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Sample records for dunal sobre ninfas

  1. On the identity and typification of Solanum brasilianum Dunal (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Suelma; Knapp, Sandra; Proença, Carolyn E B

    2017-01-01

    Solanum brasilianum Dunal was described by Dunal in 1813 with reference only to an illustration in an 18(th) century work by Leonard Plukenet. The plate is difficult to interpret and no explicitly related specimens were available so the name Solanum brasilianum has long been regarded as "unresolved" and has never been used. Material matching the Plukenet plate was discovered in the herbarium of the University of Oxford (OXF) by Stephen Harris during his study of the English privateer William Dampier's Brazilian collection. The specimen is referable to a common Brazilian Solanum that is a member of the Torva clade, Solanum paniculatum L., making Solanum brasilianum Dunal a heterotypic synonym. We lectotypify Solanum brasilianum here, and designate an epitype using the Dampier material from OXF.

  2. On the identity and typification of Solanum brasilianum Dunal (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Silva, Suelma; Knapp, Sandra; Proença, Carolyn E.B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Solanum brasilianum Dunal was described by Dunal in 1813 with reference only to an illustration in an 18th century work by Leonard Plukenet. The plate is difficult to interpret and no explicitly related specimens were available so the name Solanum brasilianum has long been regarded as “unresolved” and has never been used. Material matching the Plukenet plate was discovered in the herbarium of the University of Oxford (OXF) by Stephen Harris during his study of the English privateer William Dampier’s Brazilian collection. The specimen is referable to a common Brazilian Solanum that is a member of the Torva clade, Solanum paniculatum L., making Solanum brasilianum Dunal a heterotypic synonym. We lectotypify Solanum brasilianum here, and designate an epitype using the Dampier material from OXF. PMID:28228684

  3. Phytochemical analysis of ten varieties of pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Robert G; Peters, Trisha; Talcott, Stephen T

    2015-02-01

    Pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) is a tree fruit with the potential to become a high-value fruit crop, however, its rapid perishability is a significant obstacle. The objective was to determine the phytochemical content and quality characteristics of pawpaw pulp from ten varieties. This study reports for the first time the mass spectral characterization of phenolic acids and flavonoids of pawpaw, which indicated that the predominant polyphenolic compounds were three phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid hexoside, p-coumaroyl hexoside, and 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and flavonols, particularly (-)-epicatechin, B-type procyanidin dimers and trimers. The relationship between the polyphenolics identified in the current study and future work on polyphenolic oxidase activity will help the process of assessing whether pawpaws should be selected based on potential health benefits, i.e. high polyphenolic content, or increased shelf life in the form of decreased browning that may be afforded pawpaws containing low polyphenolic levels via decreased action of polyphenol oxidase.

  4. Elicitation Approaches for Withanolide Production in Hairy Root Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a versatile medicinal plant extensively utilized for production of phytochemical drug preparations. The roots and whole plants are traditionally used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicines, as well as in homeopathy. Several studies provide evidence for an array of pharmaceutical properties due to the presence of steroidal lactones named "withanolides." A number of research groups have focused their attention on the effects of biotic and abiotic elicitors on withanolide production using cultures of adventitious roots, cell suspensions, shoot suspensions, and hairy roots in large-scale bioreactor for producing withanolides. This chapter explains the detailed procedures for induction and establishment of hairy roots from leaf explants of W. somnifera, proliferation and multiplication of hairy root cultures, estimation of withanolide productivity upon elicitation with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, and quantification of major withanolides by HPLC. The protocol herein described could be implemented for large-scale cultivation of hairy root biomass to improve withanolide production.

  5. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  6. Hypocholesteremic and antioxidant effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) in hypercholesteremic rats.

    PubMed

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2007-02-01

    Hypocholesteremic and antioxidant effects of Withania somnifera (WS) Dunal (Solanaceae) were investigated in hypercholesteremic male albino rats. When the root powder of WS was added to the diet at 0.75 and 1.5 gm/rat/day, hypercholesteremic animals registered significant decreases in total lipids (-40.54%; -50.69%), cholesterol (-41.58%; -53.01%) and triglycerides (-31.25%; - 44.85%) in plasma. On the other hand, significant increases in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (+15.10%; +17.71%), HMG-CoA reductase activity (+19.51%; +26.02%) and bile acid content (+24.64%; +30.52%) of liver were noted in these animals. A similar trend was also noted in bile acid (+22.43%;+28.52%), cholesterol (+14.21%; +17.68%) and neutral sterol (+12.40%; +18.85%) excretion in the hypercholesteremic animals with WS administration. Further, a significant decrease in lipid-peroxidation (-35.29%; -36.52%) occurred in WS administered hypercholesteremic animals when compared to their normal counterparts. However, it appeared that WS root powder is also effective in normal subjects for decreasing lipid profiles.

  7. Stability indicating studies on NMITLI 118RT+ (standardized extract of withania somnifera dunal)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Khandelwal, Kiran; Pachauri, Shakti Deep; Sanghwan, Rajender Singh; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha) is an Indian medicinal plant of great medicinal value; used in many clinically proven conditions. NMITLI-118RT+ is a candidate drug under a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) networking project. It is a chemotype of W. somnifera's root extract, which has been used for the present study. Objectives: The present investigation aims to develop and validate a simple isocratic reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) system for the detection and estimation of Withanolide A (marker compound) and its analytical application for stability indicating studies on NMITLI-118RT+. Material and Methods: A validated RP-HPLC method for Withanolide A was established on a Waters HPLC system and the same was used on NMITLI-118RT+ for quantification and fingerprinting purposes, and for establishing forced degradation, isothermal stress tests, and drug-excipient testing protocols as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Results: A validated method was established, which could detect the marker at a retention time of around 6.3 minutes, with a linearity range of 2-100 μg/mL, by varying the amounts of the said marker, which were estimated in four different batches of NMITLI-118RT+. Photostability as per ICH guidelines suggested a slight loss of the active constituent and maximum degradation was afforded with alkali followed by acid, and then peroxide, in the forced degradation studies. In the drug-excipient studies, the maximum amount of active constituent could be detected in the samples with ethyl cellulose and the least with hydroxy propyl cellulose. Conclusion: The method developed here was simple and rapid. The various stability indicating studies carried out in the present investigation would be useful for formulation development and were suggestive of deciding the recommended storage conditions for NMITLI-118RT+. PMID:25210308

  8. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.

  9. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A.; Langade, Deepak G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. Aims: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Materials and Methods: Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. Results: There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults. PMID:26730141

  10. Experimental therapeutic studies of Solanum aculeastrum Dunal. on Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Laban, Linet T; Anjili, Christopher O; Mutiso, Joshua M; Ingonga, Johnstone; Kiige, Samuel G; Ngedzo, Mgala M; Gicheru, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Solanum acueastrum Dunal. has been shown to have some chemotherapeutic value. Leaf and berry water and methanol compounds of S. acueastrum were evaluated for possible antileishmanial activity In vivo on BALB/c mice and in vitro against Leishmania major promastigotes, amastigotes and vero cells. Materials and Methods: Dry S. aculeastrum berry and leaf material were extracted in methanol and water. L. major parasites were exposed to different concentrations of S. aculeastrum fruit and leaf compounds and the IC50 on the promastigotes, percentage of infection rate of macrophages by amastigotes and the toxicological effect on vero cells were determined. BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously with 1×106 promastigotes and kept for four weeks to allow for disease establishment. Infected mice were treated with fruit and leaf methanolic and water compounds, amphotericin B (AmB), and sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Results: Fruit methanol compound was most effective in inhibiting the growth of promastigotes with IC5078.62 μg/ml. Fruit water compound showed the best activity in inhibiting infection of macrophages by amastigotes. Fruit methanol compound was more toxic at Ld50=8.06 mg/ml to vero cells than amphotericin B. Analysis of variance computation indicated statistically significant difference in lesion sizes between experimental and control mice groups (P=0.0001). Splenic impression smears ANOVA indicated a highly significant difference in parasitic numbers between the experimental and the control groups (P=0.0001). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that compounds from S. aculeastrum have potential anti-leishmanial activities and the medicinal use of the plant poses considerable toxicity against dividing vero cells. PMID:25810878

  11. Po-Basin Atmospheric Composition during the Pegasos Field Campaign (summer 2012): Evaluation of ninfa/aodeM Simulation with In-Situ e Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Tony C.; Bonafe, Giovanni; Stortini, Michele; Minguzzi, Enrico; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Giulianelli, Lara; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ricciardelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    Within the EU project PEGASOS one of three field campaigns took place in the Po Valley during the summer of 2012. Photochemistry, particle formation, and particle properties related to diurnal evolution of the PBL were investigated through both in-situ and airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT air ship. In addition, 3-D air quality modeling systems were implemented over the Po valley for the summer 2012 to better characterize the atmospheric conditions, in terms of meteorological parameters and chemical composition. In this work, we present a comparison between atmospheric composition simulations carried out by the modeling system NINFA/AODEM with measurements performed during the PEGASOS field campaign for the period 13 June - 12 July 2012. NINFA (Stortini et al., 2007) is based on the chemical transport model CHIMERE (Bessagnet et al., 2008), driven by COSMO-I7, the meteorological Italian Limited Area Model, (Steppeler et al., 2003). Boundary conditions are provided by Prev'air data (www.prevair.org), and emission data input are based on regional, national and European inventory. Besides, a post-processing tool for aerosol optical properties calculation, called AODEM (Landi T. C. 2013) was implemented. Thus, predictions of Aerosol Optical Depth and aerosol extinction coefficient were also used for model comparison to vertical-resolved observations. For this experiment, NINFA/AODEM has been also evaluated by using measurements of size-segregated aerosol samples, number particles concentration and aerosol optical properties collected on hourly basis at the 3 different sampling sites representative of urban background (Bologna), rural background (San Pietro Capofiume) and remote high altitude station (Monte Cimone 2165 ma.s.l.). ). In addition, we focused on new particles formations events and long range transports from Northern Africa observed during the field campaign. References Bessagnet, Bertrand, Laurent Menut, Gabriele Curci, Alma Hodzic, Bruno

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dnyanraj; Bhattacharyya, Sauvik; Bose, Sekhar

    2017-11-02

    Cognitive decline is often associated with the aging process. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) has long been used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine to enhance memory and improve cognition. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) in improving memory and cognitive functioning in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 50 adults. Subjects were treated with either ashwagandha-root extract (300 mg twice daily) or placebo for eight weeks. After eight weeks of study, the ashwagandha treatment group demonstrated significant improvements compared with the placebo group in both immediate and general memory, as evidenced by Wechsler Memory Scale III subtest scores for logical memory I (p = 0.007), verbal paired associates I (p = 0.042), faces I (p = 0.020), family pictures I (p = 0.006), logical memory II (p = 0.006), verbal paired associates II (p = 0.031), faces II (p = 0.014), and family pictures II (p = 0.006). The treatment group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in executive function, sustained attention, and information-processing speed as indicated by scores on the Eriksen Flanker task (p = 0.002), Wisconsin Card Sort test (p = 0.014), Trail-Making test part A (p = 0.006), and the Mackworth Clock test (p = 0.009). Ashwagandha may be effective in enhancing both immediate and general memory in people with MCI as well as improving executive function, attention, and information processing speed.

  13. Influence of plant growth regulators on callus mediated regeneration and secondary metabolites synthesis in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Banerjee, Debarupa; Ghosh, Moumita; Pradhan, Prakash; Gupta, Namrata Shanu; Acharya, Krishnendu; Banerjee, Maitreyi

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, is an important medicinal plant being the source of extremely important compounds like withanolides and withaferin. Influence of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) were evaluated for induction of callus, callus mediated regeneration and production of secondary metabolites in them. Explants for callusing were collected from plants grown in vitro and maximum callusing (98 %) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) (0.5 mg l(-1)) and kinetin (KN) (0.2 mg l(-1)). Among different types of calli, best shoot regeneration was observed on green, compact calli produced on MS medium with a combination of 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) and indole butyric acid (IBA). MS medium supplemented with BAP (2 mg l(-1)) showed highest frequency (98 %) of shoot bud regeneration. The micro-shoots were efficiently rooted on MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA. Rooted plants were transferred to soil-vermi-compost (1:3; w/w) medium in greenhouse for acclimatization. Presence of withanolide A and withaferin A in calli was validated through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). It was interesting to observe that the PGRs showed significant influence on the secondary metabolites production in callus and 2,4-D having the least effect. Histological studies revealed the origin of shoot tip in the callus during regeneration.

  14. NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Two Paralogs from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Satiander; Lattoo, Surrinder K.; Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a highly reputed medicinal plant, synthesizes a large array of steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Although its chemical profile and pharmacological activities have been studied extensively during the last two decades, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. Cytochrome P450 reductase is the most imperative redox partner of multiple P450s involved in primary and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We describe here the cloning and characterization of two paralogs of cytochrome P450 reductase from W. somnifera. The full length paralogs of WsCPR1 and WsCPR2 have open reading frames of 2058 and 2142 bp encoding 685 and 713 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that grouping of dual CPRs was in accordance with class I and class II of eudicotyledon CPRs. The corresponding coding sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins, purified and characterized. Recombinant proteins of both the paralogs were purified with their intact membrane anchor regions and it is hitherto unreported for other CPRs which have been purified from microsomal fraction. Southern blot analysis suggested that two divergent isoforms of CPR exist independently in Withania genome. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both genes were widely expressed in leaves, stalks, roots, flowers and berries with higher expression level of WsCPR2 in comparison to WsCPR1. Similar to CPRs of other plant species, WsCPR1 was un-inducible while WsCPR2 transcript level increased in a time-dependent manner after elicitor treatments. High performance liquid chromatography of withanolides extracted from elicitor-treated samples showed a significant increase in two of the key withanolides, withanolide A and withaferin A, possibly indicating the role of WsCPR2 in withanolide biosynthesis

  15. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit in experimental rat models

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Ankur; Bagchi, Chiranjib; Das, Saibal; Mitra, Achintya; Pati, Anuradha De; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit (WCDF) alone and in combination with glipizide, in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and evaluation of possible antihyperlipidemic activity of the same extract in high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia, in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in 30 albino rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into five groups receiving the following treatments orally for 4 weeks: Vehicle, glipizide (2.5 mg/kg), WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg), WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg) plus glipizide (1 mg/kg) and WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg) plus glipizide (2.5 mg/kg). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured every week for 4 weeks. Endocrine pancreas histopathology was done at the end. In a separate set of experiment, five groups of six albino rats each, received orally for 4 weeks, vehicle, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day), cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day) plus atorvastatin (7.2 mg/kg/day), cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day) plus WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg/day) and no treatment, respectively. Estimation of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology was done at the end of 4 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Between-group and within-group comparisons were respectively done by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated measures ANOVA, followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: The 4-week treatment with WCDF extract significantly reversed hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes that was comparable to glipizide. When combined with glipizide (2.5 mg/kg), WCDF extract produced a synergistic antihyperglycemic effect as well as improvement in pancreatic histopathology. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract of WCDF was effective and comparable to atorvastatin in controlling the high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. PMID:23930042

  16. NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase: molecular cloning and functional characterization of two paralogs from Withania somnifera (L.) dunal.

    PubMed

    Rana, Satiander; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Dhar, Rekha S; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a highly reputed medicinal plant, synthesizes a large array of steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Although its chemical profile and pharmacological activities have been studied extensively during the last two decades, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. Cytochrome P450 reductase is the most imperative redox partner of multiple P450s involved in primary and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We describe here the cloning and characterization of two paralogs of cytochrome P450 reductase from W. somnifera. The full length paralogs of WsCPR1 and WsCPR2 have open reading frames of 2058 and 2142 bp encoding 685 and 713 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that grouping of dual CPRs was in accordance with class I and class II of eudicotyledon CPRs. The corresponding coding sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins, purified and characterized. Recombinant proteins of both the paralogs were purified with their intact membrane anchor regions and it is hitherto unreported for other CPRs which have been purified from microsomal fraction. Southern blot analysis suggested that two divergent isoforms of CPR exist independently in Withania genome. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both genes were widely expressed in leaves, stalks, roots, flowers and berries with higher expression level of WsCPR2 in comparison to WsCPR1. Similar to CPRs of other plant species, WsCPR1 was un-inducible while WsCPR2 transcript level increased in a time-dependent manner after elicitor treatments. High performance liquid chromatography of withanolides extracted from elicitor-treated samples showed a significant increase in two of the key withanolides, withanolide A and withaferin A, possibly indicating the role of WsCPR2 in withanolide biosynthesis

  17. Neuro-protective potential of a vesicular system of a standardized extract of a new chemotype of Withania somnifera Dunal (NMITLI118RT+) against cerebral stroke in rats().

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Khandelwal, Kiran; Samuel, Sheeba Saji; Tripathi, Shivangi; Mitra, Kalyan; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Shukla, Rakesh; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal is an Indian medicinal plant with significant pharmacological properties, such as adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-platelet, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Several chemotypes of W. somnifera include NMITLI-101, NMITLI-118 and NMITLI-128. The present work elaborates the optimization and development of a liposomal delivery system for efficient delivery of NMITLI118RT+ [a standardized ethanolic extract of a new chemotype of W. somnifera Dunal (NMITLI-118) roots] against cerebral stroke in rats. Liposomal systems were prepared using thin-film hydration method and characterized on the basis of size, zeta potential, physical stability, FT-IR, DSC-TGA analysis and surface morphological studies by TEM. NMITLI118RT+ and its formulations (NMITLI118RT+LF) were evaluated for biological activity utilizing middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. The Z average of the developed liposomal formulation was about 142.6 ± 0.09 nm with a zeta potential of -31.20 ± 1.0 mV. Results of TEM revealed spherical particles in the range of 200 nm. The entrapment efficiency was found to be 94.603 ± 2%. The formulation was found to be physically stable over a 3-week period. Results were suggestive of the fact that both NMITLI118RT+ and its delivery system possess significant neuroprotective activity in cerebral ischemia. The liposomal system largely exhibits better performance over NMITLI118RT+ precisely in the post-treatment group. The present studies could elucidate the successful development of a delivery system for NMITLI118RT+ and demonstrate their beneficial neuro-protective potential in overcoming and reversing the consequences of I/R injury following stroke.

  18. Dietary supplementation of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Dunal) enhances NK cell function in ovarian tumors in the laying hen model of spontaneous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Barua, Animesh; Bradaric, Michael J; Bitterman, Pincas; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Sharma, Sameer; Basu, Sanjib; Lopez, Heather; Bahr, Janice M

    2013-12-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVCA) disseminates in a distinct pattern through peritoneal metastasis and little is known about the immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. Our goal was to determine changes in NK cell population during OVCA development and the effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Dunal) supplementation on NK cell localization in laying hens with OVCA. Frequency of NK cells in ovarian tumors at early and late stages in 3- to 4-year-old hens (exploratory study) as well as in hens supplemented with dietary Ashwagandha root powder for 90 days (prospective study) was examined. The population of stromal NK cells but not the intratumoral NK cells increased with OVCA development and progression. Ashwagandha supplementation decreased the incidence and progression of OVCA. Both the stromal and intratumoral NK cell population increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in Ashwagandha supplementated hens. The results of this study suggest that the population of stromal and tumorinfiltrating NK cells is increased by dietary Ashwagandha supplementation. Thus, Ashwagandha may enhance antitumor function of NK cells. This study may be useful for a clinical study to determine the effects of dietary Ashwagandha on NK cell immune function in patients with ovarian cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Application of an index of biotic integrity for dunal, palustrine wetlands: Emphasis on assessment of nonpoint source landfill effects on the Grand Calumet Lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, T.P.; Stewart, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Using a newly modified index of biotic integrity for assessing biological integrity of fish communities in dunal, palustrine wetlands, we assessed the non-point source influence of an industrial landfill on the Grand Calument Lagoons. The landfill is primarily an iron and steel manufacturers' slag waste. No sensitive species, hybrids, headwater species, and either few or no simple lithophilic spawning species were collected from any of the sites in the Grand Calumet Lagoons. Species catch-per-unit of effort varied significantly between reaches in the Middle Lagoon and the West Lagoon. The most disturbed areas were adjacent to the industrial landfill and along the southern shore near the outflow from the West Lagoon. Near- and far-field stations processed similar numbers of species and relative abundance. The near-field stations showed an increase in tolerant species, a higher proportion of omnivores and carnivores, and a lower environmental quality rating of 'poor-very poor'. The far-field sites were classified as having 'fair' biological integrity and showed an increase in relative abundance, proportion of sensitive species, and an increase in simple lithophils. The loss of biological integrity in the West Pond was not accurately predicted using the modified index of biological integrity, even though it was rated as extremely degraded by the biological diversity indices. Fish communities were negatively impacted by proximity to the landfill.

  20. Phytoremediation Potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the Deleterious Effects of Methylmercury on the Reproductive System of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg. PMID:24772420

  1. Phytoremediation potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the deleterious effects of methylmercury on the reproductive system of rats.

    PubMed

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg.

  2. Functional and Morphological Correlates in the Drosophila LRRK2 loss-of-function Model of Parkinson’s Disease: Drug Effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) Administration

    PubMed Central

    Catelani, Tiziano; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Sanna, Enrico; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio

    2016-01-01

    The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) is a simple animal species that contributed significantly to the development of neurobiology whose leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutants (LRRK2) loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represent a very interesting tool to look into physiopathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Accordingly, LRRK2 Dm have also the potential to contribute to reveal innovative therapeutic approaches to its treatment. Withania somnifera Dunal, a plant that grows spontaneously also in Mediterranean regions, is known in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory and protective properties against neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of its standardized root methanolic extract (Wse) on the LRRK2 loss-of-function Dm model of PD. To this end mutant and wild type (WT) flies were administered Wse, through diet, at different concentrations as larvae and adults (L+/A+) or as adults (L-/A+) only. LRRK2 mutants have a significantly reduced lifespan and compromised motor function and mitochondrial morphology compared to WT flies 1% Wse-enriched diet, administered to Dm LRRK2 as L-/A+and improved a) locomotor activity b) muscle electrophysiological response to stimuli and also c) protected against mitochondria degeneration. In contrast, the administration of Wse to Dm LRRK2 as L+/A+, no matter at which concentration, worsened lifespan and determined the appearance of increased endosomal activity in the thoracic ganglia. These results, while confirming that the LRRK2 loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represents a valid model of PD, reveal that under appropriate concentrations Wse can be usefully employed to counteract some deficits associated with the disease. However, a careful assessment of the risks, likely related to the impaired endosomal activity, is required. PMID:26727265

  3. Functional and Morphological Correlates in the Drosophila LRRK2 loss-of-function Model of Parkinson's Disease: Drug Effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) Administration.

    PubMed

    De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Poddighe, Simone; Talani, Giuseppe; Catelani, Tiziano; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Sanna, Enrico; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) is a simple animal species that contributed significantly to the development of neurobiology whose leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutants (LRRK2) loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represent a very interesting tool to look into physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Accordingly, LRRK2 Dm have also the potential to contribute to reveal innovative therapeutic approaches to its treatment. Withania somnifera Dunal, a plant that grows spontaneously also in Mediterranean regions, is known in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory and protective properties against neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of its standardized root methanolic extract (Wse) on the LRRK2 loss-of-function Dm model of PD. To this end mutant and wild type (WT) flies were administered Wse, through diet, at different concentrations as larvae and adults (L+/A+) or as adults (L-/A+) only. LRRK2 mutants have a significantly reduced lifespan and compromised motor function and mitochondrial morphology compared to WT flies 1% Wse-enriched diet, administered to Dm LRRK2 as L-/A+and improved a) locomotor activity b) muscle electrophysiological response to stimuli and also c) protected against mitochondria degeneration. In contrast, the administration of Wse to Dm LRRK2 as L+/A+, no matter at which concentration, worsened lifespan and determined the appearance of increased endosomal activity in the thoracic ganglia. These results, while confirming that the LRRK2 loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represents a valid model of PD, reveal that under appropriate concentrations Wse can be usefully employed to counteract some deficits associated with the disease. However, a careful assessment of the risks, likely related to the impaired endosomal activity, is required.

  4. Separation of four flavonol glycosides from Solanum rostratum Dunal using aqueous two-phase flotation followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Shao, Qian; Xi, Xingjun; Chu, Qiao; Wei, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase flotation followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate four flavonol glycosides from Solanum rostratum Dunal. In the aqueous two-phase flotation section, the effects of sublation solvent, solution pH, (NH4 )2 SO4 concentration in aqueous solution, cosolvent, N2 flow rate, flotation time, and volumes of the polyethylene glycol phase on the recovery were investigated in detail, and the optimal conditions were selected: 50 wt% polyethylene glycol 1000 ethanol solvent as the flotation solvent, pH 4, 350 g/L of (NH4 )2 SO4 concentration in aqueous phase, 40 mL/min of N2 flow rate, 30 min of flotation time, 10.0 mL of flotation solvent volume, and two times. After aqueous two-phase flotation concentration, the flotation products were purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The purities of the final products A and B were 98.1 and 99.0%. Product B was the mixture of three compounds based on the analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography at the temperature of 10°C, while product A was hyperoside after the identification by nuclear magnetic resonance. Astragalin, 3'-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside, and 3'-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were obtained with the purity of 93.8, 97.1, and 99.2%, respectively, after the further separation of product B using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Distribution of withaferin A, an anticancer potential agent, in different parts of two varieties of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. grown in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Siriwardane, A S; Dharmadasa, R M; Samarasinghe, Kosala

    2013-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf) two varieties of (LC1 and FR1) W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g) of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times. Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis (TLC) of withaferin A in both plant extracts were performed on pre-coated Silica gel 60 GF254 plates in hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (2: 14: 1) mobile phase. Densitometer scanning was performed at lambda(max) = 215 nm. HPLC of W. somnifera extracts was performed using Kromasil C18 reverse phase column. Both varieties of W. somnifera differed in withaferin A. After visualizing TLC plates with vanillin-sulphuric acid leaf and bark extracts of both varieties showed high intensity purple colour spots (R(f) 0.14) than in stem and roots. The highest amount of withaferin A (3812 ppm) was observed in leaves of variety LC1 while the lowest amount was observed in roots of variety FR1 (5 ppm). According to the results it could be concluded that content of Witheferin A was vary leaf > bark > stem > roots in both varieties. Therefore, there is a high potential of incorporation of leaves and bark of W. somnifera for the preparation of Ayurveda drug leading to anticancer activity instead of roots.

  6. Alkaloids from Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr.

    PubMed

    Alias, Asmah; Hazni, Hazrina; Jaafar, Faridahanim Mohd; Awang, Khalijah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani

    2010-06-24

    A phytochemical study of the bark of Fissistigma latifolium (Annonaceae) yielded a new aporphine alkaloid, (-)-N-methylguattescidine (1), and eight known alkaloids: liriodenine (2), oxoxylopine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), dimethyltryptamine (5), (-)-remerine (6), (-)-anonaine (7), columbamine (8) and lysicamine (9). The compounds were isolated using various chromatographic methods and structural elucidation was accomplished by means of spectroscopic methods, notably 1D-NMR ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT), 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC), UV, IR and MS.

  7. In Vitro Propagation and Conservation of Withania somnifera (Dunal) L.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nigar; Ahmad, Naseem; Anis, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Plant tissue culture offers several techniques for rapid clonal propagation, germplasm conservation, regeneration of genetically manipulated superior clones, production of phyto-constituents, and ex vitro conservation of valuable phytodiversity. An improved and efficient micropropagation protocol for Withania somnifera (L.), a drug-producing medicinal plant, using juvenile explants (nodal explants) has been developed. Highest multiplication and subsequent elongation of shoots is observed on MS medium containing BA and NAA. The regenerated microshoots roots best on ½ MS medium containing NAA, established in earthen pots containing garden soil and are maintained in the greenhouse with 95 % survival rate. Genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants is confirmed by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques, viz., RAPD and ISSR. No variation is observed in DNA fingerprinting patterns among the micropropagated plants, which are similar to that of the donor plant illustrating their genetic uniformity.

  8. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  9. Sobre os sistemas de referência celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.

    2003-02-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho, algumas discussões sobre os sistemas de referência utilizados em Astronomia. Claramente, não é possível esgotar todo este assunto num único texto, mas esperamos, contudo, que o presente material possa ser apreciado nos cursos de Introdução à Astronomia, que estão cada vez mais presentes nas atuais propostas curriculares das graduações de Física. As discussões pertinentes às "Bases de Referência Celeste", serão apresentadas em um outro trabalho.

  10. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  11. Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) root.

    PubMed

    Andallu, B; Radhika, B

    2000-06-01

    Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effects of roots of W. somnifera (ashvagandha) were assessed on human subjects. Six mild NIDDM subjects and six mild hypercholesterolemic subjects were treated with the powder of roots of W. somnifera for 30 days. Suitable parameters were studied in the blood and urine samples of the subjects along with dietary pattern before and at the end of treatment period. Decrease in blood glucose was comparable to that of an oral hypoglycemic drug. Significant increase in urine sodium, urine volume, significant decrease in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoproteins) and VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) cholesterol were observed indicating that root of W. somnifera is a potential source of hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic agents. Clinical observations revealed no adverse effects.

  12. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal. Linn.) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mamidi, Prasad; Thakar, A B

    2011-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defined as the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. By 2025, men with ED will be approximately 322 million, an increase of nearly 170 million men from 1995. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction. In this study, a total of 95 patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction satisfying the DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria were selected, out of them 86 patients completed the course of treatment. In Trial Group, Ashwagandha root powder and in Control group, Placebo (Wheat powder) were given for 60 days. Treatment selection and its allocation were done by following computerized randomization plan. Criterion of assessment was based on the scoring of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Scale. Paired and Unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. In Trial group (n=41), 12.6% and in Control group (n=45), 19.11% of improvement was observed with the significance of (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) found in between the two groups. Both Ashwagandha and Placebo provided no relief (<25% improvement on IIEF) in psychogenic erectile dysfunction. PMID:22529644

  13. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal. Linn.) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mamidi, Prasad; Thakar, A B

    2011-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defined as the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. By 2025, men with ED will be approximately 322 million, an increase of nearly 170 million men from 1995. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction. In this study, a total of 95 patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction satisfying the DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria were selected, out of them 86 patients completed the course of treatment. In Trial Group, Ashwagandha root powder and in Control group, Placebo (Wheat powder) were given for 60 days. Treatment selection and its allocation were done by following computerized randomization plan. Criterion of assessment was based on the scoring of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Scale. Paired and Unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. In Trial group (n=41), 12.6% and in Control group (n=45), 19.11% of improvement was observed with the significance of (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) found in between the two groups. Both Ashwagandha and Placebo provided no relief (<25% improvement on IIEF) in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vibha; Misra, Pratibha; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Mishra, Manoj K; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    This report describes Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Withania somnifera--an important Indian medicinal plant. A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, containing the binary vector pIG121Hm was used for transformation, along with the gusA reporter gene with intron under the transcriptional control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The leaf segments from two-and-a-half-month-old green house-grown seedlings were more efficient in transformation, as compared to those from the in vitro-grown shoots. Second expanded leaf from the shoot tip gave the highest transient transformation efficiency. Selection of transgenic shoots was done in the presence of 50 mg l(-1) kanamycin. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of T(0) transgenic plants showed the presence of gusA and nptII genes. The expression of these transgenes in T(1) progeny was confirmed by RT-PCR. The integration of gusA gene was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The transformation efficiency was found to be 1.67%.

  15. Plastisphere in action: evidence for an interaction between expanded polystyrene and dunal plants.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Gianluca; Fanelli, Giuliano; Pietrelli, Loris; Acosta, Alicia T R; Battisti, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    Among the many threats that can be recorded on sandy beaches, plastic litter represents a serious problem for these complex and endangered ecosystems. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is increasingly abundant as a form of plastic litter in natural environments, particularly along shores and waterways. Nevertheless, despite the great number of scientific articles concerning the impact of litter on animal species, there are still no research focusing on the interaction between this type of beach litter and other biodiversity components. In this work, we reported the first evidence of interactions between EPS and living plants along a sandy beach of Tyrrhenian central Italy. We sampled 540 EPS items, mainly deriving from fishery activities (>75%). We obtained evidence for an interaction between EPS and plants: about 5% of items resulted perforated or have roots of three species (Phragmites australis, Spartina versicolor, Anthemis maritima). Apparently, we did not observed a relationship between plants and EPS items size. More research is needed to assess if the plant assemblage growing on EPS is random or if peculiar substrate exerts some sort of selection on the plant community.

  16. Influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal)

    PubMed Central

    Tavhare, Swagata D.; Nishteswar, K.; Shukla, Vinay J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. The logic behind this principle is being validated by recent researches. Aim: To analyze the influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha in Shishira and Greeshma Ritu (winter and summer season). Materials and Methods: Fourteen small crops of Ashwagandha of average size 10 cm were collected on October 7, 2013, from institute campus and then replantation was done at Charaka Herbal Garden, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar in an area of 60 cm × 60 cm (l × b). No fertilizers or pesticides were used. The plants were watered daily and plants were uprooted as per lunar cycles for analysis. Eight samples were collected and observed during Shishira and Greeshma season on Pournima (full moon) and Amavasya (new moon) days. The measurements were taken thrice and average values were taken into consideration for study purpose. The variations in morphological characteristics such as length, breadth, weight, and number of roots and twigs were studied through statistical procedure of principle component analysis, which makes interpretation of all possible related variables. Results: Root weight (RW), pith diameter (PD) and internodal distance (ID) were found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days. The maximum RW was observed during Greeshma Aashadha Pournima. Conclusion: The study has shown a definite influence of lunar cycles on the growth of the plant parts assessed by RW, PD, and ID that have found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days. PMID:27313411

  17. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  18. Withanolide biosynthesis recruits both mevalonate and DOXP pathways of isoprenogenesis in Ashwagandha Withania somnifera L. (Dunal).

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Narayan D; Sangwan, Neelam S; Sabir, Farzana; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2012-10-01

    Withanolides are pharmaceutically important C(28)-phytochemicals produced in most prodigal amounts and diversified forms by Withania somnifera. Metabolic origin of withanolides from triterpenoid pathway intermediates implies that isoprenogenesis could significantly govern withanolide production. In plants, isoprenogenesis occurs via two routes: mevalonate (MVA) pathway in cytosol and non-mevalonate or DOXP/MEP pathway in plastids. We have investigated relative carbon contribution of MVA and DOXP pathways to withanolide biosynthesis in W. somnifera. The quantitative NMR-based biosynthetic study involved tracing of (13)C label from (13)C(1)-D-glucose to withaferin A in withanolide producing in vitro microshoot cultures of the plant. Enrichment of (13)C abundance at each carbon of withaferin A from (13)C(1)-glucose-fed cultures was monitored by normalization and integration of NMR signal intensities. The pattern of carbon position-specific (13)C enrichment of withaferin A was analyzed by a retro-biosynthetic approach using a squalene-intermediated metabolic model of withanolide (withaferin A) biosynthesis. The pattern suggested that both DOXP and MVA pathways of isoprenogenesis were significantly involved in withanolide biosynthesis with their relative contribution on the ratio of 25:75, respectively. The results have been discussed in a new conceptual line of biosynthetic load-driven model of relative recruitment of DOXP and MVA pathways for biosynthesis of isoprenoids. Key message The study elucidates significant contribution of DOXP pathway to withanolide biosynthesis. A new connotation of biosynthetic load-based role of DOXP/MVA recruitment in isoprenoid biosynthesis has been proposed.

