Science.gov

Sample records for duodenal ulcer influence

  1. [Surgical treatment of duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Lese, M; Naghi, I; Pop, C

    2001-01-01

    The medical and endoscopic treatment of duodenal ulcer are decreasing the frequency of surgical treatment in this disease. The authors study the operations performed for duodenal ulcer within the period 1989-1999 in the County Hospital Baia Mare. The decrease of the rate of surgical interventions is the pure effect of the medical treatment, as long as the endoscopic treatment is not yet available in our service. The rate of ulcer--induced perforations remained, however, unmodified (48% of total operatory indications), as well as the postoperative morbidity and--mortality (18% respectively 9%). The last category seems not to be influenced by the type of chosen surgical procedure, but by the patient's age, duration of the disease, and associated pathology.

  2. Refractory duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, K D

    1984-01-01

    A refractory duodenal ulcer was arbitrarily defined as one that had failed to heal completely after treatment with cimetidine 1 g daily for three months. Of 66 patients with refractory duodenal ulcer, healing eventually occurred in 37 patients, after treatment for an average of 7.4 months. But 28 patients did not heal despite treatment for an average of 9.4 months; and one patient defaulted. In 41 patients the daily dose of cimetidine was increased to 2 g: the ulcers in 31 patients healed. In eight patients the daily dose was increased to 3 g and healing occurred in four patients. Eighteen patients required admission on 22 occasions because of severe symptoms despite treatment. Nine patients underwent surgery but in five the results were poor. Differences in clinical and endoscopic features between refractory and non-refractory ulcer patients were small. Acid and pepsin secretion were similar and gastrin concentrations normal. Blood levels of the drug and suppression of acid secretion were both satisfactory. Identification of refractory ulcer patients at the start of treatment was therefore not possible. Refractoriness could occur at any time during the course of the disease, previous treatment with cimetidine often having resulted in rapid healing, but subsequent relapses were also usually refractory. The cause of refractoriness remains unknown and the rather poor results of surgery in this series suggests that optimal management of these patients remains to be determined. Refractoriness probably indicates a changed natural history of the disease and in some patients a more poor prognosis. PMID:6428982

  3. Antral function in duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, F. I.; Parker, K.; Swaminathan, M.; Daniell, A.

    1969-01-01

    A dye-dilution technique is used to compare the concentration and output of acid, chloride and pepsin in duodenal ulcer patients and controls following stimulation of the antrum with alcohol, sodium bicarbonate and peptone with the response to insulin hypoglycaemia and maximal histamine stimulation. The mean secretory rate was higher in response to all the stimuli in duodenal ulcer patients except to sodium bicarbonate. Following antral stimulation by peptone and sodium bicarbonate the acid and chloride concentrations rose to very high levels. The mean outputs were the same as those following maximal histamine stimulation although there were wide individual variations. There was no difference between duodenal ulcer patients and controls. The ‘neutral chloride’ concentration was much less than in the other phases. The basal secretion and the secretions in response to insulin and histamine stimulation showed higher concentrations, as well as higher outputs of acid and chloride in duodenal ulcer patients. Pepsin concentration in response to the various stimuli showed no difference between duodenal ulcer patients and controls and the pepsin output reflected the changes in secretory volume. PMID:4892935

  4. Acupuncture treatment for duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Debreceni, L; Denes, L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acupuncture therapy for duodenal ulcer was investigated in 21 male and female patients. The diagnosis and healing were verified by gastroscopy. It was found that the needle therapy for 3 weeks led to complete recovery in 76 percent of the patients. Diet, alcohol and cigarette abstinency were necessary for healing. Cuti-visceral reflex activation eliciting the improvement of the secretory and motor function of the gastrointestinal tract and effects in the CNS leading to analgesia and tranquilization may play a role in the mechanism of action. Our conclusion is that acupuncture can be satisfactory method to cure duodenal ulcer.

  5. Effects of cimetidine on the healing and recurrence of duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Okuda, S

    1986-01-01

    The effects of cimetidine on the healing and recurrence of duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers were compared. The extent of the acid secreting areas was examined by the endoscopic Congo red methylene blue test. Using the extent of acid secreting areas gastric ulcers were classified into ulcers with and without extensive acid secreting areas. Duodenal ulcers were all associated with extensive acid secreting areas. The gastric acid outputs in the basal state and after maximal stimulation with gastrin were highest in duodenal ulcers, and lowest in gastric ulcers without extensive acid secreting areas. Cimetidine treatment significantly promoted the healing of duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers with extensive acid secreting areas when compared with placebo, but not of the gastric ulcers without extensive acid secreting areas. Cimetidine also significantly diminished the recurrence of duodenal ulcers, but not gastric ulcers with and without extensive acid secreting areas. These findings indicate that in Japan cimetidine promotes the healing of duodenal and gastric ulcers associated with high gastric acid production and prevents recurrence of duodenal ulcers, but has little or no influence on the healing and recurrence of gastric ulcers associated with low acid secretion. PMID:3781336

  6. [Psychological factors in duodenal ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bauer, B; Bergmann, M

    1981-01-01

    With the aid of a clinical questionnaire and the I-N-R-personality test of Eysenck (as modified by Böttcher), we examined 127 male patients with clinically and radiologically proven ulcer compared to 145 age-matched persons without gastric affections. The features extraversion, neuroticism (emotional lability) and rigidity were determined and the question of an association with symptoms, age at onset of disease as well as occupational and familial factors statistically analyzed. With high significance, duodenal ulcer patients are more often emotionally labile and psychically more rigid. In the event the disease manifests under the age of 30, in ulcer patients introversion too is pronounced with highly significant frequency. Those patients complaining of conflicts with collaborators, lack of sleep, occupational overexertion, noise, draught at work place, present, compared to others without these complaints, a frequently emotional lability with high significance.

  7. Age of onset of symptoms in duodenal and gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kang, J Y

    1990-08-01

    The influence of the age of onset of symptoms on various clinical features of peptic ulcer was studied in a personal series of 492 patients (duodenal ulcer 363, gastric ulcer 98, combined gastric and duodenal ulcer 31). Duodenal ulcer patients whose age of onset of symptoms was within the first three decades (n = 166) were more likely to be men (77%) and to have a positive family history of dyspepsia (45%) and a history of haemorrhage (46%) when compared with late onset patients (n = 197, men 57%, positive family history 23%, history of haemorrhage 36%). Early onset duodenal ulcer patients also secreted more gastric acid than late onset patients. In contrast, while early onset gastric ulcer patients were more likely to be men, when compared to late onset patients, the two groups were similar in their family history of dyspepsia, their history of haemorrhage, and their gastric acid output. The age of onset of Malay duodenal ulcer patients (mean (SD) 43.6 (16.0] was higher than those for Chinese patients (33.7 (16.1].

  8. Ulcerative colitis with gastric and duodenal involvement.

    PubMed

    García Gavilán, María Del Carmen; López Vega, María Carmen; Sánchez, Isabel María

    2017-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis is one of the forms of presentation of the inflammatory bowel disease. UC yypically affects the large bowel but in the last few years more cases with proximal involvement have been described (diffuse gastritis, focally enhanced gastritis and duodenitis). We present the case of gastric and duodenitis involvement in the context of a moderate-severe ulcerative pancolitis which showed a good evolution and resolution of symptoms with corticoid treatment.

  9. [Study of genetic markers of duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Onosova, E A; Tsimmerman, I Ia

    1989-05-01

    The results of determination of various hereditary predisposition markers in peptic ulcer are given: in the population, in patients with duodenal ulcer and in their siblings (risk group). Of importance for revealing subjects with hereditary predisposition to duodenal ulcer are the clinico-genealogical analysis, determination of the blood group, especially in simultaneous determination of a "secretory status" ("status of non-secretion" of the ABH blood system agglutinogen in the saliva), increase in the mass of parietal cells and, to some extent, of the distinguishing features of dermatoglyphics (in combination with the above markers). Determination of taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide is non-informative.

  10. Multiple giant duodenal ulcers associated with duodenal gastrinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2012-02-01

    A 59-year-old Japanese man with a history of chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis was admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain and diarrhea. His discomfort had begun 2 months earlier and was localized to the upper abdomen. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple ulcerative lesions from the duodenal bulb to the descending part of the duodenum, one of which was a giant ulcer that filled half of the intestinal lumen. Despite continuous intravenous lansoprazole therapy, his abdominal symptoms did not improve. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was again performed to detect the tumor, but it was difficult to observe the tumor with a conventional endoscope. We then inverted a transnasal endoscope into the duodenum, and this enabled us to detect a 15-mm submucosal tumor in the upper wall of the duodenal bulb. Examination of specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor revealed gastrinoma in the duodenal bulb. We decided to perform an operative resection. The patient's symptoms resolved after surgery, and he remained asymptomatic at follow-up 18 months later. Therefore, when it is difficult to detect the tumor directly by conventional endoscopy, we recommend that attempts be made to detect the tumor by inverting a transnasal endoscope into the duodenal bulb.

  11. Spontaneous choledochoduodenal fistula with tuberculous duodenal ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, VS; Ram, D; Ali, SM; Rajkumar, N; Balasubramaniam, G; Sanker, MS

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous choledochoduodenal fistulas (CDFs) are rare. The most common aetiology is penetrating duodenal ulcers, observed in 80% of cases. Even in areas where acid peptic disease is common, tuberculosis should be considered as a cause, especially in developing countries like India, where tuberculosis is common. The management of CDF due to acid peptic disease is predominantly surgical while healing of tuberculous CDF has been reported with antitubercular treatment. A preoperative diagnosis of tuberculous CDF by endoscopic biopsy from the duodenal ulcer or image guided fine needle aspiration if abdominal lymph nodes are present can eliminate the need for surgery and achieve a cure with antitubercular treatment. The CDF in this case was due to caseation of periduodenal lymph nodes rupturing into the duodenum and the bile duct. PMID:24417856

  12. [Melatonin production in patients with duodenal ulcer at different stages of disease].

    PubMed

    Komarov, F I; Rapoport, S I; Malinovskaia, N K; Voznesenskaia, L A; Sharov, A A; Vetterberg, L

    1998-01-01

    Melatonin secretion was measured in patients with duodenal ulcer in exacerbation and remission. Melatonin production was found abnormal both in duodenal ulcer remission and exacerbation. It is suggested that melatonin may participate in pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer.

  13. Thyroid storm precipitated by duodenal ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Ando, Takao; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  14. Double-blind randomised clinical trial of a pepsin-inhibitory pentapeptide (pepstatin) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnevie, O; Svendsen, L B; Holst-Christensen, J; Johansen, T S; Søltoft, J; Christiansen, P M

    1979-01-01

    In a double-blind randomised clinical trial a specific inhibition of peptic activity with a pentapeptide, pepstatin, had no significant advantage over placebo in the ulcer healing and symptomatology of duodenal ulcer. Thus, the inhibition of pepsin in human gastric juice does not appear to have a major influence on the healing of duodenal ulcer. PMID:385457

  15. Physical activity at work and duodenal ulcer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Katschinski, B D; Logan, R F; Edmond, M; Langman, M J

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether the social class differences in duodenal ulcer frequency may be explained by differences in physical activity at work, the energy expenditure during work, smoking habits, and social class were compared in 76 recently diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients and in age and sex matched community controls. As anticipated, the relative risk of duodenal ulcer showed significant associations with smoking and social class. Social class and physical activity at work were associated with one another. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and social class, physically active work was still associated with duodenal ulcer, with relative risks for moderate and high activity compared with sedentary work being 1.3 (0.6-3.0) and 3.6 (1.3-7.8) respectively. Within each social class stratum, the relative risk of having a duodenal ulcer was greater in those with a high level of occupational activity than in those undertaking sedentary work. PMID:1916502

  16. Abnormalities in the duodenal transit and motility in duodenal ulcer patients: studies with a new isotopic technique.

    PubMed Central

    Quon, M G; Mena, I; Valenzuela, J E

    1989-01-01

    Abnormalities of duodenal motility have been described in patients with duodenal ulcer and in experimental ulcers in rats and it has been postulated that they could be pathogenic in peptic ulcer disease. We have investigated with an isotopic technique whether duodenal bulb clearance or duodenal transit are abnormal in duodenal ulcer. Six patients with inactive and six with active duodenal ulcers, all men, and six healthy male controls were studied. Motility of the duodenum was simultaneously monitored. A bolus of 99mTcDTPA was injected into the duodenum while water or acid were perfused on different occasions. Duodenal bulb clearance and transit to the ligament of Treitz were calculated. Duodenal transit in duodenal ulcer patients 108.8 (23) sec was faster than in controls, 194.9 (5.1) sec (p less than 0.05) during the quiescent period of the motility cycle. The frequency of duodenal bulb contractions during acid perfusion was higher in duodenal ulcer patients 1.7 (0.4) cont/min, than in controls 0.8 (0.1) cont/min (p less than 0.05). No other significant differences were observed between ulcer patients and controls. These data suggest that patients with duodenal ulcers do not have major abnormalities of duodenal bulb clearance, nor of duodenal transit and that duodenal motility does not play a primary role in the pathogenesis of the ulcer. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2659441

  17. Ghrelin accelerates the healing of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Dembiński, Artur; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Kato, Ikuo; Dembiński, Marcin; Konturek, Peter C

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that administration of ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the influence of ghrelin administration on the course of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers, as well as effects on mucosal production of oxygen free radicals and duodenal antioxidant defense. Duodenal ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by cysteamine administered intragastrically at the dose of 200 mg/kg in 1 ml of saline, 3 times at 4-h intervals. Starting 24 h after the first dose of cysteamine, rats were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose. Seven days after administration of the first dose of cysteamine, the study was terminated. Induction of ulcers by cysteamine was accompanied by a reduction in duodenal blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD); whereas mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malonyldialdehyde (MDA - an index of lipid peroxidation) were increased. Treatment with ghrelin increased healing rate of duodenal ulcers and enhanced duodenal blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and mucosal activity of SOD, and reduced mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and MDA. Treatment with ghrelin increases the healing rate of duodenal ulcers and this effect is related, at least in part, to improvement of duodenal mucosal blood flow, mucosal cell proliferation and antioxidant defense, as well as being related to reduction in mucosal oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  18. [Rate of recurrence of duodenal ulcer in smokers and nonsmokers].

    PubMed

    Bretzke, G

    1988-07-15

    In 70 patients (35 non-smokers and smokers each) with an endoscopically established duodenal ulcer the number of recidivations was investigated. In this case in the group of smokers an inclination to recidivations was found which was nearly double the size. Patients with a great consumption of nicotine per day were particularly affected. Apart from this the question was investigated whether the form of the ulcer has any influence on the frequency of recidivations. No remarkable differences between the forms of ulcer round, irregular, oval and linear could be proved. The economic disadvantages by inability to work considerably differ in the two groups. The number of days at which was not worked on account of putting the patients on the sick-list is nearly thrice as great in the group of smokers.

  19. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  20. Duodenal pH in health and duodenal ulcer disease: effect of a meal, Coca-Cola, smoking, and cimetidine.

    PubMed

    McCloy, R F; Greenberg, G R; Baron, J H

    1984-04-01

    Intraluminal duodenal pH was recorded using a combined miniature electrode and logged digitally every 10 or 20 seconds for five hours (basal/meal/drink) in eight control subjects and 11 patients with duodenal ulcer (five on and off treatment with cimetidine). Over the whole test there were no significant differences in duodenal mean pH or log mean hydrogen ion activity (LMHa) between control subjects and patients with duodenal ulcer, but there were significantly longer periods of duodenal acidification (pH less than 4) and paradoxically more periods of duodenal alkalinisation (pH greater than 6) in the duodenal ulcer group compared with controls. After a meal duodenal mean pH and LMHa fell significantly in both controls and patients with duodenal ulcer, with more periods of duodenal acidification and alkalinisation in the duodenal ulcer group. An exogenous acid load (Coca-Cola) significantly increased the periods of duodenal acidification, and reduced alkalinisation, in both groups. Cimetidine significantly increased mean pH and LMHa and abolished the brief spikes of acidification in four of five patients with duodenal ulcer. Peak acid output (but not basal acid output) was significantly correlated with duodenal mean pH and LMHa but not with the periods of duodenal acidification. Smoking did not affect duodenal pH in either group.

  1. [PRINCIPLES OF POSTOPERATIVE DRUG THERAPY OF COMPLICATED DUODENAL ULCERS].

    PubMed

    Denisova, E V; Nazarov, V E

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the principles of individualized drug therapy of complicated duodenal ulcers in the postoperative period, based on the removal of the pathophysiological changes that occurred after different types of medical or surgical benefits.

  2. Relapsed duodenal ulcer after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Miwa, H; Matsushima, H; Terai, T; Tanaka, H; Kawabe, M; Namihisa, A; Watanabe, S; Sato, N

    1998-08-01

    We report a patient--a 42-year-old man--who had suffered from recurrent duodenal ulcer for about 20 years. Successful curative therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection was performed for 2 weeks with new triple omeprazole, anoxicillin, clarithromycin (OAC) treatment in October 1995, and cure of the infection was repeatedly confirmed by histology, culture, and the 13C urea breath test. One month after the curative therapy, recurrence of a small duodenal ulcer was observed and in February another duodenal ulcer and reflux esophagitis occurred, with severe symptoms, despite the continuous administration of ranitidine. None of the examinations to reconfirm cure of the infection revealed the presence of H. pylori. As the patient experienced continual psychological stress and smoked more frequently during the recurrent episode and had not used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stress and smoking appeared to play important roles in the relapse of duodenal ulcer in this patient after cure of H. pylori infection.

  3. One week's anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment for duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Logan, R P; Gummett, P A; Misiewicz, J J; Karim, Q N; Walker, M M; Baron, J H

    1994-01-01

    This open study tested whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) heals duodenal ulcers as well as decreasing recurrence. H pylori was detected in patients with endoscopic duodenal ulcers by histology, CLO-test, culture, and 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT). Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (120 mg) and amoxycillin (500 mg) each four times daily, were given for seven days, with 400 mg metronidazole five times a day on days 5-7. The 13C-UBT was repeated immediately after treatment and endoscopy repeated within 21 days. After treatment unhealed ulcers were reinspected one month later and healed ulcers followed up by 13C-UBT alone for 12 months. Of 45 patients, 44 were available for follow up. Mean pretreatment excess delta 13CO2 excretion was 25.6 per mil, which fell to 2.4 per mil immediately after finishing treatment, indicating clearance of H pylori in every patient. At the second endoscopy (median interval 20 days from start of treatment) 33 of 44 (75%) duodenal ulcers had healed. Ten of the remaining 11 duodenal ulcers were smaller and those 10 healed in the next two weeks with no further treatment. Two patients' ulcers that initially healed with clearance of H pylori recurred three weeks later (both had metronidazole resistant H pylori). H pylori was eradicated in 28 of 44 (64%) patients (13C-UBT negative for median follow up 10.2 months). Overall 41 of 43 (93%, 95% confidence intervals 81%-99%) duodenal ulcers were healed at one month. This study suggests that one week of anti-H pylori triple treatment is effective in healing duodenal ulcers. PMID:8307442

  4. [Treatment of chronic aphthous stomatitis combined with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Dudchenko, M A; Skrypnikova, T P; Dudchenko, M A

    2014-01-01

    It is currently proved ulcerous stomatitis and duodenal ulcer to have common pathogenetic infectious link (the most studied agent being Helicobacter pylori) by concominant decrease of local and general immunity with hyperoxidation events. Eighty patients (44 female and 36 male aged 15-60) with chronic aphthous stomatitis (AS) combined with duodenal ulcer were included in the study and divided in two equal groups according to treatment received (control group of 40 patients was treated according to conventional scheme, while in 40 patients a new formulation Vipromak was added to treatment protocol). The symptoms of AS tend to resolve faster in vipromak group thus proving its efficiency in treatment of AS and duodenal ulcer.

  5. Ghrelin accelerates the healing of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats

    PubMed Central

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Dembiński, Artur; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Kato, Ikuo; Dembiński, Marcin; Konturek, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Previous studies have shown that administration of ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the influence of ghrelin administration on the course of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers, as well as effects on mucosal production of oxygen free radicals and duodenal antioxidant defense. Material/Methods Duodenal ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by cysteamine administered intragastrically at the dose of 200 mg/kg in 1 ml of saline, 3 times at 4-h intervals. Starting 24 h after the first dose of cysteamine, rats were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose. Seven days after administration of the first dose of cysteamine, the study was terminated. Results Induction of ulcers by cysteamine was accompanied by a reduction in duodenal blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD); whereas mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malonyldialdehyde (MDA – an index of lipid peroxidation) were increased. Treatment with ghrelin increased healing rate of duodenal ulcers and enhanced duodenal blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and mucosal activity of SOD, and reduced mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and MDA. Conclusions Treatment with ghrelin increases the healing rate of duodenal ulcers and this effect is related, at least in part, to improvement of duodenal mucosal blood flow, mucosal cell proliferation and antioxidant defense, as well as being related to reduction in mucosal oxidative stress and inflammatory response. PMID:22534700

  6. A refractory duodenal ulcer with a biliary-duodenal fistula following the administration of bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Yohei; Adachi, Seiji; Okuno, Mitsuru; Ohno, Tomohiko; Goto, Naoe; Iwama, Midori; Yamauchi, Osamu; Saito, Koshiro; Yasuda, Ichiro; Shimizu, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    A 65-year-old woman with recurrent breast cancer was repeatedly treated with bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody. In addition, she was also frequently prescribed a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for abdominal pain. Melena was revealed 2 months after the final treatment with bevacizumab, and an endoscopic study revealed a duodenal ulcer (DU) that was resistant to anti-ulcer therapy. A cholangiography identified a biliary-duodenal fistula with bile juice leaking from the ulcer base. Therefore, a biliary stent was placed into the common bile duct for 3 months until the DU healed. This is the first case of a refractory DU with a biliary-duodenal fistula in a patient treated with bevacizumab.

  7. Perforated duodenal ulcer in a young child: an uncommon condition.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R P; Agrawal, C S; Gupta, R K; Rajbansi, S; Bajracharya, A; Adhikary, S

    2009-01-01

    Duodenal ulcer is an uncommonly diagnosed entity in children. H. pylori infection, blood group 'O' or secondary to medications like non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and corticosteroids or physiological stress in burns, head injury and mucosal ischemia are implicated as risk factors for their causation. The diagnosis is usually overlooked because of vague and variable symptoms and remote index of suspicion accounted for their low incidence in children. Undiagnosed or mistreated perforations may carry high morbidity and mortality. We report a successfully treated 41/2 year old male child who presented with features of perforation peritonitis and was incidentally found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer.

  8. [Duodenal ulcers caused by chloroquine-proguanil association].

    PubMed

    Roux, X; Imbert, P; Rivière, F; Méchaï, F; Rapp, C

    2010-12-01

    Chloroquine-proguanil association is recommended for prophylaxis against falciparum malaria in countries with a low prevalence of chloroquine resistance. It is usually well tolerated with mild side effects consisting mainly of transient digestive discomfort and buccal manifestations (mouth sores or ulcers). The purpose of this report is to describe a case of duodenal ulcers presenting as epigastric pain with 10-kg weight-loss in a 32-year-old man taking chloroquine-proguanil for malaria prophylaxis during a stay in Haiti. No other causes of duodenal ulcers or weight-loss were found. Chloroquine-proguanil prophylaxis was discontinued and replaced by omeprazole for four weeks. Symptoms improved quickly and full recovery was observed within one month. To our knowledge, the occurrence of duodenal ulcers under chloroquine-proguanil association is quite rare, but possibly severe. Upper digestive endoscopy should be performed if a patient under chloroquine-proguanil develops abdominal pain especially in association with weight-loss. If endoscopy reveals duodenal ulcers, chloroquine-proguanil should be discontinued and replaced by another prophylactic regimen.

  9. [Morphometric characteristics of fundal glands of the stomach in duodenal ulcer and pre-ulcer condition].

    PubMed

    Uspenskiĭ, V M

    1978-01-01

    Biopsy material was used for morphometric study of the fundal glands in 114 patients with duodenal ulcers, 177 patients with various forms of gastroduodenal pathology but with typical signs of duodenal ulcer, and in 21 normal subjects. Three variants of the increase in the amount of secretory elements of the fundal glands were found: owing to an increase in the number of main cells (first variant), main and parietal cells (second variant), and parietal cells (third variant). These changes in the fundal glands are not specific for ulcer and pre-ulcer conditions, they are observed in normal subjects with constitutional hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsin. The patients with duodenal ulcer and pre-ulcer conditions are characterized by "hyper-pepsinogenic shift" in the epithelial formula of the fundal gland (45% and 31-38%, respectively) owing to an increase in the number of main cells.

  10. Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, G.; Brown, A.; Szabo, S.

    1987-03-01

    Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer.

  11. Duodenal ulcer perforation: the effect of H2 antagonists?

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, P.; Ryan, W.; Peel, A. L.; Devlin, H. B.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and two patients with perforated duodenal ulcers over a 13 year period (1970 to 1982) have been prospectively followed-up at a special gastric clinic. Of the 37 patients with perforation of their acute ulcer, 34 were treated by oversew and three had an initial definitive operation (vagotomy and drainage). The remaining 65 patients presented with perforation of a chronic ulcer and 54 were treated by oversew and 11 underwent definitive surgery--nine had vagotomy and drainage and two had partial gastrectomies. Seven of the 34 patients (20.5%) with acute ulcer perforation treated by simple oversew subsequently required definitive ulcer surgery at a mean 17.5 months after perforation and 31 of the 54 patients (57.4%) with chronic ulcer perforations required definitive surgery at a mean 27.4 months after perforation. The introduction of H2 antagonists in 1977 did not alter the re-operation rate in patients with chronic ulcer perforation managed by oversew. Results of this study provide further evidence in favour of treating patients with perforation of their chronic duodenal ulcer by definitive surgery whenever possible. PMID:3789618

  12. Difference in relapse rates of duodenal ulcer after healing with cimetidine or tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Martin, D F; Hollanders, D; May, S J; Ravenscroft, M M; Tweedle, D E; Miller, J P

    1981-01-03

    In a double-blind randomised trial in 75 patients with duodenal ulceration diagnosed endoscopically, 38 patients were given tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate and 37 cimetidine. There was no significant difference in the healing rates between the two drugs after 1 and 2 months, although relief of symptoms was marginally quicker with cimetidine. During follow-up for at least a year, relapse was significantly more common in patients whose ulcers had healed during treatment with cimetidine than in those whose ulcers had healed during treatment with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate. This difference appears to be related to the medication rather than to any other difference between the two groups of patients. These results suggest that drug treatment given for a short period in duodenal-ulcer disease influences the progress of the disease.

  13. Perforated duodenal ulcer: a rare complication of deferasirox in children.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vipul; El Kohly, Ashraf; Al Fadhli, Wasmi

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox. The severity of this event justifies the reporting of this case. This patient had an atypical presentation in that there were no signs or symptoms of peptic ulcer disease before perforation and shock he was successfully managed with open surgery after initial resuscitation and stabilization of his general condition.

  14. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori

  15. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  16. [Cycloferon in treating duodenal ulcers in rats].

    PubMed

    Bul'on, V V; Khnychenko, L K; Sapronov, N S; Kuznetsova, N N; Anikin, V B; arinenko, R Iu; Kovalenko, A L; Alekseeva, L E

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of using cycloferon (interferon inductor) for a complex treatment (in combination with the main drug solcoseryl possessing pronounced therapeutic properties) of duodenum ulcers was experimentally studied in male rats. The experiments showed a considerable difference in the interferon status of animals with model duodenum ulcers treated with cycloferon, solcoseryl, their combination, and placebo (control). The healing effect of solcoseryl administered in combination with cycloferon exceeded that of each component administered separately.

  17. Treatment of duodenal ulcer with pirenzepine and cimetidine.

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, H; Dittrich, H; Kratochvil, P; Brandstätter, G; Hentschel, E; Schütze, K; Tragl, K H; Kern, H; Löffelmann, K; Zeiler, H

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this single blind controlled multicentre trial was to compare the relative effectiveness of pirenzepine and cimetidine in healing endoscopically proven duodenal ulcers. One hundred and twenty six patients with duodenal ulcer were treated with a daily dose of 100 mg pirenzepine (50 mg each before breakfast and before the evening meal), and 128 patients were treated with 1000 mg cimetidine (200 mg with breakfast, lunch, and evening meal and 400 mg at bedtime). Endoscopy was repeated after four weeks by an endoscopist who had not been informed about the treatment. Pirenzepine showed a healing rate of 64.3%, cimetidine one of 73.4%. This difference is not statistically significant (one-sided test: chi 1(2) = 2.48). After four weeks a higher proportion of first ulcers than of recurrent lesions was healed. Pain relief was rapidly achieved with both drugs. A significant trend in favour of cimetidine may, however, not be clinically relevant considering the small difference in the absolute numbers of pain free days and nights. Adverse effects were rare and reversible. We conclude that the efficacy of pirenzepine is similar to that of cimetidine in healing duodenal ulcers. PMID:6363220

  18. Omeprazole versus famotidine in the healing and relapse of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Misra, S C; Dasarathy, S; Sharma, M P

    1993-08-01

    Sixty patients with symptomatic duodenal ulcer were randomized to receive either omeprazole (20 mg each morning) or famotidine (40 mg at night time) for 2-4 weeks in a double-blind parallel group clinical trial. Healing rates were higher with omeprazole in comparison with famotidine after 2 weeks (77% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and 4 weeks (93% vs. 80%, P = 0.2) of treatment. Assessment of daily diary cards completed by all patients revealed that omeprazole rapidly relieved ulcer-related day pain and nocturnal pain in comparison to famotidine. Treatment with omeprazole for 2 weeks was also associated with lower cumulative antacid intake (P < 0.05) and reduced absenteeism from work. Helicobacter pylori infection was present in all patients and remained unaffected by treatment with either of the drugs. None of the drugs produced any significant adverse effects. During 6 months follow-up of all the patients after ulcer healing (without maintenance therapy), ulcer relapse was seen in 40% of omeprazole- and 37% of famotidine-treated patients (P > 0.1). The duration of ulcer-free period following initial healing of ulcer was also similar in both the groups (median time: 22 weeks for omeprazole, 21 weeks for famotidine). We conclude that omeprazole is superior to famotidine in rapidly healing duodenal ulcers and achieving more rapid pain relief, but does not influence subsequent ulcer relapse.

  19. [Endothelial dysfunction in pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Oparin, A G; Oparin, A A

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that in patients with ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) there is a close correlation between the severity of the lesion of gastroduodenal protective mucous barrier and that of endothelial dysfunction manifesting in elevated level of endothelin-1, serum levels of TBK-active products, inhibition of blood flow and narrowing of the celiac trunk. The correlation becomes stronger with expanding contamination of gastroduodenal mucosa with HP. Thus, HP may participate in breaking the protective mucous barrier in endothelial dysfunction.

  20. [Vagotomy in emergency surgery for duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Khalimov, E V; Sigal, Z M; Kapustin, B B

    2003-01-01

    We examined acid-producing stomach functions, local hemodynamics and motility of the stomach and duodenum in performing organ preservation surgery: combined gastric vagotomy, selective proximal vagotomy and extended selective proximal vagotomy. Changes of hemodynamics and motility in the early postoperative period are related to the technical peculiarities of performing various types of vagotomy. Restoration of the functional state of the stomach and duodenum takes place in the late postoperative period. The acid-producing function in the late postoperative period is reduced to the safe level concerning ulceration, irrespective of the vagotomy type.

  1. Effect of the hexapeptide dalargin on ornithine decarboxylase activity in the duodenal mucosa of rats with experimental duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Yarygin, K.N.; Shitin, A.G.; Polonskii, V.M.; Vinogradov, V.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors study the effect of dalargin on ornithine decarboxylase in homogenates of the duodenal ulcer from rats with experimental duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine. Activity of the enzyme was expressed in pmoles /sup 14/CO/sub 2//mg protein/h. Protein was determined by Lowry's method. The findings indicate that stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase and the antiulcerative effect of dalargin may be due to direct interaction of the peptide with cells of the intestinal mucosa and with enterocytes.

  2. Placebo effect in the treatment of duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    de Craen, Anton J M; Moerman, Daniel E; Heisterkamp, Simon H; Tytgat, Guido N J; Tijssen, Jan G P; Kleijnen, Jos

    1999-01-01

    Aims To assess whether frequency of placebo administration is associated with duodenal ulcer healing. Methods A systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials was undertaken. 79 of 80 trials that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled 4 week placebo healing rate of all duodenal ulcer trials that employed a four times a day regimen was compared with the rate obtained from trials with a twice a day regimen. Results The pooled 4 week healing rate of the 51 trials with a four times a day regimen was 44.2% (805 of 1821 patients) compared with 36.2% (545 of 1504 patients) in the 28 trials with a twice a day regimen (difference, 8.0% [equal effects model]; 95% confidence interval, 4.6% to 11.3%). Depending on the statistical analysis, the rate difference ranged from 6.0% (multivariable random effects model) to 8.0% (equal effects model). A number of sensitivity analyses showed comparable differences between the two regimens. Most of these sensitivity analyses were not significant, probably because a number of trials were excluded resulting in a loss of power. Conclusions We found a relation between frequency of placebo administration and healing of duodenal ulcer. We realize that the comparison was based on nonrandomized data. However, we speculate that the difference between regimens was induced by the difference in frequency of placebo administration. A better knowledge of various placebo effects is required in order to make clinically relevant assessments of treatment effects derived from placebo-controlled trials. PMID:10594490

  3. Further experience with epigastric pain reproduction test in duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Earlam, R J

    1972-06-17

    Further evidence is presented that the epigastric pain of duodenal ulceration, situated between the rib margins and just below the xiphisternum, arises from the lower oesophagus.One-hundred patients with duodenal ulceration were divided into those with epigastric pain (61) and those with pain in the upper abdomen but not in the epigastrium (39). Perfusion of 0.1 N HCl into the lower oesophagus reproduced epigastric pain in 53 of the 61 with epigastric pain (mean 37 ml) but in none of the 39 without (mean 125 ml). All those who had been woken by epigastric pain at night in the previous four weeks had a positive test.In five the test remained positive even though the acid was neutralized by a continuous perfusion of alkali just below the gastro-oesophageal junction. In another five 200 ml 0.1 N HCl instilled into the stomach for 21 minutes did not reproduce epigastric pain, even though 30 ml perfused for three minutes into the lower oesophagus did.

  4. Further Experience with Epigastric Pain Reproduction Test in Duodenal Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, Richard J.

    1972-01-01

    Further evidence is presented that the epigastric pain of duodenal ulceration, situated between the rib margins and just below the xiphisternum, arises from the lower oesophagus. One-hundred patients with duodenal ulceration were divided into those with epigastric pain (61) and those with pain in the upper abdomen but not in the epigastrium (39). Perfusion of 0·1 N HCl into the lower oesophagus reproduced epigastric pain in 53 of the 61 with epigastric pain (mean 37 ml) but in none of the 39 without (mean 125 ml). All those who had been woken by epigastric pain at night in the previous four weeks had a positive test. In five the test remained positive even though the acid was neutralized by a continuous perfusion of alkali just below the gastro-oesophageal junction. In another five 200 ml 0·1 N HCl instilled into the stomach for 21 minutes did not reproduce epigastric pain, even though 30 ml perfused for three minutes into the lower oesophagus did. PMID:5031711

  5. Healing and recurrence of duodenal ulcer after treatment with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) tablets or cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, I; O'Connor, H J; Wood, N C; Bradbury, I; Axon, A T

    1986-01-01

    Eighty patients with duodenal ulcer were randomly allocated to treatment with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) tablets or cimetidine. Ulcers healed in 78% of patients treated with TDB and in 74% treated with cimetidine, supporting previous observations that the efficacy of these two agents is similar. Duodenal ulcer recurred in 43% of patients in the 12 months after treatment with TDB and in 78% of patients treated with cimetidine, with a significantly greater incidence of recurrence 6-12 months after cimetidine treatment. Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate tablets may be preferable to cimetidine in the initial management of duodenal ulcer, because they offer a smaller likelihood of recurrence in the 12 months after successful treatment.

  6. Acid secretion in Zulu and Indian patients with duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Angorn, I B; Moshal, M G; Baker, L W

    1976-01-31

    Pentagastrin-stimulated maximal acid output (MAO) was measured in 337 male patients with duodenal ulcers, 209 of whom were Indian, and 128 of whom were Zulus. The mean MAO standard deviation (SD) value for Zulu patients with uncomplicated ulcers was 36,2 +/- 10,5 mEq/h. In the patients with complicated ulcers, the maximal acid output was 38,5 +/- 6,3 mEq/h in patients with pyloric stenosis, 31,5 +/- 13,7 mEq/h in patients with haemorrhage and 42,9 +/- 9,2 mEq/h in patients with perforation. A statistically significant difference was obtained only in the group with perforation (Pless than0.05). The mean MAO +/- SD value for Indian patients with uncomplicated ulcers was 29,2 +/- 17,0 mEq/h. In those with complicated ulcers, the MAO value in pyloric stenosis was 30,5 +/- 5,5 mEq/h in those with haemorrhage 22,0 +/- 13,7 mEq/h and for patients with perforation, 27,8 +/- 7,5 mEq/h. A statistically significant difference in values was not obtained in Indian patients. In the Zulu patients, 77,6% had MAO values above the upper limit of normal (mean + 2 SD), while in Indian patients only 17.6% had MAO values above the upper limit of normal. The difference between the 2 percentages is highly significant (Pless than0,0001). The proportion of male patients with stimulated acid secretion measurements above the upper limit of normal in other reported series is 30-50%.

  7. Effects of captopril on the cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat.

    PubMed

    Saghaei, Firoozeh; Karimi, Iraj; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Samini, Morteza

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress is important factor underlying in a variety of diseases. Antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) are part of the physiological defenses against oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a lipid peroxidation biomarker and its elevated level in various diseases is related to free radical damage. Cysteamine is a cytotoxic agent, acting through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may decrease defense activity of antioxidative enzymes against ROS and induce duodenal ulcer. Captopril, acts as free radical scavengers and protect against injuries from oxidative damage to tissues.The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of captopril against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer by determining duodenal damage, duodenal tissue SOD and GSH-PX activities and plasma MAD level. This study was performed on 3 groups of 7 rats each: saline, cysteamine and cysteamine plus captopril treated groups. The effect of captopril against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer is determined by evaluating the duodenal damage, duodenal tissue SOD and GSH-PX activities and plasma MDA level. All animals were euthanized 24h after the last treatment and 2 ml blood and duodena samples were collected for calculation of ulcer index, histopathological assessment and measurement of tissue SOD, GSH-PX activities and plasma MDA level. Cysteamine produced severe duodenal damage, decreased the activity of duodenal tissue SOD and GSH-PX and increased the plasma MDA level compared with saline pretreated rats. Pretreatment with captopril decreased the cysteamine-induced duodenal damage and plasma level of MDA and increased the activities of SOD and GSH-PX in duodenal tissue compared with cysteamine pretreated animal. Our results suggest that captopril protects against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer and inhibits the decrease in SOD and GSH-PX activities and lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant defenses.

  8. Formulation and Evaluation of Omeprazole Tablets for Duodenal Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, A.; Das, S.; Bahadur, S.; Saha, S.; Roy, A.

    2010-01-01

    Omeprazole pellets containing mucoadhesive tablets were developed by direct punch method. Three mucoadhesive polymers namely hydroxypropylemethylcellulose K4M, sodium carboxy methylcellulose, carbopol-934P and ethyl cellulose were used for preparation of tablets which intended for prolong action may be due to the attachment with intestinal mucosa for relief from active duodenal ulcer. Mucoadhesive tablets were coated with respective polymer and coated with Eudragit L100 to fabricate enteric coated tablets. The prepared tablets were evaluated for different physical parameters and dissolution study were performed in three dissolution mediums like 0.1N hydrochloric acid for 2h, pH 6.5 and pH 7.8 phosphate buffer solution for 12hr. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose showed above 95% release within 10 h where as carbopol-934P showed slow release about 88% to 92% over a period of 12 h. having excellent mucoadhesive strength but ethyl cellulose containing tablets showed less than 65% release. The release mechanism of all formulation was diffusion controlled confirmed from Higuchi’s plot. Thus, the present study concluded that, carbopol-934P containing mucoadhesive tablets of omeprazole pellets can be used for local action in the ulcer disease as well as for oral controlled release drug delivery. PMID:21218061

  9. Role of iron in the pathogenesis of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khomenko, Tetyana; Szabo, Sandor; Deng, Xiaoming; Ishikawa, Hideki; Anderson, Gregory J.; McLaren, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    Cysteamine induces perforating duodenal ulcers in rats within 24–48 h. This reducing aminothiol generates hydrogen peroxide in the presence of transition metals (e.g., ferric iron), producing oxidative stress, which may contribute to organ-specific tissue damage. Since most intestinal iron absorption takes place in the proximal duodenum, we hypothesized that cysteamine may disrupt regulation of mucosal iron transport, and iron may facilitate cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration. We show here that cysteamine-induced ulceration was aggravated by pretreatment of rats with Fe3+ or Fe2+ compounds, which elevated iron concentration in the duodenal mucosa. In contrast, feeding rats an iron-deficient diet was associated with a 4.6-fold decrease in ulcer formation, accompanied by a 34% decrease (P < 0.05) in the duodenal mucosal iron concentration. Administration of deferoxamine inhibited ulceration by 65%. We also observed that the antiulcer effect of H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine included a 35% decrease in iron concentration in the duodenal mucosa. Cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers were also decreased in iron-deficient Belgrade rats (P < 0.05). In normal rats, cysteamine administration increased the iron concentration in the proximal duodenal mucosa by 33% in the preulcerogenic stage but at the same time decreased serum iron (P < 0.05). Cysteamine also enhanced activation of mucosal iron regulatory protein 1 and increased the expression of divalent metal transporter 1 mRNA and protein. Transferrin receptor 1 protein expression was also increased, although mucosal ferroportin and ferritin remained almost unchanged. These results indicate an expansion of the intracellular labile iron pool in the duodenal mucosa, increasing its susceptibility to oxidative stress, and suggest a role for iron in the pathogenesis of organ-specific tissue injury such as duodenal ulcers. PMID:19342511

  10. Supraduodenal Branch of the Left Hepatic Artery: A Rare Cause of Bleeding Duodenal Ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Baljendra S.; Berscheid, Bruce; Saddekni, Souheil

    2009-07-15

    This is a case report describing a rare cause of massive duodenal ulcer hemorrhage resulting from the erosion of the supraduodenal branch of the left hepatic artery. This arterial branch is not a well known variation and is rarely recognized as a source of duodenal bleeding.

