand apparently dissociates from its template and reanneals with complementary sequences at the 3' end of the RNA genome, where DNA synthesis continues. Since this RNA hairpin also functions as a packaging signal for viral RNA, hepadnaviruses have adopted a replication strategy that relies on the same signal for two biochemically distinct events, RNA packaging and reverse transcription. This mechanism is without precedent among all known retroid elements and among other viruses and bacteriophages that use protein as a primer for RNA or DNA synthesis. It could provide an effective target for antiviral therapy, which is required for the treatment of more than 300 million carriers of hepatitis B virus. Images PMID:7692081

  15. Large-Scale Production and Structural and Biophysical Characterizations of the Human Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Vörös, Judit; Urbanek, Annika; Rautureau, Gilles Jean Philippe; O'Connor, Maggie; Fisher, Henry C.; Ashcroft, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen that causes serious liver disease and 600,000 deaths annually. Approved therapies for treating chronic HBV infections usually target the multifunctional viral polymerase (hPOL). Unfortunately, these therapies—broad-spectrum antivirals—are not general cures, have side effects, and cause viral resistance. While hPOL remains an attractive therapeutic target, it is notoriously difficult to express and purify in a soluble form at yields appropriate for structural studies. Thus, no empirical structural data exist for hPOL, and this impedes medicinal chemistry and rational lead discovery efforts targeting HBV. Here, we present an efficient strategy to overexpress recombinant hPOL domains in Escherichia coli, purifying them at high yield and solving their known aggregation tendencies. This allowed us to perform the first structural and biophysical characterizations of hPOL domains. Apo-hPOL domains adopt mainly α-helical structures with small amounts of β-sheet structures. Our recombinant material exhibited metal-dependent, reverse transcriptase activity in vitro, with metal binding modulating the hPOL structure. Calcomine orange 2RS, a small molecule that inhibits duck HBV POL activity, also inhibited the in vitro priming activity of recombinant hPOL. Our work paves the way for structural and biophysical characterizations of hPOL and should facilitate high-throughput lead discovery for HBV. IMPORTANCE The viral polymerase from human hepatitis B virus (hPOL) is a well-validated therapeutic target. However, recombinant hPOL has a well-deserved reputation for being extremely difficult to express in a soluble, active form in yields appropriate to the structural studies that usually play an important role in drug discovery programs. This has hindered the development of much-needed new antivirals for HBV. However, we have solved this problem and report here procedures for expressing recombinant hPOL domains in

  16. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  17. Atypical serological profiles in hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério A A

    2013-04-01

    During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, at least four antigen-antibody systems are observed: HBsAg and anti-HBs; preS antigen and anti-preS antibody; HBcAg and anti-HBc; and HBeAg and anti-HBe. Through the examination of these antigen-antibody systems, hepatitis B infection is diagnosed and the course of the disorder may be observed. Although the serologic findings that allow both the diagnosis of HBV infection as well as assessing of its clinical course are already well established, the dynamics of viral proteins expression and of the antibodies production may vary during the infection natural course. This causes the HBV infection to be occasionally associated with the presence of uncommon serological profiles, which could lead to doubts in the interpretation of results or suspicion of a serological result being incorrect. This paper is dedicated to the discussion of some of these profiles and their significance.

  18. Epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infections, Germany, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mirko S; Stark, Klaus; Behnke, Susanne C; Schreier, Eckart; Frank, Christina

    2009-11-01

    Approximately 60% of hepatitis A virus infections in Germany occur in persons without a travel history to disease-endemic areas and for whom sources of infection are unknown. Recommendation of pretravel vaccination fails to prevent the remaining imported infections. Using enhanced surveillance in 2007-2008, we analyzed epidemiologic patterns of hepatitis A in Germany and appropriateness and adequacy of current immunization recommendations. Young patients with a migration background who had visited friends and family in their ancestral countries accounted for most imported cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed high diversity of sequence data and clustering of strains with similar regions of origin or patient migration backgrounds. Virologic findings are compatible with those of low-incidence countries, where virtually all infections are directly or indirectly imported from other regions. Germans with a migration background are seen as a special risk group so far insufficiently reached by pretravel vaccination advice.