  19. Influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal).

    PubMed

    Tavhare, Swagata D; Nishteswar, K; Shukla, Vinay J

    2015-01-01

    Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. The logic behind this principle is being validated by recent researches. To analyze the influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha in Shishira and Greeshma Ritu (winter and summer season). Fourteen small crops of Ashwagandha of average size 10 cm were collected on October 7, 2013, from institute campus and then replantation was done at Charaka Herbal Garden, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar in an area of 60 cm × 60 cm (l × b). No fertilizers or pesticides were used. The plants were watered daily and plants were uprooted as per lunar cycles for analysis. Eight samples were collected and observed during Shishira and Greeshma season on Pournima (full moon) and Amavasya (new moon) days. The measurements were taken thrice and average values were taken into consideration for study purpose. The variations in morphological characteristics such as length, breadth, weight, and number of roots and twigs were studied through statistical procedure of principle component analysis, which makes interpretation of all possible related variables. Root weight (RW), pith diameter (PD) and internodal distance (ID) were found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days. The maximum RW was observed during Greeshma Aashadha Pournima. The study has shown a definite influence of lunar cycles on the growth of the plant parts assessed by RW, PD, and ID that have found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days.

  20. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Three Branch Point Oxidosqualene Cyclases from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal*

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Hussain, Aashiq; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Hamid, Abid; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) positioned at a key metabolic subdividing junction execute indispensable enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene for varied triterpenoid biosynthesis. Such branch points present favorable gene targets for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolites. However, detailed information regarding the candidate OSCs covering different branches and their regulation is necessary for the desired genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to characterize members of OSC superfamily from Withania somnifera (Ws), a medicinal plant of immense repute known to synthesize a large array of biologically active steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Three full-length OSC cDNAs, β-amyrin synthase (WsOSC/BS), lupeol synthase (WsOSC/LS), and cycloartenol synthase (WsOSC/CS), having open reading frames of 2289, 2268, and 2277 bp, were isolated. Heterologous expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, LC-MS analyses, and kinetic studies confirmed their monofunctionality. The three WsOSCs were found to be spatially regulated at transcriptional level with WsOSC/CS being maximally expressed in leaf tissue. Promoter analysis of three WsOSCs genes resulted in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements. Further, transcript profiling under methyl jasmonate, gibberellic acid, and yeast extract elicitations displayed differential transcriptional regulation of each of the OSCs. Changes were also observed in mRNA levels under elicitations and further substantiated with protein expression levels by Western blotting. Negative regulation by yeast extract resulted in significant increase in withanolide content. Empirical evidence suggests that repression of competitive branch OSCs like WsOSC/BS and WsOSC/LS possibly leads to diversion of substrate pool toward WsOSC/CS for increased withanolide production. PMID:24770414

  1. Microbial secondary metabolites ameliorate growth, in planta contents and lignification in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Srivastava, Madhumita; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-04-01

    In the present investigation, metabolites of Streptomyces sp. MTN14 and Trichoderma harzianum ThU significantly enhanced biomass yield (3.58 and 3.48 fold respectively) in comparison to the control plants. The secondary metabolites treatments also showed significant augmentation (0.75-2.25 fold) in withanolide A, a plant secondary metabolite. Lignin deposition, total phenolic and flavonoid content in W. somnifera were maximally induced in treatment having T. harzianum metabolites. Also, Trichoderma and Streptomyces metabolites were found much better in invoking in planta contents and antioxidants compared with their live culture treatments. Therefore, identification of new molecular effectors from metabolites of efficient microbes may be used as biopesticide and biofertilizer for commercial production of W. somnifera globally.

  2. Hoja informativa sobre la Agenda de Acción EJ 2020

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Página principal de la hoja informativa sobre la Agenda de Acción EJ 2020 de la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. que delinea el plan estratégico de justicia ambiental de la agencia para los próximos cuatro años.

  3. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  4. Obtenga más información sobre la etiqueta Safer Choice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Entérese más acerca del programa EPA Diseño para el medio ambiente, incluyendo información sobre su historia, proyectos anteriores y otros programas de la EPA que están relacionados con este programa.

  5. Effects of an acute bout of exercise on serum soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) levels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung Bing; Chuang, Chung-Chief; Kuo, Chung Sen; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an acute bout of exercise on serum soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) concentrations. Eighteen male participants completed two different exercise sessions with intensities of 25% and 65% maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). In addition to the energy expenditure during exercise sessions being measured, blood samples were collected before exercise, and immediately, at 24 h, and at 48 h post-exercise to analyse sOB-R, leptin and insulin levels. At 24 h post-exercise, sOB-R and leptin concentrations at the 65% VO2max were significantly different from those at the 25% VO2max. Leptin levels at 48 h post-exercise were also significantly lower for the 65% VO2max than for the 25% VO2max (P < 0.01). In the 65% VO2max session, the energy expenditure during exercise was significantly associated with leptin concentrations at 24 h and 48 h and sOB-R concentrations at 24 h post-exercise. However, no correlations were found between sOB-R and leptin at the three post-exercise time points. In conclusion, an acute bout of exercise with 920 kcal of output resulted in an increase in sOB-R levels at 24 h post-exercise. However, the changes in sOB-R levels due to an acute bout of exercise might not contribute to the delayed decrease observed for leptin.

  6. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  7. Evaluation and Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  8. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that play an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. However, the HCAA pathway remains largely uncharacterized in Solanaceae. In this study, a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eg...

  9. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce D; Trouth, Frances; Shangguan, Lingfei; Dong, Wen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response. Both SHT polypeptides had extremely high identity with just five amino-acid substitutions. Recombinant SmSHT catalyzed the synthesis of mono-, bi- and tri- acylated polyamines. Using caffeoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, SmSHT preferred spermidine as the acyl acceptor. When spermidine was the acyl acceptor, the donor preference order for SmSHT was caffeoyl-CoA>feruloyl-CoA>ρ-coumaroyl-CoA. SrSHT exhibited the same substrate specificity as SmSHT, yet exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than SmSHT. For example, under caffeoyl-CoA and spermidine, Kcat of SrSHT was 37.3% higher than SmSHT. Molecular modeling suggests that five amino-acid substitutions in SrSHT result in four alterations in their predicted 3D structures. In particular, the conserved Lys402 adjacent to the DFGWG motif, and Cys200 in the crossover loop in SmSHT were replaced by Glu and Ser in SrSHT. These substitutions may contribute to the enhanced activity in SrSHT. Our study provides a platform to generate HCAA rich fruits for eggplant and other solanaceous crops. PMID:28018606

  10. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce D; Trouth, Frances; Shangguan, Lingfei; Dong, Wen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response. Both SHT polypeptides had extremely high identity with just five amino-acid substitutions. Recombinant SmSHT catalyzed the synthesis of mono-, bi- and tri- acylated polyamines. Using caffeoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, SmSHT preferred spermidine as the acyl acceptor. When spermidine was the acyl acceptor, the donor preference order for SmSHT was caffeoyl-CoA>feruloyl-CoA>ρ-coumaroyl-CoA. SrSHT exhibited the same substrate specificity as SmSHT, yet exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than SmSHT. For example, under caffeoyl-CoA and spermidine, Kcat of SrSHT was 37.3% higher than SmSHT. Molecular modeling suggests that five amino-acid substitutions in SrSHT result in four alterations in their predicted 3D structures. In particular, the conserved Lys402 adjacent to the DFGWG motif, and Cys200 in the crossover loop in SmSHT were replaced by Glu and Ser in SrSHT. These substitutions may contribute to the enhanced activity in SrSHT. Our study provides a platform to generate HCAA rich fruits for eggplant and other solanaceous crops.

  11. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  12. Withanolide A biogeneration in in vitro shoot cultures of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera DUNAL), a main medicinal plant in Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Chaurasiya, Narayan Das; Lal, Payare; Misra, Laxminarain; Uniyal, Girish Chandra; Tuli, Rakesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh

    2007-09-01

    Multiple shoot cultures of two experimental lines of Withania somnifera plants (RS-Selection-1 and RS-Selection-2) were established using nodal segments as explants. The hormonal combinations of benzyl adenine and kinetin not only influenced their morphogenetic response but also differentially modulated the level of biogeneration of withanolide A in the in vitro shoots of the two lines. Interestingly, withanolide-A, that was hardly detectable in the aerial parts of field-grown Withania somnifera (explant source), accumulated considerably in the in vitro shoot cultures of the plant. The productivity of withanolide A in the cultures varied considerably (ca. 10-fold, 0.014 to 0.14 mg per gram fresh weight) with the change in the hormone composition of the culture media as well as genotype used as source of the explant. The shoot culture of RS-Selection-1 raised at 1.00 ppm of BAP and 0.50 ppm of kinetin displayed the highest concentration of withanolide A in the green shoots of 0.238 g per 100 g dry weight tissue. This was a more analytical concentration keeping in view the isolation yields so far reported from the dried roots of the field-grown plant (ca. 0.015 g per 100 g dry weight), even if isolation losses are considered during purification. The enhanced de novo biogenesis of withanolide A in shoot cultures was corroborated with radiolabel incorporation studies using [2-(14)C] acetate as a precursor. Production of withaferin A was also found in the in vitro shoot cultures. As this compound is a predominant withanolide of native shoots as well and has been already reported to be accumulated in in vitro shoot cultures, its biogeneration observed in these shoot cultures is not discussed in detail.

  13. Validation of dbEST-SSRs and transferability of some other solanaceous species SSR in ashwagandha [Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal].

    PubMed

    Parmar, Eva K; Fougat, Ranbir S; Patel, Chandni B; Zala, Harshvardhan N; Patel, Mahesh A; Patel, Swati K; Kumar, Sushil

    2015-12-01

    Cross-species transferability and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in public databases are cost-effective means for developing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) for less-studied species like medicinal plants. In this study, 11 EST-SSR markers developed from 742 available ESTs of Withania Somnifera EST sequences and 95 SSR primer pairs derived from other solanaceous crops (tomato, eggplant, chili, and tobacco) were utilized for their amplification and validation. Out of 11, 10 EST-SSRs showed good amplification quality and produced 13 loci with a product size ranging between 167 and 291 bp. Similarly, of the 95 cross-genera SSR loci assayed, 20 (21 %) markers showed the transferability of 5, 27, 32, and 14.2 % from eggplant, chili, tomato, and tobacco, respectively, to ashwagandha. In toto, these 30 SSR markers reported here will be valuable resources and may be applicable for the analysis of intra- and inter-specific genetic diversity in ashwagandha for which till date no information about SSR is available.

  14. Metabolic shift from withasteroid formation to phenylpropanoid accumulation in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sil, Bipradut; Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Jha, Sumita; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2015-07-01

    Cotransformed hairy roots containing a gene that encodes a fungal elicitor protein, β-cryptogein, were established in Withania somnifera, a medicinal plant widely used in Indian systems of medicine. To find out whether β-cryptogein protein endogenously elicits the pathway of withasteroid biosynthesis, withaferin A and withanolide A contents along with transcript accumulation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and sterol glycosyltransferase (SGT) were analyzed in both cryptogein-cotransformed and normal hairy roots of W. somnifera. It was observed that the withaferin A and withanolide A contents were drastically higher in normal hairy roots than cryptogein-cotransformed ones. Similar trends were also observed on the levels of transcript accumulation. Subsequently, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), one of the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway, was measured in both cryptogein-cotransformed and normal hairy roots of W. somnifera along with the levels of PAL transcript accumulation. Upliftment of PAL activity was observed in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots as compared to the normal ones, and the PAL expression also reflected a similar trend, i.e., enhanced expression in the cryptogein-cotransformed lines. Upliftment of wall-bound ferulic acid accumulation was also observed in the cryptogein-cotransformed lines, as compared to normal hairy root lines. Thus, the outcome of the above studies suggests a metabolic shift from withanolide accumulation to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots of W. somnifera.

  15. A promising approach on biomass accumulation and withanolides production in cell suspension culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnanajothi; Jeyaraj, Murugaraj; Rajesh, Manoharan; Muthuselvam, Manickam; Selvaraj, Natesan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-08-01

    Withanolide is one of the most extensively exploited steroidal lactones, which are biosynthesized in Withania somnifera. Its production from cell suspension culture was analyzed to defeat limitations coupled with its regular supply from the plant organs. In order to optimize the different factors for sustainable production of withanolides and biomass accumulations, different concentrations of auxins or cytokinins and their combinations, carbon sources, agitation speed, organic additives and seaweed extracts was studied in cell suspension culture. Maximum biomass accumulation (16.72 g fresh weight [FW] and 4.18 g dry weight [DW]) and withanolides production (withanolide A 7.21 mg/g DW, withanolide B 4.23 mg/g DW, withaferin A 3.88 mg/g DW and withanone 6.72 mg/g DW) were achieved in the treatment of Gracilaria edulis extract at 40 % level. Organic additive L-glutamine at 200 mg/l in combination with picloram (1 mg/l) and KN (0.5 mg/l) promoted growth characteristics (11.87 g FW and 2.96 g DW) and withanolides synthesis (withanolide A 5.04 mg/g DW, withanolide B 2.59 mg/g DW, withaferin A 2.36 mg/g DW and withanone 4.32 mg/g DW). Sucrose at 5 % level revolved out to be a superior carbon source yielded highest withanolides production (withanolide A 2.88 mg/g DW, withanolide B 1.48 mg/g DW, withaferin A 1.35 mg/g DW and withanone 2.47 mg/g DW), whereas biomass (7.28 g FW and 1.82 g DW) was gratefully increased at 2 % level of sucrose in cell suspension culture. This optimized protocol can be utilized for large scale cultivation of W. somnifera cells in industrial bioreactors for mass synthesis of major withanolides.

  16. Frugivory and seed dispersal of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae) by birds in deciduous seasonal forest.

    PubMed

    Jacomassa, F A F

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify which bird species consume Solanum granuloso-leprosum fruits and disperse its seeds. 60 hours of focal observations were carried out between April and May 2006 on the edge of a deciduous forest fragment in the Uruguay River region, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Ten species were observed in total removing 443 fruits. Saltator similis removed 61.8% of the fruits, followed by Tangara sayaca (17.1%), Pipraeidea bonariensis (11.7%), and T. preciosa (6.8%), while the remaining six species accounted for only 2.5% of the fruits removed. Most fruit removal occurred early in the day or mid-afternoon. The most common feeding behaviors were picking (60.7%), followed by stalling (23%) and hovering (16%). Birds flew more than 10 m from the fruit plant in 62% of the removal events. All bird species observed here may be considered potential dispersers of S. granuloso-leprosum, as they moved the seeds away from the mother plant where strong competition and predation are likely to occur. Results also suggest that S. granuloso-leprosum may be useful in ecological restoration programs.

  17. Sobre la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M Dominik

    2017-07-11

    Las mutaciones en un gran número de genes provocan degeneración de la retina y ceguera sin que exista actualmente cura alguna. En las últimas décadas, la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina ha evolucionado y se ha convertido en un nuevo y prometedor paradigma terapéutico para estas enfermedades poco comunes. Este artículo refleja las ideas y los conceptos que parten de la ciencia básica hacia la aplicabilidad de la terapia génica en el ámbito clínico. Se describen los avances y las reflexiones actuales sobre la eficacia de los ensayos clínicos en la actualidad y se discuten los posibles obstáculos y soluciones de cara al futuro de la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Información general sobre la preparación y la respuesta frente a desastres naturales

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Esta página brinda información general sobre la manera en que se puede preparar para enfrentar desastres naturales potenciales y las acciones a tomar después de dichos desastres naturales y otras emergencias ambientales.

  19. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  20. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  1. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  2. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  3. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  4. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  5. Enhanced in vitro regeneration and change in photosynthetic pigments, biomass and proline content in Withania somnifera L. (Dunal) induced by copper and zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nigar; Ahmad, Naseem; Anis, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    In the present study the effect of inorganic nutrients (CuSO₄ & ZnSO₄) on morphogenic and biochemical responses from nodal explants in Withania somnifera L. was investigated. Incorporation of either Copper sulphate (25-200 μM) or Zinc sulphate (50-500 μM) in the optimized Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium highly influenced the shoot bud formation and subsequent elongation, which induced maximum percentage (95%) regeneration, number (61.7 ± 0.25) of shoots with shoot length (5.46 ± 0.16 cm) on CuSO₄ (100 μM) and maximum percentage regeneration (100%), number of shoots (66.1 ± 0.96) with shoot length (6.24 ± 0.21 cm) on ZnSO₄ (300 μM) after 12 weeks of culture. Healthy growing in vitro microshoots rooted efficiently on ½ MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.5 μM), which induced (16.2 ± 0.12) roots with root length (3.30 ± 0.12 cm) after 4 weeks. Pigment content increased with increasing concentration of Cu and Zn and the maximum Chl. a (0.47), (0.41); Chl. b (0.52), (0.42); total Chl. (0.99), (0.83) and Carotenoid (0.16), (0.16) mg/g FW contents in regenerants were found on CuSO₄ (100 μM) and ZnSO₄ (300 μM), respectively. Maximum proline content (0.17), (0.16) μg/g FW was observed on high concentrations of CuSO₄ (200 μM) and ZnSO₄ (500 μM) respectively, in the basal medium. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized successfully in soilrite with a survival rate of 95%. No morphological variations were detected among the micropropagated plants when compared with seedling raised plants of the same age.

  6. Nitrogen treatment enhances sterols and withaferin A through transcriptional activation of jasmonate pathway, WRKY transcription factors, and biosynthesis genes in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shaifali; Yadav, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Anup Kumar; Rastogi, Shubhra; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Pal, Anirban; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The medicinal plant Withania somnifera is researched extensively to increase the quantity of withanolides and specifically withaferin A, which finds implications in many pharmacological activities. Due to insufficient knowledge on biosynthesis and unacceptability of transgenic approach, it is preferred to follow alternative physiological methods to increase the yield of withanolides. Prior use of elicitors like salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, fungal extracts, and even mechanical wounding have shown to increase the withanolide biosynthesis with limited success; however, the commercial viability and logistics of application are debatable. In this investigation, we tested the simple nitrogeneous fertilizers pertaining to the enhancement of withaferin A biosynthesis. Application of ammonium sulfate improved the sterol contents required for the withanolide biosynthesis and correlated to higher expression of pathway genes like FPPS, SMT1, SMT2, SMO1, SMO2, and ODM. Increased expression of a gene homologous to allene oxide cyclase, crucial in jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, suggested the involvement of jasmonate signaling. High levels of WRKY gene transcripts indicated transcriptional regulation of the pathway genes. Increase in transcript level could be correlated with a corresponding increase in the protein levels for WsSMT1 and WsWRKY1. The withaferin A increase was also demonstrated in the potted plants growing in the glasshouse and in the open field. These results implicated simple physiological management of nitrogen fertilizer signal to improve the yield of secondary metabolite through probable involvement of jasmonate signal and WRKY transcription factor for the first time, in W. somnifera besides improving the foliage.

  7. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on in vitro flower and fruit formation and withanolides production in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Dev, Gnanajothi Kapil; Selvaraj, Natesan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-03-01

    We studied the influence of sucrose and nitrogen concentration on in vitro flowering and fruit setting in elongated shoots of Withania somnifera. BA (1.5 mg/l) and IAA (0.3 mg/l) on MS medium supplemented with 4% sucrose showed 67% of in vitro flower induction frequency, 9 flowers/shoot, 4 fruits/shoot and 11 seeds/fruit in elongated-shoots. Different concentrations of nitrogen sources (L-glutamine, adenine sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate 5-25 mg/l) were tested in combination with 4% sucrose and BA at 1.5 mg/l and IAA at 0.3 mg/l. Highest number of flowers (20 flowers/shoot; 2.2-fold) and fruits (16 fruits/shoot; 3.39-fold), fruit setting (12 seeds/fruit; 1.08-fold) at a higher frequency (88%) were achieved on MS medium augmented with 15 mg/l adenine sulphate with same PGRs and sucrose concentration. The maximum production of withanolide A (0.68 mg/g DW) and withanolide B (0.77 mg/g DW) was recorded in in vitro fruits. Highest accumulation of withaferin A (2 mg/g DW) was quantified from in vitro flowers, whereas, it was low in in vitro fruits (0.49 mg/g DW withaferin A). However, withanone (0.23 mg/g DW) was found accumulated uniformly in both in vitro flowers and fruits compared to control.

  8. Curative property of Withania somnifera Dunal root in the context of carbendazim-induced histopathological changes in the liver and kidney of rat.

    PubMed

    Akbarsha, M A; Vijendrakumar, S; Kadalmani, B; Girija, R; Faridha, A

    2000-12-01

    The liver and kidney of rat underwent severe histopathological lesions when treated with a single bolus dose of carbendazim, a fungicide, particularly affecting the hepatocytes and the renal corpuscles, respectively. The effects appear to be manifestations of the microtubule-disrupting activity of carbendazim. Treatment of carbendazim-treated rats with the powder of tuberous root of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) for 48 days resulted in complete cure of these organs. The results indicate that Withania somnifera would be an effective curative for carbendazim-induced histopathological changes in the liver and kidney.

  9. Effect of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal) root as a feed additive on immunological parameters and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun; Deo, Ashutosh D; Riteshkumar, S Tandel; Chanu, Thongam Ibemcha; Das, Arabinda

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of dietary doses of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root powder on immunological parameters and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila infections in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with dry diet containing 0 gkg(-1) (control), 1 gkg(-1) (T(1)), 2 gkg(-1) (T(2)) and 3 gkg(-1) (T(3)) W. somnifera root powder for 42 days. Immunological (NBT level, Phagocytic activity, total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity) parameters of fishes were examined at 0 days, 14 days, 28 days and 42 days of feeding. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and mortalities (%) were recorded over 14 days post-infection. The results demonstrate that fishes fed with W. somnifera root showed enhanced NBT level, Phagocytic activity, total Immunoglobulin level and lysozyme activity (p<0.05) compared with the control group. The survivability was higher in experimental diets than the control group. Dietary W. somnifera at the level of 2 gkg(-1) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher protection (RPS 42.85+/-0.65%) against A. hydrophila infection than control. The results suggest that the W. somnifera root powder have a stimulatory effect on immunological parameters and increases disease resistance in L. rohita fingerlings against A. hydrophila infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer has become a global public health problem and the search for new control measures is urgent. Investigation of plant products such as essential oils from Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora might lead to new anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the antineoplastic activity of essential oils from fruits of these plants growing in Chad and Cameroon. Methods The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora collected in Chad and Cameroon were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results Overall, monoterpenes were mostly found in the six essential oils. Oils from X. aethiopica and X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon mainly contain β-pinene at 24.6%, 28.2%, 35.7% and 32.9% respectively. Monodora myristica oils from both origins contain mainly α-phellandrene at 52.7% and 67.1% respectively. The plant origin did not significantly influence the chemical composition of oils. The six essential oils exerted cytotoxic activity against cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (ARPE-19), with more pronounced effect on neoplastic cells in the majority of cases. The highest selectivity was obtained with the essential oils of X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon (5.87 and 5.54) which were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than against normal cell line (ARPE-19) with IC50 values of 0.155 μL/mL and 0.166 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions Essential oils from fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora have shown acceptable antineoplastic potency, and might be investigated further in this regard. PMID:24708588

  11. Effect of cadmium stress on inductive enzymatic and nonenzymatic responses of ROS and sugar metabolism in multiple shoot cultures of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bhawana; Sangwan, Rajender S; Mishra, Smrati; Jadaun, Jyoti S; Sabir, Farzana; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-09-01

    Withania somnifera is one of the most important medicinal plant and is credited with various pharmacological activities. In this study, in vitro multiple shoot cultures were exposed to different concentrations (5-300 μM) of cadmium (Cd) as cadmium sulphate to explore its ability to accumulate the heavy metal ion and its impact on the metabolic status and adaptive responses. The results showed that supplemental exposure to Cd interfered with N, P, and K uptake creating N, P, and K deficiency at higher doses of Cd that also caused stunting of growth, chlorosis, and necrosis. The study showed that in vitro shoots could markedly accumulate Cd in a concentration-dependent manner. Enzymatic activities and isozymic pattern of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were altered substantially under Cd exposure. Sugar metabolism was also markedly modulated under Cd stress. Various other parameters including contents of photosynthetic pigments, phenolics, tocopherol, flavonoids, reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, ascorbate, and proline displayed major inductive responses reflecting their protective role. The results showed that interplay of enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic responses constituted a system endeavor of tolerance of Cd accumulation and an efficient scavenging strategy of its stress implications.

  12. Light and auxin responsive cytochrome P450s from Withania somnifera Dunal: cloning, expression and molecular modelling of two pairs of homologue genes with differential regulation.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Tripathi, Sandhya; Mishra, Bhawana; Narnoliya, L K; Misra, L N; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2015-11-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) catalyse a wide variety of oxygenation/hydroxylation reactions that facilitate diverse metabolic functions in plants. Specific CYP families are essential for the biosynthesis of species-specialized metabolites. Therefore, we investigated the role of different CYPs related to secondary metabolism in Withania somnifera, a medicinally important plant of the Indian subcontinent. In this study, complete complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of four different CYP genes were isolated and christened as WSCYP93Id, WSCYP93Sm, WSCYP734B and WSCYP734R. These cDNAs encoded polypeptides comprising of 498, 496, 522 and 550 amino acid residues with their deduced molecular mass of 56.7, 56.9, 59.4 and 62.2 kDa, respectively. Phylogenetic study and molecular modelling analysis of the four cloned WSCYPs revealed their categorization into two CYP families (CYP83B1 and CYP734A1) belonging to CYP71 and CYP72 clans, respectively. BLASTp searches showed similarity of 75 and 56 %, respectively, between the two CYP members of CYP83B1 and CYP734A1 with major variances exhibited in their N-terminal regions. The two pairs of homologues exhibited differential expression profiles in the leaf tissues of selected chemotypes of W. somnifera as well as in response to treatments such as methyl jasmonate, wounding, light and auxin. Light and auxin regulated two pairs of WSCYP homologues in a developing seedling in an interesting differential manner. Their lesser resemblance and homology with other CYP sequences suggested these genes to be more specialized and distinct ones. The results on chemotype-specific expression patterns of the four genes strongly suggested their key/specialized involvement of the CYPs in the biosynthesis of chemotype-specific metabolites, though their further biochemical characterization would reveal the specificity in more detail. It is revealed that WSCYP93Id and WSCYP93Sm may be broadly involved in the oxygenation reactions in the plant and, thereby, control various pathways involving such metabolic reactions in the plant. As a representative experimental validation of this notion, WSCYP93Id was heterologouly expressed in Escherichia coli and catalytic capabilities of the recombinant WSCYP93Id protein were evaluated using withanolides as substrates. Optimized assays with some major withanolides (withanone, withaferin A and withanolide A) involving spectrophotometric as well as high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based evaluation (product detection) of the reactions showed conversion of withaferin A to a hydroxylated product. The genes belonging to other CYP group are possibly involved in some specialised synthesis such as that of brassinosteroids.

  13. Secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes as influenced under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in Withania somnifera Dunal, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of supplemental ultraviolet B (3.6 kJ m(-2)day(-1) above ambient) radiation on secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes of Withania somnifera under field conditions at 40, 70, and 100 days after transplantation. Secondary metabolites' (alkaloids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, lignin, phytosterols, saponins, and tannins) concentrations were analysed at the end of the treatments. Activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHI), and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) were also determined. In treated plants, secondary metabolite-concentrations generally increased (higher concentrations being recorded in roots compared to leaves). Anomalies were recorded for lycopene in roots and phytosterols in leaves (all sampling ages); β-carotene declined in leaves at third sampling age. s-UV-B-treated plants depicted decrease in withanolide A content with concomitant increase in withaferin A (two major alkaloids analysed by HPLC) compared to their respective controls. Phenylpropanoid pathway enzyme-activities increased in leaves and roots under s-UV-B treatment, the latter showing greater increase. The study concludes that s-UV-B is a potent factor in increasing the concentrations of secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic pathway enzymes in W. somnifera.

  14. Enhanced Biosynthesis of Withanolides by Elicitation and Precursor Feeding in Cell Suspension Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal in Shake-Flask Culture and Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the biosynthesis of major and minor withanolides of Withania somnifera in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Elicitors like cadmium chloride, aluminium chloride and chitosan, precursors such as cholesterol, mevalonic acid and squalene were examined. Maximum total withanolides detected [withanolide A (7606.75 mg), withanolide B (4826.05 mg), withaferin A (3732.81 mg), withanone (6538.65 mg), 12 deoxy withanstramonolide (3176.63 mg), withanoside IV (2623.21 mg) and withanoside V (2861.18 mg)] were achieved in the combined treatment of chitosan (100 mg/l) and squalene (6 mM) along with 1 mg/l picloram, 0.5 mg/l KN, 200 mg/l L-glutamine and 5% sucrose in culture at 4 h and 48 h exposure times respectively on 28th day of culture in bioreactor. We obtained higher concentrations of total withanolides in shake-flask culture (2.13-fold) as well as bioreactor (1.66-fold) when compared to control treatments. This optimized protocol can be utilized for commercial level production of withanolides from suspension culture using industrial bioreactors in a short culture period. PMID:25089711

  15. A Decade of Molecular Understanding of Withanolide Biosynthesis and In vitro Studies in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: Prospects and Perspectives for Pathway Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Bhat, Wajid W.; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K.

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera, a multipurpose medicinal plant is a rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active triterpenoids that are steroidal lactones known as withanolides. Though the plant has been well-characterized in terms of phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. This scenario limits biotechnological interventions for enhanced production of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, recent emergent trends vis-à-vis, the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics, and in vitro studies have opened new vistas regarding pathway engineering of withanolide production. During recent years, various strategic pathway genes have been characterized with significant amount of regulatory studies which allude toward development of molecular circuitries for production of key intermediates or end products in heterologous hosts. Another pivotal aspect covering redirection of metabolic flux for channelizing the precursor pool toward enhanced withanolide production has also been attained by deciphering decisive branch point(s) as robust targets for pathway modulation. With these perspectives, the current review provides a detailed overview of various studies undertaken by the authors and collated literature related to molecular and in vitro approaches employed in W. somnifera for understanding various molecular network interactions in entirety. PMID:26640469

  16. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  17. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    PubMed

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development.

  18. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  19. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  20. Actitud y conocimiento sobre donación de órganos de estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública del noreste de México.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Ruiz, María José; Guerra-Sáenz, Elda Karina; Vargas-Yamanaka, Anna Karen; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Ríos-Zambudio, Antonio; García-Cabello, Ricardo; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Averiguar la actitud y el conocimiento que tienen los estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública del noreste de México sobre la donación de órganos y tejidos. Estudio prolectivo, descriptivo, observacional y transversal. Se incluyeron 3056 encuestas de 34 reactivos realizadas a estudiantes de medicina durante el periodo 2013-2015 y se eliminaron aquellas con menos del 80% de los reactivos contestados. Análisis estadístico: frecuencias absolutas, porcentajes, medias, desviación estándar y prueba de ji al cuadrado. Se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0.05. El 74% de los estudiantes donaría sus órganos y el 41% lo haría por reciprocidad; del 26% que no donaría sus órganos, el 48% no lo haría por temor a que tomen sus órganos antes de estar muerto. Un 86% estaría dispuesto a donar los órganos de algún familiar. El 64% ha comentado el tema de la donación con su familia y el 67% con amigos. El 50% no ha recibido información alguna sobre el tema. El 68% entiende el concepto de muerte encefálica. Pocos estudiantes reciben información sobre donación de órganos al llegar a la universidad; pese a ello, la mayoría tiene una actitud positiva y estarían -dispuestos a -donar. The issue of organ donation is scarcely addressed during undergraduate medical studies. To evaluate the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation of medicine students of a Northwestern Mexico public university. A prolective, descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study. A 34 items cross-sectional survey evaluating knowledge and attitude towards organ donation in 3056 medicine students during 2013-2015. Descriptive statistics were used as absolute frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation, as well as the Chi-square test. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. 74% of students would donate their own organs, mainly due to reciprocity (41%). 26% of students would not donate, 48% of them because of fear that their organs could be taken before death

  1. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  2. Enhancement of antitumor effect of paclitaxel in combination with immunomodulatory Withania somnifera on benzo(a)pyrene induced experimental lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Senthilnathan, Palaniyandi; Padmavathi, Radhakrishnan; Banu, Syed Mumtaz; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2006-02-25

    The current experimental work deals with the immunomodulatory studies on the extract of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root powder against benzo(a)pyrene induced lung cancer in male Swiss albino mice. In our previous study, we reported the antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effect of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal along with paclitaxel. Immune dysfunction has been found to be associated with cancer and chemotherapy. Benzo(a)pyrene induced cancer animals were treated with 400mg/kg bodyweight of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal extract for 30 days significantly alters the levels of immunocompetent cells, immune complexes and immunoglobulins. Based on the data, the carcinogen as well as the paclitaxel affects the immune system, the toxic side effects on the immune system is more reversible and more controllable by W. somnifera (L.) Dunal. These results concluded the immunomodulatory activity of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal extract, which is a known immunomodulator in indigenous medicine.

  3. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    B 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  4. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  5. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Propano

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El propano provee energia a mas de 143.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y 23 millones en todo el mundo. Flotas de todos los Estados Unidos han implementado con exito el uso de vehiculos que funcionan con gas propano, y en la actualidad varios funcionan gracias a este gas, incluyendo autobuses escolares, lanzaderas y autobuses publicos, asi como tambien furgonetas, taxis, vehiculos utilizados por las fuerzas del orden, barredoras de calles y camiones para uso profesional. El propano tambien se utiliza con frecuencia en aplicaciones fuera de la carretera, tales como montacargas, podadoras y equipos de uso profesional y otros equipos agricolas. Las ventajas del propano incluyen la disponibilidad interna, su rendimiento y el hecho de que genera menos emisiones de gases contaminantes que otras alternativas energeticas.

  6. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  7. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  8. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  9. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Sagittaria sagittifolia Linnaeus (arrowhead) Salvinia auriculata Aublet (giant salvinia) Salvinia biloba Raddi (giant salvinia) Salvinia herzogii de la Sota (giant salvinia) Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell (giant salvinia) Solanum tampicense Dunal (wetland nightshade) Sparganium erectum Linnaeus (exotic bur...

  10. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  11. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  12. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  13. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  14. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  15. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  16. Investigaciones sobre cascadas electromagnéticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, M.; Pellizza, L.; Romero, G. E.

    Results from the latest generations of telescopes have revealed a rich sky at high and very high energies with more than a thousand sources at GeV energies and more than a hundred sources at TeV energies. The sources are galactic and extra-galactic natural particle accelerators where emission processes operate efficiently at the gamma-ray domain. The development of pair-photon cascades within the source or along the line of sight may modify the originally emitted spectrum. This effect should be included in our interpretation of the observations in order to progress in the understanding of the physical origin of the emission. Through numerical simulations; we follow the three-dimensional trajectories of such cascades. I here report on the status of our investigations; with focus on the propagation through the background photon fields. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Reflecting on Language. (Reflexionando Sobre el Idioma.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazas, Jose Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Covering a 500-year span, this article traces the changes in and evolution of the Spanish language from its earliest written accounts in the eleventh century to the Spanish that was brought by the Conquistadores to the New World. (DS)

  18. Nota sobre "Neblina" (Notes on "Neblina")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyne, Jacques

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the Royal Spanish Academy change the definition of "neblina" in the next edition of the "Dictionary of the Spanish Language" to "niebla ligera" or "light fog," and cites literary usage in support. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  19. Nota sobre "Neblina" (Notes on "Neblina")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyne, Jacques

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the Royal Spanish Academy change the definition of "neblina" in the next edition of the "Dictionary of the Spanish Language" to "niebla ligera" or "light fog," and cites literary usage in support. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  20. Reflecting on Language. (Reflexionando Sobre el Idioma.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazas, Jose Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Covering a 500-year span, this article traces the changes in and evolution of the Spanish language from its earliest written accounts in the eleventh century to the Spanish that was brought by the Conquistadores to the New World. (DS)

  1. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of…

  2. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  3. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of…

  4. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  5. Sobre | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  6. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una

  7. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  8. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar.

