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Sample records for dulcis chinese water

  1. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  2. The uptake of uranium by Eleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut) in the Ranger Uranium Mine constructed wetland filter.

    PubMed

    Overall, Robyn A; Parry, David L

    2004-11-01

    Eleocharis dulcis has proliferated in a constructed wetland used to treat uranium mine runoff water, where it rapidly accumulates significant quantities of uranium (U) in its roots and relatively little in its stems. We investigated the mechanism of U uptake and accumulation by E. dulcis using field-sampling techniques and microcosm test work. Results from the microcosm trials and outcomes from statistical tests of field sampled macrophyte, water and sediment indicate that the primary source of U for E. dulcis is the water column. Basipetal translocation of U to the plant's roots was indicated by significant correlations between the U content of stems, taproots and rhizomes and XPS detection of U inside root segments. U sequestering from sediment interstitial water by Fe hydroxides on root surfaces was also evident. No basipetal translocation was evident following the 28-day duration of the microcosm experiments, indicating that it is a longer-term process.

  3. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-09

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots.

  4. Antitumor, Antioxidant, and Nitrite Scavenging Effects of Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) Peel Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ge; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang; Jiao, Shunshan

    2016-10-01

    The preparation, quantification, and characterization of flavonoid compounds from Chinese water chestnut peel (CWCP) flavonoid extract and ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n-butanol fraction, and water fraction were studied. Among these, EF showed the maximum free radical levels (IC50 values of 0.36, 0.40, and 0.37 mg/mL for DPPH•, ABTS•(+) , and •OH, respectively), nitrite scavenging effects (IC50 = 1.89 mg/mL), and A549 cell inhibitory activities (IC50 = 776.12 μg/mL) with the highest value of total flavonoid content (TFC, 421.32 mg/g). Moreover, the contents of 8 flavonoids in this fraction were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fisetin, diosmetin, luteolin, and tectorigenin were the 4 major flavonoids with levels of 31.66, 29.91, 13.69, and 12.41 mg/g, respectively. Luteolin produced a greater inhibition of human lung cancer A549 cells (IC50 = 59.60 μg/mL) than did fisetin, diosmetin, and tectorigenin. Flow cytometry revealed that the cellular mechanisms of luteolin inhibition of A549 cells were achieved via the induction of cell proliferation arrest at G1 phase and apoptosis/necrosis. Our findings suggest that flavonoids are closely associated with antitumor, antioxidant, and nitrite scavenging effects of CWCP.

  5. Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov., aluminum-tolerant bacteria isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Bao Ve, Nguyen; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-09-01

    Two strains of aluminium-tolerant bacteria, SA33(T) and 7A078, were isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps (pH 2-4) in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam (SA33(T)) and Thailand (7A078). The strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming rods, 0.6-0.7 mum wide and 1.3-1.7 mum long. These strains showed good growth at pH 3.0-8.0 and 17-37 degrees C. The organisms contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) ω 7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids. Their fatty acid profiles were similar to those reported for other Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C content of these strains was 64 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values calculated for strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and the type strains of Burkholderia kururiensis, B. sacchari and B. tuberum were 100, 97.3, 97.1 and 97.0 %, respectively, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 formed a group that was distinct in the phylogenetic trees; the DNA-DNA relatedness of strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and these three type strains were respectively 90, 47, 46 and 45 %. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, including whole-cell protein pattern analysis, allowed phenotypic differentiation of these strains from described Burkholderia species. Therefore, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 represent a novel species, for which the name Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA33(T) (=NBRC 101816(T) =VTCC-D6-6(T)). Strain 7A078 (=NBRC 103872 =BCC 36999) is a reference strain.

  6. Antiosteoporosis Activity of New Oriental Medicine Preparation (Kyungokgo Mixed with Water Extract of Hovenia dulcis) on the Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Lee, Sung-Ju; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Son, Young-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of new oriental medicine (Kyungokgo mixed with water extract of Hovenia dulcis, KOGHD) was assessed on the bone loss induced mice by ovariectomy. In the in vivo experiments, antiosteoporosis effect of KOGHD was investigated using ovariectomized osteoporosis mice model. After 6 weeks of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the effect of Kyungokgo (KOG) and KOGHD on body weight, spleen weigh, thymus weight, uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone weight and length, immune cell population, bone morphometric parameters, and histological stains was observed. Our results showed that KOGHD prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture caused by ovariectomy, which were accompanied by the lower levels of bone turnover markers and immune cell population as evidenced by the inhibition of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation without cytotoxic effect on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). Therefore, these results suggest that the Hovenia dulcis (HD) supplementation in the KOG may also prevent and treat bone loss.

  7. Antiosteoporosis Activity of New Oriental Medicine Preparation (Kyungokgo Mixed with Water Extract of Hovenia dulcis) on the Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Lee, Sung-Ju; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Son, Young-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of new oriental medicine (Kyungokgo mixed with water extract of Hovenia dulcis, KOGHD) was assessed on the bone loss induced mice by ovariectomy. In the in vivo experiments, antiosteoporosis effect of KOGHD was investigated using ovariectomized osteoporosis mice model. After 6 weeks of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the effect of Kyungokgo (KOG) and KOGHD on body weight, spleen weigh, thymus weight, uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone weight and length, immune cell population, bone morphometric parameters, and histological stains was observed. Our results showed that KOGHD prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture caused by ovariectomy, which were accompanied by the lower levels of bone turnover markers and immune cell population as evidenced by the inhibition of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation without cytotoxic effect on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). Therefore, these results suggest that the Hovenia dulcis (HD) supplementation in the KOG may also prevent and treat bone loss. PMID:25737735

  8. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis)

    PubMed Central

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D.; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on ‘Nonpareil’ almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. Methods A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Key Results Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Conclusions Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate

  9. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  10. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. IV. Four methyl-migrated 16,17-seco-dammarane triterpene gylcosides from Chinese natural medicine, hoveniae semen seu fructus, the seeds and fruit of Hovenia dulcis THUNB.: absolute stereostructures and inhibitory activity on histamine release of hovenidulciosides A1, A2, B1, and B2.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Ueda, T; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1996-09-01

    Four bioactive methyl-migrated 16,17-seco-dammarane type triterpene glycosides called hovenidulciosides A1, A2, B1, and B2 were isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Hoveniae Semen Seu Fructus, the seeds and fruit of Hovenia dulcis THUNB. (Rhamnaceae) together with hoduloside III and (+)-gallocatechin. The absolute stereostructures of hovenidulciosides A1, A2, B1, and B2 have been elucidated by chemical and physicochemical evidence. All were found to inhibit the histamine release from rat peritoneal exudate cells induced by compound 48/80 and calcium ionophore A-23187.

  11. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose produced from purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunardi, Febriani, Nina Mutia; Junaidi, Ahmad Budi

    2017-08-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) is one of the important modified cellulose, a water-soluble cellulose, which is widely used in many application of food, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paper coating, dispersing agent, and others. The main raw material of modified cellulose is cellulose from wood and cotton. Recently, much attention has been attracted to the use of various agriculture product and by-product, grass, and residual biomass as cellulose and modified cellulose source for addressing an environmental and economic concern. Eleocharis dulcis, commonly known as purun tikus (in Indonesia), is a native aquatic plant of swamp area (wetland) in Kalimantan, which consists of 30-40% cellulose. It is significantly considered as one of the alternative resources for cellulose. The aims of present study were to isolate cellulose from E. dulcis and then to synthesise Na-CMC from isolated cellulose. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose from E. dulcis was carried out by an alkalization and etherification process of isolated cellulose, using various concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monochloroacetic acid (MCA). The results indicated that the optimum reaction of alkalization was reached at 20% NaOH and etherification at the mass fraction ratio of MCA to cellulose 1.0. The optimum reaction has the highest solubility and degree of substitution. The carboxymethylation process of cellulose was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, changes in crystallinity of cellulose and Na-CMC were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  12. Hovenia dulcis--an Asian traditional herb.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Eom, Seung Hee; Yu, Chang Yeon; Roitsch, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Hovenia dulcis Thunb., known as Japanese raisin tree, is commonly found in East Asia. It has a long history as a food supplement and traditional medicine in Japan, China and Korea, but is little known and used in Western countries so far. This minireview summarizes traditional uses and current knowledge on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of H. duclcis and covers, in particular, literature from specialized Asian journals that are not readily accessible. Extracts from H. dulcis accelerate detoxification of ethanol, and possess hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antidiabetic properties. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, free radical scavenging and enhancement of ethanol catabolism have been reported.

  13. The AMPK pathway mediates an anti-adipogenic effect of fruits of Hovenia dulcis Thunb.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Sim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Hyun-Myung; Choi, In-Young; Jeong, Mi-Young; Park, Jinbong; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Min-Woo; Jin, Jong-Sik; Hong, Seung-Heon; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Um, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    Hovenia dulcis Thunb. is well known as a treatment for liver disease. Several studies have demonstrated that extracts of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. or its purified compounds can serve as detoxifying agents for alcohol poisoning. However, its anti-obesity effect has not been reported thus far. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of water extracts from the fruits or stems of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. was examined in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The cellular lipid contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Fruits of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (FHD) significantly inhibit lipid accumulation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, but not stems of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. FHD (100 μg ml(-1)) significantly down-regulates the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, adiponectin, and resistin, and the inhibition rates were 29.33%, 54.36%, 34.5%, 55.69%, and 60.39%, respectively. In addition, FHD (100 μg ml(-1)) also up-regulates the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α, liver kinase B1 as a major AMPK kinase, and the downstream substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the inhibition rates were 43.52%, 38.25%, and 20.39%, respectively. These results indicate that FHD has a significant anti-obesity effect through the modulation of the AMPK pathway, suggesting that FHD has a potential benefit in preventing obesity.

  14. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  15. [Bioactive constituents of Chinese natural medicines. III. Absolute stereostructures of new dihydroflavonols, hovenitins I, II, and III, isolated from hoveniae semen seu fructus, the seed and fruit of Hovenia dulcis THUNB. (Rhamnaceae): inhibitory effect on alcohol-induced muscular relaxation and hepatoprotective activity].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Ueda, T; Yoshizumi, S; Ninomiya, K; Murakami, N; Matsuda, H; Saito, M; Fujii, W; Tanaka, T; Yamahara, J

    1997-02-01

    The methanol-soluble fraction from a Chinese natural medicine Hoveniae Semen Seu Fructus, the seed and fruit of Hovenia dulcis THUNB. (Rhamnaceae) was found to show an inhibitory effect on the alcohol-induced muscular relaxation and a protective activity on the D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide or carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Through bioassay-guided separation using a traction performance test, three new dihydrofravonols named hovenitins I, II, and III were isolated from Hoveniae Semen Seu Fructus together with four known flavonoids, (+)-ampelopsin, laricetrin, myricetin, and (+)-gallocatechin. The absolute stereostructures of hovenitins I, II, and III were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence to be (2R, 3R)-5,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxydihydroflavonol, (2R,3S)-5,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxy-dihydroflavonol, and (2R, 3S)-5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxydihydro-flavonol, respectively. Hovenitin I and (+)-ampelopsin, both of which were principal ingredients of the active fractions from this natural medicine, were found to show an inhibitory activity on the ethanol-induced muscle relaxation in rats. In addition, hovenitin I showed a protective activity on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide or carbon tetrachloride in mice.

  16. A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saelee, Arun; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2015-01-01

    A new prenylated biflavonoid, named dulcisbiflavonoid A, together with five biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by analysing their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  17. Have Chinese water pricing reforms reduced urban residential water demand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Fang, K. H.; Baerenklau, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    China continues to deal with severe levels of water scarcity and water pollution. To help address this situation, the Chinese central government initiated urban water pricing reforms in 2002 that emphasized the adoption of increasing block rate (IBR) price structures in place of existing uniform rate structures. By combining urban water use records with microlevel data from the Chinese Urban Household Survey, this research investigates the effectiveness of this national policy reform. Specifically, we compare household water consumption in 28 cities that adopted IBR pricing structures during 2002-2009, with that of 110 cities that had not yet done so. Based on difference-in-differences models, our results show that the policy reform reduced annual residential water demand by 3-4% in the short run and 5% in the longer run. These relatively modest reductions are consistent with the generous nature of the IBR pricing structures that Chinese cities have typically chosen to implement. Our results imply that more efforts are needed to address China's persistent urban water scarcity challenges.

  18. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil from Lippia dulcis Trev.

    PubMed

    Görnemann, T; Nayal, R; Pertz, H H; Melzig, M F

    2008-04-17

    To investigate the essential oil of Lippia dulcis Trev. (Verbenaceae) that is traditionally used in the treatment of cough, colds, bronchitis, asthma, and colic in Middle America for antispasmodic activity. We used a porcine bronchial bioassay to study contractile responses to carbachol and histamine in the absence or presence of the essential oil. The essential oil showed anti-histaminergic and anti-cholinergic activities at 100 microg/ml. The anti-histaminergic and anti-cholinergic activities of the essential oil of Lippia dulcis support the rational use of the plant or plant extracts to treat bronchospasm.

  19. Anti-fatigue activity of Hovenia dulcis on a swimming mouse model through the inhibition of stress hormone expression and antioxidation.

    PubMed

    Na, Chun-Soo; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Jin Beom; Na, Dae-Seung; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Hong, Cheol Yi

    2013-01-01

    Hovenia dulcis (H. dulcis) Thunb., which is distributed in Korea, China, and Japan, has been known to show hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects and enhance physical activity. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to determine the anti-fatigue activity of hot-water extract from H. dulcis peduncle, and to find the reason why H. dulcis extract (HDE)-ingested mice had enhanced physical activity against swimming performance. The mice orally administrated with HDE (HDE-mice) dramatically enhanced their swimming time compared to the control mice. HDE significantly decreased serum levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in mice. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were dramatically decreased in gastrocnemius muscle from both 100 mg/kg of HDE (LHDE) and 200 mg/kg of HDE (HHDE)-ingested mice compared to the control mice. The liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in HHDE-mice with increasing tendency in LHDE-mice. In addition, HHDE-mice significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (T-Chol), and triglyceride (TG). These results suggest that HDE had a significant anti-fatigue effect via its anti-stress and antioxidant activities, and thereby enhanced physical activity in swimming performance.

  20. [Study on flavonoids in seeds of Hovenia dulcis].

    PubMed

    Ding, L S; Liang, Q L; Teng, Y F

    1997-08-01

    Four flavanoids were isolated from the seed of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. On the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis, their structures were identified as dihydrokaempferol (I), quercetin (II), (+)-3,3',5',5,7-pentahydroflavanone (III) and (+)-dihydromyricetin (IV). Among them, III was a new compound; I and IV were first isolated from genus Hovenis.

  1. Xanthones from the green branch of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Mecawun, Pattama; Phongpaichit, Souwalak

    2016-10-01

    Two new prenylated xanthones, namely dulcisxanthone H and dulcisxanthone I along with garciniaxanthone C, were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the green branch of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of 1-D and 2-D NMR spectral data. Their antibacterial activities were also examined.

  2. Optimization of microwave roasting of almond (Prunus dulcis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microwave (MW) almond roasting was investigated as an alternative to hot air (HA) roasting. Nonpareil almonds (Prunus dulcis) were roasted at 140°C in a convection oven for different times to achieve light, medium, and dark roasting levels. Several instrumental measurements were taken, establishin...

  3. Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. PMID:23929991

  4. Chinese water-pipe smoking and the risk of COPD.

    PubMed

    She, Jun; Yang, Ping; Wang, Yuqi; Qin, Xinyu; Fan, Jia; Wang, Yi; Gao, Guangsuo; Luo, Guangxiong; Ma, Kaixiang; Li, Baoyan; Li, Caihua; Wang, Xiangdong; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2014-10-01

    Studies show that the incidence of COPD has remained high in southwest China despite the 1976 National Stove Improvement Program for indoor air quality. Chinese water-pipe tobacco smoking (commonly referred to as water-pipe smoking), which is thought to be less harmful under the assumption that no charcoal is used and water filters tobacco smoke, is popular in China. We investigated whether Chinese water-pipe use and exposure are associated with the risk of COPD. This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled 1,238 individuals from 10 towns in the Fuyuan area, Yunnan Province, China. A matched design was used to estimate the impact of active and passive exposure to Chinese water-pipe smoking on COPD risk; multivariate analyses adjusted for other risk factors. We also collected the water from Chinese water pipes to assess the mutagenicity of its major components and simulated Chinese water-pipe smoke exposure fine particulate 2.5 (PM2.5) by using the High Volume Air Sampler and individuals' sera to search for the potential protein biomarkers of COPD. The increased risk of COPD was profound for Chinese water-pipe smokers (adjusted OR, 10.61; 95% CI, 6.89-16.34), Chinese water-pipe passive smokers (adjusted OR, 5.50; 95% CI, 3.61-8.38), cigarette smokers (adjusted OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 2.06-4.91), and cigarette passive smokers (adjusted OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.62-3.91) compared with never-smoking control subjects. Chinese water-pipe use aggravates lungs with more PM2.5 compared with cigarettes. ChemR23 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 may be potential protein biomarkers of COPD. Chinese water-pipe smoking significantly increases the risk of COPD, including the risk to women who are exposed to the water-pipe smoke. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; No.: ChiCTR-CCH-12002235; URL: www.chictr.org/cn/

  5. Absolute stereostructures of hovenidulciosides A1 and A2, bioactive novel triterpene glycosides from hoveniae semen seu fructus, the seeds and fruit of Hovenia dulcis Thunb.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Ueda, T; Muraoka, O; Aoyama, H; Matsuda, H; Shimoda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1995-03-01

    Two bioactive novel triterpene glycosides named hovenidulciosides A1 and A2 have been isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Hoveniae Semen Seu Fructus, the seeds and fruit of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae). The absolute stereostructures of hovenidulciosides A1 and A2 with a migrated 16,17-seco-dammarane skeleton have been determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence which included the X-ray crystallographic analysis of the p-bromobenzoate of their common aglycone, hovenidulcigenin A. Hovenidulciosides A1 and A2 exhibited inhibitory activity on the histamine release from rat mast cells induced by compound 48/80 or calcium ionophore A-23187.

  6. A novel water poverty index model for evaluation of Chinese regional water security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, L.; Jin, C. L.; Li, Y. X.; Zhou, Z. L.

    2017-08-01

    This study proposed an improved Water Poverty Index (WPI) model employed in evaluating Chinese regional water security. Firstly, the Chinese WPI index system was constructed, in which the indicators were obtained according to China River reality. A new mathematical model was then established for WPI values calculation on the basis of Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) model. Furthermore, this new model was applied in Shiyanghe River (located in western China). It turned out that the Chinese index system could clearly reflect the indicators threatening security of river water and the Chinese WPI model is feasible. This work has also developed a Water Security Degree (WSD) standard which is able to be regarded as a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and water security warning mechanism formulation.

  7. HPLC Determination of Bioactive Flavonoids in Hovenia dulcis Fruit Extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Suk; Kim, In Sook; Shaheed Ur Rehman; Na, Chun-Soo; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-02-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for qualitative and quantitative determination of four bioactive flavonoids (ampelopsin, taxifolin, myricetin and quercetin) from the fruit-stalk extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 3.5 µm) with mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid and 100% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The analysis was performed using a diode array detector at 365 nm. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. Good linearity was observed over the investigated concentration range (10-500 μg/mL), with correlation coefficient values greater than 0.99. The intra- and inter-day precisions over the concentration range were <3.91% (relative standard deviation), and the accuracy was between 91.57 and 106.66%. The mean recovery for all the analytes was 100.87%. This method was successfully applied in the quality assessment of bioactive flavonoids in the fruit-stalk extract of H. dulcis.

  8. Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to Hovenia dulcis extracts.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, A P R; Vidal, F; Castro, T M; Lopes, C S; Albarello, N; Coelho, M G P; Figueiredo, S F L; Monteiro-Leal, L H

    2005-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of giardiasis, a common parasitic infection of the human and animal digestive tract. Although several drugs have been available to treat this infection, they present unpleasant side effects or cytotoxicity. In order to find a more natural treatment for the disease, we analyzed the effects of the methanolic extract and three fractions obtained from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) leaves on G. lamblia. Comparing all fractions, dichloromethane was more efficient in reducing Giardia growth. The exposition of G. lamblia to this fraction lead to degenerations in the surface, modifications in the cell shape and alterations in the localization of nuclei. Besides that, the adhesion of G. lamblia was also altered. Experiments revealed that the obtained fraction did not present cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. In summary, dichloromethane fraction has strong antigiardial effects and could become an important new substance for the treatment of giardiasis.

  9. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Kehoe, Patrick G; Sombie, Pierre A E D; Lamien, Charles E; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2011-12-01

    Different extracts were obtained from Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae) by successive extraction with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. These extracts exhibited significant antioxidant capacity in various antioxidant models mediated (xantine oxidase and lipoxygenase) or not mediated (2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, β-carotene bleaching, lipid peroxidation) by enzymes. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to their phytochemical composition in terms of polyphenol and carotenoid contents. The chloroform extract was richest in phytochemicals and had the highest antioxidant activity in the different antioxidant systems. All the extracts exhibited less than 50% inhibition on xanthine oxidase but more than 50% inhibition on lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase. The extracts strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation mediated by lipoxygenase.

  10. Characterisation of stilbenes in California almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liyang; Bolling, Bradley W

    2014-04-01

    Stilbene polyphenols are present in some fruits and nuts, but their abundance in many foods, such as almonds, is unknown. Therefore, we characterised stilbenes from Nonpareil, Butte and Carmel almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties from California. UHPLC-MS conditions were optimised to resolve cis- and trans-resveratrol, d4-resveratrol, dienestrol, hexestrol, oxyresveratrol, piceatannol, pterostilbene, and resveratrol-3-β-glucoside (polydatin). Stilbenes were isolated from ethanolic almond extracts by solid-phase extraction and identified with UHPLC-MS by comparison of retention times, mass spectra, in-source CID spectra, and enzymatic hydrolysis to authentic standards. Polydatin was identified in almond extracts, with 7.19-8.52 μg/100 g almond. Piceatannol+oxyresveratrol was tentatively identified in almond blanch water, at 0.19-2.55 μg/100 g almond. Polydatin was concentrated in almond skins, which contained 95.6-97.5% of the total almond content. Therefore, almonds contain the stilbene class of polyphenols in addition to the previously identified proanthocyanidin, hydrolysable tannin, flavonoid, and phenolic acid classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  12. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  13. Proteome analysis of the almond kernel (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Li, Shugang; Geng, Fang; Wang, Ping; Lu, Jiankang; Ma, Meihu

    2016-08-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis) is a popular tree nut worldwide and offers many benefits to human health. However, the importance of almond kernel proteins in the nutrition and function in human health requires further evaluation. The present study presents a systematic evaluation of the proteins in the almond kernel using proteomic analysis. The nutrient and amino acid content in almond kernels from Xinjiang is similar to that of American varieties; however, Xinjiang varieties have a higher protein content. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated a wide distribution of molecular weights and isoelectric points of almond kernel proteins. A total of 434 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, and most were proteins that were experimentally confirmed for the first time. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the 434 proteins indicated that proteins involved in primary biological processes including metabolic processes (67.5%), cellular processes (54.1%), and single-organism processes (43.4%), the main molecular function of almond kernel proteins are in catalytic activity (48.0%), binding (45.4%) and structural molecule activity (11.9%), and proteins are primarily distributed in cell (59.9%), organelle (44.9%), and membrane (22.8%). Almond kernel is a source of a wide variety of proteins. This study provides important information contributing to the screening and identification of almond proteins, the understanding of almond protein function, and the development of almond protein products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of cadmium on lipids of almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Jomni, Chiraz; Marzouk, Brahim; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium uptake and distribution, as well as its effects on lipid composition was investigated in almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis) grown in culture solution supplied with two concentrations of Cd (50 and 150 μM). The accumulation of Cd increased with external metal concentrations, and was considerably higher in roots than in leaves. Fourteen days after Cd treatment, the membrane lipids were extracted and separated on silica-gel thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by FID-GC on a capillary column. Our results showed that Cd stress decreased the quantities of all lipids classes (phospholipids, galactolipids and neutral lipids). Galactolipid, phospholipid and neutral lipid concentrations decreased more in roots than in leaves by Cd-treatment. In almost all lipid classes the proportion of palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic (18: 2) and that of linolenic (18: 3) acid decreased, suggesting that heavy metal treatment induced an alteration in the fatty acid synthesis processes. In conclusion, our results show that the changes found in total fatty acids, in the quantities of all lipids classes, and in the in the profiles of individual polar lipids suggest that membrane structure and function might be altered by Cd stress.

  15. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  16. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Karunaratne, D. Nedra

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  17. Preliminary characterization, antioxidant activity in vitro and hepatoprotective effect on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice of polysaccharides from the peduncles of Hovenia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingchun; Zhu, Peilei; Jiang, Changxing; Ma, Liping; Zhang, Zhanjun; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2012-09-01

    The fresh fleshy peduncles of Hovenia dulcis have been used as a food supplement and traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and alcoholic poisoning for more than a millennium. The objectives of the present study, therefore, were to determine the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the peduncles of H. dulcis (HDPS) and to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. HDPS, prepared by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and treatment of macroporous resin, was found to be non-starch polysaccharide and mainly composed of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. In in vitro antioxidant assay, HDPS exhibited high superoxide radical scavenging activity, strong inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation and a medium ferrous ion-chelating activity. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, the administration of HDPS significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, significantly decreased the liver level of malondialdehyde and remarkably restored the liver activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in alcohol-induced liver injury mice. The results suggested that HDPS had a significant protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury possibly via its antioxidant activity to protect biological systems against the oxidative stress.

  18. Pollen and microsporangium development in Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae): a different type of tapetal cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Marina M; Galati, Beatriz G; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Medan, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Despite that there is some literature on pollen morphology of Rhamnaceae, studies addressing general aspects of the microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and anther development are rare. The aim of this paper is to describe the ultrastructure of pollen grain ontogeny with special attention to tapetum cytology in Hovenia dulcis. Anthers at different stages of development were processed for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, bright-field microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. Different histochemical reactions were carried out. The ultrastructural changes observed during the development of the tapetal cells and pollen grains are described. Large vesicles containing carbohydrates occur in the tapetal cell cytoplasm during the early stages of pollen development. Its origin and composition are described and discussed. This is the first report on the ontogeny and ultrastructure of the pollen grain and related sporophytic structures of H. dulcis.

  19. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  20. Therapeutic potency of saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in alloxan induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, P. Saravana; Anaswara, P. V.; Muthuraman, A.; Krishan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is major metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. This leads to alter the multiple organ system. Aims: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis (SRE-SD) using alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Material and Methods: The single dose of alloxan was injected for the induction of diabetes in rats. The SRE-SD and glibenclamide were administered for 15 consecutive days from the 3rd day of alloxan administration. Quantity of food and water intake was measured at day 0, and 18. Further, body weight was recorded and blood samples were collected at different time intervals that is, day 0, 3, 8, 13, and 18. The oxidative biomarkers (i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite (NO2−) levels were also estimated in the serum sample. Results: The SRE-SD showed a remarkable dose and time-dependent changes in alloxan-induced rise in the level of food consumption and water intake, serum glucose level, TBARS, NO2− and fall in the level of GSH. Further, significant attenuation was observed at 20 and 30 mg/kg of SRE-SD treated group. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that SRE-SD has both antidiabetic and antioxidant effects on the experimental model of diabetes in rat. PMID:25558170

  1. Spontaneous poisoning by Hovenia dulcis in dairy cattle in Southwest Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Fabricio; Possa, Marina Gabriela; Faccin, Mayane; Gruchouskei, Leonardo; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Pípole, Fernando; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Elias, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paraná, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis.

  2. Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb) seeds.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Fernando; Barros, António; Mota, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-03-10

    The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis seed has a thin and structurally complex seed coat, with lignified cellulosic tissue. The embryo has two voluminous cotyledons. Cotyledon cells have a high number of protein and lipid bodies, some of which have phytin. The provascular tissue, located in the cotyledons, is oriented in small bundles perpendicular to the transverse embryonic axis. Prunus dulcis cell wall material is very rich in arabinose (45 mol %). Glucose (23%), uronic acids (12%), and xylose (12%) are also major sugar components. The polymers obtained from the imidazole and Na(2)CO(3) extracts contain mainly pectic substances rich in arabinose, but the sugar content of these extracts was very low. The majority of the pectic substances (also rich in arabinose) was recovered with the KOH extracts. These extracts, with high sugar content, yielded also xyloglucans and acidic xylans. The 4 M KOH + H(3)BO(3) extracts yielded polysaccharides rich in uronic acids and xylose and very rich in arabinose, accounting for 27% of the cell wall material.

  3. [Analysis of total proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) by two-dimensional electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-dong; He, Shao-heng

    2004-07-01

    To analyse the total proteins in the seeds of almond (Prunus dulcis), one of the popular ingestent allergens in China, by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The total proteins of the seeds were extracted by trichloracetic acid (TCA) method, and then separated by isoelectric focusing as first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second dimension. The spots of proteins were visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. After analysis with software (ImageMaster 2D), 188 different proteins were detected. The isoelectric points (pI) for approximately 28% of total proteins were between 4.5-5.5, and the relative molecular mass (M(r)) of approximately 62% total proteins were between (20-25)x10(3). This was the first high-resolution, two-dimensional protein map of the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) in China. Our finding has laid a solid foundation for further identification, characterization, gene cloning and standardization of allergenic proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis).

  4. High prevalence of Theileria sp. in wild Chinese Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Jang, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sook-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2009-10-14

    Wild Chinese Water Deer exist in large numbers in Northeast Asia, including South Korea. The deer population is so widespread that they are common even in urban areas, resulting in increased contact with humans and domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Theileria sp. infection in wild Chinese Water Deer in South Korea. Using biomolecular techniques, blood samples taken from 18 wild Chinese Water Deer were examined. Thirteen of the 18 samples (72%) tested positive for infection. In 11 of the deer, a Theileria sp. was detected that is nearly identical to the highly pathogenic Theileria sp. reported in China. Theileria ovis and Theileria capreoli were also detected individually in two deer. These results indicate that there may be a high prevalence of Theileria sp. infection in wild Chinese Water Deer, and that the deer may act as a reservoir for the Theileria sp. infection of domestic animals.

  5. Anti-steatotic and anti-inflammatory effects of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. extracts in chronic alcohol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ra-Yeong; Woo, Moon-Jae; Ham, Ju Ri; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2017-04-02

    The anti-steatotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fruit water extract (FW) and seed ethanol extract (SE) of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. in chronic alcohol-fed rats were investigated. Rats were fed a liquid diet containing 36% calories from alcohol and orally administered FW or SE (300 and 500mg/kg/day). Both FW and SE reduced hepatic lipid contents and droplets, serum lipid concentration and inflammatory markers (hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6) levels compared with the alcohol control group. Alcohol led to significant decreases in the hepatic fatty acid oxidative gene (Ppargc1a, Cpt1a and Acsl1) levels, while it significantly increased the Myd88 and Tnfa gene levels. However, FW or SE supplementation significantly up-regulated gene expression of Ppargc1a, Ppara, Cpt1a and Acsl1, and down-regulated gene expression of Myd88, Tnfa and Crp compared with the alcohol control group. FW or SE supplementation also significantly decreased hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in chronic alcohol-fed rats. Plasma alcohol and acetaldehyde levels, hepatic enzyme activity and protein expression of CYP2E1 were lowered by FW or SE supplementation. These results indicate that both FW and SE play an important role in improvement of alcoholic hepatic steatosis and inflammation via regulation of lipid and inflammation metabolism.

  6. Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, N; Chouaibi, M; Donsì, F; Ferrari, G; Hamdi, S

    2012-06-01

    The physicochemical components and functional properties of the gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis) have been investigated, along with the emulsification and foaming properties. The gum exudates are composed on dry weight basis by 2.45% of proteins, 0.85% of fats and 92.36% of carbohydrates. The latter consist of arabinose, xylitol, galactose and uronic acid (46.8 : 10.9 : 35.5 : 6.0 mass ratio) with traces of rhamnose, mannose and glucose. Moreover, gum exudates are rich in minerals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. The emulsifying capacity was studied for a 20% w/w olive oil in water emulsion as a function of gum concentration (from 3% to 12% w/w in the aqueous phase) as well as pH levels (from 3.0 to 10.0). The most stable and homogeneous emulsion was prepared with an 8% w/w aqueous almond gum solution at a pH between 5.0 and 8.0. In particular, for the same formulation, the emulsion processed by high pressure homogenization (5 passes at 200 MPa) resulted to be extremely stable under accelerated ageing, exhibiting no significant change in droplet size distribution for 14 days at 55 °C. All the tested systems exhibited an extremely low foaming capacity.