  11. Tripotassium dicitrato-bismuthate tablets v liquid in the treatment of duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lane, M; Lee, S; Tasman-Jones, C; Nicholson, G

    1985-03-27

    Thirty-five patients with duodenal ulcers were treated with tripotassium dicitrato-bismuthate (TDB) in a double-blind, double-dummy endoscopically controlled trial. Healing rates were comparable in patients treated with either tablet or liquid, 74% and 72% at four weeks and 89% in both groups at eight weeks. It is concluded that the tablet formulation of TDB is as effective as the liquid in the treatment of acute duodenal ulceration.

  12. Effect of tyrosine administration on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T.; Szabo, S.

    1987-03-01

    Duodenal ulcers were produced by administering cysteamine to rats. Pretreatment with the catecholamine precursor, L-tyrosine (40 mg/100 g i.p. for 5 days), decreased the intensity of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Equimolar doses of tyrosine methyl ester (51.2 mg/100 g i.p. or s.c.) were equally effective in reducing ulcer intensity. Other amino acids (i.e., alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, lysine, tryptophan and valine) did not prevent experimental duodenal ulcers. Coadministration of other large neutral amino acids (e.g., leucine and valine) that compete with tyrosine for uptake into the brain did not inhibit the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Gastric, duodenal and brain dopamine concentrations were increased 1 hr after the injection of tyrosine methyl ester (25.6 mg/100 g s.c.). These results suggest that the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine may be mediated by changes in gastrointestinal dopamine metabolism.

  13. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients and the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chao; Tuo, Bi-Guang; Wu, Wei-Min; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Kui

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients in China to analyze the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The results showed that the prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcer increased with age. In patients under 60 years old, the prevalence of duodenal and gastric ulcers in females was markedly lower than that in males, especially the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer in H. pylori-infected patients was markedly higher than in patients without H. pylori infection. In the patients under 60 years old, sex differences were still seen in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. The prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcers was markedly increased with age in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, and H. pylori infection were three independent risk factors for gastric and duodenal ulcers.

  14. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.M.; Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100..mu..Ci of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU.

  15. Distribution of prostaglandins in gastric and duodenal mucosa of healthy subjects and duodenal ulcer patients: effects of aspirin and paracetamol.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Obtulowicz, W; Sito, E; Oleksy, J; Wilkon, S; Kiec-Dembinska, A

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of mucosal PGE2-like activity was determined by bioassay technique in the body and antrum of the stomach and in the duodenum of healthy subjects and duodenal ulcer patients before and after administration of aspirin, paracetamol, or histamine. In healthy subjects, the oxyntic, antral and duodenal mucosa was found to be capable of generating large amounts of PGE2, which were not significantly different from those found in duodenal ulcer patients. No correlation was found between the generation of PGE2 and gastric acid secretory status or serum gastrin level. Aspirin-and to a much lesser extent, paracetamol-caused a dramatic reduction in the ability of the gastric mucosa to biosynthesis PGE2 and this was accompanied by marked side-effects and injury to the gastric mucosa. Administration of histamine caused small but significant reduction in the biosynthesis of PGE2 but it was accompanied by marked mucosal damage. This study indicates that the gastric and duodenal mucosa is capable of generating PGE2-like activity which may be involved in the mechanism that protects the mucosa against the damage caused by aspirin. PMID:7239320

  16. The effect of verapamil on cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C. K.; Yim, D. S.; Kim, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the effect of verapamil on experimental duodenal ulcer, pathologic assessment and secretory study were performed in the rats with ulcerogenic dose of cysteamine. The cysteamine increased gastric acid secretion and produced double duodenal ulcers at the proximal protion of the duodenum. Intramuscular injection of verapamil, 3 hours later, produced a significant decreased in gastric acid secretion which lasted at least 4 hours (cysteamine vs. cysteamine+ verapamil; 63.5 +/- 18.4 muEq vs. 25.5 +/- 9.0 muEq during the 1st hour after verapamil administration, 83.1 +/- 24.2 muEq vs. 27.8 +/- 12.3 muEq during the 2nd hour, 110.9 +/- 14.4 muEq vs. 38.5 +/- 25.9 muEq during the 3rd hour, 116.4 +/- 12.1 muEq vs. 40.7 +/- 29.6 muEq during the 4th hour, p less than 0.001). However, cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers were not alleviated by two doses of intramuscular verapamil administration (4 mg/kg x 2). It is presumed that suppression of gastric acid secretion may not be sufficient to reduce cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer formation or that verapamil itself may have aggresive effects against duodenum. To illucidate the exact role of verapamil in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer, further studies would be needed. PMID:3268182

  17. Association of Endoscopic Esophageal Variceal Ligation with Duodenal Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ze-Hao; Lin, Ai-Fang; Tang, Du-Peng; Wei, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zheng-Ji; Xin, Xiao-Mei; Pan, Yu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency of duodenal ulcer (DU), as well as other clinical characteristics occurring after endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) of the esophagus. Descriptive study. The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China, from April 2012 to April 2013. A total of 47 patients with esophageal varices (EVr) who had also undergone EVL and gastroscopic follow-up within 3 months of the procedure was retrospectively analyzed. The status of Helicobacter pylori(Hp) infection, Child-Pugh classification, and the grades of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) were collected. Sixty EVr patients without EVL treatment, but with clinical data available, served as the control group. The frequency of DU in the EVL group (29.8%, 14/47) was higher than the control group (6.7%, 4/60) (p=0.02). Hp infection rate in EVLgroup was 19.15% (9/47), while in control group was 21.67% (13/60) (p=0.813). Hp positive rate (12.5%, 1/8) in patients exhibited new DUs after EVL was comparable to the patients without DU in the EVL group (12.1%, 4/33) (p=1.00). Patients with DU after EVL received 18.79 &plusmn;8.48 of ligating bands, while in those who did not exhibit DUs received 13.85 &plusmn;6.47 (z = -2.042, p = 0.041). Logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of DU was not associated with age, gender, Child-Pugh classification, or the grade of PHG (p &gt; 0.05). Esophageal EVL is associated with a higher frequency of developing DU, which is related to a larger number of applied bands but is not correlated with Hp infection status or other variables.

  18. Hemorrhagic gastric and duodenal ulcers after the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kenichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Asabe, Shinichi; Yoshida, Toru; Nakano, Misaki; Obara, Shin; Endo, Hidehiko

    2013-11-14

    To elucidate the characteristics of hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers in a post-earthquake period within one medical district. Hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers in the Iwate Prefectural Kamaishi Hospital during the 6-mo period after the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were 27 patients who visited our hospital with a chief complaint of hematemesis or hemorrhagic stool and were diagnosed as having hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during a 6-mo period starting on March 11, 2011. This period was divided into two phases: the acute stress phase, comprising the first month after the earthquake disaster, and the chronic stress phase, from the second through the sixth month. The following items were analyzed according to these phases: age, sex, sites and number of ulcers, peptic ulcer history, status of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and degree of impact of the earthquake disaster. In the acute stress phase from 10 d to 1 mo after the disaster, the number of patients increased rapidly, with a nearly equal male-to-female ratio, and the rate of multiple ulcers was significantly higher than in the previous year (88.9% vs 25%, P < 0.005). In the chronic stress phase starting 1 mo after the earthquake disaster, the number of patients decreased to a level similar to that of the previous year. There were more male patients during this period, and many patients tended to have a solitary ulcer. All patients with duodenal ulcers found in the acute stress phase were negative for serum H. pylori antibodies, and this was significantly different from the previous year's positive rate of 75% (P < 0.05). Severe stress caused by an earthquake disaster may have affected the characteristics of hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers.

  19. Increased healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers in a controlled trial using tripotassium dicitrato-bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Lee, S P; Nicholson, G I

    1977-05-28

    Thirty-seven outpatients with benign gastric ulcers proved by endoscopy were randomized and treated with tripotassium dicitrato-bismuthate (TDB) and a placebo for four weeks. They were assessed on the basis of symptoms and endoscopy examination. Ulcer healing observed by endoscopy was significantly better in the TDB treated group (18 of 20) than in the placebo treated group (six of 17). There was no statistical difference in symptomatic improvement. Nineteen patients with duodenal ulcers proved by endoscopy were randomized in a double-blind trial and given TDB and a placebo for four weeks. Ulcer healing in the TDB treated group (eight of nine) was significantly better than in the placebo treated group (two of 10). No significant difference was found in the symptomatic improvement of both groups. It is concluded that TDB is an effective agent for the treatment of chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers.

  20. [Sulglycotide combined with H2-antagonists in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. Multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Ciaco, A; Papi, C; Capurso, L

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of sulglycotide, a molecule with gastroprotective properties, in monotherapy and in association with H2-antagonists in the maintenance treatment of duodenal ulcer. The study was performed using a fully randomized experimental design. Following endoscopic confirmation, 626 patients with healed duodenal ulcer were treated for 6 months with sulglycotide 200 mg tid (293 patients) or sulglycotide + H2-antagonists (333 patients). After 2, 4 and 6 months patients underwent a clinical control whereas an endoscopic control was performed after 6 months. The cumulative percentage of recidivation was 3.6% in the sulglycotide + H2-antagonist treated group, whereas the group treated with sulglycotide alone showed a recidivation rate of 15.4% (p < 0.001). These findings suggest the utility of combined sulglycotide and H2-antagonist treatment in the maintenance therapy for duodenal ulcer.

  1. A Case of Acute Ischemic Duodenal Ulcer Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hyub; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon

    2009-03-15

    We report a case of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-related acute ischemic duodenal ulcer that developed in association with dissection of the superior mesenteric artery. We conclude that the acute duodenal ulcer was developed by ischemia related to superior mesenteric artery dissection during TACE. TACE should be conducted carefully with continuous observation of abdominal arteries.

  2. Peritonitis Following Duodenal Ulcer Perforation in a Newborn: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Amouei, Abdolhamid; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Zarch, Mojtaba Babaei; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mostafa; Ghodratipour, Zahra

    2016-11-01

    Duodenal ulcer is an uncommon condition in children, that is why it is not usually considered as the differential diagnosis unless it presents with complications including perforation and haemorrhage. Moreover, duodenal ulcer perforation is an uncommon entity in paediatric age group. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial in order to improve survival. A three-day-old male neonate was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal distension. The neonate was lethargic. He underwent laparotomy. There was a perforated ulcer, 5×5mm in size, on the anterior aspect of the first part of the duodenum. The perforated ulcer was closed with a single layer. Six-month follow-up revealed no abnormality.

  3. Peritonitis Following Duodenal Ulcer Perforation in a Newborn: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Amouei, Abdolhamid; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mostafa; Ghodratipour, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal ulcer is an uncommon condition in children, that is why it is not usually considered as the differential diagnosis unless it presents with complications including perforation and haemorrhage. Moreover, duodenal ulcer perforation is an uncommon entity in paediatric age group. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial in order to improve survival. A three-day-old male neonate was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal distension. The neonate was lethargic. He underwent laparotomy. There was a perforated ulcer, 5×5mm in size, on the anterior aspect of the first part of the duodenum. The perforated ulcer was closed with a single layer. Six-month follow-up revealed no abnormality. PMID:28050434

  4. Early ultrastructural changes in rat duodenal mucosa associated with cysteamine-induced ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, C.J.; Pfeiffer, D.C.; Szabo, S.

    1987-02-01

    The early morphologic sequelae induced by the duodenal ulcerogen, cysteamine, have been studied in rats by transmission electron microscopy. Cysteamine was administered per os at 70 mg/100 g body wt to groups of female rats sacrificed at 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 24 hr after chemical treatment, and duodenal tissue sampled from the antimesenteric side of the proximal duodenum, where ulcers develop, was studied. Emphasis was placed on early times as our previous scanning electron microscopic data had demonstrated enhanced in situ cellular necrosis and surface cavitation at 2-4 hr after cysteamine treatment. Results indicated intracellular changes as early as 30 min after treatment and prior to damage of the columnar cell microvilli or epithelial tight junctions. A staging of observed cellular degenerative changes suggested early apical endoplasmic reticular swelling and loss of cytoplasmic ground substance, followed later by moderate internal disruption of mitochondria. Through these stages the cell surface microvilli remained morphologically normal. Subsequently, microvilli degenerated and mitochondrial fine structure became severely disrupted and cell contents were expelled. Deeper villous changes such as separation of columnar cells from the lamina propria and alterations of selected elements within the lamina propria were observed. These data suggest that intracellular cytotoxic reactions at the villous tips occur early and may precede the influence of intraluminal damaging factors induced by cysteamine.

  5. Predicting Chemically Induced Duodenal Ulcer and Adrenal Necrosis with Classification Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampaolo, Casimiro; Gray, Andrew T.; Olshen, Richard A.; Szabo, Sandor

    1991-07-01

    Binary tree-structured statistical classification algorithms and properties of 56 model alkyl nucleophiles were brought to bear on two problems of experimental pharmacology and toxicology. Each rat of a learning sample of 745 was administered one compound and autopsied to determine the presence of duodenal ulcer or adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis. The cited statistical classification schemes were then applied to these outcomes and 67 features of the compounds to ascertain those characteristics that are associated with biologic activity. For predicting duodenal ulceration, dipole moment, melting point, and solubility in octanol are particularly important, while for predicting adrenal necrosis, important features include the number of sulfhydryl groups and double bonds. These methods may constitute inexpensive but powerful ways to screen untested compounds for possible organ-specific toxicity. Mechanisms for the etiology and pathogenesis of the duodenal and adrenal lesions are suggested, as are additional avenues for drug design.

  6. Case report: Portal and systemic venous gas in a patient with perforated duodenal ulcer: CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Maged Nassef Abdalla; Attia, Khaled Mostafa Elgharib; Khalil, Safaa Maged Fathelbab

    2014-01-01

    Gas within the portal circulation has been known to be associated with a number of conditions most commonly mesenteric ischemia and necrosis. Systemic venous gas is described with few conditions and is mostly iatrogenic in nature. We describe a case of combined portal and systemic venous gas detected by computed tomography in a patient with perforated duodenal ulcer. PMID:25426236

  7. Comparison of cimetidine and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate in healing and relapse of duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Shreeve, D R; Klass, H J; Jones, P E

    1983-01-01

    A comparison between cimetidine and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate liquid (TDB) in the treatment of endoscopically diagnosed duodenal ulcer by single-blind randomized trial in 48 patients has shown 18 (75%) out of 24 patients receiving TDB and 13 (54%) out of 24 patients receiving cimetidine healed after 4 weeks' therapy. Symptomatic improvement within 1 month was seen in 19 patients on TDB and 18 patients on cimetidine, but did not only occur in patients whose ulcers healed. On follow-up, endoscopically proven relapse occurred within 1 year in 47% of patients whose ulcers had healed during treatment with TDB in comparison with 60% of those healing on cimetidine.

  8. Twice daily tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate in the treatment of duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Hollanders, D

    1986-01-01

    Fifty three patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulceration have cooperated in a clinical trial to compare the ulcer healing effect of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) at standard dosage administered either twice or four times daily. No statistically significant difference has been found to exist between ulcer healing in the two groups at 4 weeks (72% and 67%, P = 0.944) or at 8 weeks (92% and 81%, P = 0.504) and it is concluded that twice daily TDB maintains the effectiveness of the drug and has advantages for patient compliance.

  9. The effect of tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate on the duodenal mucosa during ulceration. An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Gregory, M A; Moshal, M G; Spitaels, J M

    1982-07-10

    The manner in which tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (TDB) promotes duodenal ulcer healing is not known. Endoscopic biopsy specimens were taken from the edges of duodenal ulcers from 5 patients before and after treatment with TDB. Using the bismuth contained within this drug as an electron-dense marker, the mode of action of TDB was determined by transmission electron microscopy. TDB was found to promote ulcer healing by adhering to the ulcerative mucosa, thereby providing an effective barrier to the substances which cause and maintain ulceration.

  10. Inhibition of nocturnal acidity is important but not essential for duodenal ulcer healing.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi Porro, G; Parente, F; Sangaletti, O

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the relative importance of day and night time gastric acid inhibition for duodenal ulcer healing by comparing the anti-ulcer efficacy of a single morning with that of a single bedtime dose of ranitidine. One hundred and thirty patients with active duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to a double-blind therapy with ranitidine 300 mg at 8 am or the same dose at 10 pm for up to eight weeks. The antisecretory effects of these regimens were also assessed by 24 h intragastric pH monitoring in 18 of these patients. At four weeks ulcers had healed in 41/61 (67%) of patients taking the morning dose and in 47/63 (75%) of those receiving the nocturnal dose (95% CI for the difference -0.09 +0.25; p ns). At eight weeks, the corresponding healing rates were 82% and 85.5%, respectively (95% CI for the difference -0.11 +0.17; p ns). Both treatments were significantly superior to placebo in raising 24 h intragastric pH, although the effects of the morning dose were of shorter duration than those of the nocturnal dose. These findings suggest that suppression of nocturnal acidity is important but not essential to promote healing of duodenal ulcers; a prolonged period of acid inhibition during the day (as obtained with a single large morning dose of H2-blockers) may be equally effective. PMID:2186980

  11. Effects of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) tablets or cimetidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, I; Worsley, B W; O'Connor, H J; Axon, A T

    1983-12-01

    Forty patients with duodenal ulcer were randomly allocated to treatment with either tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate tablets or cimetidine for six weeks. Endoscopically confirmed healing of the ulcer occurred in 80% treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate tablets and in 85% treated with cimetidine. Symptomatic improvement was also similar in the two groups. Treatment with cimetidine was associated with an increase in pH of gastric aspirate during treatment and increased numbers of bacteria were isolated from the gastric aspirate during treatment, while the pH and bacterial flora of gastric aspirate did not change during tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate treatment. Serum and urinary bismuth levels rose during treatment with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate and urinary excretion remained raised two weeks after cessation of treatment. Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate tablets appear to be as effective as cimetidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcer without the potentially undesirable effects of a reduction in gastric acid secretion.

  12. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property.

  13. Autoradiographic study on healing process of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in rat. Possible importance of Brunner's glands in ulcer healing

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, Y.; Tsuchihashi, Y.; Sugihara, H.; Kodama, T.; Takino, T.; Fujita, S.

    1988-09-01

    The healing process of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was studied by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography. After the development of ulcer in the duodenum, cell proliferation was markedly activated not only in the crypts but also in the Brunner's glands near the ulcer. In the initial stages of ulcer healing, they both contributed to form the surface covering regenerating epithelium. Granulation tissue also proliferated at the base of the ulcer. In later stages of ulcer healing, new crypts were formed in the floor of the ulcer. New villi regenerated from these crypts and Brunner's glands regenerated by proliferation in situ. The ulcer base then was completely covered with new villi and granulation tissue was replaced by dense fibrous connective tissue. The present study suggested that the Brunner's glands, together with the crypts of Lieberkuehn, play an important role in the healing process of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer.

  14. [Operative treatment of complicated duodenal and pyloric ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Oparin, S O; Korotkyï, V M; Kolosovych, I V; Spitsyn, R Iu; Furmanenko, M F; Kartashov, B T; Martynovych, L D; Krasovs'kyĭ, V O; Butyrin, S O; Zinchenko, I I; Rupitsev, O O; Dzhurko, M G

    2000-11-01

    There were examined 135 patients with perforative ulcer of the gastric terminal portion (GTP) and of duodenum. Performance of duodeno- or gastroduodenoplasty without vagotomy, the correcting therapy conduction in early postoperative period had promoted the normalization of the GTP motor function and the gastric acid output reduction in late follow-up period, trusting the expediency of organ-preserving operation conduction without vagotomy as radical method of the complicated ulcer disease treatment.

  15. [Surgical treatment of bleeding duodenal ulcer in elderly and senile patients with intraoperative verification of the diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ivashchuk, O I

    2000-01-01

    The method of duodenotomy performance for duodenal ulcer with hemorrhage was proposed. Duodenum was dissected longitudinally across the ampulla lower edge going all over medial edge of pars descendens, permitting not only doing the revision but revealing the hemorrhage source, securing homeostasis. The rules of local hemostasis performance were elaborated. Application of the above mentioned access prevents damage of nervi vagi duodenal anterior brunch, guaranteeing the duodenal motor-evacuation function preservation.

  16. [The use of nifedipine in gastric and duodenal peptic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Oparin, A G; Korenovskiĭ, I P; Chonka, V Iu; Fedchenko, Iu G; Demerchan, T I; Iakovenko, E L

    1996-01-01

    It has been ascertained that use of nifedipine in antiulcer therapy is justified from the clinical standpoint as well as pathogenetically substantiated since its incorporation into the complex of therapeutic measures designed to treat patients with ulcer disease makes for a speedier cicatrization of ulcers as well as augmentation of the gastric mucose levels of periodic acid-Schiff reaction-positive substances and acid mucopolysaccharides, dispelling of hyperthermia foci, increase in bioelectric potentials and activation of motion of nuclei of epithelial cells of the pyloric portion of the stomach.

  17. How diet and lifestyle affect duodenal ulcers. Review of the evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of diet in reducing or aggravating risk of duodenal ulcer (DU). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2001 for articles on the relationship between diet and lifestyle and DU using the key words duodenal ulcer and diet, fibre, or lifestyle. Evidence that these factors are associated with DU arose mainly from three case-control and three prospective studies (level II evidence) and from expert opinion (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE: A high-fibre diet appears to reduce risk of DU; soluble fibre might be associated with reduced risk also. Vitamin A intake is associated with lower risk of DU. Little evidence indicates that fat, type of fat, protein intake, or consumption of alcohol or caffeine affect the etiology of DU. CONCLUSION: A high-fibre diet, particularly if the fibre comes from fruit and vegetables, could reduce risk of DU; vitamin A might also be beneficial. PMID:15171675

  18. [Cimetidine and tripotassium-dicitrato bismuthate (Duosol) in chronic duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Bergoz, R

    1985-07-20

    In an open study, 40 patients with duodenal ulcer of several years' standing were treated for relapse with either TDB (De-Nol) or cimetidine. No difference in the relapse rate was observed during the subsequent 12 months. Analysis of the data in relation to smoking habits did, however, reveal an advantage (p less than 0.05) for non-smokers during the first 6 months.

  19. Gallbladder cancer manifesting as recurrent common bile duct stone and duodenal ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Hsu, Ping-I; Tsai, Cheng-Chung; Fu, Ting-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease and is usually asymptomatic. Poor prognosis and high mortality rate have been noted in patients with delayed diagnosis. We report a case of locally advanced GBC with duodenum and colon invasion manifesting as bleeding duodenal ulcer and recurrent common bile duct (CBD) stones. The patient was successfully treated with extended surgery. In patients who have multiple recurrence of CBD stones without common risk factors, concomitant biliary tract malignancy should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  20. Somatostatin depletion by cysteamine: mechanism and implication for duodenal ulceration

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Reichlin, S.

    1985-06-01

    Cysteamine (CSH) and its close derivatives deplete immunoreactive somatostatin (SS) in rat organs. The effect of CSH is dose and time dependent and reversible. Structural requirements of the analogs are the presence of either -SH or -NH2 on a two- or three-carbon alkyl molecule; both radicals together increase, whereas insertion of carboxyl abolishes potency. The duodenal ulcerogenic potency of CSH derivatives is correlated significantly with their SS-depleting activity in the gastric mucosa. The mechanism of this action of CSH is poorly understood, but it is not caused by increased release, enhanced degradation of the peptide, or selective necrosis of SS cells. It is likely that in the intracellular environment CSH causes a conformational change in the peptide that affects the antigenic and functional properties of SS.

  1. Randomised crossover trial of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate versus high dose cimetidine for duodenal ulcers resistant to standard dose of cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Lam, S K; Lee, N W; Koo, J; Hui, W M; Fok, K H; Ng, M

    1984-07-01

    Of 212 patients with duodenal ulcer treated with four weeks of one gram daily cimetidine, 25 had ulcers which underwent no reduction in size despite treatment. The effects of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) tablet four times a day or cimetidine 1.6 g daily on the healing of these cimetidine resistant ulcers were compared in a randomised crossover trial. Ten of 12 patients on tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate and five of 13 patients on high dose cimetidine had complete healing (p less than 0.02). On crossing over, seven of the eight ulcers not healed by high dose cimetidine completely healed with TDB in another four weeks, and one of the two ulcers not healed by TDB healed with high dose cimetidine. Overall, TDB healed 85% of cimetidine resistant ulcers, whereas high dose cimetidine healed 40% (p less than 0.006). Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate is recommended for cimetidine resistant duodenal ulcers.

  2. Peptic Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcer in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer . Both a gastric ulcer and a duodenal ulcer happen when H. pylori ... are commonly associated with H. pylori infection, and gastric ulcers, which may stem from other causes. It's recognized ...

  3. Effects of omeprazole and eradication of Helicobacter pylori on gastric and duodenal mucosal enzyme activities and DNA in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed

    Vetvik, K; Schrumpf, E; Mowinckel, P; Aase, S; Andersen, K J

    1994-11-01

    Duodenal and gastric content of mucosal enzymes in duodenal ulcer (DU) patients differs from that of controls. The purpose of this study has been to examine the effect of omeprazole and eradication of Helicobacter pylori on mucosal enzymes in DU patients. The enzyme activities of seven gastric and duodenal mucosal marker enzymes from the brush border, lysosomes, and mitochondria have been studied. In study I the measurements were made in 29 patients with an active DU before and after 14 days of omeprazole treatment. In study II 22 duodenal ulcer patients were given bismuth subnitrate, oxytetracycline, and metronidazole (triple therapy) for 2 weeks to eradicate H. pylori. Biopsy specimens were taken from the duodenum and the stomach for enzyme measurements and histologic assessment. In study II additional specimens were obtained from the prepyloric region for urease tests and culture of H. pylori. The ulcer healing rates were more than 90% after both omeprazole and triple therapy. H. pylori was eradicated in 86% after triple therapy. The activities of the brush-border enzymes lactase, neutral-alpha-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucyl-beta-naphthylamidase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) increased significantly in the duodenal bulb and the descending duodenum during treatment with omeprazole. No changes in duodenal enzyme activity were detected after triple therapy, whereas a significant fall in gamma-GT and acid phosphatase activities was seen in the stomach. The mucosal DNA in the gastric antrum decreased both after treatment with omeprazole and after triple therapy. A similar decrease in mucosal DNA of the gastric antrum was demonstrated after both omeprazole and triple therapy with bismuth subnitrate, oxytetracycline, and metronidazole. Omeprazole also affects the content of duodenal mucosal enzymes, whereas triple therapy particularly affects the gastric mucosal enzyme activity.

  4. Double-blind trial of cimetidine versus tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate in chronic duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Pollard, E J; Cowen, A

    1981-04-04

    Thirty-seven patients with chronic duodenal ulceration were entered into an endoscopically controlled trial of cimetidine (Tagamet) versus tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (De-Nol). At six weeks, 83% of patients taking cimetidine showed complete ulcer healing compared with 74% of patients taking tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate. By ten weeks, the corresponding figures were 89% and 84% respectively. Symptomatic relief was similar in both treatment groups and, despite advice to the contrary, continued smoking and alcohol consumption did not appear to adversely affect healing. Both drugs appear to be equally effective in healing chronic duodenal ulcers.

  5. Famotidine in the short and long-term treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Zaterka, S; de Paula Castro, L; Villalobos, J J; Massuda, H K; Eisig, J N; Dias Avelar, C; Coelho, L G; Bettarello, A

    1988-01-01

    Famotidine was compared to ranitidine in a short-term study on the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Famotidine 20 mg. b.i.d., 40 mg. b.i.d. and 40 mg. nocte heal as many ulcer as ranitidine (90.9%, 91.7%, 83.3% and 100% respectively). A single 20 mg. bedtime dose shows to be effective on preventing ulcer recurrence for as long as 48 weeks; the 38% recurrence rate observed with famotidine was statistically different from the 78% observed with placebo. Diarrhoea was the most common complain observed during the short-term trial, followed by sleepiness and headache. The few and small biochemical alterations during the long-term treatment (increase in transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, BUN) could in no instance be directly related to the substances on use.

  6. Is a one-week course of triple anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy sufficient to control active duodenal ulcer?

    PubMed

    Tepes, B; Krizman, I; Gorensek, M; Gubina, M; Orel, I

    2001-07-01

    Triple therapy currently forms the cornerstone of the treatment of patients with Helicobacter pylori-positive duodenal ulcer. To establish whether prolonged antisecretory therapy is necessary in patients with active duodenal ulcer. A total of 77 patients with H. pylori-positive duodenal ulcer were included in a prospective, controlled, double-blind study. All patients received a 7-day treatment with omeprazole 20 mg b.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.d. and amoxicillin 1000 mg b.d. Patients in the omeprazole group underwent an additional 14-day therapy with omeprazole 20 mg; patients in placebo group received placebo. Endoscopy was performed upon inclusion in the study and after 3 and 8 weeks. Seventy-four patients were eligible for a per protocol analysis after 3 weeks, and 65 after 8 weeks. After 3 weeks, the healing rate was 89% in the omeprazole group and 81% in the placebo group (P=0.51). After 8 weeks, the ulcer healed in 97% of the patients in the total group (95% CI: 92.7-100%). H. pylori was eradicated in 88% of patients in the omeprazole group and in 91% in the placebo group (P=1.0). No statistically significant differences between the groups were found in ulcer-related symptoms or in ulcer healing. In patients with H. pylori-positive duodenal ulcer, a 7-day triple therapy alone is sufficient to control the disease.

  7. A four-year follow-up of duodenal ulcer patients after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Tepes, B; Kavcic, B; Gubina, M; Krizman, I

    1999-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical course of disease in 63 duodenal ulcer (DU) patients during a 4-year follow-up after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and a clinical interview were performed before antimicrobial therapy, 2 months after, yearly and when symptoms recurred. Two antral and two corporal specimens were taken for histology, and one additional specimen from antrum was taken for rapid urease test at the first endoscopy and for culture at the following endoscopies. All patients received triple antimicrobial regimens based on colloidal bismuth subcitrate, amoxycillin and metronidazole for at least 2 weeks. Patients with a negative histology and culture 2 months after antimicrobial therapy were included in the study. After H. pylori eradication, ulcer recurrence dropped from 84.1% per year in the year before H. pylori eradication to a mean value of 5.2% per year during 2076 patient months (p<0.01). The increased incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was found only in the first year of the follow-up period. The average percentage of anti-ulcer drug users per year was 30.8% because of GERD, reflux symptoms, ulcer recurrence or non-ulcer dyspepsia. Ulcers or acute erosions recurred in 9 H. pylori-negative patients; recurrences were attributable to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in 4 out of 9 cases (44.4%). H. pylori eradication changed the long-term course of DU disease.

  8. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers – a 10-year, single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Tankurt, Ethem; Şarkış, Cihat; Simsek, Ilkay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) occurs throughout the world and causes gastroduodenal diseases. There is data indicating a change in the prevalence of H. pylori infection worldwide. The prevalence of H. pylori is 80% in Turkey, while it is higher in many developing countries, and the rate of infection varies throughout the world. In many developing countries, the prevalence of infection exceeds 90% by adulthood. Aim To determine the change in the rate of H. pylori infection in gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers for a 10-year period in a single centre. Material and methods The study population included 550 patients (342 in 2004, 208 in 1994) with gastric and duodenal ulcers. Results In 2004 there were 125 (36.5%) patients with gastric ulcer and 217 patients with duodenal ulcer (64.5%). CLO test positivity was 39.2% in patients with gastric ulcers and 60% in patients with duodenal ulcers. In 1994 there were 208 patients (159 duodenal ulcers, 49 gastric ulcers). Urease test was positive in 74.2% of patients with duodenal ulcer and in 65.2% of patients with gastric ulcer. The decrease in the rate of urease positivity in patients with gastric ulcer was statistically significant (p = 0.01) during this 10-year period. Conclusions In the present study we found that the urease positivity decreased significantly in patients with gastric ulcer between 1994 and 2004. PMID:26516382

  9. Structure-activity relations between alkyl nucleophilic chemicals causing duodenal ulcer and adrenocortical necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Reynolds, E.S.; Unger, S.H.

    1982-10-01

    Structure-activity relationships were qualitatively and quantitatively examined for 56 chemicals (e.g., derivatives of propionitrile, acrylonitrile and cysteamine) which caused duodenal ulcer and/or adrenocortical necrosis in rats. For the first time the duodenal ulcerogenic property of numerous chemicals has been studied in a rational and predictive manner. Ulcerogenic activity was most intense in the carbonitriles attached to two or three carbon backbones and diminished by shortening, lengthening, branching, unsaturating, halogenating or hydroxylating the carbon chains. Different modes of action are implied. Adrenocorticolytic potency was associated with unsaturation of the carbon chain and substitution of the nitrile by thiol or amine radicals. An action of these chemicals on the central nervous system has been suggested.

  10. Different effect of antiulcer agents on rat cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer after sialoadenectomy, but not gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bedekovic, Vlado; Mise, Stjepan; Anic, Tomislav; Staresinic, Mario; Gjurasin, Miroslav; Kopljar, Mario; Kalogjera, Livije; Drvis, Petar; Boban Blagaic, Alenka; Batelja, Lovorka; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2003-09-05

    The focus was on salivary glands in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer and the different effects of antiulcer agents on cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in sialoadenectomized but not gastrectomized rats. We tested antiulcer agents on cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in rats (agents/kg i.p.) simultaneously with cysteamine 400 mg/kg s.c., rat killed 24 h thereafter subjected to no surgery (normal), to gastrectomy (24 h before) or sialoadenectomy, acute (24 h before) or chronic (21 days before). (i) Ulcerogenesis: cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer had the same severity and incidence in normal, gastrectomized or acutely or chronically sialoadenectomized rats. (ii) Antiulcer effect under normal conditions or following gastrectomy: in normal or gastrectomized rats all agents tested, gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 [currently in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL-14736, Pliva) (10.0 microg or 10.0 ng), ranitidine (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg)] inhibited cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers, acting through gastric acid-independent mechanisms. Following sialoadenectomy, acute or chronic: ranitidine, omeprazole and atropine were completely ineffective, while pentadecapeptide BPC 157 could protect. Thus, we found that contrary to stomach, salivary glands are implicated in cytoprotective agent activity (standard agents were ineffective after sialoadenectomy). Also, gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was consistently associated with a cytoprotective effect, suggesting a beneficial activity distinctive from that of H2-receptor blockers, proton-pump inhibitors and anticholinergics; but probably replacing missing salivary glands factors.

  11. Perforated duodenal ulcer presenting with massive hematochezia in a 30-month-old child.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Mi; Yun, Sin Weon; Chae, Soo Ahn; Yoo, Byoung Hoon; Cha, Seong Jae; Kwak, Byung Kook

    2009-10-14

    Peptic ulcer disease is uncommon in children and rarely suspected as a cause of abdominal complaints in this age group; the diagnosis is therefore made almost exclusively when complications develop. Peptic ulcer disease is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients. We present the case of a 30-month-old boy with duodenal perforation due to a peptic ulcer without a known etiology. The patient was admitted through the emergency department due to severe hematochezia and ongoing anemia; he presented with neither abdominal pain nor abdominal distension. There were no medical problems, and no drugs, such as corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, had been prescribed or administered recently. We tried to control the active bleeding by medical treatment including arterial embolization, but the active bleeding was not controlled. Finally, an exploratory laparotomy was performed. A discrete anterior perforation with active bleeding of the duodenal wall was found. After the operation, there were no complications and the patient recovered fully.

  12. Production of Epigastric Pain in Duodenal Ulcer by Lower Oesophageal Acid Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, Richard J.

    1970-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with duodenal ulceration were divided into group 1 (30), who had epigastric pain, and group 2 (6), who had pain in the upper abdomen but not in the epigastrium, and were studied by perfusing the lower oesophagus with dilute acid in an attempt to reproduce epigastric pain. In group 1, 25 suffered epigastric pain, indistinguishable from that which they normally had, after perfusion of 30 ml. of 0·1N HC1 in under four minutes (mean values), but none of group 2 had pain. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5491256

  13. A comparison of unrefined wheat and rice diets in the management of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-one chronic duodenal ulcer patients in a rice-eating area were put on to an unrefined wheat diet and twenty-one continued on their previous rice diet. After 5 years only 14% of the first group had had relapses compared with 81% of the second group. A similar 5-year relapse rate (80%) was obtained in a group of thirty patients from another area with a more varied rice diet. The author attributes this difference to the increased mastication required by the unrefined wheat diet, which is associated with an increase in saliva, lower stomach acidity and reduced bile output. PMID:625462

  14. Differences in Surface-Exposed Antigen Expression between Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Duodenal Ulcer Patients and from Asymptomatic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Ann-Catrin E.; Hamlet, Annika; Çelik, Janet; Byström, Mona; Nyström, Susanne; Olbe, Lars; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed possible qualitative and quantitative differences in antigen expression between Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from the antrum and different locations in the duodenum of 21 duodenal ulcer (DU) patients and 20 asymptomatic subjects (AS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and inhibition ELISA. Almost all antral and duodenal strains grown in vitro expressed the N-acetyl-neuroaminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin, flagellins (subunits FlaA and FlaB), urease, a 26-kDa protein, and a neutrophil-activating protein. In 75% of both the DU patients and the AS, antral H. pylori strains expressed either the blood group antigen Lewis y (Ley) alone or together with the Lex antigen. However, duodenal H. pylori strains of DU patients expressed Ley antigen more frequently than corresponding strains of AS (P < 0.05). Presence of Ley on H. pylori was related to the degree of active duodenitis (P < 0.05). Duodenal H. pylori strains isolated from AS were significantly more often Lewis nontypeable than duodenal strains of DU patients (P < 0.01). Presence of H. pylori blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) was significantly higher on both antral and duodenal strains isolated from DU patients than on corresponding strains isolated from AS (P < 0.05). BabA-positive duodenal H. pylori strains isolated from DU patients were associated with active duodenitis more frequently than corresponding strains isolated from AS (P < 0.01). Infection with H. pylori strains positive for Ley and BabA in the duodenum is associated with development of duodenal ulcer formation. PMID:10970397

  15. The presence of dupA in Helicobacter pylori is not significantly associated with duodenal ulceration in Belgium, South Africa, China, or North America.

    PubMed

    Argent, Richard H; Burette, Alain; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y; Atherton, John C

    2007-11-01

    A previous study suggested that Helicobacter pylori strains possessing dupA are positively associated with duodenal ulceration and negatively associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. We determined the prevalence of dupA in H. pylori strains recovered from 4 independent populations and found a significant association with gastric cancer but not with duodenal ulceration.

  16. [Endorphin-containing cells in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zverkov, I V; Vinogradov, V A; Smagin, V G

    1983-10-01

    Immunohistochemical staining with the use of peroxidase-antiperoxidase was applied to study cells producing gamma- and alpha-endorphines in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer. The cells producing gamma-endorphines were discovered to be mainly located in the epithelium of the cervical and upper third of the pyloric glands and to be alike G-cells producing gastrin. The cells producing alpha-endorphine were found both in the epithelium of the upper third of the gastric pyloric glands and in the gastric mucosa lamina proper. In peptic ulcer, there was an almost two-fold increase in the amount of gamma-endorphine-producing cells and diminution of epithelial endocrine cells producing alpha-endorphine.

