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Sample records for duiker cephalophus monticola

  1. Elaphodus cephalophus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie,, David M.; Lee, D.; Dolman, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Elaphodus cephalophus Milne-Edwards, 1872 (tufted deer) is usually considered polytypic with 3 or 4 recognized subspecies, depending on the source. It is a small dark chocolate-brown deer typified by a tuft of hair on its crown, sharp upper canines that protrude downward from under the upper lip, and rudimentary antlers on males; it is similar to muntjacs, to which it is closely related. E. cephalophusoccurs in humid, montane forests at elevations of 300–4,750 m in southwestern through southeastern China and perhaps northwestern Myanmar (historical records). Vulnerable to poaching in remote areas and relatively uncommon in zoos, it is considered vulnerable as a Class II species in China and listed as “Near Threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  2. Titrating the Cost of Plant Toxins Against Predators: a Case Study with Common Duikers, Sylvicapra grimmia.

    PubMed

    Abu Baker, Mohammad A

    2015-10-01

    Foragers face many variables that influence their food intake. These may include habitat structure, time, climate, resource characteristic, food quality, and plant defenses. I conducted foraging experiments using common duikers that involved: 1) testing the effect of plant toxins on foraging, and 2) titrating toxin intake against safety. I used giving up densities (GUDs, food remaining after foraging) to test for selection among trays containing alfalfa pellets treated with water, with 10% oxalic acid, or 10% quebracho tannin. Pairs of trays were placed within islands of woody vegetation and out in open grass. I also conducted a titration experiment by offering the duikers a choice between a patch with water-treated pellets placed at a risky site, or a patch with one of three oxalic acid-treated pellets at a safe site. This made it possible to determine the concentration of oxalic acid at which the cost of toxin in the safe site equals the predation cost at the risky site. The common duikers showed no selectivity among the three treatments at 10% concentration, however, GUDs in the open grass (i.e., safe) were significantly lower than in the wooded islands (i.e., risky). As the oxalic acid concentration increased at the safe sites, the duiker's food intake from the risky sites increased significantly. The results demonstrate that foraging hazards may come in different forms such as predation and plant toxins, and their interactions may alter habitat use, foraging patterns, and perceptions of risk. These variables occur under natural situations, altering the overall habitat quality. PMID:26364293

  3. Titrating the Cost of Plant Toxins Against Predators: a Case Study with Common Duikers, Sylvicapra grimmia.

    PubMed

    Abu Baker, Mohammad A

    2015-10-01

    Foragers face many variables that influence their food intake. These may include habitat structure, time, climate, resource characteristic, food quality, and plant defenses. I conducted foraging experiments using common duikers that involved: 1) testing the effect of plant toxins on foraging, and 2) titrating toxin intake against safety. I used giving up densities (GUDs, food remaining after foraging) to test for selection among trays containing alfalfa pellets treated with water, with 10% oxalic acid, or 10% quebracho tannin. Pairs of trays were placed within islands of woody vegetation and out in open grass. I also conducted a titration experiment by offering the duikers a choice between a patch with water-treated pellets placed at a risky site, or a patch with one of three oxalic acid-treated pellets at a safe site. This made it possible to determine the concentration of oxalic acid at which the cost of toxin in the safe site equals the predation cost at the risky site. The common duikers showed no selectivity among the three treatments at 10% concentration, however, GUDs in the open grass (i.e., safe) were significantly lower than in the wooded islands (i.e., risky). As the oxalic acid concentration increased at the safe sites, the duiker's food intake from the risky sites increased significantly. The results demonstrate that foraging hazards may come in different forms such as predation and plant toxins, and their interactions may alter habitat use, foraging patterns, and perceptions of risk. These variables occur under natural situations, altering the overall habitat quality.

  4. Burkholderia monticola sp. nov., isolated from mountain soil.

    PubMed

    Baek, Inwoo; Seo, Boram; Lee, Imchang; Yi, Hana; Chun, Jongsik

    2015-02-01

    An ivory/yellow, Gram-stain-negative, short-rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated JC2948(T), was isolated from a soil sample taken from Gwanak Mountain, Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JC2948(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia. The test strain showed highest sequence similarities to Burkholderia tropica LMG 22274(T) (97.6 %), Burkholderia acidipaludis NBRC 101816(T) (97.5 %), Burkholderia tuberum LMG 21444(T) (97.5 %), Burkholderia sprentiae LMG 27175(T) (97.4 %), Burkholderia terricola LMG 20594(T) (97.3 %) and Burkholderia diazotrophica LMG 26031(T) (97.1 %). Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) values, the new isolate represents a novel genomic species as it shows less than 90 % ANI values with other closely related species. Also, other phylosiological and biochemical comparisons allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain JC2948(T) from other members of the genus Burkholderia. Therefore, we suggest that this strain should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Burkholderia. The name Burkholderia monticola sp. nov. (type strain, JC2948(T) = JCM 19904(T) = KACC 17924(T)) is proposed.

  5. Ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes and Gyrodon monticola with Alnus acuminata from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Nouhra, Eduardo; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; McKay, Donaraye

    2005-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes Moser, Matheny & Daniele (sp. nov) and Gyrodon monticola Sing. on Alnus acuminata Kunth (Andean alder, aliso del cerro) are described based on morphological and anatomical features. Ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath fruitbodies of C. helodes and G. monticola from two homogeneous A. acuminata forest sites located in Tucuman and Catamarca Provinces in Argentina. C. helodes ectomycorrhizas showed a thick white to beige mantle exuding a milky juice when injured, were bluish toward the apex, and had hyphal strands in the mantle. G. monticola ectomycorrhizas showed some conspicuous features like highly differentiated rhizomorphs, inflated brown cells on the mantle surface, and hyaline and brown emanating hyphae with dolipores. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer provided a distinctive profile for each of the collections of fruitbodies and the mycorrhizal morphotypes. PMID:14648309

  6. Austrodontella monticola sp. nov., a new species of Collembola from montane New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Babenko, Anatoly; Minor, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Collembola were collected from soil in the alpine belt (1600-1900 m a.s.l.) of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A list of species found is provided. Austrodontella monticola sp. nov., the third species of a Odontellidae genus with a southern distribution is described. The other two species in the genus occur in southern Australia and in the Indian Ocean sector of the Subantarctic respectively. Notes on A. trispina (Womersley, 1935), the type species of the genus, are provided. PMID:26249888

  7. Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep

    2014-09-01

    Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Pinus monticola primary needles by RNA-seq provides novel insight into host resistance to Cronartium ribicola

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Five-needle pines are important forest species that have been devastated by white pine blister rust (WPBR, caused by Cronartium ribicola) across North America. Currently little transcriptomic and genomic data are available to understand molecular interactions in the WPBR pathosystem. Results We report here RNA-seq analysis results using Illumina deep sequencing of primary needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola) infected with WPBR. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the first P. monticola consensus transcriptome, which contained 39,439 unique transcripts with an average length of 1,303 bp and a total length of 51.4 Mb. About 23,000 P. monticola unigenes produced orthologous hits in the Pinus gene index (PGI) database (BLASTn with E values < e-100) and 6,300 genes were expressed actively (at RPKM ≥ 10) in the healthy tissues. Comparison of transcriptomes from WPBR-susceptible and -resistant genotypes revealed a total of 979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a significant fold change > 1.5 during P. monticola- C. ribicola interactions. Three hundred and ten DEGs were regulated similarly in both susceptible and resistant seedlings and 275 DEGs showed regulatory differences between susceptible and resistant seedlings post infection by C. ribicola. The DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings included a set of putative signal receptor genes encoding disease resistance protein homologs, calcineurin B-like (CBL)-interacting protein kinases (CIPK), F-box family proteins (FBP), and abscisic acid (ABA) receptor; transcriptional factor (TF) genes of multiple families; genes homologous to apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), flowering locus T-like protein (FT), and subtilisin-like protease. DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings also included a wide diversity of down-stream genes (encoding enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways, pathogenesis-related -PR proteins of multiple families, and anti-microbial proteins). A large proportion

  9. Liquefaction of coal by Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola. Progress report, 1 January-31 March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Both Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Growth of Polyporus was shown to be faster and stronger than that of Poria under all conditions tested and the results reported here are based upon liquefaction of lignite coal by Polyporus. The liquefied coal samples were treated with acetonitrile which gave two fractions, a black precipitate and a light yellow liquid phase supernatant. This supernatant consists of acetonitrile and organic compounds which are soluble in acetonitrile. If the supernatant is drawn off with a Pasteur pipette followed by addition of water to the black precipitate, the precipitate dissolves instantly in the water producing a black liquid. Using these techniques, the products of coal liquefaction have been divided into two phases which are soluble either in acetonitrile or in water. Both fractions have been analyzed by HPLC and compounds have been partially separated. No peaks have been identified. However, two principal peaks of the acetonitrile fraction have been sent to PETC for chemical analysis by GC-MS. 9 figs.

  10. The importance of comparative phylogeography in diagnosing introduced species: a lesson from the seal salamander, Desmognathus monticola

    PubMed Central

    Bonett, Ronald M; Kozak, Kenneth H; Vieites, David R; Bare, Alison; Wooten, Jessica A; Trauth, Stanley E

    2007-01-01

    Background In most regions of the world human influences on the distribution of flora and fauna predate complete biotic surveys. In some cases this challenges our ability to discriminate native from introduced species. This distinction is particularly critical for isolated populations, because relicts of native species may need to be conserved, whereas introduced species may require immediate eradication. Recently an isolated population of seal salamanders, Desmognathus monticola, was discovered on the Ozark Plateau, ~700 km west of its broad continuous distribution in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Using Nested Clade Analysis (NCA) we test whether the Ozark isolate results from population fragmentation (a natural relict) or long distance dispersal (a human-mediated introduction). Results Despite its broad distribution in the Appalachian Mountains, the primary haplotype diversity of D. monticola is restricted to less than 2.5% of the distribution in the extreme southern Appalachians, where genetic diversity is high for other co-distributed species. By intensively sampling this genetically diverse region we located haplotypes identical to the Ozark isolate. Nested Clade Analysis supports the hypothesis that the Ozark population was introduced, but it was necessary to include haplotypes that are less than or equal to 0.733% divergent from the Ozark population in order to arrive at this conclusion. These critical haplotypes only occur in < 1.2% of the native distribution and NCA excluding them suggest that the Ozark population is a natural relict. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the isolated population of D. monticola from the Ozarks is not native to the region and may need to be extirpated rather than conserved, particularly because of its potential negative impacts on endemic Ozark stream salamander communities. Diagnosing a species as introduced may require locating nearly identical haplotypes in the known native distribution, which may be

  11. Mammals consumed by bonobos (Pan paniscus): new data from the Iyondji forest, Tshuapa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Maloueki, Ulrich; Bakaa, Batuafe; Bongoli, Lingomo; Kasalevo, Phila; Terada, Saeko; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Findings of regional variations in the behavioral patterns of non-human primates have led to the vigorous study of animal traditions (or culture), which contribute to a biological understanding of diversity in human cultures. Although our knowledge of behavioral variations of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) is limited compared with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), variations in the prey of this species have been reported across study sites. This study describes evidence of mammals consumed by bonobos in the Iyondji site, which was established in 2010. We found evidence that Iyondji bonobos consumed duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis, C. monticola) and diurnal monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), which is notable because only anomalures (Anomalurus spp.) are consumed by bonobos in Wamba, a long-term study site established in 1973, located in an area adjacent to Iyondji. Moreover, bonobos do not transfer between the two populations due to the river between the sites. According to our census of duikers and diurnal monkeys, Iyondji bonobos appeared to encounter diurnal monkeys more frequently than did Wamba bonobos. Although humans have apparently had a more pronounced impact on the habitats in Wamba than on those in Iyondji, it remains unclear how such environmental conditions may have contributed to the differences in the prey consumed by bonobos in different sites. Our findings suggest that additional research at various sites could reveal the nature of the variations in the behavior of bonobos.

  12. Mammals consumed by bonobos (Pan paniscus): new data from the Iyondji forest, Tshuapa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Maloueki, Ulrich; Bakaa, Batuafe; Bongoli, Lingomo; Kasalevo, Phila; Terada, Saeko; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Findings of regional variations in the behavioral patterns of non-human primates have led to the vigorous study of animal traditions (or culture), which contribute to a biological understanding of diversity in human cultures. Although our knowledge of behavioral variations of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) is limited compared with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), variations in the prey of this species have been reported across study sites. This study describes evidence of mammals consumed by bonobos in the Iyondji site, which was established in 2010. We found evidence that Iyondji bonobos consumed duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis, C. monticola) and diurnal monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), which is notable because only anomalures (Anomalurus spp.) are consumed by bonobos in Wamba, a long-term study site established in 1973, located in an area adjacent to Iyondji. Moreover, bonobos do not transfer between the two populations due to the river between the sites. According to our census of duikers and diurnal monkeys, Iyondji bonobos appeared to encounter diurnal monkeys more frequently than did Wamba bonobos. Although humans have apparently had a more pronounced impact on the habitats in Wamba than on those in Iyondji, it remains unclear how such environmental conditions may have contributed to the differences in the prey consumed by bonobos in different sites. Our findings suggest that additional research at various sites could reveal the nature of the variations in the behavior of bonobos. PMID:26968409

  13. A new derived and highly polymorphic chromosomal race of Liolaemus monticola (Iguanidae) from the 'Norte Chico' of Chile.