  7. [Effects of NaCl stress on Hovenia dulcis and Gleditsia sinensis seedlings growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, and active oxygen metabolism].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Bai, Zhi-ying; Lu, Bing-she; Cai, Sheng-wen; Feng, Li-na

    2008-11-01

    With potted Hovenia dulcis and Gleditsia sinensis seedlings as test materials, their plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and active oxygen metabolism under stress of different concentration (0, 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, and 0.60%) NaCl were studied. The results showed that with increasing concentration of NaCl, the plant growth, leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of PS II (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) decreased gradually, while the non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence (q(N)) was in adverse. After 10 days of 0. 15% NaCl stress, the leaf chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, phi(PS II), and q(P) of H. dulcis seedlings decreased by 19.77%, 2.94%, 29.03%, and 8.16%, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05) to the control, while no significant differences were observed for G. sinensis seedlings. Compared with the control, the Fv/Fm and phi(PS II), of G. sinensis seedlings in treatment 0.30% NaCl decreased significantly by 1.91% and 14.66%, and the chlorophyll content and q(P) of the seedling in treatment 0.45% NaCl decreased significantly by 29.28% and 11.36%, respectively (P<0.05). With increasing concentration of NaCl, the SOD activity of G. sinensis seedlings showed a consistent increasing trend, and that of H. dulcis seedlings increased first and decreased then. The POD and CAT activities of G. sinensis and H. dulci seedlings tended to increase first and decrease then, with the increment being higher for G. sinensis than for H. dulci, while the MDA content of the seedlings had an increasing trend, with the increment being higher for H. dulcis than for G. sinensis, suggesting that the cell membrane lipid peroxidation of H. dulcis was more serious than that of G. sinensis. It was concluded that G. sinensis had greater salt tolerance than H. dulcis, which was related toits higher anti-oxidation enzyme activities.

  8. Agononida Baba and de saint Laurent, 1996 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheoidea: Munididae) from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    The present paper reports five species of squat lobster, genus Agononida Baba and de Saint Laurent, 1996, of which A. squamosa (Henderson, 1885) and A. cf. variabilis (Baba, 1988) were not previously reported in Chinese waters. All the specimens are kept in the Marine Biological Museum collection in the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. To date, there have been 11 species of this genus recorded from China's seas. A key to those species is provided in this paper.

  9. Alleviating water scarcity in Northern China: balancing options and policies among Chinese decision-makers.

    PubMed

    Lasserre, F

    2003-01-01

    Water scarcity is mostly a man-made problem that increasingly affects people's lives and questions economic output in Northern China. Policy options addressing the serious water shortages in the region include conservation and water management reform, which is unpopular; grain imports and the downsizing of agriculture; derivation of Yangze water; derivation of the Amur and other international rivers. All solutions present major difficulties, whether domestic or international, for the Chinese authorities. While major decisions have not yet been taken, evidence shows major works such as water transfers from the Yangze or water pricing are not only unavoidable, but will not be enough to meet the growing demand for water in the region.

  10. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xi; Agusti, Susana; Lin, Fang; Li, Ke; Pan, Yaoru; Yu, Yan; Zheng, Yuhan; Wu, Jiaping; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-04-01

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3’s of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture.

  11. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xi; Agusti, Susana; Lin, Fang; Li, Ke; Pan, Yaoru; Yu, Yan; Zheng, Yuhan; Wu, Jiaping; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3’s of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture. PMID:28429792

  12. Emergy Evaluation of the Natural Value of Water Resources in Chinese Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Chen, Jing; Luo, Zhaohui; Lv, Zhuwu

    2009-08-01

    Emergy theory and method were used to evaluate the economy of China and the contributions of water resources in Chinese rivers to the real wealth of the Chinese economy. The water cycle and energy conversion were reviewed, and an emergy method for evaluating the natural value of water resources in a river watershed was developed. The indices for China calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developing countries. Despite a small surplus in its balance of payments, China had a net emergy loss from its trade in 2002. The efficiency of Chinese natural resource use was still not high and did not match its economic growth rate. Furthermore, the Chinese economy placed a stress on its ecological environment and natural resources. Several indices of Chinese rivers from the emergy evaluation were close to those of average global river water. The main average indices of Chinese rivers were transformity (4.17 × 104 sej/J), emergy per volume (2.05 × 1011 sej/m3), and emdollar per volume (0.06 /m3). The total value of all the rivers’ water made up 13.0% of the GDP of China in 2002, and that of water consumption accounted for 2.1%. The value of the water resources in the Haihe-luanhe River (11.39 × 104 sej/J) was the highest, followed by the Yellow River (10.27 × 104 sej/J), while the rivers in Southwest China had the lowest values (2.92 × 104 sej/J).

  13. Emergy evaluation of the natural value of water resources in Chinese rivers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Chen, Jing; Luo, Zhaohui; Lv, Zhuwu

    2009-08-01

    Emergy theory and method were used to evaluate the economy of China and the contributions of water resources in Chinese rivers to the real wealth of the Chinese economy. The water cycle and energy conversion were reviewed, and an emergy method for evaluating the natural value of water resources in a river watershed was developed. The indices for China calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developing countries. Despite a small surplus in its balance of payments, China had a net emergy loss from its trade in 2002. The efficiency of Chinese natural resource use was still not high and did not match its economic growth rate. Furthermore, the Chinese economy placed a stress on its ecological environment and natural resources. Several indices of Chinese rivers from the emergy evaluation were close to those of average global river water. The main average indices of Chinese rivers were transformity (4.17 x 10(4) sej/J), emergy per volume (2.05 x 10(11) sej/m(3)), and emdollar per volume (0.06 $/m(3)). The total value of all the rivers' water made up 13.0% of the GDP of China in 2002, and that of water consumption accounted for 2.1%. The value of the water resources in the Haiheluanhe River (11.39 x 10(4) sej/J) was the highest, followed by the Yellow River (10.27 x 10(4) sej/J), while the rivers in Southwest China had the lowest values (2.92 x 10(4) sej/J).

  14. Myricetin derived from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in high choline-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianjun; Meng, Yonghong; Zhao, Yan; Hu, Yuanyuan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Xingbin

    2015-05-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the protective effects of myricetin (MYR) purified from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. against vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice fed with 3% dietary choline water. MYR was shown to possess strong scavenging activities against DPPH˙, HO˙, and O2˙(-) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power in vitro. Mice fed 3% dietary choline water for 8 weeks significantly displayed vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver oxidative stress (p < 0.01). Furthermore, continuous administration of MYR at 400 and 800 mg per kg bw in choline-fed mice could significantly decrease the high choline diet-induced elevation of serum total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), endothelin 1 (ET-1) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) levels as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, while the choline-induced decline of serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), endothelin nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) levels could be markedly elevated in mice (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, MYR at 400 and 800 mg per kg bw also increased hepatic total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and decreased hepatic malonaldehyde (MDA) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels in mice, relative to choline-treated mice (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). These results together with conventional haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Oil Red O staining observation of the liver and vascular tissues suggested that MYR exerted a significant protective role against high choline diet-induced endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice. This is the first report showing that high intake of dietary choline can induce liver damage and that MYR can ameliorate choline-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury.

  15. Antisweet natural products. VIII. Structures of hodulosides VI--X from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. var. tomentella Makino.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, K; Nagai, Y; Yoshida, M; Arihara, S

    1993-10-01

    From the Fresh leaves of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. var. tomentella Makino, five five new dammarane glycosides named hodulosides VI-X (1-5) were isolated. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. Hodulosides VII-X showed antisweet activities.

  16. Effect of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically alcohol-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jinle; Zhu, Wenxue; Li, Zhixi; Ling, Shengbao

    2012-06-01

    The protective effects of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically ethanol-induced biochemical changes in male mice were investigated. Administration of ethanol (50%, v/v, 10 mL kg⁻¹) to mice for 6 weeks induced liver damage with a significant increase (P < 0.01) of the liver index, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) in the serum and the hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. In contrast, administration of juice or fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles (10 mL kg⁻¹ bw) along with alcohol significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the activities of the enzymes (AST, ALT and γ-GT), liver index, concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TCH) in the serum and the hepatic TG and LPO levels. Mice treated with juice or fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles showed better profiles of the antioxidant systems with relatively higher glutathione (GSH) content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. All these results were accompanied by histological observations in liver. The results demonstrate that both of the juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles have beneficial effects in reducing the adverse effect of alcohol.

  17. A comparative study of the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potential of the fruits and leaves of Spondias dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Shawkat Md. Aminul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Manik, Mohammad Kawsar; Wahid, Md. Arif; Kamal, Chowdhury Shafayat Ibne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic property of the fruits and leaves of Spondias dulcis (S. dulcis). Methods Methanolic extracts of fruits and leaves of S. dulcis were partitioned with chloroform and dichloromethane. The antioxidant potential of the crude extract and partitioned fractions were evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging potential, reducing potential and total antioxidant capacity by specific standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and compared with vincristine sulfate. The thrombolytic activity was compared with streptokinase. Results The methanolic fruit extract exhibited the highest phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity, among the other extracts, with the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity at a concentration of 10 µg/mL (IC50: 1.91 µg/mL) and maximum reducing power at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (EC50: 3.58 µg/mL). Though all extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains, weak or no activity against fungus. The range of LC50 value of all extracts was 1.335-14.057 µg/mL which was far lower than the cut off index for cytotoxicity. All extracts exhibited statistically significant (P<0.001) thrombolytic activity. Conclusions Our study suggested that S. dulcis exhibits antimicrobial activities against a wide variety of strains while it possesses significant antioxidant, cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity. PMID:23998007

  18. Preparation, preliminary characterization and immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharide fractions from the peduncles of Hovenia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingchun; Jiang, Changxing; Ma, Liping; Zhang, Zhanjun; Cao, Lin; Liu, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2013-05-01

    The peduncles of Hovenia dulcis, containing abundant nutrients and having a taste like a combination of raisin, clove, cinnamon and sugar, have been consumed as fruits and used as traditional herbal medicine for a long time in China. Up to date, little information is available about the polysaccharides from peduncles of H. dulcis (HDPS) and their potential bioactivity. In this study, three purified fractions were prepared by sequential purification of crude HDPS through ion-exchange chromatography and gel-filtration chromatography. The three fractions of HDPS-1, HDPS-2 and HDPS-3 were found to be homogeneous heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with an average molecular weight of 235, 70 and 53 kDa, respectively. HDPS-3 was quite different from HDPS-1 and HDPS-2, as it contained much higher content of galacturonic acid (40.5%). In vitro immunostimulatory activity evaluation revealed that all the three fractions could significantly stimulate the proliferation of splenocytes and enhance phagocytosis, nitric oxide production and acid phosphatase activity of peritoneal macrophages, which suggested that HDPS had a potent immunostimulatory activity and could be explored as a potential natural immunomodulatory agent.

  19. Elucidation of terpenoid metabolism in Scoparia dulcis by RNA-seq analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Lee, Jung-Bum

    2017-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis biosynthesize bioactive diterpenes, such as scopadulcic acid B (SDB), which are known for their unique molecular skeleton. Although the biosynthesis of bioactive diterpenes is catalyzed by a sequence of class II and class I diterpene synthases (diTPSs), the mechanisms underlying this process are yet to be fully identified. To elucidate these biosynthetic machinery, we performed a high-throughput RNA-seq analysis, and de novo assembly of clean reads revealed 46,332 unique transcripts and 40,503 two unigenes. We found diTPSs genes including a putative syn-copalyl diphosphate synthase (SdCPS2) and two kaurene synthase-like (SdKSLs) genes. Besides them, total 79 full-length of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes were also discovered. The expression analyses showed selected CYP450s associated with their expression pattern of SdCPS2 and SdKSL1, suggesting that CYP450 candidates involved diterpene modification. SdCPS2 represents the first predicted gene to produce syn-copalyl diphosphate in dicots. In addition, SdKSL1 potentially contributes to the SDB biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, these identified genes associated with diterpene biosynthesis lead to the development of genetic engineering focus on diterpene metabolism in S. dulcis. PMID:28266568

  20. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile.

  1. Elucidation of terpenoid metabolism in Scoparia dulcis by RNA-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Lee, Jung-Bum

    2017-03-07

    Scoparia dulcis biosynthesize bioactive diterpenes, such as scopadulcic acid B (SDB), which are known for their unique molecular skeleton. Although the biosynthesis of bioactive diterpenes is catalyzed by a sequence of class II and class I diterpene synthases (diTPSs), the mechanisms underlying this process are yet to be fully identified. To elucidate these biosynthetic machinery, we performed a high-throughput RNA-seq analysis, and de novo assembly of clean reads revealed 46,332 unique transcripts and 40,503 two unigenes. We found diTPSs genes including a putative syn-copalyl diphosphate synthase (SdCPS2) and two kaurene synthase-like (SdKSLs) genes. Besides them, total 79 full-length of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes were also discovered. The expression analyses showed selected CYP450s associated with their expression pattern of SdCPS2 and SdKSL1, suggesting that CYP450 candidates involved diterpene modification. SdCPS2 represents the first predicted gene to produce syn-copalyl diphosphate in dicots. In addition, SdKSL1 potentially contributes to the SDB biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, these identified genes associated with diterpene biosynthesis lead to the development of genetic engineering focus on diterpene metabolism in S. dulcis.

  2. Functional identification of a Lippia dulcis bornyl diphosphate synthase that contains a duplicated, inhibitory arginine-rich motif.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Matthew C; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2017-08-26

    Lippia dulcis (Aztec sweet herb) contains the potent natural sweetener hernandulcin, a sesquiterpene ketone found in the leaves and flowers. Utilizing the leaves for agricultural application is challenging due to the presence of the bitter-tasting and toxic monoterpene, camphor. To unlock the commercial potential of L. dulcis leaves, the first step of camphor biosynthesis by a bornyl diphosphate synthase needs to be elucidated. Two putative monoterpene synthases (LdTPS3 and LdTPS9) were isolated from L. dulcis leaf cDNA. To elucidate their catalytic functions, E. coli-produced recombinant enzymes with truncations of their chloroplast transit peptides were assayed with geranyl diphosphate (GPP). In vitro enzyme assays showed that LdTPS3 encodes bornyl diphosphate synthase (thus named LdBPPS) while LdTPS9 encodes linalool synthase. Interestingly, the N-terminus of LdBPPS possesses two arginine-rich (RRX8W) motifs, and enzyme assays showed that the presence of both RRX8W motifs completely inhibits the catalytic activity of LdBPPS. Only after the removal of the putative chloroplast transit peptide and the first RRX8W, LdBPPS could react with GPP to produce bornyl diphosphate. LdBPPS is distantly related to the known bornyl diphosphate synthase from sage in a phylogenetic analysis, indicating a converged evolution of camphor biosynthesis in sage and L. dulcis. The discovery of LdBPPS opens up the possibility of engineering L. dulcis to remove the undesirable product, camphor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clitocybe tabescens associated with decline and death of Chinese elm and water oak

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer; F. I. McCracken

    1969-01-01

    In 1964, decline symptoms were found on 48 Chinese elms (Ulmus parvifolia) and 2 water oaks (Quercus nigra) in Washington County, Mississippi. Some of their foliage was yellowish, and small lateral branches were dying in parts of the crowns. Large branches later died and the entire crowns were infected.

  4. SSR allelic variation in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.).

    PubMed

    Xie, Hua; Sui, Yi; Chang, Feng-Qi; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rong-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen SSR markers including eight EST-SSR and eight genomic SSRs were used for genetic diversity analysis of 23 Chinese and 15 international almond cultivars. EST- and genomic SSR markers previously reported in species of Prunus, mainly peach, proved to be useful for almond genetic analysis. DNA sequences of 117 alleles of six of the 16 SSR loci were analysed to reveal sequence variation among the 38 almond accessions. For the four SSR loci with AG/CT repeats, no insertions or deletions were observed in the flanking regions of the 98 alleles sequenced. Allelic size variation of these loci resulted exclusively from differences in the structures of repeat motifs, which involved interruptions or occurrences of new motif repeats in addition to varying number of AG/CT repeats. Some alleles had a high number of uninterrupted repeat motifs, indicating that SSR mutational patterns differ among alleles at a given SSR locus within the almond species. Allelic homoplasy was observed in the SSR loci because of base substitutions, interruptions or compound repeat motifs. Substitutions in the repeat regions were found at two SSR loci, suggesting that point mutations operate on SSRs and hinder the further SSR expansion by introducing repeat interruptions to stabilize SSR loci. Furthermore, it was shown that some potential point mutations in the flanking regions are linked with new SSR repeat motif variation in almond and peach.

  5. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  6. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  7. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  8. DNA barcoding analysis of Coleoidea (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lina; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Lingfeng; Li, Qi

    2012-05-01

    Coleoids are part of the Cephalopoda class, which occupy an important position in most oceans both at an ecological level and at a commercial level. Nevertheless, some coleoid species are difficult to distinguish with traditional morphological identification in cases when specimens are heavily damaged during collection or when closely related taxa are existent. As a useful tool for rapid species assignment, DNA barcoding may offer significant potential for coleoid identification. Here, we used two mitochondrial fragments, cytochrome c oxidase I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA), to assess whether 34 coleoids accounting for about one-third of the Chinese coleoid fauna could be identified by DNA barcoding technique. The pairwise intra- and interspecific distances were assessed, and relationships among species were estimated by NJ and bayesian analyses. High levels of genetic differentiation within Loliolus beka led to an overlap between intra- and interspecific distances. All remaining species forming well-differentiated clades in the NJ and bayesian trees were identical for both fragments. Loliolus beka possessed two mitochondrial lineages with high levels of intraspecific distances, suggesting the occurrence of cryptic species. This study confirms the efficacy of DNA barcoding for identifying species as well as discovering cryptic diversity of Chinese coleoids. It also lays a foundation for other ecological and biological studies of Coleoidea.

  9. Evolution of China's water issues as framed in Chinese mainstream media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Xiong, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    There is an urgent need globally to trigger fundamental societal changes in water use away from existing unsustainable paradigms. This paper attempts to understand the evolution of newspaper coverage of water issues in China by analyzing water-related articles in a major national newspaper People's Daily during 1946-2012 using a content analysis approach. The major findings include: 1) water issues have been in relatively important positions in the newspaper; 2) water issues reporting in China has experienced three stages: 1946- the middle of 1980s: flood and drought control and water for food; the middle of 1980s to 1997: water for economic development; and 1998 to the present: water for the environmental sustainability and economic development; 3) water issue reporting in the People's Daily clearly reflected China's top-down water resources management system, no "real" public opinions on water were reported during the study period; 4) The People's Daily is just a wind vane of Chinese mainstream values and policies on water. These findings supported the realist assumption that the societal changes on water issues in China were triggered by a multitude of factors including the biophysical pressure (floods and droughts), political campaign (the Cultural Revolution), macro-economic reform (Reform and Opening-up), water institutional arrangement (the Water Law) and water management reform (the No. 1 Central Document on water reform).

  10. Ethnoecology of the palm Brahea dulcis (Kunth) Mart. in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pulido, María T; Coronel-Ortega, Mayte

    2015-01-05

    There have been few studies on the sustainable use of non-timber forest products in arid and semi-arid zones. The palm Brahea dulcis has been one of the most important resources in semi-arid Mesoamerica, since pre-Hispanic times. Currently, some populations grow within protected natural areas, representing both a challenge and an opportunity for local development. This ethnoecological study of B. dulcis in central Mexico aimed to evaluate their uses, harvesting context, and potential for exploitation, in order to give practical advice on their best use and management. Ethnographic and ecological information was obtained in Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve and Valle del Mezquital, Mexico. We studied the population structure and density; additionally, we evaluated the rate of leaf production, leaf renewal rate, percent survival of new leaves, the development of reproductive structures and performed a one-year defoliation experiment (involving a control and four treatments including a mix of semiannual and annual frequency of harvest and removal of two new leaves and/or two mature leaves). Twenty uses of the palm were recorded in the study area. Religious/symbolic and handicraft uses are highlighted. The population density of this species was the highest reported for the genus (1244 ± 231.7 ind/ha). The leaf production rate was the highest reported for arborescent palms of the Americas (11.83 ± 0.036 leaves/individual/year). The sexual reproductive cycle was 2.3 years long. A one-year defoliation experiment did not show statistically significant differences. Recommendations include: 1) implement management focused on increasing the abundance and quality of this useful resource in Metztitlán; 2) employ a strategy of focusing on ethnicity and gender in promoting their exploitation; 3) learn from theoretical frameworks of other non timber forest product studies. We propose that Brahea dulcis is the palm with the highest potential for sustainable use

  11. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  12. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres.

  13. KLOSSIELLA DULCIS N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: KLOSSIELLIDAE) IN THE KIDNEYS OF PETAURUS BREVICEPS (MARSUPIALIA: PETAURIDAE).

    PubMed

    Ardiaca, Maria; Bennett, Mark D; Montesinos, Andres; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Soriano-Navarro, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Two cases of renal klossiellosis were diagnosed by histopathology in pet sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). In both cases, parasites were associated with tubular dilation and mild interstitial nephritis. Rare schizonts were seen in the proximal convoluted renal tubular epithelium, whereas all other life cycle stages were found within distal convoluted tubule cells or the urinary space of the structures distal to the loop of Henle. Conventional optical and transmission electron microscopies were used to assess the life stages of the parasite. The morphologic characteristics and measurements observed differ from those of previously described species of Klossiella infecting marsupial hosts, and the name Klossiella dulcis n. sp. is hereby proposed. This is the first report of a Klossiella sp. infection in Petaurus breviceps .

  14. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P41 (or P43), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å. PMID:18097098

  15. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4(1) (or P4(3)), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 A.

  16. Saccharides and fructooligosaccharides composition of green and ripe Averrhoa carambola, Blighia sapida and Spondias dulcis fruits.

    PubMed

    Benkeblia, Noureddine; Lopez, Mercedes G

    2015-06-01

    The maturation of fruits is characterized by numerous compositional changes during ripening and these changes contribute in their quality attributes. This study aimed to assess the contents of saccharides and potential fructooligosaccharides (FOS) of ackee (Blighia sapida Köenig), carambola (Averrhoa carambola) and June plum (Spondias dulcis), at green and ripe stages. Beside glucose and fructose and lower sucrose content, three short chain fructooligosaccharides were identified in ackee fruit, namely 1-kestose (1(F)-β-d-fructofuranosyl sucrose), nystose (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)2 sucrose) and DP5 (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)3 sucrose), while in carambola and June plum DP5 (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)3 sucrose) was not detected. Ripening stage also affected significantly the contents of these saccharides and sFOS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-09

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  19. Evolution of China's water issues as framed in Chinese mainstream newspaper.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yonglan; Wei, Yongping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jing

    2016-03-01

    There is an urgent need globally to trigger fundamental societal changes in water management away from existing unsustainable paradigms. This paper attempts to understand the evolution of newspaper coverage of water issues in China by analyzing water-related articles in a major national newspaper, the People's Daily, over the period 1946-2012 using a content analysis approach. The major findings include the following: (1) water issues were in relatively prominent positions in the newspaper; (2) the reporting of water issues in China experienced three stages: 1946 to the middle of 1980s-flood and drought control and water for food production, the middle of 1980s to 1997-water for economic development, and 1998 to the present-water for the environmental sustainability and economic development; (3) the reporting of water issues in the People's Daily clearly reflected China's top-down water resources management system, and no "real" public opinions on water were reported during the study period; and (4) the People's Daily is just a wind vane of Chinese mainstream values and policies on water. The findings supported the realist assumption that the societal value changes on water issues in China were triggered by a range of factors including biophysical pressure (floods and droughts), political campaign (the Cultural Revolution), macro-economic reform (Reform and Opening-up), water institutional arrangement (the Water Law), and water management reform (the No. 1 Central Document on water reform). While there are similarities and differences between this study and other studies, important implications for more sustainable water management are a need to strengthen academic specialists' and NGO's voices in the newspaper to create a better informed public, and to stimulate practices toward sustainable water use.

  20. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z. M.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, H.; Chen, B.

    2016-03-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization, the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply. This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demand-driven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model. In 2007, the Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW), and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU). Investment, consumption, and exports contribute to 34.6%, 33.3%, and 30.6% of the national total EWU, respectively. Specifically, 58.0%, 51.1%, 48.6%, 43.3%, and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Fujian are attributed to international exports. The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW, of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply. Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water, in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver. Without implementing effective water-saving measures and adjusting industrial structures, the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products. Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production, and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  1. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using α-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food.

  2. A tiered ecological risk assessment of three chlorophenols in Chinese surface waters.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaowei; Gao, Jijun; Zha, Jinmiao; Xu, Yiping; Wang, Zijian; Giesy, John P; Richardson, Kristine L

    2012-06-01

    The ecological risks posed by three chlorophenols (CPs), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Chinese surface waters were assessed. This was achieved by applying a tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach ranging from deterministic methods to probabilistic options to measured concentrations of CPs in surface water of seven major watersheds and three drainage regions in China and the chronic toxicity data for indigenous Chinese species. The results show that the risks of three chlorophenols are ranked PCP>2,4-DCP≈2,4,6-TCP. PCP posed little ecological risk while 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP posed negligible or de minimis risk in Chinese surface water. However, the risks varied with different river basins, for example, PCP posed some ecological risk in the Yangtze, Huaihe, and Pearl Rivers. The magnitude of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP pollution in North China was more serious than that in South China. The probabilistic risk assessment approach, which can provide more information for risk managers and decision makers, was favored over the screening-level single-value estimate method. However, the results from all tiers of the ERA methods in the framework were consistent with each other.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fruit Rind Extract of Garcinia dulcis (Roxburgh) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Nabajyoti; Gogoi, Ankur; Neog, Bijoy; Baruah, Dibyojyoti; Singh, Khumanthem Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Garcinia spp. belongs to the family Clusiaceae has been traditionally used for the treatment of many ailments including the liver damage. Garcinia dulcis found in North Eastern region of Assam; India can be a potential candidature to combat different ailments. Objective: The present work has been designed in such a way to appraisal the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of fruit rind extract of this plant. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was investigated through the various in vitro models, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, nitrite oxide. Phytochemical investigation for total phenolic and flavonoids contents were carried out by standard protocol. For the evaluation of hepatoprotective activity, albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups, five animals per group and activity was determined by measuring the contents of liver function marker enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and biochemical parameter, that is, Bilirubin and total protein. Histopathology observation of liver sections was conducted. Results: Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of both phenolic and flavonoid groups in the extract in a significant amount. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was observed in all models and percentage of inhibition was dose-dependent. Intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride, elevated the liver function enzymes, bilirubin, and suppressed the production of total protein. Pretreatment with the extract decreased the SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and bilirubin level significantly and increased the production level of total protein in a dose-dependent manner. The histopathological observation supported the hepatoprotective potentiality of the extract. Conclusion: The results indicate that fruit rind part of G. dulcis is nontoxic and the plant can utilize as an

  4. Neuroprotective and free radical scavenging activities of phenolic compounds from Hovenia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Li, Gao; Min, Byung-Sun; Zheng, Changji; Lee, Joongku; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu

    2005-07-01

    The EtOAc-soluble fraction from a methanolic extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. exhibited neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. The neuroprotective activity-guided isolation resulted in 8 phenolic compounds (1-8), such as vanillic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), 3,5-dihydroxystilbene (3), (+)-aromadendrin (4), methyl vanillate (5), (-)-catechin (6), 2,3,4-trihydrobenzoic acid (7), and (+)-afzelechin (8). Among these, compounds 6 and 8 had a neuroprotective effect on the glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells. Furthermore, compound 6 had a DPPH free radical scavenging effect with an IC50 value of 57.7 microM, and a superoxide anion radical scavenging effect with an IC50 value of 8.0 microM. Both compounds 6 and 8 had ABTS cation radical scavenging effects with IC50 values of 7.8 microM and 23.7 microM, respectively. These results suggest that compounds 6 and 8 could be neuroprotectants owing to their free radical scavenging activities.

  5. Anatomy, Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition of Food Bodies of Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Rafael Andrade; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Food bodies (FBs) are structures that promote mutualism between plants and ants, which help protect them against herbivores. The present study aims to describe the anatomical organization, ultrastructure and chemical composition of the FBs in Hovenia dulcis, which represent the first structures of this type described in Rhamnaceae. Methods Leaves in various stages of development were collected and fixed for examination under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Samples of FBs were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance of 1H and 13C. Key Results The FBs vary from globose to conical and are restricted to the abaxial leaf surface, having a mixed origin, including epidermis and parenchyma. The FB epidermis is uniseriate, slightly pilose and has a thin cuticle. The epidermal cells are vacuolated and pigments or food reserves are absent. The parenchyma cells of immature FBs have dense cytoplasm showing mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and plastids. Mature FB cells store oils, which are free in the cytosol and occupy a large portion of the cell lumen. In these cells the plastids accumulate starch. Conclusions The lipids present in FBs are glycerin esters characteristic of plant energy reserves. Ants were observed collecting these FBs, which allows us to infer that these structures mediate plant–ant interactions and can help protect the young plants against herbivores, as these structures are prevalent at this developmental stage. PMID:18413656

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Hovenia dulcis peduncles and their antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Qiang, Mingliang; Sun, Zhongguan; Du, Yiqun

    2015-09-01

    An ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the ripe peduncles of Hovenia dulcis (HDPs) was investigated. Response surface methodology along with a Box-Behnken design based on single-factor experiments was employed to optimize and model the extraction conditions of HDPs, namely extraction temperature (40-60 °C), ultrasonic power (320-480 W) and extraction time (35-65 min). The optimized conditions were extraction temperature 60 °C, ultrasonic power 362 W and extraction time 65 min. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of crude HDPs was 25.12±0.145 mg/g DW, which is consistent with the predictive yield of 25.33 mg/g DW. The polysaccharides were graded by an ethanol precipitation method and three fractions (HDPs1, HDPs2 and HDPs3) were harvested. These had final ethanol concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80%, respectively and were acidic polysaccharides. The preliminary characterization was mainly composed of Ara, Rha, Glu and Gal, and exhibited an almost similar characteristic absorption peak by gas chromatograph and infrared spectra analysis. The antioxidant activity assays in vitro revealed that HDPs can be used as natural antioxidants in functional foods and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Antiproliferative terpenoids from almond hulls (Prunus dulcis): identification and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Amico, Vincenzo; Barresi, Vincenza; Condorelli, Daniele; Spatafora, Carmela; Tringali, Corrado

    2006-02-08

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc crude extract from Sicilian almond hulls, a waste material from Prunus dulcis crop, allowed identification of 10 constituents, isolated as pure compounds (1-5, 7, and 10) or unseparable mixtures (5 + 6 and 8 + 9). All compounds were subjected to spectroscopic analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide bioassay on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition to the main components oleanolic (1), ursolic (2), and betulinic (3) acids, the 2-hydroxy analogues alphitolic (4), corosolic (5), and maslinic (6) acids, as well as the related aldehydes, namely, betulinic (7), oleanolic (8), and ursolic (9), were identified. From a more polar fraction, the beta-sitosterol 3-O-glucoside (10) was also identified. A sample of commercially available betulin (11) was also included in bioassays as further support to a structure-activity relationship study. Betulinic acid showed antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 cells (GI50 = 0.27 microM), higher than the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil.

  8. Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins as a potential source of bioactive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Monagas, Maria; Garrido, Ignacio; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Bartolome, Begoña; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen

    2007-10-17

    An exhaustive study of the phenolic composition of almond ( Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins was carried out in order to evaluate their potential application as a functional food ingredient. Using the HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS technique, a total of 33 compounds corresponding to flavanols, flavonols, dihydroflavonols and flavanones, and other nonflavonoid compounds were identified. Peaks corresponding to another 23 structure-related compounds were also detected. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to characterize almond skin proanthocyanidins, revealing the existence of a series of A- and B-type procyanidins and propelargonidins up to heptamers, and A- and B-type prodelphinidins up to hexamers. Flavanols and flavonol glycosides were the most abundant phenolic compounds in almond skins, representing up to 38-57% and 14-35% of the total quantified phenolics, respectively. Due to their antioxidant properties, measured as oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) at 0.398-0.500 mmol Trolox/g, almond skins can be considered as a value-added byproduct for elaborating dietary antioxidant ingredients.

  9. Synthesis of disaccharides using β-glucosidases from Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and Prunus dulcis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Molina, Javier Freddy; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Valdivieso Gelves, Luis G; Bon, Elba P S; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2017-08-01

    Glucose conversion into disaccharides was performed with β-glucosidases from Prunus dulcis (β-Pd), Aspergillus niger (β-An) and A. awamori (β-Aa), in reactions containing initial glucose of 700 and 900 g l(-1). The reactions' time courses were followed regarding glucose and product concentrations. In all cases, there was a predominant formation of gentiobiose over cellobiose and also of oligosaccharides with a higher molecular mass. For reactions containing 700 g glucose l(-1), the final substrate conversions were 33, 38, and 23.5% for β-An, β-Aa, and β-Pd, respectively. The use of β-An yielded 103 g gentiobiose l(-1) (15.5% yield), which is the highest reported for a fungal β-glucosidase. The increase in glucose concentration to 900 g l(-1) resulted in a significant increase in disaccharide synthesis by β-Pd, reaching 128 g gentiobiose l(-1) (15% yield), while for β-An and β-Aa, there was a shift toward the synthesis of higher oligosaccharides. β-Pd and the fungal β-An and β-Aa β-glucosidases present quite dissimilar kinetics and selective properties regarding the synthesis of disaccharides; while β-Pd showed the highest productivity for gentiobiose synthesis, β-An presented the highest specificity.