  17. A Non-invasive 24 Hours Stabilization of Duodenal Ulcer Perforation by a Combination Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Zil-E-Ali, Ahsan; Bin Shafique, Muhammad; Ali, Hammad; Ghani, Usman

    2016-01-01

    Surgical repair of perforated gastroduodenal ulcer has been extensively practiced in emergency clinical situations. Non-invasive conservation treatment is regaining the attention towards management of such ulcers. We report the case of a 50-year-old male smoker who presented in the emergency unit with acute generalized abdominal pain and guarding in the epigastric and right upper quadrant region. He is a known regular user of over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) for more than 10 years for his osteoarthiritis and myalgias. A differential diagnosis of gastritis and duodenal perforation was made owing to the symptoms and long usage of NSAIDs. He was managed with an intravenous proton pump inhibitor and intravenous antibiotics. This therapy lead to stabilization of the clinical symptoms as well as laboratory and imaging studies. PMID:28083452

  18. A review of the management of perforated duodenal ulcers at a tertiary hospital in south western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etonyeaku, A C; Agbakwuru, E A; Akinkuolie, A A; Omotola, C A; Talabi, A O; Onyia, C U; Kolawole, O A; Aladesuru, O A

    2013-12-01

    Gastro-duodenal perforations are common and may complicate peptic ulcer disease. Management is often by surgical closure. To determine the patterns of presentation and mode of management of duodenal ulcer perforations. Retrospective review of patients with duodenal ulcer perforations seen at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital between June 2001 and July 2011. Patients' records were reviewed for demography, duration of disease, probable risk factors, type of surgery and complications. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Forty- five patients were reviewed. There were 37 males (82.2%). Mean age was 39.7years (range 15-78years). There were 10 (22.6%) students and 8(17.8%) farmers. NSAIDs abuse (11), previous peptic ulcer disease (2), and no prior dyspeptic symptoms (20) constituted 24.4%, 4.4% and 44.4% respectively of cases. Seven (16%) patients presented less than 24 hours of onset of illness. Forty one perforations (91.1%) involved the first part of duodenum. Twenty two (49%) patients had Graham's omental patch. We had one (2.2%) failed repair and six (13.3%) mortalities. Late presentation of duodenal ulcer perforation is common with high mortality. Pragmatic surgical intervention with Graham's omentopexy with broad spectrum antibiotics is still commonly practiced.

  19. [Prospective study of 420 biopsies realised in patients with duodenal ulcer with positive Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Khayat, Olfa; Kilani, Afef; Chedly-Debbiche, Achraf; Zeddini, Abdelfattah; Gargouri, Dalila; Kharrat, Jamel; Souissi, Adnene; Ghorbel, Abdel Jabbar; Ben Ayed, Mohamed; Ben Khelifa, Habib

    2006-06-01

    It's a prospective study leaded between September 1997 and july 1999 (23 months ) in 75 patients with duodenal ulcer and positif for Helicobacter pylori. All patients had a first endoscopy with antral, fundic and duodenal biopsies, followed one month later by a second control fibroscopy with biopsies of the same sites. A total of 420 biopsies was realised. Chronic gastritis was evaluated according to sydney system. Patients was divided by randomisation in 4 groups. Every group was received a different therapeutic association. The results was conform to liberation concering activity 80%, intestinal metaplasia 12%. inflammation 100%. Atrophy was observed in 56% of cases, this percentage is variable in literature; chronic gastritis was predominant in antre relatively to fundus (p<0.005). After treatment, a significative fall of Helicobacter pylori and activity and atrophy was established, contrarity to intestinal metaplasia and chronic inflammation witch are persisted. The prevalence of follicular gastritis was 57%. The better rate of ulcer cicatrisation and Helicobacter pylori eradication was respectively of 79% and 66% in group 1 treated by omeprazol, amoxcillin, metronidazol by comparison with the others 3 groups (p<0.005).

  20. Optimal treatment for duodenal ulcer disease: a cost-decision analysis in Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, K L; Cutler, A; Chua, A B; Ding, R P; Kandasami, P; Mazlam, M Z; Raj, S M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the cost-efficiency of different duodenal ulcer disease treatment practices in Malaysia. Six Malaysian gastroenterologists met to discuss the direct costs related to Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication treatment. Five treatment strategies were compared: (i) histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA), acid suppression therapy for 6 weeks followed by maintenance therapy as needed; (ii) bismuth triple + proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth (120 mg, q.i.d.), metronidazole (400 mg; t.i.d.), tetracycline (500 mg, q.i.d.) for 7 days and PPI, b.i.d., for 7 days; (iii) OAC, omeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.), amoxycillin (1000 mg, b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days; (iv) OMC, omeprazole (20mg, b.i.d.), metronidazole (400mg, b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days; and (v) OAM, omeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.), amoxycillin (1000 mg, b.i.d.) and metronidazole (400 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days. A decision tree model was created to determine which therapy would be the most cost-effective. The model considered eradication rates, resistance to anti-microbial agents, compliance and cost implications of treatment regimens, physician visits and ulcer recurrences during a 1 year time period assumption. The H2RA maintenance therapy was the most expensive treatment at Malaysian Ringgit (MR) 2335, followed by bismuth triple therapy (MR 1839), OMC (MR 1786), OAM (MR 1775) and OAC, being the most cost-effective therapy, at MR 1679. In conclusion, HP eradication therapy is superior to H2RA maintenance therapy in the treatment of duodenal ulcer disease. Of the HP eradication regimens, OAC is the most cost-effective.

  1. Omeprazole-amoxycillin therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer bleeding: preliminary results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jaspersen, D; Körner, T; Schorr, W; Brennenstuhl, M; Hammar, C H

    1995-06-01

    Thirty-five patients with duodenal ulcer bleeding and Helicobacter pylori-colonization were assigned to receive 2 x 20 mg omeprazole and 3 x 750 mg amoxycillin daily for 2 weeks. Eradication was defined as no evidence of H. pylori infection by urease test and by histology 4 weeks after completion of therapy. Two patients were lost to follow up. All ulcers healed completely (100% ulcer healing rate). Twenty-nine out of the 33 patients were H. pylori-negative (87.9% eradication rate). Three patients complained of typical side effects of amoxycillin (9.1% side effect rate). The patients were prospectively followed for 12 months. After ulcer healing, no maintenance therapy was given. One of the 29 patients in whom H. pylori eradication had been successful suffered a second ulcer hemorrhage with H. pylori reinfection (3.4% relapse rate of ulcer bleeding), and this was managed endoscopically. Recurrent ulcer hemorrhage occurred in 2 out of 4 H. pylori-resistant patients. At the end of the follow-up period, of the patients in whom H. pylori eradication had been initially successful, only the patient with re-bleeding remained reinfected. The 4 H. pylori-resistant patients showed persistent H. pylori colonization. In conclusion, omeprazole plus amoxycillin is a safe and effective treatment for eradicating H. pylori; this treatment reduces the relapse rate of duodenal ulcer bleeding.

  2. Management of duodenal ulcer bleeding resistant to endoscopy: Surgery is dead!

    PubMed Central

    Loffroy, Romaric

    2013-01-01

    Acute massive duodenal bleeding is one of the most frequent complications of peptic ulcer disease. Endoscopy is the first-line method for diagnosing and treating actively bleeding peptic ulcers because its success rate is high. Of the small group of patients whose bleeding fails to respond to endoscopic therapy, increasingly the majority is referred for embolotherapy. Indeed, advances in catheter-based techniques and newer embolic agents, as well as recognition of the effectiveness of minimally invasive treatment options, have expanded the role of interventional radiology in the management of hemorrhage from peptic ulcers over the past decade. Embolization may be effective for even the most gravely ill patients for whom surgery is not a viable option, even when extravasation is not visualized by angiography. However, it seems that careful selection of the embolic agents according to the bleeding vessel may play a role in a successful outcome. The role of the surgeon in this clinical sphere is dramatically diminishing and will certainly continue to diminish in ensuing years, surgery being typically reserved for patients whose bleeding failed to respond all previous treatments. Such a setting has become extremely rare. PMID:23467545

  3. Helicobacter pylori from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer show same phylogeographic origin in the Andean region in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuo, Yuichi; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tran, Trang Thu Huyen; Binh, Tran Thanh; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A recent report has shown that the phylogenetic origin of Helicobacter pylori based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was significantly associated with the severity of gastritis in Colombia. However, the potential relationship between phylogenetic origin and clinical outcomes was not examined in that study. If the phylogenetic origin rather than virulence factors were truly associated with clinical outcomes, identifying a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Colombia would be relatively straightforward. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia. We included 35 gastric cancer patients and 31 duodenal ulcer patients, which are considered the variant outcomes. The genotypes of cagA and vacA were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The genealogy of these Colombian strains was analyzed by MLST. Bacterial population structure was analyzed using STRUCTURE software. H. pylori strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients were scattered in the phylogenetic tree; thus, we did not detect any difference in phylogenetic distribution between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer strains in the hpEurope group in Colombia. Sixty-six strains, with one exception, were classified as hpEurope irrespective of the cagA and vacA genotypes, and type of disease. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that Colombian hpEurope strains have a phylogenetic connection to Spanish strains. Our study showed that a phylogeographic origin determined by MLST was insufficient for distinguishing between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer risk among hpEurope strains in the Andean region in Colombia. Our analysis also suggests that hpEurope strains in Colombia were primarily introduced by Spanish immigrants.

  4. homB status of Helicobacter pylori as a novel marker to distinguish gastric cancer from duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Woo; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2009-10-01

    The hom family of Helicobacter pylori outer-membrane proteins, especially the homB gene, has been suggested as a novel virulence factor; however, the clinical association and function of this gene are still unclear. We evaluated the presence of the homA, homB, and cagA genes in 286 strains isolated from patients in the U.S. and Colombian populations (126 with gastritis, 96 with duodenal ulcer, and 64 with gastric cancer) by PCR. The results were compared with the clinical presentation and gastric injury. The prevalence of the homB gene was significantly higher in strains isolated from gastric-cancer patients (71.9%) than in those from duodenal ulcer patients (52.1%) (P = 0.012). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of the cagA gene significantly increased the risk for developing gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer, with the presence of the homB gene acting as a factor that could distinguish gastric cancer from duodenal ulcer (adjusted odds ratio, 3.033; 95% confidence interval, approximately 1.37 to approximately 6.73). cagA status was correlated with homB status (r = 0.323; P < 0.01). A histological analysis showed that cagA status was associated with inflammation and atrophy both in the antrum and in the corpus, while homB status was associated with inflammation and atrophy in the corpus. homB gene status might be susceptible to gastric-cancer development such that the homB gene is used as a factor for discriminating the risk of gastric cancer from that of duodenal ulcer.

  5. Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) versus two different dosages of cimetidine in the treatment of resistant duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Porro, G B; Parente, F; Lazzaroni, M

    1987-01-01

    The use of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) has been suggested recently for cimetidine resistant duodenal ulcers. This study compares the efficacy of TDB with two different cimetidine dosages in the treatment of duodenal ulcer patients who failed to respond to an eight week therapy with H2-blockers. Fifty two patients (40 men, 12 women) were randomly allocated to one of the following three oral regimens: (1) TDB 120 mg quid, (2) cimetidine 400 mg tid, (3) cimetidine 400 mg with meals plus 800 mg at bedtime. Endoscopy was carried out after four weeks; if the ulcer had not healed patients continued with the same treatment for a further four week period when they were endoscopically reassessed. After four weeks similar percentages of ulcer healing were registered in the two cimetidine schedules (39% with 1.2 g and 44% with 2 g), whereas TDB resulted in a significantly higher healing rate (82%) compared with cimetidine 1.2 g (p = 0.01) and with cimetidine 2 g (p = 0.025). After eight weeks the cumulative percentages of healing were 65% on cimetidine 1.2 g, 75% on cimetidine 2 g, and 94% on TDB (TDB v cimetidine 1.2 p = 0.042). These results confirm previous data that resistant duodenal ulcers are more responsive to an agent which strengthens the mucosal defences than to antisecretory compounds. PMID:3308650

  6. Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) versus two different dosages of cimetidine in the treatment of resistant duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Bianchi Porro, G; Parente, F; Lazzaroni, M

    1987-07-01

    The use of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) has been suggested recently for cimetidine resistant duodenal ulcers. This study compares the efficacy of TDB with two different cimetidine dosages in the treatment of duodenal ulcer patients who failed to respond to an eight week therapy with H2-blockers. Fifty two patients (40 men, 12 women) were randomly allocated to one of the following three oral regimens: (1) TDB 120 mg quid, (2) cimetidine 400 mg tid, (3) cimetidine 400 mg with meals plus 800 mg at bedtime. Endoscopy was carried out after four weeks; if the ulcer had not healed patients continued with the same treatment for a further four week period when they were endoscopically reassessed. After four weeks similar percentages of ulcer healing were registered in the two cimetidine schedules (39% with 1.2 g and 44% with 2 g), whereas TDB resulted in a significantly higher healing rate (82%) compared with cimetidine 1.2 g (p = 0.01) and with cimetidine 2 g (p = 0.025). After eight weeks the cumulative percentages of healing were 65% on cimetidine 1.2 g, 75% on cimetidine 2 g, and 94% on TDB (TDB v cimetidine 1.2 p = 0.042). These results confirm previous data that resistant duodenal ulcers are more responsive to an agent which strengthens the mucosal defences than to antisecretory compounds.

  7. [Short-term effects of cimetidine in patients with bleeding duodenal ulcer. Presentation of cases].

    PubMed

    Uggeri, G; Monti, G; Rumi, A; Testone, G

    1983-10-01

    The authors here present a work dealing pith two groups of subjects, both groups having the diagnose of bleeding duodenal ulcer; one group using therapy antacid alone, the other using cimetidine and antacid. This last is more affected in controlling bleeding then just using antacids alone. Moreover the use of cimetidine reduces the period of bleeding, increases the number of subject who stop bleeding and reduces the amount of blood transfused in these subjects. We are also convenced that the use of cimetidine even prolong in time, does not protect these subjects from having other relapse. Therefore propose the Billroth II and from own experience this is a good therapy to prevent other bleeding.

  8. Gastric emptying for solids in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after highly selective vagotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mistiaen, W.; Van Hee, R.; Blockx, P.; Hubens, A. )

    1990-03-01

    In a series of 31 duodenal ulcer patients (23 males and 8 females), who underwent a highly selective vagotomy, gastric emptying characteristics of a solid meal, labeled with (99mTc)stannous colloid, were assessed before, two weeks and six months after operation. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy and x-ray; failure of treatment with H2 antagonists or antacids during 1-18 (mean 5) years was the direct indication for operative treatment. A temporary delay in gastric emptying is noted two weeks after operation (T1/2: 124 vs 57 min). After six months, gastric emptying time has practically normalized. It appears that this is the result of the preservation of the antropyloric vagal nerve supply. In these patients, a 10% recurrence rate is noted, comparable to the results in the literature. Highly selective vagotomy proves to be a safe and effective procedure with few side effects. It does not impair gastric motility.

  9. [Oxidative stress in mechanism of psychosomatic disorders realization in duodenal ulcer in students].

    PubMed

    Oparin, A G; Oparin, A A

    2005-01-01

    To study the role of oxidative stress in mechanism of psychosomatic disorders involvement in pathogenesis of ulcerogenesis. Psychosomatic disorders (PSD) and oxidative stress (OS) were assessed in 120 students with duodenal ulcer (DU) who had no concomitant pathology. Examination for PSD included interviewing by questionnaires. OS was judged by the level of lipid peroxidation products (malonic dialdehyde and dienic conjugates) and antioxidant activity--by glutathion peroxidase and superoxidedismutase. Melatonin was measured by enzyme immunoassay. A close correlation was discovered between the severity and features of PSD, lowering of melatonin, severity of OS and clinical features of the disease. DU students develop PSD which become leading factors of ulcerogenesis. One of the mechanisms of their participation in ulcerogenesis may be related with lowering of melatonin which is a potent stress regulator and corrector of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity.

  10. [Prevalence and treatment of Helicobacter pylori in gastro-duodenal ulcers. An experience in Liege].

    PubMed

    Lutgen, N; Delforge, M; Bastens, B; Demoulin, J C; Fontaine, F; Gillard, V; Gerard, A

    2001-01-01

    Between April 1998 and July 1999, we prospectively investigated 152 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer and we observed concomitant H. pylori infection in 72.8% and 78.5% respectively. We proposed to the GPs of these patients the recommended triple therapy (omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 g and clarithromycin 500 mg (OAC) twice daily for 7 or 10 days). H. pylori eradication was tested using the C13-urea breath test. Our results showed a modest overall eradication rate of about 70%. We have to persuade the patients and the GPs of the benefit of antibiotics and of the importance of the correct dosages. We have to continue to follow the resistance against antibiotics.

  11. Are duodenal ulcer seasonal fluctuations paralleled by seasonal changes in 24-hour gastric acidity and Helicobacter pylori infection?

    PubMed

    Savarino, V; Mela, G S; Zentilin, P; Lapertosa, G; Cutela, P; Mele, M R; Mansi, C; Dallorto, E; Vassallo, A; Celle, G

    1996-04-01

    The occurrence of duodenal ulcer is characterized by seasonal variation, for poorly understood reasons. No previous study has assessed whether 24-h intragastric acidity and Helicobacter pylori infection have similar seasonal fluctuations in patients with this disorder. For this reason, we evaluated retrospectively the circadian gastric pH in 319 new patients (226 men and 93 women, mean age 45.2 years) with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer, who agreed to undergo this examination during the years 1987-1992 in our center. The month-by-month occurrence of the disease over the global 6-year period was assessed, and the mean pH values were calculated for each patient during three time intervals of interest: 24 h, daytime (08:00-19:59 h), and nighttime (20:00-07:59 h). The mean pH values of these three time periods were then calculated month by month throughout the annual cycle. H. pylori infection was sought by histology in 171 patients examined in the period from 1990 to 1992. The percentage of H. pylori-positive duodenal ulcer patients was then calculated for each season. The calendar fluctuation of duodenal ulcer occurrence showed an evident increase (p < 0.001) in fall (October-December) and in winter (January-March) compared with spring (April-June) and summer (July-September). Both 24-h and nighttime gastric acidity showed no significant variation by month, whereas daytime gastric pH varied significantly (p < 0.05) with two evident decreases, meaning higher acidity, in April and August. H. pylori infection was detected in 152 of 171 patients (89%), and the percentage of H. pylori-positive duodenal ulcers did not differ from season to season. We conclude that there was no parallel circannual fluctuation of duodenal ulcer, gastric acidity, and H. pylori infection in the restricted sample of patients we studied. This reduces the apparent relevance of acid in inducing ulcer seasonal fluctuation. Also, the responsibility of H. pylori in this phenomenon can be

  12. Eight-year experience with 3392 endoscopically proven duodenal ulcers in Durban, 1972-79. Rise and fall of duodenal ulcers and a theory of changing dietary and social factors.

    PubMed Central

    Moshal, M G; Spitaels, J M; Robbs, J V; MacLeod, I N; Good, C J

    1981-01-01

    From 1972 to 1979, a total of 3392 patients with endoscopically proven ulcers were seen, in six ethnic groups. The distribution was as follows: Africans 456 males, 182 females; Muslim Gujerati Indians 206 males, 60 females; Hindu Hindi 433 males; total North Indians 639 males, 195 females; Hindu Tamils 593 males, 184 females; Hindu Telegu 179 males, 46 females; total South Indians 872 males, 230 females, and Whites 465 males, 303 females. In the continent of India, it is predominantly the South Indians who suffer from duodenal ulcer. In Durban, the number of North Indians with duodenal ulcers approximates that of those from the South (North: South ratio 0.83). The first question raised by this study is that the protective factors in North Indians in India are not genetic, and are lost when they emigrate to Natal. This may be due to changes in diet. A seasonal analysis indicates that, for females, there is a striking Autumn and Winter predominance in all Indian groups, reaching 80% in Muslims and Telegus but not in African females (52.7%). The second question raised by this study is that protective factors must be sought which operate in Indian females in the Spring and Summer months. The third question emanating from this study is that duodenal ulcers (and ischaemic heart disease) appear to increase in times of dietary and social change. This occurred in the West from 1890 to 1960, and is still occurring in the Third World. The restoration of dietary fibre and unsaturated fat, and the possible adjustment to stress in the West since 1960, has been accompanied by a fall in the incidence of these diseases. A 'changing factors' theory of duodenal ulcers and ischaemic heart disease is proposed. These conditions fall when a 'plateau situation' is reached. PMID:7239324

  13. Early elective surgery for bleeding ulcer in the posterior duodenal bulb. Own results and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mönig, Stefan P; Lübke, Thomas; Baldus, Stefan E; Schäfer, Hartmuth; Hölscher, Arnulf H

    2002-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding represents the major, potentially life-threatening complication of gastroduodenal ulcer disease with an average mortality of 10%. To decrease mortality a risk-dependent combined endoscopic and operative approach for the treatment of bleeding ulcer in the posterior duodenal wall was developed. Between 1998 and 2000 in our hospital a total of 22 patients with bleeding posterior duodenal bulb ulcer were treated following a differentiated endoscopic-surgical concept. High-risk patients with high bleeding activity (n = 8) underwent early elective surgery after primary endoscopic treatment of the bleeding and stabilization of the patient in an intensive care unit. The management of patients presenting a low-risk profile (n = 14) included careful surveillance and a consecutive second endoscopy 24 hours after the initial endoscopy. Patients that underwent surgery showed more severe secondary diseases than patients of the endoscopic group. Hemoglobin concentration in patients requiring surgery was significantly lower, they showed a higher incidence of hypovolemic shock and received more blood transfusions within the first 24 hours. Mortality was 0% in both groups, a relevant rebleeding occurred in one patient after endoscopic therapy, which was successfully treated by reendoscopy with fibrin injection. Due to these results as well as results of other groups we recommend early elective surgery in high-risk patients with bleeding duodenal bulb ulcer after primary endoscopic treatment of the bleeding.

  14. Long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric metaplasia in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kim, N; Lim, S H; Lee, K H; Choi, S E

    1998-10-01

    There have been conflicting reports on the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb (DGM). In the present study, we have investigated the relationships between DGM and H. pylori by examining whether or not H. pylori-positive patients had more DGM than H. pylori-negative patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) or duodenal ulcer (DU), and by examining the effect of eradication of H. pylori on the prevalence and the extent of DGM during the long-term up to 4 years. Fifty H. pylori-positive and seven H. pylori-negative patients with DU and 23 H. pylori-positive and 23 H. pylori-negative NUD subjects were studied. Two duodenal bulb biopsy specimens were taken for histologic evaluation and the presence and the extent of DGM were evaluated. The extent of DGM was classified as none (grade 0), focal (grade 1), multifocal (grade 2), and diffuse type (grade 4). In H. pylori-positive patients with DU, follow-up gastroscopy was conducted 4 weeks, 1 year, and 4 years after H. pylori eradication. DGM was significantly (p < 0.001) more common (DU: 93%, NUD: 22%) and significantly (p < 0.001) greater in extent for patients with DU than for NUD subjects (DU: 1.89, NUD: 0.28). Neither the prevalence nor the extent of DGM was affected by H. pylori status in patients with DU or NUD; the prevalence (extent) of DGM of H. pylori-positive and -negative patients with DU were 96% (1.94) and 71% (1.57), respectively. In the 43 "H. pylori-eradicated" group, initial prevalence of DGM was 95% and those of 4 weeks, 1 year, and 4 years after eradication were 91%, 96%, and 79%, respectively. The initial extent of DGM was 1.93, and those of 4 weeks, 1 year, and 4 years after eradication were 1.90, 1.88, and 1.57, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence and the extent of DGM were not related to H. pylori in patients with DU or NUD. In addition, the prevalence and the extent of DGM did not change until 1 year after H. pylori eradication in patients with

  15. Successful Endoscopic Management of Non-Healing Perforated Duodenal Ulcer with Polyglycolic Acid Sheet and Fibrin Glue

    PubMed Central

    Shibagaki, Kotaro; Matsuda, Kayo; Fukuyama, Chika; Okada, Mayumi; Mikami, Hironobu; Izumi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Noritsugu; Okimoto, Eiko; Fukuda, Naoki; Aimi, Masahito; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Oshima, Naoki; Takanashi, Toshihiro; Matsubara, Takeshi; Ishimura, Norihisa; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, treatment techniques in which polyglycolic acid sheets are applied to various situations with fibrin glue have exhibited great clinical potential, and previous studies have reported safety and efficacy. We describe closure of a non-healing perforated duodenal ulcer with the use of a polyglycolic acid sheet and fibrin glue in an elderly patient who was not a candidate for surgery. PMID:28119948

  16. Comparison of intraduodenal and intravenous administration of amino acids on gastric secretion in healthy subjects and patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Kwiecień, N; Obtułowicz, W; Mikoś, E; Sito, E; Oleksy, J

    1978-01-01

    The ability of an amino acid mixture given intraduodenally or intravenously to stimulate gastric secretion is compared in healthy subjects and in duodenal ulcer patients. Graded amounts of amino acids by both routes produced a similar increase in acid output in healthy subjects, reaching about 30% of the maximal response to pentagastrin. Serum gastrin concentrations remained virtually unchanged but serum alpha amino acid nitrogen levels were about twice as high with intravenous as with intraduodenal administration. Intravenously administered amino acids produced a significantly higher acid output in patients with duodenal ulcer than in healthy subjects, but did not produce a significant increase in gastric acid or pepsin secretion when combined with a pentagastrin infusion as compared with pentagastrin alone. Cimetidine (2 mg/kg/h) added to intravenous amino acid infusions caused almost complete suppression of acid secretion. This study indicates that amino acids are capable of stimulating gastric secretion after intraduodenal and after intravenous administration. The response to the latter is significantly higher in patients with duodenal ulcer than in healthy subjects, does not appear to involve gastrin release, is not affected by pentagastrin, and is strongly suppressed by histamine H2-blocker. PMID:361509

  17. Comparison of rabeprazole 20 mg versus omeprazole 20 mg in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer: a European multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, C P; Beker, J A; Thjodleifsson, B; Gabryelewicz, A; Bell, N E; Humphries, T J

    1999-02-01

    Rabeprazole sodium is the newest member of a class of substituted benzimidazole molecules known as proton pump inhibitors. Other proton pump inhibitors have been shown to be effective in healing active duodenal ulcer. This randomized, double-blind, multicentre study, conducted at 25 European sites, compared the efficacy and tolerability of rabeprazole and omeprazole in patients with active duodenal ulcers. One hundred and two patients with active duodenal ulcer received rabeprazole 20 mg and 103 patients omeprazole 20 mg once daily for 2 or 4 weeks, with ulcer healing monitored by endoscopy. After 2 weeks, complete ulcer healing was documented in 69% of patients given rabeprazole 20 mg and in 62% of patients given omeprazole 20 mg (N.S.). After 4 weeks, healing rates were 98% in the rabeprazole group and 93% in the omeprazole group (P = 0.083). Rabeprazole-treated patients had significantly greater improvement in daytime pain symptom relief than those treated with omeprazole at the conclusion of the study (P = 0.038). Both drugs were well tolerated over the 4-week treatment period. Mean changes from baseline to end-point in fasting serum gastrin were significantly greater in the rabeprazole group, but at end-point mean values were well within normal limits for both groups. No clinically meaningful changes or other between-group differences were observed in laboratory parameters. In this study, rabeprazole produced healing rates equivalent to omeprazole at weeks 2 and 4, and provided significantly greater improvement in daytime pain. Both treatments were well tolerated.

  18. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Patients with Duodenal Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhou, Xiaoying; Xiao, Shuping; Ye, Feng; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports have indicated that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) might have an effect on gastrointestinal flora; moreover, gastric commensual bacteria have been observed in the development of duodenal ulcer (DU). In our study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on gastrointestinal flora in DU patients. A case-control study was performed at Jiangsu Shengze Hospital between December, 2013 and April, 2014. The patients received antibiotic eradication therapy if H. pylori testing was positive. At least four weeks after cessation of the eradication therapy, a repeat gastroscopy was performed to collect biopsies again in the same position. Gastric mucosa samples and feces specimens were collected to extract bacteria DNA and then to quantify by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After the eradication of H. pylori, an increase of Lactobacillus group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Enterobacteria and a decrease of Clostridium coccoides subgroup were found in the antrum. In the corpus, the number of bacteria in the Lactobacillus group was increased and the expression of Clostridium coccoides subgroup was significantly down-regulated. In the feces samples, only the number in the Lactobacillus group was increased. Moreover, the distribution was significantly different between female and the male patients. The presence of H. pylori in the stomach suppressed the colonization with Lactobacillus group, Clostridium leptum subgroup and Enterobacteria. Gender might affect the distribution and/or recolonization of the bacteria in DU patients.

  19. Intracerebral adrenoceptor agonists influence rat duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion.

    PubMed

    Larson, G M; Jedstedt, G; Nylander, O; Flemström, G

    1996-11-01

    We have studied the effects of intracerebral administration of selective alpha-adrenergic agonists on duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Duodenum free of Brunner's glands was cannulated in situ in anesthetized rats, and bicarbonate secretion into the luminal reperfusate was continuously titrated by pH stat. Infusion of the alpha 1-selective adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine (1,000-2,500 micrograms.kg-1.h-1), into a lateral brain ventricle increased (P < 0.01) duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha 1-antagonist, significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the stimulatory effect when infused into the lateral ventricle (30 micrograms.kg-1.h-1), but not when administered intravenously (1,000 micrograms.kg-1.h-1). Hexamethonium (10 mg.kg-1.h-1 iv) abolished stimulation, whereas cervical vagotomy, epidural blockade, and naloxone were each without effect. Vasopressin, vasopressin antagonists, ts, and oxytocin did not affect basal secretion. Intracerebro-ventricular administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine (1,000 micrograms.kg-1.h-1), in contrast to alpha 1-receptor activation, decreased (P < 0.01) the secretion. Thus central nervous adrenoceptors influence duodenal mucosal bicarbonate te secretion, and alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation may provide protection against luminal acid. This potent stimulation was not mediated by the vagal nerves, spinal cord pathways, or the release of beta-endorphin but involves nicotinic, possibly enteric nervous transmission.

  20. Octatropine-methyl-bromide and sulglycotide salt in the short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer. A double blind endoscopic study of 40 outpatients.

    PubMed

    Dobrilla, G; Valentini, M; Bonoldi, M C; Piazzi, L

    1989-01-01

    Forty outpatients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcers were entered in a double blind trial. They were randomly allocated to octatropine-methyl-bromide and sulglycotide salt (GVP) or placebo. The results show that the combination of the two drugs is less efficacious than the two constituent substances taken separately, is not more efficacious than placebo in ulcer healing, and is ineffective with regard to ulcer pain.

  1. Deep-Sea Water Containing Selenium Provides Intestinal Protection against Duodenal Ulcers through the Upregulation of Bcl-2 and Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Lin, Yi-Ruu; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea water (DSW), which is rich in micronutrients and minerals and with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, may be developed as marine drugs to provide intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers. We determined several characteristics in the modified DSW. We explored duodenal pressure, oxygenation, microvascular blood flow, and changes in pH and oxidative redox potential (ORP) values within the stomach and duodenum in response to tap water (TW, hardness: 2.48 ppm), DSW600 (hardness: 600 ppm), and DSW1200 (hardness: 1200 ppm) in Wistar rats and analyzed oxidative stress and apoptosis gene expressions by cDNA and RNA microarrays in the duodenal epithelium. We compared the effects of drinking DSW, MgCl2, and selenium water on duodenal ulcers using pathologic scoring, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting. Our results showed DSW has a higher pH value, lower ORP value, higher scavenging H2O2 and HOCl activity, higher Mg2+ concentrations, and micronutrients selenium compared with TW samples. Water infusion significantly increased intestinal pressure, O2 levels, and microvascular blood flow in DSW and TW groups. Microarray showed DSW600, DSW1200, selenium water upregulated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic genes and downregulated pro-apoptotic gene expression compared with the TW group. Drinking DSW600, DSW1200, and selenium water but not Mg2+ water significantly enhanced Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1 expression. Bax/Bcl-2/caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase signaling was activated during the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. DSW drinking reduced ulcer area as well as apoptotic signaling in acetic acid-induced duodenal ulcers. DSW, which contains selenium, provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1. PMID:24984066

  2. Deep-sea water containing selenium provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Lin, Yi-Ruu; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea water (DSW), which is rich in micronutrients and minerals and with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, may be developed as marine drugs to provide intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers. We determined several characteristics in the modified DSW. We explored duodenal pressure, oxygenation, microvascular blood flow, and changes in pH and oxidative redox potential (ORP) values within the stomach and duodenum in response to tap water (TW, hardness: 2.48 ppm), DSW600 (hardness: 600 ppm), and DSW1200 (hardness: 1200 ppm) in Wistar rats and analyzed oxidative stress and apoptosis gene expressions by cDNA and RNA microarrays in the duodenal epithelium. We compared the effects of drinking DSW, MgCl2, and selenium water on duodenal ulcers using pathologic scoring, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting. Our results showed DSW has a higher pH value, lower ORP value, higher scavenging H2O2 and HOCl activity, higher Mg2+ concentrations, and micronutrients selenium compared with TW samples. Water infusion significantly increased intestinal pressure, O2 levels, and microvascular blood flow in DSW and TW groups. Microarray showed DSW600, DSW1200, selenium water upregulated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic genes and downregulated pro-apoptotic gene expression compared with the TW group. Drinking DSW600, DSW1200, and selenium water but not Mg2+ water significantly enhanced Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1 expression. Bax/Bcl-2/caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase signaling was activated during the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. DSW drinking reduced ulcer area as well as apoptotic signaling in acetic acid-induced duodenal ulcers. DSW, which contains selenium, provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1.

  3. The Effect of Eradication of Helicobacter pylori upon the Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Young; Oh, Hyun Sook; Jung, Hyung Man; Wee, Sung Ho; Choi, Jeong Heui; Lee, Kye Heui

    1994-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) in the patients with duodenal ulcer(Du) upon the DU recurrence. Methods This study was performed for 190 patients with DU. Four different methods-microscopy of Gram stained mucosal smear, specific culture, biopsy urease test, histology of H&E staining-were taken for identifying colonization of H. pylori before treatment, and for finding the eradication of H. pylori 4 weeks after completion of therapy in each treatment group (cometidine, omeprazole, colloidal bismuth subcitrate(CBS), CBS and metronidazole double therapy, CBS. metronidazole and amoxicillin triple therapy). To detect DU recurrence, the gastroscopy was performed at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after therapy. Results The eradication rate of the cimetidine group, the omeprazole group, and the CBS group were 0%, 7.7%, 0%, respectively, and that of the double therapy group and the triple therapy group were 44.4% and 89.3%, respectively. Seventy three patients who were followed up for 2 years were categorized into two groups according to the eradication of H. pylori. The recurrence rate was 3.2% both in 1 year and 2 years later in the former group-one consisting of 31 patients with H. pylori eradicated, while the recurrence rate was 57.1% in 1 year and 78.6% in 2 years later, in the latter group-the other of 42 patients with H. pylori not eradicated. Conclusion The eradication of H. pylori in patients with DU reduces the recurrence of DU. PMID:7865492

  4. Biochemical changes in tissue catecholamines and serotonin in duodenal ulceration caused by cysteamine or propionitrile in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Horner, H.C.; Maull, H.; Schnoor, J.; Chiueh, C.C.; Palkovits, M.

    1987-03-01

    Previous structure-activity and pharmacologic studies with duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile implicating catecholamines in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration have now been followed up by dose- and time-response biochemical investigations to assess the importance of monoamines in the development of duodenal ulcers. The concentrations of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in total brain, brain regions, stomach, duodenum, pancreas and adrenals in the rat. Turnover of catecholamines was determined in rats pretreated with the inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The duodenal ulcerogens caused a dose- and time-dependent depletion of norepinephrine in virtually all the tissues examined. The effect was maximal 4 or 7 hr after cysteamine or propionitrile, and norepinephrine levels returned to normal in 24 hr. Dopamine changes were selective and often biphasic, e.g., elevation in adrenals, biphasic in brain cortex, hippocampus and midbrain, but uniformly decreasing in glandular stomach and duodenum. In the median eminence dopamine levels decreased by 181 and 324% at 15 and 30 min, respectively, after cysteamine, but neither dopamine nor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was modified in the periventricular nucleus. Serotonin levels were relatively stable, revealing slight elevations or no changes in most of the tissues. The turnover of norepinephrine was accelerated by both chemicals in virtually all brain regions, but dopamine turnover was affected only in a few areas, e.g., in the corpus striatum and medulla oblongata cysteamine decreased dopamine turnover, whereas propionitrile first (at 1 hr) accelerated then (at 8 hr) significantly suppressed it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The safety and efficacy of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (De-Nol) maintenance therapy in patients with duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Dunk, A A; Prabhu, U; Tobin, A; O'Morain, C; Mowat, N A

    1990-04-01

    Seventy-one patients whose duodenal ulcers had healed after a 4-week treatment period with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) were randomly allocated to receive maintenance treatment with either one TDB swallow tablet nocte (equivalent to 120 mg Bi2O3) or an identical placebo. During 12 months of follow-up, no side-effects were reported by TDB-treated patients, blood bismuth levels did not rise above discontinuation threshold concentrations (greater than 50 micrograms/L in the first 6 months, or greater than 100 micrograms/L in the second 6 months), and there were no adverse effects on haematological or biochemical indices. Ulcer relapse was significantly less in TDB-treated patients (P less than 0.025). Cumulative relapse rates at 6 and 12 months were 51% and 66%, respectively, for placebo-treated patients and 26% and 31%, respectively, for those who received TDB. It is likely that TDB is a safe and effective maintenance treatment for patients with duodenal ulcer disease.

  6. Antiulcer activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall. against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Saranya, P; Geetha, A

    2011-07-01

    Antiulcer activity of Andrographis paniculata was evaluated by cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pre-administered with 200 mg/kg body wt. of hydroalcoholic extact of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) orally, for 30 days prior to i.p. administration of 420 mg/kg body wt. of cysteamine as a single dose. Rats preadministered with 30 mg/kg body wt. of ranitidine served as standard drug. Ulcer index, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, mucin, glutathione peroxidase and myeloperoxidase activities, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, glycoproteins and membrane bound enzyme activities were measured in duodenum of experimental animals. The ulcer score and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly minimized in rats treated with HAEAP. Mucin content was found to be preserved in rats treated with the extract. GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione peroxidase activities were found to be maintained by the HAEAP. Level of lipid peroxidation products was found to be significantly low in HAEAP treated rats compared to ulcer control rats. The basolateral and brush border membrane bound enzyme activities which were depleted significantly in ulcer control rats were found to be maintained in rats pre-treated with the extract. The ulcer preventing effect was comparable to that of ranitidine treated rats. Level of glycoproteins was also found to be preserved in rats treated with the extract. The normal rats treated with the HAEAP did not show any abnormal alterations in the parameters studied. Histopathological observations also showed the ulcer preventing effect of the HAEAP. It is suggested that the ulcer preventing effect may be due to its mucin preserving and antioxidant nature.

  7. Increasing gastric juice pH level prior to anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy may be beneficial to the healing of duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong-Yun; Wang, Juan; Yan, Guo-Chao; Huo, Xiao-Hui; Mu, Li-Juan; Chu, Jian-Kun; Niu, Wei-Wei; Duan, Zhi-Ying; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhi-Yu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the efficacy of clarithromycin-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-infected duodenal ulcer when combined with different pH levels of gastric juices. A total of 160 patients with Hp-infected duodenal ulcers were randomly allocated into two groups. Patients in the treatment group (n=80) were administered a 20-mg dose of omeprazole twice daily for 1 week and then the treatment and control groups (n=80) received therapy for Hp infection and duodenal ulcers. We observed the ulcer healing stage, the content of anti-Hp IgA in gastric juice and the Hp eradication rate before and after proton pump inhibitor therapy in the two groups. Results revealed that the Hp eradication rate in the treatment group was 93% compared with 81% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The ulcer healing rate in the treatment group was 93%, compared with 70% in the control group (P<0.05). A positive linear correlation was observed between gastric pH and the content of anti-Hp IgA in gastric juice (P<0.05). Increasing gastric pH prior to anti-Hp therapy may be beneficial to the eradication of Hp and for promoting the healing of duodenal ulcers.

  8. Effect of antisecretory agents and vagotomy on healing of chronic cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, S.S.; Raaberg, L.; Therkelsen, K.; Skov Olsen, P.; Kirkegaard, P.

    1986-07-01

    Penetrated cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats have a very prolonged course of healing. In this study, it was investigated how much the healing of these ulcers is accelerated by some treatments. The treatments included omeprazole, cimetidine, and truncal vagotomy. In addition, the effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on gastric acid secretion was investigated in chronic gastric fistula rats. After 25 days of treatment, significantly more rats in the treated groups had healed ulcers than in the control group. There was little further improvement up to 100 days of treatment, and the difference between treated and untreated groups decreased. The morphology of healing ulcers in treated and untreated rats was also compared. In controls, there was a simultaneous regeneration of mucosa and the submucosal Brunner's glands from the edges of the ulcer, the slow proliferation rate of the latter probably being decisive for the prolonged healing. In the treated rats, the mucosa first regenerated with formation of crypts and low villi and subsequently, the Brunner's glands were formed by proliferation from the bottom of the crypts.