  19. Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Inhibitors: Current and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Currently, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered a serious health-care problem all over the world. A good number of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV infection are in clinical progress including NS3-4A protease inhibitors, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, and NS5A inhibitors as well as host targeted inhibitors. Two NS3-4A protease inhibitors (telaprevir and boceprevir) have been recently approved for the treatment of hepatitis C in combination with standard of care (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin). The new therapy has significantly improved sustained virologic response (SVR); however, the adverse effects associated with this therapy are still the main concern. In addition to the emergence of viral resistance, other targets must be continually developed. One such underdeveloped target is the helicase portion of the HCV NS3 protein. This review article summarizes our current understanding of HCV treatment, particularly with those of NS3 inhibitors. PMID:24282816

  20. Novel approaches towards conquering hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Yi; Chen, Hong-Song

    2007-01-01

    Currently approved treatments for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include the immunomodulatory agent, IFN-α, and nucleos(t)ide analogues. Their efficacy is limited by their side effects, as well as the induction of viral mutations that render them less potent. It is thus necessary to develop drugs that target additional viral antigens. Chemicals and biomaterials by unique methods of preventing HBV replication are currently being developed, including novel nucleosides and newly synthesized compounds such as capsid assembling and mRNA transcription inhibitors. Molecular therapies that target different stages of the HBV life cycle will aid current methods to manage chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The use of immunomodulators and gene therapy are also under consideration. This report summarizes the most recent treatment possibilities for CHB infection. Emerging therapies and their potential mechanisms, efficacy, and pitfalls are discussed. PMID:17352010

  1. High Prevalence and Predominance of Hepatitis Delta Virus Genotype 1 Infection in Cameroon▿

    PubMed Central

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon. PMID:21209162

  2. High prevalence and predominance of hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 infection in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon.

  3. Linkage to Care for Suburban Heroin Users with Hepatitis C Virus Infection, New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Akyar, Eda; Seneca, Kathleen H; Akyar, Serra; Schofield, Neal; Schwartz, Mark P; Nahass, Ronald G

    2016-05-01

    We identified a 41.4% prevalence of hepatitis C virus, absence of HIV, and unexpectedly high frequency of hepatitis C virus genotype 3 among suburban New Jersey heroin users 17-35 years of age during 2014-2015. Despite 2 clinicians prepared to engage these users, few were successfully linked to care and treated.

  4. Linkage to Care for Suburban Heroin Users with Hepatitis C Virus Infection, New Jersey, USA

    PubMed Central

    Seneca, Kathleen H.; Akyar, Serra; Schofield, Neal; Schwartz, Mark P.; Nahass, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    We identified a 41.4% prevalence of hepatitis C virus, absence of HIV, and unexpectedly high frequency of hepatitis C virus genotype 3 among suburban New Jersey heroin users 17–35 years of age during 2014–2015. Despite 2 clinicians prepared to engage these users, few were successfully linked to care and treated. PMID:27089172

  5. Chimeric hepatitis B virus core particles with parts or copies of the hepatitis C virus core protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, A; Tanaka, T; Hoshi, Y; Kato, N; Tachibana, K; Iizuka, H; Machida, A; Okamoto, H; Yamasaki, M; Miyakawa, Y

    1993-01-01

    Either parts or multiple copies of the core gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were fused to the 3' terminus of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core gene with 34 codons removed. As many as four copies of HCV core protein (720 amino acids) were fused to the carboxy terminus of truncated HBV core protein (149 amino acids) without preventing the assembly of HBV core particles. Chimeric core particles were sandwiched between monoclonal antibody to HBV core and that to HCV core, thereby indicating that antigenic determinants of both HBV and HCV cores were accessible on them. Proteolytic digestion deprived chimeric core particles of the antigenicity for the HCV core without affecting that of the HBV core, confirming the surface exposure of HCV core determinants. The density of HCV core determinants on chimeric core particles increased as copies of fused HCV core protein were increased. Hybrid core particles with multiple HCV core determinants would be instrumental as an antigen probe for detecting class-specific antibodies to the HCV core in patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C and for simultaneous detection of antibodies to HBV core and those to HCV core in donated blood. Images PMID:8396669