  10. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  11. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a lipoxygenase in almond (Prunus dulcis) seed.

    PubMed

    Mita, G; Gallo, A; Greco, V; Zasiura, C; Casey, R; Zacheo, G; Santino, A

    2001-03-01

    We have characterized an almond (Prunus dulcis) lipoxygenase (LOX) that is expressed early in seed development. The presence of an active lipoxygenase was confirmed by western blot analysis and by measuring the enzymatic activity in microsomal and soluble protein samples purified from almond seeds at this stage of development. The almond lipoxygenase, which had a pH optimum around 6, was identified as a 9-LOX on the basis of the isomers of linoleic acid hydroperoxides produced in the enzymatic reaction. A genomic clone containing a complete lipoxygenase gene was isolated from an almond DNA library. The 6776-bp sequence reported includes an open reading frame of 4667 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 862 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 98.0 kDa and a predicted pI of 5.61. Almond seed lipoxygenase shows 71% identity with an Arabidopsis LOX1 gene and is closely related to tomato fruit and potato tuber lipoxygenases. The sequence of the active site was consistent with the isolated gene encoding a 9-LOX.

  12. Diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of phytotoxicity caused by fluoride on Spondias dulcis Forst. F. (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna-Santos, Bruno F; Azevedo, Aristéa A; Silva, Luzimar C; Oliva, Marco A

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the symptoms and microscopic damage caused by fluoride on Spondias dulcis, a fluoride-sensitive species. The plants were exposed to simulated fog with fluoride (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1)) for 20 min daily during four consecutive days. Samples from leaflets without any apparent fluoride injury were collected to microscopic analysis. The percentage of necrosed leaf area was measured, and the level of pollutant in the dry matter from the basal and apical portions of the plant was determined. The necroses began 24 h after the first simulation mainly from the base of the leaflets. A higher level of necrosis was observed at the apical portion of the plants, a region of higher fluoride accumulation. The damage on the surface of the leaflets was characterized as plasmolysis, erosion of the epicuticular waxes and epidermal rupture. Structurally, the noticeable accumulation of granules and droplets green stained by toluidine blue in the spongy parenchima and the boundaries of ending veinlets was observed. The limb thickness reduction occurred due to plasmolysis in the mesophyll, showing an apparent correlation with the damage observed on the surface. The parameters observed in the laboratory are promising for field biomonitoring studies.

  13. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  14. Water and food security in China: virtual water trade associated with crop trade between Chinese provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2013-12-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socio-economic development, diet shifts and climate change. Water availability presents a significant spatial heterogeneity in the country. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization to model inter-provincial crop trade in China. We combine these trade simulations with province-scale estimates of Virtual Water Content of these crops, from the H08 hydrological model to build the domestic virtual water trade network of China. We find that there is a wide heterogeneity in water-use efficiency among Chines provinces, with a few of the least water efficient provinces using disproportionately high amounts of irrigation water versus rainwater for crop production. We study the food trade patterns and the virtual water flows and savings associated with it.

  15. Effect of Scoparia dulcis on noise stress induced adaptive immunity and cytokine response in immunized Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sundareswaran, Loganathan; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Wankhar, Wankupar; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    Noise acts as a stressor and is reported to have impact on individual health depending on nature, type, intensity and perception. Modern medicine has no effective drugs or cure to prevent its consequences. Being an environmental stressor noise cannot be avoided; instead minimizing its exposure or consuming anti-stressor and adaptogens from plants can be considered. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-stressor, adaptogen and immunostimulatory activity of Scoparia dulcis against noise-induced stress in Wistar rat models. Noise stress in rats was created by broadband white noise generator, 100 dB A/4 h daily/15 days and S. dulcis (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally. 8 groups of rats were used consisting of 6 animals each; 4 groups for unimmunized and 4 groups for immunized. For immunization, sheep red blood cells (5 × 10(9) cells/ml) were injected intraperitoneally. Sub-acute noise exposed rats showed a significant increase in corticosterone and IL-4 levels in both immunized and unimmunized rats whereas lymphocytes, antibody titration, soluble immune complex, IL-4 showed a marked increase with a significant decrease in IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ cytokines only in unimmunized rats. Immunized noise exposed rats presented increased leukocyte migration index and decreased foot pad thickness, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ with no changes in the lymphocytes. S. dulcis (SD) has normalized and prevented the noise induced changes in cell-mediated and humoral immunity and it could be the presence of anti-stressor and immuno stimulant activity of the plant. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Heavy metals content and pH value in water environment of wild Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) habitat: a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongxing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Lusheng

    2005-11-01

    In order to reveal the reasons of the dramatic decline of wild Chinese alligator population, an investigation on its habitat status was made across the National Natural Conservation Regions of Chinese alligator in south Anhui Province from 2002 to 2003. Water samples from 21 sites were collected, and their heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) content and pH value were measured. The results showed that the pH value was 7.84 +/- 0.62, with no significant difference between the waters with and without Chinese alligator, but with significant difference (P< 0.01) among 3 Chinese alligator habitats. In the waters with and without Chinese alligator, no significant difference was observed in the contents of test metals except Pb. The possible pollution source of Pb in wild Chinese alligator habitat was analyzed, which could provide reference for Chinese alligator conservation.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of Hovenia dulcis THUNB. on experimental liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Hase, K; Ohsugi, M; Xiong, Q; Basnet, P; Kadota, S; Namba, T

    1997-04-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of the fruits of Hovenia dulcis THUNB. on chemically or immunologically induced experimental liver injury models were examined. The methanol extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-toxicity in rats and D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice. The methanol extract also significantly protected against CCl4-toxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Hepatoprotective activity-guided fractionation and chemical analysis led to the isolation of an active constituent, (+)-ampelopsin (1) from the methanol extract.

  18. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl D-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of (+)-epi-α-bisabolol synthase, catalyzing the first step in the biosynthesis of the natural sweetener, hernandulcin, in Lippia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Attia, Mohamed; Kim, Soo-Un; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2012-11-01

    Hernandulcin, a C15 sesquiterpene ketone, is a natural sweetener isolated from the leaves of Lippia dulcis. It is a promising sugar substitute due to its safety and low caloric potential. However, the biosynthesis of hernandulcin in L. dulcis remains unknown. The first biochemical step of hernandulcin is the synthesis of (+)-epi-α-bisabolol from farnesyl diphosphate, which is presumed to be catalyzed by a unique sesquiterpene synthase in L. dulcis. In order to decipher hernandulcin biosynthesis, deep transcript sequencings (454 and Illumina) were performed, which facilitated the molecular cloning of five new sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs from L. dulcis. In vivo activity evaluation of these cDNAs in yeast identified them as the sesquiterpene synthases for α-copaene/δ-cadinene, bicyclogermacrene, β-caryophyllene, trans-α-bergamotene, and α-bisabolol. The engineered yeast could synthesize a significant amount (~0.3 mg per mL) of α-bisabolol in shake-flask cultivation. This efficient in vivo production was congruent with the competent kinetic properties of recombinant α-bisabolol synthase (K(m) 4.8 μM and k(cat) 0.04 s(-1)). Detailed chemical analyses of the biosynthesized α-bisabolol confirmed its configuration to be (+)-epi-α-bisabolol, the core skeleton of hernandulcin. These results demonstrated that enzymatic, stereoselective synthesis of (+)-epi-α-bisabolol can be achieved, promising the heterologous production of a natural sweetener, hernandulcin.

  20. In vivo immunoprotective role of Indigofera tinctoria and Scoparia dulcis aqueous extracts against chronic noise stress induced immune abnormalities in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Madakkannu, Boothapandi; Ravichandran, Ramanibai

    2017-01-01

    Indigofera tinctoria and Scoparia dulcis are being widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Environmental noise pollution is thought to be an important factor for many health problems and it causes immune abnormalities. In the present study immune-regulating potential of I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts on innate and adaptive immune system of wistar albino rats was evaluated during normal and chronic noise induced stress conditions. The results demonstrated that both I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts (200 mg/kg b.w) showed immunostimulant effect on both innate and adaptive immune response of wistar albino rat compared to control group under normal condition. The noise stress (100 dB for 1 h, 20 days) induced animals showed suppressive effects on immune response by decreasing macrophage phagocytosis, antibody secretion by spleen cells, humoral immune response, proliferation of lymphocytes, cytotoxicity, TNF α expression, granzyme B and perforin expression in splenic NK cells. Similarly, noise stress also caused DNA damage in tissues. However, the suppressed effects induced by noise stress on rat immune system were significantly prevented by oral administration of both I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts. Considering all these results it is suggested that the selected medicinal plant's aqueous extracts have the potential to prevent the effects of noise stress induced rat immune system and explore a strong immunostimulant potential applicable to clinical practices.

  1. Coseismic water level changes induced by two distant earthquakes in multiple wells of the Chinese mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuchuan; Huang, Fuqiong

    2017-01-01

    Coseismic water level oscillations, or step-like rises and step-like drops were recorded in 159 wells throughout the Chinese mainland due to the 2015 Nepal Mw 7.8 earthquake, and 184 wells for the 2011 Japan Mw 9.0 earthquake. The earthquake magnitude, and the associated dynamic stresses, has positive roles in both the sensitivity of water level to earthquake induced change, and the amplitude and duration of resulting coseismic water level changes. Wells whose water levels are sensitive to Earth tides have high potential to response to earthquakes. Polarities of step-like changes (rises or drops) are locally controlled and spatially variable, with artesian wells generally recording water-level rises. Permeability enhancement was assessed as a mechanism responsible for step-like changes by analyzing the tidal phase responses. Permeability variations are inferred for 17 out of 95 wells with step-like changes during the Nepal earthquake and for 32 out of 105 wells following the Japan earthquake; however, only 6 wells have permeability variations after both earthquakes.

  2. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) β-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Caramia, Sara; Gatius, Angela Gala Morena; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Gaja, Denis; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond) β-glucosidase at the expense of p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1-5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125-0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125-0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the Km of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  3. Prevention of enzymatic browning of Chinese yam (Dioscorea spp.) using electrolyzed oxidizing water.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guo-Liang; Shi, Jing-Ying; Song, Zhan-Hua; Li, Fa-De

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on the prevention of enzymatic browning of fresh-cut "Jiu Jinhuang" Chinese yam were investigated. The yams were immersed in the inhibitors for 25 min at 20 °C. Compared with the tap water (TW) treatment, the chromatic attributes were significantly different after 72 h of storage (P < 0.05). The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.3.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), and L -phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) were inhibited when measured at 24 h. The contents of phenolic acids, including gallic and chlorogenic acid, in the group treated with the slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) were higher than those treated with TW and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). The group treated with NEW had the highest total phenol content (P < 0.05, at 24 h), while the group treated with SAEW had the highest flavonoid content (P < 0.05) during storage. Without being treated with inhibitors, the Km and Vmax values of yam PPO were 0.0044 mol/L and 0.02627 U/min, respectively, and the Ki of samples treated with SAEW and citric acid (CA) were 15.6607 and 2.3969 μmol/L, respectively. These results indicate that EOW is beneficial as a browning inhibitor.

  4. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-03-09

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities.

  5. Bioactive Components of Chinese Propolis Water Extract on Antitumor Activity and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Aifeng; Fu, Chongluo; Wang, Yuanjun; Peng, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    To understand the material basis of antitumor activity of Chinese propolis water extract (CPWE), we developed a simple and efficient method using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography and separated and purified eleven chemical components (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin, and galangin) from CPWE; then we tested the antitumor activities of these eleven components using different human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and A549). Furthermore, cell migration, procaspase 3 level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of effective components from CPWE were investigated. Our data showed that antitumor activities of the eleven components from CPWE were different from each other. CPWE and its effective components induced apoptosis by inhibiting tumor cell migration, activating caspase 3, and promoting ROS production. It can be deduced that the antitumor effects of propolis did not depend on a single component, and there must exist “bioactive components,” which also provides a new idea for Chinese propolis quality control. PMID:27123037

  6. Bioactive Components of Chinese Propolis Water Extract on Antitumor Activity and Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Aifeng; Fu, Chongluo; Wang, Yuanjun; Peng, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    To understand the material basis of antitumor activity of Chinese propolis water extract (CPWE), we developed a simple and efficient method using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography and separated and purified eleven chemical components (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin, and galangin) from CPWE; then we tested the antitumor activities of these eleven components using different human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and A549). Furthermore, cell migration, procaspase 3 level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of effective components from CPWE were investigated. Our data showed that antitumor activities of the eleven components from CPWE were different from each other. CPWE and its effective components induced apoptosis by inhibiting tumor cell migration, activating caspase 3, and promoting ROS production. It can be deduced that the antitumor effects of propolis did not depend on a single component, and there must exist "bioactive components," which also provides a new idea for Chinese propolis quality control.

  7. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:27005663

  8. Redescription of a stromateoid fish Pampus punctatissimus and comparison with Pampus argenteus from chinese coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Li, Chun-Sheng

    1998-06-01

    Panpus punctatissimus (Temminck et Schlegel, 1845) and Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen, 1788) are two important species of the genus pampus and widely distributed in Chinese coastal waters. Their classification has been controversial for many years. Due to the similarities of their overall appearance, many workers regarded P. punctatissimus as a synonym of P. argenteus. Even though a few authors recognized the differences between them, there has been great confusion in the nomenclature. Morphologically, these two species have obvious differences in some aspects, in particular, the number of gill rakers and vertebrae, the lateral line branches in the head, the fin formula, etc. As these differences comprised sufficient differentiation of these two species, Pampus punctatissimus (Temminck et Schlegel, 1845) was recognized as a species distinct from P. argenteus (Euphrasen, 1788). A redescription of it is given in the present study.

  9. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae), from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ping; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai, Guangxi, China in March 2010. These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830), being the first record of this species from Chinese waters. N. marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics: lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique, maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows, pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fin forked, upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  10. Identification of major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming

    2007-04-25

    Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression during Chinese Water Chestnut Storage Organ Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut. PMID:27716802

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression during Chinese Water Chestnut Storage Organ Formation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Libao; Li, Shuyan; Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut.

  13. Effects of GnRHR polymorphisms on sperm quality in Chinese water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Hao, Linlin; Cheng, Yunyun; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Yu; Lv, Chen; Wei, Wenzhen; Huang, Shan; Shi, Hongyu; Dong, Lijie; Zhang, Yifan; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Jiabao

    2017-09-05

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) plays a critical physiological role in animal reproduction and is a potential marker for improving sperm quality. In the present study, eight SNPs (g.539T>C, g.640A>G, g.655T>C, g.707T>C, g.812A>G, g.18951A>T g.16867T>C and g.18953Indel GGCAAAGTAA) were detected in the GnRHR gene from one-hundred-sixty-five water buffalo by direct sequencing and identification of overlapping peaks. All SNPs were associated significantly with the ejaculate volume and two genes (g.655T>C and g.707T>C) were correlated with sperm abnormalities. Furthermore, three haplotypes (H1:TAI, H2:CT-, and H3:TT-) were identified by linkage disequilibrium analysis and were composed of four combined genotypes. Notably, buffalo with the combined genotypes H1H2 and H1H3 had the higher ejaculate volume compared to the other combined genotypes. Among the eight SNPs and four combined genotypes, the deletion of GGCAAAGTAA at position 18953bp in GnRHR was associated significantly with a higher ejaculate volume. Moreover, the GGCAAAGTAA deletion may lead to the miR8661 binding failure and subsequent changes in GnRHR gene expression. In the present study, we demonstrate that there is a significant association between SNPs in the GnRHR gene and the sperm ejaculate volume of Chinese water buffalo. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to address the association between the SNPs in the GnRHR gene and the sperm quality of Chinese buffalo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Probabilistic risk assessment of Chinese residents' exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water in endemic fluorosis areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li E; Huang, Daizheng; Yang, Jie; Wei, Xiao; Qin, Jian; Ou, Songfeng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2017-03-01

    Studies have yet to evaluate the effects of water improvement on fluoride concentrations in drinking water and the corresponding health risks to Chinese residents in endemic fluorosis areas (EFAs) at a national level. This paper summarized available data in the published literature (2008-2016) on water fluoride from the EFAs in China before and after water quality was improved. Based on these obtained data, health risk assessment of Chinese residents' exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water was performed by means of a probabilistic approach. The uncertainties in the risk estimates were quantified using Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis. Our results showed that in general, the average fluoride levels (0.10-2.24 mg/L) in the improved drinking water in the EFAs of China were lower than the pre-intervention levels (0.30-15.24 mg/L). The highest fluoride levels were detected in North and Southwest China. The mean non-carcinogenic risks associated with consumption of the improved drinking water for Chinese residents were mostly accepted (hazard quotient < 1), but the non-carcinogenic risk of children in most of the EFAs at the 95th percentile exceeded the safe level of 1, indicating the potential non-cancer-causing health effects on this fluoride-exposed population. Sensitivity analyses indicated that fluoride concentration in drinking water, ingestion rate of water, and the exposure time in the shower were the most relevant variables in the model, therefore, efforts should focus mainly on the definition of their probability distributions for a more accurate risk assessment.

  15. The RNase PD2 gene of almond (Prunus dulcis) represents an evolutionarily distinct class of S-like RNase genes.

    PubMed

    Ma, R C; Oliveira, M M

    2000-07-01

    A cDNA for an S-like RNase (RNase PD2) has been isolated from a pistil cDNA library of Prunus dulcis cv. Ferragnés. The cDNA encodes an acidic protein of 226 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 25 kDa. A potential N-glycosylation site is present at the N-terminus in RNase PD2. A signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues and a transmembrane domain are predicted. The two active-site histidines present in enzymes of the T2/S RNase superfamily were detected in RNase PD2. Its amino acid sequence shows 71.2% similarity to RNSI of Arabidopsis and RNase T2 of chickpea, respectively. Northern blotting and RT-PCR analyses indicate that PD2 is expressed predominantly in petals, pistils of open flowers and leaves of the almond tree. Analyses of shoots cultured in vitro suggested that the expression of RNase PD2 is associated with phosphate starvation. Southern analysis detected two sequences related to RNase PD2 in the P. dulcis genome. RFLP analysis showed that S-like RNase genes are polymorphic in different almond cultivars. The PD2 gene sequence was amplified by PCR and two introns were shown to interrupt the coding region. Based on sequence analysis, we have defined three classes of S-like RNase genes, with the PD2 RNase gene representing a distinct class. The significance of the structural divergence of S-like RNase genes is further discussed.

  16. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. Results: The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. Conclusion: These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. SUMMARY Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on

  17. Oyster-based national mapping of trace metals pollution in the Chinese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang-Yuan; Ke, Cai-Huan; Zhu, Aijia; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-03-02

    To investigate the distribution and variability of trace metal pollution in the Chinese coastal waters, over 1000 adult oyster individuals were collected from 31 sites along the entire coastline, spanning from temperate to tropical regions (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea), between August and September 2015. Concentrations of macroelements [sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P)] and trace elements [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), silver (Ag), and titanium (Ti)] in these oysters were concurrently measured and analyzed. The results showed high Ti, Zn and Cu bioaccumulation in oysters from Guangdong (South China Sea) and Zhejiang (East China Sea). Oysters at Nanji Island (Wenzhou) and Daya Bay (Huizhou) accumulated significantly high concentrations of Ni and Cr. The elements in these oysters were several times higher than the national food safety limits of China. On the other hand, the present study found that normalization of metals by salinity (Na) and nutrient (P) could reflect more details of metal pollution in the oysters. Biomonitoring of metal pollution could benefit from incorporating the macroelement calibration instead of focusing only on the total metal concentrations. Overall, simultaneous measurement of macroelements and trace metals coupled with non-linear analysis provide a new perspective for revealing the underlying mechanism of trace metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in marine organisms.

  18. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on microbial communities in chinese water-boiled salted duck.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yulin; Ye, Keping; Wang, Huhu; Sun, Yi; Xu, Xinglian; Liu, Dengyong; Zhou, Guanghong

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on microbial communities in Chinese water-boiled salted duck (CWBSD) and the synergistic effect of HHP and mild heat treatment. In this work, the bacterial diversity was evaluated by using both a culture-dependent method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The total aerobic bacterial counts in pressure-treated samples were significantly lower than those in controls, which indicated that HHP could extend the shelf life of CWBSD. Weissella hellenica and Enterobacteriaceae, the predominant bacteria found in CWBSD, were not detected after HHP treatment. On the other hand, Staphylococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. became the predominant bacteria in HHP-treated samples. Moreover, the inhibitory effect was greater at 400 MPa than at 200 MPa combined with mild heat at 40°C. This study investigated the diversity of bacteria in HHP-treated CWBSD, and the information derived from this research may help to understand the bacterial ecology and develop effective HHP treatments to extend the shelf life of CWBSD.

  19. [Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut tissues in relation to hydrogen peroxide accumulation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi

    2005-10-01

    Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues in relation to active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism was investigated. Fresh-cut CWC (2 mm thick) and intact CWC were stored at 4 degrees C in trays wrapped with plastic films. Changes in superoxide anion production rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were monitored, while contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, MDA as well as electrolyte leakage were measured. Fresh-cutting of CWC induced activities of SOD, CAT and APX to a certain extent (Fig. 2B and Fig. 3), but simultaneously stimulated superoxide anion production markedly (Fig. 2A), enhanced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and accelerated loss in ascorbic acid (Figs. 4 and 5), which resulted in increased lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (Fig. 1). Statistics analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation among hydrogen peroxide accumulation, MDA content and electrolyte leakage (Table 1). Histochemical detection with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine further demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased in fresh-cut CWC during storage (Fig. 5). AOS production rate and activities of SOD, CAT and APX changed little while no obvious hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed, in intact CWC during storage.

  20. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of Luidia (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) from Chinese waters with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ning; Liu, Ruiyu; Yuan, Shuai; Sha, Zhongli

    2013-09-01

    Luidia Forbes (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) are common soft bottom sea stars with 49 described species. Because of substantial morphological diversity, the taxonomy of the genus is complex and hasn't been resolved definitely. In order to resolve general taxonomic issues, and determine species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Luidia, the sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 24 specimens of Luidia, belonging to eight taxa in Chinese waters, were studied. Three sequences of two species in genus Luidia from GenBank were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships. The molecular phylogeny exhibited three main clades, each with strong bootstrap support: Clade A including Luidia quinaria from the Sea of Japan; Clade B including seven nominal species ( L. quinaria von Martens, L. yesoensis Goto, L. changi Liu, Liao and Li, L. orientalis Fisher, L. avicularia Fisher, L. longispina Sladen and L. hardwicki Gray) from Chinese waters; and Clade C including L. maculata Müller & Troschel from Chinese waters. Our molecular phylogeny results support the morphological Quinaria-Group and Alternata-Group assigned by Döderlein. Seven nominal species we sampled do not exhibit genetic distances that are large enough to recognize them as separate species. Cryptic species may exist in' Luidia quinaria' from the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Meaningful morphological characters need further investigation in Luidia.

  1. Effects of land use pattern on soil water in revegetation watersheds in semi-arid Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Liding; Wei, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Soil water stored below rainfall infiltration depth is a reliable water resource for plant growth in arid and semi-arid regions. For decreasing serious soil erosion, large-scale human-introduced vegetation restoration was initiated in Chinese Loess Plateau in late 1990s. However, these activities may result in excessive water consumption and soil water deficit if no appropriate scientific guidance were offered. This in turn impacts the regional ecological restoration and sustainable management of water resources. In this study, soil water content data in depth of 0-5 m was obtained by long-term field observation and geostatistical method in 6 small watersheds covered with different land use pattern. Profile characteristics and spatial-temporal patterns of soil water were compared between different land use types, hillslopes, and watersheds. The results showed that: (1) Introduced vegetation consumed excessive amount of water when compared with native grassland and farmland, and induced temporally stable soil desiccation in depth of 0-5 m. The introduced vegetation decreased soil water content to levels lower than the reference value representing no human impact in all soil layers. (2) The analysis of differences in soil water at hillslope and watershed scales indicated that land use determined the spatial and temporal variability of soil water. Soil water at watershed scale increased with the increasing area of farmland, and decreased with increasing percentage of introduced vegetation. Land use structure determined the soil water condition and land use pattern determined the spatial-temporal variability of soil water at watershed scale. (3) Large-scale revegetation with introduced vegetation diminished the spatial heterogeneity of soil water at different scales. Land use pattern adjustment could be used to improve the water resources management and maintain the sustainability of vegetation restoration.

  2. Nanostructural difference of water-soluble pectin and chelate-soluble pectin among ripening stages and cultivars of Chinese cherry.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shaojuan; Chen, Fusheng; Zhang, Lifen; Yang, Hongshun; Deng, Yun; Yang, Bao

    2013-03-01

    Nanostructure of water-soluble pectin (WSP) and chelate-soluble pectin (CSP) of two Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus L.) cultivars (soft cultivar 'Caode' and crisp cultivar 'Bende') with two different ripening stages were characterised using atomic force microscopy. Both cultivars shared some common values of chain widths for WSP or CSP, and both pectins shared several values of chain widths including 37, 55 and 61 nm. The results indicate that different cultivars shared similar components of pectin, and cultivar textural difference might be related to the interaction between pectin and other cherry components or the dissociation of pectin. During ripening, the wide WSP and CSP gradually dissociate in width. The results demonstrated that the changes of WSP and CSP of Chinese cherry in widths were a dissociation process.

  3. Contribution of chlorination to the mutagenic activity of drinking water extracts in Salmonella and Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Lebel, G.

    1986-11-01

    The production of chlorinated by-products through chlorine disinfection of drinking water has been well documented. Natural organic precursors for these chemicals include fulvic and humic acids, the chlorination of which leads to the production of mutagenic compounds. Comparisons of extracts of raw versus treated waters have confirmed that clorination during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the Salmonella (Ames) test. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw and chlorinated water from six municipalities in the Great Lakes region of Canada has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and the micronucleus (MN) induction in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. All extracts of treated (chlorinated), but none of untreated, water were mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of both treated and untreated water samples showed activity in the SCE and MN assays, but no consistent pattern of response with regard to treatment (chlorination) was evident. These data show that chlorination contributes mutagens to drinking water and suggest that mammalian in vitro assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in water samples than the Salmonella test.

  4. Treatment of chronic liver injuries in mice by oral administration of ethanolic extract of the fruit of Hovenia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsun-Lang; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chan, Ming-Che; Lin, Wei-Lii; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of an ethanolic extract of the fruit of Hovenia dulcis (EHD) on chronic hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in mice. CCl(4) (5%; 0.1 ml/10 g body weight) was given twice a week for 9 weeks, and mice received EHD throughout the entire experimental period. Plasma activities of GPT and GOT, and hepatic levels of malondialdehyde were significantly lowered in mice treated with EHD as compared to mice treated with CCl(4) only. Histological evaluation showed that EHD could attenuate the liver fibrosis and necrosis caused by CCl(4). RT-qPCR analysis also showed that EHD treatment decreased hepatic collagen (alpha1)(I) and collagen (alpha1)(III) mRNA expressions. Chronic CCl(4) treatment caused liver injuries in mice, characterized by an increase in hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) 2A gene expression, and decreased MAT1A gene expression. EHD significantly reduced the changes in MAT gene expression due to the chronic CCl(4) treatment. These results clearly demonstrate that the EHD can reduce hepatic injuries in mice induced by CCl(4).

  5. In situ seasonal study of the volatile production of almonds (Prunus dulcis) var. 'Nonpareil' and relationship to navel orangeworm.

    PubMed

    Beck, John J; Merrill, Glory B; Higbee, Bradley S; Light, Douglas M; Gee, Wai S

    2009-05-13

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis , account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central Valley of California. Several studies have investigated the various nonvolatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission of almonds from a single cultivar has not been studied over the course of a growing season. This aspect is particularly relevant to research concerning the navel orangeworm (NOW), a major insect pest of almonds and other tree nuts. Despite the continued presence of NOW, the identification of particular VOCs and their relationship to NOW have not been addressed. The VOC emission of Nonpareil almonds was collected in situ over the course of a growing season by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The VOCs (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl butyrate, undecan-2-ol, beta-bourbonene, and tetradecane were present for the majority of the days investigated. Several VOCs exhibited positive electroantennographic signals from male and/or female NOW moths.

  6. Purification, structure and immunobiological activity of an arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharide from the cell walls of Prunus dulcis seeds.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Fernando; Madureira, Pedro; Carvalho, Vera; Coelho, Ricardo; Coimbra, Manuel A; Vilanova, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-10-20

    The structure and bioactivity of a polysaccharide extracted and purified from a 4M KOH + H3BO3 solution from Prunus dulcis seed cell wall material was studied. Anion-exchange chromatography of the crude extract yielded two sugar-rich fractions: one neutral (A), the other acidic (E). These fractions contain a very similar monosaccharide composition: 5:2:1 for arabinose, uronic acids and xylose, respectively, rhamnose and galactose being present in smaller amounts. As estimated by size-exclusion chromatography, the acidic fraction had an apparent molecular mass of 762 kDa. Methylation analysis (from the crude and fractions A and E), suggests that the polysaccharide is an arabinan-rich pectin. In all cases, the polysaccharides bear the same type of structural Ara moieties with highly branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides. The average relative proportions of the arabinosyl linkages is 3:2:1:1 for T-Araf:(1-->5)-Araf:(1-->3,5)-Araf:(1-->2,3,5)-Araf. The crude polysaccharide extract and fractions A and E induced a murine lymphocyte stimulatory effect, as evaluated by the in vitro and in vivo expression of lymphocyte activation markers and spleen mononuclear cells culture proliferation. The lymphocyte stimulatory effect was stronger on B- than on T-cells. No evidence of cytotoxic effects induced by the polysaccharide fractions was found.

  7. [Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae), Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae), Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae) and Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae) from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Moreno, Shailili

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolites in some plant species in order to contribute to their chemotaxonomy. Leaves from Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis and Solanum subinerme were collected and their essential oils were obtained by means of hydro-distillation. The oil fraction was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. The extraction yields were of 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.005%, and the oil constituents of 88.00, 89.80, 87.50 and 89.47%, respectively. The principal oils found were: non-terpenoids volatile secondary metabolites (30.28%) in H. guazumifolia; sesquiterpenoids (20.82 and 26.09%) and oxigen derivated (52.19 and 25.18%) in P. tuberculatum and S. dulcis; and oxigen diterpenoids (39.67%) in S. subinerme. The diisobuthylphtalate (13.11%) in H. guazumifolia, (-)-spathulenol (11.37%) in P. tuberculatum and trans-phytol (8.29 and 36.00%) in S. dulcis and S. subinerme, were the principal constituents in their respective essential oils. The diisooctylphtalate were the essential oil common to all species, but the volatile compounds such as trans-pinane, L-linalool, beta-ionone, isophytol, neophytadiene, trans-phytol, dibutylphtalate and methyl hexadecanoate, were only detected in three of these essences. This suggests that these plants may require similar secondary metabolites for their ecological interactions, possibly due to common environmental factors.

  8. MODIS-based retrieval of suspended sediment concentration and diffuse attenuation coefficient in Chinese estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoletsky, Leonid; Yang, Xianping; Shen, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Radiative transfer modelling in atmosphere, water, and on the air-water surface was used to create an algorithm and computer code for satellite monitoring Chinese estuarine and coastal waters. The atmospheric part of the algorithm is based on the Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance (REST) model for calculation of optical properties of the atmosphere from the top of the atmosphere to the target; for modelling optical properties from target towards satellite's sensor, an optical reciprocity principle has been used. An algorithm uses estimates derived from three different sources: 1) the MODIS-based software; 2) radiative transfer equations, and 3) well-known empirical relationships between measured parameters and optical depths and transmittances for such atmospheric components as molecules, aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, precipitable water vapor and uniformly mixed gases. Using this model allowed us to derive a reliable relationship relating an important parameter, the diffuse-to-global solar incoming irradiance ratio, to the aerosol optical thickness, solar zenith angle and wavelength. The surface and underwater parts of the algorithm contained theoretical and semi-empirical relationships between inherent (such as absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients) and apparent (remote-sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd) optical properties, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measured in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The first false colour maps of SSC and Kd demonstrated a well accordance with the multi-year field observations in the region, and suggest promise for use of this algorithm for the regular monitoring of Chinese and worldwide natural waters.

  9. Effects of Chinese tallow leaf litter on water chemistry and surfacing behaviour of anuran larvae

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of exotic invasive species, including plants, has been linked to the decline of some amphibian populations. Of particular concern with invasive plants, from an amphibian conservation perspective, is that they are disproportionately wetland or riparian species. Recent evidence suggests that Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), an...

  10. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.

  11. Integrating Water Flow, Locomotor Performance and Respiration of Chinese Sturgeon during Multiple Fatigue-Recovery Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species. PMID:24714585

  12. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products.

  13. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P

    1999-02-01

    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid.