  9. Attenuation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer with Cochinchina momordica seed extract through inhibiting cytoplasmic phospholipase A2/5-lipoxygenase and activating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hong, Hua; Ock, Chan Young; Lee, Jeong Sang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2012-04-01

    Cysteamine is a reducing aminothiol used for inducing duodenal ulcer through mechanisms of oxidative stress related to thiol-derived H(2)O(2) reaction. Cochinchina momordica saponins have been suggested to be protective against various gastric diseases based on their cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This study was aimed to document the preventive effects of Cochinchina momordica seed extract against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer as well as the elucidation of its pharmacological mechanisms. Cochinchina momordica seed extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) was administrated intragastrically before cysteamine administration, after which the incidence of the duodenal ulcer, ulcer size, serum gastrin level, and the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) as well as biochemical and molecular measurements of cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase and the expression of proinflammatory genes including IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 were measured in rat model. Additional experiments of electron spin resonance measurement and the changes of glutathione were performed. Cochinchina momordica seed extract effectively prevented cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in a dose-dependent manner as reflected with significant decreases in either duodenal ulcerogenesis or perforation accompanied with significantly decreased in serum gastrin in addition to inflammatory mediators including cPLA(2), COX-2, and 5-lipoxygenase. Cochinchina momordica seed extract induced the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS)-related glutathione synthesis as well as significantly reduced the expression of cPLA(2). Cochinchina momordica seed extract preserved reduced glutathione through increased expressions of γ-GCS. Cochinchina momordica seed extracts exerted significantly protective effect against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer by either cPLA2 inhibition or glutathione preservation. © 2012 Journal of

  10. Cure of Helicobacter pylori-positive active duodenal ulcer patients: a double-blind, multicentre, 12-month study comparing a two-week dual vs a one-week triple therapy. GISU (Interdisciplinary Group for Ulcer Study).

    PubMed

    Di Mario, F; Battaglia, F; Dal Bò, N; Leandro, G; Benedetti, E; Bottona, E; Caroli, A; Costan-Biedo, F; De Bastiani, R; Germanà, B; Andrea Grassi, S; Madia, D; Marcon, V; Marin, R; Monica, F; Olivieri, P; Orzes, N; Pilotto, A; Ronzani, G; Saggioro, A; Tafner, G

    2000-03-01

    To compare a two-week dual therapy to a one-week triple therapy for the healing of duodenal ulcer and the eradication of the Helicobacter pylori infection. A total of 165 patients with active duodenal ulcer were enrolled in the study. At entry, endoscopy, clinical examination and laboratory tests were performed. Histology and the rapid urease test were used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients received either lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxycillin 1 g bid for two weeks (two-week, dual therapy) or lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxycillin 1 g plus tinidazole 500 mg bid for one week plus lansoprazole qd for an additional week (one-week, triple therapy). Two and twelve months after cessation of therapy, endoscopy and clinical assessments were repeated. Duodenal ulcer healing and Helicobacter pylori eradication were both significantly greater (p<0.0001) in the triple therapy group (healing: 98.6%; Helicobacter pylori cure rate: 72.6%) than in the dual therapy group (healing: 77.3%; Helicobacter pylori cure rate: 33.3%). Ulcers healed more frequently in Helicobacter pyloricured than in Helicobacter pylori-not cured patients (94.9% vs. 77.2%; p<0.0022). After one year, Helicobacter pylori eradication was re-confirmed in 46/58 patients previously treated with the triple therapy and in 10/40 patients treated with the dual therapy [p<0.0001]. Only three duodenal ulcer relapses were observed throughout follow-up: all were in Helicobacter pylori-not cured patients. Triple therapy was more effective than dual both in curing Helicobacter pylori infection and healing active duodenal ulcers. The speed of ulcer healing obtained after only 7 days of antibiotics and 14 days of proton pump inhibitors confirmed that longer periods of anti ulcer therapy were not necessary. Helicobacter pylori -not cured patients had more slowly healing ulcers which were more apt to relapse when left untreated.

  11. Comparison of relapse rates and of mucosal abnormalities after healing of duodenal ulceration and after one year's maintenance with cimetidine or sucralfate: a light and electron microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, F I; Husband, E M; Yiu, Y C; Baker, L; McPhail, G; Lewin, M R; Jayaraj, A P; Clark, C G

    1989-01-01

    Forty six patients with endoscopically diagnosed duodenal ulceration were randomly allocated to treatment with either sucralfate 1 g qds (n = 24) or cimetidine 200 mg tds and 400 mg nocte (n = 22). When the ulcers healed, a maintenance dose of sucralfate 1 g bd or cimetidine 400 mg nocte was given for one year (or until relapse if earlier). Biopsies of duodenal mucosa adjacent to ulcer sites for light and electron microscopy were obtained before and after healing and again after one year's maintenance if the ulcer remained healed. Duodenal biopsies were also taken from 20 age and sex matched controls. Rates of healing and relapse during maintenance did not differ between the two treatments, although relapses occurred earlier with cimetidine. In the three year post-maintenance follow up period 10/13 cimetidine patients relapsed compared with four of 11 sucralfate patients (p less than 0.05), the relapses occurring significantly earlier in the cimetidine treated patients (p less than 0.05). Mucosal biopsies from both treatment groups still showed considerable abnormalities after healing. During maintenance, however, the sucralfate scores fell significantly (p less than 0.02) to near control levels unlike the cimetidine scores which remained raised at pretreatment values. The histological and ultrastructural changes were not predictive of later relapse. These findings favour the use of sucralfate in preference to cimetidine for maintenance treatment in the prevention of relapse of healed duodenal ulcers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2731750

  12. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of lansoprazole and omeprazole for the treatment of H.pylori-associated duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Ye, Yutong; Liang, Desen; Guo, Chao; Li, Lijie

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a systematic evaluation of the efficacy of lansoprazole and omeprazole for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. Online databases, including CHKD, VIP, China Info, the National Digital Library of China, Google Scholar, PubMed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, and Wiley Online Library were searched for related studies. The quality of the studies was evaluated in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, and relevant information was extracted from them. The studies were subjected to meta-analysis using RevMan5.3 software, and qualitative analysis was performed for studies, in which the data could not be merged. A total of nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included, all of which presented the possibility of bias. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between patients treated with lansoprazole combinations and omeprazole combinations in terms of DU healing rate (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99~1.09, P = 0.93). There were significant differences between those treated by lansoprazole combination and omeprazole combination in terms of HP eradication rate (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01~1.18, P = 0.04), and there was no serious adverse reaction during the treatment process for both lansoprazole and omeprazole. Lansoprazole and omeprazole exhibit similar efficacy in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori associated duodenal ulcers.

  13. Triple therapy with pantoprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for eradication in patients with Helicobacter pylori positive duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ghazzawi, Imad M; Obeidat, Walid A; Zuriekat, Feras A

    2004-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a 7-day pantoprazole 40 mg twice a day (bid) plus clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin one gram bid therapy in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in patients with H. pylori positive duodenal ulcers. The present study was a prospective, non-comparative and open-label designed. After confirming duodenal ulcer by endoscopy, patients with evidence of H. pylori infection with Campylobacter like organism (CLO) test, histology or culture were given eradication treatment for 7 days. Successful eradication was confirmed with second endoscopy after 4 weeks unless all CLO test, histology or culture were negative. Relief of symptoms and any adverse effects were recorded. The trial took place between February 2002 and April 2002 at King Hussein Medical Center, Royal Medical Services, Amman, Jordan. Eradication rate of H. pylori was 94% at 4 weeks after treatment was given. There was an improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms and adverse events were recorded in 5 patents only; however, in no case was withdrawal of treatment necessary. This study demonstrates that a 7-day pantoprazole 40 mg bid plus clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin one gram bid therapy is an effective and well tolerated therapeutic approach for H. pylori eradication.

  14. Combined anti-muscarinic and H2 receptor blockade in the healing of refractory duodenal ulcer. A double blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, K D; Thompson, M; Bose, K; Hinchliffe, R F; Crowe, J; Weir, D G; McCarthy, C; Walters, J; Thomson, T J; Thompson, M H

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if pirenzepine and cimetidine given together was superior to cimetidine alone in inducing healing of refractory duodenal ulcers which remained unhealed after treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine for at least eight weeks. One hundred and thirty one patients from six centres were randomised to receive either cimetidine (C) 800 mg daily or cimetidine 800 mg plus pirenzepine (C + P) 100 mg daily under double blind conditions for six weeks. The healing rate was similar in both groups, irrespective of the method of calculation. On an intent-to-treat analysis, healing was: C 66%, C + P 57%, and amongst the patients who completed treatment, healing was 70% in both groups. Patients on C and on C + P experienced a similar decrease in daytime and in night time pain. Side effects of treatment, notably dry mouth and blurred vision, were reported more often by patients on combination therapy. Combined treatment with cimetidine plus pirenzepine in patients with refractory duodenal ulcer is unlikely to be beneficial. PMID:3322955

  15. Comparison of tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate tablets with ranitidine in healing and relapse of duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lee, F I; Samloff, I M; Hardman, M

    1985-06-08

    120 patients were randomly allocated to receive ranitidine 150 mg twice daily or a tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (TDB) tablet four times a day in a trial comparing the effects of these drugs in the short-term healing and post-healing relapse rates of duodenal ulceration. At 4 weeks 81% of those on ranitidine and 90% of those on TDB had healed ulcer craters. At 8 weeks 97% of those on ranitidine and 97% of those on TDB had healed. These differences are not significant. After ulcer healing, the cumulative rates of relapse, as determined endoscopically, for symptomatic and symptomless ulcers were 74% for ranitidine and 41% for TDB at 4 months (p less than 0.001), 87% for ranitidine and 55% for TDB at 8 months (p less than 0.001), and 89% for ranitidine and 62% for TDB at 12 months (p less than 0.001). Females had significantly lower relapse rates than males. In the ranitidine group smokers had a higher rate of early relapse and failure to remain healed at 12 months than did non-smokers; no such difference occurred in the TDB-treated group.

  16. Helicobacter pylori associated with a high prevalence of duodenal ulcer disease and a low prevalence of gastric cancer in a developing nation.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, P J; Li, Y Y; Zhou, M H; Chen, M H; Du, G G; Huang, B J; Mitchell, H M; Hazell, S L

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer--in particular, the presence or absence of bacteria, the grading of gastritis, and the degree of inflammation in the antral and oxyntic mucosae. The grading of gastritis and the detection of H pylori were determined by histology using the Sydney system. Of the 1006 patients examined, 34.5% had duodenal ulcer disease, 3.5% gastric ulcer disease, and 2% with coexistent ulceration. Most patients (50.2%) were classified as having non-ulcer dyspepsia. Altogether 2.4% of patients had gastric cancer and two further patients had carcinoma in the gastric stump. Of the ulcer disease patients, 87.2% had histological evidence of H pylori infection. After patients who had taken antibiotics or bismuth compounds in the preceding four weeks were excluded, 98.9% of the duodenal ulcer disease, 100% of the gastric ulcer disease, and 100% of the coexistent ulcer disease patients had evidence of H pylori infection. In patients with gastric cancer who had not taken antimicrobial agents in the four weeks before endoscopy, 83.3% had evidence of H pylori infection. Thus, there was a high rate of duodenal ulcer disease and a low rate of gastric ulcer disease in southern China, an area of low gastric cancer mortality. There was a specific topographical relationship between H pylori, the histological response, and gastroduodenal disease. Our data suggest that the status of a nation as either 'developed' or 'developing' can not be used to predict the upper gastrointestinal disease profile of its population. PMID:7883217

  17. A porspective study of parietal cell vagotomy and selective vagotomy-antrectomy for treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P H

    1976-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, study involving 92 patients who required elective operation for treatment of duodenal ulcer was performed to compare the results of Parietal Cell Vagotomy (PCV) and selective vagotomy-antrectomy Billroth I (SV-A-BI). The protocol was broken twice. One patient was unable to undergo PCV because of pyloric stenosis and one patients underwent Billroth II anastomosis instead of Billroth I because of post-bulbar stenosis. Performance of PCV was never aborted because a patient was obese. There were no deaths. Diarrhea, dumping and other gastric complaints were less frequent after PCV than after SV-A-BI for all time periods studies up to two years. Two months after operation, the Hollander tests were negative in 59% of patients after PCV and in 100% after SV-ABI. Inhibition of Bao and MAO were also significantly less after PCV than after SV-A-BI. Since vagotomy of the parietal cell mass was identical in both groups of patients it was concluded that the differences in the secretory rates and the fewer negative Hollander tests in the PCV group than in the SV-A-BI group were due to retention of the antrum irrespective of its innervation. There was no explanation for the gradual increase in the BAO in the PCV group. One recurrent ulcer occurred in the PCV group in a patient who overindulged in alcohol and aspirin. After 4 days of medical management, this superficial ulcer healed as demonstrated by endoscopy. There were no recurrent ulcers after SV-A-BI. As a result of this study, it is concluded that PCV is superior to SV-A-BI because of the lower frequency of postoperative complications, diarrhea, dumping and other symptoms associated with gastric surgery. PCV may be the operation of choice for the elective treatment of duodenal ulcer; however, it remains undetermined whether the recurrent ulcer rate following PCV will be sufficiently low that the procedure can retain a position of superiority over SV-A-BI. PMID:973749

  18. Perforated duodenal ulcer presenting with a subphrenic abscess revealed by plain abdominal X-ray films and confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography: a case report.

    PubMed

    Camera, Luigi; Calabrese, Milena; Romeo, Valeria; Scordino, Fabrizio; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Clemente, Marco; Rapicano, Gaetano; Salvatore, Marco

    2013-11-11

    Peptic ulcer disease is still the major cause of gastrointestinal perforation despite major improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. While the diagnosis of a perforated ulcer is straightforward in typical cases, its clinical onset may be subtle because of comorbidities and/or concurrent therapies. We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian man with a history of chronic myeloid leukemia on maintenance therapy (100mg/day) with imatinib who was found to have a subphrenic abscess resulting from a perforated duodenal ulcer that had been clinically overlooked. Our patient was febrile (38.5°C) with abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. On the abdominal plain X-ray films, a right subphrenic abscess could be seen. On contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography, a huge air-fluid collection extending from the subphrenic to the subhepatic anterior space was observed. After oral administration of 500cm3 of 3 percent diluted diatrizoate meglumine, an extraluminal leakage of the water-soluble iodinated contrast media could then be appreciated as a result of a perforated duodenal ulcer. During surgery, the abscess was drained and extensive adhesiolysis had to be performed to expose the duodenal bulb where the ulcer was first identified by methylene blue administration and then sutured. While subphrenic abscesses are well known complications of perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers, they have nowadays become rare thanks to advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for peptic ulcer disease. However, when peptic ulcer disease is not clinically suspected, the contribution of imaging may be substantial.

  19. Perforated duodenal ulcer presenting with a subphrenic abscess revealed by plain abdominal X-ray films and confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Peptic ulcer disease is still the major cause of gastrointestinal perforation despite major improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. While the diagnosis of a perforated ulcer is straightforward in typical cases, its clinical onset may be subtle because of comorbidities and/or concurrent therapies. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian man with a history of chronic myeloid leukemia on maintenance therapy (100mg/day) with imatinib who was found to have a subphrenic abscess resulting from a perforated duodenal ulcer that had been clinically overlooked. Our patient was febrile (38.5°C) with abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. On the abdominal plain X-ray films, a right subphrenic abscess could be seen. On contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography, a huge air-fluid collection extending from the subphrenic to the subhepatic anterior space was observed. After oral administration of 500cm3 of 3 percent diluted diatrizoate meglumine, an extraluminal leakage of the water-soluble iodinated contrast media could then be appreciated as a result of a perforated duodenal ulcer. During surgery, the abscess was drained and extensive adhesiolysis had to be performed to expose the duodenal bulb where the ulcer was first identified by methylene blue administration and then sutured. Conclusions While subphrenic abscesses are well known complications of perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers, they have nowadays become rare thanks to advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for peptic ulcer disease. However, when peptic ulcer disease is not clinically suspected, the contribution of imaging may be substantial. PMID:24215711

  20. babA2- and cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains are associated with duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves; Santos, Adriana; Guerra, Juliana Becattini; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Oliveira, Celso Affonso; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Alvares; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-08-01

    The babA2 and cagA genes were investigated in 208 Brazilian Helicobacter pylori strains. A strong association between babA2 and duodenal ulcer or gastric carcinoma was observed, even after adjusting for confounding factors, such as age, gender, and cagA status. cagA-positive strains were also independently associated with H. pylori-related diseases.

  1. Comparison of esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules vs esomeprazole magnesium in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Qing; Gong, Neng-Ping; Tang, Li-Ping; Wang, Pi-Long; Tao, Xiao-Hong

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two different preparations of esomeprazole in healing duodenal ulcers. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with active duodenal ulcers were enrolled and randomized to receive esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules (40 mg) or esomeprazole magnesium (40 mg), once daily, for 4 consecutive wk, with ulcer healing being monitored by endoscopy. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients completed the whole trial. The ulcer healing rates at the end of wk 2 were 86.7% and 85.2% in the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules and esomeprazole magnesium groups, respectively (P = 0.8410), and reached 100% at the end of wk 4 in both groups. Symptom relief at the end of wk 2 was 90.8% in the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules group and 86.7% in the esomeprazole magnesium group (P = 0.5406); at the end of wk 4 symptom relief was 95.2% and 93.2%, respectively (P = 0.5786). Adverse events occurred in 16.7% of the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules group and 14.8% of the esomeprazole magnesium group (P = 1.0000). CONCLUSION: The efficacies of esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules and esomeprazole magnesium in healing duodenal ulcer lesions and relieving gastrointestinal symptoms are equivalent. The tolerability and safety of both drugs were comparable. PMID:18350637

  2. Comparison of esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules vs esomeprazole magnesium in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Qing; Gong, Neng-Ping; Tang, Li-Ping; Wang, Pi-Long; Tao, Xiao-Hong

    2008-03-28

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two different preparations of esomeprazole in healing duodenal ulcers. A total of 60 patients with active duodenal ulcers were enrolled and randomized to receive esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules (40 mg) or esomeprazole magnesium (40 mg), once daily, for 4 consecutive wk, with ulcer healing being monitored by endoscopy. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Fifty seven patients completed the whole trial. The ulcer healing rates at the end of wk 2 were 86.7% and 85.2% in the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules and esomeprazole magnesium groups, respectively (P = 0.8410), and reached 100% at the end of wk 4 in both groups. Symptom relief at the end of wk 2 was 90.8% in the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules group and 86.7% in the esomeprazole magnesium group (P = 0.5406); at the end of wk 4 symptom relief was 95.2% and 93.2%, respectively (P = 0.5786). Adverse events occurred in 16.7% of the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules group and 14.8% of the esomeprazole magnesium group (P = 1.0000). The efficacies of esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules and esomeprazole magnesium in healing duodenal ulcer lesions and relieving gastrointestinal symptoms are equivalent. The tolerability and safety of both drugs were comparable.

  3. Management of necrotising appendicitis associated with widespread necrotising enterocolitis of the small and large bowel and perforated duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vaibhav; Zani, Augusto; Jackson, Paul; Singh, Shailinder

    2015-06-08

    A 7-year-old boy presented in septic shock secondary to appendicitis with generalised peritonitis. Following crystalloid resuscitation, he underwent surgery. Faecopurulent contamination and free air were found. This was secondary to a perforated and gangrenous appendix, multiple large and small bowel segments with perforations, patches of necrosis, interspersed with healthy bowel and segments of questionable viability. There was also a perforated duodenal ulcer. Necrotic segments were resected using a 'clip-and-drop' technique to shorten operative duration and guide resection to preserve bowel length. After six laparotomies and multiple bowel resections, the child was discharged home with an ileostomy that was subsequently reversed. He is currently on a normal diet and pursuing all activities appropriate for his age. Perforated appendicitis can be associated with widespread bowel necrosis and multiple perforations. A conservative damage limitation approach using the 'clip-and-drop' technique and relook laparotomies is useful in the management of extensive bowel necrosis in children.

  4. Life-threatening Duodenal Ulcer Bleeding from a Ruptured Gastroduodenal Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Im, Kyu Sung; Kim, Sunyong; Lim, Jun Uk; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Cha, Jae Myung; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il; Park, Jae Jun

    2015-09-01

    Vasculopathy is rarely reported in neurofibromatosis type 1, but when it occurs it primarily involves the aorta and its main branches. Among vasculopathies, aneurysmal dilatation is the most common form. Although several case reports concerning aneurysms or pseudoaneurysms of visceral arteries in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients have been reported, there are no reports describing gastroduodenal artery aneurysms associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. We experienced a case of life-threatening duodenal ulcer bleeding from a ruptured gastroduodenal artery aneurysm associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. We treated our patient by transarterial embolization after initial endoscopic hemostasis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of its type. High levels of suspicion and prompt diagnosis are required to select appropriate treatment options for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 experiencing upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Embolization of the involved arteries should be considered an essential treatment over endoscopic hemostasis alone to achieve complete hemostasis and to prevent rebleeding.

  5. The effect of tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (De-Nol) on the healing of chronic duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, G P; Kupa, A; Alp, M H

    1977-02-26

    Forty-six patients suffering from chronic duodenal ulcer, proven endoscopically, were treated in a randomized double-blind cross-over trial with either tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (De-Nol) or placebo for four weeks and assessed symptomatically and endoscopically. Those patients who failed to heal after treatment with either agent were crossed over to the alternative preparation and reassessed after a further 28 days. Forty-two patients completed the study involving 57 patient treatments. A highly significant improvement in both symptomatic response (P less than 0.01) and endoscopic healing (P less than 0.01) was seen in those patients receiving tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (De-Nol) as against placebo therapy.

  6. Effect of cimetidine and pirenzepine in combination on 24 hour intragastric acidity in subjects with previous duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J G; Deakin, M; Ramage, J K

    1986-01-01

    Intragastric pH was monitored during 24 hours in eight volunteers with duodenal ulcer disease in remission, while on placebo, cimetidine 400 mg bd, pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 400 mg bd + pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 200 mg bd + pirenzepine 25 mg bd. The control of intragastric acidity during the 24 hour period by the combination of low dose cimetidine and pirenzepine was significantly better than with cimetidine, or pirenzepine alone in full dosage. This difference was most apparent after breakfast but was still present after lunch when cimetidine had no significant effect. Combination treatment is a logical approach when continuous control of intragastric acidity is needed, but a three times daily regimen will be necessary to cover the 24 hours. PMID:3754233

  7. Double-Blind Randomized Trials of Single-Tablet Ibuprofen/High-Dose Famotidine vs. Ibuprofen Alone for Reduction of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Loren; Kivitz, Alan J; Bello, Alfonso E; Grahn, Amy Y; Schiff, Michael H; Taha, Ali S

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We performed two 24-week double-blind trials (REDUCE-1 and -2 (Registration Endoscopic Studies to Determine Ulcer Formation of HZT-501 Compared with Ibuprofen: Efficacy and Safety Studies)) to assess whether double-dose famotidine given in a single-tablet combination with ibuprofen (HZT-501) significantly reduces gastric and duodenal ulcers as compared with ibuprofen. METHODS: Patients (40–80 years) requiring daily non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for ≥6 months with no prior ulcer complications, negative H. pylori stool test, and baseline endoscopy showing no ulcers and <5 erosions were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to HZT-501 or identical-appearing ibuprofen 800 mg tablets thrice daily. Study endoscopies were done at 8, 16, and 24 weeks. After unblinding and initial analyses, 12 patients were found to be misclassified as having gastric ulcers based on the adjudication of endoscopy reports, and analyses were re-run. RESULTS: In REDUCE-1, the primary end point analysis of gastric ulcers at 24 weeks with HZT-501 vs. ibuprofen was 12.7% vs. 22.9% (P=0.0044) in the post-adjudication analysis. In REDUCE-2, the primary end point analysis of upper gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers was 13.0% vs. 20.5% (P=0.0587) in the post-adjudication analysis. Prespecified pooled analyses showed significantly fewer gastric (12.5% vs. 20.7%) and duodenal ulcers (1.1% vs. 5.1%) with HZT-501 vs. ibuprofen. Proportional hazards analysis of multiple potential risk factors showed the risk ratio of upper GI ulcers with HZT-501 vs. ibuprofen was 0.46, 95% confidence interval was 0.34–0.61. CONCLUSIONS: Combined results of the REDUCE studies indicate that double-dose famotidine plus ibuprofen, given as a combination tablet, decreases endoscopic upper GI ulcers as compared with ibuprofen alone. PMID:22186979

  8. [Which therapeutic regimen for eradicating Helicobacter pylori and cicatrization of a duodenal ulcer. Is there a role for short-term treatment?].

    PubMed

    Chassany, Olivier; Duracinsky, Martin

    2002-08-24

    CURRENT REGIMENS: The regimen recommended for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and cicatrization of a duodenal ulcer is the association, for 7 days, of a double-dose of gastric anti-secretory drug and 2 antibiotics, followed by a usual dose of an anti-secretory for a further 3 weeks. During randomized studies, this therapeutic regimen led to an eradication rate of 80 to 90%. However, in current practice in France, the eradication rate is of only 60 to 75%. THE QUESTIONS RAISED: Phenomena of resistance to antibiotics are not the only cause. Lack of compliance is frequent, partly generated by poor tolerance to the antibiotherapy. Many recently published studies have provided elements of response to several questions concerning the eradication of Helicobacter pylori: can one reduce the duration of treatment by associating a triple antibiotherapy or, to the contrary, should one prolong treatment to be sure that patients fully comply to the 7 days of treatment? Should the dose of anti-secretory drug be doubled? And, with regard to cicatrizing the duodenal ulcer: can one reduce the duration of the anti-secretory agent? WITH THE RESULTS OF RECENTLY PUBLISHED CLINICAL TRIALS: It is legitimate today to prescribe double antibiotherapy for 10 to 14 days, associated with a double dose of an anti-secretory, without having to prolong the anti-secretory after this initial period, in order to cicatrize the duodenal ulcer. Further studies will specify the optimal duration between 10 and 14 days. However, till now, this therapeutic regimen for eradicating Helicobacter pylori and cicatrizing a duodenal ulcer has not obtained marketing authorization and is not appropriate for treating gastric ulcers and for complicated (notably hemorrhagic) gastroduodenal lesions.

  9. Five-day bismuth-free triple therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and reduction of duodenal ulcer relapse

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, L.G.; Passos, M.C.; Chausson, Y.; Castro L de, P. )

    1991-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a significant reduction of the rate of duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effect of a bismuth-free triple therapy on the eradication of H. pylori and reduction of DU relapse. After informed consent, 61 patients with endoscopically proven DU and H. pylori infection detected on 14C-urea breath test (BT) were included in the study. All patients received a combination of furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole, three times a day, for 5 days, in addition to eventual classical antiulcer agents prescribed by their attending physicians. BT was repeated after an interval of at least 60 days to evaluate H. pylori eradication. Endoscopy and another BT were performed again at 6.5 months after therapy to detect possible recurrences. Forty-eight patients completed the trial: 26 (54%) patients were negative for H. pylori at 6.5 months after the end of treatment, and 22 (46%) persisted H. pylori positive. Ninety-two percent of the patients in whom the bacteria were eradicated showed endoscopically healed ulcers and were asymptomatic, and two that were symptomatic presented only occasional pain not requiring therapy. Among the 22 patients who persisted H. pylori positive, six (27%) showed endoscopically active ulcers (p = 0.012) and eight (36%) patients continued to be symptomatic (p less than 0.01), and were still using antiulcer drugs (p = 0.002) 6.5 months after treatment. It is concluded that combined treatment with furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 5 days represents a well-tolerated, inexpensive, and effective therapeutic regime for the eradication of H. pylori and abolition of DU relapse in more than 50% of the patients during a follow-up period of 6.5 months.

  10. Perforated duodenal ulcer in pregnancy-a rare cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnancy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Essilfie, Papa; Hussain, M; Bolaji, I

    2011-01-01

    Medical and surgical disorders in pregnancy can be can be quite challenging for the obstetrician gynaecologist even in resource rich countries. Reaching an accurate diagnosis and admininstering appropriate management can be difficult in the presence of an on-going pregnancy. The importance of involving specialist from other disciplines (multidisciplinary care) cannot be overemphasized. We present an interesting case of perforated duodenal ulcer in a pregnant patient, review the literature ,discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluate the management principles for this rare condition.

  11. Portal Hypertensive Duodenopathy Manifesting as “Kissing” Duodenal Ulcers in a Nigerian with Alcoholic Cirrhosis: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Oluyemi, Aderemi; Amole, Adeniyi

    2012-01-01

    Multiple duodenal ulcers are an uncommon finding in portal hypertensive duodenopathy (PHD). They represent a potential source of clinically significant bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system in patients with cirrhosis. As this particular ulcer entity in relation to PHD has no distinguishing symptoms aside from those relating to the consequent bleeding, most of them are found either on routine endoscopic screening for cirrhotics or on endoscopic examination for cause(s) of bleeding in this patient population. The case documented below highlights many of the aspects of pathogenesis, associations, and consequences of this unique endoscopic finding in cirrhotic patients. PMID:23118766

  12. Portal hypertensive duodenopathy manifesting as "kissing" duodenal ulcers in a nigerian with alcoholic cirrhosis: a case report and brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oluyemi, Aderemi; Amole, Adeniyi

    2012-01-01

    Multiple duodenal ulcers are an uncommon finding in portal hypertensive duodenopathy (PHD). They represent a potential source of clinically significant bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system in patients with cirrhosis. As this particular ulcer entity in relation to PHD has no distinguishing symptoms aside from those relating to the consequent bleeding, most of them are found either on routine endoscopic screening for cirrhotics or on endoscopic examination for cause(s) of bleeding in this patient population. The case documented below highlights many of the aspects of pathogenesis, associations, and consequences of this unique endoscopic finding in cirrhotic patients.

  13. The association of ranitidine and sucralfate in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcers, as compared to other forms of treatment.

    PubMed

    Magnanelli, M; Belvisi, A; Toninelli, A; Matergi, M; Camarri, E

    1984-01-01

    Results of the treatment of duodenal ulcer with ranitidine (150 mg X 2/die) and sucralfate (1 gr X 2/die) have been compared with other common schemes of therapy. Administration of the drugs was carried out for 8 weeks, and the evolution of the ulcer lesion was followed with endoscopic controls at the beginning and end of the treatment. Ulcer healing occurred in 92% of 25 patients, as compared with 83,3% of 30 cases treated with ranitidine only; 80% of 30 cases with cimetidine 1 g/day; 80% of 20 cases with cimetidine 800 mg/b.i.d.; 75% of 20 cases with sucralfate 3 g/day; 73,3% of 30 patients with pirenzepine 150 mg/day; 60% of 20 cases with sulglycotide 0.5-1 g/day; and 50% of 40 ulcerous patients treated with placebo. From these results it is concluded that the association of sucralfate with an H2-antagonist improves the possibility of short-term healing of duodenal ulcer.

  14. Short and long term outcome of Helicobacter pylori positive resistant duodenal ulcers treated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate plus antibiotics or sucralfate alone.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi Porro, G; Parente, F; Lazzaroni, M

    1993-01-01

    Thirty two patients with Helicobacter pylori positive duodenal ulcers resistant to treatment were randomly assigned to 4 weeks' treatment with sucralphate 4 g/day or colloidal bismuth subcitrate 480 mg/day plus amoxycillin from days 1 to 7 and tinidazole from days 8 to 14. After 4 weeks, patients with unhealed ulcers were crossed over to the other form of treatment for a further 4 week period. Patients with healed ulcers were followed up for 1 year without maintenance therapy with clinical and endoscopic investigations 3, 6, and 12 months after healing. Complete healing rates at 4 weeks were 88% (15 of 17) in the colloidal bismuth subcitrate plus antibiotics group and 40% (six of 15) in the sucralphate group (p < 0.05). After cross over, overall healing rates were 88% (22 of 25) and 47% (eight of 17), respectively (p < 0.05). H pylori eradication occurred in 83% of patients treated with the triple therapy. Cumulative relapse rates at 12 months were 12% (two of 17) in patients in whom H pylori had been eradicated and 100% (10 of 10) in those with persistent infection after short term therapy (p < 0.05). These results show that a colloidal bismuth subcitrate plus antibiotics regimen is highly effective in the short term treatment of resistant duodenal ulcers and that H pylori eradication can change the natural tendency to early recurrence of these ulcers. PMID:8491391

  15. Influence of dietary fat on duodenal resistance to acid.

    PubMed

    Lugea, A; Salas, A; Guarner, F; Malagelada, J R

    1993-10-01

    Three experimental diets were prepared from a standard formula plus pure oleic, linoleic, or eicosapentaenoic acid (2% by weight). Mucosal resistance to acid was tested in anaesthetised rats fed the experimental diets for at least four weeks (60 rats per diet) by duodenal infusion of HCl (200 to 700 mumol) 30 minutes after pretreatment with either saline or 100 mumol HCl (used as a mild irritant). Rats were killed one hour after the test and the duodenal damage was assessed 'blindly' using a combined macroscopic and histological score. Differences were tested by analysis of covariance of the dose-response curves. Mucosal resistance was similar in the three groups when the acid challenge was given after saline pretreatment. Resistance to acid in all three groups was significantly increased by previous exposure to 100 mumol HCl (p < 0.01). Interestingly, rats fed a linoleic or eicosapentaenoic supplemented diet after pretreatment with HCl developed significantly higher resistance to acid than those fed the diet with oleic acid (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with indomethacin suppressed the difference between diets. In conclusion, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance duodenal resistance to acid by potentiation of adaptive cytoprotection.

  16. Endoscopic laser Doppler flowmetry in the experiment and in the bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcer clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapralov, S. V.; Shapkin, Y. G.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2007-05-01

    One of the most complex problems of emergency surgery is the choice of surgical tactics to deal with bleeding peptic ulcer. Endoscopic hemostasis is prescribed to patients with continuing bleedings and prerelapse syndrome. But till nowdays the objective verification of the prerelapse condition had not been worked out. What is more there are no objective criteria to judge the effectiveness of the carried endohemostasis. The aim of the study was to work out a new objective diagnostic method of pre-recurrence syndrome that can be able to make prognosis for possible gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding recurrence more precise. Laser Doppler flowmetry was the method of studies the regional perfusion. The device used in this work was made at the Optics and Biophysics Department of Saratov State University.

  17. Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Binh, Tran Thanh; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Helicobacter pylori cagA can be classified into mainly two types (East-Asian-type and Western-type cagA) according to the repeat regions located in the 3′ region. Recent studies showed that the Western-type cagA in strains from Okinawa, Japan formed a different cluster (J-Western-type cagA subtype). We also reported that J-Western-type cagA possess a 12-bp insertion located in the 5′ region of cagA sequence. Methods The prevalence of 12-bp insertion in cagA in Okinawa and the United States (U.S.) was examined by DNA sequencing. We then designed the primer pair which can detect the 12-bp insertion only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of strains with 12-bp insertion was examined in 336 strains isolated from Okinawa by PCR. Results In case of Western-type cagA/vacA s1m2 strains, the prevalence of 12-bp insertion was significantly higher in strains isolated from Okinawa than that from the U.S. (P = 0.002). Phylogenetic tree showed that strains with 12-bp insertion formed two individual clusters within J-Western-type cagA subtype; one is from Okinawa and another is from the U.S. Our designed primer set showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.8%) in Okinawa. The 12-bp insertion was found in 23.7%, 14.3%, 4.2%, and 4.0% of strains with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastritis, gastric cancer (GC), and gastric ulcer (GU), respectively (P < 0.001 for DU vs. GU) in Okinawa. Conclusions Although the mechanisms are unknown, the presence of 12-bp insertion was associated with the presence of DU and might have a suppressive action on GU and GC. PMID:23190390

  18. Differences in Genome Content among Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Patients with Gastritis, Duodenal Ulcer, or Gastric Cancer Reveal Novel Disease-Associated Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Romo-González, Carolina; Salama, Nina R.; Burgeño-Ferreira, Juan; Ponce-Castañeda, Veronica; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori establishes a chronic infection in the human stomach, causing gastritis, peptic ulcer, or gastric cancer, and more severe diseases are associated with virulence genes such as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The aim of this work was to study gene content differences among H. pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases in a Mexican-Mestizo patient population. H. pylori isolates from 10 patients with nonatrophic gastritis, 10 patients with duodenal ulcer, and 9 patients with gastric cancer were studied. Multiple isolates from the same patient were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and strains with unique patterns were tested using whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We studied 42 isolates and found 1,319 genes present in all isolates, while 341 (20.5%) were variable genes. Among the variable genes, 127 (37%) were distributed within plasticity zones (PZs). The overall number of variable genes present in a given isolate was significantly lower for gastric cancer isolates. Thirty genes were significantly associated with nonatrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric cancer, 14 (46.6%) of which were within PZs and the cag PAI. Two genes (HP0674 and JHP0940) were absent in all gastric cancer isolates. Many of the disease-associated genes outside the PZs formed clusters, and some of these genes are regulated in response to acid or other environmental conditions. Validation of candidate genes identified by aCGH in a second patient cohort allowed the identification of novel H. pylori genes associated with gastric cancer or duodenal ulcer. These disease-associated genes may serve as biomarkers of the risk for severe gastroduodenal diseases. PMID:19237517

  19. Differences in genome content among Helicobacter pylori isolates from patients with gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric cancer reveal novel disease-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Romo-González, Carolina; Salama, Nina R; Burgeño-Ferreira, Juan; Ponce-Castañeda, Veronica; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres, Javier

    2009-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori establishes a chronic infection in the human stomach, causing gastritis, peptic ulcer, or gastric cancer, and more severe diseases are associated with virulence genes such as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The aim of this work was to study gene content differences among H. pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases in a Mexican-Mestizo patient population. H. pylori isolates from 10 patients with nonatrophic gastritis, 10 patients with duodenal ulcer, and 9 patients with gastric cancer were studied. Multiple isolates from the same patient were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and strains with unique patterns were tested using whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We studied 42 isolates and found 1,319 genes present in all isolates, while 341 (20.5%) were variable genes. Among the variable genes, 127 (37%) were distributed within plasticity zones (PZs). The overall number of variable genes present in a given isolate was significantly lower for gastric cancer isolates. Thirty genes were significantly associated with nonatrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric cancer, 14 (46.6%) of which were within PZs and the cag PAI. Two genes (HP0674 and JHP0940) were absent in all gastric cancer isolates. Many of the disease-associated genes outside the PZs formed clusters, and some of these genes are regulated in response to acid or other environmental conditions. Validation of candidate genes identified by aCGH in a second patient cohort allowed the identification of novel H. pylori genes associated with gastric cancer or duodenal ulcer. These disease-associated genes may serve as biomarkers of the risk for severe gastroduodenal diseases.

  20. Duodenal perforation following esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with cautery and epinephrine injection for peptic ulcer disease: An interesting case of nonoperative management in the medical intensive care unit (MICU)

    PubMed Central

    Chertoff, Jason; Khullar, Vikas; Burke, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The utilization of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and related procedures continues to rise. Due to this increase in utilization is an inevitable rise in serious complications such as hemorrhage and perforation. One understudied and dreaded complication of EGD causing significant morbidity and mortality is duodenal perforation. Presentation of case We present the case of a 63-year-old male who presented to our institution’s emergency room with dyspepsia, melanic stools, tachycardia, and hypotension. Initial laboratory evaluation was significant for severe anemia, lactic acidosis, and acute kidney injury, while CT scan of the abdomen pelvis did not suggest retroperitoneal hematoma or bowel perforation. An emergent EGD was performed which showed multiple bleeding duodenal ulcers that were cauterized and injected with epinephrine. Post-procedure the patient developed worsening abdominal pain, distension, diaphoresis, and tachypnea, requiring emergent intubation. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with oral contrast confirmed pneumoperitoneum and duodenal perforation. Discussion Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability and multiple comorbidities, he was treated non-operatively with strict bowel rest and intravenous antibiotics. The patient ultimately had a 19-day hospital course complicated by renal failure requiring hemodialysis and an ischemic limb necessitating above knee amputation. Conclusion This case describes an unsuccessful attempt at nonoperative management of duodenal perforation following EGD. PMID:25837967

  1. [Functional status of the bile excretion system and upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Razarenova, T G; Koshel', A P; Klokov, S S; Dibina, T V

    2010-01-01

    The research of functional condition of biliary tract in 35 patients suffered from gastroduodenal ulcers compared with 30 almost healthy patients was conducted. Disorders of motor function were found out in 13.2% patients in control group. The motor-evacuative function of biliary tract conformed to average scores of healthy patients group in only 8.6% cases. The accelerated gallbladder empting (11.4%), the hypermotoric biliary dyskinesia with the absence of latent period of biliary excretion (17.1%), the hypomotoric dysfunction of biliary tract (34.3%) were found out in the rest cases. The separate group of patients were patients with distortion of biliary excretion that was consisted in periodic increase and decrease of gall bladder volume during the contraction. We concluded that motor-evacuative function of biliary tract doesn't depend on the type of pathological process in the stomach or duodenum but correlates with gastric evacuation contents, the rate of cholagogic meal advancement along the duodenum and acid-productive function of the stomach.