  6. Hepatitis E virus: animal reservoirs and zoonotic risk.

    PubMed

    Meng, X J

    2010-01-27

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a small, non-enveloped, single-strand, positive-sense RNA virus of approximately 7.2kb in size. HEV is classified in the family Hepeviridae consisting of four recognized major genotypes that infect humans and other animals. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans and often associated with large outbreaks and epidemics in developing countries with poor sanitation conditions, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 HEV infect humans, pigs and other animal species and are responsible for sporadic cases of hepatitis E in both developing and industrialized countries. The avian HEV associated with Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome in chickens is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEV, and likely represents a new genus in the family. There exist three open reading frames in HEV genome: ORF1 encodes non-structural proteins, ORF2 encodes the capsid protein, and the ORF3 encodes a small phosphoprotein. ORF2 and ORF3 are translated from a single bicistronic mRNA, and overlap each other but neither overlaps ORF1. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system and a practical animal model for HEV, the mechanisms of HEV replication and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The recent identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV from pigs and chickens and the demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by these animal strains raise potential public health concerns for zoonotic HEV transmission. It has been shown that the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV strains from pigs can infect humans, and vice versa. Accumulating evidence indicated that hepatitis E is a zoonotic disease, and swine and perhaps other animal species are reservoirs for HEV. A vaccine against HEV is not yet available.

  7. Autoimmune hepatitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Leila; Beattie, Adam; Green, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. Patient Concerns: Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state. Diagnoses: Autoimmune Hepatitis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatotoxicity, Liver Injury, Liver Transplantation. Interventions: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with HIV and AIH based on histological, serologic, biochemical demographic, and clinical data. Outcomes: Five patients were identified with autoimmune hepatitis; 4 of 5 were women, and all were African or African-American. The age at the time of AIH diagnosis was 46.6 ± 13.4 years. All patients acquired HIV sexually and all had CD4 counts >250 cells/uL (456–1011 cells/uL) and undetectable HIV viral loads at the time of AIH diagnosis. One patient presented with acute liver failure necessitating liver transplantation and developed AIH posttransplantation. At the time of diagnosis, the AST were 350 ± 448 U/L, ALT 247 ± 190 U/L, bilirubin 7 ± 12 mg/dL, and alkaline phosphatase 126 ± 53 U/L. All patients had histologic evidence of AIH on liver biopsies. Patients were successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine, without a decrease in CD4 <250 cells/uL, infectious complications or significant side effects. Lessons: AIH occurs in patients with well-controlled HIV. In our patient cohort, immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and azathioprine was safe and effective in inducing remission, without significant complications or development of opportunistic infections. PMID:28207511

  8. 75 FR 55797 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing Direct-Acting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chronic Hepatitis C Virus... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing Direct... specific steps in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication cycle. The guidance outlines the types...

  9. Extra-hepatic manifestations associated with hepatitis E virus infection: a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bazerbachi, Fateh; Haffar, Samir; Garg, Sushil K; Lake, John R

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant public health problem that afflicts almost 20 million individuals annually and causes acute liver injury in 3.5 million, with approximately 56 000 deaths. As with other viral hepatitides, extra-hepatic manifestations could represent an important aspect of this infection. The spectrum of these manifestations is still emerging. Acute pancreatitis and neurological, musculoskeletal, hematological, renal, and other immune-mediated manifestations have been described. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review the published literature of extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection. Data sources: We searched the PubMed database using the MeSH term “hepatitis E” and each of the extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection. No language or date restrictions were set in these searches. Searches retrieving articles with non-A, non-B hepatitis were excluded. Additional articles were identified through the reference lists of included articles. Results: Several extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection have been published. The temporal association between some extra-hepatic manifestations and HEV infection and the exclusion of other possible etiologies suggests that HEV infection could have caused some of them. According to the available data, HEV infection appears to be strongly associated with acute pancreatitis, neurological disorders (with primarily dominant peripheral nerve involvement, most commonly manifested as Guillain-Barré syndrome, followed by neuralgic amyotrophy), hematological diseases (hemolytic anemia due to glucose phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and severe thrombocytopenia), glomerulonephritis, and mixed cryoglobulinemia. More data are needed to clarify whether an association exists with musculoskeletal or other immune-mediated manifestations. Conclusions: HEV infection should be considered in patients with acute pancreatitis