  9. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  10. Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Using RAPD Markers

    Treesearch

    Hongwen Huang; Desmond R. Layne; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four extant pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] cultivars and advanced selections representing a large portion of the gene pool of cultivated pawpaws were investigated using 71 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to establish genetic identities and evaluate genetic relatedness. All 34 cultivated pawpaws were uniquely...

  11. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  12. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  13. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  14. RAPD inheritance and diversity in pawpaw (Asimina triloba)

    Treesearch

    Hongwen Huang; Desmond R. Layne; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2000-01-01

    Twelve, 10-base primers amplified a total of 20 intense and easily scorable polymorphic bands in an interspecific cross of PPFl-5 pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal.) x RET (Asimina reticulata Shuttlew.). In this cross, all bands scored were present in, and inherited from, the A. triloba ...

  15. Growth, Flowering and Cold Hardiness of Rockrose in Western Oregon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ninety-three species, cultivars, and hybrid selections of Cistus spp. L., Halimium spp. Spach. (Dunal) and ×Halimiocistus spp. Janch. were evaluated for growth, flowering, and cold hardiness in a landscape trial in Aurora, OR, from 2004 to 2009. Plants were irrigated to aid establishment when plant...

  16. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA sinc...

  17. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  18. Evaluation of mortality factors using life table analysis of Gratiana boliviana, a biological control agent of tropical soda apple in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (TSA), Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae), has invaded many pastures and natural areas in Florida. The biological control agent Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is providing adequate control of TSA stands in South and Central Florida. However, poor or no es...

  19. Influence of sun and shade conditions on Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance and feeding activity on tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a perennial invasive weed species which has become a serious problem in both agricultural and natural areas of the southeastern United States. A field survey was conducted at a ranch in Madison County, Florida, to assess the effect of sun and shade condi...

  20. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  1. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas...

  2. ESTABLISHMENT, SPREAD AND INITIAL IMPACTS OF GRATIANA BOLIVIANA (CHRYSOMELIDAE) ON SOLANUM VIARUM IN FLORIDA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) is an invasive perennial shrub in southeastern USA. Native to South America, it was first found in Florida in 1988, and it has already invaded more than 400,000 ha of grasslands and conservation areas in 11 states. Currently recommended control tactics for this we...

  3. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An open-field experiment was conducted to asses the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buen...

  4. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA since...

  5. The Meanings of Astronomical Observation: An Analysis on the Basis of Relationship with Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Los Sentidos de la Observación Astronómica: un Análisis sobre la Base de la Relación con el Saber.) Os Sentidos da Observação Astronômica: Uma Análise com Base na Relação com o Saber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alberto Eduardo; de Mello Arruda, Sergio; Meneghello Passos, Marinez; Vinicius Domenes Zapparoli, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of a research which aimed to understand the meanings that people construct for astronomical observation. The subjects, students and school teachers, initially received some instruction on how to view astronomical objects through the telescope. After the observation was realized, they were interviewed. The data analysis allowed the creation of 12 categories, later interpreted on the basis of relationship with knowledge (relation to the world, with himself and with others), as presented by Bernard Charlot. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentidos que las personas construyen para la observación astronómica. Los sujetos, los estudiantes y maestros de escuela, recibieron inicialmente algunas instrucciones sobre cómo ver los objetos astronómicos a través del telescopio. Al término de la observación, fueron entrevistados. El análisis de datos permitió la creación de 12 categorías que más tarde fueron interpretadas sobre la base de la relación con el conocimiento (relación con el mundo, consigo mismo y con los demás), tal como presentado por Bernard Charlot. Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou entender quais os sentidos que as pessoas constroem para a observação astronômica. Os sujeitos da pesquisa, estudantes e professores do ensino médio, receberam inicialmente alguma instrução sobre como visualizar os objetos astronômicos através do telescópio. Após a realização da observação, eles foram entrevistados. A análise dos dados permitiu a elaboração de 12 categorias que foram posteriormente interpretadas com base nas relações com o saber (relação com o mundo, consigo mesmo e com o outro), conforme apresentadas por Bernard Charlot.

  6. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  7. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  8. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco,…

  9. Posible influencia de exoplanetas sobre la actividad estelar: nuevos resultados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M. G.; Collado, A. E.; Jaque Arancibia, M.; Saffe, C. E.; Buccino, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    Our main aim of this work is to analyze 2 phenomena possibly related and at the same time very discussed in the literature. On the one hand, the difference in the activity levels shown by stars with and without planets. On the other hand, the excess of Lithium (Li) depletion presented by stars with planets when they are compared to stars with similar characteristics that do not host planets. To reach our main aim, the work has been divided into 3 stages. Thus, in this second contribution we present an analysis of the activity indexes calculated for the whole sample. To do so, we used high resolution spectra () of 1004 FGK stars taken with the HARPS (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) spectrograph, installed in the 3.6 m ESO telescope. We do not find a significant difference in the activity indexes of stars with and without planets. Furthermore, the chromosphere activity is not correlated with the mass of the planet.

  10. Reflexiones Sobre Investigacion Educacional (Reflections on Educational Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Educational research can serve to improve education in both developed and developing countries. It can be oriented toward increasing knowledge about the educational reality, generating theories, or confirming immediate educational political decisions. Educational research should be an interdisciplinary undertaking; this variety helps to unify…

  11. Información general sobre los mosquitos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Una consecuencia más importante de algunas picaduras de mosquitos es la trasmisión de ciertas enfermedades graves como el paludismo, la fiebre del dengue y varias formas de encefalitis, que incluyen el virus del Nilo occidental.

  12. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  13. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un código de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabático. Dicho código está basado en la técnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cálculos de estructura y evolución estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el código mencionado al caso de una polítropa de índice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsación de dicha configuración politrópica. En un futuro próximo, se aplicará este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  14. Pensamientos Sobre (Thoughts on) Teaching English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Mari-Luci

    This document presents ideas on various topics in teaching English as a second language. Some of the problems of English orthography and semantics are illustrated. The role of contrastive analysis is mentioned with Spanish-English illustrations. A list of second-language-acquisition principles and techniques is provided, and suggestions for…

  15. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  16. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  17. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  18. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  19. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This scholarly journal deals with the study of education. Articles in this second issue are: "La Vertebracion Academica de la Formacion Inicial del Profesorado" (The Academic Backbone of the Initial Formation of Teachers) (Jose M. Esteve); "Deficiencia Visual en el Nino" (Visual Deficiency in the Young Child) (Feli Peralta;…

  20. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  1. Sobre prestamos y clasificaciones linguisticas (Regarding Borrowing and Linguistic Classification).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the traditionally accepted etymologies of several lexical borrowings in the indigenous languages of the Americas within the framework of comparative linguistics and linguistic classification. The first section presents a general discussion of the problem of tracing lexical borrowings in this context. The section features a…

  2. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  3. Posible influencia de exoplanetas sobre la actividad estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M.; Saffe, C.; Buccino, A. P.; Jaque Arancibia, M.; Mauas, P.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analize the possible difference in the levels of activity showed by stars with and without planets. Several authors have suggested that stars with planets, in particular those with hot-Jupiter-like planets, have activity levels greater than those showed for stars of the same spectral class, but without planets. In this contribution we present the analysis of chromospheric activity indexes for 353 objects. To do so, we used high-resolution spectra () of F-, G-, and K-type stars taken with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, installed at the 3.6 m ESO telescope. We do no find a significant difference in the activity indexes of stars with and without planets.

  4. Proposiciones Sobre Autonomia Universitaria. (Propositions on University Autonomy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    University autonomy is a concept widely discussed and often misunderstood. In the Latin American context, university autonomy has been regarded as something inherent to the nature of the universities. As long as universities exist, the phenomenon of university autonomy will be present . University autonomy should be examined in the light of such…

  5. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…

  6. Leamos Sobre Veinte Ocupaciones! Twenty Trades to Read About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamatino, Robyn; Mintz, Adin

    Twenty trades are explored in this bilingual supplementary workbook, designed specifically for native Spanish speakers who are in the process of learning English. The purpose of this book is to ease the Spanish-speaking student from his/her native language into English with as little discomfort as possible. There are twenty chapters in the book…

  7. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  8. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez B., L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  9. Gobierno Federal Contina Investigacin Cientfica Sobre Erupciones en Flint

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Flint, MICH. (24 de marzo, 2016) - Los expertos federales, del estado y del condado de salud y agua entienden que los residentes de Flint están preocupados por la calidad general de su agua-tanto como para beber y para bañarse. En este momento, el an

  10. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles mostly in Spanish and a few in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas) about educational issues, as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 3, 2002) are: "Unprotected Time of Early Adolescence and Intergenerational Relations: A New…

  11. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  12. Los ojos de la NASA sobre la Tierra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    La NASA cuenta con más de una decena de satélites que estudian la Tierra. Conoce la información que recaban los satélites, junto con Gilberto Colón, asistente especial del subdirector del Centro de...

  13. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Primeros frutos (Initiative about Effectiveness: First Fruits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin is a follow-up to No. 15 (PS 030 558), which examined some Effectiveness Initiative (EI) projects. This issue presents some beginning efforts to reflect on what has been learned through EI and to draw conclusions. The articles cover the results of EI projects from such angles as their relations with…

  14. Informe Sobre la Conferencia (Think Tank) de Aspira Nacional Sobre Education Bilingue (Aspira National Think Tank Report: Bilingual Education)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspira, Inc., New York, NY.

    This Spanish edition reports on the Aspira National Think Tank Conference attended by educational leaders and social scientists representing the major bilingual communities namely, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Cubans. The conference studied four major topics: (1) equality and not similarity, theory, rationale, and objectives of bilingual…

  15. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  16. Confirming the identity of two enigmatic “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae) collected by Jean-Baptiste Leschenault in Java

    PubMed Central

    Aubriot, Xavier; Loup, Caroline; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Taxonomic revision of the tropical Asian species of Solanum revealed two names, Solanum poka Dunal and Solanum graciliflorum Dunal, whose identities were uncertain and whose application has always been tentative. Material collected in Java at the beginning of the 19th century by Jean-Baptiste Leschenault de la Tour and used to describe these taxa has not been found, despite extensive searches in European herbaria. We here stabilise use of these names by comparing herbarium specimens and drawings of original material made by the artist Toussaint François Node-Véran. Detailed descriptions with synonymy, preliminary conservation assessments and specimen citations are provided for both species. Lectotypes are designated for all names (including synonyms) and epitypes designated for Solanum poka and Solanum graciliflorum to stabilise usage. PMID:27829800

  17. [Leaf anatomy study in Solanaceae of Venezuela. V. leaf anatomy of eleven species of Cestrum L] .

    PubMed

    Jáuregul, D; Rodriguez, N; Benítez, C E

    2000-01-01

    Leaf anatomy of the following eleven species: C. buxifolium Kunth, C. humboldtii Francey, C. lindenii Dunal, C. mariquitense Kunth, C. megalophyllum Dunal, C. olivaceum Francey, C. pariense Steyerm., C petiolare Kunth, C. scandans Vahl, C. strigilatum Ruiz et Pavón and C. tomentosum L.f. is described. Transverse sectioning, bruise and clearing according to the classical methods for optical microscopy were made. The species studied show dissimilitude in relation to a) fohar blade: thickness and sinuosity of epidermal cell walls; type, density and presence of trichornes, leaf type according the position of the stomata, thickness of both palisade and spongy parenchy-ma, number of spongy parenchyma layers, occurrence or not of paranchymatous sheath and sclerifled cells in mesophyll, tmbeculae or projection walls b) Midvein: degree of development and arrangement of the parenchyma and collenchyma, c) Petiole: size and form in transverse section, presence of ornamented cuticle, peridermis and degree of development of the sclerenctiyma next to vascular bundles.

  18. Effects of Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera) on neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Tohda, Chihiro; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases commonly induce irreversible destruction of central nervous system (CNS) neuronal networks, resulting in permanent functional impairments. Effective medications against neurodegenerative diseases are currently lacking. Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera Dunal) is used in traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) for general debility, consumption, nervous exhaustion, insomnia, and loss of memory. In this review, we summarize various effects and mechanisms of Ashwagandha extracts and related compounds on in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury.

  19. Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of “non-spiny” Solanum from South America are described. Solanum longifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanum macrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanum antisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanum polytrichostylum Bitter. Solanum arenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanum aloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanum mariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanum caripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:25698893

  20. Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of "non-spiny" Solanum from South America are described. Solanumlongifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanummacrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanumantisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanumpolytrichostylum Bitter. Solanumarenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanumaloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanummariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanumcaripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.

  1. Spatial Distribution and Coexisting Patterns of Adults and Nymphs of Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Paddy Rice Fields.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Maia, Aline H N; Barrigossi, José A F

    2016-12-01

    adultos e ninfas de T. limbativentris e determinar a coexistência espacial entre os estágios de desenvolvimento. As densidades de adultos e ninfas foram estimadas em quinze campos de arroz irrigado. A amostragem foi realizada em grades regulares com pontos de amostragem separados por ∼50 m. Moran's I e semivariogramas foram usados para determinar os padrões de distribuição espacial. A coexistência espacial foi explorada pela análise de processos pontuais. Foi observado que adultos e ninfas tiveram padrões contrastantes de distribuição espacial dentro do mesmo campo; no entanto, a frequência de agregação não foi diferente entre esses estágios de desenvolvimento. Adultos e ninfas estavam agregados em sete campos e distribuídos aleatoriamente nos outros oito campos. Não foi observada a distribuição uniforme de adultos ou ninfas. O alcance médio dos semivariogramas foi de ∼40 m para os adultos e ∼55 m para as ninfas. Ninfas e adultos coexistiram espacialmente em 67% dos campos. Os padrões de coexistência foram classificados usando um dos seguintes processos: independente do estágio de desenvolvimento, atração bilateral, atração unilateral, inibição bilateral, ou inibição unilateral. Nosso estudo poderá contribuir para o desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem para tomada de decisão e implementação de táticas para o manejo de sítios específicos. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  3. Recursos de Trabajo: Informacion sobre Carreras (Occupational Resources: Career Information). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    Part of a two-level career education curriculum initially developed for migrant children, the book is the first of three secondary level texts designed to provide high school students with self-awareness, job and role information, and decision-making/goal attaining information related to career education. The text provides job and role information…

  4. Homework Tips for Parents = Consejos para los padres sobre la tarea escola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Homework has been a part of students' lives since the beginning of formal school in the United States; the push for increased homework has increased, fueled by rising academic standards. Noting that parents involved can have either a positive or a negative influence on the value of homework, this booklet, in both English and Spanish, offers…

  5. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  6. Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

    Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

  7. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  8. Las Preguntas Que Hacen los Padres sobre la Escuela (Questions Parents Ask about School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center for…

  9. Questions Parents Ask about Schools = Preguntas que hacen los padres sobre las escuelas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Noting that parents play an important role in the school success of their elementary- and middle-school-aged children, this booklet offers research-based tips to provide both practical guidance and information about a range of education-related topics. Presented in a question-answer format in both English and Spanish versions, the booklet provides…

  10. Bibliografia sobre el "bilinguismo" del Paraguay (A Bibliography on Bilingualism in Paraguay)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Bartomeu

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of ninety-five entries ranging in publication date from 1847 to 1947 brings together information from areas of history, literature, sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, folk-lore and language planning, the central criterion being the relationship of these areas specifically to the bilingual…

  11. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury. Fact Sheet = Lesion Cerebral Traumatica (TBI). Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, offers general information about traumatic brain injury. Information includes a definition, incidence, individual characteristics, and educational implications. The signs of traumatic brain injury are listed and include physical disabilities, difficulties with thinking, and social, behavioral,…

  13. SOBR: A High-Performance Shared Output Buffered Router for Networks-on-Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yancang; Xie, Lunguo

    This paper presents a single-cycle shared output buffered router for Networks-on-Chip. In output ports, each input port always has an output virtual-channel (VC) which can be exchanged by VC swapper. Its critical path is only 24 logic gates, and it reduces 9.4% area overhead compared with the classical router.

  14. Notas sobre los Sonidos Consonantes en Espanol (Notes on Consonant Sounds in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezquerra, Raimundo

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the Spanish phonetic system, as set forth by Navarro Tomas in his "Manual de Pronunciacion Espanola," and discusses the influences exerted by certain sounds over others. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  15. Nota sobre el "Se" como Sujeto Indefinido (A Note on "Se" as an Indefinite Subject)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Marta

    1975-01-01

    Contradicts Pablo Jordan's theory that certain "se" constructions in Spanish are neither passive nor reflexive. It is claimed that syntactic evidence reveals two types of impersonal structures, the impersonal active and the passive reflexive. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  16. Notas sobre dos autores mejicoamericanos de California (Notes on Two Mexican-American Authors in California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moesser, Alba

    This paper discusses the work of two Mexican American authors, Jose A. Villerreal and Richard Vazquez, using "Pocho" by Villarreal and "Chicano" by Vazquez as the focus for discussion. Both authors describe the world of Mexican Americans and their social conditions, and both underscore the need for conserving their native…

  17. Curso Introductorio sobre el Sistema DIALOG (Introductory Course on the DIALOG System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ketty

    As an introduction to the use of the DIALOG online retrieval service, this guide presents material that was developed during a fellowship at Carlos III University, School of Library Science and Documentation, Madrid (Spain) and that is based on a course on the same subject taught in English at Texas Women's University. Although the use of DIALOG…

  18. Recopilacion Bibliografica Sobre Investigacion y Cambio Cultural (Bibliographic Compilation about Cultural Investigation and Exchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Latinoamericano de Educacion de Adultos, Santiago (Chile).

    The bibliography forms part of a project to define guidelines for a method of cultural investigation in the education of adults. A brief introduction is followed by a list of libraries and the plan for the listing of entries in the bibliography. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author under the following general headings: background on the…

  19. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  20. Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Patricia

    Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

  1. Glasario de Terminos sobre Germinacion de Semillas para Especialistas en Arboles Semilleros

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner

    1985-01-01

    The glossary, written in Spanish, is designed for scientists and technicians concerned with testing or research with forest tree seeds. Definitions have been simplified as much as possible without sacrificing their technical meanings.

  2. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una componente semidiurna. El modelo analítico planteado en este trabajo, predice el comportamiento de los residuos que se observan en las publicaciones más recientes. Esto abre el camino para plantear una estimación distinta de las incógnitas del problema, basado en el método de colocación por mínimos cuadrados. Ello requiere modelar estadísticamente la señal debida a las componentes de la PRS que no son tomadas en cuenta en el modelo determinista.

  3. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  4. Ahorre Energia: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energia en el hogar (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Learn how to save money with Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home, from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Energy Saver guide will help you reduce your monthly energy costs and live more efficiently. This guide takes you through the systems and appliances that consume the most energy in your home, and provides solutions to cut costs for you while saving the environment. The Energy Saver guide also includes transportation tips to help you save money at the pump.

  5. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  6. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  7. Perspectiva General sobre la Sordo-Ceguera (Overview on Deaf-Blindness). DB-LINK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This overview provides basic information on the causes of deaf-blindness and the particular challenges faced by individuals who are deaf-blind. Causes of deaf-blindness include various syndromes, multiple congenital anomalies, prematurity, congenital prenatal dysfunction, and various postnatal causes. Differences between people deaf-blind from…

  8. Sobre Algumas Tecnicas de Perturbacao Utilizadas no Problema Ressonante 3/1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthazar, J. M.; Sagnier, J. L.; Ferraz Mello, S.; Koiller, J.; Yokoyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    ABSTRACT. This work concerns with the study of a particular 3/1 resonant problem for which we have determined formal solutions according to the model belonging to the domain of the Restricted Elliptic Problem of Three Bodies. Key & : ASTEROIDS

  9. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  10. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  11. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  12. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  13. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  14. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  15. Bibliografia sobre el "bilinguismo" del Paraguay (A Bibliography on Bilingualism in Paraguay)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Bartomeu

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of ninety-five entries ranging in publication date from 1847 to 1947 brings together information from areas of history, literature, sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, folk-lore and language planning, the central criterion being the relationship of these areas specifically to the bilingual…

  16. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…

  17. ¿Origen dinámico del polvo sobre la superficie de Iapetus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    We implement the three-dimensional Circular Restricted Three Body Prob- lem for low energy particles entering the Saturn­Iapetus system from the recently discovered dust ring. The distribution of impacts with the surface of Iapetus so obtained shows features resembling that of the dark regions observed in this satellite. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  19. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  20. Sobre las soluciones acotadas del problema instantáneo de dos cuerpos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavista, C.

    La demostración se basa en el hecho de que las integrales del problema de los N-cuerpos admiten componentes en el campo complejo según las raíces n-ésimas de la unidad. Definida la matriz unitaria correspondiente, la fórmula de Cayley permite transformar la matriz unitaria en una matriz hermitiana. Utilizando como parámetros los cosenos direccionales de un sistema de coordenadas orbitales referidos a un sistema de referencia fijo, puede construirse, utilizando el operador hermitiano antes definido, una forma cuadrática cuyas raíces mínima y máxima definen las cotas respectivas de los movimientos de los mencionados cosenos direccionales.

  1. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  2. Sobre la ensenanza de la literatura hispanoamericana (The Teaching of Hispanoamerican Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Keith

    There are three main problems in teaching Latin American literature: (1) It is difficult to maintain a regional overview, while, at the same time, including a sense of the literary history of Latin America; (2) It is necessary to teach literature so that the material seems worthwhile in its own right and not only as a complement to other…

  3. Consideraciones sobre la Ansiedad en la Primera Infancia (Considerations Concerning Anxiety in Early Infancy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Elsa

    The results of an experience obtained while working with children in the early stages of infancy are presented. They are basically observations taken of a child's reaction to sudden changes, particularly separation from its mother. Anxiety was observed in these infants in diverse circumstances; in some cases it was at a normal level and in others…

  4. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Un entorno para el aprendizaje (Initiative about Effectiveness: An Environment for Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles focusing on the Effectiveness Initiative (EI), a project of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for making a qualitative analysis of those elements of the programs of Early Childhood Development (ECD) that benefit the participants and their communities and cultures. The first article…

  5. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  6. Reflexiones Sobre la Capacitacion de Docentes (Reflections on In-Service Teacher Training).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Everyone concerned with educational systems performance agrees that the improvement of teaching qualities is a high priority in any educational effort. Teachers are assigned the role of change agents and are presented with new challenges, e.g., to make education global and permanent, flexible enough to serve in any environment (in or out of the…

  7. Transport of contaminants from energy-process-waste leachates through subsurface soils and soil components: laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wangen, L.E.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.

    1982-08-01

    The subsurface transport and attenuation of inorganic contaminants common to a variety of energy process waste leachates are being studied using laboratory column methods. Anionic species currently being emphasized are As, B, Mo, and Se. Transport of the cations Cd and Ni is also being studied. The solid adsorbents consist of three soil mineral components (silica sand, kaolinite, and goethite), and four subsurface soils (a dunal sand, an oxidic sandy clay loam, an acidic clay loam, and an alkaline clay loam). Breakthrough patterns of these species from packed soil columns are followed by monitoring eluent concentrations vs time under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. This report describes the experimental methods being used, the results of preliminary batch adsorption studies, and the results of column experiments completed through calendar year 1981. Using column influent concentrations of about 10 mg/l, adsorption (mmoles/100 g) has been determined from the eluent volume corresponding to 50% breakthrough. On silica sand, kaolinite, dunal sand, and goethite, respectively, these are 2.0 x 10/sup -4/, 0.020, 0.013, and 0.31 for cadmium, 4.4 x 10/sup -4/, 0.039, 0.020, and 0.98 for nickel. On kaolinite, dunal sand, and goethite, respectively, adsorption values (mmoles/100 g) are As (0.24, 0.019, and 20.5), B (0.041, 0.0019, and 1.77), Mo (0.048, 0.0010, and 5.93), and Se (0.029, 0.00048, and 1.30). Arsenic is the most highly adsorbed contaminant species and goethite has the largest adsorption capacity of the adsorbents.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Petunia Juss. (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Kulcheski, Franceli R; Muschner, Valéria C; Lorenz-Lemke, Aline P; Stehmann, João R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Salzano, Francisco M; Freitas, Loreta B

    2006-01-01

    Representatives from 11 Petunia Jussieu species in south and southeast Brazil were compared with two Calibrachoa La Llave & Lex., one Bouchetia Dunal, and two Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav. taxa in relation to DNA molecular variability. A total of 4532 base pairs related to one nuclear, five plastidial and one mitochondrial systems was investigated. Petunia and Calibrachoa, although separated among themselves, clearly differentiate from the two other genera. Despite the fact that the Petunia species do not show marked molecular differences, they can be separated in two complexes, in good agreement with altitude data. Petunia + Calibrachoa should have diverged from other clades at about 25 million years before present.

  9. A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from South Africa related to the cultivated eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, M.S.; Knapp, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new andromonoecious species related to the eggplant and belonging to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Africa is described. Solanum umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is found in the eastern part of South Africa, and is sympatric with its close relative Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.M-L.Jaeger. It is morphologically very similar to Solanum cerasiferum Dunal of northern tropical Africa. A comparison table with similar and closely related species is provided, as are a distribution map and illustration of Solanum umtuma. PMID:22287927

  10. Niebla ceruchis from Laguna Figueroa: dimorphic spore morphology and secondary compounds localized in pycnidia and apothecia.

    PubMed

    Enzien, M; Margulis, L

    1988-01-01

    During and after the floods of 1979-80 Niebla ceruchis growing epiphytically on Lycium brevipes was one of the dominant aspects of the vegetation in the coastal dunal complex bordering the microbial mats at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The lichen on denuded branches of Lycium was far more extensively distributed than Lycium lacking lichen. Unusual traits of this Niebla ceruchis strain, namely localization of lichen compounds in the mycobiont reproductive structures (pycnidia and apothecia) and simultaneous presence of bilocular and quadrilocular ascospores, are reported. The abundance of this coastal lichen cover at the microbial mat site has persisted through April 1988.

  11. Niebla ceruchis from Laguna Figueroa: dimorphic spore morphology and secondary compounds localized in pycnidia and apothecia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzien, M.; Margulis, L.

    1988-01-01

    During and after the floods of 1979-80 Niebla ceruchis growing epiphytically on Lycium brevipes was one of the dominant aspects of the vegetation in the coastal dunal complex bordering the microbial mats at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The lichen on denuded branches of Lycium was far more extensively distributed than Lycium lacking lichen. Unusual traits of this Niebla ceruchis strain, namely localization of lichen compounds in the mycobiont reproductive structures (pycnidia and apothecia) and simultaneous presence of bilocular and quadrilocular ascospores, are reported. The abundance of this coastal lichen cover at the microbial mat site has persisted through April 1988.

  12. Hydrogeology of wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Llamas, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A collection of 10 papers presented at the Hydrogeology of Wetlands Symposium, 28th International Geological Congress in Washington, DC, in July 1989. The purpose of the symposium was to assemble papers describing hydrogeologic studies of wetlands representative of different geographic regions, wetland types, and study approaches. The papers presented at the Symposium ranged geographically from wetlands in the Arctic to the Subtropics. Different wetland types included coastal, riverine, depressional glacial terrane, and dunal depressions. Different study approaches included regional syntheses, analyses of groundwater flow systems, wetland-river interaction, and geomorphology-vegetation interaction. -from Editors

  13. Niebla ceruchis from Laguna Figueroa: dimorphic spore morphology and secondary compounds localized in pycnidia and apothecia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzien, M.; Margulis, L.

    1988-01-01

    During and after the floods of 1979-80 Niebla ceruchis growing epiphytically on Lycium brevipes was one of the dominant aspects of the vegetation in the coastal dunal complex bordering the microbial mats at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The lichen on denuded branches of Lycium was far more extensively distributed than Lycium lacking lichen. Unusual traits of this Niebla ceruchis strain, namely localization of lichen compounds in the mycobiont reproductive structures (pycnidia and apothecia) and simultaneous presence of bilocular and quadrilocular ascospores, are reported. The abundance of this coastal lichen cover at the microbial mat site has persisted through April 1988.

  14. First Record of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Infesting Withania somnifera in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kumar Pati, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    During April–June 2010, red two—spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India. PMID:22970740

  15. In Vitro Assessment of Plants Growing in Cuba Belonging to Solanaceae Family Against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; Jiménez, Jenny; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez, Ingrid; Gutiérrez, Yamile; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; Marchi, Mary; Setzer, William N; Vilegas, Wagner

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an in vitro antileishmanial assessment of plant extracts from 12 genera and 46 species growing in Cuba belonging to Solanaceae family was performed. A total of 226 extracts were screened against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, and cytotoxicity of active extracts [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) promastigotes <100 µg/mL] was determined on peritoneal macrophage from BALB/c mice. Extracts that showed selective index >5 were then assayed against intracellular amastigote. Metabolomics analysis of promissory extracts was performed using chemical profile obtained by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Only 11 extracts (4.9%) from nine plants were selected as potentially actives: Brunfelsia cestroides A. Rich, Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum chinense Jacq., Cestrum nocturnum L., Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv., Solanum havanense Jacq., Solanum myriacanthum Dunal, Solanum nudum Dunal and Solanum seaforthianum And., with IC50  < 50 µg/mL and selectivity index >5. Metabolomics analysis demonstrated significant differences in the chemical profiles with an average of 42.8 (range 31-88) compounds from m/z 104 to 1477, which demonstrated the complex mixture of compounds. In addition, no common markers among active extracts were identified. The results demonstrate the importance of the Solanaceae family to search new antileishmanial agents, particularly in unexplored species of this family. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Stochastic changes affect Solanum wild species following autopolyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Carputo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidy is very common within angiosperms, and several studies are in progress to ascertain the effects of early polyploidization at the molecular, physiological, and phenotypic level. Extensive studies are available only in synthetic allopolyploids. By contrast, less is known about the consequences of autopolyploidization. The current study aimed to assess the occurrence and extent of genetic, epigenetic, and anatomical changes occurring after oryzaline-induced polyploidization of Solanum commersonii Dunal and Solanum bulbocastanum Dunal, two diploid (2n=2×=24) potato species widely used in breeding programmes. Microsatellite analysis showed no polymorphisms between synthetic tetraploids and diploid progenitors. By contrast, analysis of DNA methylation levels indicated that subtle alterations at CG and CHG sites were present in tetraploids of both species. However, no change occurred concurrently in all tetraploids analysed with respect to their diploid parent, revealing a stochastic trend in the changes observed. The morpho-anatomical consequences of polyploidization were studied in leaf main veins and stomata. With only a few exceptions, analyses showed no clear superiority of tetraploids in terms of leaf thickness and area, vessel number, lumen size and vessel wall thickness, stomata pore length and width, guard cell width, and stomatal density compared with their diploid progenitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are no traits systematically associated with autopolyploidy. PMID:23307917

  17. Phospholipid complexation of NMITLI118RT+: way to a prudent therapeutic approach for beneficial outcomes in ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Arya, Abhishek; Agrawal, Satish; Samuel, Sheeba Saji; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Valicherla, Guru Raghavendra; Sangwan, Neelam; Mitra, Kalyan; Gayen, Jiaur R; Paliwal, Sarwesh; Shukla, Rakesh; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (Solanaceae) known as Ashwagandha, a popular plant of Indian origin is known to possess tremedous medicinal potential, often used as anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and adaptogenic candidate. Some of its chemotypes developed by CSIR, India includes NMITLI-101, NMITLI-118, NMITLI-128. In this study the investigators have attempted development of a phytosomal complex of NMITLI118RT + (standardized ethanolic extract of a new chemotype of W. somnifera Dunal.), its pharmaceutical characterization and evaluation of its neuro-protective potential against experimenal stroke in rats in continuation with their previous work in this area. The phytosomal complex (NIMPLC) was prepared by following a cohesive optimization design and was characterized on the basis of solubility, dissolution profile, FT-IR, DSC-TGA analysis, zeta potential, physical stability, forced degradation and photolytic degradation. Results were suggestive of a pharmaceutically acceptable formulation. NIMPLC was taken up further for biological evaluation using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. It could be demonstrated that the beneficial effects of NMITLI118RT + could be augmented by NIMPLC in 1 h pre and 6 h post treatment as was evident from reduction in MDA levels, increment in GSH levels, reduction in neurological deficit (ND) scores and reduction in infarct size. The study could successfully demonstrate the beneficial effects of NIMPLC in brain function restoration following stroke.

  18. Tuber yield and quality characteristics of potatoes for off-season crops in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Ierna, Anita

    2010-01-15

    There is little research on evaluating the compatibility of potatoes for double cropping in southern Italy. The aim of this investigation was to assess tuber yield and some qualitative traits of tubers such as skin colour, tuber dry matter content and tuber nitrate content, both in winter-spring and in summer-autumn crops, as influenced by genotype and harvest time. Yield, skin colour and dry matter content of tubers were higher in the winter-spring crop than in the summer-autumn crop, attributable to the advantageous lag time in spring between solar radiation and temperatures and the disadvantageous lag in autumn. Spunta and Arinda performed well within each crop season, whereas Ninfa showed an important yield loss in autumn. In both off-season crops, delaying tuber harvest until leaf senescence increased yield and improved quality attributes such as tuber dry matter content and skin colour, whereas nitrate contents significantly decreased in the winter-spring crop and increased in the summer-autumn crop. Ninfa showed less tendency than Arinda and Spunta to accumulate nitrate in tubers in both off-season crops. It might be advantageous to examine in further research which mechanisms sustain compatibility to the autumn and assess other quality characteristics for the fresh market in the contrasting climatic conditions of the two off-season crops. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Sobre as inclinações carnais: inflexões do pensamento cristão sobre os desejos e as sensações prazerosas do baixo corporali

    PubMed Central

    RIOS, LUÍS FELIPE; PARKER, RICHARD; TERTO, VERIANO

    2011-01-01

    On carnal inclinations: from early Christianity to the present This study develops a historical review of the meanings of the “flesh” in the West, focusing on its significance in the context of Christianity. Our hope is that a study along these lines can help to illuminate current understandings of questions related to sexuality both within and outside of the religious contexts found in contemporary Brazil. Such questions are of special interest for those who are concerned with both old and new problems found in the field that has come to be known as sexual and reproductive rights, with implications for the field of Public Health. PMID:21980215

  20. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  1. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  2. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal and external…

  3. Una Guia de Consejos Practicos Sobre la Lectura para los Padres (A Guide to Reading Tips for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind program changes the federal role in education by asking America's schools to describe their success in terms of what each student accomplishes. The information in this reading guide, presented in Spanish, was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist parents, caregivers, and teachers in understanding…

  4. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  5. Liv and Lucky in Liverland. . . Color Us Healthy! A Workbook about Your Liver = Un Cuaderno de trabajo sobre tu higado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This workbook/coloring book, on the liver and good health is designed for primary school students. The 21 line drawings illustrate different aspects of liver function, maintaining a healthy liver, and preventing liver disease. Each page is captioned in both English and Spanish. (ND)

  6. Ecocardiografía tridimensional. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la caracterización de la válvula mitral

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jorge; Sitges, Marta; Levine, Robert A.; Hung, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in three-dimensional echocardiography have made it possible to obtain images in real time, without the need for off-line reconstruction. These developments have enabled the technique to become an important tool for both research and daily clinical practice. A substantial proportion of the studies carried out using three-dimensional echocardiography have focused on the mitral valve, the pathophysiology of mitral valve disease and, in particular, functional mitral regurgitation. The aims of this article were to review the contribution of three-dimensional echocardiography to understanding of the functional anatomy of the mitral valve and to summarize the resulting clinical applications and therapeutic implications. PMID:19232192

  7. Liv and Lucky in Liverland. . . Color Us Healthy! A Workbook about Your Liver = Un Cuaderno de trabajo sobre tu higado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This workbook/coloring book, on the liver and good health is designed for primary school students. The 21 line drawings illustrate different aspects of liver function, maintaining a healthy liver, and preventing liver disease. Each page is captioned in both English and Spanish. (ND)

  8. [Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A multicenter study of the Barcelona area. Grupo de Trabajo sobre Resistencias en Tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Martin-Casabona, N; Alcaide, F; Coll, P; González, J; Manterola, J M; Salvadó, M; Caylà, J A

    2000-10-21

    The aims of this multicenter study was to establish the level of primary and acquired drug resistance of M. Tuberculosis strains isolated in Barcelona and to identify possible risk groups using clinical data. All tuberculosis patients with isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis strains from October 1995 to September 1997 were included. Susceptibility tests isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin and pyrazinamide were performed using the Bactec 460 system and the proportions method on solid medium. Logistic progression was used for statistical analysis. The total number of patients included was 1,749 (1,535 non-treated and 214 previously treated). Primary drug resistance was 5.7% (isoniazid 3.8%; rifampin 1.0%, streptomycin 2.1%, ethambutol 0.3% and pyrazinamide 1.0%). Acquired drug resistance was 20.5% (isoniazid 17.3%, rifampin 9.8%, ethambutol 1.9%, streptomycin 4.7% and pyrazinamide 6.5%). Primary drug resistance was associated with people over 60 years old and women. The low level of drug resistance enables antituberculosis treatment of non-treated patients to start with the standardised three-drug regimes except in the case of foreign people from countries with a high level of drug resistance. Susceptibility tests are recommended on all M. tuberculosis strains isolated, together with controlled studies of drug resistance surveillance.