    PubMed

    Lamborot, M

    1998-06-01

    A multiple Robertsonian fission chromosomal race of the Liolaemus monticola complex in Chile is described and is shown to be the most derived and the most complex among the Liolaemus examined thus far. The 29 karyotyped lizards analysed from the locality of Mina Hierro Viejo, Petorca, Provincia de Valparaiso, Chile, exhibited a diploid chromosomal number ranging from 42 to 44, and several polymorphisms. The polymorphisms included: a pair 1 fission; a pair 2 fission plus a pericentric inversion in one of the fission products, which moved the NOR and satellite from the tip of the long arm of the metacentric 2 to the short arm of the fission product; a fission in pair 3; a polymorphism for an enlarged chromosome pair 6; and a polymorphism for a pericentric inversion in pair 7. This population is fixed for a fission of chromosome pair 4. A total of 76% of the lizards analysed were polymorphic for one or more pairs of chromosomes. We have compared these data with other Liolaemus monticola chromosomal races and calculated the Hardy-Weinberg ratios for the polymorphic chromosome pairs in this Multiple-Fission race. Karyotypic differences between the Northern (2n = 38-40) and the Multiple-Fission (2n = 42-44) races were attributed mainly to Robertsonian fissions, an enlarged chromosome and pericentric inversions involving the macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair. PMID:9688513

  14. UV-B effects on the nutritional chemistry of plants and the responses of a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780

  15. Molecular cloning of a pathogen/wound-inducible PR10 promoter from Pinus monticola and characterization in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Piggott, Nina; Zamani, Arezoo

    2005-05-01

    In Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don), the class ten pathogenesis-related (PR10) proteins comprise a family of multiple members differentially expressed upon pathogen infection and other environmental stresses. One of them, PmPR10-1.13, is studied here by investigating its transcriptional regulation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. For functional analyses of the PmPR10-1.13 promoter, a 1,316-bp promoter fragment and three 5' deletions were translationally fused to the ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The 1,316-bp promoter-driven GUS activity first appeared in hypocotyls and cotyledons in 2- to 3-day-old seedlings. As transgenic plants grew, GUS activity was detected strongly in apical meristems, next in stems and leaves. No GUS activity was detected in roots and in reproductive tissues of flower organs. In adult plants, the PmPR10-1.13 promoter-directed GUS expression was upregulated following pathogen infection and by wounding treatment, which generally mimic the endogenous expression pattern in western white pine. Promoter analysis of 5' deletions demonstrated that two regions between -1,316 and -930, and between -309 and -100 were responsible for the wound responsiveness. By structural and functional comparisons with PmPR10-1.14 promoter, putative wound-responsive elements were potentially identified in the PmPR10-1.13 promoter. In conclusion, PmPR10-1.13 showed properties of a defence-responsive gene, being transcriptionally upregulated upon biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:15609047

  16. Molecular cloning of a pathogen/wound-inducible PR10 promoter from Pinus monticola and characterization in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Piggott, Nina; Zamani, Arezoo

    2005-05-01

    In Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don), the class ten pathogenesis-related (PR10) proteins comprise a family of multiple members differentially expressed upon pathogen infection and other environmental stresses. One of them, PmPR10-1.13, is studied here by investigating its transcriptional regulation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. For functional analyses of the PmPR10-1.13 promoter, a 1,316-bp promoter fragment and three 5' deletions were translationally fused to the ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The 1,316-bp promoter-driven GUS activity first appeared in hypocotyls and cotyledons in 2- to 3-day-old seedlings. As transgenic plants grew, GUS activity was detected strongly in apical meristems, next in stems and leaves. No GUS activity was detected in roots and in reproductive tissues of flower organs. In adult plants, the PmPR10-1.13 promoter-directed GUS expression was upregulated following pathogen infection and by wounding treatment, which generally mimic the endogenous expression pattern in western white pine. Promoter analysis of 5' deletions demonstrated that two regions between -1,316 and -930, and between -309 and -100 were responsible for the wound responsiveness. By structural and functional comparisons with PmPR10-1.14 promoter, putative wound-responsive elements were potentially identified in the PmPR10-1.13 promoter. In conclusion, PmPR10-1.13 showed properties of a defence-responsive gene, being transcriptionally upregulated upon biotic and abiotic stresses.

  17. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa.

  18. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021

  19. Small effect of fragmentation on the genetic diversity of Dalbergia monticola, an endangered tree species of the eastern forest of Madagascar, detected by chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Andrianoelina, O.; Favreau, B.; Ramamonjisoa, L.; Bouvet, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The oriental forest ecosystem in Madagascar has been seriously impacted by fragmentation. The pattern of genetic diversity was analysed on a tree species, Dalbergia monticola, which plays an important economic role in Madagascar and is one of the many endangered tree species in the eastern forest. Methods Leaves from 546 individuals belonging to 18 small populations affected by different levels of fragmentation were genotyped using eight nuclear (nuc) and three chloroplast (cp) microsatellite markers. Key Results For nuclear microsatellites, allelic richness (R) and heterozygosity (He,nuc) differed between types of forest: R = 7·36 and R = 9·55, He,nuc = 0·64 and He,nuc = 0·80 in fragmented and non-fragmented forest, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Only the mean number of alleles (Na,nuc) and the fixation index FIS differed significantly: Na,nuc = 9·41 and Na,nuc = 13·18, FIS = 0·06 and FIS = 0·15 in fragmented and non-fragmented forests, respectively. For chloroplast microsatellites, estimated genetic diversity was higher in non-fragmented forest, but the difference was not significant. No recent bottleneck effect was detected for either population. Overall differentiation was low for nuclear microsatellites (FST,nuc = 0·08) and moderate for chloroplast microsatellites (FST,cp = 0·49). A clear relationship was observed between genetic and geographic distance (r = 0·42 P < 0·01 and r = 0·42 P = 0·03 for nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites, respectively), suggesting a pattern of isolation by distance. Analysis of population structure using the neighbor-joining method or Bayesian models separated southern populations from central and northern populations with nuclear microsatellites, and grouped the population according to regions with chloroplast microsatellites, but did not separate the fragmented populations. Conclusions Residual diversity and genetic structure of populations of D. monticola in

  20. Water uptake and oil distribution during imbibition of seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) monitored in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Terskikh, Victor V; Feurtado, J Allan; Ren, Chengwei; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kermode, Allison R

    2005-04-01

    Dry or fully imbibed seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of the dry seed revealed many of the gross anatomical features of seed structure. Furthermore, the non-invasive nature of MRI allowed for a study of the dynamics of water and oil distribution during in situ imbibition of a single seed with time-lapse chemical shift selective MRI. During soaking of the dry seed, water penetrated through the seed coat and megagametophyte. The cotyledons of the embryo (located in the chalazal end of the seed) were the first to show hydration followed by the hypocotyl and later the radicle. After penetrating the seed coat, water in the micropylar end of the seed likely also contributed to further hydration of the embryo; however, the micropyle itself did not appear to be a site for water entry into the seed. A model that describes the kinetics of the earlier stages of imbibition is proposed. Non-viable pine seeds captured with MRI displayed atypical imbibition kinetics and were distinguished by their rapid and uncontrolled water uptake. The potential of MR microimaging for detailed studies of water uptake and distribution during the soaking, moist chilling ("stratification"), and germination of conifer seeds is discussed.

  1. Effect of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and rust-resistance breeding on genetic variation in western white pine (Pinus monticola).

    PubMed

    Kim, M-S; Brunsfeld, S J; McDonald, G I; Klopfenstein, N B

    2003-04-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species from western North America that has declined over the past several decades mainly due to the introduction of blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variation in northern Idaho populations of western white pine (including rust-resistant breeding stock) in relation to blister rust. A total of 176 individuals from four populations was analyzed using 163 AFLP loci. Within populations, an average 31.3% of the loci were polymorphic (P), and expected heterozygosity (H(e)) was 0.123. Genetic differentiation values (G(st)) showed that 9.4% of detected genetic variation was explained by differences among populations. The comparison between the rust-resistant breeding stock and a corresponding sample derived from multiple natural populations produced similar values of P (35% vs. 34.4%) and H(e) (0.134 vs. 0.131). No apparent signs of a genetic bottleneck caused by rust-resistance breeding were found. However, a comparison of two natural populations from local geographic areas showed that the population with low pressure from blister rust had higher polymorphism and heterozygosity than the population that had experienced high mortality due to blister rust: P (30.7% vs. 25.1%) and H(e) (0.125 vs. 0.100), respectively. In addition, the population from low blister-rust pressure had twice as many unique alleles as the blister rust-selected population. The genetic distance and Dice's similarity coefficients among the four populations indicated that the local population that survived high blister-rust pressure was genetically similar to the rust-resistant breeding stock.

  2. Reproductive seasonality and sperm cryopreservation in the male tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).

    PubMed

    Panyaboriban, Saritvich; Singh, Ram P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Padilla, Luis; Brown, Janine; Reed, Dolores; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Pukazhenthi, Budhan

    2016-09-01

    The tufted deer is a small deer, listed as near threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and there is no information on the fundamental reproductive biology of this species. In this study, we report for the first time, characterization of male reproductive traits and cryopreservation of semen in this species. Males were subjected to electroejaculation during each season (autumn, winter, spring, and summer), and ejaculates were assessed for motility and quality traits. Fecal samples were collected 3 to 5 times weekly for 2 years and analyzed for androgen metabolites using enzyme immunoassay. Ejaculates with greater than 70% motility were cryopreserved using Beltsville extender (BF5F) or Triladyl. Straws were thawed and assessed subjectively as well as swim-up processed to isolate motile spermatozoa for computer-assisted sperm analysis and acrosome integrity at hourly interval. Tufted deer male reproductive and semen traits peaked in autumn. Mean fecal androgen concentrations were highest in the summer compared with baseline values during rest of the year. Sperm motility and acrosome integrity were lower immediately after thawing in both cryodiluents compared with raw ejaculates. Motility characteristics after swim-up were higher in BF5F compared with Triladyl. Four hours after thawing, both percent sperm motility and progression decreased further and were similar between BF5F and Triladyl. However, the proportion of spermatozoa with intact acrosomal membranes was higher in BF5F than Triladyl. Results indicate that tufted deer exhibit seasonal variations in reproductive traits and that BF5F better preserves sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after cryopreservation compared with Triladyl. PMID:27125695

  3. Common Functional Correlates of Head-Strike Behavior in the Pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria) and Combative Artiodactyls

    PubMed Central

    Snively, Eric; Theodor, Jessica M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA), incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. Conclusions/Significance Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals. PMID:21738658

  4. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William E; Croes, Barbara M; Tchignoumba, Landry; Lahm, Sally A; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle E; Campbell, Patrick; Ondzeano, Claude

    2006-08-01

    Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure. PMID:16922241

  5. Antelope Predation by Nigerian Forest Baboons: Ecological and Behavioural Correlates.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Jesus, Gonçalo; Alberts, Nienke; Bouquet, Yaëlle; Inglis, David M; Petersdorf, Megan; van Riel, Eelco; Thompson, James; Ross, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Baboons are well studied in savannah but less so in more closed habitats. We investigated predation on mammals by olive baboons (Papio anubis) at a geographical and climatic outlier, Gashaka Gumti National Park (Nigeria), the wettest and most forested site so far studied. Despite abundant wildlife, meat eating was rare and selective. Over 16 years, baboons killed 7 bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) and 3 red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus), mostly still-lying 'parked' infants. Taking observation time into account, this is 1 predation per group every 3.3 months - far lower than at other sites. Some features of meat eating resemble those elsewhere; predation is opportunistic, adult males monopolize most prey, a targeted killing bite is lacking and begging or active sharing is absent. Carcass owners employ evasive tactics, as meat is often competed over, but satiated owners may tolerate others taking meat. Other features are unusual; this is only the second study site with predation records for bushbuck and the only one for red-flanked duiker. The atypical prey and rarity of eating mammals probably reflects the difficulty of acquiring prey animals when vegetation cover is dense. Our data support the general prediction of the socioecological model that environments shape behavioural patterns, while acknowledging their intraspecific or intrageneric plasticity. PMID:27287424

  6. [Ecology of stomoxyine fulies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon. II. Blood meals analysis a nd epidemiologic consequences].

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, J F; Simo, G; Gilles, J; De Stordeur, E; Duvallet, G

    2008-12-01

    To determine the origin of stomoxyine fly bloodmeals (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon, 1,021 flies belonging to seven different species of Stomoxys were captured and dissected in the area of Makokou. In total, 798 were not blood-fed and 223 bloodmeals could be gathered on filter paper. The identification of the origin of these meals was made by amplification of mitochondrial Cytb gene, then heteroduplex technique by using the Gambian rat (Cricetomys gambianus) as driver. Samples of fauna, collected on the local market, consisted of 24 mammal and two reptile blood and muscle samples, to which it is necessary to add human samples (27 potential hosts). 19 meals could not be amplified for technical reasons, 65 were amplified, but the acquired patterns corresponded to none of the tested potential hosts. On the 139 identified meals, 55% were taken on the black-fronted duiker (Cephalophus nigrifrons) and 19% on pig. Stomoxys transvittatus, the most abundant species in Makokou, is very opportunistic: 68 % of meals were taken on six different hosts, among whom 48% on the black-fronted duiker and 32% were not identified using the panel of tested hosts. S. xanthomelas took 50% of its meals on the moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) and 7% on human beings. S. calcitrans, species of anthropised areas, took 33% of its meals on human beings. These three species can therefore take bloodmeals on wild fauna and human beings. They could potentially play an important role in the emergence of zoonotic diseases. The four other species took their bloodmeals only on wild fauna and pig, the only example of domestic fauna in this study. This preliminary study must be followed up using a larger number of specimens and by increasing the diversity of the tested potential hosts. PMID:19202770

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa. PMID:23778608

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa.

  9. The rediscovery of malaria parasites of ungulates.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Thomas J; Martinsen, Ellen; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Over a hundred years since their first description in 1913, the sparsely described malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) of ungulates have been rediscovered using molecular typing techniques. In the span of weeks, three studies have appeared describing the genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of malaria parasites from African antelope (Cephalophus spp.) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Here we unify the contributions from those studies with the literature on pre-molecular characterizations of ungulate malaria parasites, which are largely based on surveys of Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears. We present a phylogenetic tree generated from all available ungulate malaria parasite sequence data, and show that parasites from African duiker antelope and goat, Asian water buffalo and New World white-tailed deer group together in a clade, which branches early in Plasmodium evolution. Anopheline mosquitoes appear to be the dominant, if not sole vectors for parasite transmission. We pose questions for future phylogenetic studies, and discuss topics that we hope will spur further molecular and cellular studies of ungulate malaria parasites.