  10. H5-based DNA constructs derived from selected highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus induce high levels of humoral antibodies in Muscovy ducks against low pathogenic viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background H5 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection in domestic ducks is a major problem in duck producing countries. Their silent circulation is an ongoing source of potential highly pathogenic or zoonotic emerging strains. To prevent such events, vaccination of domestic ducks might be attempted but remains challenging. Currently licensed vector vaccines derived from H5N1 HPAIV possess clade 0, clade 2.2 or clade 2.3.4 HA sequences: selection of the best HA candidate inducing the largest cross protection is a key issue. For this purpose, DNA immunization of specific pathogen free Muscovy ducks was performed using different synthetic codon optimized (opt) or native HA genes from H5N2 LPAIV and several H5N1 HPAIV clade 2.1, 2.2.1 and 2.3.4. Humoral cross-immunity was assessed 3 weeks after boost by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) against three French H5 LPAIV antigens. Findings Vaccination with LP H5N2 HA induced the highest VN antibody titre against the homologous antigen; however, the corresponding HI titre was lower and comparable to HI titres obtained after immunization with opt HA derived from clades 2.3.4 or 2.1. Compared to the other HPAIV-derived constructs, vaccination with clade 2.3.4 opt HA consistently induced the highest antibody titres in HI and VN, when tested against all three H5 LPAIV antigens and H5N2 LPAIV, respectively: differences in titres against this last strain were statistically significant. Conclusion The present study provides a standardized method to assess cross-immunity based on HA immunogenicity alone, and suggests that clade 2.3.4-derived recombinant vaccines might be the optimal candidates for further challenge testing to vaccinate domestic Muscovy ducks against H5 LPAIV. PMID:24762011

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF REOVIRUS, HEPATITIS A VIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, NORWALK VIRUS AND ROTAVIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water sources are often found to be contaminated by enteric viruses. This is a public health concern as food and waterborne outbreaks caused by enteric viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses are a common occurrence. All of these viru...

  12. Molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus in patients with acute hepatitis in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    García, Cristina Gutiérrez; Sánchez, Doneyla; Villalba, Maria Caridad Montalvo; Pujol, Flor Helene; de Los Ángeles Rodríguez Lay, Licel; Pinto, Belquis; Chacón, Elsa Patricia; Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a common infection in developing countries. HEV infection occurs as outbreaks, as sporadic clinical cases and as large epidemics in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HEV infection in patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, referred to the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in Venezuela. Seventy-four sera were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgM antibodies. HEV-RNA was amplified from anti-HEV IgM positive sera using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for ORF1 (RNA dependent RNA polymerase region) and the amplicons sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The frequency of anti-HEV IgM was 22/74 (30%) in the samples tested. Dual infection with HAV and HEV was found in 31% (12/39) of anti-HAV IgM positive patients. Viremia was detected in 3/22 (14%) of sera positive for anti-HEV IgM. Two HEV strains were classified as genotype 1 and one as genotype 3, which were closely related to Yam 67 (north of India) and US1 isolates from the USA, respectively. These findings suggest that HEV is an important cause of acute viral hepatitis in Venezuela as a single infection or co-infection with HAV, with high morbidity in children and young adults suggesting that this infection is endemic in Venezuela.

  13. A Single Lineage of Hepatitis E Virus Causes both Outbreaks and Sporadic Hepatitis in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elduma, Adel Hussein; Zein, Mai Mohammed Adam; Karlsson, Marie; Elkhidir, Isam M.E.; Norder, Heléne

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have reported sporadic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections during non-outbreak periods in Africa. In this study, the prevalence of HEV infection in Sudan was investigated in 432 patients with acute hepatitis from 12 localities in North Kordofan, and from 152 patients involved in smaller outbreaks of hepatitis in the neighbouring Darfur. HEV infection was diagnosed in 147 (25%) patients: 98 from Kordofan and 49 from Darfur. The mortality was 10%; six of the patients who died from the infection were pregnant women. HEV RNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 38 (26%) patients: 22 from Kordofan and 16 from Darfur. Partial open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 were sequenced from HEV from nine and three patients, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sudanese strains belonged to genotype 1 (HEV1), and confirmed the segregation of African HEV1 strains into one branch divergent from Asian HEV1. It also revealed that the Sudanese strains from this study and from an outbreak in 2004 formed a separate clade with a common ancestor, distinct from strains from the neighbouring Chad and Egypt. This HEV strain has thus spread in a large area of Sudan, where it has caused both sporadic hepatitis E and outbreaks from at least 2004 and onwards. These data demonstrate that hepatitis E is a constant, on-going public health problem in Sudan and that there is a need for hepatitis E surveillance, outbreak preparedness, and general improvements of the sanitation in these remote areas of the country. PMID:27782061