  9. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and…

  10. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal and external…

  11. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    Electric arc welding processes represent one of the most used techniques on manufacturing processes of mechanical components in modern industry. The electric arc welding processes have been adapted to current needs, becoming a flexible and versatile way to manufacture. Numerical results in the welding process are validated experimentally. The main numerical methods most commonly used today are three: finite difference method, finite element method and finite volume method. The most widely used numerical method for the modeling of welded joints is the finite element method because it is well adapted to the geometric and boundary conditions in addition to the fact that there is a variety of commercial programs which use the finite element method as a calculation basis. The content of this thesis shows an experimental study of a welded joint conducted by means of the MIG welding process of aluminum alloy 6063-T5. The numerical process is validated experimentally by applying the method of finite element through the calculation program ANSYS. The experimental results in this paper are the cooling curves, the critical cooling time t4/3, the weld bead geometry, the microhardness obtained in the welded joint, and the metal heat affected zone base, process dilution, critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the curve TTP. The numerical results obtained in this thesis are: the thermal cycle curves, which represent both the heating to maximum temperature and subsequent cooling. The critical cooling time t4/3 and thermal efficiency of the process are calculated and the bead geometry obtained experimentally is represented. The heat affected zone is obtained by differentiating the zones that are found at different temperatures, the critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the TTP curve. In order to conclude this doctoral thesis, an optimization has been conducted by means of the Taguchi method for welding parameters in order to obtain an improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Para finalizar el trabajo de investigacion se ha realizado una optimizacion, con la aplicacion del metodo de Taguchi, de los parametros de soldeo con el objetivo de obtener una mejora sustancial en las propiedades mecanicas de las uniones metalicas de aluminio.

  12. Mobile Library Guidelines. IFLA Professional Report No. 28 [and] Lineamientos sobre Bibliotecas Moviles. Informes Professionales de IFLA: 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestell, Robert

    This publication provides the latest information available on the equipment and operation of mobile libraries operating out of road vehicles. The guide provides details on the establishment of mobile library services, financing, vehicles, furniture and equipment, staffing, collections, service base, and publicity. Some generalizations with regard…

  13. The ABCs of Special Education: A Handbook for Parents = El ABS Sobre Educacion Especial: Un Folleto para los Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Preston E., Jr.; Hinton, Valeska S.

    This bilingual handbook is intended to help parents understand their rights under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The following topics are addressed: the Act's legislative history, identification of special education, explanation of P.L. 94-142, parents' rights to know, student records, student testing, students'…

  14. A Guide for Parents about Retention and Promotion = Una Guia para los Padres de Familia sobre Retencion y Promocion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Oneonta. Coll. at Oneonta. Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training.

    This bilingual (English and Spanish) brochure explains why retention is common among migrant students and what parents can do to help their children succeed in school. By second grade, nearly 50 percent of migrant students in the nation are older than their classmates and only about 50 percent of migrant students graduate from high school.…

  15. El Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo para los Grupos Especiales. Monografias sobre el Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    This Spanish translation of ED 132 428 includes the three papers representing Office of Education attempts to face the need for improving delivery of career education to special portions of the population. New additions are brief sections on basic definitions and additional considerations of the significance of work. The first paper, on career…

  16. [Sobre la (No) Responsabilidad de la Tecnociencia en los Problemas Ambientales y la Búsqueda de Política].

    PubMed

    Martínez Barrera, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I propose to reflect upon modern configuration of technique, i.e., technoscience, and our responsibility towards environmental management. I show that the technological products of our world imply a certain attitude of aggression towards nature, contrasting with the attitude of protection from her, which was peculiar of the pre-technological world. Finally I suggest recovering the classical notion of politics as a possible alternative for controlling techno-scientific imperatives.

  17. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and…

  18. Mobile Library Guidelines. IFLA Professional Report No. 28 [and] Lineamientos sobre Bibliotecas Moviles. Informes Professionales de IFLA: 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestell, Robert

    This publication provides the latest information available on the equipment and operation of mobile libraries operating out of road vehicles. The guide provides details on the establishment of mobile library services, financing, vehicles, furniture and equipment, staffing, collections, service base, and publicity. Some generalizations with regard…

  19. "O Que Diriam Sobre Os Portugueses?????" [What Would You Say about Portuguese People?]: Intercultural Curiosity in Multilingual Chat-Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Sa, Maria Helena; de Carlo, Maddalena; Melo-Pfeifer, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intend to discuss questioning as a sign of Intercultural Communicative Competence in plurilingual environments, stressing the relationship between questioning and the process of developing discovery skills in Romance chat-rooms. Focusing specifically on episodes beginning with intercultural questioning, we will analyse: (1)…

  20. The ABCs of Special Education: A Handbook for Parents = El ABS Sobre Educacion Especial: Un Folleto para los Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Preston E., Jr.; Hinton, Valeska S.

    This bilingual handbook is intended to help parents understand their rights under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The following topics are addressed: the Act's legislative history, identification of special education, explanation of P.L. 94-142, parents' rights to know, student records, student testing, students'…

  1. "O Que Diriam Sobre Os Portugueses?????" [What Would You Say about Portuguese People?]: Intercultural Curiosity in Multilingual Chat-Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Sa, Maria Helena; de Carlo, Maddalena; Melo-Pfeifer, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intend to discuss questioning as a sign of Intercultural Communicative Competence in plurilingual environments, stressing the relationship between questioning and the process of developing discovery skills in Romance chat-rooms. Focusing specifically on episodes beginning with intercultural questioning, we will analyse: (1)…

  2. Investigación del USGS sobre el ecosistema de arrecifes de coral en el Atlántico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.

    2015-10-23

    Los arrecifes de coral son estructuras sólidas, biomineralizadas que protegen comunidades costeras actuando como barreras protectoras de peligros tales como los huracanes y los tsunamis. Estos proveen arena a las playas a través de procesos naturales de erosión, fomentan la industria del turismo, las actividades recreacionales y proveen hábitats pesqueros esenciales. La conti-nua degradación mundial de ecosistemas de arrecifes de coral está bien documentada. Existe la necesidad de enfoque y organización de la ciencia para entender los procesos complejos físicos y biológicos e interacciones que están afectando el estado de los arrecifes coralinos y su capacidad para responder a un entorno cambiante.

  3. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  4. Impacto de la emisión de axiones sobre las propiedades evolutivas y pulsacionales de enanas blancas DB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battich, T.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    White dwarfs are found to be good laboratories for studying the properties of fundamental particles such as the hypothetical axions. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, abandoning these stars without interact again, becoming an important energy sink. This would have a detectable effect on the evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarfs. This effect was already studied for DA white dwarfs (white dwarfs with a surface rich in hydrogen), but not for DB white dwarfs (hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs). We studied the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of DB white dwarfs and on the pulsational properties of DBV white dwarfs (pulsating DBs) with the aim of determining the potential of these stars to study the physics of axions. Moreover, we use an estimation of the rate of change of period of the DBV white dwarf PG 1351489 corresponding to the dominant period to derive a new limit on axion mass.

  5. Apuntes sobre la distribución geográfica de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) en Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is considered the most limiting pest for production and merchandising of solanaceous fruit and vegetables in the Neotropics. The present study updates the geographic distribution of N. elegantalis in areas of major agricultural production of Solanum lycopersicum, S. melong...

  6. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

    2010-06-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio.La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos.

  7. Personal Safety for Children: A Guide for Parents = Una guia para los padres sobre la seguridad personal de los ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Noting that parents and teachers have the responsibility of safeguarding children and teaching them the skills they need to be safe, this pamphlet, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to help parents talk to their children about how to protect themselves against abduction and exploitation. The pamphlet is organized into six sections.…

  8. Granulosain I, a cysteine protease isolated from ripe fruits of Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Vallés, Diego; Bruno, Mariela; López, Laura M I; Caffini, Néstor O; Cantera, Ana María B

    2008-08-01

    A new cysteine peptidase (Granulosain I) was isolated from ripe fruits of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae) by means of precipitation with organic solvent and cation exchange chromatography. The enzyme showed a single band by SDS-PAGE, its molecular mass was 24,746 Da (MALDI-TOF/MS) and its isoelectric point was higher than 9.3. It showed maximum activity (more than 90%) in the pH range 7-8.6. Granulosain I was completely inhibited by E-64 and activated by the addition of cysteine or 2-mercaptoethanol, confirming its cysteinic nature. The kinetic studies carried out with PFLNA as substrate, showed an affinity (Km 0.6 mM) slightly lower than those of other known plant cysteine proteases (papain and bromelain). The N-terminal sequence of granulosain I (DRLPASVDWRGKGVLVLVKNQGQC) exhibited a close homology with other cysteine proteases belonging to the C1A family.

  9. Chemical composition of essential oils of Grindelia squarrosa and G. hirsutula.

    PubMed

    Veres, Katalin; Roza, Orsolya; Laczkó-Zöld, Eszter; Hohmann, Judit

    2014-04-01

    The essential oils of Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal and G. hirsutula Hook. & Am. cultivated in Romania were isolated by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The identification of the constituents was achieved from their retention indices and comparison of their MS data with computer library database and literature data. The fifty-six identified constituents accounted for 72.1-81.3% of the oils. The oils were found to contain a-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, borneol, bornyl acetate and germacrene D as main constituents. The oils obtained from the two species showed small differences in chemical composition. However, menthol, menthone and pulegone were detected only in the essential oil of G. hirsutula.

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of Ashwagandha against experimental aspergillosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhuley, J N

    1998-02-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of an Indian Ayurvedic medicinal preparation, Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanceae; root)] was evaluated against experimental aspergillosis in Balb/c mice. Ashwagandha given orally once daily for 7 consecutive days in a dose of 100 mg/kg after intravenous infection of Aspergillus fumigatus prolonged the survival period of infected mice. This protective activity was probably related to the observed increases in phagocytosis and intracellular killing of peritoneal macrophages induced by Ashwaganda treatment. The number of peripheral leukocytes was not modified, excluding a possibility of mobilization of cells from other compartments. On the basis of these findings, the probable mechanism underlying the protective action of Ashwagandha against systemic Aspergillus infection was discussed in relation with its possible activity to activate the macrophage function.

  11. Effect of ground-water recharge on configuration of the water table beneath sand dunes and on seepage in lakes in the sandhills of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of water-level fluctuations in about 30 observation wells and 5 lakes in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the sandhills of Nebraska indicates water-table configuration beneath sand dunes in this area varies considerably, depending on the configuration of the topography of the dunes. If the topography of an interlake dunal area is hummocky, ground-water recharge is focused at topographic lows causing formation of water-table mounds. These mounds prevent ground-water movement from topographically high lakes to adjacent lower lakes. If a dune ridge is sharp, the opportunity for focused recharge does not exist, resulting in water-table troughs between lakes. Lakes aligned in descending altitudes, parallel to the principal direction of regional ground-water movement, generally have seepage from higher lakes toward lower lakes. ?? 1986.

  12. [Leaf anatomic studies in solanaceae of Venezuela. VI. Leaf anatomy of 10 species of Cestrum L].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, D; de Ríos, N R; Benítez de Rojas, C E

    2001-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Cestrum acuminatissimum Dunal, C. alternifolium (Jacq.) O.E. Schulz, C. glabrescens (C.V. Morton) Steyerm. et Maguire, C. imbricatum Rusby, C. Iatifolium Lam., C. neblinense D'Arcy et Benítez, C. ruizteranianum Benítez et D'Arcy, C. schulzianum Francey, C. tillettii Benítez et D'Arcy y C. tubulosum Sendtner, is described in order to value its diagnostic characters useful as source of data in the taxonomy of the Solanaceae. The material was obtained from specimens deposited in MY herbarium, coming from different geographical areas of Venezuela, and it was prepared according the classical methodology used in leaf anatomy studies. The results obtained have, besides the common features mentions for other species of the genus Cestrum, some differences in: types and density of trichomes, thickness and sinuousities of the cell wall, stomata position, as well as in the distribution of esclerenchymatous cells of the mesophyll, midvein petiole.

  13. Evaluation of apoptotic activity of Withania coagulans methanolic extract against human breast cancer and Vero cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rumana; Fatima, Afreen; Srivastava, A N; Khan, Mohsin Ali

    The genus Withania (Family: Solanaceae) holds an important position in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Withania somnifera Dunal and Withania coagulans Dunal have been documented in folklore as panaceas for various ailments since time immemorial. W. coagulans (WC), commonly called as Indian cheese maker is used for fermenting milk for cheese production in various parts of India. In the study, in vitro cytotoxicity of methanolic extract of dried fruits (berries) of WC was evaluated in a dose dependent manner using trypan blue dye exclusion method against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and normal kidney epithelial cell line Vero in the range 20-200 μg/ml. The percentage viability of the cell lines was determined by using MTT assay and cytometry. Methanolic extract of WC showed significant anticancer activity against MDA-MB-231 cell line. Cell viability was reduced to about 50% at 40 μg/ml of methanolic extract in 50% DMSO. Cytotoxicity of the extract was lower in 10% and 1% DMSO. On the other hand, methanolic extract of WC did not exhibit any significant in vitro activity against Vero cells at 170 and 200 μg/ml. AGE of isolated DNA from treated cancer cells revealed characteristic ladder like fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. HPLC profiling was carried out for identification of the active components, which demonstrated the presence of Withaferin A in the methanolic extract. Methanolic extract of WC possesses apoptotic activity against human breast cancer cells in vitro albeit lower in comparison to W. somnifera and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Searching for stratigraphic traps in the Neuquen basin of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Blangy, J.P.; Follis, M.; Tavella, G.; Wright, C.

    1996-08-01

    Amoco Argentina oil Company secured a farm-in from YPF (50-50 partnership) over the blocks CN-VIII and ON-IX in the Neuquen basin of Argentina. Primary reservoir horizons are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous eolian sands. The petrophysical properties of these dunal sands contrast-sometimes sharply-with those of the silts and shales of similar age in the immediate area. Initial evaluation of the blocks had recognized stratigraphic potential associated with the dunal facies, especially in the CN-VIII block. The presence of reservoir quality Avile sands (Barremian age, 18-20% porosity) was mapped on the CN-VIII block directly from older vintage seismic. (1) Seismic Acquisition: Amoco shot approximately 400 km of high resolution 120-fold seismic in late 1994 to high-grade those leads identified on the old seismic. The CN-VIII block is partially covered by basalts of varying thickness. The Amoco survey resulted in an improved penetration through the basalts; it also had a much higher frequency content and yielded superior bed resolution than any previous survey in the area. (2) Seismic Processing and Modeling: Amoco reprocessed inhouse several key lines over producing fields in the immediate area and approximately 200 km of seismic from the 1994 survey in the CN-VIll block for detailed amplitude analysis. Seismic amplitude models [including (1) 2-D stratigraphic pinchout models describing the presence of porous sand lenses, and (2) AVO models] tie the 1994 data very well. (3) Integrated Seismic Interpretation and Reduction of Technical RISK: The integration of various disciplines (Petrophysics, Geophysics, Geology, and Engineering) resulted in the calibration/ranking of seismic responses observed over the CN-VIII area, thus substantially reducing the RISK on trap definition, reservoir quality, seal, and product associated with the early leads.

  15. Morphologic features of Sancassania berlesei (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae), a common mite of stored products in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Jiang, Yuxin; Guo, Wei; Chen, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: sancassania berlesei (S. berlesei) es el lider en la industria de cría amenaza mite eupolyphaga sinensis y la salud pública.Métodos: los especimenes vivos de S. berlesei fueron obtenidos a partir de la superficie de eupolyphaga sinensis y purificado con agua bidestilada.El huevo, larva, ninfa, hypopus, macho adulto y la hembra de S. berlesei fueron evaluados y elegidos bajo microscopio.Resultados: las variaciones morfológicas de S. berlesei, incluidas sus piernas, setas, genitales externos y accesorios, están claramente identificadas en la SEM.La larva tiene tres pares de patas, sin hojas como setas, pero su coxal Rod es desarrollada.Por la etapa de ninfa, cuatro pares de patas y el cuarto dorsal seta surgen, mientras que la zona genital se ve aún en desarrollo.En hypopus, las garras y tarsules aparecen bien construido, y la hoja como setas, setas de tibia y setas de Genu son vistos.La ventosa plato totalmente contiene nueve retoños y cuatro Shell como dimplings en que hay distribuciones simétricas con 1 par de mamones, 2 pares de lado anterior de ventosas y 1 par de tontos, respectivamente.Una pera como posterior ventosa está ubicado en la espalda de Sucker plato.Todos los tontos son suaves excepto anterior Sucker con franja radial.El órgano de sentido genital adultos exhibe con cordiforme aspecto externo y osificación típica textura; mientras que el macho es diferente con la hembra respecto a seta numero en el sentido de órganos genitales.Conclusión: descripción de la estructura morfologica en gran detalle para S. berlesei tiende a suministrar la información importante para la taxonomía y más estudio.

  16. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  17. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to be…

  18. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

  19. Sobre la naturaleza de cinco candidatos a cúmulos abiertos ubicados próximos a la dirección del centro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.

    CCD BVI Johnson-Cousins observations obtained for 1759 stars in 4'×4' regions around the unstudied southern stellar aggregates Ruprecht 103, 124, 129, 146 and 166 are presented. The objects are described as open clusters in the catalogues of star clusters and associations of Alter et al. (1970) and LyngÅ (1987), as well as, in the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) Atlas (Lauberts 1982). Our analysis shows that none of these objects are genuine open clusters, except perhaps Ruprecht 166, since no clear main sequences (MSs) or other meaningful features can be seen in the extracted (V,B-V) and (V,V-I) colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The star sequences seen in the distinct CMDs, specially for Ruprecht 124 and 129, are apparently formed by the superimposition of MS field stars affected by varying amounts of interstellar absorption and/or placed at different distances from the Sun. The CMDs of Ruprecht 166 present a pronounced variation in the luminosity function along the apparent MS, a fact from which we can infer the notion of these stars had a different origin. Star counts carried out within and outside the cluster candidate fields not only support the results that the objects do not present a significant number density contrast with respect to the Galactic disk, but also show that they do not appear to be candidate late stages of star cluster dynamical evolution. Several other stellar aggregates included in open cluster catalogues have previously been disproved as genuine physical systems (see, e.g., Carraro & Patat 1995, MNRAS, 276, 563; Carraro 2000, A&A, 357, 145; Piatti & Clariá 2001, A&A, 370, 931). Thus, the present work implies the potential likelihood of other wrongly classified open clusters.

  20. Estudio Sobre Portadores Cronicos de Salmonellas en Manipuladores de Alimentos de la Ciudad de Iquitos (Study of Chronic Salmonella Carriers in Food Handlers in the City of Iquitos)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    manipuladores de alimentos en estudio. 779 (77.90%) fueron del sexo femcnino y 221 (22.10%) del sexo masculino. siendo el mayor porcentaje mujeres (234 - 30.04...papel de ios portadlores cr6- Woos en 460 mujeres dadas de alt. del hospital de Chile, encontrandose 34 porta- dores o sea 7.4 % excediindose las...4 sujetos 3.6 % portadores cr6nicos de Salmoncilas. 1S0 En Argentina 1974, se inves:,16 la frecuencia de Saiimoncilas en 146 manipulado- res de

  1. Parenting Information for Parents: Books 1-3 (Informacion Para Los Padres Sobre La Crianza De Los Hijos: Libros 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These 3 booklets provide ideas, guidelines, and activities for establishing effective parenting and are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. The first booklet (booklet #20) discusses preparation for parenthood, infant and toddler developmental stages, the importance…

  2. Informe sobre el avance del proyecto de determinaciones de V sen i para todas las estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, H.; Levato, H.

    Se ha finalizado con la determinación de V sen i para todas las estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag y al norte de -30 grados de declinación. Esta muestra involucra casi 1000 estrellas. Las observaciones fueron realizadas desde KPNO. Mientras tanto, se ha completado desde CASLEO la observación de 350 estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag. al sur de -30 grados. Además de la determinación de la rotación axial se determinan, en los casos posibles, los anchos equivalentes de las líneas 4471 Ådel He I y 4481 Ådel Mg II.

  3. Kathy Finds Out about the Introduction of Solids. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Descubre Conocimientos sobre la Introduccion de Solidos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and are designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains that exclusive breastfeeding means giving no water, liquids, or food; breast milk contains sufficient water to satisfy the baby's thirst; at about 6 months,…

  4. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present…

  5. Memorias del tercer simposio internacional sobre economía, planificación, y políticas de los incendios forestales: problemas y enfoques comunes

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán

    2009-01-01

    Estas memorias resumen el resultado de un simposio diseñado para discutir los problemas actuales que confrontan las agencias con responsabilidad para la proteccion contra incendios forestales a nivel federal y estadual en los EE.UU., al igual que agencias en la comunidad internacional. Los temas discutidos en el simposio incluyen economía del fuego, teoría y modelos...

  6. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present…

  7. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  8. Development and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess the Reading Beliefs of Undergraduate Students: The "Cuestionario de Creencias Sobre la Lectura"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordán, Eva; Solé, Isabel; Beltran, Francesc S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a new questionnaire for exploring the reading beliefs of undergraduate students, because the only currently available instrument has conceptual and methodological limitations. The paper describes the process of developing the instrument and presents a range of psychometric data obtained from a sample of 558…

  9. The Dyslexia Handbook: Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders = Manual sobre la dislexia: Procedimientos relacionados con la dislexia y otros desordenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This handbook, available in English and Spanish, contains the Texas State Board of Education's approved procedures concerning dyslexia and related disorders and information regarding the state's dyslexia statutes and their relation to the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters…

  10. Guia para la Ensenanza Combinada de Ingles y Ciencia. Para Padres/sobre Padres. (A Guide to Teaching English and Science Together. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    In the past, students who knew only a little English (called limited English proficient, or LEP), were usually taught only low-level science and mathematics. Now, new science and mathematics teaching methods can help LEP students get a good education in both fields. This guide will help parents know if their children are learning as much as…

  11. Sobre la convertibilidad de ciertos adjectivos en adverbios en el idioma espanol (Concerning the Convertibility of Some Spanish Adjectives into Adverbs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1971-01-01

    This paper considers Spanish adjectives and the possibility of converting some adjectives into adverbs, keeping the same general significance of a sentence. The conversion of an adjective into an adverb under these circumstances can be accomplished through a transformation which can be applied to a particular logical-semantic structure. The author…

  12. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  13. Sobre la posible existencia de un bulbo o núcleo de población II en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Dutra, D. M.; Bica, E.; Piatti, A. E.

    Based on recent results obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a census of genuine globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and we examine their spatial distribution. Spectroscopic observations carried out at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) allow us to add two new clusters (NGC 1928 and NGC 1939) to the list of genuine LMC globular clusters. We present evidence that old clusters projected on the LMC bar region may constitute a population II core, probably reminiscent of an ancient bulge, which together with a central disc could have evolved into the observed LMC bar by SMC and/or Galaxy interactions. A detailed discussion was given in MNRAS 305, 373 (1999).

  14. "Que vienen los lobos!" (Breve nota sobre el plural de los apellidos) ("May The Wolves Come:" [A Brief Note on the Plural of Surnames])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivaldi, Gonzalo Martin

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that arise with the formation of plural forms of surnames in Spanish, problems both with morphology and with ambiguity. Suggestions as to how to lessen problems are made. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)

  15. Consideraciones sobre la investigacion hermeneutica en la educacion en lenguas y culturas extranjeras (Aspects of Applying a Hermeneutic Approach to Foreign Language and Culture Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    Drawing on writings by recent post-modernist thinkers and semioticians, this paper focuses on a combination of hermeneutic and semiotic viewpoints and applies them to defining the nature of interpretation in an educational setting (e.g., text interpretation), the interpreter, and the essence of the act of comprehension and interpretation. The main…

  16. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  17. Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

  18. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  19. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios (A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents). Revised Edition. Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.

    The handbook, an update of the 1986 handbook, is designed for Spanish-speaking parents of California public school students, and answers commonly-asked questions about the state public education system and its services, particularly those of interest to this population. Information is presented in both Spanish-and English-language sections, in a…

  20. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios = A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents--Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.

    This bilingual handbook, presented in both Spanish and English, is designed to assist parents of language minority students who are residing in California. The book is part of the technical assistance effort of the State Department of Education to clarify the operations of the California schools to language minority parents so they can better…

  1. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  2. Ahorre Energía: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energía en el hogar (Spanish Brochure), Energy Savers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    La versión en castellano de la guía del Departamento de Energía de los Estados Unidos que ayuda a consumidores a ahorrar energía y dinero en el hogar y en las carreteras. The Spanish-language version of U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving energy and money at home and on the road.

  3. Investigación observacional sobre el papel de las estrellas binarias en la ecología de cúmulos estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Levato, H.; Grosso, M.

    We present preliminary results of a long-term project devoted to the observational study of the binary star population in open clusters and its connection with the dynamical and evolutionary properties of the clusters. We report the discovery of 17 double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 30 radial velocity variables and about 30 suspected variables. In the 17 clusters of our sample the binary frequency ranges between 20 and 40 %, and reaches typically 60 % if all suspected binaries are included. We study the spatial distribution of the binary stars with respect to the cluster center and we discuss the statistical correlation of the mass-ratio distribution with the cluster age.

  4. Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

  5. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  6. Nuevos resultados sobre la cinemática global y nuclear de NGC 253: movimientos no circulares y emisión en Br γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camperi, J. A.; Gunthardt, G. I.; Díaz, R. J.; Agüuero, M. P.; Gimeno, G.; Pessev, P.

    Continuing with previous research (Camperi et al., BAAA, 54, 377, 2011), new heliocentric radial velocity distributions are presented for the nearby galaxy NGC 253, obtained from the ionized hydrogen recombination line Hα. These distributions have been derived from long-slit spectroscopy for various position angles. It is also shown the heliocentric radial velocity distribution corresponding to part of the infrared data (ionized hydrogen recombination line Brγ) observed with the Phoenix spectrograph of the Gemini South Observatory. Sequential mapping with the long slit using this instrument will enable to study in detail the kinematics of the galaxy's core, which is strongly obscured by dust. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  8. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  9. Otra perspectiva sobre lo que los ninos deben estar aprendiendo (Another Look at What Young Children Should Be Learning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This Spanish-language ERIC Digest addresses the question of what young children should be learning that will best serve their development and learning in the long term. Two major dimensions of development--normative and dynamic--are explored, and four categories of learning goals are discussed: (1) knowledge; (2) skills; (3) dispositions; and (4)…

  10. Tax and Record Keeping Information for Family Child Care = Informacion Sobre los Impuestos y la Documentacion para el Cuidado Infantil en el Hogar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Sandra

    This pamphlet from the Children's Foundation, in both English- and Spanish-language versions, provides advice to child care providers on record-keeping methods. The pamphlet also gives definitions and guidance on business expenses (100% deductible, shared personal and business, and depreciated capital expenses), time-space formula, self-employment…

  11. A+chieving Excellence. A Parent's Guide to Site-Based Decision Making. Noteworthy = A+lcanzar la Excelencia. Un manual para padres sobre como hacer decisiones. Notable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, C. L.

    The parents' guide in English and Spanish versions, offers a synthesis of the Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory's (McRel) "A+chieving Excellence," a 480-page manual on educational decision-making and management. Four sections examine four broad areas in which policies must be established for improving student achievement--efficiency,…

  12. 8 de noviembre de 2006: Mercurio pasea sobre el disco solar (Micro eclipse anular de Sol o el segundo tránsito de Mercurio del siglo XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.

    On Wendsday November 8, 2006, the second transit of Mercury over the Sun of the 21st. Century, took place. In this work we present the principal characteristics of the phenomenon ocurrence, the visibility region and the local circumstances for some locations of Argentina and other countries of the world. Full TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  14. Lo Que los Padres y los Maestros Deberian Saber sobre la...Aceleraction (What Parents and Teachers Should Know about Academic Acceleration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Alex

    Designed for Spanish-speaking educators and parents, this pamphlet discusses academic acceleration for gifted children. Major types of academic acceleration and their benefits are described. These include: (1) early admission to kindergarten that saves parents of gifted children the expenses of a year of preschool, allows children to be…

  15. Kathy Finds Out about the Introduction of Solids. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Descubre Conocimientos sobre la Introduccion de Solidos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and are designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains that exclusive breastfeeding means giving no water, liquids, or food; breast milk contains sufficient water to satisfy the baby's thirst; at about 6 months,…

  16. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  17. Conservación de material histórico sobre papel en el Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguzzi, N.; Tonini, A.; Andreoli, G.; Goldes, G.; Paolantonio, S.; Cequeira, F.; Landi, L.; Alba, J.

    At the recently created Astronomical Museum ``Pte. Sarmiento - Dr. Benjamin Gould", the task of preventive conservation of historic documents has been faced. These materials include: 1) letters exchanged between national authorities and the directors of the Observatory, during the first decades (1870-1880-1890); b) original observation logs from these very first times, containing astrometrical and photometrical data; c) a variety of ancient books and papers; d) administrative documents. The state of conservation of this patrimony was varied: since well-conserved books and letters, to highly degraded logs. The observation logs written by B. Gould and the astronomers who followed him had been stocked in a safe with a permanent humidity of about 70 %, without any ventilation and exposed to the attack of insects of the family ``dermestidae." These conditions could not be worse for the conservation of paper. In order to stop the proccess of degradation and create a healthy environment for written-paper conservation, a team was formed with personnel belonging to the Cultural Area of the Municipality. The tasks being performed on the observation logs are: 1) an initial, mechanical cleaning, performed once the material is extracted from the contaminated safe: by these means, adult insects and pupas are removed 2) a stage of about two weeks of duration, in which the logs are mantained in a vacuum chamber, in orden to completely eliminate the adult, pupa and egg stage insects by anoxia 3) the final mechanical cleaning 4) storage in a clean location. In order to perform these tasks, we work in collaboration with the Environmental Observatory of the City, and the group of Material-Science Research of Fa.M.A.F. Regarding the letters, a mechanical cleaning was performed. After that, the letters were digitized by means of a scanner, inventoried, put inside acid-free polipropylene envelops and filed for conservation, protected from intense light and external sources of contamination. Copies of these letters will be included as exhibits.

  18. La influencia del medio interestelar sobre la evolución del remanente de supernova (RSN) G53.6-2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacani, E. B.; Dubner, G.; Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    G53.6-2.2 is a supernova remnant with an unusual morphology: in the radio band the overall shape can be described as two shells that overlap on the NW side of the remnant. The X-ray emission fills the source and peaks in the region where the radio rings overlap; while in the optical range the emission consists of filaments that correlate with portions of radio rings that overlap in the NW. The aim of the present project is to investigate the neutral hydrogen distribution around the remnant in search for signatures that allow to disclose the role of the surrounding gas in conditioning the observed morphology.

  19. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  20. Tax and Record Keeping Information for Family Child Care = Informacion Sobre los Impuestos y la Documentacion para el Cuidado Infantil en el Hogar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Sandra

    This pamphlet from the Children's Foundation, in both English- and Spanish-language versions, provides advice to child care providers on record-keeping methods. The pamphlet also gives definitions and guidance on business expenses (100% deductible, shared personal and business, and depreciated capital expenses), time-space formula, self-employment…

  1. Conservation Plan for the Cerulean Warbler on its nonbreeding range - Plan de conservación para la Reinita Cerúlea sobre su rango no reproductivo

    Treesearch

    Paula Caycedo; Paul Hamel; Melinda Welton; David Caro; D. Wiedenfield

    2010-01-01

    This plan was prepared by Paula Caycedo on behalf of American Bird Conservancy and Fundación ProAves with the editorial and technical assistance of Paul Hamel, Melinda Welton, David Caro, David Wiedenfeld, David Mehlman, Deanna Dawson, Katie Fallon, and Paul Salaman. Additional support was provided by the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act of the U.S. Fish and...

  2. Conversacion sobre "Tres tristes tigres". Una entrevista de Rita Guibert (A Conversation about "Three Sad Tigers". An Interview with Rita Guibert)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera Infante, Guillermo

    1971-01-01

    Interview took place in London, England, on October 5, 1970 between Cuban writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante and journalist Rita Guibert. Special issue dedicated to contemporary Spanish American literature. (DS)

  3. Sistema de cúmulos globulares de la galaxia lenticular NGC 6861: en busca de indicios sobre la formación de las S0s.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C. G.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Calderón, J. P.; Caso, J. P.

    We present a preliminar photometric study of the globular cluster system (GCS), associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a low density environment (d˜31.8 Mpc). It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images (GS-2010B-Q-2: PI Lilia P. Bassino) in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, one of them centered in the galaxy. We find a large number of GCs candidates and detect the presence of at least two sub-populations of GCs (``blue''/metal-poor and ``red''/metal-rich). The spatial distribution of ``red'' candidates presents a higher concentration toward the galaxy (associated to the bulge?), while the distribution of ``blue'' candidates is more homogeneus over the three fields (associated to the halo?). In the color-magnitud diagram, the ``blue'' GC candidates show a possible mass-luminosity relation, known as ``blue-tilt'', probably detected for the first time in a lenticular galaxy. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  5. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to be…

  6. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  7. Drug-eluting stent thrombosis: results from the multicenter Spanish registry ESTROFA (Estudio ESpañol sobre TROmbosis de stents FArmacoactivos).

    PubMed

    de la Torre-Hernández, José M; Alfonso, Fernando; Hernández, Felipe; Elizaga, Jaime; Sanmartin, Marcelo; Pinar, Eduardo; Lozano, Iñigo; Vazquez, Jose M; Botas, Javier; Perez de Prado, Armando; Hernández, Jose M; Sanchis, Juan; Nodar, Juan M Ruiz; Gomez-Jaume, Alfredo; Larman, Mariano; Diarte, Jose A; Rodríguez-Collado, Javier; Rumoroso, Jose R; Lopez-Minguez, Jose R; Mauri, Josepa

    2008-03-11

    This study sought to assess the incidence, predictors, and outcome of drug-eluting stent(DES) thrombosis in real-world clinical practice. The DES thromboses in randomized trials could not be comparable to those observed in clinical practice, frequently including off-label indications. We designed a large-scale, nonindustry-linked multicentered registry, with 20 centers in Spain. The participant centers provided follow-up data for their patients treated with DES, reporting a detailed standardized form in the event of any angiography-documented DES-associated thrombosis occurring. Of 23,500 patients treated with DES, definite stent thrombosis(ST) developed in 301: 24 acute, 125 subacute, and 152 late. Of the late, 62 occurred >1 year(very late ST). The cumulative incidence was 2% at 3 years. Antiplatelet treatment had been discontinued in 95 cases(31.6%). No differences in incidences were found among stent types. Independent predictors for subacute ST analyzed in a subgroup of 14,120 cases were diabetes, renal failure, acute coronary syndrome, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, stent length, and left anterior descending artery stenting, and for late ST were ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, stenting in left anterior descending artery, and stent length. Mortality at 1-year follow-up was 16% and ST recurrence 4.6%. Older age, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, nonrestoration of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3, and additional stenting were independent predictors for mortality. The cumulative incidence of ST after DES implantation was 2% at 3 years. No differences were found among stent types. Patient profiles differed between early and late ST. Short-term prognosis is poor, especially when restoration of normal flow fails.