  10. Public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat.

  11. The rediscovery of malaria parasites of ungulates.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Thomas J; Martinsen, Ellen; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Over a hundred years since their first description in 1913, the sparsely described malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) of ungulates have been rediscovered using molecular typing techniques. In the span of weeks, three studies have appeared describing the genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of malaria parasites from African antelope (Cephalophus spp.) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Here we unify the contributions from those studies with the literature on pre-molecular characterizations of ungulate malaria parasites, which are largely based on surveys of Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears. We present a phylogenetic tree generated from all available ungulate malaria parasite sequence data, and show that parasites from African duiker antelope and goat, Asian water buffalo and New World white-tailed deer group together in a clade, which branches early in Plasmodium evolution. Anopheline mosquitoes appear to be the dominant, if not sole vectors for parasite transmission. We pose questions for future phylogenetic studies, and discuss topics that we hope will spur further molecular and cellular studies of ungulate malaria parasites. PMID:27444556

  12. Public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat. PMID:22740547

  13. Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

    1999-04-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination. PMID:10231768

  14. Effect of small-scale heterogeneity of prey and hunter distributions on the sustainability of bushmeat hunting.

    PubMed

    Van Vliet, Nathalie; Milner-Gulland, E J; Bousquet, Francois; Saqalli, Mehdi; Nasi, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Bushmeat is the main source of protein and the most important source of income for rural people in the Congo Basin, but intensive hunting of bushmeat species is also a major concern for conservationists. Although spatial heterogeneity in hunting effort and in prey populations at the landscape level plays a key role in the sustainability of hunted populations, the role of small-scale heterogeneity within a village hunting territory in the sustainability of hunting has remained understudied. We built a spatially explicit multiagent model to capture the dynamics of a system in which hunters and preys interact within a village hunting territory. We examined the case of hunting of bay duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis) in the village of Ntsiété, northeastern Gabon. The impact of hunting on prey populations depended on the spatial heterogeneity of hunting and prey distribution at small scales within a hunting area. Within a village territory, the existence of areas hunted throughout the year, areas hunted only during certain seasons, and unhunted areas contributed to the sustainability of the system. Prey abundance and offtake per hunter were particularly sensitive to the frequency and length of hunting sessions and to the number of hunters sharing an area. Some biological parameters of the prey species, such as dispersal rate and territory size, determined their spatial distribution in a hunting area, which in turn influenced the sustainability of hunting. Detailed knowledge of species ecology and behavior, and of hunting practices are crucial to understanding the distribution of potential sinks and sources in space and time. Given the recognized failure of simple biological models to assess maximum sustainable yields, multiagent models provide an innovative path toward new approaches for the assessment of hunting sustainability, provided further research is conducted to increase knowledge of prey species' and hunter behavior.

  15. Assessing sustainability at multiple scales in a rotational bushmeat hunting system.

    PubMed

    Kümpel, Noëlle F; Milner-Gulland, E J; Cowlishaw, Guy; Rowcliffe, J Marcus

    2010-06-01

    Results of many studies show unsustainable levels of bushmeat hunting across West/Central Africa. Nevertheless, these results are usually derived from snapshot sustainability indices in which critical parameters are often taken from the literature. Simple, more informative tools for assessing sustainability are needed. We evaluated the impact of bushmeat hunting across a range of temporal, spatial, and taxonomic scales in a comparison of different measures of sustainability. Over 15 months in 2002-2004 in and around a village close to Equatorial Guinea's Monte Alén National Park, we collected data via a village offtake survey, hunter-camp bushmeat-consumption diaries, hunter interviews, and following hunters during hunts. We compared 2003 data with a previous offtake survey (1998-1999) and interview reports back to 1990. In the past 14 years, average distance from the village at which hunters operated remained constant, with hunters switching back and forth between long-established camps, although trapping effort increased. In the past 5 years, overall offtake and number of active hunters did not change substantially, although catch per unit effort (CPUE) decreased slightly. Although the proportion of the two most commonly trapped species (Cephalophus monticola and Atherurus africanus) and gun-hunted primates increased in the offtake, species presumably less robust to trapping decreased slightly. Apparent sustainability in economic terms may be masking gradual local extirpation of more vulnerable species before and during this study. Our results suggest that changes in prey profiles and CPUE may be the most accurate indicators of actual sustainability; these indices can be monitored with simple village-based offtake surveys and hunter interviews to improve community management of bushmeat hunting.

  16. The CC-NBS-LRR Subfamily in Pinus monticola: Targeted Identification, Gene Expression, and Genetic Linkage with Resistance to Cronartium ribicola.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

    2007-06-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate disease resistance gene analogs (RGAs) encoding coiled-coil-nucelotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeats (CC-NBS-LRR) proteins in western white pine, degenerate primers targeting the conserved motifs in the NBS domain were designed to amplify RGAs from genomic DNA and cDNA. Sixty-one distinct RGAs were identified with identities to well-known R proteins of the CC-NBS-LRR subfamily. These RGAs exhibited variation of putative amino acid sequences from 13% to 98%, representing a complex CC-NBS-LRR subfamily. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the amino acid sequence alignment revealed that these 61 RGAs were grouped with other CC-NBS-LRR members from angiosperms, and could be further divided into six classes with an identity threshold of 68%. To map RGAs, RGA polymorphisms and a modified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method with incorporated sequences from the NBS domain were used to reveal NBS or NBS-AFLP markers. RGA polymorphism study revealed that three off the identified RGAs were not linked to the Cr2 gene imparting resistance to white pine blister rust. However, the AFLP strategy, using bulk segregant analysis (BSA) and haploid segregation analysis, identified 11 NBS-AFLP markers localized in the Cr2 linkage, the closest two to the gene being 0.41 cM and 1.22 cM away at either side. Eight of these markers showed significant amino acid sequence homologies with RGAs. PMID:18943604

  17. A scientific note on the lactic acid bacterial flora within the honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera (Buckfast), A.m. scutellata, A.m. mellifera, and A.m. monticola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was discovered by Olofsson and Vásquez (2008) that a novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota with numerous LAB, comprising the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, live in a symbiotic relationship with honeybees (Apis mellifera) in their honey stomach. Previous results from 16S rRNA gene...

  18. First report of prey capture from human laid snare-traps by wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Brand, Charlotte; Eguma, Robert; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Chimpanzees regularly hunt for meat in the wild, including both solo and group hunting; however, theft of prey from non-chimpanzee hunters, or scavenging of carcasses is extremely rare. Here we report the first observations of a novel prey capture technique by the chimpanzees in two adjacent communities in the Budongo Conservation Field Station, Uganda. In both cases blue duikers were found caught in human laid snare traps, and then retrieved by the chimpanzees. In one case the duiker was still alive when retrieved and subsequently fully consumed by the chimpanzees. In the other, the chimpanzees encountered the duiker while alive, but retrieved it soon after its death; here only a small portion was consumed. These observations are discussed in comparison to observations of chimpanzee hunting, scavenging, and their exploitation of an environment increasingly modified by human activity. PMID:24682899

  19. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-01-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed. PMID:27688854

  20. The influence of ecology and genetics on behavioral variation in salamander populations across the Eastern Continental Divide.

    PubMed

    Rissler, Leslie J; Wilbur, Henry M; Taylor, Douglas R

    2004-08-01

    Understanding the unique contributions of ecology and history to the distribution of species within communities requires an integrative approach. The Eastern Continental Divide in southwestern Virginia separates river drainages that differ in species composition: the more aquatic, predatory Desmognathus quadramaculatus is present only in the New River drainage (which drains to the Gulf of Mexico), while Desmognathus monticola is present in both the New River drainage and the James River drainage (which drains to the Atlantic Ocean). We investigated natural distributions, behavioral variation in experimental mesocosms, population genetic, and phylogenetic implications of community structure. The presence of D. quadramaculatus increased the terrestriality of D. monticola in natural and experimental situations but to different degrees in allopatric and sympatric populations. Our ecological data suggest that the degree of terrestriality in D. monticola is a result of a balance between the optimal aquatic habitat and risks of predation. Our genetic analyses suggest that D. monticola has experienced a recent range expansion and has only a recent history of association with D. quadramaculatus in Virginia. This is surprising given the strong behavioral variation that exists in populations experiencing unique community compositions over a scale of meters. This study demonstrates the need to combine both ecology and genetics toward an understanding of the factors affecting species distributions, behavioral variation between populations, and patterns of genetic variation across a landscape. PMID:15278844

  1. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-08-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  2. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-01-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  3. New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) from northwestern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species. PMID:25698899

  4. Distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in Gabon, central Africa.

    PubMed

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area.

  5. Distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in Gabon, central Africa.

    PubMed

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. PMID:23410077

  6. Molecular characterization of Theileria species associated with mortality in four species of African antelopes.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, A M; Pillay, V; Steyl, J; Prozesky, L; Stoltsz, W H; Lawrence, J A; Penzhorn, B L; Jongejan, F

    2005-12-01

    Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope species. The close phylogenetic relationship between members of the genera Theileria and Cytauxzoon, similarities in the morphologies of developmental stages, and confusion in the literature regarding theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis are discussed.

  7. Expression profiling of a complex thaumatin-like protein family in western white pine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Zamani, Arezoo; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

    2010-02-01

    The protein content in the plant apoplast is believed to change dramatically as a result of host defense response upon infection with various pathogens. In this study, six novel thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) were identified in western white pine (Pinus monticola) needle apoplast by a proteomic strategy using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sequent cDNA cloning found that ten P. monticola TLP genes (PmTLP-L1 to -L6 and -S1 to -S4) were expressed in various tissues. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these PmTLP genes belong to a large, complex, and highly diverse plant TLP family. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using gene-specific primer pairs showed that each PmTLP gene exhibited a characteristic pattern of mRNA expression based on their unique organ distribution, seasonal regulation, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. A time-course analysis at the early stages of infection by white pine blister rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola revealed that a coordinated upregulation of multiple PmTLP genes was involved in P. monticola major gene (Cr2) resistance. The structural and expressional differentiations suggest that the PmTLP family may contribute to host defense as well as other mechanism. PMID:19997927

  8. DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mucheka, Vimbai T; Lamb, Jennifer M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of Fasciola species in cattle from Zimbabwe, the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and selected wildlife hosts from Zimbabwe. This was based on analysis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) regions. The sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in Zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abattoirs in South Africa; it also included three alcohol-preserved duiker, antelope and eland samples from Zimbabwe. Aligned sequences (ITS 506 base pairs and CO1 381 base pairs) were analyzed by neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle from Zimbabwe and F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica in the samples from South Africa. F. hepatica was more prevalent (64%) in South Africa than F. gigantica. In Zimbabwe, F. gigantica was present in 99% of the samples; F. hepatica was found in only one cattle sample, an antelope (Hippotragus niger) and a duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). This is the first molecular confirmation of the identity Fasciola species in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Knowledge on the identity and distribution of these liver flukes at molecular level will allow disease surveillance and control in the studied areas.

  9. Haemosporidian Parasites of Antelopes and Other Vertebrates from Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Boundenga, Larson; Makanga, Boris; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gilabert, Aude; Rougeron, Virginie; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Delicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Rahola, Nil; Leroy, Eric; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Renaud, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:26863304

  10. Haemosporidian Parasites of Antelopes and Other Vertebrates from Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Gilabert, Aude; Rougeron, Virginie; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Delicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Rahola, Nil; Leroy, Eric; BA, Cheikh Tidiane; Renaud, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:26863304

  11. Haemosporidian Parasites of Antelopes and Other Vertebrates from Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Boundenga, Larson; Makanga, Boris; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gilabert, Aude; Rougeron, Virginie; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Delicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Rahola, Nil; Leroy, Eric; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Renaud, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes.

  12. A new case of an Holarctic element in the Colombian Andes: first record of Cordyla Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from the Neotropical region.

    PubMed

    Kurina, Olavi; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Mycetophilidae - Cordyla monticola sp. n., Cordyla pseudopusilla sp. n. and Cordyla reducta sp. n. - are described from the Colombian Andes, representing the first described species of Cordyla Meigen from the Neotropical region. Colour photos of their habitus, wing and terminalia are provided. The morphological affinities of male terminalia are discussed in a worldwide context. The distributional pattern of the genus clearly indicates a case of northern elements reaching the north-western region of the Neotropics that corresponds to a secondary extension of a Holarctic clade to the south. PMID:26445929

  13. A new case of an Holarctic element in the Colombian Andes: first record of Cordyla Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from the Neotropical region

    PubMed Central

    Kurina, Olavi; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Mycetophilidae – Cordyla monticola sp. n., Cordyla pseudopusilla sp. n. and Cordyla reducta sp. n. – are described from the Colombian Andes, representing the first described species of Cordyla Meigen from the Neotropical region. Colour photos of their habitus, wing and terminalia are provided. The morphological affinities of male terminalia are discussed in a worldwide context. The distributional pattern of the genus clearly indicates a case of northern elements reaching the north-western region of the Neotropics that corresponds to a secondary extension of a Holarctic clade to the south. PMID:26445929

  14. Myostatin rapid sequence evolution in ruminants predates domestication.

    PubMed

    Tellgren, Asa; Berglund, Ann-Charlotte; Savolainen, Peter; Janis, Christine M; Liberles, David A

    2004-12-01

    Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex), impala (Aepyceros melampus rednilis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus). Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks) indicates that positive selection may have been operating on this gene during the time of divergence of Bovinae and Antilopinae, starting from approximately 23 million years ago, a period that appears to account for most of the sequence difference between myostatin in these groups. These periods of positive selective pressure on myostatin may correlate with changes in skeletal muscle mass during the same period. PMID:15522803

  15. Nutritional studies on East African herbivores. 2. Losses of nitrogen in the faeces.

    PubMed

    Arman, P; Hopcraft, D; McDonald, I

    1975-03-01

    1. A series of nitrogen-balance trials was done using groups of four animals of various species of wild and domesticated ruminants using pelleted diets (Arman & Hopcraft, 1975). 2. Various herbivores were given grass or grass hays, legumes, herbs and shrubs. Food and faecal samples were analysed for N. 3. With the pelleted diets, the N content of the faecal dry matter (DM) was low for eland (Taurotragus oryx Pallas), high for sheep and cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus) and intermediate for the three small antelope species (hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei Günther), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii Günther) and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia L.)). With the natural doffers, similar relationships were found, together with variations associated with the type of diet. 4. Three forms of equation were used to express the relationship between faecal N and food N. One of the forms, the linear regression of g faecal N/kg DM intake v. g food N/kg DM intake, fitted the results less well than did the other two and was not used to estimate metabolic faecal N(MFN) losses9 5. MFN was calculated by extrapolation of linear regressions of g faecal N/kg faecal DM v. g N intake/kg faecal DM for the pelleted diets. The range of values was (g N/kg faecal DM): Friesians 7-6, eland 8-1, zebu cattle 11-0 and small antelope and sheep 11-5-12-69 There were significant differences (P smaller than 0-001) between species in slopes and intercepts. 6. MFN was calculated from linear regressions of g faecal N/kg faecal DM v. g food N/kg food DM for all diets. This method gave the best fit for the pelleted diets. Values for these diets were (g N/kg faecal DM): eland 8-3, cattle and sheep 9-3-11-0 and small antelope 11-6-12-3. Species differences were significant (P smaller than 0-001). With grasses, values ranged from 5-9 for non-ruminants (rabbit (domesticated), warthog (Phacohoerus aethiopicus Pallas) and hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.)) plus eland and wildebeest (Connochaetes

  16. A capture-recapture model of amphidromous fish dispersal.

    PubMed

    Smith, W E; Kwak, T J

    2014-04-01

    Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2·5 year period to estimate transition probabilities between upper and lower elevations and survival probabilities with a multistate Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. A sub-set of fishes were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked at weekly intervals to estimate fine-scale dispersal. Changes in spatial and temporal distributions of tagged fishes indicated that neither G. dormitor nor A. monticola moved into the lowest, estuarine reaches of Río Mameyes during two consecutive reproductive periods, thus demonstrating that both species follow an amphidromous, rather than catadromous, migratory strategy. Further, both species were relatively sedentary, with restricted linear ranges. While substantial dispersal of these species occurs at the larval stage during recruitment to fresh water, the results indicate minimal dispersal in spawning adults. Successful conservation of diadromous fauna on tropical islands requires management at both broad basin and localized spatial scales. PMID:24673127

  17. Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Matos, António P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses.