  2. Laparoscopic closure of perforated gastro-duodenal ulcer: 15 years’ experience in our centre

    PubMed Central

    Váňa, Juraj; Babiš, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of the study is to share the results and development findings on the laparoscopic closure technique applied in our centre during a 15-year period (1998–2012). Aim To compare statistically the standard parameters (hospitalization, duration of operation) versus conventional surgery, and at the same time we compared mainly morbidity and mortality. Material and methods During the period under review we operated on a total of 259 patients, 115 (44.4%) of them laparoscopically, and 144 (55.6%) of them conventionally. The sample was divided into two groups: patients with ASA physical status classification system 1–3, and patients with ASA 4–5. Results The results favour laparoscopy within the group with ASA 1–3 in terms of several parameters, namely: duration of hospitalization – 7.7 days in the case of laparoscopic intervention, vs. 10.6 days for conventional surgery (p < 0.05); and duration of operation – 61 min vs. 85.1 min respectively (p < 0.05). Total morbidity was 27.5% in the case of patients with conventional surgery, vs. 10.9% with laparoscopic intervention (p < 0.05). The sample of patients with ASA 4–5 suffered a high mortality of 82.7%. Conclusions Laparoscopic closure of perforated ulcer is a safe therapeutic method, as confirmed by the results of many other studies around the world, which in many aspects favour the laparoscopic technique. PMID:25561996

  3. Tri-potassium di citrato bismuthate chewing tablets and cimetidine tablets in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. A double-blind double-dummy comparative study.

    PubMed

    Moshal, M G; Spitaels, J M; Khan, F

    1981-09-12

    A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy comparative 6-week study of tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (TDB) (Ulcerone; De-Nol) chewing tables and cimetidine was carried out in 60 patients suffering from duodenal ulceration. The data on 51 patients (27 on TDB and 24 on cimetidine) were analysed (9 patients absconded). Both treatments appeared to be highly effective in ulcer healing at the 6-week endoscopic assessment. The healing rate for TDB chewing tablets was 89% and that for cimetidine tablets 92%. Both forms of therapy were comparable in respect of improvement of pain and effect on all other observed symptoms. Neither drug had a statistically significant effect on any of the haematological or clinical chemical parameters tested during the trial, except that the cimetidine-treated group showed a significant linear reduction in white blood cell count. No side-effects were reported. It is suggested that TDB chewing tablets are a safe, effective and cheaper alternative to cimetidine in the treatment of patients with duodenal ulceration.

  4. Polymorphisms in genes coding for HSP-70 are associated with gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer in a population at high risk of gastric cancer in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Ferrer, Maura; Malespín-Bendaña, Wendy; Ramírez, Vanessa; González, María Isabel; Carvajal, Adriana; Une, Clas

    2013-08-01

    Costa Rica has among the highest incidence and mortality rates for gastric cancer worldwide. The reasons for this are largely unknown. Polymorphisms of inflammatory response genes including genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSP) have been shown to be associated with the risk of gastric cancer in some populations. This study addresses the possible association between the HSP70-2 +1267 and HSP70-Hom +2437 polymorphisms and the risk of developing gastric cancer in a high-risk population in Costa Rica. DNA from 39 individuals diagnosed with gastric cancer, 79 healthy controls, 55 individuals with chronic gastritis and 52 individuals with duodenal ulcer was genotyped for the polymorphisms HSP70-2 +1267 and HSP70-Hom +2437 by RFLP. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine possible associations with the diagnoses and lineal regression analysis to determine associations with blood pepsinogen (PGs) levels as measured by serology. The GA genotype of HSP70-2 was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (OR = 3.42; 95% CI = 1.27-9.21; p = 0.015) and duodenal ulcer (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.03-6.36; p = 0.042) as compared to the GG genotype. Persons with C carrier genotypes of HSP70-Hom were significantly less susceptible to gastric cancer than those with the TT genotype (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.09-0.87; p = 0.027). The C carrier genotype was associated with lower PGI concentrations but none of the polymorphisms were associated with PGI/PGII. Polymorphisms of HSP70 genes are associated with the development of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcers in a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Costa Rica. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects of wobenzyme on the blood proteinase-inhibitory system in elderly and senile patients with gastric and duodenal peptic ulcers].

    PubMed

    Fediv, O I

    2001-01-01

    The studies were made in 31 patient with gastric and duodenal peptic ulcer aged from 60 to 82 years. It has been ascertained that exacerbation of the condition is accompanied by decline in the lysis of azoalbumin (low-molecular proteins), by a decrease in the blood serum concentration of alpha 2-macroglobulin in the presence of an increased lysis of azocol (colagenolytic activity of the blood) and the blood serum content of aldehyde- and ketone derivatives. Administration of wobenzym and erbisol against the background of a differentiated basic therapy makes for improvement of the condition of the blood proteinase-inhibitory system, with the protein oxidative modification processes being on the decrease.

  6. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in Pregnancy—A Rare Cause of Acute Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Essilfie, Papa; Hussain, M.; Bolaji, I.

    2011-01-01

    Medical and surgical disorders in pregnancy can be can be quite challenging for the obstetrician gynaecologist even in resource rich countries. Reaching an accurate diagnosis and admininstering appropriate management can be difficult in the presence of an on-going pregnancy. The importance of involving specialist from other disciplines (multidisciplinary care) cannot be overemphasized. We present an interesting case of perforated duodenal ulcer in a pregnant patient, review the literature ,discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluate the management principles for this rare condition. PMID:22567500

  7. Multicenter evaluation of dual-therapy (omeprazol and amoxycillin) for Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal and gastric ulcer (two years of the observation).

    PubMed

    Gabryelewicz, A; Laszewicz, W; Dzieniszewski, J; Ciok, J; Marlicz, K; Bielecki, D; Popiela, T; Legutko, J; Knapik, Z; Poniewierka, E

    1997-09-01

    Treatment with the proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) and single antibiotic (amoxycillin), two synergistic compounds, can cure Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, but this therapy is not as effective as had been expected. However, some studies show promising results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks dual-therapy with omeprazole (O) and amoxycillin (A) on gastric (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) patients: ulcer healing, eradication of the H. pylori and recurrence rate of the ulcer. We studied 216 patients (aged 18-70) endoscopically proven GU (58 patients) and DU (158 patients). Rapid urease test from the two antrum biopses and two antral and two corporeal biopses using Giemsa stain method for confirmation of the H. pylori infection were used. The patients were treated with omeprazole 20 mg BID and amoxycillin 1.0 g BID for 2 weeks and investigated every 4 months during 2 years. Clearance effect of Hp infection was achieved in 65.1% GU and 66.4% DU patients. Eradication ("check point" after 4 months) in 43% DU and 56.6% GU patients was confirmed. Reinfection rate was found in 16% during 2 years. We conclude--dual-therapy (O and A) is not sufficiently effective to be recommended as an anti-H. pylori treatment. H. pylori eradication prevents recurrence of peptic ulcer and is an important issue in attempts to achieve permanent ulcer healing.

  8. Effects of transdermal scopolamine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, on total 24 hour gastric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, C T; Feldman, M

    1986-01-01

    Transdermal scopolamine is an antimuscarinic preparation approved for use in the United States for prevention of motion sickness. A recent study using this drug (0.5 mg/patch) suggested that enough scopolamine was absorbed through the skin to reduce basal gastric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer. We have compared the effect of transdermal scopolamine and oral cimetidine (400 mg twice daily) in seven men with chronic duodenal ulcer, both alone and in combination, on acid secretion throughout an entire 24 hour period in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double blinded cross over study. The effect of these drugs on basal, interprandial, and nocturnal gastric juice volume and hydrogen ion concentration also was measured. Transdermal scopolamine had no significant effect on mean 24 hour acid secretion (placebo, 409.4 mmol/day; scopolamine, 364.0 mmol/day) nor did it have a significant effect on gastric juice volume or hydrogen ion concentration. The combination of transdermal scopolamine plus cimetidine was not more effective than cimetidine alone in reducing total 24 hour acid secretion (mean, 231.8 versus 235.3 mmol/day) nor in reducing gastric juice volume or hydrogen ion concentration. PMID:3804025

  9. Efficacy of Proton Pump Inhibitors for Patients with Duodenal Ulcers: A Pairwise and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhan-Hong; Shi, Ai-Ming; Hu, Duan-Min; Bao, Jun-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: To compare the efficacy and tolerance of different proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in different doses for patients with duodenal ulcers. Materials and Methods: An electronic database was searched to collect all randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and a pairwise and network meta-analysis were performed. Results: A total of 24 RCTs involving 6188 patients were included. The network meta-analysis showed that there were no significant differences for the 4-week healing rate of duodenal ulcer treated with different PPI regimens except pantoprazle 40 mg/d versus lansoprazole 15 mg/d [Relative risk (RR) = 3.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36–10.31)] and lansoprazole 30 mg/d versus lansoprazole 15 mg/d (RR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.01–6.14). In comparison with H2 receptor antagonists (H2 RA), pantoprazole 40 mg/d and lansoprazole 30 mg/d significantly increase the healing rate (RR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.78–5.14 and RR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.13–3.53, respectively). There was no significant difference for the rate of adverse events between different regimens, including H2 RA for a duration of 4-week of follow up. Conclusion: There was no significant difference for the efficacy and tolerance between the ordinary doses of different PPIs with the exception of lansoprazle 15 mg/d. PMID:28139495

  10. Anti-inflammatory and carbonic anhydrase restoring actions of yam powder (Dioscorea spp) contribute to the prevention of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Ju-Seung; Han, Young-Min; Kangwan, Napapan; Hahm, Ki Baik; Kim, Tae-Sok; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2013-08-01

    Increased acid output, accompanied with a defective defense system, is considered a fundamental pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer (DU). However, relapse of DU occurs despite proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists, hence imposing the enforcement of the defense system. Dried powder of the yam tuber (Dioscorea spp) has been used in traditional folk medicine as a nutritional fortification. We hypothesized that dried-yam powder would prevent DU through improvement of anti-inflammatory actions and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. Therefore, we investigated the preventive effects of dried-yam powder against the cysteamine-induced DU and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Duodenal ulcers were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration of 500 mg/kg cysteamine-HCl. The dried-yam powder was used as a pretreatment before the cysteamine-HCl. The number and size of DU were measured. The expressions of inflammation mediators were checked in duodenal tissues, and the expressions of CAs and malondialdehyde levels were also examined. Cysteamine provoked perforated DU, whereas dried-yam powder significantly prevented DU as much as pantoprazole and significantly reduced the incidence of perforation. The messenger RNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were remarkably decreased in the yam group compared with the cysteamine group, and the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor were significantly attenuated in the yam group. Cysteamine significantly decreased the expression of CAs, whereas yam treatment significantly preserved the expressions of CA IX, XII, and XIV. In conclusion, dried-yam powder exerts a significant protective effect against cysteamine-induced DU by lowering the activity of inflammatory cytokines and free radicals and restoring the activity of CAs, except in CA IV.

  11. [In vivo evaluation of the effect of antacids and H2 receptor blockaders on the intragastric pH in gastric and duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Waserstein, M; Dacoll, C; Cohen, H; Gamboa, L; Brener, A; de Mizrahi, J B; Sempol, D; Neumark, A; Nieto, F; Tenzer, S

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish the best treatment for patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer, by measuring the effects of antiacids and H2-receptor antagonists on gastric pH. 16 patients were studied: 9 of them had a duodenal ulcer, 2 a gastric ulcer and 5 had both. All the patients remained fasting and receiving no drug for 24 hrs. During this 24 hrs., a nasogastric tube was inserted into the stomach and the gastric content was obtained by aspiration each hour from 8 A.M. to 8 P.M. Three days after, each patient received a daily dose of 1 g of Cimetidine, and the whole procedure was repeated. The same was done with 300 mg of Ranitidine daily, 150 ml of Al-Mg antiacids daily, and at last, the same procedure was performed with the association of Ranitidine and Al-Mg antiacids at the mentioned dosage. For the statistical analysis of the data, the mean ordinate of the pH was used as a representative value of each individual's pH. Individual differences (pH with treatment minus pH without treatment) were obtained. The mean effect of each treatment was obtained averaging that differences. For comparison among different drugs, the same procedure was used. Student's paired t tests were performed in a signification level. The buffering capacity was measured in the following way: The percentage of the gastric secretion samples with pH equal or higher than 4 in each treatment and in the total number of patients was confronted with the results obtained in the same patients with no treatment. All the drugs were useful for buffering the gastric acidity, but in different intensity. The association of Ranitidine and Al-Mg antiacids showed to be the most efficient statistically when compared with Cimetidine and Al-Mg antiacids; no statistical difference appeared in the comparison with Ranitidine.

  12. Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    An ulcer is a crater-like sore on the skin or mucous membrane . Ulcers form when the top layers of skin or ... Ulcers can be caused by inflammation or infection. Some ulcers may be caused by a cancer.

  13. Vacuolating Cytotoxin Genotypes Are Strong Markers of Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer-Associated Helicobacter pylori Strains: a Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Nawfal R.; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y.; Burette, Alain; Atherton, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori virulence gene, cagA, and active forms of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, are major determinants of pathogenesis. However, previous studies linking these factors to disease risk have often included patients using aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) or acid-suppressing drugs, both of which may confound results. Also, particularly for gastric cancer (GC), controls have often been of quite different ages. Here, we performed a careful study in a “clean” Belgian population with gastric cancer cases age and sex matched to 4 controls and with a parallel duodenal ulcer (DU) group. As in other populations, there was a close association between the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. For GC, associations were found for vacA s1-positive (P = 0.01, odds ratio [OR], 9.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 201.89), i1-positive (P = 0.003; OR, 12.08; 95% CI, 1.50 to 259.64), and cagA-positive status (P < 0.05; OR, infinity; 95% CI, 0.76 to infinity). For DU, associations were found with vacA s1 (P = 0.002; OR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.52 to 27.87) and i1 (P = 0.004; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.36 to 14.78) status but not with cagA status. Neither condition showed independent associations with the vacA m1 allele or with more biologically active forms of cagA with longer 3′ variable regions. In this Belgian population, the best markers of gastric cancer- and duodenal ulcer-associated strains are the vacA s1 and i1 genotypes. This fits with experimental data showing that the s and i regions are the key determinants of vacuolating cytotoxin activity. PMID:24920772

  14. [Various mechanisms of cytoprotective effect of omeprazole and low intensity laser radiation on the gastroduodenal mucosa in the treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Akhmadkhodzhaev, A M

    2002-01-01

    Clinical studies were made in 130 patients with duodenal ulcer in the phase of exacerbation of the disease. There were 98 men and 32 women who ranged from 17 to 50 years old. Results of examination of 7 essentially healthy subjects were regarded as control. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I patients (n = 48) received a conventional therapy; in group II patients, the adopted therapy was supplemented by omeprazol, 20 mg twice daily, group III patients (n = 43) were (in addition to the above therapeutic regimen) exposed to a session of endoscopic low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) for 5 min (overall 6 to 8 LILI procedures). It has been ascertained that omeprazol exerts a cytoprotective effect on the mucozal barrier of the gastroduodenal zone brought about by increase in the synthesis of glucoproteins in the mucous membrane, improvement of the water-and-elastic properties, and enhancement of resistance of the mucosal barrier to the action of the aggressive factors. Administration of endoscopic LILI treatments in DU patients has also been found out to have a cytoprotective effect but superior to omeprazol. A protective action of LILI is believed to be caused by stimulation of synthesis of the most important components of glycoproteins. A cytoprotective effect of omeprazol and endoscopic LILI is ccompanied by a significant shortening of time for the clinical symptoms to get dispelled, the ulcer cicatrization frequency increased.

  15. CT of gastro-duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Millet, I; Doyon, F Curros; Pages, E; Faget, C; Zins, M; Taourel, P

    2015-10-01

    Gastro-duodenal obstruction encompasses a spectrum of benign and malignant disease. Historically, chronic peptic ulcer disease was the main cause of gastro-duodenal obstruction, whereas now malignant cause with gastric carcinomas for gastric obstruction and pancreatic tumors for duodenal obstruction predominate. This paper reviews the role of CT in diagnosing gastro-duodenal obstruction, its level, its cause by identifying intraluminal, parietal, or extrinsic process, and the presence of complication.

  16. Significant association of the dupA gene of Helicobacter pylori with duodenal ulcer development in a South-east Indian population.

    PubMed

    Alam, Jawed; Maiti, Sankar; Ghosh, Prachetash; De, Ronita; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Suryasnata; Macaden, Ragini; Devarbhavi, Harshad; Ramamurthy, T; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2012-09-01

    A novel virulence factor, duodenal ulcer-promoting gene A (dupA), in Helicobacter pylori has been found to be associated with disease in certain populations but not in others. This study analysed a South-east Indian population as part of the debate about the relevance of dupA for the prediction of clinical outcomes. A total of 140 H. pylori strains isolated from duodenal ulcer (DU) (n = 83) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) patients (n = 57) were screened by PCR and dot-blot hybridization to determine the presence of the ORFs jhp0917 and jhp0918. Part of jhp0917-jhp0918 was sequenced to search for the C/T insertion that characterizes dupA and the levels of dupA transcripts were also assessed. The PCR and dot-blot results indicated the presence of jhp0917 and jhp0918 in 37.3 % (31/83) and 12.2 % (7/57) of H. pylori strains isolated from DU and NUD patients, respectively. Sequencing analysis showed insertion of a C at nt 1386 in the 3' region of jhp0917, forming the dupA gene in 35 strains. RT-PCR analysis detected the dupA transcript in 28 of these 35 strains. The expression level of the dupA transcript varied from strain to strain, as shown by real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that analysis based on PCR only for dupA may produce an erroneous interpretation. The prevalence of dupA was significantly greater among strains isolated from patients with DU than from patients with NUD in this population (P = 0.001, odds ratio = 4.26, confidence interval = 1.60-11.74). Based on these findings, dupA can be considered a biomarker for DU patients in India. The reported discrepancies for this putative virulence marker in different populations may be due to the genome plasticity of H. pylori.

  17. Helicobacter pylori Strains from Duodenal Ulcer Patients Exhibit Mixed babA/B Genotypes with Low Levels of BabA Adhesin and Lewis b Binding.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Samaneh; Schmidt, Alexej; Eybpoosh, Sana; Esmaili, Maryam; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Mohajerani, Nazanin; Oghalaie, Akbar; Eshagh Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Bugaytova, Jeanna; Borén, Thomas; Mohammadi, Marjan

    2016-10-01

    BabA is a Helicobacter pylori cell surface adhesin, which binds to the ABO/Le(b) histo-blood group antigens (Le(b)) and serves as a virulence factor. H. pylori single colonies were isolated from 156 [non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) = 97, duodenal ulcer (DU) = 34, gastric cancer (GC) = 25)] patients. babA and babB genes were evaluated by gene/locus-specific PCR. BabA protein expression and Le(b) binding activity were determined by immunoblotting and ELISA, respectively. The combined categorization of H. pylori strains based on high, low or no levels of BabA expression and Le(b) binding, produced 4 groups: (I) BabA-high/Le(b)-high (36 %), (II) BabA-low/Le(b)-low (26 %), (III) BabA-neg/Le(b)-low (30 %) and (IV) BabA-neg/Le(b)-neg (8 %) strains. The majority (63 %) of the BabA-low/Le(b)-low strains exhibited mixed babA/B genotypes as compared to merely 18 % of the BabA-high/Le(b)-high, 15 % of the BabA-neg/Le(b)-neg and 11 % of the BabA-neg/Le(b)-low (P = 0.0001) strains. In contrast to NUD strains, the great majority (70 %) of DU strains were BabA-low/Le(b)-low (11 %, P = 0.0001), which compared to NUD strains, enhanced the risk of DU by 18.8-fold. In parallel, infection with babA/B mixed genotype strains amplified the risk of DU by 3.6-fold (vs. babA-positive: P = 0.01) to 6.9-fold (vs. babA-negative: P = 0.007). Here, we show higher prevalence of mixed babA/B genotypes among BabA-low/Le(b)-low clinical strains. Recombination of babA and babB genes across their loci may yield lower BabA expression and lower Le(b) binding activity. We conclude that H. pylori strains with lower Le(b) binding activity are better adapted for colonization of the gastric metaplastic patches in the duodenum and enhance the risk of duodenal ulcers.

  18. Association of Intact dupA (dupA1) rather than dupA1 cluster with duodenal ulcer in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Alam, Jawed; Ghosh, Prachetash; Ganguly, Mou; Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2015-01-01

    The duodenal ulcer promoting gene (dupA) and dupA cluster in Helicobacter pylori have been described as a risk factor for duodenal ulcer development in some populations. Polymorphic gene dupA can be divided into two groups, intact dupA1 (long or short type based on the presence or absence of 615-bp extra sequences at the 5' region) having complete reading frame and other truncated dupA2 having frame-shift mutation. This study was aimed to elucidate the role of dupA of H. pylori and their clusters in the disease manifestation of Indian population. A total of 170 H. pylori strains were screened for the presence of dupA, dupA alleles and dupA cluster by PCR and sequencing. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-8) with different dupA variant H. pylori stimulated gastric epithelial cells (AGS cells) was measured by ELISA. A total of 50 strains (29.4%) were positive for dupA among the tested 170 strains. The prevalence of dupA1 in duodenal ulcer (DU) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) populations was found to be 25.5% (25/98) and 11.1% (8/72), respectively and 16.4% (28/170) of the tested strains had dupA1, cagA and vacAs1m1 positive. The distribution of long and short type dupA1 has not been significantly associated with the disease outcome. The dupA cluster analysis showed that 10.2% (10/98) and 8.3% (6/72) strains were positive among DU and NUD, respectively. IL-8 production was significantly higher in dupA1(+) , cagA (+), vacA (+) (902.5 ± 79.01 pg/mL) than dupA2 (+) , cagA (+) , vacA (+) (536.0 ± 100.4 pg/mL, P = 0.008) and dupA (-), cagA (+), vacA (+) (549.7 ± 104.1 pg/mL, P = 0.009). Phylogenetic analysis of dupA indicated that the Indian H. pylori strains clustered with East Asian strains but distinct from Western strains. This is the first known genetic element of Indian H. pylori that is genetically closer to the East Asian strains but differed from the Western strains. The intact dupA1 was significantly associated with DU than NUD (P = 0

  19. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1) is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients.

    PubMed

    Hussein, N R; Tunjel, I; Majed, H S; Yousif, S T; Aswad, S I; Assafi, M S

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  20. Modified Sequential Therapy Regimen versus Conventional Triple Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication in Duodenal Ulcer Patients in China: A Multicenter Clinical Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying-Qun; Xu, Ling; Wang, Bing-Fang; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Jian-Ye; Wang, Chun-Yan; Guo, Chuan-Yong; Xu, Xuan-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Antimicrobial resistance has decreased eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection worldwide. To observe the effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and the treatment of duodenal ulcer by 2 kinds of modified sequential therapy through comparing with that of 10-day standard triple therapy. Methods. A total of 210 patients who were confirmed in duodenal ulcer active or heal period by gastroscopy and H. pylori positive confirmed by rapid urease test, serum anti-H. pylori antibody (ELASE), or histological examination enrolled in the study. All the patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A (70 cases) and group B (70 cases) were provided 10-day modified sequential therapy; group C (70 cases) was provided 10-day standard triple therapy. Patients of group A received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group B received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group C received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for standard 10-day therapy. All drugs were given twice daily. H. pylori eradication rate was checked four to eight weeks after taking the medicine by using a 13C urea breath test. In the first, second, third, seventh, twenty-first, thirty-fifth days respectively, the symptoms of patients such as epigastric gnawing, burning pain, and acidity were evaluated simultaneously. Results. Overall, 210 patients accomplished all therapy schemes, 9 case patients were excluded. The examination result indicated that the H. pylori eradication rate of each group was as follows: group A 92.5% (62/67), group B 86.8% (59/68), and group C 78.8% (52/66). The H. pylori eradication rate of

  1. Duodenal atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... would. Many infants with duodenal atresia also have Down syndrome. Duodenal atresia is often associated with other birth ... abnormality. Other problems (such as those related to Down syndrome) must be treated as appropriate. Outlook (Prognosis) Recovery ...

  2. [Omeprazol and ezomeprazol pharmacokinetics, duration of antisecretory effect, and reasons for their probable changes in duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Serebrova, S Iu; Starodubtsev, A K; Pisarev, V V; Kondratenko, S N; Vasilenko, G F; Dobrovol'skiĭ, O V

    2009-01-01

    There were authentic distinctions between the groups of healthy volunteers and patients with a peptic ulcer disease in Cmax, Tmax, AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), CIt, Vd of omeprazole and Cmax of esomeprazole (Nexium, AstraZeneca). When the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole and ezomeprazole were compared in both groups, there were authentic distinctions in Cmax, AU(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), CIt, T1/2. The patients who had taken omeprazole the time of hypoacide condition was much shorter than in other groups. Disintegration test modeling pHmax for pH oscillation with large amplitude, that is typical for ulcer disease, demonstrated a possibility of early partial release of omeprazole, its acid-depended degradation and reduction of its bioavailability.

  3. Weight loss and decubitus duodenal ulcer in Parkinson's disease treated with levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion.

    PubMed

    Martino, Tommaso; Melchionda, Donato; Tonti, Paolo; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Lalla, Alessandra; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Avolio, Carlo

    2016-12-01

    Apparently, unexplained weight loss is a common symptom experienced by patients affected by Parkinson's disease, especially in those treated by levodopa-carbidopa infusion gel (LCIG) with a poor control of dyskinesias. Weight loss is considered part of gastrointestinal dysfunction seen in patients affected by Parkinson's disease, along with gastroparesis and reduced bowel peristalsis. In patients treated with LCIG, weight loss needs to be accurately evaluated, because of possible underlying life-threatening adverse events, like duodenum decubitus ulcer.

  4. No association of coffee consumption with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, reflux esophagitis, and non-erosive reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of 8,013 healthy subjects in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Takeshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Kodashima, Shinya; Takahashi, Yu; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Oka, Masashi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Probably due to caffeine-induced gastric acid secretion, negative effects of coffee upon various upper-gastrointestinal diseases have been precariously accepted, despite the inadequate epidemiological evidence. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of coffee consumption on four major acid-related diseases: gastric ulcer (GU), duodenal ulcer (DU), reflux esophagitis (RE), and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) based on the large-scale multivariate analysis. Of the 9,517 healthy adults, GU, DU, and RE were diagnosed by endoscopy, and NERD was diagnosed by the symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation without esophageal erosion. Associations between coffee consumption and the four disorders were evaluated, together with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol. We further performed meta-analysis using the random effects model to redefine the relationship between coffee intake and peptic ulcer disease. The eligible 8,013 study subjects comprised of 5,451 coffee drinkers and 2,562 non-coffee drinkers. By univariate analysis, age, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol showed significant associations with coffee consumption. By multiple logistic regression analysis, positively correlated factors with significance were HP infection, current smoking, BMI, and pepsinogen I/II ratio for GU; HP infection, pepsinogen I/II ratio, and current smoking for DU; HP non-infection, male, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, age, and alcohol for RE; younger age, smoking, and female for NERD. The meta-analyses could detect any association of coffee consumption with neither GU nor DU. In conclusion, there are no significant relationship between coffee consumption and the four major acid-related upper gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. No Association of Coffee Consumption with Gastric Ulcer, Duodenal Ulcer, Reflux Esophagitis, and Non-Erosive Reflux Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study of 8,013 Healthy Subjects in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Takeshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Kodashima, Shinya; Takahashi, Yu; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Oka, Masashi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Probably due to caffeine-induced gastric acid secretion, negative effects of coffee upon various upper-gastrointestinal diseases have been precariously accepted, despite the inadequate epidemiological evidence. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of coffee consumption on four major acid-related diseases: gastric ulcer (GU), duodenal ulcer (DU), reflux esophagitis (RE), and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) based on the large-scale multivariate analysis. Of the 9,517 healthy adults, GU, DU, and RE were diagnosed by endoscopy, and NERD was diagnosed by the symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation without esophageal erosion. Associations between coffee consumption and the four disorders were evaluated, together with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol. We further performed meta-analysis using the random effects model to redefine the relationship between coffee intake and peptic ulcer disease. The eligible 8,013 study subjects comprised of 5,451 coffee drinkers and 2,562 non-coffee drinkers. By univariate analysis, age, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol showed significant associations with coffee consumption. By multiple logistic regression analysis, positively correlated factors with significance were HP infection, current smoking, BMI, and pepsinogen I/II ratio for GU; HP infection, pepsinogen I/II ratio, and current smoking for DU; HP non-infection, male, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, age, and alcohol for RE; younger age, smoking, and female for NERD. The meta-analyses could detect any association of coffee consumption with neither GU nor DU. In conclusion, there are no significant relationship between coffee consumption and the four major acid-related upper gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:23776588

  6. Duodenal Perforation Precipitated by Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Rajat, Raghunath; Deepu, David; Jonathan, Arul Jeevan; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness usually presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, and a pathognomonic eschar. Severe infection may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in the form of gastric mucosal erosions and ulcerations owing to vasculitis resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding is common. This process may worsen a pre-existent asymptomatic peptic ulcer, causing duodenal perforation, and present as an acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration. We report the case of a patient with no previous symptoms or risk factors for a duodenal ulcer, who presented with an acute duodenal perforation, probably precipitated by scrub typhus infection.

  7. [Impact of isovolumic hemodilution on the local hemodynamics of the resected stomach in patients with ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Khalimov, E V; Strelkov, N S; Kapustin, B B

    2005-01-01

    The influence of isovolumic hemodilution on the local hemodynamics of the resected stomach in patients with a complicated course of duodenal ulcer was studied. In the course of the analysis of parameters of the local blood flow of the intact and resected stomach, the best indices were received in patients with preoperative isovolumic hemodilution. Preoperative isovolumic hemodilution in patients with a complicated course of duodenal ulcer after the stomach resection reduces the risk of early postoperative complications.

  8. Analysis of serum antibody profile against H pylori VacA and CagA antigens in Turkish patients with duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Erzin, Yusuf; Altun, Sibel; Dobrucali, Ahmet; Aslan, Mustafa; Erdamar, Sibel; Dirican, Ahmet; Tuncer, Murat; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the frequency of seropositivity against CagA, VacA proteins and to determine their independent effects on the development of duodenal ulcer (DU) in Turkish patients. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective one from a tertiary referral hospital. Dyspeptic patients who were referred to our endoscopy unit for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between June 2003 and March 2004 and diagnosed to have DU or nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) were included. Biopsies from the antrum and body of the stomach were taken in order to assess the current H pylori status by histology, rapid urease test and culture. Fasting sera were obtained from all patients and H pylori status of all sera was determined by IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. All seropositive patients were further analysed using Western blot assays detecting IgG antibodies against CagA and VacA proteins. The χ2 test was used for statistical comparison of the values and age-sex adjusted multiple regression analysis was used to determine the independent effects of CagA and VacA seropositivities on the development of DU. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with DU and 62 patients with NUD were eligible for the final analysis. Seropositivity for anti-CagA was detected in 51 of 62 (82%), and in 55 of 63 (87%) patients with NUD and DU, respectively (P = no significance), and seropositivity for anti-VacA was found in 25 of 62 (40% ) and in 16 of 63 (25%) patients, with NUD and DU, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that none of these virulence factors is associated with the development of DU in the studied Turkish patients with dyspepsia. PMID:17106939

  9. Analysis of serum antibody profile against H pylori VacA and CagA antigens in Turkish patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Erzin, Yusuf; Altun, Sibel; Dobrucali, Ahmet; Aslan, Mustafa; Erdamar, Sibel; Dirican, Ahmet; Tuncer, Murat; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2006-11-14

    To investigate the frequency of seropositivity against CagA, VacA proteins and to determine their independent effects on the development of duodenal ulcer (DU) in Turkish patients. The study was designed as a prospective one from a tertiary referral hospital. Dyspeptic patients who were referred to our endoscopy unit for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between June 2003 and March 2004 and diagnosed to have DU or nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) were included. Biopsies from the antrum and body of the stomach were taken in order to assess the current H pylori status by histology, rapid urease test and culture. Fasting sera were obtained from all patients and H pylori status of all sera was determined by IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. All seropositive patients were further analysed using Western blot assays detecting IgG antibodies against CagA and VacA proteins. The c2 test was used for statistical comparison of the values and age-sex adjusted multiple regression analysis was used to determine the independent effects of CagA and VacA seropositivities on the development of DU. Sixty-three patients with DU and 62 patients with NUD were eligible for the final analysis. Seropositivity for anti-CagA was detected in 51 of 62 (82%), and in 55 of 63 (87%) patients with NUD and DU, respectively (P = no significance), and seropositivity for anti-VacA was found in 25 of 62 (40% ) and in 16 of 63 (25%) patients, with NUD and DU, respectively. These findings suggest that none of these virulence factors is associated with the development of DU in the studied Turkish patients with dyspepsia.

  10. Management of duodenal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Sandler, J T; Deitel, M

    1981-03-01

    A review of records of 27 patients with duodenal fistulas admitted to St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto since 1969, when total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was instituted, showed that in 19 patients the fistula formed after gastric resection, pyloroplasty or transduodenal sphincteroplasty. The remaining fistulas resulted from delayed presentation of perforated duodenal ulcers, trauma suffered in motor vehicle accidents and disease in neighbouring organs. Management included early nasogastric suctioning, withholding oral intake, draining the fistula contents, protecting the skin effectively, replacing fluid and electrolytes and administering TPN to suppress secretions and to promote anabolism. In seven patients who had associated duodenal obstruction in this intensely inflamed area, a gastrojejunostomy was performed. In no instance was a direct attack made on the fistula. In 25 patients (92.6%) the fistula healed spontaneously in an average of 21 days. Two patients (7.4%) died with patent fistulas. It appears that a direct surgical attack on duodenal fistulas is rarely necessary. With appropriate management, the majority will heal spontaneously. Total parenteral nutrition is the cornerstone of therapy and gastrojejunostomy is invaluable in certain cases.

  11. [Peptic ulcer

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A S

    2000-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a current review about pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of peptic ulcer disease in children, based on the reviewed publications and the author personal experience. METHODS: We revised the most relevant articles about peptic ulcer in children, published from the last 20 years. RESULTS: The gastroduodenal peptic ulcer is very common in adults, mostly in the developing countries. Although it is less frequent in children, the optical fibroendoscopy has improved the number of diagnosed cases. The peptic ulcer is classified as its etiology in primary and secondary. The secondary peptic ulcer is related to a subjacent disease or use of drugs, while the primary ulcer happens in the absence of underlying systemic diseases The primary duodenal ulcer is the most common presentation, and there are strong evidences of the H. pylori association in the etiology. Clinical presentation changes with age and ulcer type. Secondary ulcers are mostly acute and sometimes dramatic, while the primary ones have a chronic evolution mostly similar to patients with functional recurrent abdominal pain, but the presence of epigastric pain, feeding-related pain, vomiting, bleeding, familiar history for peptic ulcer, nocturnal pain, and male gender are strongly related to peptic ulcer. The acid antisecretory agents have great efficacy on relieving symptoms and solving ulcerate lesion, although the H. pylori eradication itself prevents primary duodenal ulcer recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The primary peptic ulcer involve many factors in Its etiopathogenesis, being H. pylori the most important of them Although there isn t yet a ideal therapeutic course. The antibiotics play an important role in peptic ulcer and the H. pylori research must be done for na accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Complete duodenogastric reflux: A scintigraphic sign of significant duodenal pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Hanner, J.S. )

    1989-09-01

    Complete reflux of duodenal contents into the stomach with persistent retention on hepatobiliary scintigraphy or radionuclide gastrointestinal bleeding studies is a relatively rare occurrence. Two cases of complete duodenogastric reflux are reported: one case in a patient with a perforated duodenal diverticulum and the other in a patient with an inflamed, bleeding duodenal ulcer. The finding of complete duodenogastric reflux and persistent retention in the stomach should instigate a thorough evaluation for significant duodenal pathology.

  13. Inhibitory potency of twice-a-day omeprazole on gastric acidity is enhanced by eradication of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A B R; Keelan, M; Lastiwka, R; Appelman-Eszczuk, S; Zuk, L; Drozdowski, L; Prentice, A; Sinclair, P

    2003-10-01

    The gastric pH-elevating effect of proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole has been reported to be greater in the presence than in the absence of an H. pylori infection. It is unknown if this effect persists when a higher dose of omeprazole is taken. We undertook both 24-hr pH-metry and 24-hr aspiration studies in 12 H. pylori-positive patients with a history of duodenal ulcer (DU); (1) when not on omeprazole; (2) when on omeprazole 20 mg twice a day for 8 days; (3) two months after eradication of H. pylori and when not on omeprazole; and (4) after eradication of H. pylori and when on omeprazole twice a day. Eradication of H. pylori in DU results in lower mean and median pH; decreased percent pH > or = 3/ > or = 4, and greater median H+ after breakfast, after lunch, and overnight; and omeprazole appears to have less of a pH-elevating effect in the absence than in the presence of an H. pylori infection. The fall in gastric juice NH3 concentration as a result of eradicating H. pylori partially explained the lower pH-elevating effect of omeprazole. The variation in acid inhibitory effect of omeprazole after as compared with before eradication of H. pylori could not be explained by differences; (1) in gastric juice concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-8, IL-13, or epidermal growth factor; (2) in the fasting or fed total concentration of gastric juice bile acids; (3) in the fasting concentrations or area under-the-curve (AUC) of the gastric H+ concentrations in response to food; or (4) in the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole. The difference in H+ AUC without omeprazole minus with omeprazole was actually greater when compared after versus before eradication of H. pylori. Thus, in DU the pH-elevating potency of omeprazole taken twice a day is greater in the presence than in the absence of an H. pylori infection.

  14. Tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate and ranitidine in duodenal ulcer. Healing and influence on recurrence.

    PubMed

    Bianchi Porro, G; Lazzaroni, M; Barbara, L; Corinaldesi, R; Dal Monte, P R; D'Imperio, N; Mazzacca, G; D'Arienzo, A; Cheli, R; Bovero, E

    1988-12-01

    One hundred patients were entered into a double-blind, double-dummy comparison of tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate (TDB) versus ranitidine, to evaluate short-term healing rates, and successfully healed patients were then entered into a follow-up phase to observe relapse rates. At 4 weeks 84% of patients treated with TDB and 68% of those treated with ranitidine had healed. At 8 weeks these figures had risen to 96% and 90%, respectively (p = NS). After a year's follow-up study 84% of patients healed initially with ranitidine had relapsed, whereas in the case of patients healed initially with TDB the relapse rate was 67% (p less than 0.05). The results confirm that in the short term, TDB is as effective as ranitidine, whereas the significantly better protection against relapse offered by TDB compared with ranitidine underlines the importance of restoring mucosal defence, an approach that to date has been somewhat overlooked.

  15. Anti-ulcer Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explains the procedure of ethanol-induced ulcer to check the protective effect of drugs over induced ulcer in rats. Ulcer is defined as the erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum and is caused by the disruptions of the gastric mucosal defence and repair systems. Ulceration of stomach is called gastric ulcer and that of duodenum is called duodenal ulcer and together peptic ulcer. In clinical practice, peptic ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which commonly occurs in developed countries.

  16. Duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile decrease duodenal neutralization of acid in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.S.; Gallagher, G.T.; Szabo, S.

    1983-08-01

    Neutralization of acid was evaluated in rat proximal duodenal segments isolated from biliary and pancreatic secretions. Duodenal ulcerogenic doses of cysteamine produced a significant decrease in acid disposal 0.5-2 hr after treatment. Oral or subcutaneous administration of the duodenal ulcerogen was effective. The potent ulcerogen cysteamine produced a more pronounced decrease than propionitrile (a weak duodenal ulcerogen). The failure of ethanolamine, a nonulcerogenic structural analog of cysteamine to significantly alter acid disposal suggests that the effect is not due to the toxic properties of the duodenal ulcerogen. The results reinforce the concept that the duodenum is able to dispose of significant quantities of acid. The decrease in acid-handling may contribute to duodenal susceptibility to acid after treatment with ulcerogens and possibly reflects pathophysiologic changes early in duodenal ulceration.