  8. The Dyslexia Handbook: Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders = Manual sobre la dislexia: Procedimientos relacionados con la dislexia y otros desordenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This handbook, available in English and Spanish, contains the Texas State Board of Education's approved procedures concerning dyslexia and related disorders and information regarding the state's dyslexia statutes and their relation to the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters…

  9. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  10. Parenting Information for Parents: Books 1-3 (Informacion Para Los Padres Sobre La Crianza De Los Hijos: Libros 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These 3 booklets provide ideas, guidelines, and activities for establishing effective parenting and are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. The first booklet (booklet #20) discusses preparation for parenthood, infant and toddler developmental stages, the importance…

  11. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  12. Development and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess the Reading Beliefs of Undergraduate Students: The "Cuestionario de Creencias Sobre la Lectura"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordán, Eva; Solé, Isabel; Beltran, Francesc S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a new questionnaire for exploring the reading beliefs of undergraduate students, because the only currently available instrument has conceptual and methodological limitations. The paper describes the process of developing the instrument and presents a range of psychometric data obtained from a sample of 558…

  13. Conversacion sobre "Tres tristes tigres". Una entrevista de Rita Guibert (A Conversation about "Three Sad Tigers". An Interview with Rita Guibert)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera Infante, Guillermo

    1971-01-01

    Interview took place in London, England, on October 5, 1970 between Cuban writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante and journalist Rita Guibert. Special issue dedicated to contemporary Spanish American literature. (DS)

  14. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  15. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  16. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones fueron transformados numericamente para poder obtener el coeficiente de correlacion de Spearman-Brown para el instrumento (0.661, p < 0.01). El analisis de las contestaciones de los estudiantes refleja percepciones diversas y, en algunos casos, contradictorias con respecto al contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico.

  17. Steppin' On Up: A Post-Secondary Guide for Migrant Students = Tomando Accion: Una Guia para los Estudiantes Migrantes Sobre Que Hacer Despues de la Escuela Secundaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Stream Migrant Education Program Coordination Center, Portland, OR.

    This bilingual guide (English and Spanish) provides information for migrant students on postsecondary education. The guide includes information on: (1) career planning, involving self-exploration, occupational exploration, and strategies for reaching career objectives; (2) planning for postsecondary education during high school, including a…

  18. Teorí­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centrí­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  19. Borrowing Basics. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Prestamos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module, an introduction to credit, is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to decide when and how to use…

  20. Check It Out. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Cuentas Corientes. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on how to choose and keep a checking account is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to open and keep a…

  1. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron

  2. Management of Parkinson's disease in Ayurveda: Medicinal plants and adjuvant measures.

    PubMed

    Pathak-Gandhi, Namyata; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants like Mucuna pruriens L.(DC) and Withania somnifera L.(Dunal) have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to manage neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. The aim of this review is to share the role of Ayurveda's insights, traditional usage and contemporary investigations for translational, integrative applications to manage Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. High impact journals for Parkinson's diseases, traditional textbooks from Ayurveda as well as relevant clinical and para clinical studies with botanicals are selectively incorporated to evolve the aforesaid translational application. . A. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system, neurodegenerative disease. Though predominantly perceived as a motor disease, it also has debilitating non- motor features, which are frequently missed and not treated. Major treatment goals are to increase striatal dopamine levels with precursor-substitution and/or reduce its breakdown. As the disease progresses, a steady increase in the dose of levodopa is inevitable. However, higher doses cause motor complications of dyskinesia and dystonia and compromise medical treatment. B. ROLE OF MUCUNA PRURIENS L.DC), THE MOST PROMISING BOTANICAL FROM AYURVEDA: Ayurveda offers a natural source of levodopa - the seeds of Mucuna pruriens L.(DC)- which have a long standing safe use in the condition. Its clinical studies have shown pharmacokinetic profile distinct from synthetic levodopa, which is likely to reduce the untoward motor complications. Additionally, its seed extracts have shown neuroprotective benefits which are unrelated to levodopa. C. AYURVEDIC REGIMENS AND MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR NEUROPROTECTIVE AND SYMPTOMATIC BENEFITS: Other regimens (Panchakarma) and medicinal plants used in Ayurveda have been subjected to exploratory studies with promising early results in the condition. The debilitating non motor symptoms in patients have shown response with one of the regimens - medicated oil enema

  3. Anticancer activities of Withania somnifera: Current research, formulations, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Jogee, Priti S; Agarkar, Gauravi; dos Santos, Carolina Alves

    2016-01-01

    Cancer, being a cause of death for major fraction of population worldwide, is one of the most studied diseases and is being investigated for the development of new technologies and more accurate therapies. Still the currently available therapies for cancer have many lacunae which affect the patient's health severely in the form of side effects. The natural drugs obtained from the medicinal plants provide a better alternative to fight against this devastating disease. Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae), a well-known Ayurvedic medicinal plant, has been traditionally used to cure various ailments for centuries. Considering the immense potential of W. somnifera, this review provides a detail account of its vital phytoconstituents and summarizes the present status of the research carried out on its anticancerous activities, giving future directions. The sources of scientific literature were accessed from various electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and library search. Various parts of W. somnifera especially the roots with its unique contents have been proved effective against different kinds of cancers. The most active components withanolides and withaferins along with a few other metabolites including withanone (WN) and withanosides have been reported effective against different types of cancer cell lines. This herb holds an important place among various anticancer medicinal plants. It is very essential to further screen and to investigate different formulations for anticancer therapy in vitro as well as in vivo in combination with established chemotherapy.

  4. Clinical evaluation of Rasayana compound as an adjuvant in the management of tuberculosis with anti-Koch's treatment.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Purvi; Chandola, H M; Ghanchi, Firoz; Ranthem, Shivprakash

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to intimidate the human race since time immemorial not only due to its effects as a medical malady, but also by its impact as a social and economic tragedy. At the dawn of the new millennium, we are still mute witnesses to the silent yet efficient march of this sagacious disease, its myriad manifestations and above all its unequalled, vicious power. Through the millennia, TB never ever disappeared from the developing world. In 1991, the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution recognized TB as a major global public health problem. The DOTS strategy was launched in 1994, and became the global recommended strategy for TB control since then. The present study deals with clinical evaluation of Rasayana drugs considering of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia willd.), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) Dunal, Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.), Kustha (Saussurea lappa Falc.), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Kulinjan (Alpinia galangal Linn.) as an adjuvant therapy with anti-Koch's treatment. The results obtained revealed that Rasayana compound was found to decrease cough (83%), fever (93%), dyspnea (71.3%), hemoptysis (87%) and increase body weight (7.7%) with statistically highly significant (P<0.001).

  5. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  6. Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder in relation to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, glycoproteins and bone collagen on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Rasool, M; Varalakshmi, P

    2007-04-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Withania somnifera Linn. Dunal (family-Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, on adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Results were compared with those for Indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 mL) into the right hind paw of Wistar albino rats. Withania somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg/day) and Indomethacin (3 mg/kg/day) were orally administered for 8 days (from 11th to 18th day) after adjuvant injection. The anti-arthritic effect of W. somnifera root powder was assessed by measuring changes in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, and glycoprotein levels in plasma and spleen of arthritic animals. In addition, cartilage degradation was also assessed by estimating bone collagen, and urinary constituents in arthritic animals. Results of the present investigation showed significant increase in the level of lipid peroxides, glycoproteins, and urinary constituents with the depletion of antioxidant status and bone collagen in arthritic animals. These biochemical alterations observed were ameliorated significantly by oral administration of W. somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg body weight) in arthritic animals. The results of this study clearly indicate that W. somnifera root powder is capable of rectifying the above biochemical changes in adjuvant arthritis.

  7. Suppressive effect of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental gouty arthritis: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Mahaboobkhan; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2006-12-15

    The effect of Withania somnifera L. Dunal root powder on paw volume and serum lysosomal enzyme activities was investigated in monosodium urate crystal-induced rats. The levels of beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL). A significant increase in the level of paw volume and serum lysosomal enzymes was observed in monosodium urate crystal-induced rats. The increased beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase level were observed in untreated monosodium urate crystal incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes. On treatment with the W. somnifera root powder (500/1000 mg/kg body weight), the above changes were reverted back to near normal levels. W. somnifera also showed potent analgesic and antipyretic effect with the absence of gastric damage at different dose levels in experimental rats. For comparison purpose, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin was used as a standard. These results provide evidence for the suppressive effect of W. somnifera root powder by retarding amplification and propagation of the inflammatory response without causing any gastric damage.

  8. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of  Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench) Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don) Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter) Seithe, sect.Lysiphellos (Bitter) Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., Solanum crispum Ruiz & Pav., Solanum laxum Spreng., Solanum seaforthianum Andrews) are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes), preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species. PMID:23794937

  9. Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae): comments on.

    PubMed

    Samuels, John

    2013-04-01

    In the recent paper by Meyer et al. (2012) some of the taxonomic assumptions relating to the closest wild relatives of Solanum melongena L., the brinjal eggplant, are unsupported. This group is well-known for its taxonomic difficulties, therefore a consistent approach to the identification, nomenclature and species concepts of experimental plant material is essential to the fullest interpretation of the results of a genomic study such as theirs. Effectively, Meyer et al., treat several of the brinjal wild relatives in their study as being conspecific. Neither their nrITS nor AFLP analysis gives confirmation of this. On this basis, the correct name for the taxon known as S. melongena group F is S. cumingii Dunal. This species is distinct from S. incanum L., which is found only as far eastwards as northern India. S. incanum and S. insanum sensu Lester and Hasan are distinct taxa. Meyer et al. hypothesise that there were two separate domestication events for brinjal; re-examination of their data suggests that there was a single domestication event, that took place in India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diosgenone synthesis, anti-malarial activity and QSAR of analogues of this natural product.

    PubMed

    Pabón, Adriana; Escobar, Gustavo; Vargas, Esteban; Cruz, Víctor; Notario, Rafael; Blair, Silvia; Echeverri, Fernando

    2013-03-14

    Solanum nudum Dunal steroids have been reported as being antimalarial compounds; however, their concentration in plants is low, meaning that the species could be threatened by over-harvesting for this purpose. Swern oxidation was used for hemisynthesis of diosgenone (one of the most active steroidal sapogenin diosgenin compounds). Eighteen structural analogues were prepared; three of them were found to be more active than diosgenone (IC50 27.9 μM vs. 10.1 μM, 2.9 μM and 11.3 μM). The presence of a 4-en-3-one grouping in the A-ring of the compounds seems to be indispensable for antiplasmodial activity; progesterone (having the same functional group in the steroid A-ring) has also displayed antiplasmodial activity. Quantitative correlations between molecular structure and bioactivity were thus explored in diosgenone and several derivatives using well-established 3D-QSAR techniques. The models showed that combining electrostatic (70%) and steric (30%) fields can explain most variance regarding compound activity. Malarial parasitemia in mice became reduced by oral administration of two diosgenone derivatives.

  11. Withania somnifera prevents acquisition and expression of morphine-elicited conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, Stefania; Longoni, Rosanna; Spina, Liliana; Orrù, Alessandro; Cottiglia, Filippo; Collu, Maria; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that some of the central effects of morphine are counteracted by the administration of the methanolic extract of the root of Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera Dunal (WSE). The present study sought to determine whether WSE affects acquisition and expression of morphine-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP) in CD-1 mice. In CPP acquisition experiments, WSE (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was administered, during conditioning, 30 min before morphine (10 mg/kg), whereas in expression experiments, WSE (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before the postconditioning test. The results demonstrate (i) that WSE was devoid of motivational properties; (ii) that WSE (100 mg/kg) was devoid of effects on spontaneous and morphine-stimulated motor activity and on spatial memory; and (iii) that WSE (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly prevented the acquisition and expression of CPP. Further, to characterize the receptor(s) involved in these effects, we studied, by receptor-binding assay, the affinity of WSE for µ-opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors. These experiments revealed a higher affinity of WSE for γ-aminobutyric acid B than for µ-opioid receptors. Overall, these results point to WSE as an interesting alternative tool, worthy of further investigation, to study opiate addiction.

  12. Bahamian Pleistocene model for some Mississippian oolites

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, R.J. )

    1989-08-01

    San Salvador Island, unlike most Bahamian islands, is a narrow isolated platform surrounded by deep ocean. Therefore, sedimentary deposits on San Salvador must be explained in terms of processes and settings on this narrow, isolated shelf. Pleistocene oolite occurs between Illinoian and Wisconsinan paleosols. Dune ridges of up to 120 ft are composed of Pleistocene cross-bedded oolitic grainstone, whereas interdunal deposits are bioclastic packstone and wackestone containing abundant Chione cancellata. In lower dunal deposits, bioclastic content increases and the degree of sorting decreases. A fenestral porosity zone occurs approximately 5 ft above present-day sea level. In several ridges, oolite drapes over older paleosol-capped bioclastic ridges. During the Sangamonian, sea water flooded the platform, however some remnant Aftonian ridges remained above sea level. As cold water from the surrounding deep ocean warmed on the shelf, ooids were generated and were washed onto beaches and blown into dunes. Remnant ridges restricted water movement and acted as nucleii for eolian ooid dunes. As sea level continued to rise, ooids were replaced by lagoonal bioclastic deposits. Ooid production was restricted to the swash zone along beaches resulting in the mixture of ooids and bioclastic sand in later Sangamonian deposits. Numerous Mississippian oolites display features similar to the Pleistocene oolite of San Salvador Island. Possible comparisons include thick lenses of Ste. Genevieve and Bangor limestones, paleosols in the Ste. Genevieve halo-shaped bodies of Greenbrier oolite, and the relationship of nearly all olites with bioclastic facies.

  13. Blood-brain barrier permeability of bioactive withanamides present in Withania somnifera fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Vareed, Shaiju K; Bauer, Alison K; Nair, Kavitha M; Liu, Yunbao; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2014-08-01

    The neuroprotective effect of Withania somnifera L. Dunal fruit extract, in rodent models, is known. Withanamides, the primary active constituents in W.somnifera fruit extract exhibited neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cell culture studies. Therefore, we investigated the blood-brain barrier permeability of withanamides in W.somnifera fruit extract in mice using HPLC coupled with high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF/MS) detection. Mice were administered with 250 mg/kg of W.somnifera extract by intraperitoneal injection, and the blood and brain samples analyzed by Q-TOF/MS detection. Four major withanamides were detected in brain and blood of mice administered with W.somnifera extract. The results suggested that the withanamides crossed the blood-brain barrier. These results may help to develop W.somnifera fruit extract as a preventive or therapeutic botanical drug for stress-induced neurological disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Neuronutrient impact of Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy in brain aging.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Harsh; Narsimhamurthy, K; Singh, Girish

    2008-12-01

    Ayurveda is the oldest system of Medicine in the world, its antiquity going back to the Vedas. It adapts a unique holistic approach to the entire science of life, health and cure. The areas of special consideration in Ayurveda are geriatrics, rejuvenation, nutrition, immunology, genetics and higher consciousness. The Ayurvedic texts describe a set of rejuvenative measures to impart biological sustenance to the bodily tissues. These remedies are called Rasayana which are claimed to act as micronutrients. Some of these Rasayanas are organ and tissue specific. Those specific to brain tissue are called Medhya Rasayana. Such Rasayanas retard brain aging and help in regeneration of neural tissues besides producing antistress, adaptogenic and memory enhancing effect. In addition to the long tradition of textual and experience-based evidence for their efficacy, certain recent studies conducted on these traditional remedies on scientific parameters have shown promising results which have been reviewed in this paper for providing lead for further studies. The popular Medhya Rasayanas are Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Linn), Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn) and Sankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois).

  15. PCR-identification of Dunaliella salina (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) and its growth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Raja, Rathinam; Hema Iswarya, Shanmugam; Balasubramanyam, Dakshanamoorthy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2007-01-01

    The saline pond microalga, Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teod. maintained in De Walne's (basal) medium under laboratory conditions was confirmed by amplifying the chromosomal DNA of the microalga by PCR with specific primers MA1 and MA2. Seaweed extracts obtained from Sargassum wightii and Ulva lactuca were amended separately at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% levels to the basal medium in order to assess their potential on the growth and concentration of pigments, viz. Chl a, Chl b and beta-carotene of the alga. beta-Carotene was isolated and visible absorption spectrum was taken at 443 and 475 nm confirmed the presence of 9-cis-beta-carotene and all-trans-beta-carotene isomers. Maximum yield, highest division rate (mu) and highest pigment concentrations were observed in the cells grown in 1.5% S. wightii and 2.0% U. lactuca amended medium and these cells were subjected to DAPI staining. The results of epifluorescence microscopy and image analysis revealed a significant enhancement of the cell and nuclear area of the microalgae.

  16. Nutrient limitation is the main regulatory factor for carotenoid accumulation and for Psy and Pds steady state transcript levels in Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) exposed to high light and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Coesel, Sacha Nicole; Baumgartner, Alexandra Cordeiro; Teles, Licia Marlene; Ramos, Ana Alexandra; Henriques, Nuno Miguel; Cancela, Leonor; Varela, João Carlos Serafim

    2008-01-01

    Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco (1905) is a green unicellular alga able to withstand severe salt, light, and nutrient stress, adaptations necessary to grow in harsh environments such as salt ponds. In response to such growth conditions, this microalga accumulates high amounts of beta-carotene in its single chloroplast. In this study, we show that carotenoid accumulation is consistently inhibited in cells grown in nutrient-supplemented media and exposed either to high-light or medium-low-light conditions. Likewise, carotenogenesis in cells shifted to higher salinity (up to 27% NaCl) under medium-low-light conditions is inhibited by the presence of nutrients. The steady-state levels of transcripts encoding phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase increased substantially in D. salina cells shifted to high light or high salt under nutrient-limiting conditions, whereas the presence of nutrients inhibited this response. The regulatory effect of nutrient availability on the accumulation of carotenoids and messenger RNA levels of the first two enzymes committed to carotenoid biosynthesis is discussed.

  17. Enhanced photo- and antioxidative protection, and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in drought-stressed Cistus clusii and Cistus albidus plants.

    PubMed

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Jubany-Marí, Tana; Alegre, Leonor

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms of drought stress resistance were studied in Cistus clusii Dunal and Cistus albidus L., two native Mediterranean shrubs that can withstand severe summer drought. While water deficit, solar radiation and temperature increased from winter to summer in the field, C. clusii and C. albidus reduced leaf area, increased root mass per leaf area, and showed diurnal changes in stomatal conductance to minimize water loss. In both species, the consequent reductions in CO2 assimilation were accompanied by reduced efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and protection against stress was afforded by enhanced de-epoxidation of violaxanthin in the xanthophyll cycle and increases in alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. In addition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation was observed in mesophyll cell walls of both species during the first stages of drought, although no accumulation of H2O2 was observed in chloroplasts or other organelles during the study. Despite these common responses, C. albidus and C. clusii differed in the extent of photo- and antioxidative protection. In response to drought, C. clusii showed a higher de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and higher alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene concentrations than C. albidus. We conclude that several structural and biochemical mechanisms underlie stress resistance in C. clusii and C. albidus, and are indicative of the different degrees of stress resistance of these shrubs.

  18. Antibacterial efficacy of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) an indigenous medicinal plant against experimental murine salmonellosis.

    PubMed

    Owais, M; Sharad, K S; Shehbaz, A; Saleemuddin, M

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of ashwagandha [Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae; root and leaves)], an Indian traditional medicinal plant against pathogenic bacteria. Both aqueous as well as alcoholic extracts of the plant (root as well as leaves) were found to possess strong antibacterial activity against a range of bacteria, as revealed by in vitro Agar Well Diffusion Method. The methanolic extract was further subfractionated using various solvents and the butanolic sub-fraction was found to possess maximum inhibitory activity against a spectrum of bacteria including Salmonella typhimurium. Moreover, in contrast to the synthetic antibiotic (viz. chloramphenicol), these extracts did not induce lysis on incubation with human erythrocytes, advocating their safety to the living cells. Finally, the antibacterial efficacy of the extracts isolated from plant (both root and leaves) was determined against experimental salmonellosis in Balb/C mice. Oral administration of the aqueous extracts successfully obliterated salmonella infection in Balb/C mice as revealed by increased survival rate as well as less bacterial load in various vital organs of the treated animals.

  19. Withanolide A is inherently de novo biosynthesized in roots of the medicinal plant Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera).

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Das Chaurasiya, Narayan; Lal, Payare; Misra, Laxminarain; Tuli, Rakesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh

    2008-06-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal., Solanaceae) is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Ayurveda, the traditional medical system. Several of its traditionally proclaimed medicinal properties have been corroborated by recent molecular pharmacological investigations and have been shown to be associated with its specific secondary metabolites known as withanolides, the novel group of ergostane skeletal phytosteroids named after the plant. Withanolides are structurally distinct from tropane/nortropane alkaloids (usually found in Solanaceae plants) and are produced only by a few genera within Solanaceae. W. somnifera contains many structurally diverse withanolides in its leaves as well as roots. To date, there has been little biosynthetic or metabolism-related research on withanolides. It is thought that withanolides are synthesized in leaves and transported to roots like the tropane alkaloids, a group of bioactive secondary metabolites in Solanaceae members known to be synthesized in roots and transported to leaves for storage. To examine this, we have studied incorporation of (14)C from [2-(14)C]-acetate and [U-(14)C]-glucose into withanolide A in the in vitro cultured normal roots as well as native/orphan roots of W. somnifera. Analysis of products by thin layer chromatography revealed that these primary metabolites were incorporated into withanolide A, demonstrating that root-contained withanolide A is de novo synthesized within roots from primary isoprenogenic precursors. Therefore, withanolides are synthesized in different parts of the plant (through operation of the complete metabolic pathway) rather than imported.

  20. Network ethnopharmacological evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Uma; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2017-02-02

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha, WS) is one of the extensively explored Ayurvedic botanicals. Several properties including immunomodulation, anti-cancer and neuro-protection of the botanical have been reported. Even though, in indigenous medicine, WS is well known for its immunomodulatory activity, the molecular mechanism of immunomodulation has not been elucidated. This study aimed the evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of WS using network ethnopharmacology technique to elucidate the in silico molecular mechanism. Databases- DPED, UNPD, PubChem, Binding DB, ChEMBL, KEGG and STRING were used to gather information to develop the networks. The networks were constructed using Cytoscape 3.2.1. Data analysis was performed with the help of Excel pivot table and Cytoscape network analyzer tool. Investigation for WS immune modulation mechanism identified five bioactives that are capable of regulating 15 immune system pathways through 16 target proteins by bioactive-target and protein-protein interactions. The study also unveils the potential of withanolide-phytosterol combination to achieve effective immunomodulation and seven novel bioactive-immune target combinations. The study elucidated an in silico molecular mechanism of immunomodulation of WS. It unveils the potential of withanolide-phytosterol combination to achieve a better immunomodulation. Experimental validation of the network findings would aid in understanding the rationale behind WS immunomodulation as well as aid in bioactive formulation based drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Withania somnifera and Its Withanolides Attenuate Oxidative and Inflammatory Responses and Up-Regulate Antioxidant Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Grace Y; Li, Runting; Cui, Jiankun; Hannink, Mark; Gu, Zezong; Fritsche, Kevin L; Lubahn, Dennis B; Simonyi, Agnes

    2016-09-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, commonly known as Ashwagandha, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for promoting health and quality of life. Recent clinical trials together with experimental studies indicated significant neuroprotective effects of Ashwagandha and its constituents. This study is aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of this botanical and its two withanolide constituents, namely, Withaferin A and Withanolide A, using the murine immortalized BV-2 microglial cells. Ashwagandha extracts not only effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BV-2 cells, but also stimulates the Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway, leading to induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), both in the presence and absence of LPS. Although the withanolides were also capable of inhibiting LPS-induced NO production and stimulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, Withaferin A was tenfold more effective than Withanolide A. In serum-free culture, LPS can also induce production of long thin processes (filopodia) between 4 and 8 h in BV-2 cells. This morphological change was significantly suppressed by Ashwagandha and both withanolides at concentrations for suppressing LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, these results suggest an immunomodulatory role for Ashwagandha and its withanolides, and their ability to suppress oxidative and inflammatory responses in microglial cells by simultaneously down-regulating the NF-kB and upregulating the Nrf2 pathways.

  2. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Carlos; Wheeler, Gregory S; Lapointe, Stephen L; Rosskopf, Erin; Overholt, William A

    2011-12-01

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of light intensity on the performance of tropical soda apple and G. boliviana under greenhouse conditions, and to determine the abundance and mortality of G. boliviana in open and shaded habitats. Leaves growing in the shade were less tough, had higher water and nitrogen content, lower soluble sugars, and less dense and smaller glandular trichomes compared with leaves growing in the open. Plants grew slightly taller and wider under shaded conditions but total biomass was significantly reduced compared with plants grown in the open. In the greenhouse, G. boliviana had higher immature survival, greater folivory, larger adult size, and higher fecundity when reared on shaded plants compared with open plants. Sampling of field populations revealed that the overall abundance of G. boliviana was lower but leaf feeding damage was higher in shaded habitats compared with the open habitats. The percentage of eggs surviving to adult was greater in shaded compared with open habitats. The abundance of predators was higher in the open pasture and was positively correlated with the abundance of G. boliviana. These results indicate that not only plant quality but also habitat structure are important to the performance of weed biological control agents.

  3. Essential oil of three Uvaria species from Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Muriel, Koffi A; Félix, Tonzibo Z; Figueredo, Gilles; Chalard, Pierre; N'guessan, Yao T

    2011-11-01

    Different parts of Uvaria ovata (Dunals) A, U. anonoides Baker f. and U. tortilis A. Chev were collected from Ivory Coast, in Toumodi (center), Agboville (south-east) and Sikensi (south), respectively. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, were investigated by CG and CG/MS. The proportion of the chromatographed constituents identified varied from 92.5% to 98.5%. For U. ovata, the root bark oil comprised mainly camphene (10.2%), beta-pinene (10.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (13.2%) and intermedeol (9.7%), while the oil of the stem bark was dominated by epi-alpha-cadinol (27.3%), intermedeol (11.9%) and benzyl benzoate (13.4%). The oil of the leaves showed beta-caryophyllene (15.6%), germacrene D (24.2%) and benzyl benzoate (18.3%) as the most abundant constituents. The leaf oil of U. anonoides was rich in 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (21.3%) and benzyl benzoate (8.7%), while, gamma-terpinene (31.7%), beta-caryophyllene (23.9%) and germacrene D (15.8%) constituted the main components of the stem bark oil of U. tortilis.

  4. Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

    2007-08-01

    The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones.

  5. Resistance of wild Solanum accessions to aphids and other potato pests in Quebec field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fréchette, B; Bejan, M; Lucas, E; Giordanengo, P; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae.

  6. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  7. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  8. Kennedy Space Center and the Florida Atlantic coast area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of the Kennedy Space Center and the Florida Atlantic coast area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photography taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This photograph shows the major land-ocean features of the Florida coast from near Vero Beach northward to Cape Canaveral and the KSC complex. The launch pads for the Skylab missions are clearly visible. Various shades of red portray differences in the vegetation such as shown in the patterns in the agricultural area near Vero Beach. At KSC, the nearly continuous and uniform red color shows that most of the land areas are heavily vegetated. The white coastal beach areas are strongly contrasted to the red land and the blue Atlantic Ocean. Old dunal areas in KSC are visible on Merritt Island which is separated from the Launch areas by the Banana River and from the mainland by the Indian River. Federal and state highways and numerous cause

  9. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Muruganandam, A V

    2003-06-01

    Withania somnifera (WS) Dunal is classified in Ayurveda, the ancient Hindu system of medicine, as a rasayana, a group of plant-derived drugs reputed to promote physical and mental health, augment resistance of the body against disease and diverse adverse environmental factors, revitalise the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. These attributes are remarkably similar to the properties ascribed to adaptogens like Panax ginseng (PG) in contemporary medicine. As such, the adaptogenic activity of a standardised extract of WS roots was investigated against a rat model of chronic stress (CS). The stress procedure was mild, unpredictable footshock, administered once daily for 21 days to adult male Wistar rats. CS induced significant hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance, increase in plasma corticosterone levels, gastric ulcerations, male sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficits, immunosuppression and mental depression. These CS induced perturbations were attenuated by WS (25 and 50 mg/kg po) and by PG (100 mg/kg po), administered 1 h before footshock for 21 days. The results indicate that WS, like PG, has significant antistress adaptogenic activity, confirming the clinical use of the plant in Ayurveda.

  10. Characterization of As and trace metals embedded in PM10 particles in Puebla City, México.

    PubMed

    Morales-García, S S; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Jonathan, M P; Navarrete-López, M; Herrera-García, M A; Muñoz-Sevilla, N P

    2014-01-01

    Forty-eight air-filter samples (PM10) were analysed to identify the concentration level of partially leached metals (PLMs; As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and V) from Puebla City, México. Samples were collected during 2008 from four monitoring sites: (1) Tecnológico (TEC), (2) Ninfas (NIN), (3) Hermanos Serdán (HS) and (4) Agua Santa (AS). The results indicate that in TEC, As (avg. 424 ng m(-3)), V (avg. 19.2 ng m(-3)), Fe (avg. 1,202 ng m(-3)), Cu (avg. 86.6 ng m(-3)), Cr (41.9 ng m(-3)) and Ni (18.6 ng m(-3)) are on the higher side than other populated regions around the world. The enrichment of PLMs is due to the industrial complexes generating huge dust particles involving various operations. The results are supported by the correlation of metals (Mn, Cd and Co) with Fe indicating its anthropogenic origin and likewise, As with Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Pb and V. The separate cluster of As, Fe and Mn clearly signifies that it is due to continuous eruption of fumaroles from the active volcano Popocatépetl in the region.

  11. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  12. Receta para el Exito. Una Guia Actualizada para Padres sobre el Mejoramiento de las Escuelas de Colorado y Logros Estudiantiles (Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This Spanish language guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as: how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler; how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school; how to help a daughter do well in school; how to work with a daughter's or son's…

  13. Role of Systematic Formative Assessment on Students' Views of Their Learning (El papel de la evaluación formativa en las percepciones de los estudiantes sobre su aprendizaje)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areiza Restrepo, Hugo Nelson

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a partial report of a small qualitative research study that explored the students' views of their learning during and after the implementation of formative procedures such as self-assessment, feedback, and conferences. The article also includes their perceptions about this implementation. The research was carried out with a…

  14. The Use of Blogs in English Language Learning: A Study of Student Perceptions (El uso de bitácoras o "blogs" en el aprendizaje del idioma inglés: un estudio sobre las percepciones del estudiante)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Gurleen; Gupta, Deepti; Aggarwal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present an investigation that focused on the students' perception of using Blogs as a means to supplement in-class language learning activities. Blogs are easy to manage and enable students to publish their work in a chronological manner. They help students to engage in online exchanges and promote learner autonomy. This study…

  15. Mision Informacion: Entrevista a Empleados en el Lugar donde Trabajan; Observar a Obreros mientras Trabajan; Programa sobre Experiencia Laboral (Mission Information: Worksite Interview, Shadow Community Workers, Work Experience Program). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The work-study guide is the third volume in the advanced level of a career education curriculum for elementary-secondary migrant children. Complementing the secondary level job information text and a workbook about decision making and self-awareness, the work-study guide is designed to accompany work exploration and experience programs. It…

  16. Fortalecete! Pensamientos e ideas sobre el desarrollo de curriculo para maestras de educacion basica en espanol ("Get Energized! Thoughts and Ideas on Curriculum Development for Spanish Basic Education Teachers").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke JUNTOS Adult Basic Education Collaborative, MA.

    This booklet outlines approaches to adult basic education Spanish literacy. It includes the following: explanatory note for English (non-Spanish) readers; general goals of a Spanish language literacy (SLL) program in Holyoke, Massachusetts; checklists; learning objectives for reading and writing; SLL lesson plan guide; outline for SLL curriculum…

  17. La Ninez en Puerto Rico: Resultados del Censo 2000. Un informe de KIDS COUNT/PRB sobre el Censo 2000 (Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This Spanish-language report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto…

  18. Regulando la Enfermedad a través de la Definición y la Restricción: Profesionales de la Salud Hablan sobre el VIH/SIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Souhail Malavé; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Las profesiones de la salud tienen un papel social dual. Por un lado, velan por el mantenimiento de la salud de la población protegiendo el bien común. Por el otro, dictaminan las formas saludables, y por lo tanto socialmente apropiadas, de ser, actuar y pensar. Este último papel, está más ligado al control social de la población que a una preocupación altruista hacia la misma. A través de esta supervisión y control, se construyen los sujetos a los cuales todos/as debemos aspirar a ser para gozar de aceptación social. Los/as profesionales de la salud han jugado un rol protagónico en dicho proceso, siendo los agentes que delimitan y definen lo que es enfermo vs. saludable, útil vs. inútil, apropiado vs. inapropiado. En el caso de la epidemia del VIH, este esfuerzo se ha hecho cada vez más vigente ya que estos/as profesionales juegan un papel importante en el tratamiento de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Sin embargo, su función está plasmada de definiciones que sirven para criminalizar a las PVVS. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la manera en que una muestra de profesionales de la salud en Puerto Rico construyen a las PVVS. Con este propósito, entrevistamos 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de estas profesiones. Estas entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a un análisis de discurso. Los resultados reflejaron que según las personas participantes: 1) la PVVS no es una persona “normal” o funcional bajo los estándares sociales debido a que su salud no se los permite, 2) representa una carga para la sociedad incluyendo familiares, amigos/as, el mundo del trabajo, e incluso para el gobierno, 3) debe ser vigilada porque representa un riesgo para la persona seronegativa que es descrita como saludable y productiva, y 4) necesita que su salud y conducta sexual sean controladas por vía legal y/o por las personas que representan las instituciones sociales, como lo son los/as profesionales de la salud. En este artículo abordamos el potencial rol de la psicología para servir como vehículo de reconstrucción de dichas nociones, tomando en consideración su propio rol en la formación y mantenimiento de dicho sujeto socialmente deseable. PMID:22025907

  19. Developing Mathematical Resilience: Students' Voice about the Use of ICT in Classroom (El desarrollo de la capacidad de resiliencia matemática: La voz de los estudiantes sobre el uso de las TIC en la aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Ana Isabel; Oliveira, Hélia; Henriques, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mathematical resilience is assumed as one of the most important areas in school context and whose focus should be given priority, due to the distress exhibited by students when learning and understanding basic knowledge in mathematics year after year. The main goal of this research was to study how students attending middle schools…

  20. Exploring Authorship Development among Mexican EFL Teacher-Researchers (Exploración sobre el desarrollo de la autoría en los profesores-investigadores de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujeque Moreno, Eva Estefania; Encinas Prudencio, Fátima; Thomas-Ruzic, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a multi-theoretical model to address processes of "authorship development" in the English as a foreign language teaching profession. Working within a sociocultural perspective of second-language teacher education, the authors examined six experienced nonnative English-speaking teacher-researchers. Perceptions of…

  1. Grupo de Trabajo Para la Preparacion del Proyecto Sobre el Desarrolo de Servicias de Bibliotecas y de Informacion Cientifica y Tecnica (Working Group for the Preparation of the Proposal on the Development of Library Services and Scientific and Technical Information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain).