  18. A capture-recapture model of amphidromous fish dispersal.

    PubMed

    Smith, W E; Kwak, T J

    2014-04-01

    Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2·5 year period to estimate transition probabilities between upper and lower elevations and survival probabilities with a multistate Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. A sub-set of fishes were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked at weekly intervals to estimate fine-scale dispersal. Changes in spatial and temporal distributions of tagged fishes indicated that neither G. dormitor nor A. monticola moved into the lowest, estuarine reaches of Río Mameyes during two consecutive reproductive periods, thus demonstrating that both species follow an amphidromous, rather than catadromous, migratory strategy. Further, both species were relatively sedentary, with restricted linear ranges. While substantial dispersal of these species occurs at the larval stage during recruitment to fresh water, the results indicate minimal dispersal in spawning adults. Successful conservation of diadromous fauna on tropical islands requires management at both broad basin and localized spatial scales.

  19. Stream salamander species richness and abundance in relation to environmental factors in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.; Jung, R.E.; Rice, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from precipitation events. We surveyed 25 m by 2 m transects located on the stream bank adjacent to the water channel in Shenandoah National Park for salamanders using a stratified random sampling design based on elevation, aspect and bedrock geology. We investigated the relationships of four species (Eurycea bislineata, Desmognathus fuscus, D. monticola and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) to habitat and water quality variables. We did not find overwhelming evidence that stream salamanders are affected by the acid-base status of streams in Shenandoah National Park. Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola abundance was greater both in streams that had a higher potential to neutralize acidification, and in higher elevation (>700 m) streams. Neither abundance of E. bislineata nor species richness were related to any of the habitat variables. Our sampling method preferentially detected the adult age class of the study species and did not allow us to estimate population sizes. We suggest that continued monitoring of stream salamander populations in SNP will determine the effects of stream acidification on these taxa.

  20. A new species of the genus Amolops (Amphibia: Ranidae) from southeastern Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; YAN, Fang; XIE, Jiang; ZOU, Da-Hu; LIU, Wu-Lin; JIANG, Jian-Ping; LI, Cheng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Amolops Cope, 1865 is described from Nyingchi, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species, Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is assigned to the Amolops monticola group based on its skin smooth, dorsolateral fold distinct, lateral side of head black, upper lip stripe white extending to the shoulder. Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of Amolops by the following combination of characters: (1) medium body size, SVL 48.5-58.3 mm in males, and 57.6-70.7 mm in females; (2) tympanum distinct, slightly larger than one third of the eye diameter; (3) a small tooth-like projection on anteromedial edge of mandible; (4) the absence of white spine on dorsal surface of body; (5) the presence of circummarginal groove on all fingers; (6) the presence of vomerine teeth; (7) background coloration of dorsal surface brown, lateral body gray with yellow; (8) the presence of transverse bands on the dorsal limbs; (9) the presence of nuptial pad on the first finger in males; (10) the absence of vocal sac in males. Taxonomic status of the populations that were previously identified to A. monticola from Tibet is also discussed. PMID:26828032

  1. A new species of the genus Amolops (Amphibia: Ranidae) from southeastern Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Yan, Fang; Xie, Jiang; Zou, Da-Hu; Liu, Wu-Lin; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Li, Cheng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new species of the genus Amolops Cope, 1865 is described from Nyingchi, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species, Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is assigned to the Amolops monticola group based on its skin smooth, dorsolateral fold distinct, lateral side of head black, upper lip stripe white extending to the shoulder. Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of Amolops by the following combination of characters: (1) medium body size, SVL 48.5-58.3 mm in males, and 57.6-70.7 mm in females; (2) tympanum distinct, slightly larger than one third of the eye diameter; (3) a small tooth-like projection on anteromedial edge of mandible; (4) the absence of white spine on dorsal surface of body; (5) the presence of circummarginal groove on all fingers; (6) the presence of vomerine teeth; (7) background coloration of dorsal surface brown, lateral body gray with yellow; (8) the presence of transverse bands on the dorsal limbs; (9) the presence of nuptial pad on the first finger in males; (10) the absence of vocal sac in males. Taxonomic status of the populations that were previously identified to A. monticola from Tibet is also discussed.

  2. A capture-recapture model of amphidromous fish dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Rio Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2-5 year period to estimate transition probabilities between upper and lower elevations and survival probabilities with a multistate Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. A sub-set of fishes were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked at weekly intervals to estimate fine-scale dispersal. Changes in spatial and temporal distributions of tagged fishes indicated that neither G. dormitor nor A. monticola moved into the lowest, estuarine reaches of Rio Mameyes during two consecutive reproductive periods, thus demonstrating that both species follow an amphidromous, rather than catadromous, migratory strategy. Further, both species were relatively sedentary, with restricted linear ranges. While substantial dispersal of these species occurs at the larval stage during recruitment to fresh water, the results indicate minimal dispersal in spawning adults. Successful conservation of diadromous fauna on tropical islands requires management at both broad basin and localized spatial scales.

  3. Variable infection of stream salamanders in the southern Appalachians by the trematode Metagonimoides oregonensis (family: Heterophyidae).

    PubMed

    Wyderko, Jennie A; Benfield, Ernest F; Maerz, John C; Cecala, Kristen C; Belden, Lisa K

    2015-08-01

    Many factors contribute to parasites varying in host specificity and distribution among potential hosts. Metagonimoides oregonensis is a digenetic trematode that uses stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders as second intermediate hosts in the Eastern US. We completed a field survey to identify which stream salamander species, at a regional level, are most likely to be important for transmission to raccoon definitive hosts. We surveyed six plethodontid species (N = 289 salamanders) from 23 Appalachian headwater sites in North Carolina: Desmognathus quadramaculatus (n = 69), Eurycea wilderae (n = 160), Desmognathus ocoee (n = 31), Desmognathus monticola (n = 3), Eurycea guttolineata (n = 7), and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (n = 19). We found infection in all species except D. monticola. Further analysis focused on comparing infection in the two most abundant species, D. quadramaculatus and E. wilderae. We found that D. quadramaculatus had significantly higher infection prevalence and intensity, probably due to a longer aquatic larval period and larger body sizes and thus greater cumulative exposure to the parasite. PMID:26026670

  4. Family differences in height growth and photosynthetic traits in three conifers.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J D; Rehfeldt, G E; Monserud, R A

    2001-07-01

    We investigated variation in height growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf stable carbon isotope ratio among wind-pollinated progenies of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) from a small group of contiguous stands on the Priest River Experimental Forest in northern Idaho. Photosynthetic variables differed between height classes in the pines, but not in Douglas-fir. Among species and families, tall families of ponderosa pine regained photosynthetic capacity earliest in the spring and maintained it latest in the growing season. Tall families of western white pine had higher instantaneous water-use efficiencies and lower photosynthetic rates than short families on warm days in August. PMID:11470658

  5. 6000-year record of forest history on Mount Rainier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwiddie, P.W.

    1986-02-01

    Sediments in three ponds between 1300 - 1500 m on the south side of Mt. Rainier were examined for plant macrofossils and pollen. Macrofossils of seral species such as Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus monticola, Abies procera, and Pinus contorta are conspicuous from 6000 to 3400 BP. These species suggest a climate that was warmer/drier than today and favored frequent fires. Neoglacial cooling may have begun 3700-3400 BP, as species typical of higher elevations became prominent; a decline in seral species after 3400 BP suggests less frequent fires. In the last 100 yr, Tsuga heterophylla became abundant and then declined at the highest elevation site. General trends in pollen percentages are similar to the macrofossil curves. Tephra deposition from Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens did not produce conspicuous changes in forest composition. Few major fires are evident from charcoal and macrofossils at these sites.

  6. Late Holocene forest dynamics, volcanism, and climate change at Whitewing Mountain and San Joaquin Ridge, Mono County, Sierra Nevada, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, Constance I.; King, John C.; Westfall, Robert D.; Alden, Harry A.; Delany, Diane L.

    2006-09-01

    Deadwood tree stems scattered above treeline on tephra-covered slopes of Whitewing Mtn (3051 m) and San Joaquin Ridge (3122 m) show evidence of being killed in an eruption from adjacent Glass Creek Vent, Inyo Craters. Using tree-ring methods, we dated deadwood to AD 815-1350 and infer from death dates that the eruption occurred in late summer AD 1350. Based on wood anatomy, we identified deadwood species as Pinus albicaulis, P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. contorta, P. jeffreyi, and Tsuga mertensiana. Only P. albicaulis grows at these elevations currently; P. lambertiana is not locally native. Using contemporary distributions of the species, we modeled paleoclimate during the time of sympatry to be significantly warmer (+3.2°C annual minimum temperature) and slightly drier (-24 mm annual precipitation) than present, resembling values projected for California in the next 70-100 yr.

  7. Gas exchange parameters inferred from {delta}{sup 13}C of conifer annual rings throughout the 20th century

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.D.; Monserud, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    In this study the stable isotopes of carbon in plant tissue provided a means of inferring the proportional decrease in carbon dioxide concentration across the stomata, which is closely related to photosynthetic water-use efficiency. The authors analyzed the stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings laid down over the past 80 years to determine whether the proportional decrease in CO{sub 2} concentration across the stomata had increased. Dominant and codominant trees of western white pine (Pinus monticola), ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) growing at the Priest River Experimental Forest, in northern Idaho, were analyzed. To avoid confounding age and year, the authors compared the innermost rings of mature trees to trees of intermediate age and to saplings. The isotopic data were corrected for changes in isotopic composition and carbon dioxide concentration using published data from ice cores.

  8. A new species of Liolaemus related to L. nigroviridis from the Andean highlands of Central Chile (Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Elorza, Alvaro A.; Puas, German I.; Alfaro-Pardo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Liolaemus nigroviridis group is a clade of highland lizards endemic to Chile. These species are distributed from northern to central Chile, and currently there are no cases of sympatric distribution. This study describes a new species, Liolaemus uniformis sp. n., from this group, and provides a detailed morphological characterization and mitochondrial phylogeny using cytochrome-b. Liolaemus uniformis was found in sympatry with Liolaemus nigroviridis but noticeably differed in size, scalation, and markedly in the color pattern, without sexual dichromatism. This new species has probably been confused with Liolaemus monticola and Liolaemus bellii, both of which do not belong to the nigroviridis group. The taxonomic issues of this group that remain uncertain are also discussed. PMID:26877688

  9. A new species of Liolaemus related to L. nigroviridis from the Andean highlands of Central Chile (Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Elorza, Alvaro A; Puas, German I; Alfaro-Pardo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The Liolaemus nigroviridis group is a clade of highland lizards endemic to Chile. These species are distributed from northern to central Chile, and currently there are no cases of sympatric distribution. This study describes a new species, Liolaemus uniformis sp. n., from this group, and provides a detailed morphological characterization and mitochondrial phylogeny using cytochrome-b. Liolaemus uniformis was found in sympatry with Liolaemus nigroviridis but noticeably differed in size, scalation, and markedly in the color pattern, without sexual dichromatism. This new species has probably been confused with Liolaemus monticola and Liolaemus bellii, both of which do not belong to the nigroviridis group. The taxonomic issues of this group that remain uncertain are also discussed. PMID:26877688

  10. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.

    1996-05-01

    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.