  14. Virtual water trade of agri-food products: Evidence from italian-chinese relations.

    PubMed

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Miglietta, Pier Paolo; Toma, Pierluigi; De Leo, Federica; Massari, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    At global scale, the majority of world water withdrawal is for the agricultural sector, with differences among countries depending on the relevance of agri-food sector in the economy. Virtual water and water footprint could be useful to express the impact on the water resources of each production process and good with the objective to lead to a sustainable use of water at a global level. International trade could be connected to the virtual water flows, in fact through commodities importation, water poor countries can save their own water resources. The present paper focuses on the bilateral virtual water flows connected to the top ten agri-food products traded between Italy and China. Comparing the virtual water flow related to the top 10 agri-food products, the virtual water flow from Italy to China is bigger than the water flow in the opposite direction. Moreover, the composition of virtual water flows is different; Italy imports significant amounts of grey water from China, depending on the different environmental strategies adopted by the two selected countries. This difference could be also related to the fact that traded commodities are very different; the 91% of virtual water imported by Italy is connected to crops products, while the 95% of virtual water imported by China is related to the animal products. Considering national water saving and global water saving, appears that Italy imports virtual water from China while China exerts pressure on its water resources to supply the exports to Italy. This result at global scale implies a global water loss of 129.29millionm3 because, in general, the agri-food products are traded from the area with lower water productivity to the area with the higher water productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Response of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertigation to “Waris” Almond (Prunus dulcis) under Northwestern Himalayan Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, N.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis) to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012) in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1—100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2—100% RDF through fertigations, T3—75% RDF through fertigation, T4—75% RDF through fertigation (split application), T5—50% RDF through fertigation and T6—50% RDF through fertigation (split application) with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m), nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g), nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha), and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K) were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm2; 16.75 and 24.26 cm2; 3.83 and 7.49 cm2; 0.47 and 1.23 cm2), canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m3), and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree) were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris. PMID:24587708

  16. Response of nitrogen and potassium fertigation to "Waris" almond (Prunus dulcis) under northwestern Himalayan Region of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Ahmed, N

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis) to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012) in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1--100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2--100% RDF through fertigations, T3--75% RDF through fertigation, T4--75% RDF through fertigation (split application), T5--50% RDF through fertigation and T6--50% RDF through fertigation (split application) with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m), nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g), nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha), and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K) were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm(2); 16.75 and 24.26 cm(2); 3.83 and 7.49 cm(2); 0.47 and 1.23 cm(2)), canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m(3)), and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree) were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris.

  17. cDNA Cloning, expression and characterization of an allergenic 60s ribosomal protein of almond (prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Abolhassani, Mohsen; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-06-01

    Tree nuts, including almond (prunus dulcis) are a source of food allergens often associated with life-threatening allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Although the proteins in almonds have been biochemically characterized, relatively little has been reported regarding the identity of the allergens involved in almond sensitivity. The present study was undertaken to identify the allergens of the almond by cDNA library approach. cDNA library of almond seeds was constructed in Uni-Zap XR lamda vector and expressed in E. coli XL-1 blue. Plaques were immunoscreened with pooled sera of allergic patients. The cDNA clone reacting significantly with specific IgE antibodies was selected and subcloned and subsequently expressed in E. coli. The amino acids deducted from PCR product of clone showed homology to 60s acidic ribosomal protein of almond. The expressed protein was 11,450 Dalton without leader sequence. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant 60s ribosomal protein (r60sRP) was evaluated with dot blot analysis using pooled and individual sera of allergic patients. The data showed that r60sRP and almond extract (as positive control) possess the ability to bind the IgE antibodies. The results showed that expressed protein is an almond allergen.Whether this r60sRP represents a major allergen of almond needs to be further studied which requires a large number of sera from the almond atopic patients and also need to determine the IgE-reactive frequencies of each individual allergen.

  18. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Sadegh; Alisoltani, Arghavan; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Comparative Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in Response to Freezing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond’s transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current reserch, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reporuductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomley selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant. PMID:25122458

  20. Effects of total dissolved gas supersaturated water on lethality and catalase activity of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-chao; Liu, Xiao-qing; Jiang, Wen; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Shen, Dan-zhou; Gong, Quan

    2012-10-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation caused by dam sluicing can result in gas bubble trauma (GBT) in fish and threaten their survival. In the present study, Chinese suckers (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker) were exposed to TDG supersaturated water at levels ranging from 120% to 145% for 48 h. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) and the median lethal time (LT(50)) were determined to evaluate acute lethal effects on Chinese suckers. The results showed that the LC(50) values of 4, 6, 8, and 10 h were 142%, 137%, 135%, and 130%, respectively. The LT(50) values were 3.2, 4.7, 7.8, 9.2, and 43.4 h, respectively, when TDG supersaturated levels were 145%, 140%, 135%, 130%, and 125%. Furthermore, the biological responses in Chinese suckers were studied by assaying the catalase (CAT) activities in gills and muscles at the supersaturation level of 140% within LT(50). The CAT activities in the gills and muscle tissues exhibited a regularity of a decrease after an increase. CAT activities in the muscles were increased significantly at 3/5LT(50) (P<0.05) and then came back to the normal level. However, there were no significant differences between the treatment group (TDG level of 140%) and the control group (TDG level of 100%) on CAT activities in the gills before 3/5LT(50) (P>0.05), but the activities were significantly lower than the normal level at 4/5LT(50) and LT(50) (P<0.05).

  1. Effects of total dissolved gas supersaturated water on lethality and catalase activity of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker)*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi-chao; Liu, Xiao-qing; Jiang, Wen; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Shen, Dan-zhou; Gong, Quan

    2012-01-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation caused by dam sluicing can result in gas bubble trauma (GBT) in fish and threaten their survival. In the present study, Chinese suckers (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker) were exposed to TDG supersaturated water at levels ranging from 120% to 145% for 48 h. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and the median lethal time (LT50) were determined to evaluate acute lethal effects on Chinese suckers. The results showed that the LC50 values of 4, 6, 8, and 10 h were 142%, 137%, 135%, and 130%, respectively. The LT50 values were 3.2, 4.7, 7.8, 9.2, and 43.4 h, respectively, when TDG supersaturated levels were 145%, 140%, 135%, 130%, and 125%. Furthermore, the biological responses in Chinese suckers were studied by assaying the catalase (CAT) activities in gills and muscles at the supersaturation level of 140% within LT50. The CAT activities in the gills and muscle tissues exhibited a regularity of a decrease after an increase. CAT activities in the muscles were increased significantly at 3/5LT50 (P<0.05) and then came back to the normal level. However, there were no significant differences between the treatment group (TDG level of 140%) and the control group (TDG level of 100%) on CAT activities in the gills before 3/5LT50 (P>0.05), but the activities were significantly lower than the normal level at 4/5LT50 and LT50 (P<0.05). PMID:23024046

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, T.K.; Dharmaraj, S.; Bajaj, Jitendra; Dhanabal, S.P.; Manimaran, S.; Nanjan, M.J.; Razdan, Rema

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was aimed at assessing the hepatoprotective activity of 1:1:1 petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol (PDM) extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. Materials and Methods: The PDM extract (50, 200, and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) were tested for their antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by measuring aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total proteins in serum, glycogen, lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase levels in liver homogenate and by histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. In addition, the extract was also evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. Results: The extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg, p.o., significantly prevented CCl4-induced changes in the serum and liver biochemistry (P < 0.05) and changes in liver histopathology. The above results are comparable to standard, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.). In the in vitro 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, the extract showed good free radical scavenging potential (IC 50 38.9 ± 1.0 μg/ml). Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the PDM extract of Scoparia dulcis L. possesses potential hepatoprotective activity, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging potential, due to the terpenoid constituents. PMID:20442817

  3. A process integration approach to industrial water conservation: a case study for a Chinese steel plant.

    PubMed

    Tian, J R; Zhou, P J; Lv, B

    2008-03-01

    A systematic approach to optimizing water network has traditionally been utilized to exam and plan water conservation in industrial processes. In the present case study, water-pinch technology was used to analyze and optimize the water network of a steel plant near China's Zhangjiakou city. A system design was developed and a limiting constraint (Cl(-) concentration) was identified based on investigations of water quality then the minimum freshwater and wastewater targets were determined without considering water losses. The analysis was then extended by calculating the additional input of freshwater required to balance the actual water losses. A nearest-neighbor algorithm (NNA) was used to distribute the freshwater and recycled water among each of the plant's operations. The results showed that with some reconstruction of the water network, the flow rates of freshwater and wastewater could be decreased by 57.5% and 81.9%, respectively.

  4. Water quality, nutrient budget, and pollutant loads in Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) farms around East Taihu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chunfang; Gu, Xiaohong; Huang, Hezhong; Dai, Xiuying; Ye, Yuantu; Shi, Chenjiang

    2012-01-01

    To understand the factors causing frequent outbreaks of harmful algae blooms in the Taihu Lake, China, we studied water quality and nutrient budget in Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) farm ponds in the eastern part of the lake from November 2007 to December 2009. We estimated the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loads. Materials input and output ponds, water exchange, and applied management practices of 838.5-hm2 crab ponds were surveyed using questionnaires. Water quality of 12 ponds, which were located no more than 2 km from East Taihu Lake, were monitored. The results show that water quality in the crab ponds was better than reference data. Feeds, including corn seed, commercial feed, trash fish, and gastropod, were the major sources of N and P input in the crab ponds, contributing 88.7% and 94.9%, respectively. In total, 60.5% of N and 37.3% of P were sequestered by macrophytes, and only 15.7% and 8.5% of them were discharged as effluent. The net loads of N and P in effluent were 16.43 kg/hm2/cycle and 2.16 kg/hm2/cycle, respectively, while the COD load was -17.88 kg/hm2/cycle. This indicated that crab farming caused minor negative impact on the trophic status of the lake area, which was attenuated by macrophytes. However, wastewater purification is still necessary in crab faming.

  5. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  6. Association between Longevity and Element Levels in Food and Drinking Water of Typical Chinese Longevity Area.

    PubMed

    Hao, Z; Liu, Y; Li, Y; Song, W; Yu, J; Li, H; Wang, W

    2016-01-01

    To carrying out an integrated analysis on regional environment and human health in China and to detect the association between longevity and daily element intake from food and drinking water. Cross-sectional study. All the 18 cities and counties in Hainan Province. The distribution of elderly population and longevity indexes at a county level in Hainan Province were investigated. Quality of food and drinking water in Hainan was evaluated by comparing the chemical elements with National Standards. In addition, the association between element concentrations in food and water and longevity was examined using spearman's rank correlation. The proportion of elderly people is higher in the northern part of the province compared with southern counties. Food contributes a greater proportion of daily element intake than drinking water. Compared with the National Standards, reaching rates for elements were over 85% for both food and drinking water. There was a positive correlation between daily intake of Cu, Se, and Zn from food and water and aging and longevity indexes, and a negative correlation between Pb intake and these indexes. The quality of food and water in Hainan Province are good and that, compared with water, food is a more important source of trace elements. An appropriate supply of Cu, Se, and Zn is important, whereas excessive intake of Pb should be avoided. The findings also provide basic data to support further studies on regional variations in longevity and their relationship to diet and drinking water.

  7. Role of Scoparia dulcis linn on noise-induced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and neurotransmitter assessment on motor function in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Wankhar, Wankupar; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Sundareswaran, Loganathan; Wankhar, Dapkupar; Rajan, Ravindran; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2017-02-01

    Noise pollution is one of the most widespread and fast growing environmental and occupational menaces in the modern era. Exposure to noise above 100dB is not adaptable through the brain homeostatic mechanism. Yet, the detrimental effects of noise have often been ignored. Developing reliable animal models to understand the neurobiology of noise stress and advance our research in the field of medicine to impede this growing stressor is needed. In this study experimental animals were divided into four groups, (i) Control and (ii) S. dulcis extract (200mg/kgbw) treated control group. (iii) To mimic the influence of noise, animals in this group were exposed to noise stress (100dB/4h/day) for 15days and finally, (iv) Noise exposed treated with S. dulcis extract (200mg/kgbw) group. Rota-rod and narrow beam performance results showed impaired motor co-ordination in noise exposed group on both 1st and 15th day when compared to controls. This impaired motor function on exposure to noise could be attributed to the altered norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin levels in both the striatum and cerebellum. Moreover, the motor impaired associated changes could also be attributed to upregulated nNOS and iNOS protein expression in the cerebellum resulting in increased nitric oxide radical production. This increased reactive free radicals species can initiate lipid peroxidation mediated changes in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, which is responsible for initiating inhibitory motor response and ultimately leading to impaired motor co-ordination. Treatment with S. dulcis extract (200mg/kgbw) could control motor impairment and regulate neurotransmitter level as that of control groups when compared to noise exposed group. One key aspect of therapeutic efficacy of the plant could have resulted due to attenuated lipid peroxidation mediated damages on the cerebellar Purkinje cells thereby regulating motor impairment. Thus, targeting the antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of

  8. Influence of deficit irrigation strategies on fatty acid and tocopherol concentration of almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Taylor, Cathy; Sommer, Karl; Wilkinson, Kerry; Wirthensohn, Michelle

    2015-04-15

    The effects of deficit irrigation on almond fatty acid and tocopherol levels were studied in a field trial. Mature almond trees were subjected to three levels of deficit irrigation (85%, 70% and 55% of potential crop evapotranspiration (ETo), as well as control (100% ETo) and over-irrigation (120% ETo) treatments. Two deficit irrigation strategies were employed: regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI). Moderate deficit irrigation (85% RDI and 85% SDI) had no detrimental impact on almond kernel lipid content, but severe and extreme deficiencies (70% and 55%) influenced lipid content. Unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents fluctuated under these treatments, the oleic/linoleic ratio increased under moderate water deficiency, but decreased under severe and extreme water deficiency. Almond tocopherols concentration was relatively stable under deficit irrigation. The variation between years indicated climate has an effect on almond fruit development. In conclusion it is feasible to irrigate almond trees using less water than the normal requirement, without significant loss of kernel quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Infectious diarrheal disease caused by contaminated well water in Chinese schools: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheyuan; Zhai, Yujia; Wu, Chen; Wu, Haocheng; Lu, Qinbao; Lin, Junfen; He, Fan

    2017-06-01

    In China, waterborne outbreaks of infectious diarrheal disease mainly occur in schools, and contaminated well water is a common source of pathogens. The objective of this review was to present the attack rates, durations of outbreak, pathogens of infectious diarrheal disease, and sanitary conditions of wells in primary and secondary schools in China, and to analyze risk factors and susceptibility of school children. Relevant articles and reports were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Chinese Field Epidemiology Training Program. Essential information, including urban/rural areas, school types, attack rates, pathogens, durations of outbreak, report intervals, and interventions were extracted from the eligible articles. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and Spearman correlation test were conducted in statistical analyses. Sex- and age-specific attack rate ratios were calculated as pooled effect sizes. We screened 2188 articles and retrieved data of 85 outbreaks from 1987 to 2014. Attack rates of outbreaks in rural areas (median, 12.63 cases/100 persons) and in primary schools (median, 14.54 cases/100 persons) were higher than those in urban areas (median, 5.62 cases/100 persons) and in secondary schools (median, 8.74 cases/100 persons) (P = 0.004 and P = 0.013, respectively). Shigella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and norovirus were the most common pathogens. Boys tended toward higher attack rates than girls (sex-specific attack rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00-1.29, P = 0.05). Unsanitary conditions of water wells were reported frequently, and unhealthy behavior habits were common in students. School children were susceptible to waterborne disease in China. Chinese government should make efforts to improve access to safe water in schools. Health education promotion and conscientiousness of school leaders and teachers should be

  10. Hydrogen-rich water enhances cadmium tolerance in Chinese cabbage by reducing cadmium uptake and increasing antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Cai, Jiangtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Cui, Jin

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present paper was to understand the specific mechanism of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) in alleviating cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. chinensis L.). Our results showed that the addition of 50% saturation HRW significantly alleviated the Cd toxic symptoms, including the improvement of both root elongation and seedling growth inhibition. These responses were consistent with a significant decrease of Cd accumulation in roots and shoots, which was further confirmed by the histochemical staining. Molecular evidence illustrated that Cd-induced up-regulations of IRT1 and Nramp1 genes, responsible for Cd absorption, were blocked by HRW. By contrast, Cd-induced up-regulation of the HMA3 gene, which regulates Cd sequestration into the root vacuoles, was substantially strengthened by HRW. Furthermore, compared with those in Cd stress alone, the expressions of HMA2 and HMA4, which function in the transportation of Cd to xylem, were repressed by co-treatment with HRW. HRW enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. These results were further confirmed by the alleviation of oxidative damage, as indicated by the decrease of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Taken together, these results suggest that the improvement of Cd tolerance by HRW was associated with reduced Cd uptake and increased antioxidant defense capacities. Therefore, the application of HRW may be a promising strategy to improve Cd tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Chinese Lakes Behaviors In The Framework Of Meteorology And Water Management Practices: EO Based Monitoring Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Lai, Xijun; Daillet-Rochette, Sylviane

    2013-12-01

    Yangtze reaches, particularly on the middle and lower ones as the human population, few hundred millions of inhabitants downstream of 3 gorges dam, depend directly on the services that wetlands provide: regulating services such as flood storage; provisioning services such as fishing, and being biodiversity holders. The two largest fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting Lakes, which are very valuable ecosystems in term of biodiversity maintain but also threaded by epidemics, are the core of the monitored area since 2000. This monitoring based on medium and high resolution at a high temporal frequency, ie ca 10 days has allowed characterizing trends on an intra and interring annual basis. A key result is the apparent increase of years with water default since the mid 2000, ie near one year every two years. Results of the dynamic analysis of water height and water surfaces can be now analyzed in term of climatic variations and human activities. Obtained results shown that the meteorology, ie rainfall, at Yangtze's basin scale rather than lakes' basin scale, has a significant impact on water resources. In addition, and this for the first time, the effects management mode of the 3 Gorges reservoir, ie infilling of the reservoir rapidly in October at the beginning of the dry period followed by a slow release of the stocked water appears to reinforce the trends observed in recent drought years.

  12. Short chain chlorinated paraffins in mollusks from coastal waters in the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Wang, Thanh; Zhu, Nali; Zhang, Kegang; Zeng, Lixi; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-06-19

    As an extremely complex group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) candidates in the Stockholm Convention, short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have been of extensive concern in recent years. In this study, nine bivalve and two gastropod species were collected in 2009 to evaluate the spatial distributions and potential factors influencing the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in mollusks in the Chinese Bohai Sea. The concentrations of ∑ SCCPs in the mollusks were in the range 64.9-5510 ng/g (dry weight) with an average chlorine content of 61.1%. C(10) and C(11) were the predominant homologue groups of SCCPs, which accounted for about 29.7% and 34.9% of ∑ SCCPs, respectively. Six and seven chlorinated substituents were the main congener groups. Mya arenaria (Mya), Mactra veneriformis (Mac), and Crassostrea talienwhanensis (Oyster, Ost) had higher average concentrations of SCCPs than other species, implying that these bivalves could be used as sentinels to indicate SCCPs contamination in this coastal region. A significant positive linear relationship was found between SCCP concentrations and lipid content of the mollusks, whereas the lipid-normalized SCCP concentrations were negatively linear-related to the trophic levels (TL), which implied that SCCPs did not show biomagnification in mollusks in this region.

  13. Water quality and small-scale land use mapping in the South-Chinese megacity Guangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohschoen, R.; Azzam, R.; Baier, K.

    2011-12-01

    Since China adopted its "open-door" policy in 1978/ 79, the Pearl River Delta became one of the most rapid and dynamic urbanizing areas in East Asia due to migration, industrialization and globalization processes. The study area Guangzhou grew from a small town to a megacity with some 15 million inhabitants within less than 30 years. The rapid population growth and the urban and industrial expansion led to a remarkably increasing demand for freshwater, a high water consume and a rising sewage production. While economy and house constructions developed very fast, the expansion of water infrastructures could not keep pace with the urban growth. The consequences arising out of these situations are a serious deterioration of the surface and groundwater resources but also a degradation of living conditions and a threat to human health, particularly of the urban poor. In contrast to other studies that often consider the surface water quality outside Guangzhou, our focus was put on the urban Pearl River and its tributaries as well as urban groundwater and tap water. The study was conducted to spatially investigate the present status of the water quality in view of the concurrent formal and informal anthropogenic influences. Additional land use mapping was undertaken to analyze the interrelations between different land use types and water quality and to determine local pollution hotspots which should be taken into particular consideration of future city planning. Supplementing interviews were hold to find out usage patterns of groundwater and strategies to cope with both insufficient tap water quality and water infrastructures. A total of 74 surface water samples and 16 groundwater samples of privately and publicly accessible wells were taken at the beginning of the rainy season in May 2010. Those samples were partly compared to measurements carried out from 2007-2009, where adequate. Further, 15 tap water samples were taken in 2007/ 08 to draw conclusions about possible

  14. Cryptic diversity within the harmful dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in coastal Chinese waters is related to differentiated ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhaohe; Yang, Weidong; Leaw, Chui Pin; Pospelova, Vera; Bilien, Gwenael; Liow, Guat Ru; Lim, Po Teen; Gu, Haifeng

    2017-06-01

    Blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea are responsible for the mass mortality of fish and invertebrates in coastal waters. This cosmopolitan species includes several genetically differentiated clades. Four clonal cultures were established by isolating single cells from Xiamen Harbour (the East China Sea) for morphological and genetic analyses. The cultures displayed identical morphology but were genetically different, thus revealing presence of cryptic diversity in the study area. New details of the apical structure complex of Akashiwo sanguinea were also found. To investigate whether the observed cryptic diversity was related to environmental differentiation, 634 cells were obtained from seasonal water samples collected from 2008 to 2012. These cells were sequenced by single-cell PCR. For comparison with Chinese material, additional large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences were obtained for three established strains from Malaysian and French waters. To examine potential ecological differentiation of the distinct genotypes, growth responses of the studied strains were tested under laboratory conditions at temperatures of 12°C to 33°C. These experiments showed four distinct ribotypes of A. sanguinea globally, with the ribotypes A and B co-occuring in Xiamen Harbour. Ribotype A of A. sanguinea was present year-round in Xiamen Harbour, but it only bloomed in the winter and spring, thus corresponding to the winter type. In contrast, A. sanguinea ribotype B bloomed only in the summer, corresponding to the summer type. This differentiation supports the temperature optimum conditions that were established for these two ribotypes in the laboratory. Ribotype A grew better at lower temperatures compared to ribotype B which preferred higher temperatures. These findings support the idea that various ribotypes of A. sanguinea correspond to distinct ecotypes and allopatric speciation occurred in different climatic regions followed by dispersal. Copyright © 2017

  15. Amino acids release in two red tide events in Chinese coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, J.; Jin, H.

    2013-12-01

    During two red tide events and in situ experiments the East China Sea and the Pearl River Estuary, we analyzed DOC, POC, dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and particulate hydrolysable amino acids (PHAA) and nutrients in samples from red tides areas as well as surrounding waters. The results show that POC and PHAA in red tide waters increased dramatically by about one order compared with those in surrounding waters. DCAA, DFAA and DOC also increased in red tide waters but only less than 2 folds increasing were observed. DFAA was only accounted for less than 5% of total amino acids (DFAA+DCAA+PHAA) and varied distinctly for all samples. Particulate organic carbon presented as amino acids (PHAA-C/POC) was accounted for about 35-60% of POC while dissolved organic carbon presented as amino acids (DCAA-C/DOC) was accounted for about 20-30% of DOC. Organic carbon pool shifted from DOC dominating at normal waters to POC dominating during red tides. During red tide most inorganic nitrogen nutrients (NO3+NO2) was seemly transformed into amino acids (here we called PHAA-N, DCAA-N, DFAA-N), in particular PHAA. Molecular composition of amino acids in organic matter suggested that POC mainly derived from phytoplankton in red tide waters, but the percentages of zooplanton and bacterial derived POC or DOC increased after one week of red tide. Our observations suggest that amino acids actually act as intergradation of nitrogen nutrients regeneration. We hypothesize that although zooplankton grazing and bacterial activities could lead to transformation of amino acids from phytoplankton into zooplankton and bacterial as well as from particulate organic matter into dissolved organic matter, nitrogen still present in its organic pool thus delay the regeneration of inorganic nitrogen.

  16. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaumont, J.J.; Sedman, R.M.; Reynolds, S.D.; Sherman, C.D.; Li, L.-H.; Howd, R.A.; Sandy, M.S.; Zeise, L.; Alexeeff, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1987, investigators in Liaoning Province, China, reported that mortality rates for all cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer in 1970-1978 were higher in villages with hexavalent chromium (Cr)-contaminated drinking water than in the general population. The investigators reported rates, but did not report statistical measures of association or precision. METHODS: Using reports and other communications from investigators at the local Jinzhou Health and Anti-Epidemic Station, we obtained data on Cr contamination of groundwater and cancer mortality in 9 study regions near a ferrochromium factory. We estimated:(1) person-years at risk in the study regions, based on census and population growth rate data, (2) mortality counts, based on estimated person-years at risk and previously reported mortality rates, and (3) rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The all-cancer mortality rate in the combined 5 study regions with Cr-contaminated water was negligibly elevated in comparison with the rate in the 4 combined study regions without contaminated water (rate ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.46), but was somewhat more elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.23; 0.97-1.53). Stomach cancer mortality in the regions with contaminated water was more substantially elevated in comparison with the regions without contaminated water (1.82; 1.11-2.91) and the whole province (1.69; 1.12-2.44). Lung cancer mortality was slightly elevated in comparison with the unexposed study regions (1.15; 0.62-2.07), and more strongly elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.78; 1.03-2.87). Mortality from other cancers combined was not elevated in comparison with either the unexposed study regions (0.86; 0.53-1.36) or the whole province (0.92; 0.58-1.38). CONCLUSIONS: While these data are limited, they are consistent with increased stomach cancer risk in a population exposed to Cr in drinking water. ?? 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  17. Indian and Chinese cosmologies reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1985-01-01

    Indian and Chinese cosmic elements are five. They originate from a common source, Bralrma in Indian and Thai-chi in Chinese. The first created element is Mu = Tree, not wood, and life-form itself, immovable but moves everything else = Akaska in Indian cosmology. Dryness = Metal in Chinese, Moisture = Earth. Fire as Heat and Water as Cold, are common to both systems.

  18. Criteria for assessing the ecological risk of nonylphenol for aquatic life in Chinese surface fresh water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangmao; Wei, Caidi; Zhang, Hui; Song, Mingwei

    2017-10-01

    The typical environmental endocrine disruptor nonylphenol is becoming an increasingly common pollutant in both fresh and salt water; it compromises the growth and development of many aquatic organisms. As yet, water quality criteria with respect to nonylphenol pollution have not been established in China. Here, the predicted "no effect concentration" of nonylphenol was derived from an analysis of species sensitivity distribution covering a range of species mainly native to China, as a means of quantifying the ecological risk of nonylphenol in surface fresh water. The resulting model, based on the log-logistic distribution, proved to be robust; the minimum sample sizes required for generating a stable estimate of HC5 were 12 for acute toxicity and 13 for chronic toxicity. The criteria maximum concentration and criteria continuous concentration were, respectively 18.49 μg L(-1) and 1.85 μg L(-1). Among the 24 sites surveyed, two were associated with a high ecological risk (risk quotient >1) and 12 with a moderate ecological risk (risk quotient >0.1). The potentially affected fraction ranged from 0.008% to 24.600%. The analysis provides a theoretical basis for both short- and long-term risk assessments with respect to nonylphenol, and also a means to quantify the risk to aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new record of blue-spotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictus from Chinese coastal waters documented from morphology and DNA barcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Liu, Jing; Wu, Renxie

    2015-03-01

    A new record of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes, 1830), collected from the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea in April 2013, was documented based on morphology and cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene barcoding analyses. It can be distinguished by a combination of the following characteristics: head scaled to above eyes; cheeks with 5 or 6 rows of scales; lateral line scales 51-52; 5 rows of scales above the lateral line; 4 and 6 cuspidate teeth in front of upper and lower jaws, respectively, followed by 2 rows of blunter teeth posteriorly; gill rakers on first arch 12 to 15; D XI-XII +9-11; A III +8-9; the first two dorsal spines very short, the third to fifth extended, filamentous in the young; the first pelvic ray filamentous; silvery pink with dark blue spots on back and sides; caudal fin pinkish; other fins bluish or pinkish; the blue spots generally disappear in large specimens. The present report of P. caeruleostictus suggests that its distribution in Chinese coastal waters may be attributed to human effort, since this species is unlikely to have expanded naturally from the eastern Atlantic to the South China Sea, with no other records from the Indian or Pacific Oceans. We recommend that a precautionary approach should be adopted for the management of P. caeruleostictus.

  20. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Xiao; Pan, Yong-Gui; He, Feng-Ping; Yuan, Meng-Qi; Li, Shang-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC) turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days) from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC-MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)). The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  1. Neoascarophis sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), a parasite of Conger myriaster (Brevoort) (Anguilliformes: Congridae) in Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Xia; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Du, Xin; Li, Liang

    2017-05-01

    Neoascarophis sinensis n. sp. collected from the whitespotted conger Conger myriaster (Brevoort) (Anguilliformes: Congridae) in the Yellow and East China Seas, is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species is characterised mainly by the body size (8.5-10.5 mm in the males, 9.5-14.0 mm in the females), the location of the vulva (near equatorial region of the body), the non-bifurcate deirids, the lengths of the vestibule (40-50 µm in the males, 30-60 µm in the females) and glandular oesophagus (2.5-3.1 mm in the males, 3.1-3.5 mm in the females) and the morphology and length of the spicules (left spicule 400-410 µm, right spicule 130-150 µm). Neoascarophis sinensis n. sp. is the first species of Neoascarophis Machida, 1976 reported from the anguilliform fish and is also the only species of this genus found in the Chinese waters.

  2. DEVRIESEASIS IN A PLUMED BASILISK (BASILISCUS PLUMIFRONS) AND CHINESE WATER DRAGONS (PHYSIGNATHUS COCINCINUS) IN A ZOOLOGIC COLLECTION.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Christophe; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Brawand, Stefanie Gobeli; Thomann, Andreas; Brodard, Isabelle; Jermann, Thomas; Posthaus, Horst

    2016-03-01

    Devriesea agamarum is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first described in 2008 as a causative agent of disease in lizards. Until today, reports from several countries reported the presence of this bacterium in various lizard species, which suggests a wide distribution among lizard collections. Pathologic lesions ranged from proliferative dermatitis and cheilitis to abscesses in multiple organs and septicemia in single animals, as well as entire groups. Until now, disease caused by D. agamarum has been reported in several lizard species. Because the bacterium is only identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and no commercially available identification systems contain the agent in their database, it may be underdiagnosed. This report describes a series of fatal devrieseasis in plumed basilisks (Basiliscus plumifrons) and Chinese water dragons (Physignathus cocincinus) from a zoologic collection and extends the range of susceptible species. In 3 mo, five animals died with pyogranulomatous lesions in the subcutis, the coelomic cavity, or multiple organs. In all cases, diffuse swelling or focal skin elevations of different body parts were observed. Devriesea agamarum could be isolated from lesions in all animals. A subsequent clinical survey of the lizard collection including bacteriologic investigation of oral cavity swabs indicated that bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were carriers of D. agamarum, which suggests that this species could be a source of infection with this pathogen.

  3. Thermal stability of texture in Chinese water chestnut may be dependent on 8,8'-diferulic acid (aryltetralyn form).

    PubMed

    Parker, Charlotte C; Parker, Mary L; Smith, Andrew C; Waldron, Keith W

    2003-03-26

    Ferulic acid (FA) cross-links have been implicated in the thermal stability of texture in Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues. The aim of the current study has been to investigate this concept further. CWC tissue strips were measured for their mechanical properties before and after extraction in increasing strengths of alkali. The mechanical properties were related to the associated mode of fracture (cell separation or breakage) at the fracture surfaces and the phenolic composition of the cell walls. CWC tissue softened after prolonged extraction in cold alkali due to an increase in the ease of cell separation. Analysis of wall-bound phenolics demonstrated that most FA moieties, including five of the six dehydrodimers, were released before tissue strength was reduced. Loss of strength was, however, coincident with the loss of 8,8'-diferulic acid, aryltetralin (AT) form. It has been suggested that this dehydrodimer may be particularly concentrated at the edge of the cell faces. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of this dehydrodimer in conferring thermal stability of cell-cell adhesion and hence texture in CWC. However, they do not exclude the other diferulates from involvement in cell adhesion.