    The Office of Iberoamerican Education, an intergovernmental body based on educational and cultural cooperation for the purpose of disseminating information, documentation, advice, and assistance in the field of education, co-sponsors (with UNESCO) the work represented in this study of library and information planning and facilities in the Andean…

  2. [The EMECAM project: a discussion of the results in the participating cities. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Ballester Díez, F; Sáez Zafra, M; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Daponte Codina, A; Bellido Blasco, J B; Cañada Martínez, A; Abad Díez, J M; Pérez Boíllos, M J; Alonso Fustel, M E; Taracido Trunk, M; Aguinaga Ontoso, I; Guillén Pérez, J J; Ordóñez Iriarte, J M; Saurina Canals, C; Tenías Burillo, J M

    1999-01-01

    This article draws a comparison and provides a discussion of the findings resulting from the local analyses of the 14 cities participating in the EMECAM Project. An analysis is made of the time series related to mortality, pollutants (particles in suspension, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO), temperature and other factors taken from records of public institutions. By using Poisson autoregressive regression, an estimate has been made of the short-term relationship between the number of deaths and the air pollution indicators in each one of the following cities: Barcelona, metropolitan area of Bilbao, Cartagena, Castellón, Gijón, Huelva, Madrid, Pamplona, Seville, Oviedo, Valencia, Vigo, Vitoria and Saragossa. The findings reveal the air pollution figures in our country to be similar to those of other European cities. The levels of the different pollutants point toward road traffic as being the main source of most of this pollution. A relationship has been found between the mortality and different pollutants in most cities, although the results are not homogeneous among the cities and show variability in the different causes under study. In some cities, especially in those having smaller populations, there have been no findings providing any evidence of a relationship, or the findings themselves are not highly consistent. The meta-analysis will provide estimates for all of the cities as a whole and will allow the possibility of making a more clear-cut assessment of the time lag impact of air pollution on the mortality. Worthy of special mention is the participation in this project of public health officers as actively involved researchers.

  3. Guia para Evaluar y Ubicar a Estudiantes de Idiomas Minoritarios. Para Padres/sobre Padres (A Guide to Assessing and Placing Language Minority Students. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This guide helps parents understand how schools assess their child's English language ability and suggests ways for them to help schools place their children in the most useful language program. All districts must decide which students to test, and then how to test them. Some schools attempt to find out the English skills of all students, and…

  4. Directory of Adult Education Periodicals. Sixth Revised Edition = Repertoire des Periodiques sur l'Education des Adultes. Sixieme Edition Revisee = Repertorio de Periodicos sobre Educacion de Adultos. Sexta Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Literacy, Adult Education and Rural Development.

    This directory lists approximately 175 adult education periodicals published in Africa, Arab states, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, and other international areas. Within each category, periodicals are further divided into the individual countries in which they are published. Each entry may provide…

  5. Directory of Adult Education Periodicals. Seventh Revised Edition. = Repertoire des Periodiques sur l'Education des Adultes. Septieme Edition Revisee. = Repertorio de Periodicos sobre Educacion de Adultos. Septima Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Primary Educ., Literacy & Adult Educ., Educ. in Rural Areas

    Intended as a reference for persons seeking documentation on adult education, this directory provides a list of professional journals and newsletters--international, national, and regional--appearing regularly and dealing either exclusively or substantially with information and activities relating to adult education. This seventh revised edition…

  6. Ten Facts Every Parent Should Know about the No Child Left Behind Act = Diez datos que cada padre debe saber sobre La Ley. Que Ningun Nino Se Quede Atras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is President George W. Bush's education reform law passed by Republicans and Democrats in Congress. This flier, in both English and Spanish, details 10 facts concerning NCLB to inform parents as to the goals of the Act and how they will affect their child's school. The flier highlights how the Act: (1) gives…

  7. Actas de la 4th mesa redonda sobre investigacion en "Lenguas Extranjeras" en la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana 1996. (Proceedings from the 4th Roundtable on Investigation in Foreign Languages in the Autonomous Metropolitan University 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee, Comp.; Diop, Mamoudou Si, Comp.; Vivaldo Lima, Javier, Comp.

    The articles included in this volume were selected as exemplary papers from the conference in Mexico. The goal of the forum was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the three branches of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM) to meet and discuss research projects currently in progress at the university. The works presented here…

  8. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  9. Western Hemisphere Conference on Persons with Disabilities. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., March 14-18, 1993) = Conferencia Hemisferica Occidental sobre Personas con Discapacidades. Actas de la Conferencia. (Washington, D.C., 14 al 18 de Marzo de 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jerry D., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference which brought together delegates and First Ladies representing western hemisphere nations to address needs and issues affecting people with disabilities in the Americas. It presents the texts of two keynote addresses: "Small Triumphs, Big Victories: A Global View of Persons with…

  10. Can We Talk? Helping Families Talk about Self-Esteem, Sex, and Peer Pressure. Training Package = Conversamos? Ayudando a Familias a Hablar sobre la Autoestima, el Sexo, y la Presion de los Amigos. Paquete de Capacitacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Dominic; Newberry, Jerald

    This English and Spanish language multimedia packet comprises an educational curriculum designed to help families talk about self-esteem, sex, and peer pressure with their children in grades 4 through 8. The packet consists of a planning and training manuals, family activity books, and a videotape. The curriculum is comprised of four parent…

  11. La Seccion de Investigacion sobre Educacion Medica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (The Medical Education Investigation Section of the School of Medicine of UNAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo Sainz, Carlos; Alvarez, Tostado, Juan

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of Mexican medical education needs for the future. To plan for these needs, SISEM of UNAM was formed with the objectives of carrying out and promoting investigations in the different areas of medical education. It also wants to distribute the information…

  12. Sobre un Cambio Sintactico en el Espanol Canario: del Indicativo al Subjuntivo y Condicional (Concerning a Syntactic Change in the Spanish of the Canary Islands: From the Indicative to the Subjunctive and Conditional).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Maria Jose

    1995-01-01

    Many sociolinguistic studies validate the importance of the relationship among social variables that satisfactorily explain the correlation between linguistic and social phenomena. The intersection of sex, sociocultural level, and age initiates syntactic change that first appears in the vernacular and progresses to the accepted standard. (52…

  13. Educacion, Salud y Bienestar para el Nino Preescolar y la Familia (7 de Enero--29 de Febrero de 1996). Informe Curso sobre (Education, Health and Welfare for Small Children. January 7 - February 29, 1996. Report of a Course.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This Spanish-language report (with an English summary) describes a course on interagency cooperation held at the Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Center in Haifa, Israel. The course, with 30 Central and South American participants, discusses the necessity of pooling resources and sharing responsibility among institutions in various…

  14. Ten Facts Every Parent Should Know about the No Child Left Behind Act = Diez datos que cada padre debe saber sobre La Ley. Que Ningun Nino Se Quede Atras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is President George W. Bush's education reform law passed by Republicans and Democrats in Congress. This flier, in both English and Spanish, details 10 facts concerning NCLB to inform parents as to the goals of the Act and how they will affect their child's school. The flier highlights how the Act: (1) gives…

  15. Directory of Adult Education Periodicals. Seventh Revised Edition. = Repertoire des Periodiques sur l'Education des Adultes. Septieme Edition Revisee. = Repertorio de Periodicos sobre Educacion de Adultos. Septima Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Primary Educ., Literacy & Adult Educ., Educ. in Rural Areas

    Intended as a reference for persons seeking documentation on adult education, this directory provides a list of professional journals and newsletters--international, national, and regional--appearing regularly and dealing either exclusively or substantially with information and activities relating to adult education. This seventh revised edition…

  16. Directory of Adult Education Periodicals. Sixth Revised Edition = Repertoire des Periodiques sur l'Education des Adultes. Sixieme Edition Revisee = Repertorio de Periodicos sobre Educacion de Adultos. Sexta Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Literacy, Adult Education and Rural Development.

    This directory lists approximately 175 adult education periodicals published in Africa, Arab states, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, and other international areas. Within each category, periodicals are further divided into the individual countries in which they are published. Each entry may provide…

  17. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  18. Adolescents' Awareness of Environmental Care: Experiences When Writing Short Descriptive Texts in English (Concientización de los adolescentes sobre el cuidado ambiental: experiencias al escribir textos descriptivos cortos en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo Urrutia, Lorena; Medina Gutiérrez, Ana Stella

    2011-01-01

    Today it is necessary to approach environmental topics with students in an interdisciplinary manner to mitigate the environmental damages that the Earth is suffering. In this paper we report an action-research and innovation study aimed at sensitizing students with respect to the care and preservation of the environment through the writing of…

  19. Kathy Talks with Other Mothers about Breastfeeding an Older Baby. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Habla con Otras Mamas sobre el Amamantar a un Bebe Mayorcito. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. The book explains that a 1- or 2-year old breastfed baby is comforted by breastfeeding, breast milk continues to have nutritional value (even if the mother becomes pregnant), and that…

  20. Edades y metalicidades de cinco cúmulos estelares proyectados en dirección a la Nube Menor de Magallanes: implicaciones sobre los procesos de formación y evolución de estos sistemas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Santos, J. F. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Sarajedini, A.; Geisler, D.

    Washington photometry of the 5 star clusters Lindsay 32, Lindsay 38, Kron 28, Kron 44 and Lindsay 116 and their surrounding fields located towards the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is presented for the first time. From the color-magnitude diagrams, cleaned from field stars contamination, the cluster and SMC field reddenings, ages and metallicities are determined. The ages - derived from the difference in the T1 magnitude betweem the giant clump and the Main Sequence turnoff point - vary between 2 and 6 Gyr, and the metallicities ([Fe/H]) between -1.65 and -1.10. Lindsay 116 is located closer to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) than to the SMC and its fundamental parameters suggests a higher probability of belonging to the LMC. The results obtained in this work, combined with previous estimates of age and metallicity for other seven clusters, allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) There does not exist an age-position relation in the SMC, but a age-metallicity one. (2) The chemical enrichment in the SMC has been very efficient during the last 5 Gyr. (3) The SMC clusters formation and evolution can be better represented by a bursting star formation process than by a continuum star formation mechanism.

  1. Manual de Adiestramiento sobre Terapia de Rehidratacion Oral y Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas (Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mari; And Others

    This Spanish-language manual was developed to train Peace Corps volunteers and other community health workers in Spanish-speaking countries in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the control of diarrheal diseases. Using a competency-based format, the manual contains three training modules (organized in seven sessions) that focus on interrelated…

  2. La Seccion de Investigacion sobre Educacion Medica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (The Medical Education Investigation Section of the School of Medicine of UNAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo Sainz, Carlos; Alvarez, Tostado, Juan

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of Mexican medical education needs for the future. To plan for these needs, SISEM of UNAM was formed with the objectives of carrying out and promoting investigations in the different areas of medical education. It also wants to distribute the information…

  3. Developing Mathematical Resilience: Students' Voice about the Use of ICT in Classroom (El desarrollo de la capacidad de resiliencia matemática: La voz de los estudiantes sobre el uso de las TIC en la aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Ana Isabel; Oliveira, Hélia; Henriques, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mathematical resilience is assumed as one of the most important areas in school context and whose focus should be given priority, due to the distress exhibited by students when learning and understanding basic knowledge in mathematics year after year. The main goal of this research was to study how students attending middle schools…

  4. Todo Alumno: Un Manual de Recursos de PEER sobre Educacion Basada en Normas y Alumnos con Discapacidades (Every Single Student: A PEER Resource Manual on Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Julia K., Ed.; Romano, Carolyn A., Ed.; Vohs, Janet R., Ed.

    This manual in Spanish covers thirteen different topics relevant to the education of students with disabilities in the era of educational reform and standards-based education. Sections include: (1) "Raising Standards of Learning: Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities" (Janet R. Vohs, Julia K. Landau, and Carolyn…

  5. Can We Talk? Helping Families Talk about Self-Esteem, Sex, and Peer Pressure. Training Package = Conversamos? Ayudando a Familias a Hablar sobre la Autoestima, el Sexo, y la Presion de los Amigos. Paquete de Capacitacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Dominic; Newberry, Jerald

    This English and Spanish language multimedia packet comprises an educational curriculum designed to help families talk about self-esteem, sex, and peer pressure with their children in grades 4 through 8. The packet consists of a planning and training manuals, family activity books, and a videotape. The curriculum is comprised of four parent…

  6. A Look at the Decisions Hispanic Families Make after the Diagnosis of Deafness = Un estudio sobre las decisiones que toman las familias hispanas despues de un diagnostico de sordera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Annie; Bain, Lisa; Li, Yuelin; Montoya, Louise; Ruperto, Vivian

    This study, written in both English and Spanish, examined the decision-making process of Hispanic families living in the United States who have a child with a hearing loss. Twenty-nine families in four different geographical areas shared their experiences in learning about their child's disability, searching for appropriate interventions, and…

  7. International Symposium on Visually Handicapped Infants and Young Children: Birth to Seven (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "The First Steps." Proceedings = Simpasio Internacional sobre Ninos Visualmente Deficientes de Nacimiento hasta Siete Anos (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "Los Primeros Pasos."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lillian, Ed.; And Others

    This symposium focused on the special needs of visually handicapped infants and young children. Texts of 48 papers are presented, including keynote addresses by W. Aubrey Webson ("The First Steps") and Heather Hewitt ("First Steps--Parenting, Prevention and Programming"). Regional reports are provided for Japan, Bangladesh, the…

  8. The Effect of Direct and Indirect Corrective Feedback on Students' Spelling Errors (El efecto de la retroalimentación directa e indirecta sobre los errores de ortografía de los estudiantes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Dadashi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    The study presented here is an attempt to examine the role of indirect feedback in promoting junior high school students' spelling accuracy in English. It compares the effect of direct feedback with indirect feedback on students' written work dictated by their teacher from their textbooks. Two classes were selected from the Zanjanrood District in…

  9. Kathy Talks with Other Mothers about Breastfeeding an Older Baby. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Habla con Otras Mamas sobre el Amamantar a un Bebe Mayorcito. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. The book explains that a 1- or 2-year old breastfed baby is comforted by breastfeeding, breast milk continues to have nutritional value (even if the mother becomes pregnant), and that…

  10. A Baseline Study of Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking in the Preschool Classroom (Un Estudio de Base sobre Estrategias para la Promoción de Pensamiento Critico en las Aulas de Preescolar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    León, Jenny Melo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the different incidents of critical thinking in five preschool classrooms in one school, and the instructional strategies preschool teachers employed in the development of children's critical thinking. The participants in this study were five self-contained preschool teachers and their corresponding…

  11. Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

  12. Aspectos de biología y tablas de vida de Cephalonomia stephanoderis y Prorops nasuta (Himenoptera: Bethilidae) sobre su hospedero la broca del café criada en la dieta artificial Cenibroca modificada.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological aspects and demographic parameters of the African bethylid wasps Cephalonamia stephanoderis Betrem and Prorops nasuta Waterson (Hymenopterans: Bethylidae) were investigated using diet-reared hosts of Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The life cycle (28.40 ± SE 0.486 a...

  13. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  14. Distintas Modalidades de Aproximar la Educacion al Mundo Productivo: Efectos sobre Variables Psico-Sociales en los Alumnos (Distinct Modalities in Approaching Education for the Productive World: Effects of Socio-psychological Variables on Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Abelardo Castro; Carrasco, Decler Martinez; Alegria, Jorge Alegria; Elevancini, Cecilia Maldonado

    2000-01-01

    States that since the 1990s, professional technical education has produced profound transformations in the relationship between education and work in Chile. Examines in a study how modalities of bringing students to the world of work have affected students' socio-psychological characteristics in comparison to training received from traditional…

  15. Thrombosis of second-generation drug-eluting stents in real practice results from the multicenter Spanish registry ESTROFA-2 (Estudio Español Sobre Trombosis de Stents Farmacoactivos de Segunda Generacion-2).

    PubMed

    de la Torre Hernández, José M; Alfonso, Fernando; Gimeno, Federico; Diarte, Jose A; Lopez-Palop, Ramón; Pérez de Prado, Armando; Rivero, Fernando; Sanchis, Juan; Larman, Mariano; Diaz, Jose F; Elizaga, Jaime; Moreiras, Javier Martín; Gomez Jaume, Alfredo; Hernández, José M; Mauri, Josepa; Recalde, Angel Sánchez; Bullones, Juan A; Rumoroso, Jose R; Del Blanco, Bruno García; Baz, Jose A; Bosa, Francisco; Botas, Javier; Hernández, Felipe

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to evaluate second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) thrombosis in clinical practice. First-generation DES are associated with a significant incidence of late thrombosis. There is paucity of data regarding real practice late thrombosis incidence and predictors with second-generation DES, zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES), and everolimus-eluting stents (EES). A prospective, large-scale, non-industry-linked multicenter registry was designed. Complete clinical-procedural data and systematic follow-up of all patients treated with these stents was reported in a dedicated registry supported by the Spanish Working Group on Interventional Cardiology. From 2005 to 2008, 4,768 patients were included in 34 centers: 2,549 treated with ZES, and 2,219 with EES. The cumulative incidence of definite/probable thrombosis for ZES was 1.3% at 1 year and 1.7% at 2 years and for EES 1.4% at 1 year and 1.7% at 2 years (p = 0.8). The increment of definite thrombosis between the first and second year was 0.2% and 0.25%, respectively. In a propensity score analysis, the incidence remained very similar. Ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95 to -0.99; p = 0.008), stent diameter (adjusted HR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.17to 0.81; p = 0.01) and bifurcations (adjusted HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.14 to 3.7; p = 0.02) emerged as independent predictors of thrombosis. In the subgroup of patients with bifurcations, the use of ZES was independently associated with a higher thrombosis rate (adjusted HR: 4; 95% CI: 1.1 to 13; p = 0.03). In a real practice setting, the incidence of thrombosis at 2 years with ZES and EES was low and quite similar. The incidence of very late thrombosis resulted lower than was reported in registries of first-generation DES. In the subset of bifurcations, the use of ZES significantly increased the risk of thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Memorias Conferencia Internacional IEEE Mexico 1971, Sobre Sistemas, Redes Y Computadoras. Volumen I and Volumen II. (Proceedings of International Conference of IEEE Concerning Systems, Networks, and Computers. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concheiro, A. Alonso, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers in English from this international conference may be of particular interest to those in the field of education. T. Nakahara, A. Tsukamota, and M. Matsumoto describe a computer-aided design technique for an economical urban cable television system. W. D. Wasson and R. K. Chitkara outline a recognition scheme based on analysis…

  17. A Look at the Decisions Hispanic Families Make after the Diagnosis of Deafness = Un estudio sobre las decisiones que toman las familias hispanas despues de un diagnostico de sordera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Annie; Bain, Lisa; Li, Yuelin; Montoya, Louise; Ruperto, Vivian

    This study, written in both English and Spanish, examined the decision-making process of Hispanic families living in the United States who have a child with a hearing loss. Twenty-nine families in four different geographical areas shared their experiences in learning about their child's disability, searching for appropriate interventions, and…

  18. Students' Perceptions of the Impact of CLIL in a Mexican BA Program (Percepciones de los estudiantes sobre el impacto de la enseñanza de contenido-lengua integrados en un programa de pregrado en México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asomoza, Alejandra Nuñez

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning is an innovative pedagogical approach used in educational institutions worldwide. This study considers information and experiences from various settings in order to explore content and language integrated learning within the Mexican context. This study reports the perceptions of students in a BA program.…

  19. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD.

  20. Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

  1. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

  2. Sobre un Cambio Sintactico en el Espanol Canario: del Indicativo al Subjuntivo y Condicional (Concerning a Syntactic Change in the Spanish of the Canary Islands: From the Indicative to the Subjunctive and Conditional).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Maria Jose

    1995-01-01

    Many sociolinguistic studies validate the importance of the relationship among social variables that satisfactorily explain the correlation between linguistic and social phenomena. The intersection of sex, sociocultural level, and age initiates syntactic change that first appears in the vernacular and progresses to the accepted standard. (52…

  3. Memorias Conferencia Internacional IEEE Mexico 1971, Sobre Sistemas, Redes Y Computadoras. Volumen I and Volumen II. (Proceedings of International Conference of IEEE Concerning Systems, Networks, and Computers. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concheiro, A. Alonso, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers in English from this international conference may be of particular interest to those in the field of education. T. Nakahara, A. Tsukamota, and M. Matsumoto describe a computer-aided design technique for an economical urban cable television system. W. D. Wasson and R. K. Chitkara outline a recognition scheme based on analysis…

  4. Head Start Program Performance Standards on Services for Children with Disabilities (45-CFR 1308) [and] Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start Sobre Servicios para Ninos con Discapacidades (45-CFR 1308).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This document consolidates, clarifies, and updates federal regulations on Head Start services for children with disabilities. The regulations are designed to complement the Head Start Program Performance Standards governing services to all enrolled children. Specifically, these regulations require Head Start programs to: (1) design comprehensive…

  5. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo de David Ausubel, se buscó desenvolver la propuesta a partir de un modelo didáctico que simula las Fases de la Luna, usando como base las concepciones previas de los estudiantes. Los indicios del aprendizaje fueron verificados a través de registros de memorias de la actividad. Por los resultados obtenidos creemos que la propuesta alcanzó sus objetivos, una vez que los estudiantes consiguieron identificar y transferir el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna para nuevos contextos. Así, se concluye que una metodología con enfoque en un contenido significativo para el estudiante es fundamental para la construcción y comprensión genuina de lo que está siendo aprendido.

  6. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    We occasionally include projects in our learner-centered introductory astronomy college course to enable non-science major students explore some astronomical concepts in more detail than otherwise. Such projects also highlight ongoing or upcoming astronomical events. We hope that students will feel more interested in astronomy through projects tied to astronomical events. In Spring 2012, we offered short essays focused on eclipses, transits and occultations to promote the rare transit of Venus that occurred on June 5th, 2012. We asked students to write two short essays from three that were offered. The essays contained descriptive and conceptual parts. They were meant to serve as teaching tools. 62% of 106 essays from 55 students earned A, B or C grades. 21% of 47 feedback survey respondents felt the essays increased their interest in astronomy. 49% of respondents felt that the essays were not educationally beneficial and should not be offered again. The most common written response to our survey indicated that students need more guidance and better preparation in writing successful essays. Since students found the conceptual parts of the essays difficult, in the future we will provide relevant activities prior to essay deadlines to help students create successful essays. Ocasionalmente, incluimos proyectos en nuestro curso de introducción a la astronomía universitario centrado en el alumno para permitir que los estudiantes de carreras no científicas exploren algunos conceptos astronómicos en más detalle que lo habitual. Estos proyectos también ponen en relevancia eventos astronómicos en curso o futuros. Esperamos que los estudiantes se sientan más interesados en la astronomía a través de proyectos vinculados a eventos astronómicos. En el período de primavera de 2012 (EUA), propusimos breves ensayos centrados en los eclipses, tránsitos y ocultaciones para promover el raro tránsito de Venus que se produjo el 5 de junio de 2012. Le pedimos a los estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os ensaios não eram benéficos para a educação e que não devem ser propostos novamente. As respostas escritas mais comuns da nossa pesquisa indicaram que os alunos precisam de mais orientação e melhor preparação para escrever ensaios bem sucedidos. Como os alunos consideraram difíceis os aspectos conceituais dos ensaios, no futuro iremos fornecer atividades relevantes antes dos ensaios para ajudar os alunos a escrevê-los com sucesso.

  7. Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. Conclusions/Significance We recognise ten species in this group: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange. PMID:23451138

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Withania somnifera root on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Apurva; Singh, Surendra

    2014-03-01

    Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal (Solanaceae) has long been used as an herb in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine and has received intense attention in recent years for its chemopreventive properties. The present study focuses on the effect of W. somnifera root powder on the behavioral and radiological changes in collagen-induced arthritic rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control, arthritic control, arthritic rats treated with W. somnifera root powder (at dose levels 600 and 800 mg kg⁻¹) and arthritic rats treated with methotrexate (at dose level 0.3 mg kg⁻¹). The treatment with W. somnifera (daily) and methotrexate (weekly) was initiated from the 20th day post collagen immunization and continued up until the 45th day. Arthritis was assessed macroscopically by measuring paw thickness, ankle size and body weight. Arthritic pain was assessed by toe-spread and total print length of the affected paw. Functional recovery due to the oral treatment of W. somnifera and methotrexate was assessed by sciatic functional index and rota rod activity. Administration of W. somnifera root powder (600 mg kg⁻¹) to the arthritic rats significantly decreased the severity of arthritis by effectively suppressing the symptoms of arthritis and improving the functional recovery of motor activity and radiological score. W. somnifera root has a protective effect against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. The results suggest that W. somnifera root powder acts as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent in decreasing the arthritic effects in collagen-induced arthritic rats.

  9. Withania somnifera shows a protective effect in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Neetu; Samuel, Sheeba S; Bora, Himangshu K; Sharma, Sharad; Pachauri, Shakti Deep; Dwivedi, Anil K; Siddiqui, Hefazat H; Hanif, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal (Solanaceae), a clinically used herbal drug in Ayurveda, shows potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and cardioprotective effects. However, the efficacy of W. somnifera in pulmonary hypertension (PH), a cardiopulmonary disorder, remains unexplored. The present study investigates the effect of W. somnifera root powder on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH in rats. In preventive studies, W. somnifera root powder (50 and 100 mg/kg/d, p.o.) was administered from day 1 following single administration of MCT (60 mg/kg, s.c.) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After 35 d, right ventricular pressure (RVP) was measured in anesthetized rats. Various physical markers of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were measured in isolated hearts. Markers of endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative stress were estimated in lung homogenate. Vasoreactivity of pulmonary arteries was also studied. In therapeutic treatment, W. somnifera (50 and 100 mg/kg/d, p.o.) was administered from day 21 to 35 post-MCT administration. Preventive treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg W. somnifera significantly reduced the RVP (32.18 ± 1.273 mm Hg and 29.98 ± 1.119 mm Hg, respectively, versus 42.96 ± 1.789 mm Hg of MCT) and all markers of RVH in MCT-challenged rats. There was an improvement in inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, and attenuation of proliferative marker and apoptotic resistance in lungs. Therapeutic treatment with W. somnifera (100 mg/kg) also reduced RVP and RVH. This study demonstrated that W. somnifera significantly protected against MCT-induced PH due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and cardioprotective properties.

  10. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  11. Solar energy utilization: a key to employment generation in the Indian Thar Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harpal; Singh, A. K.; Chaurasia, P. B. L.; Singh, Amit

    2005-09-01

    The Western Rajasthan commonly known as the ‘Indian Thar Desert’ is characterised by harsh climatic conditions with active dunal activities. Precipitation (150 420mm/yr) is far lower than evapotranspiration potentials (1500 2000mm/yr). Ground water is limited and often brakish and high (75 100m) water table. Solar intensity in the region varies from 5.85 to 6.44kWh/m2/day. Further, peculiarity of the region is that sun is available for 345 355 days in a year, the area being highly scarce in rainfall. On an average, rains occur only for 10.4 20.5 days in a year in the Thar Desert. Therefore, there is high scope to harness solar energy for useful purposes. Considering these solar energy technologies for entrepreneurs, the detailed cost analysis has been worked out and presented. With initial investment of Rs (Indian Rupees) 3.50 lakhs for solar drying projects for handling 60,000kg fresh vegetables annually (300 working days/yr), the payback period and average net annual returns come to 2.17 years and Rs 1,43,753/-, respectively at 18% interest rate. However, in case of solar candle making system with initial investment of Rs 25,500/- for handling 18,750kg raw paraffin wax annually (300 working days/yr) the payback period and net annual returns at 15%, interest rate come to about 3 months and Rs 1,12,793/-, respectively. Both these projects are highly profitable.

  12. Wild relatives of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): new understanding of species names in a complex group.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the "spiny" solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. WE RECOGNISE TEN SPECIES IN THIS GROUP: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange.

  13. Ayurvedic approach in the management of spinocerebellar ataxia-2

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia -2 is a progressive, degenerative genetic disease caused by an expanded (CAG) trinucleotide repetition on the chromosome 12 resulting in production of an abnormal protein called ataxin-2. There is no known effective management or cure in biomedicine for this genetic disease. In the present study a case of SCA2 that was treated with Ayurvedic intervention is reported. Ayurvedic treatments in this case were directed towards alleviating symptoms and to reduce severe disability due to progressive nature of disease. A 42 year old male patient was diagnosed for Vāta vyādhi (group of various neurological disorders) and was- treated with Śālisastika pinda svedana (sudation with bolus of medicated cooked rice) for 30 days-, Śirobasti (sudation of head with the help of a cap on head) with Aśvagandhā taila for 45 days and Balādi ksīra basti (enema with medicated milk) with Aśvagandhā taila anuvāsana (enema with oil) for 30 days in Karma basti krama (30 days regime of purification and oleation enema) along with a combination of Ayurvedic oral drugs which consisted of Brahadvātacintāmanirasa – 125 mg, Vasantāmaltī rasa- 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha- 40 ml, Aśvagandhā cūrṇa (powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL)- 3g, Amrtā cūrṇa (powder of Tinospora cordifolia Willd.)- 500 mg, Muktāśukti pisti – 500 mg, Yogarāja Guggulu – 500 mg twice a day for 2 months. Patient's condition was assessed on the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Before treatment, mean SARA score was 35. This reduced to 15 after treatment. Good relief in dysarthria, fasciculation, heaviness in eye, blurred vision, axial tremor; constipation and quality of life were observed in this case. PMID:27143801

  14. Comprehensive assessment of the genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis from Withania somnifera: chemotype-specific and elicitor-responsive expression.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Aditya Vikram; Gupta, Parul; Singh, Deeksha; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Chandra, Deepak; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2017-03-11

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Family, Solanaceae), is among the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurveda owing to its rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites known as withanolides. Withanolides are C28-steroidal lactones having a triterpenoidal metabolic origin synthesised via mevalonate (MVA) pathway and methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway involving metabolic intermediacy of 24-methylene (C30-terpenoid) cholesterol. Phytochemical studies suggest differences in the content and/or nature of withanolides in different tissues of different chemotypes. Though development of genomic resources has provided information about putative genes encoding enzymes for biosynthesis of intermediate steps of terpenoid backbone, not much is known about their regulation and response to elicitation. In this study, we generated detailed molecular information about genes catalysing key regulatory steps of withanolide biosynthetic pathway. The full-length sequences of genes encoding enzymes for intermediate steps of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and their paralogs have been characterized for their functional and structural properties as well as phylogeny using bioinformatics approach. The expression analysis suggests that these genes are differentially expressed in different tissues (with maximal expression in young leaf), chemotypes and in response to salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatments. Sub-cellular localization studies suggest that both paralogs of sterol ∆-7 reductase (WsDWF5-1 and WsDWF5-2) are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thus supporting their indispensible role in withanolide biosynthesis. Comprehensive information developed, in this study, will lead to elucidation of chemotype- as well as tissue-specific withanolide biosynthesis and development of new tools for functional genomics in this important medicinal plant.

  15. Evaluation of the bioavailability of major withanolides of Withania somnifera using an in vitro absorption model system.

    PubMed

    Devkar, Santosh T; Kandhare, Amit D; Sloley, Brian D; Jagtap, Suresh D; Lin, James; Tam, Yun K; Katyare, Surendra S; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, shows several pharmacological properties which are attributed mainly to the withanolides present in the root. The efficacy of medicinally active withanolides constituents depends on the absorption and transportation through the intestinal epithelium. We examined these characteristics by employing the Sino-Veda Madin-Darby canine kidney cells culture system, which under in vitro condition shows the absorption characteristics similar to the human intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to assess the bioavailability of individual withanolides. Withanolides were diluted in Hank's buffered saline at a concentration of 2 μg/ml were tested for permeability studies carried out for 1 h duration. Permeability was measured in terms of efflux pump (P eff) in cm/s. P eff values of withanolide A (WN A), withanone (WNN), 1,2-deoxywithastramonolide (1,2 DWM), withanolide B (WN B), withanoside IV-V (WS IV-V), and withaferin A were 4.05 × 10(-5), 2.06 × 10(-5), 1.97 × 10(-5), 1.80 × 10(-5), 3.19 × 10(-6), 3.03 × 10(-6) and 3.30 × 10(-7) respectively. In conclusion, the nonpolar and low molecular weight compounds (WN A, WNN, 1,2 DWM, and WN B) were highly permeable. As against this, the glycosylated and polar WS IV and WS V showed low permeability. Surprisingly and paradoxically, the highly biologically active withaferin A was completely impermeable, suggesting that further studies possibly using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells may be needed to delineate the absorption characteristics of withanolides, especially withaferin A.

  16. Evaluation of the bioavailability of major withanolides of Withania somnifera using an in vitro absorption model system

    PubMed Central

    Devkar, Santosh T.; Kandhare, Amit D.; Sloley, Brian D.; Jagtap, Suresh D.; Lin, James; Tam, Yun K.; Katyare, Surendra S.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V.

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, shows several pharmacological properties which are attributed mainly to the withanolides present in the root. The efficacy of medicinally active withanolides constituents depends on the absorption and transportation through the intestinal epithelium. We examined these characteristics by employing the Sino-Veda Madin-Darby canine kidney cells culture system, which under in vitro condition shows the absorption characteristics similar to the human intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to assess the bioavailability of individual withanolides. Withanolides were diluted in Hank's buffered saline at a concentration of 2 μg/ml were tested for permeability studies carried out for 1 h duration. Permeability was measured in terms of efflux pump (Peff) in cm/s. Peff values of withanolide A (WN A), withanone (WNN), 1,2-deoxywithastramonolide (1,2 DWM), withanolide B (WN B), withanoside IV-V (WS IV-V), and withaferin A were 4.05 × 10−5, 2.06 × 10−5, 1.97 × 10−5, 1.80 × 10−5, 3.19 × 10−6, 3.03 × 10−6 and 3.30 × 10−7 respectively. In conclusion, the nonpolar and low molecular weight compounds (WN A, WNN, 1,2 DWM, and WN B) were highly permeable. As against this, the glycosylated and polar WS IV and WS V showed low permeability. Surprisingly and paradoxically, the highly biologically active withaferin A was completely impermeable, suggesting that further studies possibly using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells may be needed to delineate the absorption characteristics of withanolides, especially withaferin A. PMID:26605156

  17. Preliminary evaluation for cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic potential of naturally growing ethnobotanically selected plants of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Burns, Brittany E; Marler, Laura E; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-03-01

    Natural products are a very productive source of leads for the development of medicines. Six Pakistani plants were chosen for study based on ethnobotanical data. Exploration of important medicinal plants of Pakistan for cancer treatment. The crude extracts of the six plants and their fractions were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), aromatase, and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, induction of quinone reductase 1 (QR1), agonism of retinoid X receptor, and growth inhibition with MCF-7, LU-1 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Two samples of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae) demonstrated inhibition of TNF-α induced activity of NFκB with IC₅₀ values of 2.6 and 4.3 µg/mL, respectively. Two fractions from W. coagulans and Euphorbia wallichii Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae) aerial parts inhibited aromatase with IC₅₀ values of 17.0 and 17.7 µg/mL, respectively. A total of 13 samples (five from E. wallichii, one from Acer oblongifolium Hort. ex Dippel (Aceraceae), one from Aster thomsonii C. B. Clarke (Asteraceae) and six from W. coagulans aerial parts with fruits) inhibited NO production with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.3 to 15.6 µg/mL. Fourteen samples demonstrated induction of QR1 with CD ranging from 1.0 to 20.6 µg/mL, and a total of eight extracts and fractions inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in culture with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.2 to 7.8 µg/mL. Selected plants can be a valuable source of chemopreventive and anticancer products. W. coagulans aerial parts showed the strongest activity.

  18. RP-HPLC Separation of Isomeric Withanolides: Method Development, Validation and Application to In situ Rat Permeability Determination.