  11. New distribution records for Canadian Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), and new synonymies for Trichiusa

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Godin, Benoit; Langor, David; Bourdon, Caroline; Lee, Seung-Il; Horwood, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fifty-four new Canadian provincial records of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae), including three new Canadian records and one new North American record, are presented. Of these, 33 are new provincial records for Saskatchewan, 14 for Alberta, two for British Columbia, three for Manitoba, two for the Northwest Territories and one for the Yukon Territory. The following are new Canadian records: Trichiusa pilosa Casey [formerly reported from Nova Scotia and Ontario as Trichiusa postica Casey], Acrotona recondita (Erichson) and the adventive Palaearctic Atheta nigra (Kraatz), which is also a new North American record. Bionomics information and new locality records are provided. The following new synonyms of Trichiusa pilosa Casey are established: Trichiusa atra Casey, Trichiusa monticola Casey, Trichiusa parviceps Casey, and Trichiusa postica Casey. The numbers of Aleocharinae remaining to be discovered in Canadian provinces and territories are discussed. PMID:25931964

  12. Decoupling the effects of logging and hunting on an afrotropical animal community.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, J R; Clark, C J; Bolker, B M

    2011-07-01

    In tropical forests, hunting nearly always accompanies logging. The entangled nature of these disturbances complicates our ability to resolve applied questions, such as whether secondary and degraded forest can sustain populations of tropical animals. With the expansion of logging in central Africa, conservation depends on knowledge of the individual and combined impacts of logging and hunting on animal populations. Our goals were (1) to decouple the effects of selective logging and hunting on densities of animal guilds, including apes, duikers, monkeys, elephant, pigs, squirrels, and large frugivorous and insectivorous birds and (2) to compare the relative importance of these disturbances to the effects of local-scale variation in forest structure and fruit abundance. In northern Republic of Congo, we surveyed animals along 30 transects positioned in forest disturbed by logging and hunting, logging alone, and neither logging nor hunting. While sampling transects twice per month for two years, we observed 47 179 animals of 19 species and eight guilds in 1154 passages (2861 km). Species densities varied by as much as 480% among forest areas perturbed by logging and/or hunting, demonstrating the strong effects of these disturbances on populations of some species. Densities of animal guilds varied more strongly with disturbance type than with variation in forest structure, canopy cover, and fruit abundance. Independently, logging and hunting decreased density of some guilds and increased density of others: densities varied from 44% lower (pigs) to 90% higher (insectivorous birds) between logged and unlogged forest and from 61% lower (apes) to 77% higher (frugivorous birds) between hunted and unhunted forest. Their combined impacts exacerbated decreases in populations of some guilds (ape, duiker, monkey, and pig), but counteracted one another for others (squirrels, insectivorous and frugivorous birds). Together, logging and hunting shifted the relative abundance of the

  13. Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, K L

    1984-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe. PMID:6716555

  14. Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, K L

    1984-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe.

  15. [Multiple Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Gabon, from October 2001 to April 2002].

    PubMed

    Nkoghe, D; Formenty, P; Leroy, E M; Nnegue, S; Edou, S Y Obame; Ba, J Iba; Allarangar, Y; Cabore, J; Bachy, C; Andraghetti, R; de Benoist, A C; Galanis, E; Rose, A; Bausch, D; Reynolds, M; Rollin, P; Choueibou, C; Shongo, R; Gergonne, B; Koné, L M; Yada, A; Roth, C; Mve, M Toung

    2005-09-01

    Outbreaks of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever have been reported from 1994 to 1996 in the province of Ogooué Ivindo, a forest zone situated in the Northeast of Gabon. Each time, the great primates had been identified as the initial source of human infection. End of November 2001 a new alert came from this province, rapidly confirmed as a EVHV outbreak. The response was given by the Ministry of Health with the help of an international team under the aegis of WHO. An active monitoring system was implemented in the three districts hit by the epidemic (Zadié, Ivindo and Mpassa) to organize the detection of cases and their follow-up. A case definition has been set up, the suspected cases were isolated at hospital, at home or in lazarets and serological tests were performed. These tests consisted of the detection of antigen or specific IgG and the RT-PCR. A classification of cases was made according to the results of biological tests, clinical and epidemiological data. The contact subjects were kept watch over for 21 days. 65 cases were recorded among which 53 deaths. The first human case, a hunter died on the 28th of October 2001. The epidemic spreads over through family transmission and nosocomial contamination. Four distinct primary foci have been identified together with an isolated case situated in the South East of Gabon, 580 km away from the epicenter. Deaths happened within a delay of 6 days. The last death has been recorded on the 22nd of March 2002 and the end of the outbreak was declared on the 6th of May 2002. The epidemic spreads over the Gabon just next. Unexplained deaths of animals had been mentionned in the nearby forests as soon as August 2001: great primates and cephalophus. Samples taken from their carcasses confirmed a concomitant animal epidemic. PMID:16267965

  16. A review of Adelphocoris-Creontiades-Megacoelum complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirini), with descriptions of two new genera and four new species.

    PubMed

    Chérot, F; Malipatil, M B

    2016-01-01

    The Adelphocoris-Creontiades-Megacoelum complex of genera is reviewed. Diagnostic characters for each included genus and species are provided. Two new genera, Poppiomegacoelum n. gen. and Pseudomegacoelum n. gen., are proposed to accommodate Poppiomegacoelum gearyi n. sp. from Australia and four species from west Palearctic previously classified under Megacoelum Fieber, 1858 respectively. Three new species from Australia, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands are described: Adelphocorisella rubricornis n. sp., Waucoris solomonensis n. sp. and Waucoris tricolor n. sp. The following new combinations are made: Adelphocorisella brunnescens (Poppius, 1915) [for Adelphocoris brunnescens Poppius, 1915], A. relatum (Distant, 1904) [for Megacoelum relatum Distant, 1904], Macrolygus rubrus (Carvalho, 1987) [for Waucoris rubrus Carvalho, 1987], Miyamotoa mussooriensis (Distant, 1909) [for Megacoelum mussooriense Distant, 1909], Orientomiris ater (Poppius, 1915) [for Creontiades ater Poppius, 1915], O. brunneus (Poppius, 1914) [for Creontiades brunneus Poppius, 1914], O. furhstorferi (Poppius, 1915) [for C. furhstorferi Poppius, 1915], O. maculicollis (Poppius, 1915) [for C. maculicollis Poppius, 1915], O. marginatus (Poppius, 1915) [for C. marginatus Poppius, 1915], O. montanus (Poppius, 1915) [for C. montanus Poppius, 1915], O. monticola (Poppius, 1914) [for Megacoelum monticola Poppius, 1914], O. orientalis (Poppius, 1915) [for Creontiades orientalis Poppius, 1915], O. pallidicornis (Poppius, 1915) [for Megacoelum pallidicorne Poppius, 1915], O. ravana (Kirkaldy, 1909) [for Kangra ravana Kirkaldy, 1909], O. sumatranus (Poppius, 1915) [for Adelphocoris sumatranus Poppius, 1915], O. uzeli (Poppius, 1910) [for Creontiades uzeli Poppius, 1910), Poppiocapsidea tagalica (Poppius, 1915) [for Megacoelum tagalicum Poppius, 1915], Pseudomegacoelum angustum (Wagner, 1965) [for Megacoelum angustum Wagner, 1965], P. beckeri (Fieber, 1870) [for M. beckeri (Fieber, 1870)], P. irbilanum

  17. Biomonitoring of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in the Baluarte River basin associated to a mining area (NW Mexico).

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Green-Ruiz, C; Zavala-Nevárez, M; Soto-Jiménez, M

    2011-08-15

    With the purpose of knowing seasonal variations of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in a river basin with past and present mining activities, elemental concentrations were measured in six fish species and four crustacean species in Baluarte River, from some of the mining sites to the mouth of the river in the Pacific Ocean between May 2005 and March 2006. In fish, highest levels of Cd (0.06 μg g ⁻¹ dry weight) and Cr (0.01 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Gobiesox fluviatilis and Agonostomus monticola, respectively; the highest levels of Hg (0.56 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Guavina guavina and Mugil curema. In relation to Pb, the highest level (1.65 μg g⁻¹) was detected in A. monticola during the dry season. In crustaceans, highest levels of Cd (0.05 μg g⁻¹) occurred in Macrobrachium occidentale during both seasons; highest concentration of Cr (0.09 μg g⁻¹) was also detected in M. occidentale during the dry season. With respect to Hg, highest level (0.20 μg g⁻¹) was detected during the rainy season in Macrobrachium americanum; for Pb, the highest concentration (2.4 μg g⁻¹) corresponded to Macrobrachium digueti collected in the dry season. Considering average concentrations of trace metals in surficial sediments from all sites, Cd (p<0.025), Cr (p<0.10) and Hg (p<0.15) were significantly higher during the rainy season. Biota sediment accumulation factors above unity were detected mostly in the case of Hg in fish during both seasons. On the basis of the metal levels in fish and crustacean and the provisional tolerable weekly intake of studied elements, people can eat up to 13.99, 0.79 and 2.34 kg of fish in relation to Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively; regarding crustaceans, maximum amounts were 11.33, 2.49 and 2.68 kg of prawns relative to levels of Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  18. Spiders (Araneae) of Churchill, Manitoba: DNA barcodes and morphology reveal high species diversity and new Canadian records

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arctic ecosystems, especially those near transition zones, are expected to be strongly impacted by climate change. Because it is positioned on the ecotone between tundra and boreal forest, the Churchill area is a strategic locality for the analysis of shifts in faunal composition. This fact has motivated the effort to develop a comprehensive biodiversity inventory for the Churchill region by coupling DNA barcoding with morphological studies. The present study represents one element of this effort; it focuses on analysis of the spider fauna at Churchill. Results 198 species were detected among 2704 spiders analyzed, tripling the count for the Churchill region. Estimates of overall diversity suggest that another 10–20 species await detection. Most species displayed little intraspecific sequence variation (maximum <1%) in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, but four species showed considerably higher values (maximum = 4.1-6.2%), suggesting cryptic species. All recognized species possessed a distinct haplotype array at COI with nearest-neighbour interspecific distances averaging 8.57%. Three species new to Canada were detected: Robertus lyrifer (Theridiidae), Baryphyma trifrons (Linyphiidae), and Satilatlas monticola (Linyphiidae). The first two species may represent human-mediated introductions linked to the port in Churchill, but the other species represents a range extension from the USA. The first description of the female of S. monticola was also presented. As well, one probable new species of Alopecosa (Lycosidae) was recognized. Conclusions This study provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode reference library for the spider fauna of any region. Few cryptic species of spiders were detected, a result contrasting with the prevalence of undescribed species in several other terrestrial arthropod groups at Churchill. Because most (97.5%) sequence clusters at COI corresponded with a named taxon, DNA barcoding

  19. The challenge of using experimental infectivity data in risk assessment for Ebola virus: why ecology may be important.

    PubMed

    Gale, P; Simons, R R L; Horigan, V; Snary, E L; Fooks, A R; Drew, T W

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of published data shows that experimental passaging of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) in guinea pigs changes the risk of infection per plaque-forming unit (PFU), increasing infectivity to some species while decreasing infectivity to others. Thus, a PFU of monkey-adapted EBOV is 10(7) -fold more lethal to mice than a PFU adapted to guinea pigs. The first conclusion is that the infectivity of EBOV to humans may depend on the identity of the donor species itself and, on the basis of limited epidemiological data, the question is raised as to whether bat-adapted EBOV is less infectious to humans than nonhuman primate (NHP)-adapted EBOV. Wildlife species such as bats, duikers and NHPs are naturally infected by EBOV through different species giving rise to EBOV with different wildlife species-passage histories (heritages). Based on the ecology of these wildlife species, three broad 'types' of EBOV-infected bushmeat are postulated reflecting differences in the number of passages within a given species, and hence the degree of adaptation of the EBOV present. The second conclusion is that the prior species-transmission chain may affect the infectivity to humans per PFU for EBOV from individuals of the same species. This is supported by the finding that the related Marburg marburgvirus requires ten passages in mice to fully adapt. It is even possible that the evolutionary trajectory of EBOV could vary in individuals of the same species giving rise to variants which are more or less virulent to humans and that the probability of a given trajectory is related to the heritage. Overall the ecology of the donor species (e.g. dog or bushmeat species) at the level of the individual animal itself may determine the risk of infection per PFU to humans reflecting the heritage of the virus and may contribute to the sporadic nature of EBOV outbreaks.

  20. The challenge of using experimental infectivity data in risk assessment for Ebola virus: why ecology may be important.

    PubMed

    Gale, P; Simons, R R L; Horigan, V; Snary, E L; Fooks, A R; Drew, T W

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of published data shows that experimental passaging of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) in guinea pigs changes the risk of infection per plaque-forming unit (PFU), increasing infectivity to some species while decreasing infectivity to others. Thus, a PFU of monkey-adapted EBOV is 10(7) -fold more lethal to mice than a PFU adapted to guinea pigs. The first conclusion is that the infectivity of EBOV to humans may depend on the identity of the donor species itself and, on the basis of limited epidemiological data, the question is raised as to whether bat-adapted EBOV is less infectious to humans than nonhuman primate (NHP)-adapted EBOV. Wildlife species such as bats, duikers and NHPs are naturally infected by EBOV through different species giving rise to EBOV with different wildlife species-passage histories (heritages). Based on the ecology of these wildlife species, three broad 'types' of EBOV-infected bushmeat are postulated reflecting differences in the number of passages within a given species, and hence the degree of adaptation of the EBOV present. The second conclusion is that the prior species-transmission chain may affect the infectivity to humans per PFU for EBOV from individuals of the same species. This is supported by the finding that the related Marburg marburgvirus requires ten passages in mice to fully adapt. It is even possible that the evolutionary trajectory of EBOV could vary in individuals of the same species giving rise to variants which are more or less virulent to humans and that the probability of a given trajectory is related to the heritage. Overall the ecology of the donor species (e.g. dog or bushmeat species) at the level of the individual animal itself may determine the risk of infection per PFU to humans reflecting the heritage of the virus and may contribute to the sporadic nature of EBOV outbreaks. PMID:26480954

  1. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relaci

  2. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relaci

  3. Deposition of atmospheric ions to pine branches and surrogate surfaces in the vicinity of emerald lake watershed, Sequoia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Dawson, P. J.; Morrison, C. L.; Poe, M. P.

    Atmospheric dry deposition of ions to branches of native Pinus contorta and Pinus monticola (natural surfaces), and nylon filters and Whatman paper filters (surrogate surfaces) were measured in the summer of 1987 in the vicinity of Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) of the Sequoia National Park located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. Deposition fluxes of airborne NO -3, NH +4 and SO 2-4 to native pines at the ELW were much higher than in the eastern Sierra Nevada, but several times lower than deposition fluxes to natural and surrogate surfaces at the highly polluted site in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Deposition fluxes of NO 3- and NH 4+ to the natural and surrogate surfaces at the ELW were much higher than deposition of SO 42-, providing the importance of N compounds in atmospheric dry deposition in this part of the western U.S. A deficit of inorganic anions in materials deposited to various surfaces indicated a possibility of substantial participation of organic acids in atmospheric dry deposition processes. Nylon and paper filters proved to be poor surrogate surfaces for the estimation of ionic dry deposition to conifer branches.