  17. Short-term elevation of intracranial pressure does neither influence duodenal motility nor frequency of bolus transport events: a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Schnoor, Joerg; Zoremba, Norbert; Korinth, Marcus C; Kochs, Bjoern; Silny, Jiri; Rossaint, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Background Patients with traumatic brain injuries and raised intracranial pressure (ICP) display biphasic response with faster gastric emptying during the early stage followed by a prolonged gastric transit time later. While duodenal contractile activity plays a pivotal role in transpyloric transit we investigated the effects of raised intracranial pressure on duodenal motility during the early phase. In order to exclude significant deterioration of mucosal blood supply which might also influence duodenal motility, luminal microdialysis was used in conjunction. Methods During general anaesthesia, 11 pigs (32–37 kg, German Landrace) were instrumented with both a luminal catheter for impedancometry and a luminal catheter for microdialysis into the proximal duodenum. Additionally, a catheter was inserted into the left ventricle to increase the intracranial pressure from baseline up to 50 mmHg in steps of 10 mmHg each hour by injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. At the same time, duodenal motility was recorded continuously. Duodenal luminal lactate, pyruvate, and glucose concentrations were measured during physiological state and during elevated intracranial pressure of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mmHg in six pigs. Five pigs served as controls. Results Although there was a trend towards shortened migrating motor cycle (MMC) length in pigs with raised ICP, the interdigestive phase I–III and the MMC cycle length were comparable in the groups. Spontaneous MMC cycles were not disrupted during intracranial hypertension. The mean concentration of lactate and glucose was comparable in the groups, while the concentration of pyruvate was partially higher in the study group than in the controls (p < 0.05). This was associated with a decrease in lactate to pyruvate ratio (p < 0.05). Conclusion The present study suggests that a stepwise and hourly increase of the intracranial pressure of up to 50 mmHg, does not influence duodenal motility activity in a significant manner. A

  18. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization on Histological Grading of Chronic Gastritis in Korean Patients with Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joongwon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Sill Moo

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: We conducted an analysis of correlation between histological grading of chronic gastritis and the presence of H. pylori infection to investigate if H. pylori influences histological severity of chronic gastritis in Korean patients with peptic ulcers. Methods: Gastroscopic antral biopsy specimens and peripheral venous blood were taken from 80 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. H. pylori was identified microscopically in sections with Giemsa staining and quantitative grading of cultured H. pylori was reported on a scale 0 to 3. The histopathological features of biopsy specimens were reported according to the Sydney classification of chronic gastritis. Serum gastritis and pepsinogen concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: H. pylori was identified in 62.5% (20 of 32 GU, 30 of 48 DU) of the study group. Gastric clonization rate of H. pylori did not increased with age. Forty of 50 biopsy specimens with H. pylori and also 23 of 30 biopsy specimens without H. pylori showed active chronic gastritis. There was no significant correlation overall between the presence of H. pylori and histological grading of chronic gastritis, including activity, and also no association was found between the quantitative grading of H. pylori and the histological grading of chronic gastritis. With and without H. pylori, a mean of serum gastritis concentration (79.4±43.0 pg/ml and 80.2±31.9 pg/ml) showed no significant difference, but a mean of serum pepsinogen concentration (87.7±41.6 ng/ml and 119±34.4 ng/ml) showed significant difference between the populations with and without H. pylori (p=0.001) Conclusions: The influence of H. pylori on histological grading of chronic gastritis in Korean is less than that in prior studies of Western countries, and further investigation of pathogenesis of H. pylori in chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration is necessary. PMID:7495770

  19. Medical therapy of peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, K R; Isenberg, J I

    1992-04-01

    The gastric duodenal mucosa normally is protected from the damaging effects of gastric acid and pepsin by ill-defined mechanisms. Ulcers may arise when there is an imbalance between the aggressive and defensive factors that renders the mucosa susceptible to damage. A variety of factors have been identified that may favor the development of peptic ulcers, but no single pathophysiologic defect applies in all ulcer patients. In duodenal ulcers, gastric acid hypersecretion is observed in as many as one third of patients; however, most patients with duodenal ulcers secrete normal amounts of gastric acid. Decreased mucosal bicarbonate secretion may be important in at least some duodenal ulcer patients. Use of NSAIDs may cause either gastric or duodenal ulcers, probably through the inhibition of mucosal prostaglandin synthesis and disruption of mucosal defenses. Finally, a recently identified bacterium, H. pylori, causes a chronic gastritis that is found in the overwhelming majority of patients with duodenal ulcers and non-NSAID-associated gastric ulcers. This bacterium may play a pivotal role in ulcer pathogenesis and, especially, in ulcer recurrences. A number of drugs of proved efficacy are available for the treatment of acute duodenal and gastric ulcers. The H2 receptor antagonists administered once daily remain the mainstay of ulcer therapy because of their efficacy, ease of use, and excellent safety profile. More thorough and long-lasting acid inhibition is afforded by the H+/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor omeprazole. This agent also promotes more rapid ulcer healing, but in most patients, this minor advantage may not justify the higher cost. It is not known whether more rapid healing will translate into lower ulcer complication rates. Until further data are available, this drug may be preferable in patients with large or complicated ulcers. In patients with refractory ulcers, omeprazole is clearly superior to other available agents. Agents that promote mucosal defense

  20. Prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and pathological features of duodenitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Arik; Hardee, Steven; Rojas-velasquez, Danilo; Escalera, Sandra; Morotti, Raffaella A; Pashankar, Dinesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While gastritis and esophagitis are well studied in children, there is very limited literature on duodenitis in children. We aimed to assess the prevalence, etiology, clinical, endoscopic, and pathological features in a large cohort of unselected children with duodenitis. Methods We reviewed the pathology reports of all upper endoscopies performed at our institution over 5 years to identify children with duodenitis. Biopsy sections were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of duodenitis. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic data and presence of associated gastritis and esophagitis were noted in all children with duodenitis. Etiology of duodenitis was correlated with the patient's clinical diagnosis. Results Out of 2772 children who had endoscopy, 352 had duodenitis with the prevalence rate of 12.7%. Gastritis was seen in 64% of children with duodenitis compared with 46% of children without duodenitis (P < 0.001). Common indications for endoscopy in children with duodenitis were abdominal pain, positive celiac serology and diarrhea. The most common etiology was celiac disease (32%), followed by Crohn's disease (13%), ulcerative colitis (3%), and Helicobacter pylori infection (6%). In 63% of cases, endoscopic appearance of duodenum was normal. Cryptitis, villous changes and cellular infiltration were noted on histology. Conclusions Prevalence of duodenitis is 12.7% in children undergoing endoscopy. Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease are common causes of duodenitis. Associated gastritis is common in children with duodenitis and correlation of endoscopic appearance with histology is poor. PMID:26252915

  1. From cysteamine to MPTP: structure-activity studies with duodenal ulcerogens

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Cho, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteamine is the first chemical identified that induces acute and chronic duodenal ulcers in rodents. Structure-activity studies with cysteamine, propionitrile and their derivatives, as well as with analogues of toluene, revealed numerous alkyl and aryl duodenal ulcerogens. Among these, one of the most interesting from an etiologic and pathogenetic point of view is the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP, which shows structural similarities with toluene. The chemically-induced duodenal ulcers are similar and localized on the anterior and posterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Both cysteamine and MPTP affect endogenous dopamine; MPTP is especially potent in depleting central dopamine and inducing lesions in the substantia nigra. MPTP given in high doses induces Parkinson's disease-like syndrome and gastric ulcers. Cysteamine and propionitrile also cause dyskinesia in large and multiple doses. The motility disorders and duodenal ulcers are abolished by dopamine agonists. Cysteamine and MPTP have been known to increase and decrease gastric acid secretion, respectively. However, both compounds induced duodenal dysmotility, decreased bicarbonate production, and reduced its delivery from distal to proximal duodenum. These factors decrease acid neutralization in the duodenal bulb and contribute to duodenal ulceration. Thus, studies with animal models may reveal endogenous mediators and specific receptors which might be involved in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Specific structure-activity studies in toxicology may lead to new insights in the pathogenesis and pharmacology of a poorly understood human disorder such as duodenal ulceration. 39 references.

  2. Influence of peri-duodenal non-constrictive cuff on the body weight of rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao; Mattar, Samer G; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2015-02-01

    Weight loss has been found to improve or resolve cardiovascular comorbidities. There is a significant need for reversible device approaches to weight loss. Non-constrictive cuff (NCC) is made of implantable silicone rubber with an internal diameter greater than the duodenum. Ten or 11 NCC were individually mounted along the duodenum from the pyloric sphincter toward the distal duodenum to cover ~22 mm in the length. Twelve Wistar rats were implanted with NCC, and six served as sham, and both groups were observed over 4 months. Six rats with implant had their NCC removed and were observed for additional 4 weeks. The food intake decreased from 40.1 to 28.1 g/day after 4 months of NCC implant. The body weight gain decreased from 1.76 to 0.46 g/day after 4 months of NCC implant. The fasting glucose decreased from 87.7 to 75.3 mg/dl at terminal day. The duodenal muscle layer covered by the NCC increased from 0.133 to 0.334 mm. After 4 weeks of NCC removal, the food intake, body weight gain, and fasting glucose recovered to 36.2, 2.51 g/day, and 83.9 mg/dl. The duodenal muscle layer covered by the NCC decreased to 0.217 mm. The NCC implant placed on the proximal duodenum is safe in rats for a 4-month period. The efficacy of the NCC implant is significant for decrease in food intake, body weight gain, and fasting glucose in a normal rat model. The removal of NCC implant confirmed a cause-effect relation with food intake and hence body weight.

  3. Influence of ambient temperatures on the production of restraint ulcers in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the influence of ambient temperature on the production of restraint ulcers in the rat is described. It concludes that the production of restrain ulcers, is favored by the reduction of the environmental temperature, whether the rat has been subjected to a fast or not.

  4. The influence of trisomy 21 on the incidence and severity of congenital heart defects in patients with duodenal atresia.

    PubMed

    Keckler, Scott J; St Peter, Shawn D; Spilde, Troy L; Ostlie, Daniel J; Snyder, Charles L

    2008-08-01

    Duodenal atresia is associated with a wide variety of congenital malformations. Trisomy 21 occurs in approximately one-thirds of infants with duodenal atresia. Congenital heart disease in patients with trisomy 21 and duodenal atresia is well known. However, the frequency and spectrum of congenital heart defects in infants with duodenal atresia and a normal karyotype has not been outlined in the literature. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective chart review to clarify our knowledge about this population. Retrospective review of the medical record was performed on patients with duodenal atresia/stenosis from January 1995 to September 2007. Demographic data included birth weight and gestational age. Variables of interest included cardiac defects and karyotype. Surgical repair for duodenal and cardiac malformations were reviewed. Ninety-four patients with duodenal atresia/stenosis were identified. Average gestational age was 36 weeks and birth weight was 2,536 g. Trisomy 21 was identified in 39 (41%) patients. Overall, 37 patients (39.3%) had a congenital heart defect. Defects were identified in 24 (61.5%) patients with trisomy 21, when compared to 13 (23.6%) patients with a normal karyotype. Of the patients with congenital heart defects and trisomy 21, 11 (28.2%) required operative repair compared to the 6 (10.9%) patients with a defect and normal karyotype. Therefore, in patients with duodenal atresia, the presence of trisomy 21 carries a relative risk of 2.61 for congenital heart defects, and relative risk of 2.59 for open heart surgery. In patients with duodenal atresia, the presence of trisomy 21 carries a 2.5-fold increased risk of cardiac defect and the same increased risk for repairing a cardiac defect.

  5. Factors that influence healing of chronic venous leg ulcers: a retrospective cohort*

    PubMed Central

    Scotton, Marilia Formentini; Miot, Hélio Amante; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous ulcers have a significant impact on patient quality of life, and constitute a worldwide public health problem. Treatment is complex, with high failure rates. OBJECTIVES To identify clinical and therapeutic factors that influence healing of venous ulcers. METHODS Retrospective cohort study of patients with venous ulcers. Ulcer area was measured at the first visit (T0) and after 6 months (T6) and 1 year (T12). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more at T6 and T12 was the outcome of interest, weighted by clinical, demographic and treatment aspects. RESULTS Ninety-four patients were included (137 ulcers). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more was seen in 40.1% of patients (95%CI 31.9 to 48.4%) at T6 and 49.6% (95%CI 41.2 to 58.1%) at T12. Complete healing occurred in 16.8% (95%CI 10.5 to 23.1%) at T6 and 27% (95%CI 19.5 to 39.5%) at T12. The lowest ulcer area reductions at T6 were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.91 to 0.98), poor adherence to compression therapy (RR=4.04; 95%CI 1.31 to 12.41), and infection episodes (RR= 0.42; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.76). At T12, lower reductions were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.92 to 0.98), longer topical antibiotic use (RR=0.93; 95%CI 0.87 to 0.99), and systemic antibiotic use (RR=0.63; 95%CI 0.40 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS Longstanding ulcer, infection, poor adherence to compression therapy, and longer topical and systemic antibiotic use were independently correlated with worse healing rates. PMID:24937814

  6. Duodenal Toxicity After Fractionated Chemoradiation for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Beddar, Sam; Briere, Tina; Pham, Mary; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Improving local control is critical to improving survival and quality of life for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, previous attempts at radiation dose escalation have been limited by duodenal toxicity. In order to guide future studies, we analyzed the clinical and dosimetric factors associated with duodenal toxicity in patients undergoing fractionated chemoradiation for LAPC. Methods and Materials: Medical records and treatment plans of 106 patients with LAPC who were treated with chemoradiation between July 2005 and June 2010 at our institution were reviewed. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy. Seventy-eight patients were treated with conventional radiation to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions; 28 patients received dose-escalated radiation therapy (range, 57.5-75.4 Gy in 28-39 fractions). Treatment-related toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results: Twenty patients had treatment-related duodenal toxicity events, such as duodenal inflammation, ulceration, and bleeding. Four patients had grade 1 events, 8 had grade 2, 6 had grade 3, 1 had grade 4, and 1 had grade 5. On univariate analysis, a toxicity grade ≥2 was associated with tumor location, low platelet count, an absolute volume (cm{sup 3}) receiving a dose of at least 55 Gy (V{sub 55} {sub Gy} > 1 cm{sup 3}), and a maximum point dose >60 Gy. Of these factors, only V{sub 55} {sub Gy} ≥1 cm{sup 3} was associated with duodenal toxicity on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 6.7; range, 2.0-18.8; P=.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a duodenal V{sub 55} {sub Gy} >1 cm{sup 3} is an important dosimetric predictor of grade 2 or greater duodenal toxicity and establishes it as a

  7. Cushing's ulcer: Further reflections

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, William J.; Bashir, Asif; Dababneh, Haitham; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors, traumatic head injury, and other intracranial processes including infections, can cause increased intracranial pressure and lead to overstimulation of the vagus nerve. As a result, increased secretion of gastric acid may occur which leads to gastro-duodenal ulcer formation known as Cushing's ulcer. Methods: A review of original records of Dr. Harvey Cushing's patients suffering from gastro-duodenal ulcers was performed followed by a discussion of the available literature. We also reviewed the clinical records of the patients never reported by Cushing to gain his perspective in describing this phenomenon. Dr. Cushing was intrigued to investigate gastro-duodenal ulcers as he lost patients to acute gastrointestinal perforations following successful brain tumor operations. It is indeed ironic that Harvey Cushing developed a gastro-duodenal ulcer in his later years with failing health. Results: Clinically shown by Cushing's Yale Registry, a tumor or lesion can disrupt this circuitry, leading to gastroduodenal ulceration. Cushing said that it was “reasonable to believe that the perforations following posterior fossa cerebellar operations were produced in like fashion by an irritative disturbance either of fiber tracts or vagal centers in the brain stem.” Conclusion: Harvey Cushing's pioneering work depicted in his Yale registry serves as a milestone for continuing research that can further discern this pathway. PMID:25972936

  8. Inferior vena caval filter strut perforation causing intramural duodenal haematoma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Zoheb Berry; Organ, Nicole M.; Deane, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of intramural duodenal haematoma caused by inferior vena caval (IVC) filter strut perforation requiring innovative open and endovascular retrieval. A 32-year-old woman presents in shock with dull epigastric pain and non-bilious vomiting. She had previously had an IVC filter for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Computed tomography demonstrated strut perforation into the second part of the duodenum, causing intramural haematoma and duodenal obstruction. Laparotomy facilitated evacuation of the duodenal haematoma, while the IVC filter was retrieved by endovascular means. Causes of duodenal haematoma include blunt trauma, haematologic malignancy, coagulopathy, percutaneous or endoscopic procedures, pancreatic pathology, peptic ulcer disease and aortoenteric fistula. Duodenal haematoma is rare and is usually managed conservatively or by percutaneous drainage. While this patient had a typical presentation, IVC filter strut perforation has not been described in the literature as a cause for duodenal haematoma. PMID:27887016

  9. [Ulcer epidemiology: old knowledge in a new light].

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, A

    1992-11-01

    Low standards of hygiene lead to frequent gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) during early childhood and, subsequently, the development of diffuse atrophic gastric. Atrophic gastric in conjunction with environmental factors, such as high dietary salt and low consumption of fruits or vegetables, promote intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and, possibly, gastric cancer. Under improved standards of hygiene, Hp is contracted only during adulthood, and gastric atrophy becomes less marked. The remaining capacity to secrete acid suffices to induce ulcers in the gastric mucosa weakened by the Hp infection. In adults with high acid output, the strongly acidic environment of the gastric corpus is too hostile for Hp, and it colonizes mainly the antrum. Duodenal mucosa exposed to high volumes of acid changes into epithelium covered by gastric metaplasia, more suitable for colonization by Hp than the original mucosa. The ensuing duodenitis in conjunction with the increased acid load favours duodenal ulceration. Acute exogenous influences, such as smoking, stress or physical workload, shift the delicate balance of defensive and aggressive factors at the mucosal level towards ulceration. The improvement in sanitation and the development of clean water supplies deferred the infection from childhood into adulthood and later prevented its occurrence altogether. The epidemiology of Hp could explain the historic trends of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer and their similar geographic distributions.

  10. Laparoscopic resection of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Zioni, Tammy; Dizengof, Vitaliy; Kirshtein, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Only a few studies have revealed using laparoscopic technique with limited resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the duodenum. A 68-year-old man was admitted to the hospital due to upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Evaluation revealed an ulcerated, bleeding GI tumour in the second part of the duodenum. After control of bleeding during gastroduodenoscopy, he underwent a laparoscopic wedge resection of the area. During 1.5 years of follow-up, the patient is disease free, eats drinks well, and has regained weight. Surgical resection of duodenal GIST with free margins is the main treatment of this tumour. Various surgical treatment options have been reported. Laparoscopic resection of duodenal GIST is an advanced and challenging procedure requiring experience and good surgical technique. The laparoscopic limited resection of duodenal GIST is feasible and safe, reducing postoperative morbidity without compromising oncologic results. PMID:28281485

  11. [Influence of KU-1257 on the recurrence and relapse of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers in rats].

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, H; Ohsawa, A; Kobayashi, F; Ohkubo, H; Taga, F

    1996-02-01

    The influence of KU-1257 on the recurrence and relapse of acetic acid ulcers in rats was investigated grossly and histologically in comparison with that of cimetidine. The ulcer was induced by topical application of glacial acetic acid at the junction of the corpus and antrum on the anterior wall of the stomach. The drug was administered from the 5th to the 153rd day after the ulcer induction and then discontinued to the 238th day. The healing rates of the control groups (control) rose until the 119th day after the ulcer induction, followed by ups and downs. The quality of healing in the regenerated mucosa and the granulation tissue of the healed ulcer was poor, resulting in the recurrence and relapse of ulcers. The recurrence and relapse of ulcers also occurred in the cimetidine groups (CIM). On the other hand, the KU-1257 groups (KU-1257) showed much lower recurrence and relapse rates of ulcers than the control and CIM groups. Moreover, KU-1257, unlike CIM, improved the quality of ulcer healing throughout the period of its administration and even after it was discontinued. These results suggest that KU-1257 improves the quality of ulcer healing, and this may contribute to the low recurrence and relapse rates of ulcers.

  12. [The duodenal microbiota composition in children with active coeliac disease is influenced by the degree of enteropathy].

    PubMed

    Girón Fernández-Crehuet, F; Tapia-Paniagua, S; Moriñigo Gutiérrez, M A; Navas-López, V M; Juliana Serrano, M; Blasco-Alonso, J; Sierra Salinas, C

    2016-04-01

    To establish whether the duodenal mucosa microbiota of children with active coeliac disease (CD) and healthy controls (HC) differ in composition and biodiversity. Samples of duodenal biopsies in 11 CD patients were obtained at diagnosis, and in 6 HC who were investigated for functional intestinal disorders of non-CD origin. Total duodenal microbiota and the belonging to the genus Lactobacillus using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were analysed. The banding patterns obtained in the resulting gels were analysed to determine the differences between the microbiota of CD patients and HC (FPQuest 4.5) while environmental indexes (richness, diversity and habitability) were calculated with the Past version 2.17 program. The intestinal microbiota of patients with Marsh 3c lesion showed similarity of 98% and differs from other CD patients with other type of histologic lesion as Marsh3a, Marsh3b and Marsh2. The main differences were obtained in ecological indexes belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, with significant richness, diversity and habitability reduction in CD patients. In CD bands were categorized primarily with Streptococcus, Bacteroides and E.coli species. In HC the predominant bands were Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Acinetobacter, though the Streptococcus and Bacteroides were lower. The celiac patients with major histological affectation presented a similar microbiota duodenal. The ecological indexes applied to the genus Lactobacillus were significantly reduced in CD. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and Clinical, Endoscopic, and Pathological Features of Duodenitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Alper, Arik; Hardee, Steven; Rojas-Velasquez, Danilo; Escalera, Sandra; Morotti, Raffaella A; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2016-02-01

    Although gastritis and esophagitis are well studied in children, there is very limited literature on duodenitis in children. We aimed to assess the prevalence, etiology, clinical, endoscopic, and pathological features in a large cohort of unselected children with duodenitis. We reviewed the pathology reports of all the upper endoscopies performed at our institution during 5 years to identify children with duodenitis. Biopsy sections were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of duodenitis. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic data, and the presence of associated gastritis and esophagitis were noted in all of the children with duodenitis. The etiology of duodenitis was correlated with the patients' clinical diagnosis. Out of 2772 children who had endoscopy, 352 had duodenitis with the prevalence rate of 12.7%. Gastritis was seen in 64% of children with duodenitis compared with 46% of children without duodenitis (P < 0.001). Common indications for endoscopy in children with duodenitis were abdominal pain, positive celiac serology, and diarrhea. The most common etiology was celiac disease (32%), followed by Crohn disease (13%), ulcerative colitis (3%), and Helicobacter pylori infection (6%). In 63% of cases, the endoscopic appearance of duodenum was normal. Cryptitis, villous changes, and cellular infiltration were noted on histology. Prevalence of duodenitis is 12.7% in children undergoing endoscopy. Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease are common causes of duodenitis. Associated gastritis is common in children with duodenitis, and the correlation of endoscopic appearance with histology is poor.

  14. Effects of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Expressions and Functional Activities of Human Duodenal Mucosal Bicarbonate Transport Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guorong; Jin, Hai; Deng, Shili; Xu, Jingyu; Liu, Xuemei; Xie, Rui; Tuo, Biguang

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced duodenal ulcerogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of H. pylori infection on the expressions and functional activities of human duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins and hope to further clarify the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. The experiments were performed in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers, H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, and H. pylori-negative healthy subjects. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion was measured by Ussing Chamber technology. The expressions of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins, CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) and SLC26A6 (solute-linked carrier 26 gene A6), in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers were markedly lower than those in healthy controls. Basal and both forskolin- and prostaglandin E2 -stimulated duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretions in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers were also lower than those in healthy controls. After anti-H. pylori treatment for H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers, duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion and CFTR and SLC26A6 expressions in H. pylori-eradicated patients recovered to levels comparable to healthy controls, but those were found to be not significantly altered in non-H. pylori-eradicated patients. The further results showed that decreases in the H. pylori-induced CFTR and SLC26A6 expression were related to the severity and virulent factors of H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection impairs the expressions and functional activities of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins, CFTR and SLC26A6, which contributes to the development of duodenal ulcer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Bangladesh: A Multi-centre Study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, C K; Khan, M R; Alam, F; Shil, B C; Kabir, M S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Das, S C; Masud, H; Roy, P K

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer has steadily declined through out the world. This decreasing trend is also noticeable in this subcontinent. The point prevalence of peptic ulcer (PUD) in Bangladesh was around 15% in eighties. The aim of this study was to see the present prevalence of peptic ulcer at endoscopy and to identify changing trends in the occurrence of peptic ulcer in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis of the endoscopic records of multiple tertiary referral centres of Dhaka city were done from January 2012 to July 2013. A total of 5608 subjects were the study samples. We included those patients having peptic ulcer in the form of duodenal ulcer, benign gastric ulcer including pre-pyloric ulcer and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer. Duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer were found in 415(7.4%) and 184(3.28%) patients respectively and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer was found in 23(0.40%) patients.

  16. Duodenal perforation with an unusual presentation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Parray, Fazl Q; Showkat, Hakim Irfan; Lone, Yasir A; Bhat, Naseer A

    2011-01-01

    A young female presented with classical complaints suggestive of peptic ulcer disease leading to signs of peritonitis. The said patient after being subjected to baseline workup was subjected to laparotomy which proved to be a surgical surprise. A live ascaris lumbricoides worm was seen pouting out of a duodenal perforation.

  17. Duodenal Perforation with an Unusual Presentation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Parray, Fazl Q.; Showkat, Hakim Irfan; Lone, Yasir A.; Bhat, Naseer A.

    2011-01-01

    A young female presented with classical complaints suggestive of peptic ulcer disease leading to signs of peritonitis. The said patient after being subjected to baseline workup was subjected to laparotomy which proved to be a surgical surprise. A live ascaris lumbricoides worm was seen pouting out of a duodenal perforation. PMID:22567473

  18. Duodenal hematoma caused by endoscopic hemostatic procedures (sclerotherapy).

    PubMed

    Irisarri Garde, Rebeca; Vila Costas, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    Endoscopic hemostatic procedures such as local injection of epinephrine are commonly used for the treatment of bleeding ulcers. Although the risks are usually considered to be minimal, there are reports describing that duodenal intramural hematomas may develop as a complication after endoscopy especially in patients susceptible to hemorrhage such as those with anticoagulants therapy or blood dyscrasia.

  19. Genetic Variation in Autophagy-Related Genes Influences the Risk and Phenotype of Buruli Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Capela, Carlos; Dossou, Ange Dodji; Silva-Gomes, Rita; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Makoutode, Michel; Menino, João Filipe; Fraga, Alexandra Gabriel; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Rodrigues, Fernando; Pedrosa, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a severe necrotizing human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Clinically, presentation is a sum of these diverse pathogenic hits subjected to critical immune-regulatory mechanisms. Among them, autophagy has been demonstrated as a cellular process of critical importance. Since microtubules and dynein are affected by mycolactone, the critical pathogenic exotoxin produced by M. ulcerans, cytoskeleton-related changes might potentially impair the autophagic process and impact the risk and progression of infection. Genetic variants in the autophagy-related genes NOD2, PARK2 and ATG16L1 has been associated with susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. Here, we investigated their association with BU risk, its severe phenotypes and its progression to an ulcerative form. Genetic variants were genotyped using KASPar chemistry in 208 BU patients (70.2% with an ulcerative form and 28% in severe WHO category 3 phenotype) and 300 healthy endemic controls. The rs1333955 SNP in PARK2 was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to BU [odds ratio (OR), 1.43; P = 0.05]. In addition, both the rs9302752 and rs2066842 SNPs in NOD2 gee significantly increased the predisposition of patients to develop category 3 (OR, 2.23; P = 0.02; and OR 12.7; P = 0.03, respectively, whereas the rs2241880 SNP in ATG16L1 was found to significantly protect patients from presenting the ulcer phenotype (OR, 0.35; P = 0.02). Our findings indicate that specific genetic variants in autophagy-related genes influence susceptibility to the development of BU and its progression to severe phenotypes.

  20. Genetic Variation in Autophagy-Related Genes Influences the Risk and Phenotype of Buruli Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Capela, Carlos; Dossou, Ange Dodji; Silva-Gomes, Rita; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Makoutode, Michel; Menino, João Filipe; Fraga, Alexandra Gabriel; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Rodrigues, Fernando; Pedrosa, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Buruli ulcer (BU) is a severe necrotizing human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Clinically, presentation is a sum of these diverse pathogenic hits subjected to critical immune-regulatory mechanisms. Among them, autophagy has been demonstrated as a cellular process of critical importance. Since microtubules and dynein are affected by mycolactone, the critical pathogenic exotoxin produced by M. ulcerans, cytoskeleton-related changes might potentially impair the autophagic process and impact the risk and progression of infection. Objective Genetic variants in the autophagy-related genes NOD2, PARK2 and ATG16L1 has been associated with susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. Here, we investigated their association with BU risk, its severe phenotypes and its progression to an ulcerative form. Methods Genetic variants were genotyped using KASPar chemistry in 208 BU patients (70.2% with an ulcerative form and 28% in severe WHO category 3 phenotype) and 300 healthy endemic controls. Results The rs1333955 SNP in PARK2 was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to BU [odds ratio (OR), 1.43; P = 0.05]. In addition, both the rs9302752 and rs2066842 SNPs in NOD2 gee significantly increased the predisposition of patients to develop category 3 (OR, 2.23; P = 0.02; and OR 12.7; P = 0.03, respectively, whereas the rs2241880 SNP in ATG16L1 was found to significantly protect patients from presenting the ulcer phenotype (OR, 0.35; P = 0.02). Conclusion Our findings indicate that specific genetic variants in autophagy-related genes influence susceptibility to the development of BU and its progression to severe phenotypes. PMID:27128681

  1. [Ulcer of the transverse colon].

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, C; Stoichiţa, S; Vasilescu, D; Strutenschi, T; Lake, D

    1979-01-01

    This very rare affection of unknown origin, achieves a macroscopic and microscopic aspect similar to that described by Cruveillhier at the level of the stomach. The authors present a case of ulcer located on the transverse colon, at the free margin, with stenosing evolution and coexisting with duodenal ulceration of chronic character. The patient also had portal hypertension in the third stage and arteriopathy that had been diagnosed previously.

  2. Influence of the calcaneus shape on the risk of posterior heel ulcer using 3D patient-specific biomechanical modeling.

    PubMed

    Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Bucki, M; Diot, B; Cannard, F; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2015-02-01

    Most posterior heel ulcers are the consequence of inactivity and prolonged time lying down on the back. They appear when pressures applied on the heel create high internal strains and the soft tissues are compressed by the calcaneus. It is therefore important to monitor those strains to prevent heel pressure ulcers. Using a biomechanical lower leg model, we propose to estimate the influence of the patient-specific calcaneus shape on the strains within the foot and to determine if the risk of pressure ulceration is related to the variability of this shape. The biomechanical model is discretized using a 3D Finite Element mesh representing the soft tissues, separated into four domains implementing Neo Hookean materials with different elasticities: skin, fat, Achilles' tendon, and muscles. Bones are modelled as rigid bodies attached to the tissues. Simulations show that the shape of the calcaneus has an influence on the formation of pressure ulcers with a mean variation of the maximum strain over 6.0 percentage points over 18 distinct morphologies. Furthermore, the models confirm the influence of the cushion on which the leg is resting: a softer cushion leading to lower strains, it has less chances of creating a pressure ulcer. The methodology used for patient-specific strain estimation could be used for the prevention of heel ulcer when coupled with a pressure sensor.

  3. Misoprostol in peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, G; Akbar, F A

    1987-01-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) methyl ester analog has potent antisecretory and cytoprotective effects on the gastric and duodenal mucosa which should make it an effective drug in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer. In two multicenter, randomised, double-blind, controlled studies involving over 900 patients with endoscopically proven benign gastric ulcer and in six similar studies involving over 2000 patients with active duodenal ulcers, differing doses of misoprostol have been compared with either placebo therapy or with conventional doses of cimetidine. In these studies misoprostol 800 mcg daily given as two or four divided doses has been shown to produce rates of complete ulcer healing and pain relief which were significantly superior to placebo therapy and comparable to those achieved with cimetidine. Drug related adverse effects were infrequent. A dose related diarrhea occurred in a small proportion of patients which seldom necessitated suspension of therapy. Because of the known uterotropic effect of prostaglandins the drug should not be used in pregnant women or women of child bearing age unless they are using adequate contraceptive measures. No clinically significant adverse, hematological or biochemical effects have been reported. Two studies suggested that misoprostol reduced the adverse effect of smoking on the healing of duodenal ulcer. In addition, misoprostol has been shown to protect the gastro-duodenal mucosa from the damaging effects of alcohol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This action may prove of value in the treatment of ulcer patients who are inveterate smokers, alcohol users or who are compelled to consume non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief from rheumatic and allied diseases.

  4. Emergency Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Duodenal Paraganglioma: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parray, Fazl Q.; Lone, Iqbal M.; Chowdri, Nisar A.; Wani, Imtiaz; Wani, Mehmood A.; Gulzar, G. M.; Thakur, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma (DGP) is a rare tumor that characteristically occurs in the second part of duodenum. These appear as submucosal masses that protrude into the lumen of a duodenum. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the commonest manifestation of DGP. Metastatic spread to regional lymph nodes occurs rarely. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for DGP. A case of a DGP is reported in young female who presented with a recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) documented a mass in the ampullary region with ulceration in its middle which was bleeding. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding necessitated an emergency pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of specimen documented gangliocytic paraganglioma. PMID:22084750

  5. Emergency pancreaticoduodenectomy in duodenal paraganglioma: case report.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Lone, Iqbal M; Chowdri, Nisar A; Wani, Imtiaz; Wani, Mehmood A; Gulzar, G M; Thakur, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma (DGP) is a rare tumor that characteristically occurs in the second part of duodenum. These appear as submucosal masses that protrude into the lumen of a duodenum. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the commonest manifestation of DGP. Metastatic spread to regional lymph nodes occurs rarely. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for DGP. A case of a DGP is reported in young female who presented with a recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) documented a mass in the ampullary region with ulceration in its middle which was bleeding. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding necessitated an emergency pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of specimen documented gangliocytic paraganglioma.

  6. [Effects of nicotine, alcohol and caffeine on the incidence, healing and recurrence rate of peptic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Holstege, A

    1987-08-01

    A causal relationship exists between the incidence of peptic ulcer and smoking: smoking is significantly associated with a higher prevalence of gastric duodenal ulcer. Either type of peptic ulcer demonstrates a lower healing rate in smokers as compared to non-smokers and impaired spontaneous and drug-induced healing. Smoking is a major factor for rapidity of duodenal ulcer recurrence. Incidence, healing rate, and recurrence rate correlate with the number of cigarettes smoked. Beyond this, smoking increases the likelihood of ulcer perforation. The normal life expectancy is reduced in smokers after gastric surgery for peptic ulcer disease. Moderate alcohol and caffeine consumption presumably have no effect on the incidence of peptic ulcer. However, continuous alcohol abuse seems to increase the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. In ulcer disease, it seems unwarranted to exclusively interdict caffeine-containing or alcoholic beverages while permitting other equally potent stimulants of gastric acid secretion like milk.

  7. Dietary Composition Influences Incidence of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Iron Deficiency Anemia and Gastric Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Amber C.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Noto, Jennifer M.; Peek, Richard M.; Washington, M. Kay; Algood, Holly M. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have provided conflicting data regarding an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in humans. Here, a Mongolian gerbil model was used to investigate a potential role of H. pylori infection, as well as a possible role of diet, in H. pylori-associated IDA. Mongolian gerbils (either H. pylori infected or uninfected) received a normal diet or one of three diets associated with increased H. pylori virulence: high-salt, low-iron, or a combination of a high-salt and low-iron diet. In an analysis of all infected animals compared to uninfected animals (independent of diet), H. pylori-infected gerbils had significantly lower hemoglobin values than their uninfected counterparts at 16 weeks postinfection (P < 0.0001). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and serum ferritin values were significantly lower in H. pylori-infected gerbils than in uninfected gerbils, consistent with IDA. Leukocytosis and thrombocytosis were also detected in infected gerbils, indicating the presence of a systemic inflammatory response. In comparison to uninfected gerbils, H. pylori-infected gerbils had a higher gastric pH, a higher incidence of gastric ulcers, and a higher incidence of fecal occult blood loss. Anemia was associated with the presence of gastric ulceration but not gastric cancer. Infected gerbils consuming diets with a high salt content developed gastric ulcers significantly more frequently than gerbils consuming a normal-salt diet, and the lowest hemoglobin levels were in infected gerbils consuming a high-salt/low-iron diet. These data indicate that H. pylori infection can cause IDA and that the composition of the diet influences the incidence and severity of H. pylori-induced IDA. PMID:27620719

  8. Dietary Composition Influences Incidence of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Iron Deficiency Anemia and Gastric Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Amber C; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Noto, Jennifer M; Peek, Richard M; Washington, M Kay; Algood, Holly M Scott; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have provided conflicting data regarding an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in humans. Here, a Mongolian gerbil model was used to investigate a potential role of H. pylori infection, as well as a possible role of diet, in H. pylori-associated IDA. Mongolian gerbils (either H. pylori infected or uninfected) received a normal diet or one of three diets associated with increased H. pylori virulence: high-salt, low-iron, or a combination of a high-salt and low-iron diet. In an analysis of all infected animals compared to uninfected animals (independent of diet), H. pylori-infected gerbils had significantly lower hemoglobin values than their uninfected counterparts at 16 weeks postinfection (P < 0.0001). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and serum ferritin values were significantly lower in H. pylori-infected gerbils than in uninfected gerbils, consistent with IDA. Leukocytosis and thrombocytosis were also detected in infected gerbils, indicating the presence of a systemic inflammatory response. In comparison to uninfected gerbils, H. pylori-infected gerbils had a higher gastric pH, a higher incidence of gastric ulcers, and a higher incidence of fecal occult blood loss. Anemia was associated with the presence of gastric ulceration but not gastric cancer. Infected gerbils consuming diets with a high salt content developed gastric ulcers significantly more frequently than gerbils consuming a normal-salt diet, and the lowest hemoglobin levels were in infected gerbils consuming a high-salt/low-iron diet. These data indicate that H. pylori infection can cause IDA and that the composition of the diet influences the incidence and severity of H. pylori-induced IDA.

  9. Factors That Influence Perforator Thrombosis and Predict Healing Perforator Sclerotherapy for Venous Ulceration Without Axial Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kiguchi, Misaki M.; Hager, Eric S.; Winger, Daniel G.; Hirsch, Stanley A.; Chaer, Rabih A.; Dillavou, Ellen D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Refluxing perforators contribute to venous ulceration. We sought to describe patient characteristics and procedural factors that (1) impact rates of incompetent perforator vein (IPV) thrombosis with ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy (UGS) and (2) impact the healing of venous ulcers (CEAP 6) without axial reflux. METHODS Retrospective review of UGS of IPV injections from 1/2010–11/2012 identified 73 treated venous ulcers in 62 patients. Patients had no other superficial/axial reflux and were treated with standard wound care and compression. Ultrasound was used to screen for refluxing perforators near ulcer(s), and these were injected with sodium tetradecyl sulfate or polidocanol foam and assessed for thrombosis at 2 weeks. Demographic data, comorbidities, treatment details and outcomes were analyzed. Univariate and multivariable modeling was performed to determine covariates predicting IPV thrombosis and ulcer healing. RESULTS 62 patients with active ulcers for an average of 28 months with compression therapy prior to perforator treatment had an average age of 57.1 years, were 55% male, 36% had a history of DVT and 30% had deep venous reflux. 32 patients (52%) healed ulcers, while 30 patients (48%) had non-healed ulcer(s) in mean follow-up of 30.2 months. Ulcers were treated with 189 injections, with average thrombosis rate of 54%. Of 73 ulcers, 43 ulcers healed (59%), and 30 ulcers did not heal (41%). Patients that healed ulcers had an IPV thrombosis rate of 69 % vs. 38% in patients who did not heal (P<.001). Multivariate models demonstrated male gender and warfarin use negatively predicted thrombosis of IPVs (P=.03, P=.01). Multivariate model for ulcer healing found complete IPV thrombosis was a positive predictor (P=.02), while large initial ulcer area was a negative predictor (P=.08). Increased age was associated with fewer ulcer recurrences (P=.05). Hypertension and increased follow-up time predicted increased ulcer recurrences (P=.04, P=.02). Calf

  10. Duodenal perforation in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubilatus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J H; Wolf, A M; Jensen, J M; Fossum, T; Rohn, D; Green, R W; Willard, M

    1997-12-01

    An 11-yr-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubilatus) from a privately owned breeding center for endangered species was referred for evaluation with a history of vomiting and depression of 10 days' duration. After anesthetic induction with tiletamine and zolazepam and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane, a complete diagnostic workup was performed, including hematology, serum chemistry, and radiography. The clinical diagnosis was septic suppurative inflammation and hemorrhage in the abdomen, consistent with perforation or rupture of the gastrointestinal tract. An exploratory laparotomy showed a perforated duodenal ulcer, which was resected. Subsequent endoscopy revealed no further evidence of ulceration in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Biopsy of the ulcerated tissue collected from the duodenum revealed Gastrospirillum-like organisms. Histologic examination revealed widespread infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells into the lamina propria and submucosa. Intraepithelial leukocytes were present along with attenuation, erosion, and ulceration of the superficial epithelium. Fourteen days after surgery, this cheetah was returned to its breeding compound, and no subsequent vomiting has been observed for 4 yr.