  14. Identification of acute self-limited hepatitis B among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus-related acute hepatitis: a hospital-based epidemiological and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Y-N

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify acute self-limited hepatitis B (ASL-HB) among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute hepatitis. Data were available for 220 patients diagnosed with HBV-related acute hepatitis, of whom 164 had acute hepatitis B (AHB). Of these, 160 were confirmed as ASL-HB: three (1.9%) evolved to chronic hepatitis B and one (0.6%) developed fulminant hepatitis and died. Comparisons were also made between AHB and acute infections with hepatitis A (HA) and hepatitis E (HE) viruses. During the study period, the number of patients with AHB exceeded the sum of those with acute HA and acute HE infections. There was no distinct seasonal peak for AHB infection, whereas both acute HA and acute HE infections occurred more frequently in the spring. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were similar for all three types of hepatitis, but significant differences were seen in some biochemical parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that symptomatic AHB is not rare in China but it seldom evolves to chronic hepatitis B.

  15. [Blood transfusion and viral diseases. Recent acquisitions concerning viral hepatitis viruses, cytomegaloviruses and Epstein-Barr virus].

    PubMed

    Spanò, C

    1979-02-11

    In recent years, an increasingly clear picture has been formed of the virus-induced syndromes that may follow a blood transfusion or the use of blood derivatives. Up to about 10 years ago, post-infusion infection was predominantly due to serum hepatitis. Blumberg's discovery of HBsAg (formerly known as Australia antigen) has made it possible to check and prevent viral hepatitis, type B, and to recognise such distinct forms as the mononucleosis-like syndrome caused by cytomegalic virus, infectious mononucleosis caused by EB virus, and so-called non A/non B hepatitis. A brief account of recent advances with respect to the biological features of the viruses responsible for type A and type B hepatitis, CMV and EB virus, and their behaviour in man is followed by an examination of the transfusional aspects, the methods used in their study, and the difficulties involved. The soundness of existing methods and the need for their standardisation are discussed.

  16. Hepatitis C virus relies on lipoproteins for its life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Germana; Di Caprio, Giorgia; Fimia, Gian Maria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Marco; Alonzi, Tonino

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 150 million people worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection becomes chronic causing liver disease ranging from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Viral persistence and pathogenesis are due to the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, mainly lipid metabolism and innate immunity. In particular, HCV exploits the lipoprotein machineries for almost all steps of its life cycle. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge concerning the interplay between HCV and lipoprotein metabolism. We discuss the role played by members of lipoproteins in HCV entry, replication and virion production. PMID:26877603

  17. Untypeable hepatitis C virus subtypes in Pakistan: A neglected section.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Nasim, Zeeshan; Zahir, Fazli; Ali, Shahid; Ali, Abid; Iqbal, Aqib; Munir, Iqbal

    2016-12-01

    Diagnostically untypeable subtypes contribute a considerable percent of hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes in Pakistan. In the present study, chronically infected HCV patients with known viremia were subjected to HCV genotyping. Among the total retrieved samples, 92.7% (64/69) were found typeable while 7.24% (5/69) were diagnostically untypeable. In conclusion, the presence of large number of untypeable HCV subtypes emphasizes the need of an updated type-specific genotyping assay and consideration of primers for proportionally rare subtypes to minimize the number of untypeable HCV subtypes.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Experimental Model Systems and Antiviral drug Research*

    PubMed Central

    Uprichard, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 130 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) making it a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Because the currently available therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin is only effective in a subset of patients, the development of new HCV antivirals is a healthcare imperative. This review discusses the experimental models available for HCV antiviral drug research, recent advances in HCV antiviral drug development, as well as active research being pursued to facilitate development of new HCV-specific therapeutics. PMID:20960298

  19. Two years' experience of implementing molecular screening of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus 1, 2 in Riyadh blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mohamud, Hanat S; Mohamed, Deqa H; Alqahtani, Farjah H; Almajid, Fahad M; Alswat, Khalid; Somily, Ali M

    2016-04-01

    Molecular screening technologies have improved blood safety by reducing the number of window-period transmissions relative to serological screening. In the two years following the introduction of molecular testing in King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, 25,920 donor samples were screened in parallel by both serological and molecular techniques for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). No HCV or HIV NAT yields were detected. However, molecular screening enabled the interdiction of two confirmed HBV NAT yields. This is only the second report of confirmed HBV NAT yield in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and amongst the few reports in the wider Middle East and North Africa region.