  4. Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area. PMID:23849624

  5. Leotia cf. lubrica forms arbutoid mycorrhiza with Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Kühdorf, Katja; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2015-02-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizal plants are commonly found as understory vegetation in forests worldwide where ectomycorrhiza-forming trees occur. Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) is a tropical woody plant and common in tropical Central America. This plant forms arbutoid mycorrhiza, whereas only associations with Leccinum monticola as well as Sebacina sp. are described so far. We collected arbutoid mycorrhizas of C. arbutoides from the Cerro de la Muerte (Cordillera de Talamanca), Costa Rica, where this plant species grows together with Quercus costaricensis. We provide here the first evidence of mycorrhizal status for the Ascomycete Leotia cf. lubrica (Helotiales) that was so far under discussion as saprophyte or mycorrhizal. This fungus formed arbutoid mycorrhiza with C. arbutoides. The morphotype was described morphologically and anatomically. Leotia cf. lubrica was identified using molecular methods, such as sequencing the internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA regions, as well as phylogenetic analyses. Specific plant primers were used to confirm C. arbutoides as the host plant of the leotioid mycorrhiza.

  6. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Humar, Miha; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-07-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.

  7. Effect of water table on willows grown in amended mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Bourret, M M; Brummer, J E; Leininger, W C; Heil, D M

    2005-01-01

    Survival and growth characteristics of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain willow (Salix monticola Bebb), grown in amended fluvial mine tailing were investigated in a greenhouse study. Willow stem cuttings were planted in lysimeters that simulated a 60-cm amended tailing profile with three static water depths (20, 40, and 60 cm) and a fluctuating water table for a total of four water table treatments. Species and water table treatments affected plant biomass and chemical composition of the soil and plant tissue. Mountain willow leaf, stem, and root biomass were 62, 95, and 164% greater, respectively, than for Geyer willow. Averaging across species, the fluctuating water table negatively affected leaf and stem biomass compared with the 20- and 60-cm water table treatments. Manganese was the only metal in plant tissue to strongly respond to water table treatments. Manganese concentrations in mountain willow leaf tissue were approximately twofold higher in the two most saturated water table treatments (20 cm and fluctuating) than in the least saturated water table treatment (60 cm). This trend was consistent with chemical analyses of the growth media, which reflected higher bioavailable Mn in the saturated tailing profile compared with the unsaturated profile. Results from this study indicate that mountain willow is a more vigorous and possibly more metal-tolerant species than Geyer willow when grown in amended mine tailing and that a fluctuating water table negatively affects willow growth.

  8. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Humar, Miha; Amartey, Sam A; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes. PMID:15923114

  9. Mediterranean climate effects. I. Conifer water use across a Sierra Nevada ecotone.

    PubMed

    Royce, E B; Barbour, M G

    2001-05-01

    Xylem water potential of the midelevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Abies concolor, and Calocedrus decurrens, the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica, and co-occurring evergreen angiosperm shrubs, together with soil moisture under these plants, were monitored at three sites on the Kern Plateau in the southernmost Sierra Nevada Range of California. Site locations spanned the ecotone between the mid- and upper montane forests at elevations of 2230-2820 m. Measurements were made through a low-snowfall year and a heavy-snowfall year.In the Mediterranean climate of the Sierra Nevada, the heavy winter snowpack persists into late spring, after precipitation has effectively stopped. We found the subsequent depletion of soil moisture due to plant water uptake to result in predawn xylem water potentials for conifers more negative by 0.6-1.4 MPa than those for shrubs or inferred soil potentials. Shrubs generally depleted soil moisture more rapidly and ultimately extracted a greater fraction of the available soil moisture than did the conifers. This depletion of soil moisture by shrubs, particularly Arctostaphylos patula, may limit conifer growth and regeneration by prematurely terminating growth on the shallow soils studied. The conifers all generally showed similar patterns of soil moisture use, except that A. magnifica extracted moisture more rapidly early in the season.

  10. Global diversity and phylogeny of the Phellinus igniarius complex (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Wei; Vlasák, Josef; Qin, Wen-Min; Dai, Yu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The Phellinus igniarius complex corresponds to Phellinus s.s., a well supported clade in the polyphyletic Phellinus s.l. studied worldwide. Recently a molecular phylogeny of this complex was performed for the European and North American species. In this study we expand the taxon samplings of the P. igniarius complex to include 59, seven and 12 additional collections originating from China, Czech Republic and USA, respectively. We generated 78 nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) and 42 translation elongation factor 1-α gene (tef1α) sequences. Based on the morphological and phylogenetic (combined ITS and tef1α dataset) analyses, Phellinus monticola, P. orientoasiaticus, P. padicola, P. parmastoi and P. pomaceoides are newly described and illustrated from China and USA. Phellinus pseudoigniarius is treated as a later synonym of P. igniarius, whereas Phellinus betulinus subsp. betulinus is accepted as P. betulinus. A total of 15 species are accepted in the P. igniarius complex worldwide. Of them, 10 species are distributed in eastern Asia, eight in Europe and six in North America. The taxonomy, phylogeny, host associations and geographic distributions of these 15 species are briefly discussed. PMID:26553776

  11. Out of Asia: natricine snakes support the Cenozoic Beringian Dispersal Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Liu, Qin; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Ke; Hou, Mian; Ding, Li; Pyron, R Alexander; Burbrink, Frank T

    2012-06-01

    Based on a combination of six mitochondrial gene fragments (12S RNA, cyt b, ND1, ND2, ND4 and CO1) and one nuclear gene (c-mos) from 22 genera we infer phylogenetic relationships among natricine snakes and examine the date and area of origin of these snakes. Our phylogenetic results indicate: (1) the subfamily Natricinae is strongly supported as monophyletic including a majority of extant genera, and a poorly known and previously unassigned species Trachischium monticola, (2) two main clades are inferred within Natricinae, one containing solely taxa from the Old World (OW) and the other comprising taxa from a monophyletic New World (NW) group with a small number of OW relatives. Within the first clade, the genera Xenochrophis and Amphiesma are apparently not monophyletic. Divergence dating and ancestral area estimation indicate that the natricines originated in tropical Asia during the later Eocene or the Oligocene. We recover two major dispersals events out of Asia, the first to Africa in the Oligocene (28 Ma) and the second to the Western Palearctic and the New World at 27 Ma. This date is consistent with the dispersal of numerous other OW groups into the NW.

  12. Chemoreception, symmetry and mate choice in lizards.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, J; López, P

    2000-01-01

    Research on fluctuating asymmetry (FA)-mediated sexual selection has focused almost exclusively on visual signals and ignored chemical communication despite the fact that many species rely on chemical signals for attracting mates. Female mate choice based on visual traits appears to be rare in lizards. However, the femoral glands of male lizards produce pheromones which might transmit chemical information about an individual's developmental stability. Therefore, we hypothesized that mate choice may be based on chemical cues. We analysed the effect of the developmental stability levels of males on the attractiveness of males' scents to females in a laboratory experiment with the lizard Lacerta monticola. When we offered two males of similar body size, females preferentially associated with the scents of males with low FA in their femoral pores and also with the scents of males with a higher number of femoral pores. This suggested that the females were able to discriminate the FA of the males by chemical signals alone and that the females preferred to be in areas marked by males of high quality, thus increasing their opportunities of mating with males of high quality. We suggest that the quality and/or amount of male pheromones could communicate the heritable genetic quality of a male to the female and thereby serve as the basis for adaptive female choice in lizards. PMID:10972119

  13. Vitamin D supplementation increases the attractiveness of males' scent for female Iberian rock lizards

    PubMed Central

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary theory proposes that signals used in sexual selection can only be stable if they are honest and condition dependent. However, despite the fact that chemical signals are used by many animals, empirical research has mainly focused on visual and acoustic signals. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for lizards, but in some lizards its precursor (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol=provitamin D) is found in femoral gland secretions, which males use for scent marking and intraspecific communication. By allocating provitamin D to secretions, males might need to divert vitamin D from metabolism. This might be costly and condition dependent. We tested whether diet quality affected chemical signals of male Iberian rock lizards (Lacerta monticola) and its consequences for sexual selection. After experimental supplementation of dietary vitamin D, males increased the proportion of provitamin D in femoral secretions. Further experiments showed that females detected these changes in males' signals by chemosensory cues, and discriminated provitamin D, and changes in its concentration, from similar steroids (i.e. cholesterol) found in secretions. Moreover, females preferred areas scent marked by males with more provitamin D in their secretions. This mechanism would confer honesty to chemical signals of male lizards, and, thus, females may rely on it to select high-quality males. We suggest that the allocation of vitamins and other essential nutrients to either visual (e.g. carotenoids) or chemical ornaments might be the common basis of honest sexual displays in many animals. PMID:17002947

  14. Development of standard weight equations for Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico amphidromous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooney, Patrick B.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We collected and compiled length and weight information from four countries and one commonwealth to develop standard weight (Ws) equations for three amphidromous fish species native to the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico regions: mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola (N = 9,768 individuals, 52 populations), river goby Awaous banana (N = 1,847 individuals, 62 populations), and bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor (N = 2,983 individuals, 53 populations). Linear and quadratic Ws equations for three quartiles (25%, median, 75%) are presented for these three species. The length-weight relationship from eight lentic bigmouth sleeper populations was significantly different from that of lotic populations, reflecting higher weights of juvenile fish (< 70 mm total length) in lentic environments. Thus, independent W(s) equations were developed for lotic populations of bigmouth sleepers. W(s) equations were not developed from lentic bigmouth sleeper populations alone due to the low number of applicable populations caused by life history constraints; the equation from combined lentic and lotic populations is suggested for application to lentic bigmouth sleeper populations. These morphometric relationships for amphidromous fishes may improve the ability to assess existing and potential sport fisheries and allow ecological assessment based on fish condition.

  15. [Phlebotomine behavior in forest and extraforest environments, in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Paraná State, southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teodoro, U; La Salvia Filho, V; de Lima, E M; Spinosa, R P; Barbosa, O C; Ferreira, M E; Lonardoni, M V

    1993-08-01

    Between November 1988 and April 1990, 75,637 phlebotomines were captured with the use of Falcão light traps on Palmital farm in the north of Paraná State, Brazil. Fifteen species were represented. The percentage of 95.8% of the insects were captured within the domiciliary area and the remaining 4.2% in the forest environment. The percentage of 62 were captured in one single Falcão light trap installed in a henhouse, where Blancasmya migonei predominated. In all the other traps Psychodopygus whitmani was predominant. B. migonei, P. whitmani, Pintomyia pessoai, Pintomyia fischeri and Psychodopygus intermedius are highly significant vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and represented 93.8% of all phlebotomines captured with 10 Falcão light traps. The monthly densities of these insects were obtained from one Falcão light trap installed in a henhouse and increased especially in the warmer and more humid months. In the forest environment the phlebotomines were captured principally in traps installed about 10 meters above the ground and P. whitmani, B. migonei, P. intermedius, Brumptomyia brumpti, Psychodopygus monticola and P. pessoai were the dominant species. The need for information about the epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis calls for further investigation with a view to clarifying the implications of the relationship between the phlebotomines and domestic animals in the Leishmania cycle of transmission in domiciliary areas. PMID:8209155

  16. DNA based association and description of the larval stage of Drusus melanchaetes McLachlan, 1876 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Drusinae) with notes on ecology and zoogeography

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Pauls, Steffen U.; Vicentini, Heinrich; Lubini, Verena

    2016-01-01

    At three alpine locations in Switzerland adults of Drusus melanchaetes and unknown Drusinae larvae which could not be identified with existing keys were sampled. Based on DNA association with adults, we identified the unknown larvae as D. melanchaetes. To further support the association of specimens a phylogeny was estimated with the putative closest relatives of D. melanchaetes – D. monticola and D. nigrescens – and five other species of Drusus (D. chrysotus, destitutus, discolor, muelleri and romanicus). A highly supported monophyletic clade groups unknown larvae and D. melanchaetes specimens from the central Alps and Austria (Vorarlberg), confirming the association. Based on morphology, larvae of Drusus melanchaetes key out together with D. destitutus in existing keys. D. melanchaetes is separated from the latter species by the shape of the lateral head profile which is almost straight and shows a small step at the height of the antenna, whereas in D. destitutus the lateral head profile is evenly rounded. In addition, in frontal view, the shape of the lateral head outline is straight in D. melanchaetes and rounded in D. destititus. There are also differences in the shape of the pronotum and in the number of the posterodorsal setae at the eighth abdominal dorsum. PMID:26997681

  17. Otolith microchemistry of tropical diadromous fishes: spatial and migratory dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, William E.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Otolith microchemistry was applied to quantify migratory variation and the proportion of native Caribbean stream fishes that undergo full or partial marine migration. Strontium and barium water chemistry in four Puerto Rico, U.S.A., rivers was clearly related to a salinity gradient; however, variation in water barium, and thus fish otoliths, was also dependent on river basin. Strontium was the most accurate index of longitudinal migration in tropical diadromous fish otoliths. Among the four species examined, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor, mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, sirajo goby Sicydium spp. and river goby Awaous banana, most individuals were fully amphidromous, but 9-12% were semi-amphidromous as recruits, having never experienced marine or estuarine conditions in early life stages and showing no evidence of marine elemental signatures in their otolith core. Populations of one species, G. dormitor, may have contained a small contingent of semi-amphidromous adults, migratory individuals that periodically occupied marine or estuarine habitats (4%); however, adult migratory elemental signatures may have been confounded with those related to diet and physiology. These findings indicate the plasticity of migratory strategies of tropical diadromous fishes, which may be more variable than simple categorization might suggest.

  18. Otolith microchemistry of tropical diadromous fishes: spatial and migratory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Smith, W E; Kwak, T J

    2014-04-01

    Otolith microchemistry was applied to quantify migratory variation and the proportion of native Caribbean stream fishes that undergo full or partial marine migration. Strontium and barium water chemistry in four Puerto Rico, U.S.A., rivers was clearly related to a salinity gradient; however, variation in water barium, and thus fish otoliths, was also dependent on river basin. Strontium was the most accurate index of longitudinal migration in tropical diadromous fish otoliths. Among the four species examined, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor, mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, sirajo goby Sicydium spp. and river goby Awaous banana, most individuals were fully amphidromous, but 9-12% were semi-amphidromous as recruits, having never experienced marine or estuarine conditions in early life stages and showing no evidence of marine elemental signatures in their otolith core. Populations of one species, G. dormitor, may have contained a small contingent of semi-amphidromous adults, migratory individuals that periodically occupied marine or estuarine habitats (4%); however, adult migratory elemental signatures may have been confounded with those related to diet and physiology. These findings indicate the plasticity of migratory strategies of tropical diadromous fishes, which may be more variable than simple categorization might suggest.