  11. Influence of ulcer healing agents on ulcer relapse after discontinuation of acute treatment: a pooled estimate of controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Dobrilla, G; Vallaperta, P; Amplatz, S

    1988-01-01

    Whether or not the incidence of ulcer relapse varies according to the drug used to produce initial healing is a controversial matter. We tackled this problem using data from 15 eligible trials from 25 published controlled trials in patients followed up for six to 12 months. Pooled estimates of differences in ulcer relapse incidence between patients initially healed with H2-antagonists and patients initially healed with non-H2-antagonist drugs were calculated. The overall incidence of relapse in patients healed with comparator drugs is 11 percentage units lower at six and 12 months, than that observed in H2-antagonist-healed patients. The confidence intervals are +/- 8% at six months and +/- 7% at 12 months. These data suggest the existence of a different effect on relapse incidence for the entire class of comparator drugs taken as a whole, compared with H2-antagonists. On considering the non-H2-antagonists singly, this conclusion holds good only in the case of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate. PMID:2894337

  12. Gallbladder carcinoma - a rare cause of pyloric-duodenal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, Zizi; Ulmeanu, Victoria; Ghinea, Mihaela Maria; Mocanu, Liliana; Niculescu, Costin; Grigorian, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    Pyloric duodenal stenosis is usually caused by pyloric, juxtapyloric or duodenal ulcer, or by postbulbar ulcer. Gallbladder cancer (GBC), duodenal diverticula, annular pancreas and superior mesenteric artery syndrome (Wilkie's syndrome) are rare causes of pyloric duodenal stenosis. The case of a 66-year-old female patient is presented. The patient was admitted to hospital presenting anorexia, repeated alimentary vomiting, epigastric pain, and weight loss. Objective clinical examination upon admission: clapotage à jeun is present, triggered by tapping the epigastric region. Laboratory tests reveal moderate anemia, hypokalemic alkalosis, increased levels of cholestatic enzymes and of tumor markers. Gastroendoscopy: Stomach presenting stasis fluid in large quantity. Deformed antropyloric region caused by extrinsic compression. Abdominal native magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and with contrast medium: cholecyst lumen entirely obstructed with calculi; thickened wall, with heterogeneous gadolinophilia; gadolinophilic mass erasing the bordering limit in relation to the cholecyst wall and the colon hepatic angle, and leaving a print on the pyloric region. During surgery, upon opening the peritoneal cavity, a tumoral pericholecystic block was observed, including the pyloric-duodenal region and the transverse mesocolon. Histopathology tests of tissue samples showed adipose conjunctive tissue with invasive adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical tests [cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK17, CK19, CK20, CDX2, mucin (MUC) 1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)] were consistent with infiltrating neoplastic carcinoma, originating in the gallbladder epithelium. Gastrointestinal obstruction cases caused by gallbladder carcinoma are rare. The pyloric-duodenal region is more frequently affected, as compared to the small intestine or the colon.

  13. Laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery is a safe and effective treatment for superficial nonampullary duodenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kyuno, Daisuke; Ohno, Keisuke; Katsuki, Shinichi; Fujita, Tomoki; Konno, Ai; Murakami, Takeshi; Waga, Eriko; Takanashi, Kunihiro; Kitaoka, Keisuke; Komatsu, Yuya; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    The use of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for duodenal neoplasms has increased in recent years, but delayed perforation and bleeding are also known to frequently occur. We present two cases in which duodenal adenoma was successfully treated with laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery. ESD was combined with laparoscopic seromuscular sutures. The lesions in both cases were located in the second portion of the duodenum. The patients requested resection of the lesion, and we performed laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the laparoscopic surgeon mobilized the duodenum, the endoscopic surgeon performed ESD for the duodenal tumor without perforation. The laparoscopic surgeon sutured the duodenal wall in the seromuscular layer to strengthen the ulcer bed after ESD. Histopathological studies confirmed that the surgical margins were tumor-free in both cases. The patients were discharged with no complications. This unique laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative procedure is a safe and effective method for resecting superficial nonampullary duodenal tumors.

  14. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  15. Risk factors and therapeutic response in Chinese patients with peptic ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shou-Wu; Chang, Chi-Sen; Lee, Teng-Yu; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk factors and the efficacy of medications of patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers among Chinese patients in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients with peptic ulcers, diagnosed by upper endoscopy, were retrospectively collected between January 2008 and December 2008. The differences were compared. RESULTS: Among all 448 cases, 254 (56.6%) and 194 (43.4%) patients had gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers respectively. Patients with gastric ulcers were younger than those with duodenal ulcers. Although more men existed, there was a female predominance in middle-aged cases. Patients with duodenal ulcers had a higher rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection (62.4% vs 43.3%, P = 0.001), and those with gastric ulcers owned a significantly higher amount of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use (7.5% vs 1.5%, 6.7% vs 2.1%, P = 0.001). Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking had no different impact between these two groups. Proton-pump inhibitors and H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) were effective, but significantly less so in cases with duodenal ulcers receiving H2RAs, or in those with H. pylori infection and a history of NSAID use. CONCLUSION: Patients with gastric ulcers had lower H. pylori infection but more aspirin or NSAID use. Antisecretory therapy was ineffective in gastric ulcers underwent H2RA treatment, and cases combined H. pylori infection and NSAID use. PMID:20419840

  16. Antral Helicobacter Pylori Infection, Hypergastrinemia and Peptic Ulcers: Effect of Eradicating the Organism

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sill Moo; Yoo, Byung Chul; Lee, Hyo Rang; Yoon, Joon Hyun; Cha, Young Joo

    1993-01-01

    Background: A randomized prospective study on the response of fasting serum gastrin concentrations in peptic ulcer patients was performed in order to test the hypothesis that H. pylori infection in the gastric antrum increases gastrin release, and to examine whether the high fasting serum gastrin concentrations respond to treatment that eradicates H. pylori. Methods: One hundred and twenty-seven patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of antral H. pylori status and therapeutic modalities. The first group, 58 patients infected by H. pylori, was treated with metronidazole and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate combined with ranitidine and mylanta. The second group, 40 patients also infected by H. Pylori, was treated with ranitidine and mylanta. The third group, 29 patients, free of H. pylori infection, was designed to evaluate the influence of H2-receptor antagonist on the change of gastrin. When ulcers were completely healed, changes of gastrin concentrations and H. pylori status were re-examined. Results: H. pylori was eradicated in all patients who have received antibacterial therapy in 4 weeks, and serum gastrin concentrations were significantly decreased after eradication of the organism both in gastric and in duodenal ulcer diseases. (Gastric ulcer: 129.3±47.0 pg/ml before and 63.7±21.6 pg/ml after treatment. Duodenal ulcer: 108.3±35.0 pg/ml and 66.5±21.9 pg/ml, respectively. Total: 112.7±38.2 pg/ml vs 66.0±21.6 pg/ml) (p<0.01). In contrast, H. pylori-positive patients who have not received antibacterial therapy were still infected at the completion of the study, and serum gastrin concentrations increased even though the difference was not significant. (Gastric ulcer: 118.4±51.2 pg/ml vs 124.0±56.5 pg/ml. Duodenal ulcer: 85.4±35.1 pg/ml vs 104.6±43.5. Total: 99.5±45.3 vs 112.9±48.7 pg/ml.) (p>0.05) None of the patients who were initially H. pylori-negative has been

  17. Influence of risk factors on endoscopic and clinical ulcers in patients taking rofecoxib or ibuprofen in two randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C J; Laine, L; Harper, S E; Quan, H U; Bolognese, J A; Mortensen, E

    2001-10-01

    Highly selective inhibitors of the inducible cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (coxibs) have been associated with less gastrotoxicity than nonselective NSAIDs in clinical studies. To evaluate the influence of risk factors for NSAID-induced gastrotoxicity on endoscopic and clinical ulcers in patients taking rofecoxib or ibuprofen. We analysed pooled data from two identical double-blind, randomized, 12-week endoscopy studies which compared the gastroduodenal toxicity of placebo (n=371), rofecoxib 25 mg (n=390), rofecoxib 50 mg (n=379), and ibuprofen 2400 mg daily (n=376) in patients with osteoarthritis. The potential risk factors evaluated were: age (< 65, > or = 65 years), sex, race (white, nonwhite), Helicobacter pylori status, presence of gastroduodenal erosions at baseline, a history of upper gastrointestinal disease, prior NSAID use within 30 days of study entry, and smoking. We also evaluated these factors for possible association with the development of clinically-evident gastrointestinal perforations, ulcers or bleeds over 12 weeks. Across all treatment groups, the likelihood of detecting endoscopic ulcers, or of clinical presentation with a bleed, over 12 weeks was increased approximately 4-5-fold in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal disease (relative risk [95% confidence interval] of 4.2 [2.5, 7.1] for endoscopic ulcers; 3.8 [1.4, 10.6] for bleeds), or those with gastroduodenal erosions at baseline endoscopy (relative risk of 4.4 [2.6, 7.5] for endoscopic ulcers; 5.0 [1.9, 13.5] for bleeds). H. pylori infection did not increase the risk of endoscopic ulcers or bleeds (relative risk of 1.1 [0.8, 1.6] for endoscopic ulcers; 0.3 [0.1, 0.9] for bleeds). The risk factor sub-group effects were constant across all treatment groups, and the significantly higher incidence of ulcers with ibuprofen as compared to rofecoxib and placebo was maintained in all risk factor subgroups. Gastroduodenal erosions at baseline and a clinical history of upper gastrointestinal

  18. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    Ulcerative colitis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Ulcerative colitis (UL-sur-uh-tiv koe-LIE-tis) is an inflammatory ... and ulcers (sores) in your digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of your large intestine ( ...

  20. Pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury; the influence of risk factors present in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Ham, H W Wietske; Schoonhoven, L Lisette; Schuurmans, M Marieke J; Leenen, L Luke P H

    2017-01-01

    To explore the influence of risk factors present at Emergency Department admission on pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury, admitted to the hospital for evaluation and treatment of acute traumatic injuries. Prospective cohort study setting level one trauma center in the Netherlands participants adult trauma patients transported to the Emergency Department on a backboard, with extrication collar and headblocks and admitted to the hospital for treatment or evaluation of their injuries. Between January and December 2013, 254 trauma patients were included. The following dependent variables were collected: Age, Skin color and Body Mass Index, and Time in Emergency Department, Injury Severity Score, Mean Arterial Pressure, hemoglobin level, Glasgow Coma Score, and admission ward after Emergency Department. Pressure ulcer development during admission was associated with a higher age (p 0.00, OR 1.05) and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (p 0.00, OR 1.21) and higher Injury Severity Scores (p 0.03, OR 1.05). Extra nutrition decreases the probability of PU development during admission (p 0.04, OR 0.20). Pressure ulcer development within the first 48h of admission was positively associated with a higher age (p 0.01, OR 1.03) and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (p 0.01, OR 1.16). The proportion of patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and Medium Care Unit was higher in patients with pressure ulcers. The pressure ulcer risk during admission is high in patients with an increased age, lower Glasgow Coma Scale and higher Injury Severity Score in the Emergency Department. Pressure ulcer risk should be assessed in the Emergency Department to apply preventive interventions in time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Incidence of peptic ulcer at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán": study of localization, associated factors and temporal trends].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, J; Vargas-Vorácková, F; Gómez, A; Jesús Villalobos, J

    1996-01-01

    To know the frequency, trends and associated factors of peptic ulcer disease in our Institute. Peptic ulcer is an important disease; about 5-10% of the population can expect to develop this disease during lifetime. We reviewed 1,123 patients with peptic ulcer in five years. Sex, age, habits (tobacco and alcohol consumption), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use, ulcer location and complications were analyzed. To evaluate temporal trends, our results were compared with previous studies made in our Institute. The male-female ratio was 1:1, with a mean age of 52.2 years. Forty percent of the patients had duodenal ulcer, 42% had gastric ulcer, and 19% had esophageal, anastomotic or multiple ulcers. The most common complication was bleeding, which occurred more frequently in gastric (37%) than duodenal ulcer (24%) (P < 0.005). Gastric ulcer occurred in older patients when compared to duodenal ulcer (P < 0.02). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs consumption was more frequent in patients with gastric (14%) than duodenal ulcer (10%) (P < 0.04). The frequency of tobacco and alcohol consumption was higher in multiple ulcers. A tendency toward a decreased frequency of duodenal ulcer and increased frequency of gastric ulcer was observed in our Institute during the last 30 years. In the same period, bleeding has been the leading complication, suggesting a higher referral of complicated peptic ulcer.

  2. [Duodenal complications of rheumatoid purpura. Endoscopic aspects].

    PubMed

    Chapoy, P; Guidon, M J; Louchet, E

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the endoscopic features and clinical outcome of the duodenal complications in anaphylactoid purpura. Over a 3-year period, 20 patients were hospitalized in our unit because of purpura rheumatica. Duodenal complications occurred in 5 cases warranting endoscopic assessment. All patients had bilious vomiting and epigastric pain, constantly associated with low-grade purpuric rash. Plasma factor XIII concentrations were always decreased. The duodenal complication was suspected radiologically in 2 cases when "thumbprint" impressions were seen. Petechiae, oedema and intramural hematoma with superficial erosions were present endoscopically in 3 cases. The lesions were severe and extensive, involving the entire duodenum in 3 cases and the jejunum in one case. In one patient, there was a stricture of the upper part of the second duodenum. Treatment consisted of parenteral nutrition (using a central catheter: 3 cases, or a peripheral vein: 2 cases) and cimetidine (30 mg/kg.bw). The clinical outcome was favorable in 4 patients; the symptoms vanished and the endoscopic lesions were reversible (including the stricture) with restitutio ad integrum after 10 days. The last patient died the 8th day of treatment, 3 days after digestive improvement; the cause of death was probably iatrogenic and related to accidental migration of the central catheter. These results suggest that endoscopic examination should be performed in all patients with anaphylactoid purpura presenting with bilious vomiting. Endoscopy seems to be of great value in deciding if parenteral nutrition is indicated--or not--and perhaps in order to contraindicate the use of steroid therapy in the case of ulcerated hematomas.

  3. Duodenal bacterial overgrowth during treatment in outpatients with omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Fried, M; Siegrist, H; Frei, R; Froehlich, F; Duroux, P; Thorens, J; Blum, A; Bille, J; Gonvers, J J; Gyr, K

    1994-01-01

    The extent of duodenal bacterial overgrowth during the pronounced inhibition of acid secretion that occurs with omeprazole treatment is unknown. The bacterial content of duodenal juice of patients treated with omeprazole was therefore examined in a controlled prospective study. Duodenal juice was obtained under sterile conditions during diagnostic upper endoscopy. Aspirates were plated quantitatively for anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Twenty five outpatients with peptic ulcer disease were investigated after a 5.7 (0.5) weeks (mean (SEM)) treatment course with 20 mg (nine patients) or 40 mg (16 patients). The control group consisted of 15 outpatients referred for diagnostic endoscopy without prior antisecretory treatment. No patient in the control group had duodenal bacterial overgrowth. In the omeprazole group bacterial overgrowth (> or = 10(5) cfu/ml) was found in 14 (56%) patients (p = 0.0003). The number of bacteria (log10) in duodenal juice in patients treated with omeprazole was distinctly higher (median 5.7; range < 2-8.7) when compared with the control group (median < 2; range < 2-5.0; p = 0.0004). As well as orally derived bacteria, faecal type bacteria were found in seven of 14 and anaerobic bacteria in three of 14 patients. Bacterial overgrowth was similar with the two doses of omeprazole. These results indicate that duodenal bacterial overgrowth of both oral and faecal type bacteria occurs often in ambulatory patients treated with omeprazole. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings, particularly in high risk groups during long term treatment with omeprazole. PMID:8307444

  4. Prophylactic aspirin and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Weil, J.; Colin-Jones, D.; Langman, M.; Lawson, D.; Logan, R.; Murphy, M.; Rawlins, M.; Vessey, M.; Wainwright, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the risks of hospitalisation for bleeding peptic ulcer with the current prophylactic aspirin regimens of 300 mg daily or less. DESIGN--A case-control study with hospital and community controls. SETTING--Hospitals in Glasgow, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, and Portsmouth. SUBJECTS--1121 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer bleeding matched with hospital and community controls. RESULTS--144 (12.8%) cases had been regular users of aspirin (taken at least five days a week for at least the previous month) compared with 101 (9.0%) hospital and 77 (7.8%) community controls. Odds ratios were raised for all doses of aspirin taken, whether compared with hospital or community controls (compared with combined controls: 75 mg, 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.4); 150 mg, 3.2 (1.7 to 6.5); 300 mg, 3.9 (2.5 to 6.3)). Results were not explained by confounding influences of age, sex, prior ulcer history or dyspepsia, or concurrent non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Risks seemed particularly high in patients who took non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs concurrently. CONCLUSION--No conventionally used prophylactic aspirin regimen seems free of the risk of peptic ulcer complications. PMID:7711618

  5. Introduction of proton pump inhibitors--consequences for surgical treatment of peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Tonus, C; Weisenfeld, E; Appel, P; Nier, H

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzes the influence of different factors on morbidity and mortality after surgical treatment of peptic ulcer. At the Municipal Hospital of Offenbach, Germany, from 1985-1996, 485 patients underwent surgery. Of the 485 patients, 70.7% (343) were diagnosed to have duodenal ulcer and 29.2% (142) had suffered from gastric ulcer. During this period, 79.2% (384) of the operations were performed under emergency conditions because of acute complications (56% of these with perforation, 20% with penetration, 24% with ulcer bleeding), whereas the rest was done electively. Two hundred and ninety-one (60%) patients were male, the average age was 59 years and 71.7% (348) of the patients had certain concomitant diseases. We observed complications in 48% of the cases with a total postoperative mortality of 21%. Between 1985 and 1996 the total number of ulcer surgeries performed at the Municipal Hospital Offenbach per year has stayed almost constant. However, a definite increase of acute operations in addition to a decrease of elective interventions was noticed. The dissatisfying results of surgical treatment of peptic ulcer after the introduction of proton pump inhibitors seems to be the consequence of the negative selection of patients mentioned above. A connection could be proved between the age and condition of the patient, the type of the surgical intervention (acute or elective) and the morbidity and mortality after the surgery.

  6. Normal villous architecture with increased intraepithelial lymphocytes: a duodenal manifestation of Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Emily R; Shmidt, Eugenia; Oxentenko, Amy S; Enders, Felicity T; Smyrk, Thomas C

    2015-03-01

    To assess a possible association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the histologic finding in duodenal biopsy specimens of increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) with normal villous architecture. We identified all patients with duodenal biopsy specimens obtained between 2000 and 2010 showing increased IELs and normal architecture. Among the 74 such patients who also had IBD, we characterized the clinical features of IBD and reviewed all available upper gastrointestinal biopsy specimens. Fifty-eight patients had Crohn disease, 13 had ulcerative colitis, and three had IBD, type unclassified. No duodenal sample with increased IELs had other histologic features of IBD. Among gastric biopsy specimens from 34 patients with Crohn disease, nearly half (16) had focal gastritis. We propose that Crohn disease be included in the differential diagnosis for increased IELs with normal villous architecture in duodenal biopsy specimens, particularly when gastric biopsy specimens show focal gastritis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  7. Hybrid resection of duodenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Poultsides, George A; Pappou, Emmanouil P; Bloom, George Peter; Orlando, Rocco

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to review our experience with the hand-assisted laparoscopic management of duodenal tumors with no or low malignant potential and to compare this approach with published case reports of purely laparoscopic local duodenal resection. Eight cases of hand-assisted laparoscopic local duodenal resection performed from 2000 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Hand-assistance was utilized for complete duodenal mobilization, and local duodenal resection was accomplished extracorporeally through the hand-access incision. Patient and tumor characteristics, operative time, length of stay, and complications were compared with 18 cases of totally laparoscopic local excision of duodenal tumors published since 1997. Patients with ampullary tumors were excluded. Compared with the purely laparoscopic approach, the hand-assisted technique was associated with shorter operative time (179 versus 131 minutes, P=.03) and was more commonly used for lesions located in the third portion of the duodenum (0% versus 37.5%, P=.02). Tumor size (2.9 cm versus 3.2 cm, P=.61) and length of hospital stay (5.9 versus 5.9 days, P=.96) were similar between the two groups. The rate of complications was also comparable (0% versus 12.5%, P=.31); 1 of 8 patients in the hand-assisted group developed an incisional hernia at the hand-access site. Hand-assisted laparoscopic local duodenal resection is a feasible, safe, and effective alternative to the totally laparoscopic approach. In addition to being associated with comparable length of hospital stay, hand-assistance can shorten operative time by facilitating duodenal mobilization as well as extracorporeal duodenal resection and closure.

  8. Brain processing of duodenal and portal glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Boubaker, J; Val-Laillet, D; Guérin, S; Malbert, C-H

    2012-08-01

    Peripheral and central glucose sensing play a major role in the regulation of food intake. Peripheral sensing occurs at duodenal and portal levels, although the importance of these sensing sites is still controversial. The present study aimed to compare the respective influence of these sensing pathways on the eating patterns; plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); and brain activity in juvenile pigs. In Experiment 1, we characterised the changes in the microstructure as a result of a 30-min meal in eight conscious animals after duodenal or portal glucose infusion in comparison with saline infusion. In Experiment 2, glucose, insulin and GLP-1 plasma concentrations were measured during 2 h after duodenal or portal glucose infusions in four anaesthetised animals. In Experiment 3, single photon emission computed tomography brain imaging was performed in five anaesthetised animals receiving duodenal or portal glucose or saline infusions. Both duodenal and portal glucose decreased the amount of food consumed, as well as the ingestion speed, although this effect appeared earlier with the portal infusion. Significant differences of glucose and GLP-1 plasma concentrations between treatments were found at the moment of brain imaging. Both duodenal and portal glucose infusions activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary somatosensory cortex. Only duodenal glucose infusion was able to induce activation of the prepyriform area, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate and putamen, as well as deactivation of the anterior prefrontal cortex and anterior entorhinal cortex, whereas only portal glucose infusion induced a significant activation of the insular cortex. We demonstrated that duodenal and portal glucose infusions led to the modulation of brain areas that are known to regulate eating behaviour, which probably explains the decrease of food intake after both stimulations. These stimulation pathways induced specific systemic and

  9. Restraint ulcers in the rat. 1: Influence on ulcer frequency of fasting and of environmental temperature associated with immobilization of varying durations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the production of experimental ulcers in rats are described. Two experimental conditions were found to regularly provoke the appearance of gastric ulcers in a high percentage of rats: (1) two-and-a-half hour restraint, proceeded by a 24 hour fast; and (2) one-and-a-half hour restraint with lowering of the environmental temperature while fasting.

  10. Cysteamine-induced inhibition of acid neutralization and the increase in hydrogen ion back-diffusion in duodenal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ohe, K.; Okada, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Inoue, M.; Miyoshi, A.

    1982-03-01

    To investigate the possible impairment of defensive mechanisms in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration, the effect of cysteamine on the neutralization of acid by the duodenum and the back-diffusion of hydrogen ions into the duodenal mucosa has been studied. The results obtained were as follows. (1) The intraduodenal pH started to decrease between 3 and 4 hr after cysteamine injection. (2) By perfusion of the duodenal loop excluding the opening of bile and pancreatic ducts, the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) neutralized was found to be significantly lower in cysteamine-treated animals than in the controls. (3) the back-diffusion of luminal H+ into the duodenal mucosa, estimated by measuring the H+ disappearance from the test solution including 100 mM HCl, was significantly increased by cysteamine. From these findings, it has been concluded that cysteamine reduces the resistance of duodenal mucosa to acid coming from the stomach.

  11. Duodenal stump leak following a duodenal switch: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lars; Moon, Rena C.; Teixeira, Andre F.; Jawad, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Duodenal switch (DS) is a superior choice for surgical weight loss in the super obese patient population. However, there is an associated risk of adverse events following a DS procedure including vitamin deficiencies, bleeding, obstruction, stricture, and leakage. Presentation of Case A 37-year-old female with body mass index of 67 kg/m2 and multiple comorbidities underwent a Da Vinci-assisted, laparoscopic, one-stage, single-anastomosis DS procedure. On postoperative day 11, the patient developed persistent nausea, fatigue, and severe abdominal pain. She underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and was found to have hemoperitoneum, which was evacuated, but active bleeding source was not identifiable. Three days later, the patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, for bleeding with duodenal stump blowout. Discussion Duodenal stump blowout is the result from increased pressure caused by distal obstruction with the back up of duodenal contents. Anastomotic leakage/blow-out following surgery when suspected, should be individualized and management strategy should be implemented according to the size of the leak, extent of the abscess, and status of the patient. Conclusion Duodenal stump leaks must be diagnosed as early as possible, and treated appropriately with operative intervention. Regardless of the operative technique the key to appropriate treatment is stabilize the patient, repair the duodenal stump, and adequate drainage. PMID:26210718

  12. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  13. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. PMID:25355744

  14. Intramural hematoma of duodenum: An unusual complication after endoscopic therapy for a bleeding peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Bhatia, Vikram; Garg, Hitendra Kumar; Sundar, Shyam

    2011-04-01

    Intramural hematoma of duodenum (IDH) is a relatively unusual complication associated with endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer. This unusual condition is usually seen in children following blunt trauma to the abdomen. We describe here a case of IDH occurring following endoscopic therapy for bleeding duodenal ulcer in an adult patient with end-stage renal disease. The hematomas appeared on the second day of endoscopic intervention, caused transient duodenal obstruction and resolved spontaneously with conservative treatment in a week.

  15. The influence of LED rectal irradiation on IL-1α and IL-4 of experimental ulcerative colitis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. In this paper, the influence of IL-1α and IL-4 on the experimental ulcerative colitis by light emitting diode ( LED ) (λ: 632.8nm; power: 4.0mw) applied to colon directly were studied. Making 30 rats into 3 groups: LED curative group, model group, normal control group. There were 10 rats of each group. We used glacial acetic acid (5%) and trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) (1%) intra-anally to replicate the rat model of ulcerative colitis. After a week treatment with administrating LED rectal irradiation to curative group, 30mm each time, once per day, the histopathological studies in colonic tissue were performed, and the expression and distribution of IL-lα and IL-4 in colonic tissues were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The extent of the Colonic tissue injury in LED curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Compared with model group, the content of MDA in LED curative group was reductived and the activity of SOD was increased significantly, and the expression and distribution of IL-lα in LED curative group was depressed significantly, however the expression and distribution of IL-4 in LED curative group was increased obviously. This results show that the LED rectal irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats, and suggest that the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation and immunomodulation of LED.

  16. Influence of dietary isoflavone intake on gastrointestinal symptoms in ulcerative colitis individuals in remission.

    PubMed

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Grudzińska, Dominika; Lech, Gustaw

    2017-08-07

    To analyse the association between isoflavone intake and ulcerative colitis motility symptoms in individuals in remission. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of ulcerative colitis remission individuals, in sub-groups characterised by various intestinal motility and functioning characteristics (abdominal pain, flatulence, constipations, tenesmus). Total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient's dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 d of the weekend). The daily isoflavone intake (daidzein, genistein, glycitein and total isoflavones) and daily isoflavone intake per 1000 kcal of diet were assessed. No correlations between isoflavone intake levels and number of bowel movements per day were observed both in the case of intake and intake per 1000 kcal of diet. In the group of individuals declaring lack of abdominal pain, the higher intakes of daidzein (P = 0.0075), daidzein per 1000 kcal of diet (P = 0.0358) and total isoflavone (P = 0.0358) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring abdominal pain. In the group of individuals declaring lack of constipations, the lower intakes of glycitein (P = 0.0213) and glycitein per 1000 kcal of diet (P = 0.0213) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring presence of constipations. No differences were observed in isoflavone intake between groups of ulcerative colitis individuals declaring lack of flatulence and declaring presence of flatulence, as well as between groups declaring lack of tenesmus and declaring presence of tenesmus. The moderate dietary isoflavone intake may be beneficial for individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission, however, before including it into recommendations, further prospective studies are needed.

  17. Anatomical and neuropeptidergic properties of the duodenal neurons projecting to the gallbladder in the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Seo, Je Hoon; Cho, Sa Sun; Lee, In Se; Lee, Heungshik S

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the anatomical and neuropeptidergic properties of the duodenal neurons projecting to the gallbladder in the golden hamster. Fast blue (FB) was injected into the subserosa of the gallbladder in order to identify by retrograde tracing the duodenal neurons that project to the gallbladder. Subsequently, immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to see whether these duodenal neurons contained putative peptidergic neurotransmitters such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), galanin (GAL) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The FB-labeled cells were only found in the duodenal region adjacent to the major duodenal papilla where the biliary duct opens. On the other hand, there was no difference within this duodenal region in the numbers of FB-labeled cells between the mesenteric and antimesenteric portions, suggesting that these two portions of the duodenum equally contribute neuronal projections to the gallbladder. Double-immunofluorescence microscopy clearly demonstrated that a small population of FB-positive duodenal neurons contained putative neurotransmitters CGRP, GAL and VIP. Our data suggest that duodenal neurons around the major duodenal papilla in the golden hamster project to the gallbladder and exert their influence on the gallbladder via neuropeptides such as CGRP, GAL and VIP.

  18. Prevention and treatment of ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: an update.

    PubMed

    Dajani, E Z; Agrawal, N M

    1995-03-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most frequently used for the treatment of rheumatic disease due to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. All NSAIDs have the potential to cause damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and have been associated with the induction of peptic ulcers and massive life-threatening bleeding. The therapeutic approaches for the treatment and prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers is critically reviewed using data derived from carefully controlled, world-wide clinical studies with anti-ulcer drugs. Histamine (H2) antagonists, omeprazole, sucralfate and E-prostaglandin (PGE) analogs are effective for the treatment of NSAID-induced gastric and duodenal ulcers, if NSAIDs are discontinued. However, if NSAIDs are continued while GI damage is present, the PGE analogs misoprostol, arbaprostil and enprostil have shown efficacy in healing NSAID-induced ulcers. Furthermore, one limited clinical study demonstrated that omeprazole has efficacy in healing NSAID-associated ulcers. Neither H2 antagonists, sucralfate and sulglycotide (a cytoprotective drug) have shown efficacy in preventing NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. However H2 antagonists have shown efficacy in preventing NSAID-induced duodenal ulcers. In contrast, only misoprostol prevents the development of NSAID-induced gastric and duodenal ulcers. Such pharmacological observations suggest that the pathophysiologic mechanisms for the induction of NSAID-induced gastric ulcer are distinctly different from those of NSAID-induced duodenal ulcers. Mild diarrhea and GI intolerance were the predominant adverse reactions experienced by patients receiving synthetic PGEs, particularly enprostil and arbaprostil. From the published data, we conclude that misoprostol is the only anti-ulcer drug proven to be well tolerated and effective for the treatment and prevention of NSAID-induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in patients receiving chronic NSAIDs therapy.

  19. Influence of ruminal or duodenal soybean oil infusion on intake, ruminal fermentation, site and extent of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis in beef heifers consuming grass hay.

    PubMed

    Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Bohman, V R

    1991-06-01

    Six heifers (two Hereford X Jersey, four Hereford X Longhorn; average BW 278 kg) cannulated at the rumen and duodenum and fed a grass hay (fescue/orchardgrass) diet were used in a replicated 3 X 3 Latin square. Treatments were either no infusion (C), 150 ml of duodenally infused soybean oil (DI), or 150 ml of ruminally infused soybean oil (RI)/heifer twice daily for a total daily infusion of 300 ml of soybean oil. Periods of the Latin square included 18 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection. Forage OM, ADF, NDF, and N intakes were not affected (P greater than .10) by soybean oil infusion. Ruminal (P = .11) and total tract (P less than .10) OM digestibilities were decreased by RI compared with C or DI, but ADF and NDF digestibilities were not affected by treatment. Duodenal N (P less than .05) and microbial N flows were increased (P less than .10) for C and RI compared with DI. Microbial efficiency (g of N/kg of OM truly fermented) was improved (P less than .10) by RI compared with DI but did not differ (P greater than .10) from C. Ruminal pH was lower (P less than .05) with RI than with either C or DI. Ruminal NH3 N, total VFA, and acetate were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Propionate (mol/100 mol) was greater (P less than .05) with RI than with DI and C, but the proportion of butyrate did not differ among treatments. These data indicate minimal direct benefits for improving forage usage as a result of soybean oil infusion with a 100% grass diet; however, animals should realize benefits from additional dietary energy provided by infused lipid.

  20. Development of a Survey to Explore Factors Influencing the Adoption of Best Practices for Diabetic Foot Ulcer Offloading.

    PubMed

    Bleau Lavigne, Maude; Reeves, Isabelle; Sasseville, Marie-Josée; Loignon, Christine

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop 2 survey tools to explore factors influencing adoption of best practices for diabetic foot ulcer offloading treatment in primary health care settings. One survey was intended for the patients receiving care for a diabetic foot ulcer in primary health care settings and the other was intended for the health professionals providing treatment. The second purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 2 surveys. Development and validation of survey instruments. Two surveys were developed using a published guide. Following review of pertinent literature and identification of variables to be measured, a bank of items was developed and pretested to determine clarity of the item and responses. Psychometric testing comprised measurement of content validity index (CVI) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Only items obtaining satisfactory CVI and ICC scores were included in the final version of the surveys. The final version of the patient survey contained 41 items and the final version of the survey for health care professionals contained 21 items. The patient-intended survey's items demonstrate high content validity scores and satisfactory test-retest reliability scores. The overall CVI score was 0.98. Forty of the 49 items eligible for testing obtain satisfactory ICC scores. One item's test-retest reliability could not be tested but it was retained based on its high CVI. The health professional-intended survey, an overall CVI score of 0.91 but items had lower ICC scores (63%, 31 of the 49 items), did not achieve a satisfactory ICC score for inclusion in the final instrument. This project led to development of 2 instruments designed to identify and explore factors influencing adoption of best practices for diabetic foot ulcer offloading treatment in the primary health care setting. Future research and testing is required to translate these French surveys into English and additional languages

  1. Induction of ulcerative colitis in mice influences the course of infection with the nematode Trichuris muris.

    PubMed

    Vegas-Sánchez, M C; Rollán-Landeras, E; García-Rodríguez, J J; Bolás-Fernández, F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of infection with the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris on the course of chemically induced acute ulcerative colitis in CBA/J mice, a strain proven to be highly resistant to infection with T. muris. Each mouse was infected with 50 embryonated eggs of T. muris by oral gavage. Acute colitis was triggered by administering 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for nine consecutive days at different times after infection. Concurrent infection and DSS administration exacerbate the severity of the colitis while favouring the permanence of parasites in the intestine. The induction of ulcerative colitis from days 54 to 62 post-infection (p.i.), when all worms had been expelled, ameliorated the course of the inflammatory disease. When ulcerative colitis was triggered earlier on, from days 27 to 35 p.i., the beneficial effects on inflammatory events were clearly shown with signs of mucosal epithelization and regeneration as early as day 1 after DSS administration. Previous infections by T. muris therefore accelerate recovery from subsequently induced inflammatory bowel disease and such an effect assists the nematode to persist in the intestinal niche.

  2. Cellular bicarbonate protects rat duodenal mucosa from acid-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Yasutada; Furukawa, Osamu; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Nastaskin, Igor; Sassani, Pejvak; Dukkipatis, Ramanath; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2001-01-01

    Secretion of bicarbonate from epithelial cells is considered to be the primary mechanism by which the duodenal mucosa is protected from acid-related injury. Against this view is the finding that patients with cystic fibrosis, who have impaired duodenal bicarbonate secretion, are paradoxically protected from developing duodenal ulcers. Therefore, we hypothesized that epithelial cell intracellular pH regulation, rather than secreted extracellular bicarbonate, was the principal means by which duodenal epithelial cells are protected from acidification and injury. Using a novel in vivo microscopic method, we have measured bicarbonate secretion and epithelial cell intracellular pH (pHi), and we have followed cell injury in the presence of the anion transport inhibitor DIDS and the Cl– channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). DIDS and NPPB abolished the increase of duodenal bicarbonate secretion following luminal acid perfusion. DIDS decreased basal pHi, whereas NPPB increased pHi; DIDS further decreased pHi during acid challenge and abolished the pHi overshoot over baseline observed after acid challenge, whereas NPPB attenuated the fall of pHi and exaggerated the overshoot. Finally, acid-induced epithelial injury was enhanced by DIDS and decreased by NPPB. The results support the role of intracellular bicarbonate in the protection of duodenal epithelial cells from luminal gastric acid. PMID:11748264

  3. Gastrointestinal ulceration in the guinea pig in response to dimaprit, histamine, and H1- and H2-blocking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.H.; Pfeiffer, C.J.

    1981-04-01

    Histamine is known to induce gastric ulcers in guinea pigs after intraperitoneal administration and duodenal ulcers after repeated intramuscular administrations. This study was undertaken to clarify further the differential role of H1 and H2 receptor sites in respect to gastric and duodenal ulcer in the guinea pig. Groups of guinea pigs were treated with histamine, intraperitoneal (1.81 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or intramuscular (0.09 mg/kg intramuscular X 8 doses); the selective H2 agonist dimaprit (0.09-0.18 mg/kg X 8 doses intramuscular or 1.81-3.62 mg/kg intraperitoneal); NaCl, 154 mM (control); and the selective H1 and H2 antagonists, diphenhydramine (125 mg/kg X 2 doses, intramuscular) or cimetidine (50 mg/kg X 3 doses, intramuscular). Gastric and duodenal lesions were evaluated and residual gastric contents were analyzed. The selective induction of gastric or duodenal ulceration by histamine was confirmed, and the H2 agonist, dimaprit, has been shown to be ulcerogenic to the guinea pig duodenum by intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration. Diphenhydramine produced considerably more protection against histamine-induced gastric ulceration (62% decrease in incidence), while cimetidine was particularly effective in the prevention of histamine-induced duodenal ulcer (64% decrease in incidence). A differential role of histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric as opposed to duodenal ulcer is suggested by the present findings.

  4. Dietary phosphilipids and sterols protective against peptic ulceration.

    PubMed

    Tovey, F I; Bardhan, K D; Hobsley, M

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of duodenal ulceration in regions of developing countries with a stable diet is related to the staple food(s) in that diet. A higher prevalence occurs in areas where the diet is principally milled rice, refined wheat or maize, yams, cassava, sweet potato or green bananas, and a lower prevalence in areas where the staple diet is based on unrefined wheat or maize, soya, certain millets or certain pulses. Experiments using animal peptic ulcer models showed that the lipid fraction in foods from the staple diets of low prevalence areas gave protection against both gastric and duodenal ulceration, including ulceration due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and also promoted healing of ulceration. The protective activity was found to lie in the phospholipid, sterol and sterol ester fractions of the lipid. Amongst individual phospholipids present in the phospholipid fraction, phosphatidyl ethanolamine (cephalin) and phosphatidyl choline (Lecithin) predominated. The sterol fraction showing activity contained β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and an unidentified isomer of β-sitosterol. The evidence shows that dietary phytosterols and phospholipids, both individually and in combination, have a protective effect on gastroduodenal mucosa. These findings may prove to be important in the prevention and management of duodenal and gastric ulceration including ulceration due to NSAIDs.