  4. Isomer profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in water and soil surrounding a chinese fluorochemical manufacturing park.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hangbiao; Zhang, Yifeng; Zhu, Lingyan; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-04-21

    Despite that China is the largest global manufacturer of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), the manufacturing methods and isomer purity of these chemicals are generally unknown. Here, sampling was conducted around a major fluorochemical manufacturing park in China in 2012, including soil and water collection inside the park, including from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as well as in surrounding rivers and soil (∼15 km radius). Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were lower than perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in all samples, and short-chain (C4-C6) PFCAs were predominant. Perfluoroalkyl phosphonates and phosphate diesters were occasionally detected, but at low detection frequency. Branched isomers of perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) are reported for the first time, accounting for 15-27% of total PFBS in water. An enrichment of isopropyl-PFOA (28%) was found in WWTP influent, suggesting its manufacturing primarily by isopropyl telomerization. More numerous branched isomers were observed for the longer C9-C13 PFCAs (e.g., C12 PFCA had 16 branched isomers), including high proportions of one major branched isomer (likely isopropyl), possibly as impurities from isopropyl-PFOA manufacturing. Overall, short-chain perfluorinated acids were the predominant PFASs being released, but PFOA was still a major chemical in use at this site, primarily from isopropyl telomerization.

  5. Symbiotic Bacteria in Gills and Guts of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Differ from the Free-Living Bacteria in Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Yuhong; Chen, Liqiao; Cai, Chunfang; Qiao, Fang; Du, Zhenyu; Li, Erchao

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic animals have a close relationship with water, but differences in their symbiotic bacteria and the bacterial composition in water remains unclear. Wild or domestic Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) and the water in which they live were collected from four sampling sites in Jiangsu and Shanghai, China. Bacterial composition in water, gills or guts of E. sinensis, were compared by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of >660,000 sequences indicated that bacterial diversity was higher in water than in gills or guts. Tenericutes and Proteobacteria were dominant phyla in guts, while Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were dominant in gills and water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that microbiota from gills, guts or water clearly separated into three groups, suggesting that crabs harbor a more specific microbial community than the water in which they live. The dominant OTUs in crab gut were related to Mycoplasmataceae, which were low in abundance in gills, showing that, like mammals, crabs have body-site specific microbiota. OTUs related to Ilumatobacter and Albimonas, which are commonly present in sediment and seawater, were dominant in gills but almost absent from the sampled water. Considering E. sinensis are bottom-dwelling crustacean and they mate in saline water or seawater, behavior and life cycle of crabs may play an important role in shaping the symbiotic bacterial pattern. This study revealed the relationship between the symbiotic bacteria of Chinese mitten crab and their habitat, affording information on the assembly factors of commensal bacteria in aquatic animals. PMID:26820139

  6. Symbiotic Bacteria in Gills and Guts of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Differ from the Free-Living Bacteria in Water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Yuhong; Chen, Liqiao; Cai, Chunfang; Qiao, Fang; Du, Zhenyu; Li, Erchao

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic animals have a close relationship with water, but differences in their symbiotic bacteria and the bacterial composition in water remains unclear. Wild or domestic Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) and the water in which they live were collected from four sampling sites in Jiangsu and Shanghai, China. Bacterial composition in water, gills or guts of E. sinensis, were compared by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of >660,000 sequences indicated that bacterial diversity was higher in water than in gills or guts. Tenericutes and Proteobacteria were dominant phyla in guts, while Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were dominant in gills and water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that microbiota from gills, guts or water clearly separated into three groups, suggesting that crabs harbor a more specific microbial community than the water in which they live. The dominant OTUs in crab gut were related to Mycoplasmataceae, which were low in abundance in gills, showing that, like mammals, crabs have body-site specific microbiota. OTUs related to Ilumatobacter and Albimonas, which are commonly present in sediment and seawater, were dominant in gills but almost absent from the sampled water. Considering E. sinensis are bottom-dwelling crustacean and they mate in saline water or seawater, behavior and life cycle of crabs may play an important role in shaping the symbiotic bacterial pattern. This study revealed the relationship between the symbiotic bacteria of Chinese mitten crab and their habitat, affording information on the assembly factors of commensal bacteria in aquatic animals.

  7. A new ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration flavonoids and anthraquinones from traditional Chinese prescription.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique, ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction (ILWOS-3p-ME) was developed and introduced for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in Chinese herbal formula and its preparations. This technique was performed in one step by using a syringe. High performance liquid chromatography with an UV-detector (HPLC/UV) was subsequently conducted. Two solvents with different densities (organic solvent and ionic liquid with densities less than and higher than water, respectively) were separately placed in a syringe, which was used as an extraction device. A cloudy emulsion was formed by manually shaking the syringe. The mixture was allowed to stand for several minutes; afterward, the emulsion readily separated into three phases: an upper organic solvent extraction phase; a middle aqueous sample phase; and a lower ionic liquid extraction phase. Both the upper and lower layers were transferred to a small Eppendorf (EP) tube. Conducting ILWOS-3P-ME with HPLC/UV, we simultaneously determined the bioactive components of flavonoids and anthraquinones in traditional Chinese medicine. ILWOS-3P-ME is a simple, rapid, practical, and effective method to extract and preconcentrate of different types of trace bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously.

  8. Energy expenditure of Chinese infants in Guangdong Province, south China, determined with use of the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Yan, Q; Su, Y; Acheson, K J; Thélin, A; Piguet-Welsch, C; Ritz, P; Ho, Z C

    1998-06-01

    The doubly labeled water method was used to measure the energy expenditure of a group of 41, 4- or 6-mo-old infants with a cross-sectional design. The infants were divided into two groups according to whether they were breast-fed (11 at 4 mo, 9 at 6 mo) or formula fed (11 at 4 mo, 10 at 6 mo). Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth and at the beginning and end of the 8-d study. Anthropometric data, which were supported by the food intake and energy expenditure results, indicated that the infants were within the norms for European and American infants of the same age. Mean energy intakes of 352 kJ (84 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 4 and 6 mo were lower than the FAO/WHO/UNU recommended value of 452 kJ (108 kcal) x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and Chinese recommendations of 502 kJ (120 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1). However, some authors believe that values of 398 kJ (95 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 4 mo and 356 kJ (85 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 6 mo are more appropriate. At 6 mo the infants' length-for-age and weight-for-age were at the National Center for Health Statistics 55th and 47th percentiles, respectively, whereas 58% were below the 50th percentile for weight-for-length. We conclude that at 4 mo infants receive sufficient energy for their requirements. However, at 6 mo energy requirements might well be greater than the revised recommendations, when infants are being weaned to alternative foods and are more prone to the influence of diet on their growth and development.

  9. Phytocoetes sinensis n. sp. and Telmatactis clavata (Stimpson, 1855), two poorly known species of Metridioidea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Rui-Yu; Xu, Kuidong

    2013-01-01

    Two acontiate sea anemones, Phytocoetes sinensis n. sp. within the family Halcampactinidae and Telmatactis clavata (Stimpson, 1855) within the family Andvakiidae, are described from the coastal region of Chinese waters. Phytocoetes sinensis is an elongated sea anemone discovered from the intertidal mudflat in the East China Sea. The new species is very similar to its only congener P. gangeticus, but differs distinctly by the larger body size (length usually 61-130 mm vs. no more than 30 mm) and a higher number of mesenteries (48 pairs vs. 12 or probably 24 pairs) and tentacles (usually 72-118 vs. 50-65). This is the first record of Halcampactinidae in China. Telmatactis clavata has been reported only from the warm waters of Japan. We redescribed the species in more details based on specimens collected from the South China Sea. So far the species is known only from warm waters in the western Pacific.

  10. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  11. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  12. Hovenia dulcis Thunb extract and its ingredient methyl vanillate activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway and increase bone mass in growing or ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Shin, Wookjin; Zahoor, Muhammad; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT) extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV), one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis.

  13. Hovenia dulcis Thunb Extract and Its Ingredient Methyl Vanillate Activate Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway and Increase Bone Mass in Growing or Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Shin, Wookjin; Zahoor, Muhammad; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT) extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV), one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis. PMID:24465596

  14. Evaluation of Total Flavonoids, Myricetin, and Quercetin from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. As Inhibitors of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yonghong; Su, Anping; Yuan, Shuang; Zhao, Huaguo; Tan, Siyuan; Hu, Chingyuan; Deng, Hong; Guo, Yurong

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibition effect and mechanism of total flavonoids, myricetin and quercetin extracted from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in order to explore the potential use of Hovenia flavonoids in alleviating postprandial hyperglycemia. The results demonstrate that total flavonoids, myricetin, and quercetin were effective inhibitors of α-amylase with IC50 values of 32.8, 662 and 770 μg ml(-1), respectively. And all three were effective inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 8, 3 and 32 μg ml(-1), respectively. Enzyme kinetics tests and Lineweaver-Burk results showed the inhibition effects of total flavonoids, myricetin and quercrtin on α-amylase were all reversible and competitive, and the effects on α-glucosidase were all reversible but non-competitive. This study revealed that Hovenia flavonoids, especially myricetin, are effective and promising functional foods in alleviating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach.

  17. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Mi; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Roh, Nam Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20-50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm(3) (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin.

  18. Improved capabilities of the Chinese high-resolution remote sensing satellite GF-1 for monitoring suspended particulate matter (SPM) in inland waters: Radiometric and spatial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Liqiao; Huang, Jue; Feng, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Dominated by high dynamic and small-scale variability, remote sensing of inland or coastal waters is frequently impended by insufficient spatial resolutions from conventional ocean color sensors. With the urgent need and the rapid progress in high-resolution earth observation systems (HR), it is critical to assess the capabilities of HR in inland water monitoring. In this study, the radiometric and spatial performance of the Chinese high-resolution GF-1 Wide Field Imager (WFI) data for water quality monitoring were evaluated in term of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity to suspended particulate matter (SPM) variations and spatial depiction ability. The SNR was statistically estimated from variable moving window method, and the radiometric sensitivity was simulated using the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) under varied surface and atmospheric conditions. Results indicated that both the SNR and the radiometric sensitivity of the GF-1 WFI were enhanced by 3-5 times than its predecessor (Chinese HJ-1 CCD) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and were comparable to Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m), which have been extensively applied in inland water environment monitoring. Cross comparisons demonstrated high consistency of the spatial distribution and concentration of SPM maps between GF-1 WFI and Landsat 8 OLI. Furthermore, more than 75% of the spatial variations in high turbid waters were resolved from GF-1 WFI data, whereas the ability dropped to 40% when the spatial resolution was degraded to 250 m (MODIS-like sensors). Overall, GF-1 WFI is extraordinarily promising with an enhanced SNR, an increased spectral sensitivity to SPM variations and an advanced spatial resolution. With the ongoing plans of the successive GF series (2-7), the findings would serve as a reference for forthcoming applications, and are critical

  19. Distribution and bioaccumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in water, sediment and fishes in a shallow Chinese freshwater lake: Implications for ecological and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Dan Liu; Wu, Shengmin; Xu, Huaizhou; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Shenghu; Shi, Lili; Yao, Cheng; Liu, Yanhua; Cheng, Jie

    2017-06-01

    The occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation of six endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) were investigated in water, sediment and biota samples from Luoma Lake, a shallow Chinese freshwater lake. Total concentrations of ∑phenolic EDCs were much higher than ∑estrogens EDCs in both waters and sediments. There were not obvious differences on the concentrations of target compounds [except nonylphenol (NP)] in upstream, lake and downstream locations, these may be suggested that they were mainly affected by non-point discharges in this area. However, the high concentration of NP in water may be associated with the discharge of rural domestic wastewater without thorough treatment. Furthermore, concentrations of NP were about 2-3 order magnitude higher than those of OP in both water and sediment compartments. Relatively higher bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were obtained for DES and EE2. Ecological risk assessment revealed greater risk of NP in surface water, which may pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. The estrogen equivalent concentration (EEQ) of male were higher than those in female, and occurred in the order of city >rural-urban>countryside.

  20. Beryllium-7 measurements of wind erosion on sloping fields in the wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaqiong; Yang, Mingyi; Deng, Xinxin; Liu, Zhang; Zhang, Fengbao; Zhou, Weiying

    2017-09-29

    Soil erosion is complex in the wind-water erosion crisscross region of the Chinese Loess Plateau, as interleaving of wind and water erosion occurs on both temporal and spatial scales. It is difficult to distinguish wind erosion from the total erosion in previous studies due to the untraceable of aeolian particles and the limitation of feasible methods and techniques. This study used beryllium-7 measurements to study wind erosion in the wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Chinese Loess Plateau arms to delineate wind erosion distribution, to analyze its implication to erosive winds and surface microrelief, and to determine correlations between erosion rates and slope gradients. Results obtained using beryllium-7 measurements based on observation plots were verified with saltating particle collection method, and were also verified on a field scale. Results indicated that the effective resultant erosion wind was from northward, which was proved by the eight-directional distributed saltating particles. The microrelief of the ground surface contributed to the formation of high or low erosion centers. Wind erosion rates increased with a linear (R(2)≥0.95) or exponential (R(2)≥0.83) fitting increase in the slope gradients as reported in previous studies. Compared to wind erosion on field scale, both the plots and fields exhibited similar distribution patterns in wind erosion isolines. We also determined that the wind erosion rate for two fields estimated, based on equations developed from plot scale was acceptable. This study validates the feasibility of beryllium-7 measurements for soil-wind erosion field experiments and the potential to expand this approach to real field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Crosslinked enzyme aggregates of hydroxynitrile lyase partially purified from Prunus dulcis seeds and its application for the synthesis of enantiopure cyanohydrins.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Deniz; Tükel, S Seyhan; Alagöz, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxynitrile lyases are powerful catalysts in the synthesis of enantiopure cyanohydrins which are key synthons in the preparations of a variety of important chemicals. The response surface methodology including three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize immobilization of hydroxynitrile lyase purified partially from Prunus dulcis seeds as crosslinked enzyme aggregates (PdHNL-CLEAs). The quadratic model was developed for predicting the response and its adequacy was validated with the analysis of variance test. The optimized immobilization parameters were initial glutaraldehyde concentration, ammonium sulfate saturation concentration, and crosslinking time, and the response was relative activity of PdHNL-CLEA. The optimal conditions were determined as initial glutaraldehyde concentration of 25% w/v, ammonium sulfate saturation concentration of 43% w/v, and crosslinking time of 18 h. The preparations of PdHNL-CLEA were examined for the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-2-chloromandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile, (R)-4-fluoromandelonitrile, and (R)-4-nitromandelonitrile from their corresponding aldehydes and hydrocyanic acid. After 96-h reaction time, the yield-enantiomeric excess values (%) were 100-99, 100-21, 100-99, 83-91, 100-99, 100-72, and 100-14%, respectively, for (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-2-chloromandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile, (R)-4-fluoromandelonitrile, and (R)-4-nitromandelonitrile. The results show that PdHNL-CLEA offers a promising potential for the preparation of enantiopure (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, and (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile with a high yield and enantiopurity. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  3. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  4. Inhibition of LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW 264.7 cells show anti-atherogenic properties of a foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Sinjitha S.; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Bhatt, Praveena; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidation of low density lipoproteins and their further uptake by macrophages is known to result in the formation of foam cells, which are critical in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signalling cascades. Thus, powerful dietary antioxidants are receiving attention for the reversal of such pathological states. Materials and Methods: Extracts of Scoparia dulcis have been used as tea and health drinks with various health promoting effects. In the present study, we examined the reactive oxygen scavenging potential as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic efficacies, using leaf extracts obtained after successive extraction with various solvents. Results: A methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 570 μg/ml, caused hydrogen peroxide scavenging (28.9 µg/ml) and anti-inflammatory effects by improving human erythrocyte membrane stabilisation (about 86%). The methanol extract also efficiently inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins, thus preventing foam cell formation in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, phytochemical screening of the extracts showed high accumulation of flavonoids. Conclusions: The foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis has a strong anti-atherogenic potential and this property could be attributed maybe due to presence of flavonoids since HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of myricetin and rutin in the methanol extract. PMID:24991098

  5. Bisphenol analogues in surface water and sediment from the shallow Chinese freshwater lakes: Occurrence, distribution, source apportionment, and ecological and human health risk.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengyu; Liu, Yanhua; Yan, Kun; Wu, Shengmin; Han, Zhihua; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Meihong; Yang, Qiulian; Zhang, Shenghu; Chen, Jianqiu

    2017-10-01

    Compared to Bisphenol A (BPA), current knowledge on the spatial distribution, potential sources and environmental risk assessment of other bisphenol analogues (BPs) remains limited. The occurrence, distribution and sources of seven BPs were investigated in the surface water and sediment from Taihu Lake and Luoma Lake, which are the Chinese shallow freshwater lakes. Because there are many industries and living areas around Taihu Lake, the total concentrations of ∑BPs were much higher than that in Luoma Lake, which is away from the industry-intensive areas. For the two lakes, BPA was still the dominant BPs in both surface water and sediment, followed by BPF and BPS. The spatial distribution and principal component analysis showed that BPs in Luoma Lake was relatively homogeneous and the potential sources were relatively simple than that in Taihu Lake. The spatial distribution of BPs in sediment of Taihu Lake indicated that ∑BPs positively correlated with the TOC content. For both Taihu Lake and Luoma Lake, the risk assessment at the sampling sites showed that no high risk in surface water and sediment (RQt < 1.0, and EEQt < 1.0 ng E2/L). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  7. Nitrogen fertilization effect on dryland soil water balance and winter wheat yield in the Chinese Loess Plateau

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continuous N fertilization to dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for a long period may have detrimental effect on grain yield due to high water consumption and soil acidity development. We evaluated the effect of five N fertilization rates (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg N ha-1) on soil water b...

  8. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

  9. Effects of thinning intensities on soil infiltration and water storage capacity in a Chinese pine-oak mixed forest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity.

  10. SDF7, a group of Scoparia dulcis Linn. derived flavonoid compounds, stimulates glucose uptake and regulates adipocytokines in 3T3-F442a adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Beh, Joo Ee; Khoo, Li Teng; Latip, Jalifah; Abdullah, Mohd Paud; Alitheen, Noorjahan Baru Mohamed; Adam, Zainah; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Muhajir

    2013-10-28

    Adipocytes are major tissues involved in glucose uptake second to skeletal muscle and act as the main adipocytokines mediator that regulates glucose uptake mechanism and cellular differentiation. The objective of this study were to examine the effect of the SDF7, which is a fraction consists of four flavonoid compounds (quercetin: p-coumaric acid: luteolin: apigenin=8: 26: 1: 3) from Scoparia dulcis Linn., on stimulating the downstream components of insulin signalling and the adipocytokines expression on different cellular fractions of 3T3-F442a adipocytes. Morphology and lipid accumulation of differentiated 3T3-F442a adipocytes by 100 nM insulin treated with different concentrations of SDF7 and rosiglitazone were examined followed by the evaluation of glucose uptake activity expressions of insulin signalling downstream components (IRS-1, PI3-kinase, PKB, PKC, TC10 and GLUT4) from four cellular fractions (plasma membrane, cytosol, high density microsome and low density microsome). Next, the expression level of adipocytokines (TNF-α, adiponectin and leptin) and immunoblotting of treated 3T3-F442 adipocytes was determined at 30 min and 480 min. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation of 3T3-F442a adipocytes membrane was also determined. Lastly, mRNA expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ of 3T3-F442a adipocytes were induced and compared with basal concentration. It was found that SDF7 was able to induce adipocytes differentiation with great extends of morphological changes, lipid synthesis and lipid stimulation in vitro. SDF7 stimulation of glucose transport on 3T3-F442a adipocytes are found to be dose independent, time-dependent and plasma membrane GLUT4 expression-dependent. Moreover, SDF7 are observed to be able to suppress TNF-α and leptin expressions that were mediated by 3T3-F442a adipocytes, while stimulated adiponectin secretion on the cells. There was a significant expression (p<0.01) of protein kinase C and small G protein TC10 on 3T3-F442a adipocytes

  11. Estimation of soil loss by water erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau using Universal Soil Loss Equation and GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzer, S.; Seitz, F.; Eicker, A.; Güntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Menzel, A.

    2013-06-01

    For the estimation of soil loss by erosion in the strongly affected Chinese Loess Plateau we applied the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) using a number of input data sets (monthly precipitation, soil types, digital elevation model, land cover and soil conservation measures). Calculations were performed in ArcGIS and SAGA. The large-scale soil erosion in the Loess Plateau results in a strong non-hydrological mass change. In order to investigate whether the resulting mass change from USLE may be validated by the gravity field satellite mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), we processed different GRACE level-2 products (ITG, GFZ and CSR). The mass variations estimated in the GRACE trend were relatively close to the observed sediment yield data of the Yellow River. However, the soil losses resulting from two USLE parameterizations were comparatively high since USLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio. Most eroded soil stays in the study area and only a fraction is exported by the Yellow River. Thus, the resultant mass loss appears to be too small to be resolved by GRACE.

  12. Chinese Calligraphy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  13. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  14. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  15. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. (c) 2003 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood Biomarkers of Late Pregnancy Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and Fetal Growth Measures and Gestational Age in a Chinese Cohort.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zeng, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Chen, Hai-Xia; Miao, Dong-Yue; Li, Li; Cheng, Ying-Hui; Li, Min; Wang, Fan; You, Ling; Wang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Pan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that elevated exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water during gestation may result in adverse birth outcomes. However, the findings of these studies remain inconclusive. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and fetal growth and gestational age. We recruited 1,184 pregnant women between 2011 and 2013 in Wuhan and Xiaogan City, Hubei, China. Maternal blood THM concentrations, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM), were measured as exposure biomarkers during late pregnancy. We estimated associations with gestational age and fetal growth indicators [birth weight, birth length, and small for gestational age (SGA)]. Total THMs (TTHMs; sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) were associated with lower mean birth weight (-60.9 g; 95% CI: -116.2, -5.6 for the highest vs. lowest tertile; p for trend = 0.03), and BDCM and DBCM exposures were associated with smaller birth length (e.g., -0.20 cm; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of DBCM; p for trend = 0.02). SGA was increased in association with the second and third tertiles of TTHMs (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.32, 6.42 and OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.01, 5.03; p for trend = 0.08). Our results suggested that elevated maternal THM exposure may adversely affect fetal growth. Cao WC, Zeng Q, Luo Y, Chen HX, Miao DY, Li L, Cheng YH, Li M, Wang F, You L, Wang YX, Yang P, Lu WQ. 2016. Blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water and fetal growth measures and gestational age in a Chinese cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:536-541; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409234.

  17. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  18. Coupled effects of mulching and nitrogen fertilization on crop yield, residual soil nitrate, and water use efficiency of summer maize in the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanjun; Meng, Yan; Cai, Miao; Zhou, Jianbin

    2017-09-21

    Appropriate water-saving and nitrogen management strategies are critical for achieving sustainable agricultural development in dry sub-humid areas of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The present study was conducted in 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2012 based on a long-term field experiment and aimed to investigate the coupled impacts of mulching and N fertilization on maize yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and residual soil nitrate (RSN) accumulated in the soil profile (0-200 cm). The results demonstrated that mulch is conducive to increasing summer maize yield. The plastic film-mulched ridge and straw-mulched furrow (RF) treatment significantly increased maize yield across the studied period, while the straw mulch (SM) treatment did not significantly increase maize yield until the third experimental year. Compared with SM, the RF treatment showed more significant and positive effects on maize yield, WUE, and RSN accumulated in the 0-200 cm soil depth. N fertilization significantly increased maize yield and WUE, but no significant differences were observed when 120 and 240 kg N ha(-1) were applied. The N240 treatment was characterized by relatively high NO3(-)-N accumulation in 0-200 cm soil depth and low ratios of soil nitrate in the upper to the lower soil layers, indicating a considerable potential for NO3(-)-N leaching. Averaged across years, economic optimum N fertilizer rates (Nops) were 154, 148, and 150 kg N ha(-1) for the no mulch, RF, and SM treatments, respectively. This suggested that 25.8-51.2% of N rate can be reduced while maintaining an acceptably high maize yield. Additionally, understanding NO3(-)-N depth distribution in 0-100 cm soil profile can adequately predict and represent the characteristics of NO3(-)-N accumulated in the 100-200 cm and 0-200 cm soil layers because of their significant correlations, thus saving time and money. In conclusion, the practice of RF combined with properly reduced farmers' N rate (~ 150 kg N ha(-1)) is the preferred

  19. Inhibitory effect of the branches of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. and its constituent pinosylvin on the activities of IgE-mediated mast cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sue Ji; Kim, Myungsuk; Randy, Ahmad; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-04-01

    Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) is a hardy tree native to Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, and it is also grown in parts of Asia and has been used in traditional medicine to treat liver toxicity, stomach disorders, and inflammation. This study investigated the anti-allergy potential of an extract of the branches of H. dulcis (HDB) using the antigen-stimulated mast cell-like cell line rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 and a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mouse model. Degranulation assay, reverse transcription PCR, enzyme-lined immunosorbent assays, western blot analyses, and PCA were performed to measure allergic responses and proinflammatory mediators in antigen-stimulated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and the PCA mouse model. In antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, HDB inhibited the secretion of β-hexosaminidase (indicating the inhibition of degranulation) and histamine release; decreased expression and production of the inflammatory mediators, cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2, and cytokines interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α; and suppressed activation of nuclear factor κB, a transcription factor involved in the response to cytokines. HDB attenuated phosphorylation of the mast cell downstream effectors Lyn, Syk, phospholipase Cγ, protein kinase Cμ, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38. In IgE-sensitized mice, HDB inhibited mast cell-dependent PCA. Furthermore, HDB contained pinosylvin and possessed significant anti-allergic activities. These results suggest that HDB would be of value in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.

  20. Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-01-01

    The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of non-active polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect varied significantly with alcohol regimens. Generally, the higher the alcohol concentration, the purer was the resultant extract. At its maximum, approximately 36% (w/w) of the crude extract, of which 23% was polysaccharides, was precipitated and removed, resulting in a purified extract consisting of over 20% bioactive marker compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, rubusoside, and steviol monoside). The removal of 11% polysaccharides from the crude water extract by using alcohol precipitation was complete at 70% alcohol regimen. Higher alcohol levels resulted in even purer extracts, possibly by removing some compounds of uncertain bioactivity. Alcohol precipitation is an effective way of removing polysaccharides from the water extract of sweet tea plant and could be used as an initial simple purification tool for many water plant extracts that contain large amounts of polysaccharides. PMID:19419169

  1. Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-06-10

    The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of nonactive polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, an alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect varied significantly with alcohol regimens. Generally, the higher the alcohol concentration, the purer was the resultant extract. At its maximum, approximately 36% (w/w) of the crude extract, of which 23% was polysaccharides, was precipitated and removed, resulting in a purified extract consisting of over 20% bioactive marker compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, rubusoside, and steviol monoside). The removal of 11% polysaccharides from the crude water extract by using alcohol precipitation was complete at 70% alcohol regimen. Higher alcohol levels resulted in even purer extracts, possibly by removing some compounds of uncertain bioactivity. Alcohol precipitation is an effective way of removing polysaccharides from the water extract of the sweet tea plant and could be used as an initial simple purification tool for many water plant extracts that contain large amounts of polysaccharides.

  2. [Health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking water based on field measurement of exposure factors of Chinese people].

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-li; Wang, Zong-shuang; Li, Qin; Zhang, Wen-jie; Huang, Nan; Wang, Bei-bei; Zhang, Jin-liang

    2011-05-01

    This study was carried out in Biyang County, located in the junction of Yangtze river and Huaihe river. Drinking water samples of 20 sites in urban and rural areas in this county were collected to measure 14 heavy metals by ICP/MS. About 2 500 subjects with different age and sex were selected to measure exposure factors. Time-activity of drinking water by ingestion and dermal contact of each individual subject during the last three days were kept in dairy in detail by questionnaires. Intake of drinking water from direct and indirect consumption of water and time duration of dermal contact to water in each individual subject were kept in record based on real time measurements. Human health risks were assessed and sensitivity of exposure factors and uncertainty of risks were also analyzed. The results showed that the average drinking water intake rate of male and female are 2276 mL/d, 2265 mL/d in urban adults and 2464 mL/d, 2170 mL/d in rural adults respectively. Body surface area of male and female are 1.806 m2, 1.641 m2 in urban adults and 1.747 m2, 1.617 m2 in rural adults respectively. The contents of 14 heavy metals in this study area are all below the national drinking water standards. Cancer risks from exposure to As are ranged from 2.5 x 10(-6) to 5.2 x 10(-6) through ingestion and 1.1 x 10(-7) to 2.3 x 10(-7) through dermal exposure. Non-cancer risks are ranged from 2.1 x 10(-7) to 1.7 x 10(-6) through ingestion and 1.0 x 10(-8) to 6.0 x 10(-8) through dermal exposure. Non-cancer risks in rural population are 2.1 times to 5.6 times to the risks in urban populations. However all the risks are below the acceptable level. The sensitivity of various exposure factors including drinking water intake rate, dermal exposure time and body surface area are 71.5%. This indicates that exposure factors play a very important role in health risk assessment. Health risks in this research based on real measurement of exposure factors are about 0.94 time to 6.33 times higher

  3. Evidence for induction of oxidative stress caused by chronic exposure of Chinese residents to arsenic contained in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Yoshito; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Hopenhayn-Rich, Claudia; Shimojo, Nobuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of experimental animals or cultured cells to arsenic induces oxidative stress, but, to date, no examination of this phenomenon in humans has been reported. In this study we conducted a cross-sectional study in Wuyuan, Inner Mongolia, China, to explore the relationship between chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water and oxidative stress in humans. Thirty-three inhabitants who had been drinking tube-well water with high concentrations of inorganic arsenic (mean value = 0.41 mg/L) for about 18 years constituted the high-exposure group, and 10 residents who lived nearby but were exposed to much lower concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water (mean value = 0.02 mg/L) were selected as the low-exposure comparison group. Results of the present study indicated that although the activity for superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood did not differ significantly between the two groups, the mean serum level of lipid peroxides (LPO) was significantly higher among the high-exposed compared with the low-exposed group. Elevated serum LPO concentrations were correlated with blood levels of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. In addition, they showed an inverse correlation with nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in whole blood. The subjects in the high-arsenic-exposure group had mean blood NPSH levels 57.6% lower than those in the low-exposure group. Blood NPSH levels were inversely correlated with the concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in blood and with the ratio of monomethylarsenic to inorganic arsenic. These results provide evidence that chronic exposure to arsenic from drinking water in humans results in induction of oxidative stress, as indicated by the reduction in NPSH and the increase in LPO. Some possible mechanisms for the arsenic-induced oxidative stress are discussed. PMID:11940449

  4. Item response modeling: a psychometric assessment of the children's fruit, vegetable, water, and physical activity self-efficacy scales among Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C

    2017-09-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups using item response modeling (IRM) and differential item functioning (DIF). Four self-efficacy scales were administrated to 763 Hong Kong Chinese children (55.2% boys) aged 8-13 years. Classical test theory (CTT) was used to examine the reliability and factorial validity of scales. IRM was conducted and DIF analyses were performed to assess the characteristics of item parameter estimates on the basis of children's sex, age and body weight status. All self-efficacy scales demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.79-0.91). One FSE misfit item and one PASE misfit item were detected. Small DIF were found for all the scale items across children's age groups. Items with medium to large DIF were detected in different sex and body weight status groups, which will require modification. A Wright map revealed that items covered the range of the distribution of participants' self-efficacy for each scale except VSE. Several self-efficacy scales' items functioned differently by children's sex and body weight status. Additional research is required to modify the four self-efficacy scales to minimize these moderating influences for application.

  5. Atmospheric partitioning and the air-water exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a large shallow Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    PubMed

    Qin, Ning; He, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Wang, Qing-Mei; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-11-01

    The residual levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere and in dissolved phase from Lake Chaohu were measured by (GC-MS). The composition and seasonal variation were investigated. The diffusive air-water exchange flux was estimated by a two-film model, and the uncertainty in the flux calculations and the sensitivity of the parameters were evaluated. The following results were obtained: (1) the average residual levels of all PAHs (PAH16) in the atmosphere from Lake Chaohu were 60.85±46.17 ng m(-3) in the gaseous phase and 14.32±23.82 ng m(-3) in the particulate phase. The dissolved PAH16 level was 173.46±132.89 ng L(-1). (2) The seasonal variation of average PAH16 contents ranged from 43.09±33.20 ng m(-3) (summer) to 137.47±41.69 ng m(-3) (winter) in gaseous phase, from 6.62±2.72 ng m(-3) (summer) to 56.13±22.99 ng m(-3) (winter) in particulate phase, and 142.68±74.68 ng L(-1) (winter) to 360.00±176.60 ng L(-1) (summer) in water samples. Obvious seasonal trends of PAH16 concentrations were found in the atmosphere and water. The values of PAH16 for both the atmosphere and the water were significantly correlated with temperature. (3) The monthly diffusive air-water exchange flux of total PAH16 ranged from -1.77×10(4) ng m(-2) d(-1) to 1.11×10(5) ng m(-2) d(-1), with an average value of 3.45×10(4) ng m(-2) d(-1). (4) The results of a Monte Carlo simulation showed that the monthly average PAH fluxes ranged from -3.4×10(3) ng m(-2) d(-1) to 1.6×10(4) ng m(-2) d(-1) throughout the year, and the uncertainties for individual PAHs were compared. (5) According to the sensitivity analysis, the concentrations of dissolved and gaseous phase PAHs were the two most important factors affecting the results of the flux calculations.

  6. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination.