  20. Interaction between hepatitis C virus and metabolic factors.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yasunori; Mizuta, Toshihiko

    2014-03-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection disrupts the normal metabolism processes, but is also influenced by several of the host's metabolic factors. An obvious and significantly detrimental pathophysiological feature of HCV infection is insulin resistance in hepatic and peripheral tissues. Substantial research efforts have been put forth recently to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HCV-induced insulin resistance, and several cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, have been identified as important contributors to the development of insulin resistance in the distant peripheral tissues of HCV-infected patients and animal models. The demonstrated etiologies of HCV-induced whole-body insulin resistance include oxidative stress, lipid metabolism abnormalities, hepatic steatosis and iron overload. In addition, myriad effects of this condition have been characterized, including glucose intolerance, resistance to antiviral therapy, progression of hepatic fibrosis, development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and general decrease in quality of life. Metabolic-related conditions and disorders, such as visceral obesity and diabetes mellitus, have been shown to synergistically enhance HCV-induced metabolic disturbance, and are associated with worse prognosis. Yet, the molecular interactions between HCV-induced metabolic disturbance and host-associated metabolic factors remain largely unknown. The diet and lifestyle recommendations for chronic hepatitis C are basically the same as those for obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, patients are suggested to restrict their dietary iron intake, abstain from alcohol and tobacco, and increase their intake of green tea and coffee (to attain the beneficial effects of caffeine and polyphenols). While successful clinical management of HCV-infected patients with metabolic disorders has also been achieved with some anti-diabetic (i.e., metformin) and anti-lipid (i.e., statins) medications, it is recommended that

  1. New perspectives in occult hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Carreño, Vicente; Bartolomé, Javier; Castillo, Inmaculada; Quiroga, Juan Antonio

    2012-06-21

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, defined as the presence of HCV RNA in liver and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable viral RNA in serum by standard assays, can be found in anti-HCV positive patients with normal serum levels of liver enzymes and in anti-HCV negative patients with persistently elevated liver enzymes of unknown etiology. Occult HCV infection is distributed worldwide and all HCV genotypes seem to be involved in this infection. Occult hepatitis C has been found not only in anti-HCV positive subjects with normal values of liver enzymes or in chronic hepatitis of unknown origin but also in several groups at risk for HCV infection such as hemodialysis patients or family members of patients with occult HCV. This occult infection has been reported also in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease. Occult HCV infection seems to be less aggressive than chronic hepatitis C although patients affected by occult HCV may develop liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, anti-HCV negative patients with occult HCV may benefit from antiviral therapy with pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin. The persistence of very low levels of HCV RNA in serum and in PBMCs, along with the maintenance of specific T-cell responses against HCV-antigens observed during a long-term follow-up of patients with occult hepatitis C, indicate that occult HCV is a persistent infection that is not spontaneously eradicated. This is an updated report on diagnosis, epidemiology and clinical implications of occult HCV with special emphasis on anti-HCV negative cases.

  2. Advances with using CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene editing to treat infections with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Buhle; Bloom, Kristie; Scott, Tristan; Ely, Abdullah; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2017-01-10

    Chronic infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) account for the majority of cases of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for the infections have limitations and improved efficacy is necessary to prevent complications in carriers of the viruses. In the case of HBV persistence, the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is particularly problematic. Licensed therapies have little effect on cccDNA and HBV replication relapses following treatment withdrawal. Disabling cccDNA is thus key to curing HBV infections and application of gene editing technology, such as harnessing the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system, has curative potential. Several studies have reported good efficacy when employing CRISPR/Cas technologies to disable HBV replication in cultured cells and in hydrodynamically injected mice. Recent advances with HCV drug development have revolutionized treatment of the infection. Nevertheless, individuals may be refractory to treatment. Targeting RNA from HCV with CRISPR/Cas isolated from Francisella novicida may have therapeutic utility. Although preclinical work shows that CRISPR/Cas technology has potential to overcome infection with HBV and HCV, significant challenges need to be met. Ensuring specificity for viral targets and efficient delivery of the gene editing sequences to virus-infected cells are particularly important. The field is at an interesting stage and the future of curative antiviral drug regimens, particularly for treatment of chronic HBV infection, may well entail use of combinations that include derivatives of CRISPR/Cas.