  19. Taxonomic status and relationships of Sorex obscurus parvidens Jackson, 1921, from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2012-01-01

    The San Bernardino shrew, Sorex obscurus parvidens Jackson, 1921, is a population inhabiting the San Bernardino and San Gabriel mountains of southern California. For the past 9 decades, this population has been considered either a subspecies of S. obscurus Merriam, 1895, S. vagrans Baird, 1857, or S. monticola Merriam, 1890; or an undifferentiated population of S. ornatus Merriam, 1895. Aside from the changing taxonomic landscape that contextualizes the genus Sorex, previous study of S. obscurus parvidens has been retarded by the perception of limited available samples (typically, fewer than 8 specimens); misinterpretation of the provenance of specimens identified as S. obscurus parvidens; misunderstanding of the type locality; and inclusion of specimens of this taxon in the type series of another species with which S. obscurus parvidens has been both contrasted and allied at different times. My investigation of S. obscurus parvidens indicates that it is a distinctive population that is morphologically closest to S. ornatus, and it corresponds to the Southern Clade of that species. However, the appropriate names for deep clades within S. ornatus remain uncertain. Until this uncertainty is resolved, S. obscurus parvidens should be considered a distinctive population within S. ornatus; for conservation purposes, it should be recognized as S. ornatus parvidens.

  20. Observations on cucullanid nematodes from freshwater fishes in Mexico, including Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n.

    PubMed

    Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    1999-01-01

    A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n., is described from the intestine of three species of fishes, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) (Mugilidae, Perciformes) (type host), Ictalurus balsanus (Jordan et Snyder) (Ictaluridae, Siluriformes) and Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) (Cichlidae, Perciformes), from three rivers (La Maquina River, Veracruz; Chontalcoatlán River, Guerrero and Santiago River, Nayarit) in central Mexico. This species is characterised by the absence of a ventral sucker in the male (subgenus Dichelyne) and it differs from its congeners mainly in possessing very unequal and dissimilar spicules (left 0.465-0.768 mm and right 293-548 mm long), an asymmetrical gubernaculum, and two intestinal caeca. Another cucullanid nematode, Cucullanus caballeroi Petter, 1977, is reported from Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Eleotridae, Perciformes) from the La Palma and La Maquina Rivers and Balzapote stream, Veracruz, being briefly described and illustrated; this represents a new host record. Findings of D. mexicanus and C. caballeroi represent a new record of cucullanid nematodes from fishes in Mexican fresh waters.

  1. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  2. Leotia cf. lubrica forms arbutoid mycorrhiza with Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Kühdorf, Katja; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2015-02-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizal plants are commonly found as understory vegetation in forests worldwide where ectomycorrhiza-forming trees occur. Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) is a tropical woody plant and common in tropical Central America. This plant forms arbutoid mycorrhiza, whereas only associations with Leccinum monticola as well as Sebacina sp. are described so far. We collected arbutoid mycorrhizas of C. arbutoides from the Cerro de la Muerte (Cordillera de Talamanca), Costa Rica, where this plant species grows together with Quercus costaricensis. We provide here the first evidence of mycorrhizal status for the Ascomycete Leotia cf. lubrica (Helotiales) that was so far under discussion as saprophyte or mycorrhizal. This fungus formed arbutoid mycorrhiza with C. arbutoides. The morphotype was described morphologically and anatomically. Leotia cf. lubrica was identified using molecular methods, such as sequencing the internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA regions, as well as phylogenetic analyses. Specific plant primers were used to confirm C. arbutoides as the host plant of the leotioid mycorrhiza. PMID:25033922

  3. The complex epidemiology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in Kenya and Uganda. III. The epidemiology in the endemic areas along the lake shore between the Nile and the Yala swamp.

    PubMed

    Wijers, D J

    1974-09-01

    The endemic Rhodesian sleeping sickness belt along the shore of Lake Victoria between the Nile and the Yala swamp consists of two ecologically different areas: the Busoga belt and the Samia belt. The Busoga belt is a country of forest and forest relics, full of game, with a high density of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes but also inhabited by G. pallidipes, and with a people encroaching on the northern border who pass the forest on their way to the lake to catch and buy fish, but who seldom penetrate deep in the forest to hunt. The Samia belt is a country of dense bush in savanna, with less and smaller game, with forest, but with a relatively high density of G. pallidipes, and with a people who will not only pass the bush on their way to catch and buy fish at the lake, bur who also like hunting in bush and forest. From sex-, age-, seasonal and tribal incidence, from the incidence among different professions such as fishermen, fishmongers and cultivators, and from the differences in incidence encountered between the Busoga belt and the Samia belt, it is concluded: that nearly all women and children, most cultivators and part of the fishermen who contract sleeping sickness in these areas, become infected near their homes by G. pallidipes: this occurs mainly in the dense bush area. that most fishmongers, some cultivators and some fishermen become infected on their way to the lake shore, mainly by G. pallidipes; this occurs not only in the dense bush area, but also in the forest area. that fishermen, who become infected during trips, mainly contract their infection some distance away from the lake shore where they meet G.pallidipes. that transmission at the lake shore itself is rare and that G. fuscipes fuscipes only plays a minor role in the transmission of the disease in the areas under consideration. that man is not a good reservoir for Rhodesian sleeping sickness and that man-fly-man transmission is a rare occurrence. that game animals, particularly bushbuck and duiker

  4. Where is the game? Wild meat products authentication in South Africa: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild animals’ meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis and the character-based method implemented in BLOG. The Kimura-2-parameter intra- and interspecific variation was evaluated for all matched species. Results The combined application of similarity, phylogenetic and character-based methods proved successful in species identification. Game meat samples showed 76.5% substitution, no beef samples were substituted. The substitutions showed a variety of domestic species (cattle, horse, pig, lamb), common game species in the market (kudu, gemsbok, ostrich, impala, springbok), uncommon species in the market (giraffe, waterbuck, bushbuck, duiker, mountain zebra) and extra-continental species (kangaroo). The mountain zebra Equus zebra is an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red listed species. We also detected Damaliscus pygargus, which is composed of two subspecies with one listed by IUCN as ‘near threatened’; however, these mitochondrial fragments were insufficient to distinguish between the subspecies. The genetic distance between African ungulate species often overlaps with within-species distance in cases of recent speciation events, and strong phylogeographic structure determines within-species distances that are similar to the commonly accepted distances between species. Conclusions The reliability of commercial labeling of game meat in South Africa is very poor. The extensive substitution of wild game has important implications for conservation and commerce, and for the

  5. Anti-microbial peptide (AMP): nucleotide variation, gene expression, and host resistance in the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Zamany, Arezoo; Sniezko, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide (PmAMP1) inhibits growth of Cronartium ribicola and other fungal pathogens. C. ribicola causes white pine blister rust and has resulted in a dramatic reduction of native white pines across North America. Quantitative disease resistance (QDR) is a highly desirable trait screened in breeding programs for durable resistance against C. ribicola. Along with phenotyping on a collection of germplasms, we analyzed PmAMP1 transcript and protein expression and re-sequenced the full-length gene including its promoter region. A mixed linear model was used to identify the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with accumulated protein and stem QDR levels. Among 16 PmAMP1 SNPs identified in the present study, we found an association of protein levels with 6 SNPs (P < 0.05), including 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 3 in the open reading frame (ORF) region with 2 nonsynonymous SNPs, and 1 SNP in the 3'-UTR. Another set of six SNPs was associated with stem QDR levels (P < 0.05), with one localized in the promoter region and the other five in the ORF region with four nonsynonymous changes, suggesting that multiple isoforms may have antifungal activity to differing degrees. Of three common PmAMP1 haplotypes, the trees with haplotype 2 showed high QDR levels with moderate protein abundance while those trees with haplotype 3 exhibited low QDR levels in the susceptible range and the lowest level of protein accumulation. Thus, an association of gene variations with protein abundance and resistance-related traits may facilitate elucidation of physiological contribution of PmAMP1 to host resistance.

  6. Reconstructing a Past Climate Using Current Multi-species' Climate Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analysis of a ghost forest on WhiteWing Mt at 3000 m in the eastern Sierra Nevada, southeast of Yosemite NP. Killed by a volcanic eruption about 650 years ago, the deadwood on WhiteWing dates by standard tree-ring analysis to 800-1330 CE, during the Medieval Warm Anomaly. Individual stems have been identified by wood anatomical characteristics as Pinus albicualis, P. monticola, P. jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, and Tsuga mertensiana. With the exception of P. albicualis, which is currently in krummholz form at this elevation, the other species are 200 m or more lower in elevation. One, P. lambertiana, is west of the Sierran crest and 600 m lower in elevation. Assuming that climatic conditions on Whitewing during this period were mutually compatible with all species, we reconstruct this climate by the intersection of the current climatic spaces of these species. We did this by first generating individual species' ranges in the Sierran ecoregions through selecting vegetation GIS polygons from the California Gap Analysis database (UCSB) that contain the individual species. Climatic spaces for each species were generated by the GIS intersection of its polygons with 4 km gridded polygons from PRISM climatic estimates (OSU); this was done for annual, January, and July maximum and minimum temperature, and precipitation, merged together for each species. Climatic intersections of the species were generated from the misclassified polygons of a discriminant analysis of species by the climatic data. The average data from these misclassified polygons suggest that the climate on WhiteWing during the existence of this forest community was 230 mm, 1oC, and 3oC greater than present in precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature, respectively.

  7. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371-399.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Le Roux, J J; Richardson, D M; Strasberg, D; Shivas, R G; Alvarado, P; Edwards, J; Moreno, G; Sharma, R; Sonawane, M S; Tan, Y P; Altés, A; Barasubiye, T; Barnes, C W; Blanchette, R A; Boertmann, D; Bogo, A; Carlavilla, J R; Cheewangkoon, R; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Duong, T A; Fernández-Vicente, J; Geering, A D W; Guest, D I; Held, B W; Heykoop, M; Hubka, V; Ismail, A M; Kajale, S C; Khemmuk, W; Kolařík, M; Kurli, R; Lebeuf, R; Lévesque, C A; Lombard, L; Magista, D; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Mohedano, J M; Nováková, A; Oberlies, N H; Otto, E C; Paguigan, N D; Pascoe, I G; Pérez-Butrón, J L; Perrone, G; Rahi, P; Raja, H A; Rintoul, T; Sanhueza, R M V; Scarlett, K; Shouche, Y S; Shuttleworth, L A; Taylor, P W J; Thorn, R G; Vawdrey, L L; Solano-Vidal, R; Voitk, A; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. & sp. nov. from Eucalyptus radiata leaves, Phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, Diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of Theobroma cacao fruit, Diaporthe vawdreyi from fruit rot of Psidium guajava, Magnaporthiopsis agrostidis from rotted roots of Agrostis stolonifera and Semifissispora natalis from Eucalyptus leaf litter. Furthermore, Neopestalotiopsis egyptiaca is described from Mangifera indica leaves (Egypt), Roussoella mexicana from Coffea arabica leaves (Mexico), Calonectria monticola from soil (Thailand), Hygrocybe jackmanii from littoral sand dunes (Canada), Lindgomyces madisonensis from submerged decorticated wood (USA), Neofabraea brasiliensis from Malus domestica (Brazil), Geastrum diosiae from litter (Argentina), Ganoderma wiiroense on angiosperms (Ghana), Arthrinium gutiae from the gut of a grasshopper (India), Pyrenochaeta telephoni from the screen of a mobile phone (India) and Xenoleptographium phialoconidium gen. & sp. nov. on exposed xylem tissues of Gmelina arborea (Indonesia). Several novelties are introduced from Spain, namely Psathyrella complutensis on loamy soil, Chlorophyllum lusitanicum on nitrified grasslands (incl. Chlorophyllum arizonicum comb. nov.), Aspergillus citocrescens from cave sediment and Lotinia verna gen. & sp. nov. from muddy soil. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Phyllosticta carissicola from Carissa macrocarpa, Pseudopyricularia hagahagae from Cyperaceae and Zeloasperisporium searsiae from Searsia chirindensis. Furthermore, Neophaeococcomyces is introduced as a novel genus, with two new combinations, N. aloes and N. catenatus. Several foliicolous novelties are recorded from La Réunion, France, namely Ochroconis pandanicola from Pandanus utilis, Neosulcatispora agaves gen. & sp. nov. from Agave vera-cruz, Pilidium eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus robusta, Strelitziana syzygii from

  8. Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance.

  9. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371-399.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Le Roux, J J; Richardson, D M; Strasberg, D; Shivas, R G; Alvarado, P; Edwards, J; Moreno, G; Sharma, R; Sonawane, M S; Tan, Y P; Altés, A; Barasubiye, T; Barnes, C W; Blanchette, R A; Boertmann, D; Bogo, A; Carlavilla, J R; Cheewangkoon, R; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Duong, T A; Fernández-Vicente, J; Geering, A D W; Guest, D I; Held, B W; Heykoop, M; Hubka, V; Ismail, A M; Kajale, S C; Khemmuk, W; Kolařík, M; Kurli, R; Lebeuf, R; Lévesque, C A; Lombard, L; Magista, D; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Mohedano, J M; Nováková, A; Oberlies, N H; Otto, E C; Paguigan, N D; Pascoe, I G; Pérez-Butrón, J L; Perrone, G; Rahi, P; Raja, H A; Rintoul, T; Sanhueza, R M V; Scarlett, K; Shouche, Y S; Shuttleworth, L A; Taylor, P W J; Thorn, R G; Vawdrey, L L; Solano-Vidal, R; Voitk, A; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. & sp. nov. from Eucalyptus radiata leaves, Phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, Diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of Theobroma cacao fruit, Diaporthe vawdreyi from fruit rot of Psidium guajava, Magnaporthiopsis agrostidis from rotted roots of Agrostis stolonifera and Semifissispora natalis from Eucalyptus leaf litter. Furthermore, Neopestalotiopsis egyptiaca is described from Mangifera indica leaves (Egypt), Roussoella mexicana from Coffea arabica leaves (Mexico), Calonectria monticola from soil (Thailand), Hygrocybe jackmanii from littoral sand dunes (Canada), Lindgomyces madisonensis from submerged decorticated wood (USA), Neofabraea brasiliensis from Malus domestica (Brazil), Geastrum diosiae from litter (Argentina), Ganoderma wiiroense on angiosperms (Ghana), Arthrinium gutiae from the gut of a grasshopper (India), Pyrenochaeta telephoni from the screen of a mobile phone (India) and Xenoleptographium phialoconidium gen. & sp. nov. on exposed xylem tissues of Gmelina arborea (Indonesia). Several novelties are introduced from Spain, namely Psathyrella complutensis on loamy soil, Chlorophyllum lusitanicum on nitrified grasslands (incl. Chlorophyllum arizonicum comb. nov.), Aspergillus citocrescens from cave sediment and Lotinia verna gen. & sp. nov. from muddy soil. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Phyllosticta carissicola from Carissa macrocarpa, Pseudopyricularia hagahagae from Cyperaceae and Zeloasperisporium searsiae from Searsia chirindensis. Furthermore, Neophaeococcomyces is introduced as a novel genus, with two new combinations, N. aloes and N. catenatus. Several foliicolous novelties are recorded from La Réunion, France, namely Ochroconis pandanicola from Pandanus utilis, Neosulcatispora agaves gen. & sp. nov. from Agave vera-cruz, Pilidium eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus robusta, Strelitziana syzygii from

  10. Site-occupancy distribution modeling to correct population-trend estimates derived from opportunistic observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, Hans; Schaub, M.; Volet, B.; Hafliger, G.; Zbinden, N.