  7. Changing Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Betty Lee

    1977-01-01

    Notes that in many ways the makeup of today's Chinese immigrants tends toward the extremes. At one end they are highly educated, at the other, they are the beneficiaries of the nonquota provisions of the immigration law. (Author/AM)

  8. Local Immune Responses of the Chinese Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum Larvae: Crucial Insights for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines

  9. Blood Biomarkers of Late Pregnancy Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and Fetal Growth Measures and Gestational Age in a Chinese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zeng, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Chen, Hai-Xia; Miao, Dong-Yue; Li, Li; Cheng, Ying-Hui; Li, Min; Wang, Fan; You, Ling; Wang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Pan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that elevated exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water during gestation may result in adverse birth outcomes. However, the findings of these studies remain inconclusive. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and fetal growth and gestational age. Methods: We recruited 1,184 pregnant women between 2011 and 2013 in Wuhan and Xiaogan City, Hubei, China. Maternal blood THM concentrations, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM), were measured as exposure biomarkers during late pregnancy. We estimated associations with gestational age and fetal growth indicators [birth weight, birth length, and small for gestational age (SGA)]. Results: Total THMs (TTHMs; sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) were associated with lower mean birth weight (–60.9 g; 95% CI: –116.2, –5.6 for the highest vs. lowest tertile; p for trend = 0.03), and BDCM and DBCM exposures were associated with smaller birth length (e.g., –0.20 cm; 95% CI: –0.37, –0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of DBCM; p for trend = 0.02). SGA was increased in association with the second and third tertiles of TTHMs (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.32, 6.42 and OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.01, 5.03; p for trend = 0.08). Conclusions: Our results suggested that elevated maternal THM exposure may adversely affect fetal growth. Citation: Cao WC, Zeng Q, Luo Y, Chen HX, Miao DY, Li L, Cheng YH, Li M, Wang F, You L, Wang YX, Yang P, Lu WQ. 2016. Blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water and fetal growth measures and gestational age in a Chinese cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:536–541; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409234 PMID:26340795

  10. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead in it. For homes served by public water systems, data on lead in tap water may be available ... Many public water authorities have websites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to ...

  11. Protective effect of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction, the water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, on 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gou, H; Gu, L Y; Shang, B Z; Xiong, Y; Wang, C

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a serious toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used in chemotherapy in Asia as an alternative treatment to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy. However, the mechanism is unknown. To evaluate its mechanism, we investigated the effect of BZYQD on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially with regard to apoptosis in the intestinal mucosal epithelia. In the present study, mice were divided into three groups: control, 5-FU, and 5-FU + BZYQD. Mice in the 5-FU and 5-FU + BZYQD groups were administered 5-FU (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) for 6 days, and the mice in the latter group were given BZYQD (8 g/kg/day, intragastrically) beginning 4 days before 5-FU and continuing until the termination of the experiment. Loss in body weight and diarrhea during the 5-FU treatment were significantly attenuated by administration of BZYQD. The morphological signs of intestinal damage, including shortened villi height, crypt destruction, apoptosis, and necrosis, in intestinal mucosal epithelia were also reversed, accompanied by reduced neutrophil infiltration, nitrite levels, and inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β) and increased levels of reduced glutathione. These results suggest that BZYQD inhibits 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis, and this effect may be due to the reduction in apoptosis and necrosis in intestinal mucosal epithelia via the suppression of inflammatory cytokine upregulation. In conclusion, inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis or necrosis can be the molecular mechanism by which BZYQD reduces the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Systematics of a Clumped Isotope-Based Reconstruction of Temperature and Precipitation Water δ18O from Late Pleistocene and Holocene Archives of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, H. L.; Mitsunaga, B.; Mering, J. A.; Eagle, R.; Li, G.; Tripati, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau lies at the terminus of the East Asian Monsoon, a massive meteorological phenomenon that provides water to up to a quarter of the world's population. This event has been hypothesized to exhibit shifts in intensity and location over geologic time in response to changes in glaciation and climate forcing, including associated abrupt events, during glacial-interglacial cycles, and over longer (>106) year timescales. We propose to reconstruct and evaluate processes that affect carbonate δ18O and carbonate "clumped" isotope thermometry signatures of archives from the Loess Plateau. We will examine modern and Holocene (5,000-10,000 year old) snail specimens (Sp. Cathaica) from four locations within the Plateau: Yichuan, Xifeng, Mangshan, and Lingtai. We will additionally employ the evaporative flux balance model of Balakrishnan (2005) to analyze snail aragonite crystallization in oxygen isotope equilibrium as a proxy measurement for δ18O evaporation. We will then compare these measurements with empirical, modern-day meteoric δ18O and temperature data from local weather stations and the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), as well as data from in situ carbonate nodular loess concretions. These comparisons will allow us to assess the seasonality of growth and determine if non-climatological parameters (e.g., kinetic effects) dominate isotopic signatures, in order to assess if these proxies represent. If the clumped isotope data conforms to these independently-derived measurements, clumped isotope thermometry may be a valid and robust method for characterizing past environmental changes, and we can extend this procedure to proxy materials.

  13. Associations between iodine intake, thyroid volume, and goiter rate in school-aged Chinese children from areas with high iodine drinking water concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Li, Xiang; Wu, Yalan; Bian, Jianchao; Shen, Jun; Jiang, Wen; Tan, Long; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Wei; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Zimmermann, Michael B; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Zhang, Wanqi

    2017-01-01

    Excessive iodine intake may have adverse effects on the thyroid, particularly in children, but the safe upper iodine intake concentration in children is unclear. We assessed the adverse effects of high iodine intake from iodine-rich drinking water on thyroid size in children by examining associations between thyroid volume (Tvol), total goiter rate (TGR), and iodine intake. In a multistage cross-sectional survey, we collected two 24-h urine samples on 2 nonconsecutive days and determined 24-h urinary iodine excretion, then calculated habitual daily iodine intake. Ultrasonographic Tvol was measured, and TGR was calculated based on international and Chinese reference ranges for Tvol in children. This study included 2089 children from Shandong province, where the median (IQR) drinking water iodine concentration was 183 μg/L (69-406 μg/L). The median (IQR) 24-h urinary iodine concentrations for the 2 collections were 381 μg/L (203-649 μg/L) and 398 μg/L (202-687 μg/L), respectively. The median (IQR) habitual daily iodine intake of children was 298 μg/d (186-437 μg/d). Tvols were slightly higher in boys than in girls (P = 0.035). The overall TGR was 9.7% and did not differ by sex. The TGR was ∼5% for children aged 7-10 and 11-14 y at iodine intakes of 200-249 and 250-299 μg/d, respectively. With the use of logistic regression and 2-step linear regression, a nonlinear association was observed between Tvol, TGR, and iodine intake, with a threshold intake of 150 μg/d. Tvol begins to increase in children when iodine intake is ≥150 μg/d, and the TGR exceeds 5% when daily iodine intake is ≥250 μg/d for children aged 7-10 y and ≥300 μg/d for children aged 11-14 y. Our findings suggest that 150-249 and 150-299 μg/d seem to be safe upper iodine intake ranges for children aged 7-10 and 11-14 y, respectively. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02915536. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Writing Chinese characters and success on Mental Rotation Test.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Nuttall, R L; Zhu, W

    1999-06-01

    Our recent study with Chinese and Chinese-American undergraduates indicated that writing Chinese characters was associated with better performance on the Piagetian Water-Level Task for Chinese-American men. The current study investigated whether the same effects would apply to the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. Two alternative hypotheses (bilingualism and birth place) were also tested. Participants were two groups of Chinese-American undergraduates: 48 writers of Chinese (21 men, 27 women) and 130 nonwriters of Chinese (58 men, 72 women). Analysis suggested that writing Chinese and birth in the USA contributed significantly to the success on Mental Rotation Test. Students who were born in the USA and able to write Chinese scored the highest on this test. Being bilingual was not associated with performance on the Mental Rotation Test. Men performed significantly better than women.

  15. Mandarin Chinese Dictionary: English-Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fred Fangyu

    This dictionary is a companion volume to the "Mandarin Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English)" published in 1967 by Seton Hall University. The purpose of the dictionary is to help English-speaking students produce Chinese sentences in certain cultural situations by looking up the English expressions. Natural, spoken Chinese expressions within the…

  16. Mandarin Chinese Dictionary: English-Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fred Fangyu

    This dictionary is a companion volume to the "Mandarin Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English)" published in 1967 by Seton Hall University. The purpose of the dictionary is to help English-speaking students produce Chinese sentences in certain cultural situations by looking up the English expressions. Natural, spoken Chinese expressions within the…

  17. Chinese Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, William C.

    2012-01-01

    When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

  18. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  19. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  20. Effect of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers on CH 4 emissions from a paddy field with a typical Chinese water management regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haibo; Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Mei, Baoling; Xie, Baohua; Wang, Rui; Deng, Jia; Cui, Feng; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-02-01

    The effects of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers, such as urea and/or ammonium phosphate (NH 4H 2PO 4), on methane (CH 4) emissions from paddy rice fields deserve attention, as they are being used increasingly for rice cultivation. A four-year field campaign was conducted in the Yangtze River Delta from 2004 to 2007 to assess the effects of different application rates of urea plus NH 4H 2PO 4 on the CH 4 emissions from a paddy rice field. The experimental field was under a typical Chinese water regime that follows a flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding-moist irrigation mode. Over the course of four years, the mean cumulative CH 4 emissions during the rice seasons were 221, 136 and 112 kg C ha -1 for nitrogen addition rates of 0, 150 and 250 kg N ha -1, respectively. Compared to the treatment without nitrogen amendments, the 150 kg N ha -1 decreased the CH 4 emissions by 6-59% ( P < 0.01 in one year, but not statistically significant in the others). When the addition rate was further increased to 250 kg N ha -1, the CH 4 emissions were significantly reduced by 35-53% ( P < 0.01) compared to the no-nitrogen treatment. Thus, an addition rate of 250 kg N ha -1, which has been commonly adopted in the delta region in the past two decades, can be regarded as an effective management measure as regards increasing rice yields while reducing CH 4 emissions. Considering that doses of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers higher than 250 kg N ha -1 currently are, and most likely will continue to be, commonly applied for paddy rice cultivation in the Yangtze River Delta and other parts of China, the inhibitory effects on CH 4 emissions from rice production are expected to be pronounced at the regional scale. However, further studies are required to provide more concrete evidence about this issue. Moreover, further research is needed to determine whether N management measures are also effective in view of net greenhouse gas fluxes (including CH 4, nitrous oxide, ammonia

  1. Hovenia Dulcis Extract Reduces Lipid Accumulation in Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis of Hep G2 Cells via Activation of AMPK and PPARα/CPT-1 Pathway and in Acute Hyperlipidemia Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bonglee; Woo, Moon-Jea; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Boim; An, Seho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (HDT) was known to have anti-fatigue, anti-diabetes, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. In the present study, the anti-fatty liver mechanism of HDT was elucidated in oleic acid (OA)-treated Hep G2 cells and acute hyperlipidemia mouse model using Triton WR-1339. Here, HDT activated p-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), proliferator activated receptor-α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase and also inhibited the expression of lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis proteins, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, SREBP-2, and fatty acid synthase in OA-treated Hep G2 cells. Conversely, AMPK inhibitor compound C blocked the anti-fatty liver effect of HDT to induce AMPK phosphorylation and decrease 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and lipid accumulation by oil red O staining in OA-treated Hep G2 cells. Additionally, HDT pretreatment protected against the increase of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and phospholipid in an acute hyperlipidemia mouse model with enhancement of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. Taken together, HDT inhibits OA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation via activation of AMPK and proliferator activated receptor-α/carnitine palmitoyltransferase signaling and enhancement of antioxidant activity as a potent candidate for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Chinese Ambition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    revolution training for example Chiang Kai- shek a future Chinese leader. Sun never fully reunified China nor gained control of northern provinces in his...lifetime but one of his lieutenants, Chiang Kai- shek (or Jiang Jieshi), did eventually gain control of all China at least nominally by 1928. Under the...population as the potential source for rebellion and struggled with the nationalist government of Chiang Kai- shek as early as 1921 to gain control of China

  3. Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  4. The Chinese in Houston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodell, Thomas M.

    There are between seven and eight thousand Chinese Americans living in Houston, but there has never been a predominantly Chinese neighborhood in the city. This lack of geographical focus has prevented the development of easily identifiable aspects of ethnic concentration, such as a Chinese school or a Chinese business district. Apart from the…

  5. Burkholderia heleia sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from an aquatic plant, Eleocharis dulcis, that grows in highly acidic swamps in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Ve, Nguyen Bao; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, strains SA41(T), SA42 and SA53, were isolated from an aquatic plant, Eleocharis dulcis, that grows in highly acidic swamps (pH 2-4) in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam. The isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, having a cell width of 0.6-0.7 microm and a length of 1.5-1.7 microm. They showed good growth between pH 3.0 and 7.0, and between 17 and 37 degrees C. The organisms contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone, and C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(18 : 1) omega7c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1) omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) as major fatty acids. Their fatty acid profiles are similar to those reported for other Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C content of these strains was 64 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia. Although their calculated 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values to Burkholderia silvatlantica, Burkholderia mimosarum, Burkholderia ferrariae and Burkholderia tropica were 98.5, 98.2, 98.0 and 97.0 %, respectively, the isolates formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees, and the DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain SA41(T) to these species were 39, 41, 39 and 33 %, respectively. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, including whole-cell protein pattern analysis, allowed phenotypic differentiation of these strains from the published Burkholderia species. Therefore, strains SA41(T), SA42 and SA53 represent a novel species for which the name Burkholderia heleia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA41(T) (=NBRC 101817(T)=VTCC-D6-7(T)).

  6. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  7. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  8. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  9. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  10. Computers and Chinese Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth

    This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented…

  11. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  12. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts II. Comparison of mutagenic effects at five genetic markers induced by retort process water plus near ultraviolet light in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, D J; Strniste, G F

    1982-01-01

    A chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line heterozygous at the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) locus was used for selection of induced mutants resistant to 8-azaadenine (8AA), 6-thioguanine (6TG), ouabain (OUA), emetine (EMT) and diphtheria toxin (DIP). The expression times necessary for optimizing the number of mutants recovered at the different loci have been determined using the know direct acting mutagen, far ultraviolet light (FUV), and a complex aqueous organic mixture (shale oil process water) activated with near ultraviolet light (NUV). Our results indicate that optimal expression times following treatment with either mutagen was between 2 and 8 days (depending on the genetic marker examined). For CHO cells treated with shale oil process water and subsequently exposed to NUV a linear dose response for mutant induction was observed for all five genetic loci. At 10% surviving fraction of cells, between 35- and 130-fold increases above background mutation frequencies were observed for the various markers examined. Among the five genetic loci tested, OUAR was the most sensitive marker tested.

  13. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy.

  14. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy. PMID:28154825

  15. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.0001). Both the field campaigns and the laboratory contamination experiment revealed that CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources.

  16. Chinese Whispers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    In discrete networks, disconnection is often the critical factor that controls system function. The quality of network behaviour may be described by graph-theoretic indices such as the Cheeger constant, or through context-specific models. For water and sediment transport, one primary distinction is between unchannelled and channelled flow: diffusive sediment transport in the former providing poor connectivity and the progressive dominance of advective processes leading to better connected channelization. Within the channel network, Fryir's terminology of buffers, barriers and blankets describe types of disconnection that control water and sediment movement which are crucial to, for example, flood management. In the long term and at coarse scales, network connectivity is controlled by disconnection across divides and through sea level change. Willett has proposed a network analysis that shows catchments whose headwaters are threatened by capture and distributions of fish have provided evidence of the efficacy and rate of these processes, in Africa and elsewhere. Is there common ground between these approaches that can be applied to modelling the behaviour of social and other networks? The critical role of poor connections seems to be at least one significant common thread.

  17. Simultaneous determination of microcystin contaminations in various vertebrates (fish, turtle, duck and water bird) from a large eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu, with toxic Microcystis blooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dawen; Xie, Ping; Wang, Qing; Ma, Zhimei

    2009-05-01

    This is the first to conduct simultaneous determination of microcystin (MC) contaminations in multi-groups of vertebrates (fish, turtle, duck and water bird) from Lake Taihu with Microcystis blooms. MCs (-RR, -YR, -LR) in Microcystis scum was 328 microg g(-1) DW. MCs reached 235 microg g(-1) DW in intestinal contents of phytoplanktivorous silver carp, but never exceeded 0.1 microg g(-1) DW in intestinal contents of other animals. The highest MC content in liver of fish was in Carassius auratus (150 ng g(-1) DW), followed by silver carp and Culter ilishaeformis, whereas the lowest was in common carp (3 ng g(-1) DW). In livers of turtle, duck and water bird, MC content ranged from 18 to 30 ng g(-1) DW. High MC level was found in the gonad, egg yolk and egg white of Nycticorax nycticorax and Anas platyrhynchos, suggesting the potential effect of MCs on water bird and duck embryos. High MC contents were identified for the first time in the spleens of N. nycticorax and A. platyrhynchos (6.850 and 9.462 ng g(-1) DW, respectively), indicating a different organotropism of MCs in birds. Lakes with deaths of turtles or water birds in the literatures had a considerably higher MC content in both cyanobacteria and wildlife than Lake Taihu, indicating that toxicity of cyanobacteria may determine accumulation level of MCs and consequently fates of aquatic wildlife.

  18. Willingness-to-pay for water quality improvements in Chinese rivers: an empirical test on the ordering effects of multiple-bounded discrete choices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents a study of the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for surface water quality improvement in China. In the Huaping County of Yunnan Province, we found that people are willing to pay 74 Yuan (or US$12.33 in 2012 prices) per household per month (or 5% of household income) continuously for five years to achieve an improvement of water quality in the two major local rivers from the current Grade IV to Grade III, which denotes a level suitable for swimming and fishing and matches the water quality level from 10 years ago. This WTP study is based on an actual investment project that was under serious consideration by the government and is based on the multiple-bounded discrete choice (MBDC) approach, which explicitly recognizes the potential uncertainties involved in the study. The potential ordering effects associated with the MBDC approach are empirically tested, and the results indicate that although the presentation order of the polychotomous likelihood choices may not have a significant impact on the WTP estimation, the presentation order of bid levels may have a significant impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Response of denitrification genes nirS, nirK, and nosZ to irrigation water quality in a Chinese agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Shen, Ju-Pei; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2011-11-01

    Denitrification is an important biochemical process in global nitrogen cycle, with a potent greenhouse gas product N(2)O. Wastewater irrigation can result in the changes of soil properties and microbial communities of agricultural soils. The purpose of this study was to examine how the soil denitrification genes responded to different irrigation regimes. Soil samples were collected from three rural districts of Beijing (China) with three different irrigation regimes: clean groundwater (CW), reclaimed water (RW), and wastewater (WW). The abundance and diversity of three denitrification microbial genes (nirS, nirK, and nosZ) were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) molecular approaches. The abundance of nirS in the WW treatment was higher than that in the CW treatment, and no significant difference was found between the RW and CW or WW treatments. The abundance of nirK gene of the RW and WW treatments was higher than that of the CW treatment. There was no difference for nosZ gene among the three treatments. Correspondence analysis based on the DGGE profiles showed that there was no obvious difference in the nosZ gene composition, but nirS and nirK genes changed with different irrigation regimes. Irrigation with unclean water sources enhanced the soil NO (3) (-) content and changed the abundance and composition of soil denitrifiers, and different functional genes had different responses. Irrigation with unclean water sources increased the abundance of nirK gene and changed the community structures of nirS and nirK genes, while nosZ gene was relatively stable in the soil. These results could be helpful to explore the mechanisms of the variation of denitrification processes under long-term wastewater irrigation and partially explain the reason of more N(2)O output in the field with wastewater irrigation.

  20. Growth dynamics of Chinese wingnut (Pterocarya stenoptera) seedlings and its effects on soil chemical properties under simulated water change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region of Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yujing; Li, Changxiao; Li, Jian; Schneider, Rebecca; Lamberts, William

    2013-10-01

    Pterocarya stenoptera is a native deciduous tree species and a candidate for reforestation in the riparian zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region of Yangtze River in China. Water treatments of continuous flooding (CF) and periodic flooding-drought (PF) were applied to examine the growth dynamics of 4-month-old P. stenoptera seedlings and its effects on soil chemical properties. Results showed that P. stenoptera seedlings in both CF and PF significantly decreased leaf biomass accumulation and the height and diameter growth as compared to that in control (CK; treatment with well-watered, well-drained soil), respectively. There was no significant difference in stem biomass among the three groups, but root biomass in PF showed severe reduction compared to that in both CK and CF. Total biomass in PF was significantly decreased compared to that in CK, but comparable to that in CF. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between CF and CK in total biomass. Water treatments in the unplanted soil pots significantly influenced soil pH, soil organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (AN) contents, in contrast to no significant effects in total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) contents. In P. stenoptera soils, there were significant effects by water treatment, time, and treatment × time in the eight tested soil chemical properties, except treatment in TK and time effect in OM content. Compared to unplanted soils, the growth of P. stenoptera seedlings significantly increased soil pH value and OM, TN, TP, and TK contents, while decreasing AN, AP, and AK contents in CK group, augmented the mean value of each of the tested soil chemical properties with an exception of AK content in CF group, and increased soil pH value and TN, AN, TP, and AP contents with no significant differences in OM, TK, and AK contents in PF group. Given the fact that TN and TP contents significantly

  1. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: Influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei; Qiu, Chuanying; Song, Li; Wu, Yu; Liao, Yongjian; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969 μg/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too. - Highlights: • We first survey a village with high iAs content in the drinking water (969 μg/L). • 90 villagers suffered typical skin lesions with a morbidity rate of 58%. • Cases exhibited higher %MMA and MMA/iAs, and lower %DMA and DMA/MMA than controls. • Gender and ethnicity affect the differences of iAs methylation metabolism levels. • GSTO1 and AS3MT gene polymorphisms may be factors too.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the lower atmosphere and surface waters of the Chinese Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen; Tang, Jianhui; Mi, Lijie; Tian, Chongguo; Zhong, Guangcai; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Shaorui; Li, Qilu; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong; Sun, Hongwen

    2017-12-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in the forms of neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the gas phase of air and ionic perfluoroalkyl substances in the dissolved phase of surface water, were investigated during a sampling campaign in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary in May 2012. In the gas phase, the concentrations of neutral ∑PFASs were within the range of 76-551pg/m(3). Higher concentrations were observed in the South Yellow Sea. 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the predominant compound as it accounted for 92%-95% of neutral ∑PFASs in all air samples. Air mass backward trajectory analysis indicated that neutral ∑PFASs came mainly from the coast of the Yellow Sea, including the Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces of China, and the coastal region of South Korea. The fluxes of gas phase dry deposition were simulated for neutral PFASs, and neutral ∑PFASs fluxes varied from 0.37 to 2.3pg/m(2)/s. In the dissolved phase of the surface water, concentrations of ionic ∑PFASs ranged from 1.6 to 118ng/L, with the Bohai Sea exhibiting higher concentrations than both the Yellow Sea and the Yangtze River estuary. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound accounting for 51%-90% of the ionic ∑PFAS concentrations. Releases from industrial and domestic activities as well as the semiclosed geographical conditions increased the level of ionic ∑PFASs in the Bohai Sea. The spatial distributions of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were different significantly. The Laizhou Bay was the major source region of PFCAs and the Yangtze River estuary was the major source of PFSAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei; Qiu, Chuanying; Song, Li; Wu, Yu; Liao, Yongjian; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969μg/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too.

  4. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  5. Chinese Language Learning Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaohong

    A survey of 77 Asian and Asian-American university students enrolled in first- and second-year Chinese language courses investigated the students' motivations for studying the language and their expectations of what they will gain from studying it. Results indicate two factors accounting for beginning Chinese language study: interest in cultural…

  6. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  7. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  8. Chinese Restaurant Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Bawaskar, Pramodini Himmatrao; Bawaskar, Parag Himmatrao

    2017-01-01

    In India, eating Chinese food has become very popular. We hereby report a case who presented with angioneurotic edema of the uvula and the surrounding structures, after eating Chinese food, which resulted in severe difficulty in swallowing saliva and inability to speak. PMID:28197052

  9. The Chinese Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostic, N.; Segan, S.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.

  10. Getting into Classical Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, George W.

    1976-01-01

    The world of classical Chinese is distant both in time and space from the world of the English-speaking American. The instructor must not, however, use a no-attention-to-meaning approach assuming some words are untranslateable or create confusion in discussing the nature of Chinese script. (CFM)

  11. Chinese by Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  12. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

  13. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

  14. The Chinese negotiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark

    2003-10-01

    Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of phosphorus in surface sediments of two major Chinese mariculture areas: the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu; Zhang, Yong; Xing, Qianguo; Tosi, Luigi; Qin, Song

    2014-06-15

    Phosphorus (P) in surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay (LB) and the coastal waters around the Zhangzi Island (ZI) was analyzed. Six forms of P were separated - exchangeable or loosely sorbed P (Ads-P), aluminum-bound P (Al-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), authigenic apatite plus CaCO3-bound P plus biogenic apatite (Ca-P), detrital apatite plus other inorganic P (De-P) and organic P (OP). The average contents of P in the LB were in the order: De-P>OP>Ca-P>Fe-P>Ads-P>Al-P; in the ZI, the corresponding order was De-P>OP>Fe-P>Ca-P>Ads-P>Al-P. Due to the high nutrient loadings from the surrounding rivers, TP contents in sediments of the LB were higher than in those of the ZI. The potential bio-available P (Ads-P and OP) accounted for 14.7% and 24.2% of TP in sediments of the LB and the ZI, respectively.

  16. Chinese Strategic Art: A Cultural Framework for Assessing Chinese Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    China Commission. He stated that shashoujian is a very common idiom in Chinese society and that in general the term refers to “the means or ways by... Chinese Strategic Art: A Cultural Framework for Assessing Chinese Strategy A Monograph by MAJ Kaname K. Kuniyuki United States Army School...To) JUL 2009 – MAY 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chinese Strategic Art: A Cultural Framework for Assessing Chinese Strategy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  17. ADVANCED CHINESE. YALE LINGUISTIC SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DE FRANCIS, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF TEXTS PREPARED AT SETON HALL UNIVERSITY, THIS ADVANCED TEXT PRESUPPOSES MASTERY OF "BEGINNING CHINESE,""BEGINNING CHINESE READER," AND LESSONS 1 TO 6 OF "INTERMEDIATE CHINESE READER." A COMPANION VOLUME TO THIS ONE, "CHARACTER TEXT FOR ADVANCED CHINESE," PROVIDES READING PRACTICE AND…

  18. Oliver Wendell Holmes. "Miscuit utile dulci".

    PubMed

    Lindskog, G E

    1974-12-01

    The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future-our present.

  19. Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein quality.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Susan; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Mistry, Anahita M; Lapsley, Karen; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2005-09-01

    Three marketing varieties of almonds; Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil; were analyzed for proximate composition and protein nutritive quality. Moisture, lipids, protein, ash, sugars, and tannins ranges were 3.05-4.33%, 43.37-47.50%, 20.68-23.30%, 3.74-4.56%, 5.35-7.45%, and 0.12-0.18%, respectively. No detectable hemagglutinating and trypsin inhibitory activities were present in Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil almonds. Amino acid analyses indicated the sulfur amino acids (methionine + cysteine), lysine, and threonine to be the first, second, and third limiting amino acids in almonds when compared to the recommended amino acid pattern for children 2-5-year old. However, compared to the recommended amino acid pattern for adults, sulfur amino acids were the only limiting amino acids in almonds tested. True Protein Digestibility (% TPD) values for Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil were 88.55 +/- 1.26, 92.25 +/- 1.05, and 82.62 +/- 1.47, respectively. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Scoring (PDCAAS) values suggested almond proteins to be of poor nutritional quality.

  20. Progress on the application of aquaporins in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xing; Mao, Wei; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    Aquaporins are a group of membrane proteins, which are known as the passages of water molecules transforming through the biological membrane lipid bilayer and distributing in almost all of the organs and tissues of living creatures. Aquaporins play important roles in maintaining water balance and internal environment stability. As a new entry point, aquaporins are involved in the researches on water metabolism, physiological regulation and pathological essence in viscera-state more and more widely in recent years. The literature on traditional Chinese medical studies, which related to aquaporins and were published in the last decade, was reviewed and the progress on application of aquaporin in Chinese medicine was summarized in this paper.

  1. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been blamed for ... possible that some people are particularly sensitive to food additives. MSG is chemically similar to one of the ...

  2. Chinese Musical Prodigies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Carolyn; Harris, R. Carl

    1989-01-01

    The article describes several young Chinese musical prodigies as well as principles of the Shanghai Music Conservatory's middle and primary schools which provide intensive musical training to musically gifted students. (DB)

  3. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  4. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  5. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  6. Do Chinese have similar health-state preferences? A comparison of mainland Chinese and Singaporean Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Li, M H; Liu, G G; Thumboo, J; Luo, N

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about whether health-state preferences differ among Chinese populations. This study compared the preference values for EQ-5D-5L health states between mainland Chinese and Singaporean Chinese. The preference values for ten EQ-5D-5L health states were elicited from general population samples of mainland Chinese and Singaporeans. In computer-assisted self-interviews, each participant completed five time trade-off (TTO) tasks to value five different EQ-5D-5L health states. The difference in TTO values between mainland Chinese and Singaporean Chinese was examined using random-effects linear regression and logistic regression models. A total of 194 eligible mainland Chinese and 145 eligible Singaporean Chinese provided data for this study. All ten health states considered, the mean TTO value was 0.18 for Singaporean Chinese and 0.35 for mainland Chinese, with the unadjusted and adjusted difference [95% confidence interval (CI)] being -0.17 (-0.28, -0.07) and -0.16 (-0.27, -0.05). Singaporean Chinese had substantially lower TTO values than mainland Chinese for states with severe or extreme problems, with the adjusted difference being -0.30 (95% CI -0.42, -0.17). On the other hand, Singaporean Chinese and mainland Chinese had similar TTO values for states with mild or moderate problems, with the adjusted (95% CI) difference being 0.04 (-0.07, 0.15). Logistic regression analysis showed that Singaporean Chinese were more likely to rate health states with severe or extreme problems as worse than death compared to mainland Chinese. Mainland Chinese and Singaporean Chinese have different preferences for EQ-5D-5L health states, supporting the development of local value sets for the EQ-5D-5L instrument for the two populations.

  7. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  8. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  9. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  10. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  11. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  12. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  13. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  14. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  15. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  16. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicola

    2006-05-01

    To experience the integration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China was 'the chance of a lifetime; thanks to the support of the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust. The scale and range of TCM available in terms of health care provision, education and research is unique in the world. This holistic integrative medicine is part of Chinese culture. Regulation and training of practitioners has similarities with current structures emerging in the UK in preparation for the statutory regulation for acupuncture and herbal medicine. China's research activity is a critical component of informing the debate on evidence-based practice and now real opportunities for collaboration and dissemination are beginning to emerge.

  17. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  18. Chinese Counterspace Intentions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    humiliation of a thing is sufficient to stimulate it; the humiliation of a country is sufficient to rejuvenate it.”163 The Chinese let their notion...cannot be avoided.”233 Schmunk and Sheets focus on four different types of potential attacks. First, acupuncture attacks are specialized attacks such

  19. The Imperative in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  20. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to…

  1. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to…

  2. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  3. The Chinese Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rongshu, Chen

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the active network of workers' education in China. Topics discussed include the broad range of disciplines available; school calendars; the use of guest teachers, televised programs, and self-study; and the new Chinese workers' audiovisual center. (CH)

  4. The Chinese House Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

  5. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  6. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  7. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  8. Chinese charms in the light of cosmogony.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1990-01-01

    The two greatest powers are Heaven/Earth. As opposites, on union they generate Creative Energy. Such power is transferred to their symbols as Yang/Yin. Conceived as concrete entities, Heaven/Earth appear as Air/Earth. These possess specific qualities. Air is Moist and Hot, Earth, Cold and Dry. Thus arose four cosmic qualities. Moreover, the union between Heaven and Earth resulted in creation, first being Water. Thus arose San-Pao, the three Primordial powers, Heaven, Earth and Water. Water produced its opposite, Fire, so that there resulted four cosmic elements. Air, Earth, Water and Fire. With Yin-Yang, Heaven/Earth, in the center surrounded by eight creations as cosmic elements and cosmic qualities, there arose the symbol of cosmogony. Since water was the first creation, its symbol is best placed between Heaven and Earth. Then the symbol of cosmogony with its units representing power becomes a charm. The best charm shows water next to Heaven and then items representing qualities of Air, Earth and Water. Those that usually form a continuous series would be Earth, Water, Air, Moisture, a quality of both, Water and Air. These items are an essential feature in the makeup of a Chinese charm.