    PubMed

    Yaseen Malik, Mohd; Taneja, Isha; Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rahaman Gayen, Jiaur; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Sangwand, Neelam S; Wahajuddin, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Withanolides are the group of active chemical constituents of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Withaferin A, withanolide A and withanone presents three of the biologically most active constituents of this herb. These steroidal lactones are isomers of each other and thus, pose significant difficulty in their separation. In present study, a simple, specific and reliable RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for their separation and simultaneous quantification. Separation was carried out on Lichrocart Purospher STAR RP-18e column (250 × 4.5 mm, 5 µm) using mobile phase, methanol and 0.01 M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5) in the ratio 60:40, v/v. The calibration curves were linear (r2 > 0.99) for all the three compounds across concentration range of 1.56-50 µg/mL. The lower limit of quantification for all the analytes was 1.56 µg/mL. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy was between 88.65% and 110.66% and coefficient of variation was between 0.55 and 10.12. The analytes were stable under different storage conditions. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the samples for simultaneous determination of permeability of the three withanolides in rats using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model. Withanolide A and withanone were found to be high permeability compounds while withaferin A could not be detected. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Ayurvedic approach in the management of spinocerebellar ataxia-2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia -2 is a progressive, degenerative genetic disease caused by an expanded (CAG) trinucleotide repetition on the chromosome 12 resulting in production of an abnormal protein called ataxin-2. There is no known effective management or cure in biomedicine for this genetic disease. In the present study a case of SCA2 that was treated with Ayurvedic intervention is reported. Ayurvedic treatments in this case were directed towards alleviating symptoms and to reduce severe disability due to progressive nature of disease. A 42 year old male patient was diagnosed for Vāta vyādhi (group of various neurological disorders) and was- treated with Śālisastika pinda svedana (sudation with bolus of medicated cooked rice) for 30 days-, Śirobasti (sudation of head with the help of a cap on head) with Aśvagandhā taila for 45 days and Balādi ksīra basti (enema with medicated milk) with Aśvagandhā taila anuvāsana (enema with oil) for 30 days in Karma basti krama (30 days regime of purification and oleation enema) along with a combination of Ayurvedic oral drugs which consisted of Brahadvātacintāmanirasa - 125 mg, Vasantāmaltī rasa- 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha- 40 ml, Aśvagandhā cūrṇa (powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL)- 3g, Amrtā cūrṇa (powder of Tinospora cordifolia Willd.)- 500 mg, Muktāśukti pisti - 500 mg, Yogarāja Guggulu - 500 mg twice a day for 2 months. Patient's condition was assessed on the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Before treatment, mean SARA score was 35. This reduced to 15 after treatment. Good relief in dysarthria, fasciculation, heaviness in eye, blurred vision, axial tremor; constipation and quality of life were observed in this case.

  20. Ayurvedic approach in the management of spinal cord injury: A case study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with consequences such as full loss of spinal movements, incontinence of bladder functions, bed sores, etc. There is no satisfactory treatment available in biomedicine with only limited treatments only for enhancement of spinal cord function. These treatments have many limitations. Ayurvedic drugs and Pancakarma procedures have been in use to treat such conditions since a long time. We present a case of SCI with lesion at C4 level which was treated for 2 months with an Ayurvedic combined intervention. The combined treatment plan involved Ayurvedic oral medications (Brhadvātacintāmaṇi rasa - 125 mg, Ardhanāgavātāri rasa - 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha - 40 ml, Aśvagandhācūrṇa [powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL] - 3 g, Amṛtā [Tinospora cordifolia WILLD] - 500 mg, Muktāśukti piṣṭi - 500 mg and Trayodaśāṅga guggulu - 500 mg) twice daily. Combined procedures involved such as śāliṣaṣṭika piṇḍasvedana (sudation with medicated cooked bolus of rice) every day for 2 months and Mātrā basti (enema) for first 15 days with Aśvagandhā oil. From 16(th) day, Mustādi yāpana basti (MYB, enema with medicated milk) was given for 16 days. After an interval of 7 days, MYB was further repeated for next 16 days. Substantial clinical improvement was reported after 2 months of the Ayurvedic treatment in existing neurological deficits and in quality of life.

  1. Ayurvedic approach in the management of spinal cord injury: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with consequences such as full loss of spinal movements, incontinence of bladder functions, bed sores, etc. There is no satisfactory treatment available in biomedicine with only limited treatments only for enhancement of spinal cord function. These treatments have many limitations. Ayurvedic drugs and Pancakarma procedures have been in use to treat such conditions since a long time. We present a case of SCI with lesion at C4 level which was treated for 2 months with an Ayurvedic combined intervention. The combined treatment plan involved Ayurvedic oral medications (Brhadvātacintāmaṇi rasa - 125 mg, Ardhanāgavātāri rasa - 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha - 40 ml, Aśvagandhācūrṇa [powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL] - 3 g, Amṛtā [Tinospora cordifolia WILLD] - 500 mg, Muktāśukti piṣṭi - 500 mg and Trayodaśāṅga guggulu - 500 mg) twice daily. Combined procedures involved such as śāliṣaṣṭika piṇḍasvedana (sudation with medicated cooked bolus of rice) every day for 2 months and Mātrā basti (enema) for first 15 days with Aśvagandhā oil. From 16th day, Mustādi yāpana basti (MYB, enema with medicated milk) was given for 16 days. After an interval of 7 days, MYB was further repeated for next 16 days. Substantial clinical improvement was reported after 2 months of the Ayurvedic treatment in existing neurological deficits and in quality of life. PMID:26283809

  2. Characterization of Withania somnifera Leaf Transcriptome and Expression Analysis of Pathogenesis – Related Genes during Salicylic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh Dasgupta, Modhumita; George, Blessan Santhosh; Bhatia, Anil; Sidhu, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a valued medicinal plant with pharmaceutical applications. The present study was undertaken to analyze the salicylic acid induced leaf transcriptome of W. somnifera. A total of 45.6 million reads were generated and the de novo assembly yielded 73,523 transcript contig with average transcript contig length of 1620 bp. A total of 71,062 transcripts were annotated and 53,424 of them were assigned GO terms. Mapping of transcript contigs to biological pathways revealed presence of 182 pathways. Seventeen genes representing 12 pathogenesis-related (PR) families were mined from the transcriptome data and their pattern of expression post 17 and 36 hours of salicylic acid treatment was documented. The analysis revealed significant up-regulation of all families of PR genes by 36 hours post treatment except WsPR10. The relative fold expression of transcripts ranged from 1 fold to 6,532 fold. The two families of peroxidases including the lignin-forming anionic peroxidase (WsL-PRX) and suberization-associated anionic peroxidase (WsS-PRX) recorded maximum expression of 377 fold and 6532 fold respectively, while the expression of WsPR10 was down-regulated by 14 fold. Additionally, the most stable reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data was also identified. The effect of SA on the accumulation of major secondary metabolites of W. somnifera including withanoside V, withaferin A and withanolide A was also analyzed and an increase in content of all the three metabolites were detected. This is the first report on expression patterns of PR genes during salicylic acid signaling in W. somnifera. PMID:24739900

  3. Quantitative ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2010-07-06

    The people in Ethiopia have been using medicinal plants over centuries and the traditional knowledge is passed verbally from generation to generation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used by Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people and to establish association between the species richness and diversity, habit, parts used and administration of medicinal plants reported by the two people. Semi-structured interview was used in data collection; Chi-Square test, t-test and univariate analysis were used to compare medicinal plants knowledge between Kara and Kwego people. Informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), and preference ranking of medicinal plants were computed. Fifty-seven medicinal plant species were indicated that were distributed into 33 families and 52 genera. Thirty-four of them were common to both people whereas 12 were unique to Kara and 11 to Kwego. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two people in medicinal plant species richness and diversity. The growth forms, parts of medicinal plants and their conditions: fresh or dry used in the preparation of remedies and route of administration were not different (p>0.05). Root was 55% of the plant parts used and oral was 61% of route of administration. The informant consensus factor was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two people. Solanum hastifolium Hochst. ex Dunal, Salvadora persica L. and Maeura sessiliflora Gilg were preferred more than the other medicinal plants reported to treat the prevalent diseases by both people. The information documented on the medicinal plants of these people may be used as baseline data for future studies on semi-arid and arid pharmacologically important medicinal plants and for phytochemical investigations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract on amelioration of oxidative stress and autoantibodies production in collagen-induced arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmood Ahmad; Subramaneyaan, Mythily; Arora, Vinod Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana

    2015-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder. Withania somnifera Dunal (Solanaceae) (WS), is a common medicinal plant used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of arthritis, and is an ingredient of anti-arthritic polyherbal formulations such as Habb-e-Asgand® and Arthritin™. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-arthritic activity of aqueous extract of WS root (WSAq) in collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) rats. CIA rats were treated by using three doses of WSAq (100, 200, 300 mg/kg b. wt., orally) and methotrexate (MTX, 0.25 mg/kg b. wt. i.p.) as a standard reference drug for 20 days. The anti-arthritic effect was assayed by measuring the arthritic index, autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (a-CCP), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-collagen type II antibody (a-CII) and inflammatory marker like C-reactive protein (CRP). The oxidative stress parameters were also measured. Treatment with WSAq resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in arthritic index, autoantibodies and CRP (p < 0.05) with maximum effect at dose of 300 mg/kg b. wt. and the results were comparable to that of MTX-treated rats. Similarly, oxidative stress in CIA rats was ameliorated by treatment with different doses of WSAq, as evidenced by a decrease in lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity and an increase in the glutathione content and ferric-reducing ability of plasma (p < 0.05). The results showed that WSAq exhibited antioxidant and anti-arthritic activity and reduced inflammation in CIA rats and suggests the potential use of this plant in the treatment of arthritis.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Basu, Indraneel; Singh, Siddarth

    2017-08-22

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, a thyroid disorder without obvious symptoms of thyroid deficiency, occurs in 3%-8% of the global population. Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal], a traditional medicine in Ayurveda, is often prescribed for thyroid dysfunctions. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ashwagandha root extract in subclinical hypothyroid patients. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-center placebo-controlled study was performed at Sudbhawana Hospital, Varanasi, India between May 2016 and September 2016. Fifty subjects with elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (4.5-10 μIU/L) aged between 18 and 50 were randomized in either treatment (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) groups for an 8-week treatment period. Ashwagandha root extract (600 mg daily) or starch as placebo. Efficacy Variables: Serum TSH, serum triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels. A total of four subjects (two from each group) withdrew their consent before the second visit. Eight weeks of treatment with ashwagandha improved serum TSH (p < 0.001), T3 (p = 0.0031), and T4 (p = 0.0096) levels significantly compared to placebo. Ashwagandha treatment effectively normalized the serum thyroid indices during the 8-week treatment period in a significant manner (time-effects: TSH [p < 0.001], T3 [p < 0.001], and T4 [p < 0.001]). Four subjects (8%) (ashwagandha: 1[4%]; Placebo: 3[12%]) out of 50 reported few mild and temporary adverse effects during this study. Treatment with ashwagandha may be beneficial for normalizing thyroid indices in subclinical hypothyroid patients.

  6. Loss of ripening capacity of pawpaw fruit with extended cold storage.

    PubMed

    Galli, Federica; Archbold, Douglas D; Pomper, Kirk W

    2008-11-26

    The fruit ripening traits of pawpaw [ Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] were examined after harvest and after cold storage at -2, 2, 4, and 6 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. Generally, fruits stored at 2-4 degrees C for 4 weeks ripened normally, but those stored at -2 degrees C did not ripen normally, those stored at 6 degrees C were overripe, and by 6-8 weeks those stored at 2-4 degrees C had a lower respiration rate and ethylene production, lower firmness, and lower pH than fruit cold-stored for 4 weeks or less. These changes, and the occasional development of brown discoloration in the pulp once the fruits were moved back to room temperature, were evidence of chilling injury by 6 weeks. After harvest and through 4 weeks of cold storage, the main volatile compounds produced by fruit were methyl and ethyl octanoates and hexanoates. Volatile production significantly increased >5-fold in fruit ripened for 72 h after harvest or after removal from up to 4 weeks of cold storage. Fruit cold-stored for 6 weeks or more produced fewer total volatiles and esters but increased levels of such off-flavor compounds as ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, and hexanoic and decanoic acids. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) activity declined in cold-stored fruit but was not correlated with either total volatile production or total ester production. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity did not change during ripening after harvest or cold storage. Lipoxygenase activity was highest just after harvest or after 2 weeks of cold storage, but was low by 4 weeks. Thus, ripening of pawpaw fruit seems to be limited to 4 weeks at 2-4 degrees C with loss of ability to continue ripening and chilling injury symptoms evident at colder temperatures and after longer periods of cold storage.

  7. RNAi and Homologous Over-Expression Based Functional Approaches Reveal Triterpenoid Synthase Gene-Cycloartenol Synthase Is Involved in Downstream Withanolide Biosynthesis in Withania somnifera

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bhawana; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Jadaun, Jyoti Singh; Sangwan, Neelam S.

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal, is one of the most commonly used medicinal plant in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine traditionally owing to its therapeutic potential, because of major chemical constituents, withanolides. Withanolide biosynthesis requires the activities of several enzymes in vivo. Cycloartenol synthase (CAS) is an important enzyme in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing cyclization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene into cycloartenol. In the present study, we have cloned full-length WsCAS from Withania somnifera by homology-based PCR method. For gene function investigation, we constructed three RNAi gene-silencing constructs in backbone of RNAi vector pGSA and a full-length over-expression construct. These constructs were transformed in Agrobacterium strain GV3101 for plant transformation in W. somnifera. Molecular and metabolite analysis was performed in putative Withania transformants. The PCR and Southern blot results showed the genomic integration of these RNAi and overexpression construct(s) in Withania genome. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of WsCAS gene was considerably downregulated in stable transgenic silenced Withania lines compared with the non-transformed control and HPLC analysis showed that withanolide content was greatly reduced in silenced lines. Transgenic plants over expressing CAS gene displayed enhanced level of CAS transcript and withanolide content compared to non-transformed controls. This work is the first full proof report of functional validation of any metabolic pathway gene in W. somnifera at whole plant level as per our knowledge and it will be further useful to understand the regulatory role of different genes involved in the biosynthesis of withanolides. PMID:26919744

  8. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity studies on S. erianthum and S. macranthum essential oils.

    PubMed

    Essien, E E; Ogunwande, I A; Setzer, W N; Ekundayo, O

    2012-04-01

    Solanum erianthum D. Don and Solanum macranthum Dunal (Solanaceae) are widely used in traditional medicine. The leaves act as an abortifacient and in particular to treat leucorrhoea, sores, and skin irritations. This study was undertaken to characterize the volatile constituents of the leaf and fruit essential oils of S. erianthum and S. macranthum; their antimicrobial and in vitro cytotoxic bioassay against human breast and prostate tumor cells. The volatile oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were determined using the microbroth dilution technique while the cytotoxic potentials were evaluated using the Cell Titre 96((R)) AQ(ueous) Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay method. Solanum erianthum essential oils were characterized by the abundance of α-terpinolene (17.8%), α-phellandrene (17.5%), p-cymene (15.7%) and β-pinene (11.7%) in the leaves; α-humulene (23.1%), humulene epoxide II (20.0%), caryophyllene oxide (16.5%), methyl salicylate (11.8%) and β-caryophyllene (10.9%) in the fruits. The leaf oil of S. macranthum consisted of (E)-phytol (29.0%), pentadecanal (28.1%) and pentadecane (7.7%) while the major fruit oil constituents were α-humulene (36.5%), β-caryophyllene (17.8%), ethyl palmitate (9.4%), and methyl salicylate (8.2%). Solanum erianthum leaf volatile oil demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against Hs 578T and PC-3 human breast and prostate tumor cells respectively. In addition, the Solanum essential oils exhibited significant antimicrobial activity (19.5-625 µg/mL) on pathogens employed in the assay. The Solanum essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity in addition to the potent cytotoxic potential of S. erianthum leaf oil against Hs 578T and PC-3 cells.

  9. Evaluation of anti-leishmanial activity of selected Indian plants known to have antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Umakant; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Sarman

    2009-10-01

    The severe toxicity, exorbitant cost and the emerging resistance of Leishmania spp. against most of the currently used drugs led to the urgent need for exploiting our traditional Ayurvedic knowledge to treat visceral leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of various extracts from ten traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. The methanolic extract from only two plants, Withania somnifera Dunal (ashwagandha) and Allium sativum Linn. (garlic), showed appreciable activity against Leishmania donovani. Further active compounds from these two plants were isolated and purified based on bioactivity-guided fractionation. HPLC-purified fraction A6 of ashwagandha and G3 of garlic showed consistently high activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 12.5 +/- 4 and 18.6 +/- 3 microg/ml against promastigotes whereas IC(50) of 9.5 +/- 3 and 13.5 +/- 2 microg/ml against amastigote form, respectively. The fraction A6 of ashwagandha was identified as withaferin A while fraction G3 of garlic is yet to be identified, and the work is in progress. Cytotoxic effects of the promising fractions and compounds were further evaluated in the murine macrophage (J774G8) model and were found to be safe. These compounds showed negligible cytotoxicity against J774G8 macrophages. The results indicate that fraction A6 of ashwagandha and fraction G3 of garlic might be potential sources of new anti-leishmanial compounds. The in vivo efficacy study and further optimization of these active compounds are in progress.

  10. Effect of macronutrient deficiency on withanolides content in the roots of Withania somnifera and its correlationship with molybdenum content.

    PubMed

    Devkar, Santosh T; Suryapujary, Sanket M; Jagtap, Suresh D; Katyare, Surendra S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V

    2015-04-01

    The content of withanolides in the roots of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae) is important for therapeutic application. Earlier studies have shown that the deficiency of macro- and micronutrients affects the growth of W. somnifera. Therefore, we examined the effect of these deficiencies on the withanolides content of the roots. To examine the effect of molybdenum accretion in nitrogen-, phosphorus-, calcium- and potassium-deficient soils on the accumulation of withanolides in the roots of W. somnifera. Different withanolides have different therapeutic applications hence major bioactive withanolides assume importance. Methanol extracts of the roots were subjected to HPTLC and individual withanolides were identified by comparing their Rf values with those of the authentic samples. Molybdenum was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Free radical scavenging activity was monitored by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Molybdenum content in roots of nitrogen-, phosphorus-, calcium-, potassium-deficient, and control plants were 7.02 ± 2.1, 13.1 ± 1.6, 17.1 ± 0.9, 33.5 ± 3.3, and 33.9 ± 1.6 ppm, respectively. Levels of withaferine A increased with the increase in the Mo content in roots from 7.79 ± 2.2 mg/g to 12.57 ± 3.4 mg/g. Antioxidant activity of nitrogen-deficient plants was the lowest (24.7 ± 2.2%) compared to other groups. It was observed that nitrogen metabolism-dependent molybdenum uptake influences the withanolides accumulation in the roots.

  11. MYCOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND AFLATOXIN B1 CONTAMINANT ESTIMATION OF HERBAL DRUG RAW MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Rajeshwari, Puttaswamy; Raveesha, KoteshwarAnandrao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the fungal contamination of important herbal drug raw materials (HDRM), which are widely used in the preparation of many herbal drugs. Understanding of the microbial contamination status of HDRM is one of the important steps to ensure the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. Materials and Methods: Eighteen samples of six herbal drug raw materials (HDRM) viz., Acorus calamus Linn., Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban, Myristica fragrans Houtt., Tinospora cardifolia (Wild) Miers and Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal, were screened for fungal contamination, by employing serial dilution method. All the isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin B1 (AB1) and highly contaminated samples were subjected to AB1 estimation by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometric method and occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis (LCMS). Results: A total of 302 isolates of 42 fungal species belonging to 17 genera were found in association with test the samples. More than 61% of A. flavus isolates tested positive for production of AB1 and highest yield recorded was 5008.20 ppb from the isolates of T. cordifolia. Amongthesix highly contaminated samples three samples tested positive for AB1. Highest AB1 was recorded from T. cordifolia (104.19 μg/kg), followed by A. calamus (13.73 μg/kg) and M. fragrans (12.02 μg/kg). Conclusion: Assessment of fungal and mycotoxin contamination should be a part of the quality check while selecting HDRM for manufacture of herbal products. Safe processing and storage practices are necessary. PMID:28487902

  12. In Silico Analysis of Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiles Predicts Tumor Cell Response to Withanolides

    PubMed Central

    Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Indian ginseng, winter cherry, Solanaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine. Roots are either chewed or used to prepare beverages (aqueous decocts). The major secondary metabolites of Withania somnifera are the withanolides, which are C-28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids. Withania somnifera extracts exert chemopreventive and anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The aims of the present in silico study were, firstly, to investigate whether tumor cells develop cross-resistance between standard anticancer drugs and withanolides and, secondly, to elucidate the molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells towards withanolides. Using IC50 concentrations of eight different withanolides (withaferin A, withaferin A diacetate, 3-azerininylwithaferin A, withafastuosin D diacetate, 4-B-hydroxy-withanolide E, isowithanololide E, withafastuosin E, and withaperuvin) and 19 established anticancer drugs, we analyzed the cross-resistance profile of 60 tumor cell lines. The cell lines revealed cross-resistance between the eight withanolides. Consistent cross-resistance between withanolides and nitrosoureas (carmustin, lomustin, and semimustin) was also observed. Then, we performed transcriptomic microarray-based COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of mRNA expression to identify mRNA expression profiles predicting sensitivity or resistance towards withanolides. Genes from diverse functional groups were significantly associated with response of tumor cells to withaferin A diacetate, e.g. genes functioning in DNA damage and repair, stress response, cell growth regulation, extracellular matrix components, cell adhesion and cell migration, constituents of the ribosome, cytoskeletal organization and regulation, signal transduction, transcription factors, and others. PMID:27605335

  13. Meristem aging is not responsible for age-related changes in growth and abscisic acid levels in the Mediterranean shrub, Cistus clusii.

    PubMed

    Oñate, M; Munné-Bosch, S

    2008-09-01

    To obtain new insights into the mechanisms underlying aging in perennials, we measured abscisic acid levels, growth and other stress indicators in leaves of Cistus clusii Dunal plants of different ages grown under Mediterranean field conditions. Recently emerged leaves from 9-year-old plants were compared to those of 1-year-old plants (obtained from cuttings from 9-year-old plants) to evaluate the effects of meristem aging on plant aging. Rooting and successful establishment of the cuttings allowed us to compare the physiology of plants with old meristems, but of different size. Plants obtained from cuttings were rejuvenated, with new leaves displaying a higher leaf area and chlorophyll content, but smaller leaf mass per unit area ratios and endogenous abscisic acid levels than those of 9-year-old plants. A comparative study in 1-, 4- and 9-year-old plants revealed that abscisic acid levels increase during the early stages of plant life (with increases of 90% between 1- and 4-year-old plants), but then remain constant at advanced developmental stages (between 4- and 9-year-old plants). Although leaf biomass was 53% smaller in 9-year-old compared to 4-year-old plants, the dry matter produced per shoot apical meristem was equivalent in both plant groups due to an increased number of leaves per shoot in the former. It is concluded that (i) C. clusii plants maintain the capacity to rejuvenate for several years; (ii) newly emerged leaves accumulate higher amounts of abscisic acid during early stages of plant life, but the levels of this phytohormone later remain constant; and (iii) although plant aging leads to the production of smaller leaves, the amount of biomass produced per shoot apical meristem remains constant at advanced developmental stages.

  14. Age-related changes in oxidative stress markers and abscisic acid levels in a drought-tolerant shrub, Cistus clusii grown under Mediterranean field conditions.

    PubMed

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lalueza, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    Compared with our knowledge of senescence in annuals and biennials, little is known about age-related changes in perennials. To get new insights into the mechanisms underlying aging in perennials, we measured oxidative stress markers in leaves and organelles, together with abscisic acid levels in leaves of 2- and 7-year-old Cistus clusii dunal plants grown under Mediterranean field conditions. Recently emerged leaves, which either appeared during autumn or spring, were compared to evaluate the effects of environmental constraints on oxidative stress and abscisic acid accumulation as plants aged. Plant aging led to an enhanced oxidation of ot-tocopherol and ascorbate, increased lipid peroxidation and reduced PSII efficiency in leaves during the more stressful conditions of spring and summer, but not during autumn. Analyses of lipid peroxidation in organelles isolated from the same leaves revealed that oxidative stress occurred both in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Although both plant groups showed similar leaf water and nitrogen contents throughout the study, abscisic acid levels were markedly higher (up to 75%) in 7-year-old plants compared to 2-year-old plants throughout the study. It is concluded that (a) meristematic tissues of C. clusii maintain the capacity to make new leaves with no symptoms of oxidative stress for several years, unless these leaves are exposed to environmental constraints, (b) leaves of oldest plants show higher oxidative stress than those of young plants when exposed to adverse climatic conditions, thus supporting the idea that the oxidative stress associated with aging is due at least partly to extrinsic factors, (c) at the subcellular level, age-induced oxidative stress occurs both in chloroplasts and mitochondria, and (d) even in the absence of environmental stress, newly emerged leaves accumulate higher amounts of ABA as plants age.

  15. In vitro callus induction and plant regeneration from Withania coagulans: a valuable medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, J; Valizadeh, M

    2009-11-01

    Leaf and internode explants of Withania coagulans Dunal were used to evaluate the effect of growth regulators on the in vitro callus induction and plant regeneration. Two independent experiments were performed to establish callus and plant regeneration. In the first experiment, leaf segments were cultured on MS basal medium fortified with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D, 2-4 mg L(-1)) with combination of 6-benzyladenine (BA, 0.5-1 mg L(-1)) or kinetin (Kin, 0.5-1 mg L(-1)). Callus initiation was observed best in all media after 14-16 days (100%). Highest callus growth in terms of dry weight (76 +/- 5.34 mg) was observed in MS medium fortified with 2 mg L(-1) 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg L(-1) Kin. In the second experiment, callusing also obtained from internode segments cultured on MS medium with the presence of 2, 4-D (2-4 mg L(-1)) in association with BA (0.25-0.5 mg L(-1)). Best callusing rates (42%) and dry weight (86 +/- 3.68 mg) occurred in the presence of 4 mg L(-1) 2, 4-D with combination of 0.25 mg L(-1) BA. Shoot induction was obtained just from callus induced from internode explants on MS medium containing BA (2 mg L(-1)) with IBA (0.5 mg L(-1)), but the yield of shoot regeneration was unsatisfactory (18-33%). Regenerated shoots were rooted best (100%) on half strength MS medium containing IBA (2 mg L(-1)) and produced 23 roots with an average root length of 6.5 +/- 0.41 cm. Rooted plantlets transferred to soil and sand mixture (2:1) showed 75% survival when transferred to outdoor. The procedure reported here in vitro culture of W. coagulans for first time.

  16. Ayurvedic management in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra

    The age related spondylotic changes may result in direct compressive and ischemic dysfunction of the spinal cord known as cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Symptoms often develop insidiously and are characterized by neck stiffness, unilateral or bilateral deep aching neck, arm and shoulder pain, and possibly stiffness or clumsiness while walking. The management available in current mainstream medicine is not satisfactory. Various Ayurvedic treatments have been in use for these manifestations. We present a case of CSM, which was treated with a combination of Panchakarma procedures and Ayurvedic oral drugs. The patient was considered suffering from Greevastambha (neck stiffness) and was treated with Shalishastika pinda svedana (sudation with medicated cooked bolus of rice) for one month and Mustadi yapana basti (enema with medicated milk) for 16 days along with oral Ayurvedic drugs such as Brihatavata chintamani rasa 50 mg, Ekangaveer ras-250 mg, Ardhangavatari rasa-125 mg Amrita satva (dry extract of Tinospora cordifolia Willd)-500 mg, Muktasukti pisti-500 mg, Ashwagandha churna (powder of Withania somnifera Dunal)-500 mg Dashmool kvatha ghana (solid extract of Dashmool kvatha)-500 mg, Trayodashanga guggulu-575 mg, twice a day with honey and Eranda paka-10 g twice a day with milk. Patient's condition which was assessed for symptoms of CSM and Chile's modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score for cervical spondylotic myelopathy showed substantial improvement. This study shows that the cases of CSM may be successfully managed with Ayurvedic treatment.

  17. Kennedy Space Center and the Florida Atlantic coast area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    SL4-93-167 (February 1974) --- A vertical view of the Kennedy Space Center and the Florida Atlantic coast area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photography taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This photograph shows the major land-ocean features of the Florida coast near Vero Beach northward to Cape Canaveral and the KSC complex. The launch pads for the Skylab missions are clearly visible. Identification of living vegetation is possible through the use of the color infrared film. Various shades of red portray differences in the vegetation such as shown in the patterns in the agricultural area near Vero Beach. In the Kennedy Space Center, the nearly continuous and uniform red color shows that most of the land areas are heavily vegetated. The white coastal beach areas are strongly contrasted to the red land and the blue Atlantic Ocean. Old dunal areas in KSC are visible on Merritt Island which is separated from the Launch areas by the Banana River and the mainland by the Indian River. Federal and state highways and numerous causeways over the rivers are easily identified. The Florida mainland is partly shadowed by small white clouds which cast a pronounced shadow to the east of each cloud indicated the Sun is west of solar noon. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Core of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior's Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on chronic stress-induced homeostatic perturbations in rats.

    PubMed

    Muruganandam, A V; Kumar, Vikas; Bhattacharya, S K

    2002-10-01

    EuMil, is a herbal formulation comprising the standardised extracts of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L, Asparagus racemosus Willd and Emblica officinalis Gaertn., all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas to promote physical and mental health, improve defense mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection to the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptogenic and antistress activity of EuMil against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress-induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Panex ginseng (PG) was used for comparison. Gastric ulceration, plasma corticosterone levels, serum lipid, hepatic and renal functions were used as the stress indices. These effects were attenuated by EuMil (dose 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg. p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction period. Further, chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural despair and cognitive dysfunction and immunosuppression. All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, in a dose dependent manner by EuMil and PG. Thus, the results indicate that EuMil has significant adaptogenic and anti-stress, activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations, induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute stress. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of EuMil in the observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, has been discussed.

  19. 78 FR 71468 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito Tributario Adicional por Hijos para..., ``Planilla para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el...-SS or Form 1040- PR, ``Planilla para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por...

  20. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... videos for consumers on YouTube Enseñando a los Niños Sobre el Uso de Medicamentos Seguramente Vea este ... de la FDA sobre la enseñanza de los niños mayores sobre el uso de medicinas seguramente. back ...

  1. [Analysis of food service and opinion of its users in a Catalan prison].

    PubMed

    Sáiz Izquierdo, María Elena; Fornons Fontdevila, David; Medina Luque, F Xavier; Aguilar Martínez, Alicia

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: Los estudios sobre restauración colectiva se encuentran viviendo un cierto auge en España. Sin embargo, se dispone de muy poca información sobre cómo se organiza este servicio en las instituciones penitenciarias, y mucho menos aún sobre cómo es percibido por sus usuarios.

  2. Physical characters and antioxidant, sugar, and mineral nutrient contents in fruit from 29 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Drogoudi, Pavlina D; Vemmos, Stavros; Pantelidis, Georgios; Petri, Evangelia; Tzoutzoukou, Chrysoula; Karayiannis, Irene

    2008-11-26

    Fruit physical and chemical characters of 29 apricot cultivars of Greek and American origin and their hybrids were evaluated using correlation and principal component analysis. A remarkable variation was observed in the total phenol content (0.3-7.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) FW) and total antioxidant capacity (0.026-1.858 mg ascorbic acid equivalent g(-1) FW), with the American origin cultivars Robada and NJA(2) and the new cultivar Nike exhibiting the greatest values. The cultivar Tomcot and hybrid 467/99 had the highest content of total carotene (37.8 microg beta-carotene equivalent g(-1) FW), which was up to four times greater as compared with the rest of studied genotypes. The dominant sugar in fruit tissue was sucrose, followed second by glucose and third by sorbitol and fructose-inositol. The new cultivars Nike, Niobe, and Neraida contained relatively higher contents of sucrose and total sugars, while Ninfa and P. Tirynthos contained relatively higher contents of K, Ca, and Mg. Correlation analysis suggested that late-harvesting cultivars/hybrids had greater fruit developmental times (r = 0.817) and contained higher sugar (r = 0.704) and less Mg contents (r= -0.742) in fruit tissue. The total antioxidant capacity was better correlated with the total phenol content (r = 0.954) as compared with the total carotenoid content (r = 0.482). Weak correlations were found between the fruit skin color and the antioxidant contents in flesh tissue. Multivariate analysis allowed the grouping of variables, with more important variables being the harvest date, fruit developmental time, skin Chroma, sorbitol, and total sugar, K and Mg contents. Plotting the genotypes in a dendrogram revealed cases of homonymy between parents and hybrids, although independent segregation of the measured traits after hybridization was also found.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere of Underground Environments as Tracers of Climatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonia, P.; di Pietro, R.; Francofonte, V.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is often observed in concentrations much higher than in external atmosphere inside underground environments, both of natural (caves) and artificial (galleries) origin. With the aim of evaluating the possible use as a tracer of climatic changes, CO2 static concentrations have been discontinuously monitored since the year 2000 in the atmosphere of the Carburangeli and Santa Ninfa Caves, located in a limestone karst areas near the city of Palermo and in a gypsum karst area in the Belice Valley (Sicily, Italy) respectively. The measurements have been acquired with a portable 0-9999 ppm infrared spectrometer, together with dripping waters rate, air temperature and relative humidity (both continuous and discontinuous measures); free CO2 contents of dripping waters have been determined with titration method. Highest values were recorded in Carburangeli cave, when underground air temperature is colder than external atmosphere: in this case air circulation is blocked and carbon dioxide concentration arises. Very high concentrations of carbon dioxide were recorded also in winter, when hot winds blew from SE. The main source for carbon dioxide has been individuated in the dripping waters, which rate depends on the dynamic of rainfall events. These preliminary data suggests that carbon dioxide concentrations in the underground atmosphere of Carburangeli cave strongly depend on the delicate equilibria between internal and external air temperatures and dripping waters rate, being all these parameters affected by possible climate changes. Atmospheric warming and intensification of rainfalls rate might be traced by variations in the space-time dynamic of carbon dioxide inside the cave.

  4. Surface denudation rate of gypsum in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Di Maggio, Cipriano; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Studies on surface denudation rate of karst rocks were carried out for many years with different methods, although researches on limestones are much more numerous than those on gypsum. In Sicily the most large and complete Messinian evaporite succession of Gruppo Gessoso - Solfifero outcrops and since 1993-1994 surface denudation measurements were performed on different types of gypsum by the Micro-Erosion Meter (M.E.M.) method. MEM stations were placed on natural sites representing different lithological features of gypsum outcrops of the Island: 1) selenite gypsum with centimetre-sized crystals; 2) selenite gypsum with sub-centimetre crystals; 3) gypsum arenite; 4) microcrystalline gypsum; and 5) gypsum laminite (balatino type). The measuring stations are positioned in three localities in western and central Sicily: Santa Ninfa (Trapani), Ciminna (Palermo) and Campofranco (Caltanissetta). The average lowering rates vary in the different lithofacies: from 0.25 mm yr-1 in microcrystalline gypsum to 0.74 mm yr-1 in selenite gypsum with centimetre-sized crystals. The average surface denudation rates are 0.40 mm yr-1 in balatino gypsum and gypsum arenite, and 0.37 mm yr-1 in selenite gypsum with sub-centimetre crystals. These different values are connected to several factors such as: rock texture, dip of gypsum surfaces, climatic conditions, troubles on the measurement sites (e.g.: presence of lichens, soil, remains of vegetation, etc.). The aim of this paper is to show the results of roughly twenty years of experimental measurements, and to compare the surface denudation rate of gypsum in Sicily with those of other evaporite areas characterised by different climatic settings.