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in the family setting of patients with occult hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Barril, Guillermina; Carreño, Vicente

    2009-07-01

    Family members of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at increased risk of HCV infection but the prevalence of HCV among family members of patients with occult HCV infection is not known. Anti-HCV, serum HCV RNA and levels of liver enzymes were determined in 102 family members of 50 index patients with occult HCV infection and in 118 family members of 59 chronic hepatitis C index patients. HCV RNA and/or anti-HCV were detected in 10/102 (9.8%) relatives of patients with occult HCV infection and in 4/118 (3.4%) of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Fourteen additional family members (seven were relatives of index patients with occult HCV infection) had abnormal values of liver enzymes without serological markers of HCV infection. Two of these patients (who were relatives of two index patients with occult HCV infection) underwent a liver biopsy and were diagnosed with an occult HCV infection because HCV RNA was detected in the liver cells in the absence of serological HCV markers. In conclusion, the prevalence of HCV infection among family members of patients with occult HCV infection was similar to that found among family members of patients with chronic hepatitis C. This stresses the need to adopt strategies to prevent the transmission of HCV in the family setting of patients with occult HCV infection.

  4. Tools for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection and hepatic fibrosis staging

    PubMed Central

    Saludes, Verónica; González, Victoria; Planas, Ramon; Matas, Lurdes; Ausina, Vicente; Martró, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health issue. Hepatitis C can be cured by therapy, but many infected individuals are unaware of their status. Effective HCV screening, fast diagnosis and characterization, and hepatic fibrosis staging are highly relevant for controlling transmission, treating infected patients and, consequently, avoiding end-stage liver disease. Exposure to HCV can be determined with high sensitivity and specificity with currently available third generation serology assays. Additionally, the use of point-of-care tests can increase HCV screening opportunities. However, active HCV infection must be confirmed by direct diagnosis methods. Additionally, HCV genotyping is required prior to starting any treatment. Increasingly, high-volume clinical laboratories use different types of automated platforms, which have simplified sample processing, reduced hands-on-time, minimized contamination risks and human error and ensured full traceability of results. Significant advances have also been made in the field of fibrosis stage assessment with the development of non-invasive methods, such as imaging techniques and serum-based tests. However, no single test is currently available that is able to completely replace liver biopsy. This review focuses on approved commercial tools used to diagnose HCV infection and the recommended hepatic fibrosis staging tests. PMID:24707126

  5. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Žele, Diana; Barry, Aline F; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W; Vengušt, Gorazd; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by serology, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by HEV RNA detection using a real-time PCR assay. Antibodies against HEV were detected in 30.2% (87/288) of animals tested, whereas HEV RNA was detected in only one sample. This is the first evidence of HEV presence in the wild boar population in Slovenia, and these results suggest that these animals are part of the HEV epidemiological cycle in the country.

  6. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Qin; Wei, Yunan; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα) and type II interferon (IFNγ) against duck plague virus (DPV). Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79%) and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%). In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the “workhorse” of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx) and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease. PMID:27438848

  7. p53-Mediated Cellular Response to DNA Damage in Cells with Replicative Hepatitis B Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puisieux, Alain; Ji, Jingwei; Guillot, Celine; Legros, Yann; Soussi, Thierry; Isselbacher, Kurt; Ozturk, Mehmet

    1995-02-01

    Wild-type p53 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by protecting cells from deleterious effects of genotoxic agents through the induction of a G_1/S arrest or apoptosis as a response to DNA damage. Transforming proteins of several oncogenic DNA viruses inactivate tumor suppressor activity of p53 by blocking this cellular response. To test whether hepatitis B virus displays a similar effect, we studied the p53-mediated cellular response to DNA damage in 2215 hepatoma cells with replicative hepatitis B virus. We demonstrate that hepatitis<