  9. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  10. ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

  11. ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

  12. Facts and Figures about Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Chinese Teachers, San Francisco, CA.

    In this brief collection of facts and figures about Chinese Americans, information and data are presented on the geographic location of Chinese in America, the pattern of Chinese immigration to the United States, and income and occupations of Chinese Americans. In addition, a brief chronology of Chinese American history is presented. (Author/AM)

  13. Interacting effects of pollination, water and nutrients on fruit tree performance.

    PubMed

    Klein, A-M; Hendrix, S D; Clough, Y; Scofield, A; Kremen, C

    2015-01-01

    Pollination is critical to fruit production, but the interactions of pollination with plant resources on a plant's reproductive and vegetative features are largely overlooked. We examined the influences of pollination, irrigation and fertilisation on the performance of almond, Prunus dulcis, in northern California. We used a full-factorial design to test for the effects of pollination limitation on fruit production and foliage variables of whole trees experiencing four resource treatments: (i) normal water and nutrients, (ii) reduced water, (iii) no nutrients, and (iv) reduced water and no nutrients. In each of these combinations, we applied three pollination treatments: hand-cross pollination, open-pollination and pollinator exclusion. Pollination strongly affected yield even under reduced water and no nutrient applications. Hand-cross pollination resulted in over 50% fruit set with small kernels, while open-pollinated flowers showed over 30% fruit set with moderate-sized kernels. Pollinator-excluded flowers had a maximum fruit set of 5%, with big and heavy kernels. Reduced water interacted with the open- and hand-cross pollination treatments, reducing yield more than in the pollinator exclusion treatment. The number of kernels negatively influenced the number of leaves, and reduced water and no nutrient applications interacted with the pollination treatments. Overall, our results indicate that the influences of pollination on fruit tree yield interact with the plant availability of nutrients and water and that excess pollination can reduce fruit quality and the production of leaves for photosynthesis. Such information is critical to understand how pollination influences fruit tree performance.

  14. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-02

    photographs is a result of difterent enlargement factors. 3. Isolation 4nd Clonlng of Enzyme Sections. ’he 5-endctox, a of 3.t nr: nsie ls ’s generally...from Chinese original] Plasmids of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. keanyae 404 and Bacillus thuriagiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-i were isolated . Through in...sucrose concentration gradient centrifugal method, we isolated DNA fragments larger than 4 kb from Sau3Ai partially digested plasmid DNA of the two B.t

  15. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  16. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  17. Chinese herb nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, a 44-year-old woman progressed from normal renal function to advanced renal failure and end-stage renal disease within 8 months. Biopsy revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis with focal lymphocytic infiltration. She received a cadaveric renal transplant in January 1996 and had an uneventful posttransplant course. As a result of a minor motor vehicle accident, the patient had received acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine for pain relief approximately 5 months before the onset of renal symptoms. After the transplant, analysis of the herbal remedies clearly indicated the presence of aristolochic acid in 2 of the 6 Chinese herbs ingested. Ingestion of aristolochic acid has been linked to a newly defined entity, Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN). This article discusses the history of CHN and its implication in the current case and in other recent similar cases and makes recommendations to avoid future problems caused by unregulated use of herbal medicines. This is the first reported case of CHN in the USA. PMID:16389336

  18. Chinese medicine and martial arts.

    PubMed

    Koh, T C

    1981-01-01

    Wushu (Martial Arts), mistakenly known in the West as Kung-Fu, is a system of Chinese boxing which is closely linked with the traditional practice of Chinese medicine. Many of the masters (Sifu) are Chinese physicians who often recommend health exercises and the soft form of martial arts to their patients, while the hard form is suitable for sport and self-defense. Martial arts is a great discipline for body and mind, suitable for all who treasure physical and mental health.

  19. "Dry lithotripsy" by a simple modification of the Chinese lithotripter KDE-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Wu, H; Zhou, X M

    1990-01-01

    We report on the improved technique upon a water bath lithotripter. With a simple water balloon device added to the Chinese KDE-1 Type water bath lithotripter, an extracorporeal shock wave dry lithotripter has been developed. From June to December 1988, there were 300 cases of upper urinary tract calculi and gallbladder stone treated with this machine with excellent results and no severe complications. The improved technique would be made reference to change old water bath machines into dry (water balloon) machines.

  20. The Adolescent Chinese Immigrant Student in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lilian Y. O.

    1977-01-01

    The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)

  1. Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

    This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

  2. Chinese Library Services to a Predominantly Chinese-Speaking Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Stella W.

    The San Francisco Public Library has developed some special services for Chinese-speaking patrons. A collection of Chinese materials at the Chinatown branch now contains 9,000 fiction and non-fiction books, 9 newspapers, 19 periodicals, and over 300 phonograph records. Bilingual citizenship books are provided, as are reference books on China and…

  3. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-07

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000.

  4. Communication in the Chinese Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwainmbi, Emmanuel K.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates cultural (idiosyncratic, linguistic) aspects of interpersonal & cross-cultural interactions in a Chinese learning environment. It explains the relationship between the Chinese academic community (CAL) in a university in Beijing, China and American professors (AAS) and how the CAL negotiates meaning through verbal…

  5. A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

  6. An Introduction to Chinese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit will introduce secondary level students to Chinese literature. The first part of the unit discusses poetry which has always been the most highly prized form of Chinese literature. The discussion examines the "Complete Tang Poems," the "Book of Songs" compiled by Confucius, the "Songs of Chu," and the "Li Sao." Students learn about the…

  7. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  8. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  9. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  10. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Chinese American Manpower and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Betty Lee

    A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…

  12. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  13. Mechanical removal of Chinese privet

    Treesearch

    John Klepac; Robert B. Rummer; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2007-01-01

    Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.), a highly invasive nonnative plant, is prevalent in the Southern United States. Chinese privet infestations can hinder regeneration of desirable species, reduce stand productivity, and have other undesirable consequences. A combined mechanical (mulching) and chemical (triclopyr) treatment was applied to...

  14. Chinese-Cantonese Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This refresher course, comprising 140 instructional units, follows the general format of the Defense Language Institute's "Chinese-Cantonese Basic Course" (AL 001 479). Each unit contains four sections. (1) Oral Material, which introduces new elements for review and study. This material, in conversational Cantonese Chinese style, is transcribed in…

  15. A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

  16. Teaching Chinese as Tomorrow's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Relatively few public school students are currently learning the Chinese language, but experts predict the number of K-12 schools offering such instruction will soon soar. With China poised to become the next global economic superpower, policymakers say it is essential that American schools expand their Chinese studies. Here, the author discusses…

  17. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  18. Chinese American Experience: San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit encourages students to explore the history and current situation of Chinese Americans. Organized around five lesson plans, the unit's first lesson begins with the students' own perceptions of Chinese Americans, followed by a quiz that provides relevant background information. The second lesson examines the general history of Chinese…

  19. Oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Huang, James; Huang, Chris; Liebman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To assess the total and soluble oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Twenty-two Chinese medicinal herbs were extracted in both acid and water prior to determination of total and soluble oxalate, respectively. Oxalate was assayed in herbal extracts using a well-established enzymatic procedure. Among the 22 medicinal herbs, there was significant variation in oxalate content; Houttuynia cordata contained the highest amount of soluble oxalate (2146 mg/100 g) and Selaginella doederleinii contained the lowest amount (71 mg/ 100 g). The results indicated that different Chinese medicinal herbs, even from the same family, contain significantly different amounts of oxalate. In susceptible individuals, the use of medicinal herbs with the highest oxalate contents could increase risk of kidney stone formation.

  20. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste*

    PubMed Central

    Selic, E.; Wang, Chi; Boes, N.; Herbell, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600 000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water. PMID:17173357

  1. Perinatal outcomes in native Chinese and Chinese-American women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhu

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to compare perinatal outcomes in native Chinese, foreign-born and US-born Chinese-American women by analysing a cohort of 950,624 singleton pregnancies in south-east China and 293,849 singleton births from the US live and stillbirth certificates from 1995 to 2004. Only births at 28 weeks or later were included. Compared with US-born Chinese-American women, native Chinese and foreign-born Chinese-American women had substantially lower risks of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant (adjusted relative risk [aRR] ranging from 0.46 to 0.66) or preterm birth (aRR ranging from 0.53 to 0.82). While having a White or Black father had a reduced risk of SGA (aRR=0.45 and 0.62, respectively), it has an increased risk for preterm birth (aRR=1.13 and 1.57, respectively). Infants with Chinese father and foreign-born mother were heavier than those with Chinese father and US-born mothers. All findings were statistically significant. Our findings demonstrated the protective role of foreign-born status on low birthweight and preterm delivery. The paternal contribution to fetal size is substantial.

  2. Chinese Armillary Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

  3. Reading Reform in Chinese Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao-yun, Dai; Ji-ping, Lu

    1985-01-01

    To make it easier for Chinese children to learn how to read, the Chinese writing system is being changed. The experimental approach of combining Chinese characters and pinyin is currently being carried out in Chinese primary schools. How this approach works in teaching children to read is described. (RM)

  4. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  5. A First Course in Literary Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadick, Harold; Chien, Ch'iao

    This three-volume course is intended to provide a foundation in the grammar of classical Chinese on which the student who plans to specialize in classical studies can build, and to give the student of modern Chinese sufficient knowledge of literary Chinese for his purposes. It is assumed that the student can already pronounce Chinese words, use a…

  6. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  7. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  8. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  9. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  10. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  11. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  12. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  13. Chinese-English bilinguals reading English hear Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan Jing; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-06-02

    Bilingual individuals have been shown to access their native language while reading in or listening to their other language. However, it is unknown what type of mental representation (e.g., sound or spelling) they retrieve. Here, using event-related brain potentials, we demonstrate unconscious access to the sound form of Chinese words when advanced Chinese-English bilinguals read or listen to English words. Participants were asked to decide whether or not English words presented in pairs were related in meaning; they were unaware of the fact that some of the unrelated word pairs concealed either a sound or a spelling repetition in their Chinese translations. Whereas spelling repetition in Chinese translations had no effect, concealed sound repetition significantly modulated event-related brain potentials. These results suggest that processing second language activates the sound, but not the spelling, of native language translations.

  14. Establishment of orchards with black polyethylene film mulching: effect on nematode and fungal pathogens, water conservation, and tree growth.

    PubMed

    Duncan, R A; Stapleton, J J; McKenry, M V

    1992-12-01

    Placement of a 3-m-wide, black, polyethylene film mulch down rows of peach (Prunus persica 'Red Haven' on 'Lovell' rootstock) and almond (Prunus dulcis 'Nonpareil' on 'Lovell') trees in the San Joaquin Valley of California resulted in irrigation water conservation of 75%, higher soil temperature in the surface 30 cm, a tendency toward greater root mass, elimination of weeds, and a greater abundance of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles in soil but reduced root galling when compared to the nonmulched control. Population levels of Pratylenchus hexincisus, a nematode found within tree roots, were reduced by mulching, as were those of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, which survived on old grape roots remaining from a previously planted vineyard, and Paratrichodorus minor, which probably fed on roots of various weed species growing in the nonmulched soil. Populations of Pythium ultimum were not significantly changed, probably also due to the biological refuge of the old grape roots and moderate soil heating level. Trunk diameters of peach trees were increased by mulching, but those of almond trees were reduced by the treatment. Leaf petiole analysis indicated that concentrations of mineral nutrients were inconsistent, except for a significant increase in Ca in both tree species.

  15. Establishment of Orchards with Black Polyethylene Film Mulching: Effect on Nematode and Fungal Pathogens, Water Conservation, and Tree Growth

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, R. A.; Stapleton, J. J.; McKenry, M. V.

    1992-01-01

    Placement of a 3-m-wide, black, polyethylene film mulch down rows of peach (Prunus persica 'Red Haven' on 'Lovell' rootstock) and almond (Prunus dulcis 'Nonpareil' on 'Lovell') trees in the San Joaquin Valley of California resulted in irrigation water conservation of 75%, higher soil temperature in the surface 30 cm, a tendency toward greater root mass, elimination of weeds, and a greater abundance of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles in soil but reduced root galling when compared to the nonmulched control. Population levels of Pratylenchus hexincisus, a nematode found within tree roots, were reduced by mulching, as were those of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, which survived on old grape roots remaining from a previously planted vineyard, and Paratrichodorus minor, which probably fed on roots of various weed species growing in the nonmulched soil. Populations of Pythium ultimum were not significantly changed, probably also due to the biological refuge of the old grape roots and moderate soil heating level. Trunk diameters of peach trees were increased by mulching, but those of almond trees were reduced by the treatment. Leaf petiole analysis indicated that concentrations of mineral nutrients were inconsistent, except for a significant increase in Ca in both tree species. PMID:19283045

  16. Rapid residue analysis of oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites in typical Chinese soil, water, and sediments by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ju, Chao; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Zhao, Huanhuan; Zheng, Yongquan; Xu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive and effective method for the simultaneous determination of residues from a new fungicide, oxathiapiprolin, and its metabolites (IN-E8S72 and IN-WR791) in soil, water, and sediment, was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Three compounds were extracted from water, soil, and sediment by using acetonitrile and different proportions of formic acid aqueous solution (1% v/v for water; 2% v/v for soil; and sediment), and were cleaned with octadecylsilane. The target compounds were determined within 5 min using an electrospray ionization source in the positive mode for oxathiapiprolin and in the negative mode for the two metabolites. The limits of quantification for all the three compounds were 0.1 μg/kg in water and 1 μg/kg in soil and sediment. Recovery studies were performed using three spiked levels (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/kg for water; 1, 10, and 50 μg/kg for soil and sediment). The overall average recoveries ranged from 64.8 to 112.7% with all intra- and interday relative standard deviation values below 19.4 and 19.1%, respectively. The method validation confirmed that the proposed method was convenient and reliable for determining residual oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites in soil, water, and sediments.

  17. The Chinese healthcare challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Guilhem

    2015-01-01

    Investments in the extension of health insurance coverage, the strengthening of public health services, as well as primary care and better hospitals, highlights the emerging role of healthcare as part of China’s new growth regime, based on an expansion of services, and redistributive policies. Such investments, apart from their central role in terms of relief for low-income people, serve to rebalance the Chinese economy away from export-led growth toward the domestic market, particularly in megacity-regions as Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, which confront the challenge of integrating migrant workers. Based on the paper by Gusmano and colleagues, one would expect improvements in population health for permanent residents of China’s cities. The challenge ahead, however, is how to address the growth of inequalities in income, wealth and the social wage. PMID:25774379

  18. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    PubMed

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  20. Assessing dietary quality of older Chinese people using the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) in evaluating dietary quality for Chinese people. The present cross-sectional study assessed dietary quality based on DBI for older people, and the associated factors, in four socioeconomically distinct regions in China. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) involves 2745 older Chinese people, aged 60 or over, from four regions (Northeast, East Coast, Central and West) in 2009. Dietary data were obtained by interviews using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Four indicators: Total Score (TS), Lower Bound Score (LBS), Higher Bound Score (HBS) and Diet Quality Distance (DQD) from DBI were calculated for assessing dietary quality in different aspects. 68.9% of older people had different levels of excessive cereals intake. More than 50% of older people had moderate or severe surplus of oil (64.9%) and salt (58.6%). Intake of vegetables and fruit, milk and soybeans, water, and dietary variety were insufficient, especially for milk and soybeans. 80.8% of people had moderate or severe unbalanced diet consumption. The largest differences of DQD scores have been found for people with different education levels and urbanicity levels. People with higher education levels have lower DQD scores (p<0.001), and people living in medium and low urbanicity areas had 2.8 and 8.9 higher DQD scores than their high urbanicity counterparts (p<0.001). Also, significant differences of DQD scores have been found according to gender, marital status, work status and regions (p<0.001). DBI can reveal problems of dietary quality for older Chinese people. Rectifying unbalanced diet intake may lead to prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Dieticians and health care professionals need to increase dissemination and uptake of nutrition education, with interventions targeted at regions of lower socioeconomic status.

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acknowledgments Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China and has evolved over thousands of years. ... and mental focus). TCM is rooted in the ancient philosophy of Taoism and dates back more than ...

  2. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  3. [Multivariate analysis of relationships between material properties and hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Jie; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Hong, Yan-Long; Fu, Xiao-Ju

    2012-04-01

    Material properties and hygroscopicity were determined. Principal component analysis and partial least squares regression were applied to evaluate relationships between material properties and hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials. The results showed that hygroscopicity was correlated with water content, particle size distribution, water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Balanced moisture content was positively correlated with water content, particle size distribution, water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Moisture absorption velocity was negatively correlated with particle size distribution, protruding degree and positively correlated with water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Moisture absorption acceleration was positively correlated with water content, particle size distribution and negatively correlated with water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials is interpreted in terms of physics.

  4. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print.

  5. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604

  6. Chinese large solar telescopes site survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    In order to observe the solar surface with unprecedentedly higher resolution, Chinse solar physics society decided to launch their solar site survey project in 2010 as the first step to look for the best candidate sites for the Chinese next-generation large-aperture solar telescopes, i.e., the 5-8 meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, and the 1 meter level coronagraph. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Daocheng, with altitudes of around 4800 meters above the sea level located in the large Shangri-La mountain area, and we have collected systematic site data since 2014. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that the large Shangri-La area owns the potential conditions of excellent seeing level and sufficient amount of clear-sky hours suitable for developing large solar telescopes. We will review the site survey progress and present the preliminary statistical results in this talk.

  7. Metabolism of cyanide by Chinese vegetation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Puhua; Wang, Chang; Zhou, Xishi

    2004-07-01

    Cyanide is a high-volume production chemical and the most commonly used leaching reagent for gold and silver extraction. Its environmental behavior and fate is of significant concern because it is a highly toxic compound. Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. This paper presents an investigation of the potential of Chinese vegetation to degrade cyanide. Detached leaves (1.5 g fresh weight) from 28 species of 23 families were kept in glass vessel with 100 ml of aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide at 23.5 degrees C for 28 h. Cyanide concentrations ranged from 0.83 to 1.0 CN mg l(-1). The disappearance of cyanide from the aqueous solution was analyzed spectrophotometrically. The fastest cyanide removal was by Chinese elder, Sambucus chinensis, with a removal capacity of 8.8 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1), followed by upright hedge-parsley (Torilis japonica) with a value of 7.5 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1). The lowest removal capacity had the snow-pine tree (Credrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud). Results from this investigation indicated that a wide range of plant species is able to efficiently metabolize cyanide. Therefore, cyanide elimination with plants seems to be a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated by cyanide from gold and silver mines or from other sources.

  8. Chinese medicinal herbs for cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tao; Chen, Jun; Jin, Shuli J; Wang, Yiping

    2013-06-29

    Cholelithiasis is a common disease of the biliary tract. Chinese medicinal herbs are being used widely as an alternative treatment in people with cholelithiasis, but their beneficial or harmful effects have not been assessed systematically. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of Chinese medicinal herbs in people with cholelithiasis. We conducted searches in the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Chinese Medicine Conference Disc, and Chinese Bio-Medicine Disc to January 2013. We handsearched four Chinese journals. No language or year of publication restrictions were applied. Randomised clinical trials studying Chinese medicinal herbs for treatment of cholelithiasis. Two review authors (SJ, TG) independently extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated the risk ratio (RR), and for continuous data, we calculated the mean difference. We also calculated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Eleven randomised trials with 1205 participants with asymptomatic or mild-to-moderate cholelithiasis were included. None of the randomised clinical trials compared a single Chinese medicinal herb with a Western medicine or with surgery. No placebo-controlled trials were identified. In the trials comparing one Chinese herbal medicine (Gandanxiaoshi tablet) versus another (Aihuodantong tablet), there was no significant difference in the improvement of upper abdominal pain after the end of treatment (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.71 to 2.05), and the heterogeneity among trials was not substantial. No other outcomes could be assessed. The remaining trials of Chinese medicinal herbs (Qingdan capsule, Danshu capsule, Paishi capsule, Rongdanpaishi capsule), did not offer specific data on symptoms, signs, or change in gallstones that would permit assessment of significant differences in curative effects between the treatment and control

  9. Chinese herbal medicines for hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Li, George Q; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen; Chan, Kelvin; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-06-06

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is associated with many diseases including atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and chylomicronaemia. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. To assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for hypertriglyceridaemia. We searched a number of databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and several Chinese databases (all until May 2012). Randomised controlled trials in participants with hypertriglyceridaemia comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion and a decision was achieved based on consensus. We assessed trials for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. We included three randomised trials with 170 participants. Ninety participants were randomised to the Chinese herbal medicines groups and 80 to the comparator groups with numbers ranging from 50 to 60 participants per trial. The duration of treatment varied from four to six weeks. All the included trials were conducted in China and published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was unclear. There were no outcome data in any of the trials on death from any cause, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, health-related quality of life, or costs.Three different herbal medicines, including Zhusuan Huoxue decoction, Huoxue Huayu Tongluo decoction, and Chushi Huayu decoction were evaluated. All three trials investigating Chinese herbal medicines treatment alone (two studies) or in combination with gemfibrozil (one study) reported results on serum triglyceride (TG) in favour of the herbal treatment. We did not perform a meta-analysis due to significant

  10. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional

  11. [Linguistic-cultural differences between Chinese and Western medicine and English translation of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Lan, Feng-li

    2007-04-01

    This paper explores the influences of linguistic-cultural differences between Chinese and Western medicine on the English translation of Chinese medicinal terms/literature from such aspects as ideographic, phonetic writings and thinking modes, Chinese and Western medical terms, as well as Classic literature of Chinese medicine and medical English.

  12. Involvement in Preschools: Comparing Chinese Immigrant and Non-Chinese Parents in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qilong; Keown, Louise; Farruggia, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study compared 120 Chinese immigrant parents and 127 non-Chinese parents from New Zealand preschools on their level of involvement in preschool-based activities, as well as key predictors of parental involvement. Results showed that Chinese immigrant parents had a lower level of involvement than non-Chinese parents across three forms of…

  13. Writing Chinese and Mathematics Achievement: A Study with Chinese-American Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…

  14. Writing Chinese and Mathematics Achievement: A Study with Chinese-American Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…

  15. Assessment of Chinese Students' Experience with Foreign Faculty: A Case Study from a Chinese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…

  16. Assessment of Chinese Students' Experience with Foreign Faculty: A Case Study from a Chinese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…

  17. Predictors of Beginning Reading in Chinese and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Suk-Han Ho, Connie

    2005-01-01

    Ninety Chinese children were tested once at age 4 and again 22 months later on phonological-processing and other reading skills. Chinese phonological-processing skills alone modestly predicted Chinese character recognition, and English letter-name knowledge uniquely predicted reading of both Chinese and English 2 years later. Furthermore,…

  18. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  19. Is Chinese Special? Four Aspects of Chinese Literacy Acquisition That Might Distinguish Learning Chinese from Learning Alphabetic Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Catherine Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Some aspects of Chinese literacy development do not conform to patterns of literacy development in alphabetic orthographies. Four are highlighted here. First, semantic radicals are one aspect of Chinese characters that have no analogy to alphabetic orthographies. Second, the unreliability of phonological cues in Chinese along with the fact that…

  20. Is Chinese Special? Four Aspects of Chinese Literacy Acquisition That Might Distinguish Learning Chinese from Learning Alphabetic Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Catherine Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Some aspects of Chinese literacy development do not conform to patterns of literacy development in alphabetic orthographies. Four are highlighted here. First, semantic radicals are one aspect of Chinese characters that have no analogy to alphabetic orthographies. Second, the unreliability of phonological cues in Chinese along with the fact that…

  1. Acoustics of Chinese traditional theatres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Q.

    2002-11-01

    Chinese traditional theatre is unique in the world as an architectural form. The Chinese opera evolved into maturity as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 11th-14th centuries, and Chinese theatrical buildings developed accordingly. As the Chinese opera plays on the principle of imaginary actions, no realistic stage settings are required. But Chinese audiences have placed great demands on vocal performance since ancient times. Pavilion stages that are small in area, open on three sides, and thrusting into the audience area are commonly found in traditional theatres, both the courtyard type and auditorium type. The pavilion stage is backed with a wall and a low ceiling (flat or domed). The stage functions as a reflecting shell, which enhances the sound to the audience and provides self-support to the singer. Numerous theatres of this kind exist and function in good condition to the present time. Acoustical measurements show that the sound strength and clarity in audience areas is satisfactory in moderate size courtyard traditional theatres. [Work supported by NSF.

  2. Scent evolution in Chinese roses

    PubMed Central

    Scalliet, Gabriel; Piola, Florence; Douady, Christophe J.; Réty, Stéphane; Raymond, Olivier; Baudino, Sylvie; Bordji, Karim; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Dumas, Christian; Cock, J. Mark; Hugueney, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The phenolic methyl ether 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT) is a major scent compound of many modern rose varieties, and its fragrance participates in the characteristic “tea scent” that gave their name to Tea and Hybrid Tea roses. Among wild roses, phenolic methyl ether (PME) biosynthesis is restricted to Chinese rose species, but the progenitors of modern roses included both European and Chinese species (e.g., Rosa chinensis cv Old Blush), so this trait was transmitted to their hybrid progeny. The last steps of the biosynthetic pathways leading to DMT involve two methylation reactions catalyzed by the highly similar orcinol O-methyltransferases (OOMT) 1 and 2. OOMT1 and OOMT2 enzymes exhibit different substrate specificities that are consistent with their operating sequentially in DMT biosynthesis. Here, we show that these different substrate specificities are mostly due to a single amino acid polymorphism in the phenolic substrate binding site of OOMTs. An analysis of the OOMT gene family in 18 species representing the diversity of the genus Rosa indicated that only Chinese roses possess both the OOMT2 and the OOMT1 genes. In addition, we provide evidence that the Chinese-rose-specific OOMT1 genes most probably evolved from an OOMT2-like gene that has homologues in the genomes of all extant roses. We propose that the emergence of the OOMT1 gene may have been a critical step in the evolution of scent production in Chinese roses. PMID:18413608

  3. The Chinese-American Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Conformity and Anticonformity Among Americans and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Robert D.; Barnard, William A.

    1973-01-01

    Using a three-variable design, this study investigated conformity to male and female group pressures among Chinese and American male college students. Americans showed a greater tendency toward anticonformity than did Chinese. (JB)

  5. Teaching With Documents: Chinese Exclusion Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Linda, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the history of Chinese immigration to the United States and provides a facsimilie of a form used to document immigrants under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Teaching suggestions are included. (JDH)

  6. The Spirit of Chinese Shadow Puppet Theater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Kyle; Olivier-Hirasawa, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Presents a project where fourth- and fifth-grade students created Chinese shadow puppets, designed scenery for puppet theater, built the theater, wrote plays, and put on performances in a Chinese theater festival. Lists a collection of resources. (CMK)

  7. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  8. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  9. Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, N. E.

    2005-05-01

    As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

  10. Animals of the Chinese Zodiac. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Chinese lunar calendar dates back to the second millennium BC. Unlike the western calendar, which numbers the years progressively from the birth of Jesus Christ, the Chinese calendar is cyclical. Each cycle is made up of 12 years--after the 12th year, the cycle is repeated. The Chinese associate each year of a 12-year cycle with an animal, and…

  11. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  12. International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimgeour, Andrew; Wilson, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education (ICCLE) represents a significant initiative by the Office of Chinese Language Council International (Hanban) to organise and describe objectives and content for a standardised Chinese language curriculum around the world. It aims to provide a reference curriculum for planning, a framework…

  13. The Chinese Refugees in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milvaney, Susan E.

    This report discusses Chinese refugees in Hong Kong. The statistics, background readings, and case studies included in the report may provide useful information to educators and curriculum developers interested in Chinese and Asian studies. Contents include the following: (1) Hong Kong Demography; (2) History of Chinese Refugees; (3) Refugees:…

  14. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  15. Chinese Number Words, Culture, and Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    This review evaluates the role of language--specifically, the Chinese-based system of number words and the simplicity of Chinese mathematical terms--in explaining the relatively superior performance of Chinese and other East Asian students in cross-national studies of mathematics achievement. Relevant research is critically reviewed focusing on…

  16. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  17. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  18. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  19. Managerial Success Factors: A Chinese Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Adams, Janet S.; Liu, Bin

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China (PRC) to identify the managerial success factors perceived by Chinese managers to be important in their market economy. The study also looked at how these factors are exhibited by recent graduates of Chinese universities now working in Chinese firms.…

  20. Chinese Orthographic Decomposition and Logographic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    "Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…

  1. Chinese Orthographic Decomposition and Logographic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    "Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…

  2. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  3. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  4. Chinese American Students Fight for Their Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuxiang; Phillion, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Parental and community involvement play a key role in the Chinese American students' fight for their rights. In order to understand the reasons behind the parental and community support of Chinese students, a survey was conducted among Chinese parents to assess what they know about language loss, power, knowledge, and democracy. The results…

  5. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  6. Flash Cards: Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This set of flash cards is designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's instructional programs in Cantonese Chinese. Each card displays six Chinese characters, for a total of 1500 characters. Each character is printed two inches tall. Above each character are transcriptions of the Chinese words represented by the character (marked for…

  7. Managerial Success Factors: A Chinese Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Adams, Janet S.; Liu, Bin

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China (PRC) to identify the managerial success factors perceived by Chinese managers to be important in their market economy. The study also looked at how these factors are exhibited by recent graduates of Chinese universities now working in Chinese firms.…

  8. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  9. Subsyllabic Unit Preference in Young Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Cheng, Chenxi

    2008-01-01

    We reported three experiments investigating subsyllabic unit preference in young Chinese children. In Experiment 1, a Chinese sound similarity judgment task was designed in which 48 pair of stimuli varied in terms of shared subsyllabic units (i.e., vowel, body, rime, onset-coda). Grade 1 Chinese-speaking monolingual children judged pairs with…

  10. The Chinese American: Inscrutable to Some.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Carole

    Chinese Americans have been called inscrutable--not open to being understood. More casual, spontaneous, and expressive people find it hard to understand the strict discipline of feelings and highly selective and controlled expressions such as the Chinese American may practice. This paper serves as a social introduction to the Chinese American. For…

  11. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  12. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  13. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual…

  14. Chinese-Mandarin Table of Simplified Chinese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The table of 545 simplified Chinese characters indicates the proper forms for general use according to the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The simplified characters are arranged according to a system that combines stroke counting and stroke order. Alongside the simplified characters are their traditional and more complex forms,…

  15. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual…

  16. [Study on solubility of Chinese herbal compound by solubility parameter].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Chen, Lihua; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Weifeng; Guan, Yongmei

    2010-02-01

    To demonstrate the solubility of Chinese herbal compound with solubility parameters. The solubility parameters of Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound were determined by inverse gas chromatograph (IGC) and group contribution. Hansen ball was plotting by HSPiP, which could be used to investigate the solubility of Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound in different solvents. And the results were verified by approximate solubility. Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound could be dissolved in chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, octanol and ether, and were slightly soluble in glycerol, methanol, ethanol and propanediol, but could not be dissolved in water. They were all liposoluble, and the results were the same as the test results of the approximate solubility. The solubility of Chinese herbal compound can be expressed by solubility parameters, and it is accurate, convenient and visual.

  17. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Chinese tea.

    PubMed

    Yang, T T; Koo, M W

    1997-06-01

    Chinese teas with different degrees of fermentation were examined for their effect on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. The teas tested were Chinese Green tea, Jasmine, Iron Buddha, Oolong and Pu erh. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rats with a cholesterol-enriched diet for 1 week. They were then treated with different tea extracts together with a cholesterol-enriched diet for another 8 weeks. Chinese Green tea and Jasmine tea, both with a minimum degree of fermentation, were found to have significant serum and liver cholesterol lowering effects. They also reduced the increase in liver weight due to lipid deposition. All tea treatments lowered the atherogenic index and increased the HDL-total cholesterol ratio, while HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not significantly affected. Analysis of catechin levels in tea extracts showed that the individual catechin component in Chinese Green tea and Jasmine tea were significantly higher than the others. (-)-Epicatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in the tea extracts may account for their hypocholesterolemic effect.