  5. Lo que Piensan los Estudiantes y Profesores Sobre la Calidad de la Educacion Superior. Estudio Comparativo en 5 Instituciones de Educacion Superior--dos publicas y tres privadas--en Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (What Students and Faculties Think about the Quality of Higher Education. Comparative Study of 5 Higher Education Institutions--Two Public and Three Private--in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Maria Lorena Hernandez

    This study, written in Spanish, compared attitudes of students (N=302) and faculty (N=28) at five institutions of higher education (two public and three private) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The study explored first, whether respondents believed there are significant quality differences between private and public universities and, second, what…

  6. Exploring Conceptions about Writing and Learning: Undergraduates' Patterns of Beliefs and the Quality of Academic Writing (Acercamiento a las concepciones sobre la escritura y el aprendizaje: patrones de creencias de los universitarios y la calidad de su redacción académica)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Fernández, J. R.; Corcelles, M.; Bañales, G.; Castelló, M.; Gutiérrez-Braojos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, the conceptions of learning and writing of a group of undergraduates enrolled in a teacher education programme were identified. The relationship between them were analysed, and a set of patterns of beliefs about learning and writing were defined. Finally, the relation between these patterns and the quality of a text…

  7. Exploring EFL Pre-Service Teachers' Experience with Cultural Content and Intercultural Communicative Competence at Three Colombian Universities (Indagación sobre la experiencia con el contenido cultural y la competencia comunicativa intercultural de docentes de inglés en formación, en tres universidades colombianas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaya, Alba; Gómez Rodríguez, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative research project that explored pre-service English teachers' perceptions of and attitudes toward the aspects of culture and intercultural competence addressed in their English classes in the undergraduate programs at three Colombian universities. Findings reveal that pre-service teachers are…

  8. Novice Non-Native English Teachers' Reflections on Their Teacher Education Programmes and Their First Years of Teaching (Reflexiones de profesores novatos y no nativos del inglés sobre sus programas de formación y sus primeros años de instrucción)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcan, Sumru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates novice non-native English teachers' opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education…

  9. Exploring Conceptions about Writing and Learning: Undergraduates' Patterns of Beliefs and the Quality of Academic Writing (Acercamiento a las concepciones sobre la escritura y el aprendizaje: patrones de creencias de los universitarios y la calidad de su redacción académica)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Fernández, J. R.; Corcelles, M.; Bañales, G.; Castelló, M.; Gutiérrez-Braojos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, the conceptions of learning and writing of a group of undergraduates enrolled in a teacher education programme were identified. The relationship between them were analysed, and a set of patterns of beliefs about learning and writing were defined. Finally, the relation between these patterns and the quality of a text…

  10. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  11. Una guia para los padres sobre lo mas importante: el logro academico plan de educacion de Maryland desde preescolar hasta el 12 grado, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Spanish-language guide for parents outlines the goals and…

  12. Proyecto Curricular Sobre la Herencia Iberoamericana. Latinos en la Formacion de los Estados Unidos de American: Ayer, Hoy y Manana. Procedimientos de la Conferencia Sequnda Conferencia Anual del Panel Consultivo Internacional en Santillana del Mar, Espana (The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project. Latinos in the Making of the United States of America: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project is an interdisciplinary curriculum development project designed to integrate the study of Ibero-American heritage and culture into classroom instructional programs, kindergarten through grade 12. The project was initiated by the New York State Education Department and involves the Spanish National…

  13. Una Guia para Los Padres sobre La Educacion Especial: El Derecho de Su Hijo(a) a Adquirir una Educacion en el Estado de Nueva York (A Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    This guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs. The first part of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York State public schools. A historical view of children's rights to…

  14. Un analisis de la influencia de las fricciones de los campos no militares sobre las fricciones del campo militar presentes en la operacion de rescate de rehenes Chavin de Huantar (An Analysis of the Influence that Friction in Non-Military Fields of Action Had Upon Military Friction in the Hostage Rescue Operation Chavin de Huantar)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-16

    esta AO, es decir, la cercanía al gobierno nacional y al mismo Presidente de la Republica , la cobertura directa de los más de ochenta medios de...colombiano Cesar Gaviria, a fin de obtener respaldo a su estrategia y manejo de la crisis. Posteriormente, con su visita a Republica Dominicana con el...de la guerra como unidad de mando fueron escrupulosamente observados desde el nivel de gobierno, con el Presidente de la Republica ejerciendo el

  15. Consulta regional sobre investigacion en educacion y toma de decisiones en America Latina: Informe final (Lima, Peru, 11-15 de mayo de 1987) (Regional Meeting on Research in Education and Decision Making in Latin America: Final Report [Lima, Peru, May 11-15, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This report presents the highlights of a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) conference that was convened to give impetus to and encourage research programs, to analyze research policy formation, and to establish research priorities in the field of educational planning and administration. The document…

  16. Memorias del segundo simposio internacional sobre políticas, planificación y economía de los programas de protección contra incendios forestales: una visión global; 2004 Abril 19–22; Córdoba, España

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán

    2008-01-01

    Estas memorias resumen el resultado de un simposio diseñado para discutir los problemas actuales que confrontan las agencias con responsabilidad para la protección contra incendios forestales a nivel federal y estadual en los EE.UU., al igual que agencias en la comunidad internacional. Los temas discutidos en el simposio incluyen economía del fuego, teoría y modelos...

  17. Lo que los Padres Necesitan Saber sobre...Reconocer y Animar los Intereses, las Capacidades, y los Talentos de los Ninos Dotados de la Escuela Primaria. Guia Practica B0213 (What Parents Need To Know about...Recognizing and Encouraging Interests, Strengths, and Talents of Gifted Elementary School Children. Practitioners' Guide B0213).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcourt, Marcia A. B.

    This brochure, written in Spanish, discusses strategies that Spanish-speaking parents can use to support the interests of their children and how to recognize and extend their children's talents. Parents are urged to: (1) be aware of what their child likes to do and be patient with the changing patterns as the child explores areas of interests and…

  18. Educacion, Salud y Bienestar para el Nino Preescolar y la Familia. (5 de Enero--28 de Febrero, 1997) Informe Curso sobre (Education, Health, and Well-Being of Preschool Children and the Family. January 5 - February 28, 1997. Report of a Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a course held in Spanish at the Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Center in Haifa, Israel. The course considered various themes related to the education, health, and well-being of preschool children. Participants were 30 individuals from Central and South American countries who held decision-making positions in…

  19. [The EMECAM protocol: an analysis of the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica u la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hoyos, S; Sáez Zafra, M; Barceló, M A; Cambra, C; Figueiras Guzmán, A; Ordóñez, J M; Guillén Grima, F; Ocaña, R; Bellido, J; Cirera Suárez, L; López, A A; Rodríguez, V; Alcalá Nalvaiz, T; Ballester Díez, F

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to Mortality show the protocol of analysis which was set out as part of the EMECAM Project, illustrating the application thereof to the effect of pollution has on the mortality in the city of Valencia. The response variables considered will be the daily deaths rate resulting from all causes, except external ones. The explicative variables are the daily series of different pollutants (black smoke, SO2, NO2, CO, O3). As possible confusion variables, weather factors, structural factors and weekly cases of flu are taken into account. A Poisson regression model is built up for each one of the four deaths series in two stages. In the first stage, a baseline model is fitted using the possible confusion variables. In the second stage, the pollution variables or the time legs thereof are included, controlling the residual autocorrelation by including mortality time lags. The process of fitting the baseline model is as follows: 1) Include the significant sinusoidal terms up to the sixth order. 2) Include the significant temperature or temperature squared terms with the time lags thereof up to the 7th order. 3) Repeat this process with the relative humidity. 4) Add in the significant terms of calendar years, daily tendency and tendency squared. 5) The days of the week as dummy variables are always included in the model. 6) Include the holidays and the significant time lags of up to two weeks of flu. Following the reassessment of the model, each one of the pollutants and the time lags thereof up to the fifth order are proven out. The impact is analyzed by six-month periods, including interaction terms.

  20. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

  1. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  2. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  3. Que Tal la Justicia Social en los Alumnos de la UIA (Universidad Iberoamericana)? Investigacion sobre los Logros en la Formacion Valoral (What about Social Justice among the Students of the Iberoamerican University? Survey on the Achievements in the Acquisition of Values).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazdresch Parada, Juan E.

    This survey investigates how the students of social philosophy modify their criteria on basic questions of social justice. A questionnaire of 30 questions, with 5 options, was developed. The five answer/options correspond to the following five schools of social philosophy (five ways of thinking): (1) liberal individualism; (2) humanitarianism; (3)…

  4. Human Relations Activities for the Single Parent To Develop More Effective Parent/Child Relations. Bilingual Guide = Actividades sobre relaciones humanas para ayudar al padre-soltero o madre-soltera a desarrollar una relacion efectiva entre padre e hijo Guia bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan

    Written in English and Spanish, this bilingual guide offers 10 activities which single parents can use to improve their relationships with their children. Objectives of activities include: (1) developing children's responsibility for work tasks in the home; (2) improving sibling relationships; (3) discussing emergencies with children; (4)…

  5. Que Tal la Justicia Social en los Alumnos de la UIA (Universidad Iberoamericana)? Investigacion sobre los Logros en la Formacion Valoral (What about Social Justice among the Students of the Iberoamerican University? Survey on the Achievements in the Acquisition of Values).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazdresch Parada, Juan E.

    This survey investigates how the students of social philosophy modify their criteria on basic questions of social justice. A questionnaire of 30 questions, with 5 options, was developed. The five answer/options correspond to the following five schools of social philosophy (five ways of thinking): (1) liberal individualism; (2) humanitarianism; (3)…

  6. Consulta regional sobre investigacion en educacion y toma de decisiones en America Latina: Informe final (Lima, Peru, 11-15 de mayo de 1987) (Regional Meeting on Research in Education and Decision Making in Latin America: Final Report [Lima, Peru, May 11-15, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This report presents the highlights of a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) conference that was convened to give impetus to and encourage research programs, to analyze research policy formation, and to establish research priorities in the field of educational planning and administration. The document…

  7. Algunas Premisas Metodologicas y Conceptuales sobre el Desarrollo de los Movimientos en el Primer Ano de Vida (0-12 Meses) (Some Methodological and Conceptual Premises about the Development of Movement in the First Year of Life (0-12 Months)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequer Diaz, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    Examined the emergence of principal and secondary movements in Cuban children in their first year of life. Based on 35 examples of observed movements, an integrated program of activity is developed to assist in the development of physical skills which are essential to the development of a well-rounded personality. (AS)

  8. Using Case Study Methodology to Approach the Views of Teachers of English on Classroom Disciplinary Strategies (Uso de la metodología de estudio de casos para aproximarse a las concepciones de profesores de inglés sobre las estrategias disciplinarias en el aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz Larenas, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at identifying the disciplinary strategies claimed to be used by a group of five secondary classroom teachers of English in public or semi-public schools in Chile. To conduct this research, a semi-structured interview was applied to participants. The data were analyzed using the principles of semantic content analysis…

  9. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  10. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. The results of the EMCAM project in the city of Seville, 1992-1996. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Riola, R; Daponte-Codina, A; Gutiérrez-Cuadra, P; Mayoral-Cortes, J M; Gurucelain-Raposo, J L; Maldonado-Pérez, J A; Serrano-Aguilar, J; Garrido-de la Sierra, R

    1999-01-01

    As part of the EMECAM Project, the objective of this study is that of assessing the impact of air pollution on the daily mortality in Seville throughout the 1992-1996 period. During the 1992-1996 period, readings were taken daily of the amounts of SO2, particles in suspension (PM10) and NO2 present in the air in the city of Seville, in addition to the number of deaths daily due to different causes. For analyzing this data, a multivariable Poisson regression model was used for modeling each one of the causes of death in terms of the air immission readings, controlling other confusion-causing variables. A relationship was found to exist between the rises in the NO2 levels and the daily death rate throughout the months of May to October. For each 10 micrograms/m3 rise, the risk of death or all causes showed a 2% rise, the same rise in the NO2 levels leading to a 3% rise in the risk of death resulting from cardiovascular diseases. A relationship exists between the levels of NO2 air pollution and the daily death rate in Seville. The findings provide scientific knowledge and information which can be of use for preventing the impact of air pollution on human health.

  11. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. The results of the EMECAM project in Vitoria-Gasteiz, 1990-94. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Pérez Boillos, M J; López, A A; Estibalez González, J J; García Calabuig, M A

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is that of assessing the short-term relationship between the black smoke (SM) and SO2 levels and the mortality in Vitoria-Gasteiz over a five-year period by means of employing the procedure for analysis standardized in the EMECAM Project. Ecological time series study aimed at estimating the relationship between the daily fluctuations in the mortality (total mortality of all ages and total death rate for those over age 70) and air pollution (sulfur dioxide-SO2 and black smoke), employing the Poisson regression models. The EMECAM methodology was followed. The median of daily deaths was three for the entire population and two for the elderly. The mean black smoke level was 51.15 micrograms/m3 and that of SO2 18.04 micrograms/m3. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between black smoke and the mortality for the elderly through the cold half of the year, with an RR of 1.014 (CI95%: 1.002-1.026), pertinent to a 10 micrograms/m3 rise in the pollutant. A threshold at 80-90 micrograms/m3 seemed to be detected for black smoke. The relationship with SO2 was not significant. The black smoke levels for the period studied are related to a rise in the mortality among the elderly, tallying with the results of other studies.

  12. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. The results of the EMECAM project in Saragossa, 1991-1995. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Arribas Monzón, F; Alcalá Nalvaiz, T; Abad Díez, J M; Navarro Elipe, M; Martos Jiménez, M del C; Rabanaque Hernández, M J; Zapatero Molinera, S; Muniesa Casamayor, E

    1999-01-01

    To assess the short-term impact of pollution on the respiratory death rate in the city of Saragossa throughout the 1991-1995 period and to pinpoint whether any differences exists in terms of age and time of the year. The relationship of daily concentrations of smog and SO2 to the daily deaths due to respiratory diseases (CIE-9 460-486) and chronic lung blockage disease and similar EPOC-EA (490-496) was analyzed using Poisson models in keeping with the EMECAM procedure. Possible differences in the impact on those below and over age 70 and according to the six-month period in question were researched. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence, intervals (CI95%) WERE CALCULATED FOR 10 micrograms/m3 rises in pollutant. A relationship was found to exist between the respiratory and smog death rate (RR 1.028 CI95% 1.006-1051), the highest risk being during the six-months period of warm weather. For those individuals over age 70, the relationship remained the same throughout this six-month period and was negative for those individuals under age 70. The RR's for the death rate based on EPOC-EA were, overall, 1.038 (CI95% 1.002-1075) and of 1.068 (CI95%: 1.004-1.137) for the six-month period of warm weather. The SO2 pollution showed a positive relationship to the respiratory death rate for the warm period for all ages, RR 1.093 (CI95%: 1.006-1.187) and for those under age 70 (RR 1.240 CI95%: 1.028-1.496). The impact was not conclusive for the cases of pneumonia. Low levels of air pollution can have a significant impact on the respiratory death rate, especially among the elderly and during the six-month period of warm weather.

  13. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: the results of the EMECAM project in the city of Pamplona, 1991-95. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Aguinaga Ontoso, I; Guillén Grima, F; Oviedo de Sola, P J; Floristan Floristan, M Y; Laborda Santesteban, M S; Martínez Ramírez, M T; Martínez González, M A

    1999-01-01

    To assess the short-term impact of air pollution on the daily death rate in the city of Pamplona. Ecological study with a population of 212,000 inhabitants. A time series data analysis is conducted by means of multiple linear regression and Poisson regression, with the daily death rate data, air pollution levels for Particles and SO2, weather parameters of average relative humidity and temperature daily and number of cases weekly of flu for the 1991-1995 period. The average number of deaths daily for non-external causes is that of 4.15 deaths, with a range from zero to 13 deaths. The city of Pamplona has a mean annual temperature of 12.7 degrees C (-2.3 degrees C to 31.6 degrees C) and a relative humidity of 68.5%. In the model, the temperature (with a one-day time lag and a six-day time lag temperature squared) and the humidity (with a one-day time lag) is related to the death rate for all causes. But the death rate for non-external causes is only related in the model with the temperature (one-day time lag, P: 0.035) and five-day time lag with temperature squared (p: 0.028). The timely estimates of the relative particle-related risk show that the highest risk of dying stems from respiratory causes with a relative risk of 1.13. However, none of these relationships is statistically significant. In the case of Sulfur Dioxide, the estimates closely near the zero figure, and none of them is significant. The Temperature has an impact of the death rate for all causes, both external and non-external, and the relative humidity solely has an impact on the death rate for non-external causes. It has not been possible to prove any influence of the daily environmental pollution levels on the daily death rate.

  14. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: the results of the EMECAM project in 2 cities of Asturias. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Cañada Martínez, A; García González, J V; Rodríguez Suárez, V; Fernández Noval, F; Fernández Rodríguez, C; Huerta González, I

    1999-01-01

    The studies conducted to date regarding the possibility that air pollutants, at levels considered safe to date, are capable of having impact are capable of having impact on human health have not led to homogeneous findings. This study is aimed at estimating the degrees of relationship between the daily levels of the pollutants and the death rate on a short-terms basis in the two most populated cities in Austria (Gijón and Oviedo), as well as contributing to increasing the statistical importance and the representative nature of the EMECAM Project, within which this study is comprised. Ecological time series study, Estimate of degrees of group exposure based on the readings taken at the pollution control stations. Modeling of the death rate series, including control variables, by means of Poisson regression. Estimating risks related to each pollutant for the death rate, controlling the series-based autocorrelation. Throughout the 1993-1996 period, the pollution by means of particles in suspension and CO was greater in Gijón, that involving SO2 and NO2 having been greater in Oviedo. In these two cities, the levels can be considered to be low and to fall within what is considered admissible under the laws currently in impact. Most of the relative risk forecasts neared the zero impact point, although significant positive (especially for NO2) as well as negative relationships have been found to exist. The significant relationships found were not proven to be consistent in these two cities for the periods studied. Based on the findings of this study, the conclusion cannot be drawn that a clear-cut relationship exists between the pollutants studied (particles, SO2, NO2, CO) and the death rate on a short-term basis, at least at the levels detected in Gijón and Oviedo.

  15. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: the results of the EMECAM project in greater Bilbao. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Cambra Contín, K; Alonso Fustel, E

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the short-term impact of air pollution with sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particles (TSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black smoke (BS) on the daily number of deaths in the metropolitan area of Bilbao. The EMECAM project protocol was followed. Increases in TSP, in both maximum hourly figures and daily averages, are significantly associated with increases in the daily number of deaths from all causes, from circulatory causes and from all causes among those older than 70. No differences between six-month periods were found. NO2 average levels were associated with daily mortality from respiratory causes in the entire period and during the warm season, and from all causes among those older than 70 in the cool months. TSP levels are associated with daily mortality in the metropolitan area of Bilbao. The relationship between NO2 and the number of deaths from respiratory causes, very high in the warm season, needs further research to assess its independence.

  16. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. The results of the EMECAM project in the city of Barcelona, 1991-1995. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Saurina, C; Barceló, M A; Sáez, M; Tobias, A

    1999-01-01

    Most of the studies which demonstrate the existence of a short-term relationship between air pollution and morbidity and the Mortality analyze the impact of "classic" pollutants which are by-products of combustion. However, the changes in the sources of these emissions, shifting basically toward road traffic, has made a change in air pollution, heightening the importance of the photochemical components, such as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Barcelona is a city located in a mild climate zone, and its air pollution comes mainly from vehicle emissions. The main objective of this article is that of analyzing the relationship between the photochemical pollutants, NO2 and O3 and the death rate for different causes in the city of Barcelona throughout the 1991-1995 period, using the procedure for analysis set out as part of the EMECAM Project. Daily changes in the number of deaths resulting from all causes, of the number of deaths for all causes of those over age 70, of the number of deaths resulting from cardiovascular diseases, and of the number of deaths resulting from respiratory-related causes are related to the daily changes in the photochemical pollutants using autoregressive Poisson models, controlling confusion-causing variables such as the temperature, the relative humidity, the systematic time structure and the autoregressive structure. Except for the relationship between O3 and the mortality for causes involving respiratory diseases, the relationships between photochemical pollutants and the mortality for all the causes considered were statistically significant. The risks related to dying as a result of rises in O3 were greater than as a result of rises in NO2, almost triple among cardiovascular diseases. The risks related to dying for all the causes are lower than for specific causes and than for those individuals over age 70. The results of the analysis by six-month periods are quite similar to the overall results, revealing, in any event, relative risks somewhat greater during the warm months (May to October). Photochemical pollution, especially that which is caused by O3, comprises a health risk. In the case of NO2, this might not be more than an indicators of the suspended particles or of other pollutants stemming from city traffic. There may be a certain adjustment between six-month periods of the impact of O3 on the mortality for causes of the circulatory system.

  17. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: the results of the EMECAM project in the city of Huelva, 1993-96. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Daponte Codina, A; Gutiérrez-Cuadra, P; Ocaña Riola, R; Gurucelain Raposo, J L; Maldonado Pérez, J A; Garrido de la Sierra, R; Serrano Aguilar, J; Mayoral Cortes, J M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between the levels of air pollution and the daily mortality in the city of Huelva for the 1993-1996 period using the EMECAM methodology. The number of daily deaths for all causes except external ones, the death rate of those over age 69, due to diseases of the circulatory system and for respiratory diseases were used as rate indicators. Four pollutants--SO2, PM10, NO2 and CO--were analyzed, the daily levels of which were furnished by the air pollution monitoring network in Huelva. Autoregressive Poisson regression models were constructed controlling by tendency, seasonality, temperature, humidity, flue and events out of the ordinary. For the mortality rate for all causes, a significant association impact was found to exist for the NO2 for the entire period (RR10 microgram/m3: 1.0414; CI95%: 1.0047-1.0794) and for the particles (PM10) for the cold half of the year (RR10 microgram/m3: 1.0358; CI95%: 1.007-1.0722). For the mortality in people over age 69, a significant relationship was found to exist for SO2 throughout the entire period (RR10 microgram/m3: 1.0606; CI95%: 1.0020-1.1227). A significant relationship to the mortality from respiratory disease particles (PM10) was found to exist for the cold half of the year (RR10 microgram/m3: 1.1412; IC95%: 1.0300-1.2644). There was no association of contaminants with cardiovascular mortality; also there was no association between levels of CO and mortality indicators. In Huelva, significant relationships have been found to exist between the current levels of air pollution resulting from particles, SO2 and NO2 and the daily mortality. The impact of these pollutants on the mortality is coherent with scientific literature, although in the case of Huelva, the extremely small number of daily deaths due to its small population and other factors limit the consistency thereof.

  18. [The short-term results of air pollution on mortality: the results of the EMECAM project in Cartagena, 1992-96. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Guillén Pérez, J J; Cirera Suárez, L; García-Marcos Alvarez, L; Jiménez Torres, E; Barber Vallès, X; Martínez García, M J; Moreno Grau, S

    1999-01-01

    The problems of air pollution became noticeable in Cartagena in the seventies, high SO2 and particle levels having been reached from time to time. Our aim is to assess, using the EMECAM methodology, the acute impact of SO2 and particle air pollution on the daily death rate of the city of Cartagena in the 1992-1996 period. A daily listing is provided of the total number of non-accidental deaths within the population as a whole and for those over age 70, the cardiovascular and the respiratory deaths due to dioxide and particle air pollution for the 1992-1996 period using autoregressive Poisson models which control seasonality, weather, time of year, flu, special events, and time lags. In the period under study, there has been a drop in the SO2 air pollution as compared to previous years, which was not as marked for the particles. The analyses reveal significant relationships in the total non-accidental deaths in those over age 69, with the average particle count and those particles with cardiovascular deaths for the months of May to October. In the six-month period of the year, when the weather is cold, we found a positive statistically significant relationship to exist in the maximum daily hourly value of the particles and the deaths due to cardiocirculatory and respiratory diseases. However, there is no consistency in the between on assessing the reliability of the models.

  19. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: the results of the EMECAM project in Castellón, 1991-95. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Bellido Blasco, J B; Daudí, C F; Arnedo Pena, A; González Morán, F; Herrero Carot, C; Safont Adsuara, L

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade several studies have found out an association between air pollution and mortality in levels below the standards allowed by regulations. Castellón is a small city (134,000 inhabitants) with low air pollution levels. This work aims to identify if there is a short term relation between these both variables in this city. We used mortality data and air pollution data (black smoke and sulphur dioxide), from 1.991 to 1.995, doing an ecological study using a time series analysis with the day as unit of the analysis. Poisson regression allow us to get the relative risk adjusted by others variables (meteorological, trend, influenza, day of the week, season) in autoregresive models. Black smoke and SO2 daily means were respectively 34.6 and 15.7 micrograms/m3. Results showed a 3.6% (IC95 0.3-7.0) of SO2 and 3.5% (IC95% 0.5-6.5) increment of cardiovascular mortality for an increment of 10 micrograms/m3 of SO2 and black smoke respectively. Sulphur dioxide was positively associated with all four groups of mortality causes but only in cold season. Even in a small city with low air pollution levels, we found an association between air pollution and immediate mortality. In some cases, the analysis by periods (warm and cold) show an strong effect modification.

  20. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. The results of the EMECAM project in the city of Vigo, 1991-94. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Taracido Trunk, M; Figueiras, A; Castro Lareo, I

    1999-01-01

    In the Autonomous Region of Galicia, no study has been made of the impacts of air pollution on human health, despite the fact that several of its major cities have moderate levels of pollution. Therefore, we have considered the need of making this study in the city of Vigo. The main objective of this analysis is that of analyzing the short-term impact of air pollution on the daily death rate for all reasons in the city of Vigo throughout the 1991-1994 period, by using the procedure for analysis set out as part of the EMECAM Project. The daily fluctuations in the number of deaths for all causes with the exception of the external ones are listed with the daily fluctuations of sulfur dioxide and particles using Poisson regression models. A non-parametric model is also used in order to better control the confusion variables. Using the Poisson regression model, no significant relationships have been found to exist between the pollutants and the death rate. In the non-parametric model, a relationship was found between the concentration of particles on the day immediately prior to the date of death and the death rate, an effect which remains unchanged on including the autoregressive terms. Particle-based air pollution is a health risk despite the average levels of this pollutant falling within the air quality guideline levels in the city of Vigo.

  1. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. The results of the EMECAM project in the city of Valencia, 1994-96. Estudio Multcéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Tenías Burillo, J M; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Molina Quilis, R; González-Aracil, J; Ballester Díez, F

    1999-01-01

    To determine the short-term impact of air pollution on mortality in the city of Valencia throughout the 1994-1996 period by employing the analysis method of the Spanish multicenter study with regard to the relationship between air pollution and the mortality (EMECAM Project). The daily levels of black smoke, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) were obtained from the Valencia air pollution monitoring network. The death rate indicators analyzed were the daily number of death due to all causes, except the external ones, the deaths of those over age 70, and the deaths resulting from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Following the methods of the EMECAM Project, autoregressive Poison regression models were built up, controlling the different confounding factors (seasonality, trend, calendar, weather variables and flu impact). For total mortality except the external ones, a significant impact of black smoke (RR 10 micrograms/m3: 1.013; CI95% 1.003 to 1.023) and for CO 24 la (RR 1 mg/m3: 1.024; CI95% 1.003 to 1.046) was found. For the mortality of those individuals over 70, the estimated impact was somewhat greater than for black smoke (RR 10 micrograms/m3: 1.017; CI95% 1.005-1.029), as well as for CO2 1 h (RR 10 micrograms/m3: 1.007; CI95% 1.001-1.013). No significant relationship was found with the mortality due to respiratory or cardiovascular diseases for the entire period. The current levels of pollution in the city of Valencia show a significant impact on daily mortality. These findings are consistent with the previous research and are coherent with those obtained on analyzing the relationship between air pollution and morbidity indicators.

  2. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: the results of the EMECAM project in the municipality of Madrid, 1992-1995. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Galán Labaca, I; Aránguez Ruiz, E; Gandarillas Grande, A; Ordóñez Iriarte, J M; Aragonés Sanz, N

    1999-01-01

    Despite the changes which have taken place in the sources of emissions, the levels of particles, SO2 and CO continue to be high in the municipality of Madrid. Apart from this, photochemical pollutants, such as NO2 and O3 are taking on growing importance due to the increased number of cars and trucks on the road and the major degrees of sunlight in this city. The objective of this article is to set out the short-term relationship between the major pollutants and the daily death rate in the city of Madrid for the 1992-1995 period, using the standardized procedure of the EMECAM Projects (Spanish Multicenter Study of Air Pollution and Death Rate). The daily fluctuations in the death rate for all causes except external ones for all ages and for those individuals over age 69, in addition to those of the circulatory system and respiratory apparatus are related to the daily fluctuations in particles (PM10), SO2, NO2, CO and O3, by means of autoregressive Poisson regression models. The seasonality, tendency, temperature, relative humidity, flu, day of the week, holidays and events out of the ordinary are controlled. Statistically significant positive relationships were found to exist between SO2 and all of the death rate series analyzed, between CO and the death rate of individuals over age 69, as well as with cardiovascular and respiratory deaths and of the particles to the death rate as the result of cardiovascular disease. A statistically significant relationship was also found to exist between NO2 and the cardiovascular death rate. These impact are immediate, that is to say, they occur with the pollutants of the same day. No significant positive relationships were found to exist for O3. These findings suggest that, for a broad spectrum of major pollutants, the current levels of air pollution in Madrid are related to a rise in the death rate.

  3. Lo Que los Padres Necesitan Saber sobre...Reconocer y Animar los Intereses, las Capacidades, y los Talentos de los Adolescentes. Guia Practica B0214 (What Parents Need To Know about...Recognizing Interests, Strengths, and Talents of Gifted Adolescents. Practitioners' Guide B0214).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcourt, Marcia A. B.

    This brochure, written in Spanish, for Spanish-speaking parents of gifted adolescents discusses strategies to use to support the interests of their children and how to recognize and extend their children's talents. Parents are urged to: (1) increase their knowledge about the child's areas of interest; (2) discuss the child's present and future…

  4. Manual for ERLE (Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment). Instructions and information for institutions of higher learning concerning used energy-related laboratory equipment grants; Manual para ERLE [Equipo de Laboratorio Relacionado con la Energia]. Instrucciones e informacion para instituciones de educacion superior sobre subvenciones de equipo de laboratorio usado relacionado con la energia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  5. Human Relations Activities for the Single Parent To Develop More Effective Parent/Child Relations. Bilingual Guide = Actividades sobre relaciones humanas para ayudar al padre-soltero o madre-soltera a desarrollar una relacion efectiva entre padre e hijo Guia bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan

    Written in English and Spanish, this bilingual guide offers 10 activities which single parents can use to improve their relationships with their children. Objectives of activities include: (1) developing children's responsibility for work tasks in the home; (2) improving sibling relationships; (3) discussing emergencies with children; (4)…

  6. How To Talk to Your Doctor (and Get Your Doctor To Talk to You!). An Educational Workshop on Doctor Patient Communication = Como Hablarle a su Doctor (iY que su doctor le hable a usted!). Un seminario educativo sobre la comunicacion entre el doctor y el paciente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX.

    This workshop, written in both English and Spanish, focuses on improving communication between physician and patient. In the workshop, the trainers will talk about "building bridges" between patient and doctor by understanding the doctor's role and his/her duty to the patient. According to the workshop, a person's doctor should…

  7. Memorias del cuarto simposio internacional sobre políticas, planificación y economía de los incendios forestales: cambio climático e incendios forestales; 2012 noviembre 5–11; Ciudad de México, México

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos IndividualesEstas memorias resumen el resultado de un simposio diseñado para discutir los problemas actuales que confrontan las agencias con responsabilidad para la protección contra incendios forestales a nivel federal y estadual en los EE.UU., al igual...

  8. Identity-Forming Discourses: A Critical Discourse Analysis on Policy Making Processes Concerning English Language Teaching in Colombia (Discursos que forjan identidades: un análisis crítico de discursos en la formulación de políticas sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: "Visión 2019" issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It…

  9. Algunas Premisas Metodologicas y Conceptuales sobre el Desarrollo de los Movimientos en el Primer Ano de Vida (0-12 Meses) (Some Methodological and Conceptual Premises about the Development of Movement in the First Year of Life (0-12 Months)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequer Diaz, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    Examined the emergence of principal and secondary movements in Cuban children in their first year of life. Based on 35 examples of observed movements, an integrated program of activity is developed to assist in the development of physical skills which are essential to the development of a well-rounded personality. (AS)

  10. Lo Que los Padres Necesitan Saber sobre...Reconocer y Animar los Intereses, las Capacidades, y los Talentos de los Ninos Dotados Jovenes. Guia Practica B0212 (What Parents Need To Know about...Recognizing and Encouraging Interests, Strengths, and Talents of Young Gifted Children. Practitioners' Guide B0212).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcourt, Marcia A. B.

    This pamphlet, written in Spanish, is designed to help Spanish-speaking parents recognize and encourage their gifted preschool children. It begins by discussing some of the interests of very young children and lists strategies for facilitating and supporting those interests, including: provide the child with opportunities to find out about a…

  11. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  12. Mirando al Futuro del Desarrollo Humano en America Latina y el Caribe. Seminario Regional sobre Universalization de la Educacion (Sucre, Bolivia, 4-10 mayo 1987) (Looking at the Future of Human Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Seminar on the Universalization of Education [Sucre, Bolivia, May 4-10, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Santiago (Chile). Oficina Regional para les Americas.

    One of every two children in developing nations does not complete primary school and four out of ten adults do not read or write. Of these ten, six are women. There were 44 million illiterate adults in Latin America in 1985, and of the 66 million school age children, 8.5 million were not in school. Thirty million of these children lived in…

  13. The Role of English Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching in Teacher Education Programs (El papel de las creencias de los profesores de inglés en formación sobre la enseñanza en los programas de formación docente)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos Jaimes, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of studies on pre-service teachers' beliefs about teaching. The purpose of the article is to show teacher educators the relevance of exploring such issue in the classroom. Preservice teachers come into the teaching profession with beliefs about teaching; sometimes they are aware of them, other times they are not. The…

  14. Mirando al Futuro del Desarrollo Humano en America Latina y el Caribe. Seminario Regional sobre Universalization de la Educacion (Sucre, Bolivia, 4-10 mayo 1987) (Looking at the Future of Human Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Seminar on the Universalization of Education [Sucre, Bolivia, May 4-10, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Santiago (Chile). Oficina Regional para les Americas.

    One of every two children in developing nations does not complete primary school and four out of ten adults do not read or write. Of these ten, six are women. There were 44 million illiterate adults in Latin America in 1985, and of the 66 million school age children, 8.5 million were not in school. Thirty million of these children lived in…

  15. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  16. "Estudia para que no te pase lo que a mi": Narrativas Culturales Sobre el Valor de la Escuela en Familias Mexicanas ("Study So That What Happened to Me Doesn't Happen to You": Cultural Narratives about the Value of Schooling in Mexican Families).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Claudia Saucedo

    2003-01-01

    Narratives used by parents in Mexican working-class families to motivate their children to study are examined for the advice offered and parental attitudes about the importance of school. The integration of contemporary pressures about the value of schooling is investigated, as well as the ways in which the value of schooling is being…

  17. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an…

  18. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  19. Tabla de Especificaciones e Instructivo sobre Elaboracion de Pruebas Objetivas en la Ensenanza Primaria, para las asignaturas de Estudios Sociales, Idioma Espanol, Matematicas y Ciencias Naturales (Specification Tables and Instructions for the Construction of Objective Tests in the Primary Grades in Social Studies, Spanish, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Direccion de Bienestar Estudiantil y Educacion Especial.

    This booklet presents specification tables illustrating the relative importance given to topics on tests within a particular subject area. The general subject areas are social studies, Spanish, mathematics, and natural sciences. Tables are provided for final exams in each of these areas for several primary grades, illustrating the importance of…

  20. Una Guia para Los Padres sobre La Educacion Especial: El Derecho de Su Hijo(a) a Adquirir una Educacion en el Estado de Nueva York (A Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    This guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs. The first part of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York State public schools. A historical view of children's rights to…