    2010-01-01

    Species' assessments must frequently be derived from opportunistic observations made by volunteers (i.e., citizen scientists). Interpretation of the resulting data to estimate population trends is plagued with problems, including teasing apart genuine population trends from variations in observation effort. We devised a way to correct for annual variation in effort when estimating trends in occupancy (species distribution) from faunal or floral databases of opportunistic observations. First, for all surveyed sites, detection histories (i.e., strings of detection-nondetection records) are generated. Within-season replicate surveys provide information on the detectability of an occupied site. Detectability directly represents observation effort; hence, estimating detectablity means correcting for observation effort. Second, site-occupancy models are applied directly to the detection-history data set (i.e., without aggregation by site and year) to estimate detectability and species distribution (occupancy, i.e., the true proportion of sites where a species occurs). Site-occupancy models also provide unbiased estimators of components of distributional change (i.e., colonization and extinction rates). We illustrate our method with data from a large citizen-science project in Switzerland in which field ornithologists record opportunistic observations. We analyzed data collected on four species: the widespread Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis. ) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus. ) and the scarce Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis. ) and Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria. ). Our method requires that all observed species are recorded. Detectability was <1 and varied over the years. Simulations suggested some robustness, but we advocate recording complete species lists (checklists), rather than recording individual records of single species. The representation of observation effort with its effect on detectability provides a solution to the problem of differences in effort encountered

  11. Why has streamflow in a northern Idaho creek increased while flows from many other watersheds in the US Pacific Northwest have decreased over the past sixty years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L.; Hudak, A. T.; Link, T. E.; Marshall, J. D.; Kavanagh, K.; Zhou, H.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Pangle, R. E.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Denner, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    As global warming proceeds, evapotranspiration demand will increase, the precipitation regime may change, and water cycling in many ecosystems may be affected. Streamflow in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the USA decreased in the last ~60 year possibly due to decreasing precipitation at high elevations and/or increasing evapotranspiration. However, an increasing trend of streamflow was observed at a 4km2 watershed in the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho. We used the process-based soil-vegetation-atmosphere Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, to simulate the changes in the water cycle at PREF. Independent measurements were used to parameterize the model, including forest transpiration, stomatal responses to vapor pressure, forest properties (height, leaf area index, and biomass), soil properties, soil moisture, snow depth, and snow water equivalent. The model reasonably simulated the streamflow dynamics during the evaluation period from 2003 to 2010, which verified the ability of SHAW to simulate the water cycle at PREF. We then ran the model using historical vegetation cover and climate data to reveal the drivers of the changes in water budget of PREF over the past 60 years. Historical vegetation cover was obtained from a 1939 digitized historical vegetation map. The biggest change was the decline of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), a fast growing and deep rooted species with high transpiration rates, which was once a predominant species in PREF in the early 20th century. This was followed by a subsequent increase and decrease in fir species, followed by the emergence of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as the current dominant tree species. The tree species shifts under this successional trajectory would have produced continually decreasing transpiration rates, which may explain the steady increase in observed runoff over the last ~60 years, which was likewise simulated with the SHAW model.

  12. Toward an inordinate fondness for stars, beetles and Lobophora? Species diversity of the genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Christophe; D'hondt, Sofie; De Clerck, Olivier; Payri, Claude E

    2014-12-01

    Until the recent use of molecular markers, species diversity of Lobophora, an ecologically important brown algal genus with a worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical seas, has been critically underestimated. Using a DNA-based taxonomic approach, we re-examined diversity of the genus from New Caledonia in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. First, species were delineated using general mixed Yule coalescent-based and barcoding gap approaches applied to a mitochondrial cox3 data set. Results were subsequently confirmed using chloroplast psbA and rbcL data sets. Species delimitation analyses agreed well across markers and delimitation algorithms, with the barcoding gap approach being slightly more conservative. Analyses of the cox3 data set resulted in 31-39 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), four of which are previously described species (L. asiatica, L. crassa, L. nigrescens s.l., L. pachyventera). Of the remaining MOTUs for which we obtained a representative number of sequences and results are corroborated across analyses and genes, we described 10 species de novo: L. abaculusa, L. abscondita, L. densa, L. dimorpha, L. gibbera, L. hederacea, L. monticola, L. petila, L. rosacea, and L. undulata. Our study presents an excellent case of how a traditional morphology-based taxonomy fails to provide accurate estimates of algal diversity. Furthermore, the level of Lobophora diversity unveiled from a single locality in the Pacific Ocean raises important questions with respect to the global diversity of the genus, the distributions and range sizes of the individual species, as well as the mechanisms facilitating coexistence.

  13. Developing a Long-Term Forest Gap Model to Predict the Behavior of California Pines, Oaks, and Cedars Under Climate Change and Other Disturbance Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. L.; Moran, E.

    2015-12-01

    Many predictions about how trees will respond to climate change have been made, but these often rely on extrapolating into the future one of two extremes: purely correlative factors like climate, or purely physiological factors unique to a particular species or plant functional group. We are working towards a model that combines both phenotypic and genotypic traits to better predict responses of trees to climate change. We have worked to parameterize a neighborhood dynamics, individual tree forest-gap model called SORTIE-ND, using open data from both the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory & Analysis (FIA) datasets in California and 30-yr old permanent plots established by the USGS. We generated individual species factors including stage-specific mortality and growth rates, and species-specific allometric equations for ten species, including Abies concolor, A. magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus contorta, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana, P. monticola, P. ponderosa, and the two hardwoods Quercus chrysolepis and Q. kelloggii. During this process, we also developed two R packages to aid in parameter development for SORTIE-ND in other ecological systems. MakeMyForests is an R package that parses FIA datasets and calculates parameters based on the state averages of growth, light, and allometric parameters. disperseR is an R package that uses extensive plot data, with individual tree, sapling, and seedling measurements, to calculate finely tuned mortality and growth parameters for SORTIE-ND. Both are freely available on GitHub, and future updates will be available on CRAN. To validate the model, we withheld several plots from the 30-yr USGS data while calculating parameters. We tested for differences between the actual withheld data and the simulated forest data, in basal area, seedling density, seed dispersal, and species composition. The similarity of our model to the real system suggests that the model parameters we generated with our R packages accurately represent

  14. The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups.

    PubMed

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only

  15. Climatic water deficit, tree species ranges, and climate change in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, James A.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2010-01-01

    composition may accelerate in the future, with species responding individualistically to further declines in water availability. Declining water availability may disproportionately affect Pinus monticola and Tsuga mertensiana. Fine-scale heterogeneity in soil water-holding capacity, aspect and slope implies that plant water balance may vary considerably within the grid cells of kilometre-scale climate models. Sub-grid-cell soil and topographical data can partially compensate for the lack of spatial heterogeneity in gridded climate data, potentially improving vegetation-change projections in mountainous landscapes with heterogeneous topography.

  16. Twentieth-century decline of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Franklin, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of forest change in western North America often focus on increased densities of small-diameter trees rather than on changes in the large tree component. Large trees generally have lower rates of mortality than small trees and are more resilient to climate change, but these assumptions have rarely been examined in long-term studies. We combined data from 655 historical (1932-1936) and 210 modern (1988-1999) vegetation plots to examine changes in density of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park (3027 km2). We tested the assumption of stability for large-diameter trees, as both individual species and communities of large-diameter trees. Between the 1930s and 1990s, large-diameter tree density in Yosemite declined 24%. Although the decrease was apparent in all forest types, declines were greatest in subalpine and upper montane forests (57.0% of park area), and least in lower montane forests (15.3% of park area). Large-diameter tree densities of 11 species declined while only 3 species increased. Four general patterns emerged: (1) Pinus albicaulis, Quercus chrysolepis, and Quercus kelloggii had increases in density of large-diameter trees occur throughout their ranges; (2) Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, and Pinus ponderosa, had disproportionately larger decreases in large-diameter tree densities in lower-elevation portions of their ranges; (3) Abies concolor and Pinus contorta, had approximately uniform decreases in large-diameter trees throughout their elevational ranges; and (4) Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga mertensiana displayed little or no change in large-diameter tree densities. In Pinus ponderosa-Calocedrus decurrens forests, modern large-diameter tree densities were equivalent whether or not plots had burned since 1936. However, in unburned plots, the large-diameter trees were predominantly A. concolor, C. decurrens, and Q. chrysolepis, whereas P. ponderosa

  17. The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups

    PubMed Central

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which

  18. Root-specific expression of a western white pine PR10 gene is mediated by different promoter regions in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

    2003-05-01

    We report here the isolation and characterization of a novel PR10 gene, PmPR10-1.14, from western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex. D. Don). The PmPR10-1.14 gene encodes a polypeptide exhibiting high similarity with other members of the PR10 family and corresponds to one of six isoforms immunodetected in the roots of western white pine. Northern blot and western immunoblot analyses showed that expression of the PR10 gene family, including PmPR10-1.14, was detected in vegetative tissues constitutively, but not in developing reproductive organs. RT-PCR with gene-specific primers showed that the transcript of PmPR10-1.14 gene was found only in lateral roots and needles during growth. To study PR10 gene regulation at the cellular level, PmPR10-1.14 promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) report gene, and analyzed for transient and stable gene expression. The transient expression assays in agroinfiltrated tobacco leaves indicated that the core promoter of PmPR10-1.14 gene resided in the sequence from -101 to +69 relative to the first nucleotide of PR10 cDNA. Furthermore, the promoter region from -311 to -101 acted as an enhancer, and the region from -506 to -311 as a silencer. Fluorometric GUS assays of transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that the longest promoter of 1675 bp directed GUS expression constitutively at high levels in the roots of mature plants, but expression levels were too low to be detectable in other organs in histochemical assays. Histochemical localization analysis showed that PmPR10-1.14 promoter directed a tissue-specific expression exclusively during the initiation and development of the lateral roots. The distal 5' deletion of the promoter to -311 did not decrease the expression level significantly in the roots, suggesting that the cis-regulatory elements necessary for a high level of gene expression reside in the proximal fragment from -311 to +69. As one striking feature, PmPR10-1.14 promoter contains two copies of direct

  19. Co-occurring species differ in tree-ring delta(18)O trends.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John D; Monserud, Robert A

    2006-08-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio (delta(18)O) of tree-ring cellulose is jointly determined by the delta(18)O of xylem water, the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmosphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. Atmospheric humidity and the delta(18)O of water vapor vary seasonally and annually, but if the canopy atmosphere is well mixed, atmospheric characteristics should be uniform among co-occurring trees. In contrast, xylem water delta(18)O is determined by the delta(18)O of water being drawn from the soil, which varies with depth. If co-occurring trees draw water from different soil depths, this soil-water delta(18)O signal would be manifest as differences in delta(18)O among the trees. We examined the variation in tree ring delta(18)O, over eight decades during the 20th Century, among three species co-occurring in natural forest stands of the northern Rocky Mountains in the USA. We sampled 10 Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca), 10 ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) and seven western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl.). As expected, variation in atmospheric conditions was recorded in the delta(18)O of the cellulose produced in a given year, but observed climatic correlations with delta(18)O were weak. Significant correlations with June climate data included: daily maximum temperature (r = 0.29), daily minimum temperature (r = -0.25), mean temperature (r = 0.20), mean daily precipitation (r = -0.54), vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.32) and solar radiation (r = 0.44). Lagged effects were observed in Douglas-fir and western white pine. In these species, the delta(18)O of a given annual ring was correlated with the delta(18)O of the previous ring. Ponderosa pine showed no significant autocorrelation. Although the species means were correlated among years (r = 0.67 to 0.76), ponderosa pine was consistently enriched in delta(18)O relative to the other species; differences

  20. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler;  Michael Balke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n

  1. Fish-assemblage variation between geologically defined regions and across a longitudinal gradient in the Monkey River Basin, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esselman, P.C.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    assemblage structure within each geologic type. The fauna showed weak compositional zonation into 3 groups (headwaters, coastal plain, and nearshore). Nearly 20% of the fish species collected have migratory life cycles (including Joturus pichardi, Agonostomus monticola, and Gobiomorus dormitor) that use freshwater and marine habitats. Some of these species probably rely on a natural flow regime and longitudinal connectivity for reproduction and dispersal of young, and natural flow regime and longitudinal connectivity are important factors for maintenance of functional linkages between the uplands and the coast in the ridge-to-reef corridor where the Monkey River is located. Therefore, we suggest that the viability of migratory fish populations may be a good biological indicator of upland-to-estuary connectivity important both to fishes and coastal ecosystem function. We recommend follow-up studies to substantiate the relative strengths of relationships between community structure and abiotic factors in contrasting geologies and to examine potential bottom-up responses of stream biota to the higher nutrient levels that were observed in stream waters draining the Santa Rosa Group geologic type.