  18. Play Chinese Games. 1987, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caryn

    This document, designed to introduce all ages to a selection of popular Chinese games, describes these games and provides instructions and materials for making the items needed to play most of them. Section 1 suggests class activities that can be related to some of the games. Section 2 presents instructions for the physical or outdoor games of:…

  19. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of…

  20. School Choice with Chinese Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these…

  1. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  2. Bertrand Russell on Chinese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Wei-ping

    2008-01-01

    The visit of Bertrand Russell to China during 1920 to 1921 was one of the most significant events in May Fourth Movement, and Russell pointed out that education was the most important thing for Chinese reconstruction. The author argues that we should interpret Russell's educational idea of China from a theoretic and practical point of view. The…

  3. School Choice with Chinese Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these…

  4. Confessional Peculiarity of Chinese Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…

  5. Chinese-Cantonese Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This nine-volume basic course in Cantonese Chinese is designed for 47 weeks of intense audiolingual instruction. The first book of the series introduces the pronunciation, with emphasis on the tone system, and the basic aspects of the grammar. Also introduced in this volume is the romanization system used in this series (the U.S. Army Language…

  6. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of…

  7. Modern Chinese Poetry: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Julia C.

    This study examines the rise and development of the new genre of Chinese poetry, from 1919 to the present, focusing on the period's major poets and several lesser poets. Style, themes, characteristic techniques, faults and virtues, major concerns, and important contributions of each poet are discussed. Part 1, which covers the period before 1917,…

  8. Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

  9. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  10. Chinese-Cantonese Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This nine-volume basic course in Cantonese Chinese is designed for 47 weeks of intense audiolingual instruction. The first book of the series introduces the pronunciation, with emphasis on the tone system, and the basic aspects of the grammar. Also introduced in this volume is the romanization system used in this series (the U.S. Army Language…

  11. Play Chinese Games. 1987, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caryn

    This document, designed to introduce all ages to a selection of popular Chinese games, describes these games and provides instructions and materials for making the items needed to play most of them. Section 1 suggests class activities that can be related to some of the games. Section 2 presents instructions for the physical or outdoor games of:…

  12. Quantifying Affinity among Chinese Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A study of the relationships between Chinese dialects based on a quantitative measure of dialect affinity is summarized. First, tone values in all the dialect localities available in the early 1970s were used to calculate the dialectal differences in terms of tone height with respect to the "yin and yang" split. In the late 1970s, calculations of…

  13. CHINESE-MANDARIN, LEVEL I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HSU, KAI-YU; AND OTHERS

    THIS TEXTBOOK, THE FIRST OF A FOUR-VOLUME SERIES, WAS WRITTEN FOR 9TH GRADE AMERICAN STUDENTS BEGINNING CHINESE LANGUAGE STUDY, BUT CAN ALSO BE MODIFIED FOR USE IN 7TH OR 8TH GRADE CLASSES. THE 15 UNITS BEGIN WITH A SHORT DIALOGUE WHICH INTRODUCES NEW VOCABULARY AND SENTENCE PATTERNS. THE DIALOGUES ARE EXPLAINED THROUGH PICTURES AS WELL AS A…

  14. Instructional Technology: The Chinese Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the current state of instructional technology in Chinese universities. Topics discussed include organizational patterns in audiovisual centers; the use of various media, including film, videotapes, overhead projectors, and television; the use of technology in language instruction; audiovisual equipment and appropriate technology; and…

  15. American Drama through Chinese Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joanne

    An American instructor taught a 5-week course on the family in American drama to a group of graduate English majors on the campus of Hebei Teachers' University in the People's Republic of China. The instructor learned as much about Chinese culture as the students learned about American culture. Lecture is the standard pedagogy even in graduate…

  16. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution…

  17. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng

    2007-12-01

    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  18. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency.

  19. Using Large-Scale Statistical Chinese Brain Template (Chinese2020) in Popular Neuroimage Analysis Toolkits.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Liang, Peipeng; Luo, Yishan; Liu, Kai; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng; Li, Kuncheng

    2017-01-01

    Given that the morphology of Chinese brains statistically differs from that of Caucasian, there is an urgent need to develop a Chinese brain template for neuroimaging studies in Chinese populations. Based on a multi-center dataset, we developed a statistical Chinese brain template, named as Chinese2020 (Liang et al., 2015). This new Chinese brain atlas has been validated in brain normalization and segmentation for anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies, and is publicly available at http://www.chinese-brain-atlases.org/. In our previous study, we have demonstrated this Chinese atlas showed higher accuracy in segmentation and relatively smaller shape deformations during registration. Because the spatial normalization of functional images is mainly based on the segmentation and normalization of anatomical image, the population-specific brain atlas should also be more appropriate for functional studies involving Chinese populations. The aim of this technology report is to validate the performance of Chinsese2020 template in functional neuroimaging studies, and demonstrated that for Chinese population studies, the use of the Chinese2010 template produces more valid results. The steps of how to use the Chinese2020 template in SPM software were given in details in this technology report, and based on an example of finger tapping fMRI study, this technology report demonstrated the Chinese2020 template could improve the performance of the neuroimaging analysis of Chinese populations.

  20. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. [Environmental safety assessment on the new super absorbent polymers applied into a soil-Chinese cabbage system].

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; He, Ji-Zheng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Ming-Lan

    2014-02-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), a new water retention material, have a potential for application in water-saving agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of SAPs, synthesized from natural plant extracts, on Chinese cabbage fresh weight, soil water content, soil water stable aggregates, soil microbial biomass (carbon) and soil microbial respiration under three water conditions (excessive, normal and deficient) and two SAPs application strategies (bulk treatment and spraying treatment). The results showed that the SAPs significantly promoted the soil water content, water-stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm) and the soil microbial activities, especially under the water deficient conditions. Meanwhile, SAP application strategy was of great significance to the effects on Chinese cabbage and soil properties. Compared with the control treatment under normal water condition, spraying treatment of Jaguar C (S-JC) could reduce irrigation water amount by about 25% without reducing the crop production. Furthermore, compared with the control treatment under the same water condition with S-JC (deficient), it could increase Chinese cabbage production by 287%. Thus, SAPs is an environmental friendly water-saving technique in agricultural production.

  2. Towards an Ancient Chinese-Inspired Theory of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, I propose a theory of music education inspired by ancient Chinese philosophy. In particular, I draw on five classical Chinese philosophical texts: the Analects (lunyu [Chinese characters omitted]), the Mencius (Mengzi [Chinese characters omitted]), the Zhuangzi ([Chinese characters omitted]), the Xunzi ([Chinese…

  3. Towards an Ancient Chinese-Inspired Theory of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, I propose a theory of music education inspired by ancient Chinese philosophy. In particular, I draw on five classical Chinese philosophical texts: the Analects (lunyu [Chinese characters omitted]), the Mencius (Mengzi [Chinese characters omitted]), the Zhuangzi ([Chinese characters omitted]), the Xunzi ([Chinese…

  4. BEGINNING CHINESE READER, PART I. YALE LINGUISTIC SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DE FRANCIS, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THIS READER, ALONG WITH "BEGINNING CHINESE READER, PART II," IS CLOSELY INTEGRATED WITH THE SETON HALL UNIVERSITY TEXTS FOR SPOKEN AND WRITTEN CHINESE, "BEGINNING CHINESE" AND "CHARACTER TEXT FOR BEGINNING CHINESE." OF THE 400 CHARACTERS IN THESE TWO READERS, ALL BUT 33 HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO THE STUDENT IN "BEGINNING CHINESE" AND "CHARACTER…

  5. BEGINNING CHINESE READER, PART I. YALE LINGUISTIC SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DE FRANCIS, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THIS READER, ALONG WITH "BEGINNING CHINESE READER, PART II," IS CLOSELY INTEGRATED WITH THE SETON HALL UNIVERSITY TEXTS FOR SPOKEN AND WRITTEN CHINESE, "BEGINNING CHINESE" AND "CHARACTER TEXT FOR BEGINNING CHINESE." OF THE 400 CHARACTERS IN THESE TWO READERS, ALL BUT 33 HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO THE STUDENT IN "BEGINNING CHINESE" AND "CHARACTER…

  6. Chinese research on shock physics. Studies in Chinese Science

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, N.H.

    1992-07-01

    Shock wave research encompasses many different disciplines. This monograph limits the scope to Chinese research on solids and is based on available open literature sources. For the purpose of this monograph, the papers are divided into seven groups, i.e. review and tutorial; equations of state; phase transitions; geological materials; modeling and simulations; experimental techniques; and mechanical properties. The largest group of papers is experimental techniques and numbers 22, or about 40% of the total sources.

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine use among Chinese immigrant cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Leng, Jennifer C F; Gany, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) includes both herbal remedies and non-herbal practices. Chinese cancer patients are particularly at high risk for herb-drug interactions. Providers, both primary care physicians and oncologists, frequently do not ask patients about TCM use, which has potentially dangerous consequences. This study describes an assessment of TCM use while undergoing conventional cancer treatment, among a cohort of Chinese immigrant cancer patients in New York City. The Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center assists underserved cancer patients through a patient navigation program, the Cancer Portal Project. Six questions related to TCM are included in the existing Portal Needs Assessment Intake. Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking Portal patients enrolled between January 2010 and May 2012 were surveyed. One hundred nine Chinese-speaking patients were enrolled in the Portal Project during the study period. Forty-six completed the TCM questions. Ninety-six percent preferred to speak Mandarin, Cantonese, or Fujianese in the healthcare setting. Thirty-nine percent (n = 18) of the 46 participants reported using TCM since being diagnosed with cancer. Nearly all (n = 16) who used TCM reported using herbal medicines. Ten TCM users did not describe sharing their use with Western doctors. Eight (44%) of TCM users reported concurrently using TCM and conventional cancer treatment. Larger scale studies should further explore the concurrent use of TCM and conventional cancer treatment in this unique population. Future research should also address patient-provider communication related to the concurrent use of TCM and cancer treatment. This is also an important area of education for both patients and providers.

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Chinese Immigrant Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Jennifer C.F.; Gany, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) includes both herbal remedies and non-herbal practices. Chinese cancer patients are at particularly high risk for herb-drug interactions. Providers, both primary care physicians (PCPs) and oncologists, frequently do not ask patients about TCM use, with potentially dangerous consequences. Objective This study describes an assessment of TCM use while undergoing conventional cancer treatment, among a cohort of Chinese immigrant cancer patients in New York City. Design and Participants The Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) assists underserved cancer patients through a patient navigation program, the Cancer Portal Project. Six questions related to TCM are included in the existing Portal Needs Assessment Intake. Mandarin or Cantonese speaking Portal patients enrolled between January 2010 and May 2012 were surveyed. Results 109 Chinese-speaking patients were enrolled in Portal during the study period. 46 completed the TCM questions. 96% preferred to speak Mandarin, Cantonese, or Fujianese in the healthcare setting. 39% (n=18) of the 46 participants reported using TCM since being diagnosed with cancer. Nearly all (n=16) who used TCM reported using herbal medicines. Ten TCM users did not describe sharing their use with Western doctors. Eight (44%) of TCM users reported concurrently using TCM and conventional cancer treatment. Conclusions Larger scale studies should further explore the concurrent use of TCM and conventional cancer treatment in this unique population. Future research should also address patient-provider communication related to concurrent use of TCM and cancer treatment. This is also an important area of education for both patients and providers. PMID:24072455

  9. An ink-diffusion-based rendering method for Chinese ink painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Miao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yanghua; Zhou, Wei

    2012-04-01

    In non-photorealistic rendering (NPR), the Chinese ink painting style rendering is a traditional NPR skill of China. In this paper, we propose a method for image-based and ink-diffusion-based Chinese ink painting NPR. Users without painting experience can also convert a normal image to a Chinese ink painting automatically. As we known, ink is an important pigment for Chinese ink painting and the various ink shade effects on the painting are produced by ink mixed with water. In addition, the ink diffusion along the boundaries is a very important aspect of Chinese ink painting. In order to realize the effects described above, we present a Chinese ink painting NPR method based on ink diffusion. We use Mean Shift based image segmentation algorithm to preprocess the input image to get regions with different tones. Then, we detect the segmentation regions' edges letting the edge points to be the start points for diffusion. We set each point an ink value which is corresponding to its gray value. At the same time, a new algorithm simulating ink diffusion is proposed to make the segmentation image look like a black-ink painting. Results in this paper demonstrate our method is promising.

  10. 124. Pre1911. View forward from mizzen shrouds, starboard side; Chinese ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Pre-1911. View forward from mizzen shrouds, starboard side; Chinese cannery workers boarding ship from barge, S/V BENJAMIN F. PACKARD in background. Note main fife rail with fresh water pump. Fred Heick Collection. (G12.799) - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  12. Euros vs. Yuan: Comparing European and Chinese Fishing Access in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Belhabib, Dyhia; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Zeller, Dirk; Le Billon, Philippe; Abou Kane, Elimane; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of European Union (EU) and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year-1) and China (2.3 million t•year-1) report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible) from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year-1 on average in the 1970s-1980s). The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime impossible to

  13. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Belhabib, Dyhia; Sumaila, U Rashid; Lam, Vicky W Y; Zeller, Dirk; Le Billon, Philippe; Abou Kane, Elimane; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of European Union (EU) and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1)) and China (2.3 million t•year(-1)) report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible) from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1) on average in the 1970s-1980s). The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime impossible to

  14. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record.

  15. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  16. [Functional targets of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun

    2010-12-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.

  17. [Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].

    PubMed

    Pan, Lian-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Lai

    2006-08-01

    For the first time, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology published an analysis report of Chinese papers indexed in MEDLINE, which indicates that the Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the role of MEDLINE in the evaluation of scientific research. A total of 4 959 journals are listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by National Library of Medicine, USA (NLM), of which 95 are published in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and 2 another Chinese periodicals are published abroad. To familiarize MEDLINE to more medical researchers and to help them contribute to the journals indexed in MEDLINE, this article lists the top 10 Chinese medical institution whose published papers were indexed in MEDLINE in 2004 along with the Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006. And the status of MEDLINE in China is briefly analyzed as well.

  18. [On Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao

    2015-09-01

    According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved.

  19. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

  20. Analysis of Chinese Communist Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    sum from penalties and 2 9Cheng, op. cit., p. 61. 3 0Cheng, op. cit., p. 62. 3 1Lin Ta-chung and Yeh Kung- chia , The Economy of the Chinese Mainland...improvement, better seed selection, the introduction of new types of farm tools, the raising of the multiple crop index, the improving of agricultural...they were, of course, further intensified during the consolidation period. The yield had decreased through the centuries because of unimproved seeds

  1. Stigma Development and Receptivity in Almond (Prunus dulcis)

    PubMed Central

    YI, WEIGUANG; LAW, S. EDWARD; MCCOY, DENNIS; WETZSTEIN, HAZEL Y.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Fertilization is essential in almond production, and pollination can be limiting in production areas. This study investigated stigma receptivity under defined developmental stages to clarify the relationship between stigma morphology, pollen germination, tube growth and fruit set. • Methods Light and scanning electron microscopy were employed to examine stigma development at seven stages of flower development ranging from buds that were swollen to flowers in which petals were abscising. Flowers at different stages were hand pollinated and pollen germination and tube growth assessed. Artificial pollinations in the field were conducted to determine the effect of flower age on fruit set. • Key Results Later stages of flower development exhibited greater stigma receptivity, i.e. higher percentages of pollen germination and more extensive tube growth occurred in older (those opened to the flat petal stage or exhibiting petal fall) than younger flowers. Enhanced stigma receptivity was associated with elongation of stigmatic papillae and increased amounts of stigmatic exudate that inundated papillae at later developmental stages. Field pollinations indicated that the stigma was still receptive and nut set was maintained in older flowers. • Conclusions Stigma receptivity in almond does not become optimal until flowers are past the fully open stage. The stigma is still receptive and fruit set is maintained in flowers even at the stage when petals are abscising. Strategies to enhance pollination and crop yield, including the timing and placement of honey bees, should consider the effectiveness of developmentally advanced flowers. PMID:16287904

  2. Stigma development and receptivity in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Yi, Weiguang; Law, S Edward; McCoy, Dennis; Wetzstein, Hazel Y

    2006-01-01

    Fertilization is essential in almond production, and pollination can be limiting in production areas. This study investigated stigma receptivity under defined developmental stages to clarify the relationship between stigma morphology, pollen germination, tube growth and fruit set. Light and scanning electron microscopy were employed to examine stigma development at seven stages of flower development ranging from buds that were swollen to flowers in which petals were abscising. Flowers at different stages were hand pollinated and pollen germination and tube growth assessed. Artificial pollinations in the field were conducted to determine the effect of flower age on fruit set. Later stages of flower development exhibited greater stigma receptivity, i.e. higher percentages of pollen germination and more extensive tube growth occurred in older (those opened to the flat petal stage or exhibiting petal fall) than younger flowers. Enhanced stigma receptivity was associated with elongation of stigmatic papillae and increased amounts of stigmatic exudate that inundated papillae at later developmental stages. Field pollinations indicated that the stigma was still receptive and nut set was maintained in older flowers. Stigma receptivity in almond does not become optimal until flowers are past the fully open stage. The stigma is still receptive and fruit set is maintained in flowers even at the stage when petals are abscising. Strategies to enhance pollination and crop yield, including the timing and placement of honey bees, should consider the effectiveness of developmentally advanced flowers.

  3. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  4. Phenol removal by peroxidases extracted from Chinese cabbage root

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, H.I.; Jeong, Y.H.

    1995-12-31

    More than four million tons of Chinese cabbages are produced in Korea. Most of them are used as raw materials for Kimchi, but root parts of them are discarded as agricultural wastes. A trial for the application of agricultural waste to industrial waste water treatment was made as an effort to the efficient use of natural resources and to reduce water pollution problem simultaneously. Peroxidases of both solid and liquid phases were obtained from Chinese cabbage roots by using commercial juicer. The differences in peroxidase activity among the various cultivars of Chinese cabbages in Korea were little and electrophoretic patterns of various peroxidases will be discussed. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity will be discussed also. Since peroxidases are distributed into 66% in liquid (juice) and 34% in solid phase (pulp), enzymes from both phases were applied to investigate the enzymatic removal of phenol from waste water. After phenol solution at 150 ppm being reacted with liquid phase enzyme (1,800 unit/1) for 3 hours in a batch stirred reactor, 96% of phenol could be removed through polymerization and precipitation. Also, phenol could be removed from initial 120 ppm to final 5 ppm by applying solid phase enzyme in an air lift reactor (600 unit/1). Almost equivalent efficiencies of phenol removal were observed between two systems, even though only one third of the enzymes in batch stirred reactor was applied in air lift reactor. The possible reason for this phenomenon is because peroxidases exist as immobilized forms in solid phase.

  5. [Proposed Chinese name of Pomacea canaliculata].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong; Zhang, Yi; Lv, Shan

    2009-02-28

    The way to translate species name of Pomacea canaliculata into Chinese has been of confusion for a long time. We collected the relevant references on investigations of snail, species similar to Pomacea canaliculata and made comparison on the characteristics of those species which serve as intermediate snail host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is proposed the genus name of Pomacea is translated as [Chinese characters: see text], and species name Pomacea canaliculata be [Chinese characters: see text].

  6. "Hsiao-Hsiao" and "Girl from Hunan": Teaching Chinese Narrative, Not Just Chinese Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, Stephanie

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that the study of Chinese films should be more than just merely an adjunct to Chinese literature studies but an analysis of Chinese literary adaptation in terms of the aesthetic, narrative, intellectual, and political concerns of the period in which the film adaptation was made. (six references) (CB)

  7. Comparison of Journal Self-Citation Rates between Some Chinese and Non-Chinese International Journals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Background The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI). Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as ‘world’) journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented. PMID:23173041

  8. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  9. The Roles of Pinyin Skill in English-Chinese Biliteracy Learning: Evidence from Chinese Immersion Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lü, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Pinyin is a sound-annotating system for Chinese characters using Roman letters. Teaching and learning Pinyin has been an important educational practice in Mainland China for native Chinese children, and it is also typically taught to beginning learners of Chinese as a foreign/second language in tertiary-level classrooms. However, whether it should…

  10. Interactive Patterns in Paired Discussions between Chinese Heritage and Chinese Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    Having acquired some degree of oral proficiency but low (or non-existent) literacy, the learning of Chinese heritage learners' (CHLs) learning needs are different from those of Chinese foreign language learners (CFLs), who have learned Chinese only in the classroom setting. Although researchers have advocated for a separate curriculum for…

  11. Corpora and Collocations in Chinese-English Dictionaries for Chinese Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies the major problems of the Chinese-English dictionary in representing collocational information after an extensive survey of nine dictionaries popular among Chinese users. It is found that the Chinese-English dictionary only provides the collocation types of "v+n" and "v+n," but completely ignores those of…

  12. Chinese Americans Past and Present; A Collection of Chinese American Readings and Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Don; Collier, Irene Dea

    This work consists of twenty reading selections, fiction and non-fiction. It is intended for use in grades 4 through 6 (9-12 year olds), and covers topics dealing with the history of the Chinese in America and contemporary Chinese American experience. These selections emphasize particularly the role the Chinese played in the development of the…

  13. Chinese Americans Past and Present; A Collection of Chinese American Readings and Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Don; Collier, Irene Dea

    This work consists of twenty reading selections, fiction and non-fiction. It is intended for use in grades 4 through 6 (9-12 year olds), and covers topics dealing with the history of the Chinese in America and contemporary Chinese American experience. These selections emphasize particularly the role the Chinese played in the development of the…

  14. A History Reclaimed. An Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Language Materials on the Chinese of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Him Mark

    Because past frames of reference and perspectives on Chinese Americans have relied mainly on English language sources, they seldom reflected the attitudes and experiences of the Chinese themselves. This bibliography attempts to remedy that situation by listing over 1,500 available works in the Chinese language which can be found in libraries and…

  15. A Comparison of English and Chinese Reading Proficiency of Primary School Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee Elizabeth; Lam, Yu Hong Raymond; Lam, Wai Ip Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong children's comprehension of Chinese and English text is of concern to parents and teachers since school leavers need to be proficient readers both of Chinese and English. Although Chinese has been officially designated the medium of instruction in most secondary schools, many parents want their children to be taught in English-medium…

  16. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  17. Chromobacteriosis in a Chinese red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani).

    PubMed

    Dyer, N W; Krogh, D F; DeVold, R; Wilson, S L; White, D G

    2000-03-01

    An adult Chinese red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) transported by airplane from Florida to a North Dakota zoo died 1 week after arrival. Grossly, an interscapular abscess, subcutaneous inflammation, lymphadenitis, and pulmonary abscesses were observed. Microscopic findings included necrotizing inflammation in liver, lung, lymph node, and spleen. Chromobacterium violaceum was cultured from the interscapular abscess, liver, lung, and spleen and was injected into Swiss Webster mice. These mice died 18 hours postinoculation, and C. violaceum was cultured from liver, lung, and spleen. Chromobacterium violaceum is a sporadically reported but highly virulent pathogenic bacterium of both animals and humans typically found as a soil and water inhabitant of tropical and subtropical regions.

  18. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-27

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management.

  19. Physical and virtual water transfers for regional water stress alleviation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Qingying; Tillotson, Martin R.; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030. Our results show that, at the national level, physical water flows because of the major water transfer projects amounted to 4.5% of national water supply, whereas virtual water flows accounted for 35% (varies between 11% and 65% at the provincial level) in 2007. Furthermore, our analysis shows that both physical and virtual water flows do not play a major role in mitigating water stress in the water-receiving regions but exacerbate water stress for the water-exporting regions of China. Future water stress in the main water-exporting provinces is likely to increase further based on our analysis of the historical trajectory of the major governing socioeconomic and technical factors and the full implementation of policy initiatives relating to water use and economic development. Improving water use efficiency is key to mitigating water stress, but the efficiency gains will be largely offset by the water demand increase caused by continued economic development. We conclude that much greater attention needs to be paid to water demand management rather than the current focus on supply-oriented management. PMID:25583516

  20. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  1. Delayed luminescence: an experimental protocol for Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Roeland; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In Chinese medicine, raw herbal materials are used in processed and unprocessed forms aiming to meet the different requirements of clinical practice. To assure the chemical quality and therapeutic properties of the herbs, fast and integrated systematic assays are required. So far, such assays have not been established. Delayed luminescence (DL) refers to a decaying long-term ultraweak photon emission after exposure to light. Its decay kinetics under certain conditions may be a sensitive indicator reflecting the internal structural and chemical/physiological state of a biological system. DL measurements have been used in many applications for quality control. However, relatively little research has been reported on dried plant material such as Chinese herbs. The objective of the present study is to establish a protocol for direct and rapid DL measurements of dried Chinese herbal materials, including the determination of the dependence on: (a) the optimal excitation time utilizing a white light source; (b) the optimal size of the grinded herbal particle; and (c) the humidity conditions before and during measurement. Results indicate that stable and reproducible curves of DL photon emission depend mainly on the water content of herbal materials. To investigate the application of the established DL measurement protocol, non-processed and processed Aconitum (Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.), wild and cultivated rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.) and ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Mey) of different ages were measured using DL. The results suggest that DL technology is a potential tool for assessment of dried Chinese herb qualities. The results warrant a further exploration of this technique in relation to therapeutic properties of the herbs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE…

  3. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE…

  4. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  5. Two Conferences on Chinese Linguistics. 1966: Computers and Chinese Linguistic Research; 1967: Problems of Content and Form in the Teaching of Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mote, F.W., Ed.

    The two Chinese Linguistics Conferences held at Princeton in October 1966 and 1967 treated respectively (1) the relevance and specific application of computer methods to the problems of Chinese Linguistics and (2) a series of interrelated problems in teaching Chinese--dictionaries, courses in classical Chinese, and methods of teaching and…

  6. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  7. Remote sensing survey of Chinese tallow tree in the Toledo Bend Reservoir area, Louisiana and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    -leaf Chinese tallow tree. Although no unique spectral identifier for red-leaf Chinese tallow tree was uncovered with these enhanced methods, in some cases predicted spatial patterns throughout the Hyperion images revealed alignment with vegetation associations within each land class that was often observed to contain Chinese tallow trees. These instances were associated particularly with the addition of helicopter-based spectra to the input databases. It was attempted to extend such predictions of likely occurrences of Chinese tallow tree by mapping six of the nine Hyperion swaths and four of the nine land classes, but this attempt produced uncertain results that could not be fully evaluated for accuracy. Even though the final mapping showed promise in identifying likely Chinese tallow tree occurrences, the low percentage of occurrences hindered mapping performance and validation. Results of the mapping suggested that successful detection of Chinese tallow tree in the study area would require a spectral sensor similar to the Hyperion but with a higher ground-level spatial resolution. Although the Hyperion-based spectral mapping did not provide the desired results, the associated field (ground and aerial) surveys did provide for a qualitative assessment of the overall Chinese tallow tree distribution within the study area. Ground and aerial surveys suggested that Chinese tallow tree occurrences were uncommon and were without an observed pattern in relation to proximity to the Toledo Bend Reservoir. Although uncommon and scattered, Chinese tallow trees and shrubs most commonly existed along forest edges, water edges, and fence lines, probably most in line with seed dispersal by birds. Chinese tallow trees were observed to be more densely dispersed within some scrublands and grasslands than were observed in pine, hardwood, and mixed forests.

  8. Understanding Distress: The Role of Face Concern among Chinese Americans, European Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Amy G.; Yiu, Venus F. L.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the cultural mechanisms underlying the distress experience among Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese, Chinese Americans, and European Americans, this investigation examined the role of face concern in psychological distress through a series of studies in both college students and community samples. Face concern refers to one's concern over…

  9. Three new records of deep-water goniasterids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea: Goniasteridae) from China seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ning; Liao, Yulin

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, three deep-water species of the family Goniasteridae, Ceramaster misakiensis (Goto, 1914), Nymphaster arthrocnemis Fisher, 1913 and Pontioceramus grandis Fisher, 1911, are recorded for the first time from Chinese waters based on collections deposited in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The specimens examined were collected during the period 1956 to 1978 from the East China and South China Seas at depths of 184 to 472 m. Diagnosis, detailed figures, and the geographic distributions are provided. A revised list of Goniasteridae recorded from Chinese waters is proposed.

  10. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China.

  11. Adult Chinese as a Second Language Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Chinese: Effects of Cultural, Affective, and Linguistic Variables.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meihua

    2017-06-01

    The present research explored the effects of cultural, affective, and linguistic variables on adult Chinese as a second language learners' willingness to communicate in Chinese. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese as a second language learners from a Chinese university answered the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scale, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, Use of Chinese Profile, as well as the Background Questionnaire. The major findings were as follows: (1) the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales were significantly negatively correlated with Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale but positively correlated with length of stay in China and (2) Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale was a powerful negative predictor for the overall willingness to communicate in Chinese and the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales, followed by length of stay in China, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, interaction attentiveness, and Chinese proficiency level. Apparently, students' willingness to communicate in Chinese is largely determined by their Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale level and length of stay in China, mediated by other variables such as Chinese proficiency level and intercultural communication sensitivity level.

  12. Writing Chinese and mathematics achievement: A study with Chinese-American undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-04-01

    Two recent studies indicated that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills. The current study investigated whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. The Scholastic Assessment Test—Mathematics (SAT-Math) scores were analysed for 150 CA undergraduates: 42 writers of Chinese and 108 non-writers of Chinese. The results suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. An underlying mechanism may be the common cognitive components that encompass writing Chinese, spatial tasks, and SAT-Math. Contrary to previous findings with other populations in the USA, CA females scored slightly higher on SAT-Math than males. The finding supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.

  13. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and youth…

  14. Learning Chinese Idioms through iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chunsheng; Xie, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research study using iPads during the teaching of Chinese idioms to heritage learners. A class of 12 second-year Chinese learners were engaged in a self-generated learning process focused on learning abstract and concrete idioms using iPads. Students' short-term and long-term learning was measured; feedback from a…

  15. Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

  16. Understanding Chinese TEFL Academics' Capacity for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to benchmark Chinese TEFL academics' research productivities to identify and address research productivity issues. Using a literature-based survey, this study examined 182 Chinese TEFL academics' research output, perceptions about research, personal dispositions for conducting research and workplace context for conducting research…

  17. Studying Overseas: Mainland Chinese Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Leong, Jason Ong Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at developing a substantive theory on the perspectives of Mainland Chinese studying in Singaporean universities. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) Why do university students from Mainland China choose to study in Singapore? and (2) How do Mainland Chinese university students manage the experience…

  18. Teaching Chinese Children. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuffield Foundation, London (England).

    A collection of works on problems of and techniques for teaching Asian immigrant children in Great Britain includes an introduction (R. P. Sloss); background information on the Chinese in Britain (H. D. R. Baker); background on the Vietnamese in Britain (P. J. Honey); "Teaching English as a Second Language with Suggestions for Chinese Children"…

  19. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  20. Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…

  1. Parenting the Chinese Way in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…

  2. Chinese Summer Schools Sell Quick Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth; Farrar, Lara

    2013-01-01

    American-style summer programs in China, catering to Chinese-born students, have taken American universities by surprise. They are yet one more player in the complex and often opaque Chinese education industry, an industry in which American colleges are finding themselves increasingly entwined. These programs have become a booming enterprise,…

  3. Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia and examined the cognitive profile of dyslexic adolescents in order to better understand this important problem. The performance of 27 Chinese adolescents with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia was compared with 27…

  4. Thesaurus Dataset of Educational Technology in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Linjing; Liu, Qingtang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Huan; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The thesaurus dataset of educational technology is a knowledge description of educational technology in Chinese. The aims of this thesaurus were to collect the subject terms in the domain of educational technology, facilitate the standardization of terminology and promote the communication between Chinese researchers and scholars from various…

  5. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and youth…

  6. Topic Prominence in Chinese EFL Learners' Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Lianrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topicprominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspective. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004). The…

  7. MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN CHINESE UTILITY COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...

  8. Communicative Language Teaching in the Chinese Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore effective ways to develop Chinese English learners' communicative competence, this study first briefly reviews the advantages of communicative language teaching (CLT) method which widely practiced in the Western countries and analyzes in details its obstacles in Chinese classroom context. Then it offers guidelines for…

  9. Factor Structure of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Yu, Bai; Tang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Tingting; Yuen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the factorial invariance and functional equivalence of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) among the Chinese. Methods: A total of 839 undergraduate students completed the 240-item Simplified Chinese version of the VIA-IS online. Another 40 students participated in qualitative interviews to…

  10. Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia and examined the cognitive profile of dyslexic adolescents in order to better understand this important problem. The performance of 27 Chinese adolescents with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia was compared with 27…

  11. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  12. Classroom Practice to Translate Classical Chinese Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Huifang

    2013-01-01

    English-Chinese (E-C) translation is part of tertiary curriculum and is generally text- or reading-based, and any course in relation to it is meant to develop the competence of reading, on a higher level, from a language comparative perspective. Chinese-English (C-E) translation is deemed by many as a productive skill, possible when the overall…

  13. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  14. Phonological Awareness in Multilingual Chinese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liow, Susan J. Rickard; Poon, Kenneth K. L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the impact of phonological awareness in English and Chinese of 57 multilingual pupils whose language backgrounds were English, Chinese (Mandarin/dialect), or Bahasa Indonesia, using a homophone decision task, an English lexicality spelling test, and a Hanyu Pinyin spelling test. (Author/JL)

  15. Parenting the Chinese Way in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…

  16. Morphological Structure in the Chinese Mental Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Marslen-Wilson, William

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the role of morphological structure in the representation and processing of Mandarin Chinese compounds. Results provide evidence against single-layer, morpheme-based models of the Chinese mental lexicon, pointing instead to a two-layer, whole-word and morphemic model (the Multi-Level Cluster Representation Model). (67 references)…

  17. Case Study of Chinese Exclusion Act Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Joanne, Comp.

    2012-01-01

    While nearly 85 percent of the U.S. population is currently made up of immigrants and their descendants, some groups were specifically targeted for exclusion and deliberately expelled. The Chinese were the first to experience this. In the 1850s, many Chinese who came to this land to search for gold or to help build the transcontinental railroad,…

  18. Chinese TV: Better Broadcasting for the Billion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    Chinese television started in 1958 but variety in programming and production of sets priced within reach of individuals were slowed by the Cultural Revolution. Since the economic and political reform movement began in 1979, Chinese television has been maturing as an important cultural and political force. The People's Republic of China is a Third…

  19. British Chinese Children: Agency and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Carmen Lau

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…

  20. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…