  5. Factors influencing the implementation of a lifestyle counseling program in patients with venous leg ulcers: a multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Implementation of lifestyle interventions in patient care is a major challenge. Understanding factors that influence implementation is a first step in programs to enhance uptake of these interventions. A lifestyle-counseling intervention, Lively Legs, delivered by trained nurses, can effectively improve the lifestyle in patients with venous leg ulcers. The aim of this study was to identify factors that hindered or facilitated implementation of this intervention in outpatient dermatology clinics and in home care. Methods A mixed-methods multiple case study in five purposefully selected healthcare settings in the Netherlands was conducted. Measurements to identify influencing factors before and after implementation of Lively Legs included interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and nurses’ registration. Analyses focused on qualitative data as the main data source. All data were compared across multiple cases to draw conclusions from the study as a whole. Results A total of 53 patients enrolled in the Lively Legs program, which was delivered by 12 trained nurses. Barriers for implementation were mainly organizational. It was difficult to effectively organize reaching and recruiting patients for the program, especially in home care. Main barriers were a lack of a standardized healthcare delivery process, insufficient nursing time, and a lack of motivated nurses to deliver the program. Facilitating factors were nurse-driven coordination of care and a standardized care process to tie Lively Legs into, as this resulted in better patient recruitment and better program implementation. Conclusions This study identified a range of factors influencing the implementation of a lifestyle-counseling program, mainly related to the organization of healthcare. Using a case study method proved valuable in obtaining insight into influencing factors for implementation. This study also shed light on a more general issue, which is that leg ulcer care is often fragmented

  6. Laparoscopic and endoscopic co-operative surgery for non-ampullary duodenal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Dohi, Osamu; Naito, Yuji; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Kazuma; Itoh, Yoshito; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic and endoscopic co-operative surgery (LECS) for early non-ampullary duodenal tumors. METHODS Twelve patients with a non-ampullary duodenal tumor underwent LECS at our hospital. One patient had two mucosal lesions in the duodenum. The indication for this procedure was the presence of duodenal tumors with a low risk for lymph node metastasis. In particular, the tumors included small (less than 10 mm) submucosal tumors (SMT) and epithelial mucosal tumors, such as mucosal cancers or large mucosal adenomas with malignant suspicion. The LECS procedures, such as full-thickness dissection for SMT and laparoscopic reinforcement after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for epithelial tumors, were performed for the 13 early duodenal lesions in 12 patients. Here we present the short-term outcomes and evaluate the safety and feasibility of this new technique. RESULTS Two SMT-like lesions and eleven superficial epithelial tumor-like lesions were observed. Seven and Six lesions were located in the second and third parts of the duodenum, respectively. All lesions were successfully resected en bloc. The defect in the duodenal wall was manually sutured after resection of the duodenal SMT. For epithelial duodenal tumors, the ulcer bed was laparoscopically reinforced via manual suturing after ESD. Intraoperative perforation occurred in two out of eleven epithelial tumor-like lesions during ESD; however, they were successfully laparoscopically repaired. The median operative time and intraoperative estimated blood loss were 322 min and 0 mL, respectively. Histological examination of the tumors revealed one adenoma with moderate atypia, ten adenocarcinomas, and two neuroendocrine tumors. No severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo classification grade III or higher) were reported in this series, but minor leakage secondary to pancreatic fistula occurred in one patient. CONCLUSION LECS can be a safe and minimally

  7. [Radical operative treatment of perforative gastroduodenal ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Gostishchev, V K; Evseev, M A; Golovin, R A

    2009-01-01

    Data of 363 patients operated on for perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers were analyzed. Immediate and follow-up results were obtained after simple suture plication, Jadd's ulcer excision combined with stem vagotomy and after distal gastric resection. Predictors of the unfavourable outcome were determined. These are: Mannheim peritonitis index >20, surgical risk of IV-V grade, signs of multiple organ failure and symptomatic character of the ulcer. The comparison of long-term results revealed that patients after suture plication experienced the ulcer recurrence in 78,4% and necessity of further operation occurred in 21,5%. Every third patient after stem vagotomy experienced postvagotomic disorders and ulcer recurrence. Primary gastric resection demonstrated the best long-term results concerning ulcer disease. The algorithm of treatment modalities of the perforative ulcer desease was worked. The algorithm is based on stage-by stage determination of indications and contraindications to gastric resection.

  8. Peptic ulcer

    MedlinePlus

    ... result may be: Swollen and inflamed tissue, called ( gastritis ) An ulcer Watch this video about: Stomach ulcer ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 51. Read More Gastritis Intestinal obstruction Peritonitis Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Patient Instructions ...

  9. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis. PMID:27695214

  10. Cholangiohepatitis and pancreatitis secondary to severe gastroduodenal ulceration in a foal

    PubMed Central

    Buote, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    A 2-month-old foal was presented with clinical signs of colic. Gastroduodenal ulceration was suspected. A poor response to medical treatment and signs of gastroduodenal obstruction led to celiotomy and an attempted bypass procedure. The foal was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed gastric ulceration, segmental duodenal stenosis, and severe chronic cholangiohepatitis and pancreatitis. PMID:14524632

  11. Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Serum Pepsinogen I Concentration in Peptic Ulcer Patients: Effect of Bacterial Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sill Moo; Park, Joongwon; Chang, Sae Kyung; Yoo, Byung Chul; Kim, Ho Jung

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: In order to test the hypothesis that H. pylori infections in the gastric antrum increase pepsinogen I release, fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations were compared in peptic ulcer patients with and without H. pylori infection. A randomized prospective study was performed to determine whether the increased serum pepsinogen I concentrations associated with H. pylori infection respond to treatment that eradicates H. pylori. Methods: Fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations were measured by RIA in 736 patients with endoscopically and histologically confirmed benign peptic ulcer with and without H. pylori infection. Out of 511 patients with H. pylori infection, 110 patients (group 1) were randomly selected and were treated with metronidazole and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate combined with ranitidine and antacid, and 97 patients (group 2) were treated only with ranitidine and antacid. The third group, 54 patients free of H. pylori infection, was designed to evaluate the influence of H2-receptor antagonist and antacid on the change of pepsinogen I. Fasting pepsinogen I concentration and H. pylori status were compared before and after the treatment. Results: Patients infected by H. pylori (gastric ulcer 208, duodenal ulcer 303; total 511) had significantly higher fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations than H. pylori negative patients (gastric ulcer 110, duodenal ulcer 115: total 225). Mean pepsinogen I level of the former was 124.3±46.9 and that of the latter was 77.9±25.8 ng/ml. (p<0.0001) The difference in serum pepsinogen I concentrations according to the location of ulcer crater was significant only in non-infected subjects e.g., mean pepsinogen I level H. pylori-negative gastric ulcer was significantly lower than that of H. pylori-negative duodenal ulcer patients. H. pylori was eradicated in all the patients who had received antibacterial therapy for 4 weeks and serum pepsinogen I concentrations were significantly decreased from 129.8+43.0 to

  12. Acute Reversible Duodenitis Following Non-Therapeutic Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Is Duodenal Diverticulum a Predisposing Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Emre; Ayan, Elif Nurbegum; Yazgan, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy has been regarded as a safe procedure. Case report We report of a 67-year-old woman who developed epigastric pain and dyspeptic complaints following an uneventful upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The diagnosis of an acute reversible duodenitis was made on the basis of imaging studies. A duodenal diverticulum was also found on CT images, which raised the suspicion that duodenal diverticulum could be a predisposing factor for duodenitis. Conclusions Despite significant inflammation the patient demonstrated rapid clinical improvement with conservative treatment. Presence of a duodenal diverticulum may predispose to acute duodenitis following diagnostic UGI endoscopy. PMID:27994697

  13. Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity and gastro-duodenal diseases in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gunaletchumy, Selva Perumal; Seevasant, Indran; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J; Mitchell, Hazel M; Goh, Khean Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-12-11

    Helicobacter pylori infection results in diverse clinical conditions ranging from chronic gastritis and ulceration to gastric adenocarcinoma. Among the multiethnic population of Malaysia, Indians consistently have a higher H. pylori prevalence as compared with Chinese and Malays. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori, Indians have a relatively low incidence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. In contrast, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease incidence is high in Chinese. H. pylori strains from Chinese strains predominantly belong to the hspEAsia subpopulation while Indian/Malay strains mainly belong to the hspIndia subpopulation. By comparing the genome of 27 Asian strains from different subpopulations, we identified six genes associated with risk of H. pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This study serves as an important foundation for future studies aiming to understand the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori-induced gastro-duodenal diseases.

  14. Helicobacter pylori Genetic Diversity and Gastro-duodenal Diseases in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Gunaletchumy, Selva Perumal; Seevasant, Indran; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J.; Mitchell, Hazel M.; Goh, Khean Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection results in diverse clinical conditions ranging from chronic gastritis and ulceration to gastric adenocarcinoma. Among the multiethnic population of Malaysia, Indians consistently have a higher H. pylori prevalence as compared with Chinese and Malays. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori, Indians have a relatively low incidence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. In contrast, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease incidence is high in Chinese. H. pylori strains from Chinese strains predominantly belong to the hspEAsia subpopulation while Indian/Malay strains mainly belong to the hspIndia subpopulation. By comparing the genome of 27 Asian strains from different subpopulations, we identified six genes associated with risk of H. pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This study serves as an important foundation for future studies aiming to understand the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori-induced gastro-duodenal diseases. PMID:25503415

  15. [Glycoproteins of mucus of gastric and duodenal wall surface during ulcerogenesis and the impact of fenugreek].

    PubMed

    Khil'ko, T D; Iakubtsova, I V; Preobrazhens'ka, T D; Ostapchenko, L I

    2013-01-01

    The comparative evaluation of qualitative and quantitative composition of glycoproteins of gastric and duodenal wall surface layer of protective mucus in the normal, at the modeling of ulcers in rats and at the introduction to animals with ulcerative lesions of fenugreek extract carried out. It was shown in control (normally) the general level of glycosylation of glycoproteins gastric mucus is 1.7 times more than the duodenum. Under acute stress model ulceration in the stomach mucus decrease in hexosamine (1.4 times), galactose (2.2 times), fucose (1.3-fold) and an increase in NANA (3.6 times) observed. Under cysteamine model ulceration in duodenal mucus increase galactose (2.7 times), NANA (2.4 times), fucose (1.8-fold) but significant decrease in the amount of hexosamines 3 times compared to the control occurred. It was proved the protective effect of fenugreek extract to the wall surface mucus of the stomach and duodenum mucosa under conditions modeling ulceration in rats.

  16. Comparative Characteristics Of Coherent And Incoherent Radiation In The Photography Of Ulcer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. F.; Paramonov, L. V.

    1985-01-01

    The efficiency of He-Ne laser radiation and incoherent radiation by red light sources with different spectral bandwidths is compared for the endoscopic phototherapy of gastric and duodenal ulcers. Coherent and incoherent radiation is determined to result in the same theraputic effect when doing the treatment of ulcer deseases. The methods of ulcer treatment is suggested with a conventional fibrogastroscope fitted with red glass filter.

  17. Influence of an anti-diabetic foot ulcer formula and its component herbs on tissue and systemic glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chan, C M; Chan, Y W; Lau, C H; Lau, T W; Lau, K M; Lam, F C; Che, C T; Leung, P C; Fung, K P; Lau, C B S; Ho, Y Y

    2007-01-03

    Complications of diabetes impose major public health burdens worldwide. The positive effect of a Radix Astragali-based herbal preparation on healing diabetic foot ulcers in patients has been reported. Formula 1 is also referred as the 'Herbal drink to strengthen muscle and control swelling'. This formula contains six Chinese medical herbs, including Radix Astragali, Radix Rehmanniae, Rhizoma Smilacis Chinensis, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Radix Polygoni Multiflori Preparata, and Radix Stephania Tetrandrae. Three of these herbs (Radix Astragali, Radix Rehmanniae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) are commonly used in different anti-diabetic formulae of Chinese medicine. The objective of the current study is to use an interdisciplinary approach to test the hypothesis that Formula 1 and its components influence tissue and systemic glucose homeostasis. In vitro and in vivo models have been established including: (1) glucose absorption into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV); (2) gluconeogenesis by H4IIE hepatoma cells; (3) glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Hs68 skin fibroblasts; (4) normalization of glycaemic control in a diabetic rat model. The results of in vitro studies indicated that all herbal extracts can modify cellular glucose homeostasis. Since Formula 1 and Rhizoma Smilacis Chinensis extracts demonstrated potent effects on modifying glucose homeostasis in multiple tissues in vitro, they were further studied for their anti-diabetic activities in vivo using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. The results showed that Formula 1 and Rhizoma Smilacis Chinensis extracts did not significantly improve oral glucose tolerance or basal glycaemia in diabetic rats. In conclusion, the anti-diabetic foot ulcer Formula 1 contains ingredients active in modifying tissue glucose homeostasis in vitro but these biological activities could not be associated with improved glycaemic control of diabetes in vivo.

  18. Pressure ulcer incidence and progression in critically ill subjects: influence of low air loss mattress versus a powered air pressure redistribution mattress.

    PubMed

    Black, Joyce; Berke, Christine; Urzendowski, Gail

    2012-01-01

    costing the facility $4116. No subjects on the low air loss beds experienced worsening of existing pressure ulcer. One patient with a deep tissue injury present on admission improved on the LAL-MCM bed. The IP-AR beds were approximately 7 years old, and the LAL-MCM beds were new. Critically ill subjects placed on low air loss beds with microclimate management in surgical ICUs had a lower pressure ulcer incidence than those placed on integrated powered air pressure redistribution beds. The clinical performance of the IP-AR surfaces may have been influenced by their age.

  19. Guilty as charged: bugs and drugs in gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Sontag, S J

    1997-08-01

    Gastric ulcer disease remains a cause of hemorrhage, perforation, outlet obstruction, and death. Recent advances in the understanding of peptic ulcer disease indicate that infection with Helicobacter pylori and ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cause of almost all gastric and duodenal ulcers. Our therapy, therefore, is in a state of transition: the old acid-suppressive temporary therapy that allows frequent ulcer recurrences and complications is being replaced by curative therapies. The old therapy, by reducing gastric acid secretion or enhancing gastric mucosal defenses, inhibited the cofactors needed for ulcer development. Acid suppression relieved symptoms and healed ulcers, while defense enhancers, such as prostaglandin analogs healed and prevented acute NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. These benefits were maintained, however, only as long as acid-reducing agents or mucosal defense enhancers were continued. On the other hand, curative therapies (such as eradicating H. pylori infection and/or stopping the use of NSAIDs) eliminate the causes of ulcer. Curative combination regimens consisting of antibiotics, ranitidine bismuth citrate, bismuth, and proton pump inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. These new regimens can cure benign gastric ulcer. Unfortunately, we cannot always determine which gastric ulcers are benign, and concern about gastric cancer remains. All gastric ulcers therefore still require biopsy and histological examination. With new treatment regimens, the time may be rapidly approaching when ulcer disease will be "history."

  20. [Corrective effects of electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range on the parameters of oxidative stress after standard anti-helicobacterial therapy in patients with ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Ivanishkina, E V; Podoprigorova, V G

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the possibilities of correction of oxidative stress parameters in the serum and gastroduodenal mucosa using electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range in 127 patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer after eradication therapy. Control group included 230 healthy subjects. Parameter of lipid oxidation by free radicals were measured by direct methods (hemiluminescence and EPR-spectroscopy). The results show that standard eradication therapy does not influence parameters of oxidative stress. More pronounced effect of electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range may be due to the correction of prooxidant-antioxidant and antioxidant disbalance. This observation provides pathogenetic substantiation for the inclusion of this physical method in modern therapeutic modalities.

  1. The duodenal switch operation for the treatment of morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Anthone, Gary J; Lord, Reginald V N; DeMeester, Tom R; Crookes, Peter F

    2003-10-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of the duodenal switch procedure as surgical treatment of morbid obesity. The longitudinal gastrectomy and duodenal switch procedure as performed for morbid obesity involves a 75% subtotal greater curvature gastrectomy and long limb suprapapillary Roux-en-Y duodenoenterostomy. This results in a restricted caloric intake and diversion of bile and pancreatic secretions to induce fat malabsorption. Broad acceptance of this procedure has been impeded because of concerns that the malabsorptive component may produce serious nutritional complications. Review of data collected prospectively from all patients who underwent duodenal switch as the primary surgical treatment of morbid obesity at a single institution during the 10-year period beginning September 1992. Operative morbidity and mortality, weight loss, volume of food intake, and bowel function were recorded. Sequential measurements of serum albumin, hemoglobin, and calcium levels were obtained to assess metabolic function and nutrient absorption. Duodenal switch was performed as the primary operation in 701 (81%) of a total 863 patients undergoing bariatric surgery during the period of study. The average body mass index (BMI) was 52.8 (range, 34-95). Perioperative mortality was 1.4%, and morbidity (including leaks, wound dehiscence, splenectomy, and postoperative hemorrhage) occurred in 21 patients (2.9%). Weight loss averaged 127 pounds at 1 year, 131 at 3 years, and 118 at 5 or more years (% EBWL of 69%, 73%, and 66%, respectively). The mean number of bowel movements was fewer than 3 per day. Patients reported and maintained a mean restriction of 63% of their preoperative intake (approximately 1600 calories), with no specific food intolerance, at 3 or more years follow-up. At 3 years, serum albumin remained at normal levels in 98% of patients, hemoglobin in 52%, and calcium in 71%. No patients reported dumping, and marginal ulcers were not seen. The longitudinal gastrectomy

  2. The Duodenal Switch Operation for the Treatment of Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Anthone, Gary J.; Lord, Reginald V. N.; DeMeester, Tom R.; Crookes, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    marginal ulcers were not seen. Conclusions: The longitudinal gastrectomy with duodenal switch is a safe and effective primary procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity. It has the advantage of allowing acceptable alimentation with a minimum of side effects while producing and maintaining significant weight loss. These results are achieved without developing significant dietary restrictions or clinical metabolic or nutritional complications. PMID:14530733

  3. [Influence of honey, royal jelly and propolis on accelerating acetate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats].

    PubMed

    Belostotskiĭ, N I; Kas'ianenko, V I; Dubtsova, E A; Lazebnik, L B

    2009-01-01

    This study examines gastric acetic ulcer healing in the rat after administration of honey, royal jelly and propolis into the stomach. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by the application of 100% acetic acid to the serosal surface of the stomach on 60 sec. Bee-keeping products were administrated into the stomach from 2nd to 7th day after acetic ulcer induction. On 7th day animals were killed, and ulcer area was measured in mm2. In gastric juice pH and activity of pepsin were measured. The healing of acetic ulcers is accelerated with the administration of honey, royal jelly or propolis during six days. The largest healing effect was demonstrated with propolis and royal jelly, smaller one with the honey. It was revealed decrease of stomach acid secretion in the rats, which have received bee-keeping products versus the rats of control group.

  4. Influence of superabsorbent dressings on non-healing ulcers: a multicentre case series from the Netherlands and the UK.

    PubMed

    van Leen, M; Rondas, A; Neyens, J; Cutting, K; Schols, J M G A

    2014-11-01

    To record and assess the application and the progression of wound healing in patients who received Sorbion sachet S or Sorbion Sana wound dressings. A convenience sample of patients with chronic wounds was recruited from nursing homes or community wound clinics in the Netherlands and the UK. Wound surface area measurements, pain assessment using a visual analogue scale score, patient affect (mood) and social interaction were recorded using a specifically designed evaluation template. Pressure ulcer (PU) (n=11) and leg ulcer (LU) (n=20) patients had a mean age of 64.6 years and 71.7 years, respectively. Mean PU surface area decreased from 15.27 cm² in week 0 to 7.63 cm² in week 8, while mean LU surface area decreased from 19.43 cm² in week 0 to 7.19 cm² in week 8. Mean PU pain decreased from 3.69 in week 0 to 0.67 in week 8, while pain at dressing change decreased from 3.23 in week 0 to 0.75 in week 8. Furthermore, mean LU pain decreased from 3.45 in week 0 to 1.90 in week 8, and pain at dressing change decreased from 3.4 in week 0 to 1.3 in week 8. The number of patients experiencing a negative influence of the PU on affect reduced from 6 in week 0 to 2 in week 8 and on social interaction from 6 in week 0 to 2 in week 8. The number of patients experiencing a negative influence of their LU on affect reduced from 7 in week 0 to zero in week 8 and on social interaction from 7 in week 0 to 2 in week 8. This case series records the response of patients' chronic wounds in terms of wound progress, patient pain and additional psycho-social factors following the application of the superabsorbent dressings and indicates that the dressings have a positive role to play in creating an environment conductive to the promotion of healing in LUs and PUs.

  5. Temporal aspects of the pathophysiology of human ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, B; Vener, K J

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, a peptic ulcer is considered from the perspective that it is representative of a heterogeneous group of multifactorial determined or influenced disorders having a common pathomorphologic expression. This heterogeneity involves pathophysiological attributes, including both functional (including secretory and motility events and their respective driving mechanisms) and morphologic alterations that relate to mucosal resistance. Patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) have been observed to exhibit alterations, in comparison to normal subjects, in the circadian rhythm characteristics of several gastrointestinal functions. Prominent among these are altered amplitudes of several circadian-organized gastric variables, such as intragastric pH, gastrin, pepsinogen and gastric mitotic index. With respect to any given variable, a reduced group amplitude (a measure of one-half the peak-trough difference of a 24-hr rhythm) could signify an increased dispersion of acrophases (the location of the peak of a circadian rhythm along the 24-hr time scale) reflecting interindividual variation in synchronization schedules, sleep-wake patterns, or chronobiologic alterations. A reduced interindividual amplitude further supports the concept of the heterogeneity of peptic disease. A decrease in the intraindividual amplitude of certain gastric rhythms implies an altered temporal pattern over the 24 hr. This is consistent with the hypothesis of a decrease in the amount of time available for recovery of a given function or set of integrated functions, and hence, increased susceptibility to mucosal injury. Normal high-amplitude variation in gastrointestinal functioning over the 24 hr appears to be required for natural restoration of the gut.

  6. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the gastroprotective and ulcer healing actions of colloidal bismuth subcitrate (De-Nol) in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Dembinski, A; Warzecha, Z; Bielanski, W; Brzozowski, T; Drozdowicz, D

    1988-01-01

    Colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS; De-Nol) exhibits gastroprotective properties in experimental animals and enhances the healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers, but the mechanisms of these actions have not been entirely elucidated. The present study was designed to determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF), which also has gastroprotective and ulcer healing properties, contributes to the action of De-Nol on the stomach in rats. It was found that De-Nol protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol damage and that this is accompanied by increased mucosal generation of prostaglandins (PG). Removal of the endogenous source of EGF (sialoadenectomy) did not significantly decrease the protective and PG stimulating effects of De-Nol. Pretreatment with exogenous EGF partially protected the stomach against ethanol injury, but did not influence the protective action of De-Nol in sialoadenectomised animals. De-Nol, like EGF given orally, enhanced the healing of chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers induced by serosal acetic acid. De-Nol was found to bind EGF in a pH-dependent manner and to accumulate it in ulcer area. Thus the peptide is available locally in high concentrations to accelerate the re-epithelialisation and tissue repair of the ulcerated mucosa. These ulcer healing effects of De-Nol were reduced by sialoadenectomy and restored in part by oral administration of EGF. We conclude that salivary glands in rats are not essential for the gastroprotection induced by De-Nol, but seem to play an important role in the ulcer healing action of this drug possibly via an EGF mediated mechanism. PMID:3260885

  7. Martorell's ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Shutler, S. D.; Baragwanath, P.; Harding, K. G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a rare form of ulceration of the lower leg and, as a result of subsequent investigations and literature review, readdresses a recent debate regarding the legitimate classification of these ulcers as a separate disease entity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8552533

  8. [Peptic ulcer disease etiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy; Płaneta-Małecka, Izabela

    2004-01-01

    Authors in this article present etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures and treatment of peptic ulcer disease in children and adults. Increased gastric acid output, Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDs and stress are the basic risk factors in peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori infection is a widely known risk factor in peptic ulcer disease and influences diagnostic and treatment procedures. Primary ulcer disease concerns mainly duodenum and is accompanied by H. pylori infection. Gastroscopy and Helicobacter tests are the only reliable procedures to diagnose peptic ulcer disease. Nowadays the most important aim in peptic ulcer treatment is the H. pylori eradication. Therapy with two antibiotics and a protein pomp inhibitor eradicates the bacteria, treats the ulceration and lowers the number of ulcer recurrence. In non-infected H. pylori ulcers or in a long-term treatment protein pomp inhibitors and H2-inhibitors are effective as well in gastroprotective therapy.

  9. Lipid based therapy for ulcerative colitis-modulation of intestinal mucus membrane phospholipids as a tool to influence inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Hannah; Braun, Annika; Füllekrug, Joachim; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Ehehalt, Robert

    2010-10-25

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the result of an inappropriate colonic inflammatory response triggered by environmental and genetic factors. We have recently shown that mucus from UC patients has a decreased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content, while clinical trials revealed that therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus alleviated the inflammatory activity. The mechanisms behind this are still unclear. We hypothesized that PC has at least two possible functions in the intestine: First, it establishes the surface hydrophobicity of the mucus and therefore protects the underlying tissue against intraluminal aggressors; recent experiments on surgical specimens revealed reduced surface tension and hydrophobicity in UC patients. Second, mucus phospholipids might also be integrated into the plasma membranes of enterocytes and thereby influence the signaling state of the mucosa. PC has been shown to inhibit TNF-α induced pro-inflammatory responses including: (1) assembly of plasma membrane actin; (2) activation of MAP kinases ERK and p38; and (3) activation of NF-κB and synthesis of pro-inflammatory gene products. Other phospholipids like phosphatidylethanolamine or sphingomyelin had no effect. PC also inhibited latex bead phagosome actin assembly, killing of M. tuberculosis in macrophages, and sphingosine-1-phosphate induced actin assembly in macrophages. Collectively, these results provide a molecular foundation that shows PC, firstly, as an anti-inflammatory, and secondly, as a surface hydrophobicity increasing compound with promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Traumatic duodenal hematoma in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Winthrop, A L; Wesson, D E; Filler, R M

    1986-09-01

    Twenty children with duodenal hematomas secondary to blunt trauma were treated between 1953 and 1983. The duodenal injury was isolated in ten cases and associated with intra-abdominal injuries in the others. In ten, the duodenal injury was suspected on admission and the diagnosis was confirmed within 24 hours by radiographic contrast studies. All ten were managed successfully with nasogastric suction and intravenous fluids. Ten patients underwent laparotomy for increasing abdominal tenderness and guarding. An isolated duodenal hematoma was found in four and treated by evacuation and/or gastroenterostomy. In five of the remaining six surgical patients, all of whom had multiple intra-abdominal injuries, the duodenum was left untouched. Three of these patients had postoperative contrast studies that showed early resolution of the duodenal hematoma. No duodenal stricture or leak developed in any patient. The children with isolated duodenal hematomas who were treated conservatively had a mean hospital stay of six days, whereas those treated surgically had a mean stay of 17 days. The ten patients with multiple intra-abdominal injuries had a mean hospital stay of 32 days. In this group, eight required total parenteral nutrition or nasojejunal feeds for nutritional support. In these patients, an isolated duodenal hematoma resulted in minimal morbidity and nonoperative management was usually successful. The presence of associated intra-abdominal injuries was responsible for the prolonged hospitalization and delayed return of normal intestinal function in some patients.

  11. Peptic ulcer disease: a clinical study in 73 children

    PubMed Central

    Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Roy, Claude C.; Lussier-Lazaroff, Jeannette; Morin, Claude L.

    1974-01-01

    Seventy-three children with peptic ulcer have been admitted to The Montreal Children's Hospital and l'Hôpital Sainte-Justine over the past 11 years. The primary ulcer group comprised 39 duodenal and nine gastric ulcers; repeat contrast studies were necessary to demonstrate a crater in 25%. Vomiting was especially prominent in the younger patients (1 month to 6 years). Pain was present in the majority of older patients (6 to 18 years) but was considered “typical” in no more than one third. Bleeding occurred more commonly in the older children but five had occult bleeding only. There was a positive family history in 11 children with primary duodenal ulcers but in none of those with gastric ulcers. Follow-up in 34 cases with primary ulcers showed that close to two thirds of the older children have had recurrent problems. Bleeding and/or perforation was the most common mode of presentation in 25 cases of secondary ulcers. Corticosteroids and increased intracranial pressure were the most frequently associated factors, the younger age group being at greater risk. PMID:4853569

  12. Peptic ulceration may be a hormonal deficiency disease.

    PubMed

    Love, Jack W

    2008-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed that Helicobacter pylori infection may cause a deficiency of the hormone secretin that allows peptic ulcer disease to develop by impairing the body's defenses to gastric acid. Secretin is released into the circulation from the S-cells of the duodenal crypts in response to gastric acid entering the duodenum. Once in the circulation, secretin has five well-documented effects that protect the upper intestine from gastric acid: it stimulates secretion of bicarbonate rich exocrine pancreatic juice; it stimulates secretion of alkaline bile; it stimulates secretion of alkaline mucus from the duodenal submucosal glands of Brunner; it inhibits the humoral phase of gastric secretion; and it inhibits gastric motility, thereby delaying gastric emptying. Impaired secretin release and reduced duodenal S-cells have been documented in peptic ulcer patients compared with control patients. Clinical evidence that patients with H. pylori infection and peptic ulceration have increased gastric secretion and motility and decreased duodenal bicarbonate response to gastric acid, all of which normalize after eradication of the infection, could be explained by reversible impairment of the secretin mechanism. Gastric metaplasia in the duodenum with H. pylori infection is known to reduce the S-cell population. The fact that not all patients with H. pylori infection develop peptic ulceration suggests that degree of secretin deficiency determined by extent of the infection must reach a critical level for peptic ulceration to occur. Peptic ulceration may be a hormonal deficiency disease, a result of secretin deficiency caused by H. pylori infection. It may be the first example of a specific hormonal deficiency disease caused by a specific bacterial infection.

  13. Seasonal pattern in the incidence of bleeding caused by peptic ulcer in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bendahan, J; Gilboa, S; Paran, H; Neufeld, D; Pomerantz, I; Novis, B; Freund, U

    1992-06-01

    We have reviewed all endoscopies performed in our hospital between 1977 and 1986. During that period, 1337 endoscopies were performed to identify bleeding from peptic ulcers. Excluded were cases in which a predisposing factor was found, such as the use of ulcerogenic drugs. Also excluded were chronic or critically ill patients. The remaining 540 cases were reviewed. In 447 of those cases, the bleeding lesion was a duodenal ulcer, whereas, in 93 cases, a gastric ulcer was found (a ratio of 5:1). The seasonal variation in the incidence of bleeding from peptic ulcers was evaluated. We found a significant difference in bleeding in the cold and hot seasons, the incidence being significantly greater during the cold season (November until February). A similar pattern was found for bleeding from both duodenal and gastric ulcers.

  14. Dopamine enhances duodenal epithelial permeability via the dopamine D5 receptor in rodent.

    PubMed

    Feng, X-Y; Zhang, D-N; Wang, Y-A; Fan, R-F; Hong, F; Zhang, Y; Li, Y; Zhu, J-X

    2017-05-01

    The intestinal barrier is made up of epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes to regulate epithelial ion transport and permeability. Dopamine (DA) is able to promote duodenal epithelial ion transport through D1-like receptors, which includes subtypes of D1 (D1 R) and D5 (D5 R), but whether D1-like receptors influence the duodenal permeability is unclear. FITC-dextran permeability, short-circuit current (ISC ), Western blot, immunohistochemistry and ELISA were used in human D5 R transgenic mice and hyperendogenous enteric DA (HEnD) rats in this study. Dopamine induced a downward deflection in ISC and an increase in FITC-dextran permeability of control rat duodenum, which were inhibited by the D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH-23390. However, DA decreased duodenal transepithelial resistance (TER), an effect also reversed by SCH-23390. A strong immunofluorescence signal for D5 R, but not D1 R, was observed in the duodenum of control rat. In human D5 R knock-in transgenic mice, duodenal mucosa displayed an increased basal ISC with high FITC-dextran permeability and decreased TER with a lowered expression of tight junction proteins, suggesting attenuated duodenal barrier function in these transgenic mice. D5 R knock-down transgenic mice manifested a decreased basal ISC with lowered FITC-dextran permeability. Moreover, an increased FITC-dextran permeability combined with decreased TER and tight junction protein expression in duodenal mucosa were also observed in HEnD rats. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that DA enhances duodenal permeability of control rat via D5 R, which provides new experimental and theoretical evidence for the influence of DA on duodenal epithelial barrier function. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gastroduodenal ulcers on CT: forgotten, but not gone.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian C; Tirman, Philippe; Tobben, John P; Evans, John A; Leyendecker, John R

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of missed gastroduodenal ulcers on routine abdominal computed tomography (CT) and identify findings and methods to improve sensitivity of CT interpretation for peptic ulcers. This is a retrospective chart and imaging review. Two blinded readers independently reviewed CTs performed within 7 days prior to endoscopy of 114 subjects; this included 57 consecutive subjects with proven gastroduodenal ulcers intermixed with 57 subjects with endoscopically normal examinations. Presence, location and size of ulcer crater, and ancillary findings (mural edema, asymmetric wall thickening, focal fat stranding, regional lymph nodes, and extraluminal gas) were recorded before and after review of multiplanar reformatted images. Radiology reports were then reviewed to determine if an ulcer was identified prospectively. Thirty-one ulcers (54%) were radiographically occult, missed by both readers. Thirteen ulcers were correctly and independently identified by both readers (sensitivity/specificity = 30%/100%). With review of multiplanar reformats, sensitivity and accuracy increased for both readers. When two or more ancillary findings were identified, the odds ratio of a true ulcer being present was greater than 5.6 (P = 0.0001). Both size and location of ulcer were important for detection; readers were more likely to identify gastric ulcers compared to duodenal or marginal ulcers (P = 0.02). Only 3/13 definitely visible ulcers were correctly identified during initial CT interpretation. Although CT has low sensitivity for peptic ulcer disease, the miss rate for visible peptic ulcers is high. Increased awareness, multiplanar imaging review, and identification of ancillary findings may improve sensitivity for gastroduodenal ulcers.

  16. Tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate: a report of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Brogden, R N; Pinder, R M; Sawyer, P R; Speight, T M; Avery, G S

    1976-12-01

    Tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate is a complex bismuth salt stable in colloidal form advocated for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Preliminary placebo-controlled trials in small numbers of ambulant patients with endoscopically proven peptic ulcer, strongly suggest that the compound accelerates the rate of healing of gastric and duodenal ulcer within 4 weeks of treatment. However, trials involving larger numbers of patients followed-up for longer periods are required before a clear verdict on the efficacy of tripotassium di-citrato bismuthate in gastric and duodenal ulcer can be given. There are no reliable data on the effect of the drug on ulcer recurrence rate. Side-effects are negligible and the drug could become an important therapeutic agent in peptic ulcer therapy if results of further study are conclusive. The drug causes dark discolouration of the stools and this should be borne in mind when considering the possibility of the presence of intestinal bleeding.

  17. Role of dietary phospholipids and phytosterols in protection against peptic ulceration as shown by experiments on rats.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Frank I

    2015-02-07

    Geographically the prevalence of duodenal ulceration is related to the staple foods in the diet in regions of developing countries where the diet is stable. It is higher in regions where the diet is based on milled rice, refined wheat or maize, yams, cassava, sweet potato, or green bananas, and is lower in regions where the staple diet is based on unrefined wheat or maize, soya, certain millets or certain pulses. Experiments on rat gastric and duodenal ulcer models showed that it was the lipid fraction in staple foods from low prevalence areas that was protective against both gastric and duodenal ulceration, including ulceration due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It also promoted ulcer healing. The lipid from the pulse, Dolichos biflorus, horse gram which was highly protective was used to identify the fractions with protective activity in the lipid. The protective activity lay in the phospholipid, sterol and sterol ester fractions. In the phospholipid fraction phosphatidyl choline (lethicin) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (cephalin) were predominant. In the sterol fraction the sub-fractions showing protective activity contained β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and an unidentified isomer of β-sitosterol. The evidence from animal models shows that certain dietary phospholipids and phytosterols have a protective action against gastroduodenal ulceration, both singly and in combination. This supports the protective role of staple diets in areas of low duodenal ulcer prevalence and may prove to be of importance in the prevention and treatment of duodenal ulceration and management of recurrent ulcers. A combination of phospholipids and phytosterols could also play an important role in protection against ulceration due to NSAIDs.

  18. The Incidence of Chronic Peptic Ulcer Found at Necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Watkinson, Geoffrey

    1960-01-01

    In this study the frequency of gastric, duodenal, and stomal ulcer has been determined in a survey at necropsy. This survey is likely to be much more accurate than those previously reported, as it has been a “forward planned” one and conducted by a group of men interested in this subject. In retrospective studies it is always impossible to know how carefully a particular point has been checked. It has been concluded from this study that the best estimate of the incidence of ulcer in the population as a whole can be made from the frequency of ulcers found in patients dying from causes other than peptic ulcer. The incidence of such active ulcers accords closely with clinical experience in life. PMID:13843102

  19. A Case of Small Bowel Ulcer Associated with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Woo, Saet Byul; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Kon Hee; Shin, Su Rin

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of peptic ulcer disease in children may be primary, associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, or secondary, relied on underlying disease. Ulcerative lesions by H. pylori are mainly distributed in the duodenal bulb and they are rare below the ampulla of Vater because H. pylori growth is inhibited by bile juice. In this reason, there are only some restrictive reports presented small bowel ulcer associated H. pylori. We found multiple small bowel ulcerative lesions associated with H. pylori in an 11-year-old girl without any systemic disease while performing esophagogastroenteroscopy to the level of the proximal jejunum for differentiating bezoar. The abdominal pain improved after the patient was administered H. pylori eradication therapy. Because a small bowel ulcer associated with H. pylori has rarely been reported, we report it here with literature review. PMID:24010097

  20. Ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... proctocolectomy - discharge Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated by: Subodh K. ... gastroenterologist at Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Internal review and ...

  1. Stomach ulcer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... are absorbed in the small intestine. It produces acid and various enzymes that break down food into ... wall of the stomach is protected from the acid and enzymes by a mucous lining. Ulcers are ...

  2. Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... become very limited, talk to a registered dietitian. Stress Although stress doesn't cause inflammatory bowel disease, ... al. Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee. American Journal of ...

  3. Ugh! Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... sores, or ulcers, are caused. continue Who Has H. Pylori Infection? By testing someone's blood or bowel movements ( ... she has been exposed to and might have H. pylori . When tested, lots of people have H. pylori ...

  4. Ugh! Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... or ulcers, are caused. continue Who Has H. Pylori Infection? By testing someone's blood or bowel movements ( ... has been exposed to and might have H. pylori . When tested, lots of people have H. pylori ...

  5. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-10-29

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Gastroprotective effects of several H2RAs on ibuprofen-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Dan; He, Jinfeng; Yang, Chengli; Hu, Tingting; Zhang, Lijing; Cao, Hua; Tong, Ai-Ping; Song, Xiangrong; Xie, Yongmei; He, Gu; Guo, Gang; Luo, Youfu; Cheng, Ping; Zheng, Yu

    2016-03-15

    Ibuprofen is the first line of treatment for osteoarthritis and arthritis. The main side effects of ibuprofen especially in long-term treatment include gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and indigestion etc. Therefore, screening drugs with effective gastric protective effects and low toxicity for combination therapy with ibuprofen is necessary. The mechanism of gastric damage induced by ibuprofen is still unclear, however, cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered as the main reason. Preliminary screening of literature with the criteria of low toxicity led to four histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs): nizatidine, famotidine, lafutidine, and roxatidine acetate, which were selected for further investigation. These drugs were evaluated systemically by examining the gastric ulcer index, lipid peroxidation (LPO), membrane permeability, toxicity to main organs, and the influence on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Nizatidine was found to be the best gastric protective agent. It exhibited excellent protective effect by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, decreasing MPO activity, reducing LPO, and membrane permeability. Combination treatment with nizatidine and ibuprofen did not show any significant toxicity. Nizatidine was considered as a good option for combination therapy with ibuprofen especially for diseases that require long-term treatment such as arthritis and osteoarthritis.

  7. Validation of binding of SE-75 labeled sucralfate to sites of gastrointestinal ulceration

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, A.H.; Knight, L.C.; Kollman, M.; Krevsky, B.; Pleet, D.; D'Ercole, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1985-05-01

    This study was performed to determine if and for how long sucralfate (SU) binds selectively to sites of gastro-intestinal (GI) ulceration. Se-Su was prepared by sulfating sucrose with tracer Se-75 and precipitating it as the basic Al salt. All patients (pts) had endoscopy to confirm the presence of either: esophagitis (n=5), gastritis (GA) (n=5), gastric ulcers (GU) (n=5), duodenal ulcers (DU) (n=5), or no ulceration (NU) (n=5). Following an overnight fast the pts swallowed 1 gm with 100 ..mu..Ci of Se-SU and were imaged continuously over 24 hours or until no activity remained in the upper GI tract. Pts with GU visually demonstrated focal SU binding at the ulcers for an average of 3.9 +- 1.1 hrs. with a mean GET of 68 +- 25 min. Mean GET for pts with DU was prolonged, 171 +- 63 min, however focal binding at duodenal ulcers was not seen. All pts with GA had diffuse retention of SU in the stomach with a mean GET of 118 +- 34 min. Focal binding of SU at all sites of esophagitis was seen with a T-1/2 of 65 +- 32 min at the ulcerations. In conclusion these data support the theory that the mechanism of ulcer healing with SU is related to its ability to adhere to the ulcer site forming a protective barrier. In addition Se-SU is a potential ulcer imaging agent which can be used to noninvasively assess healing.

  8. Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis Followed by Duodenal Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Del Hierro, Piedad Magdalena

    2011-12-01

    Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis is an uncommon pathology, characterized by endoscopic finding of diffuse black coloration in esophageal mucosa and histological presence of necrosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The first case of acute necrotizing esophagitis followed by duodenal necrosis, in 81 years old woman with a positive history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and usual intake of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs, is reported. Although its etiology remains unknown, the duodenal necrosis suggests that ischemia could be the main cause given that the branches off the celiac axis provide common blood supply to the distal esophageal and duodenal tissue. The massive gastroesophagic reflux and NSAID intake could be involved.

  9. Annular pancreas associated with duodenal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brönnimann, Enrico; Potthast, Silke; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Oertli, Daniel; Heizmann, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly. Coexisting malignancy has been reported only in a few cases. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case in the English literature of duodenal adenocarcinoma in a patient with AP. In a 55-year old woman with duodenal outlet stenosis magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an aberrant pancreatic duct encircling the duodenum. Duodenojejunostomy was performed. Eight weeks later she presented with painless jaundice. Duodenopancreatectomy revealed a duodenal adenocarcinoma, surrounded by an incomplete AP. Thus, co-existent malignancy with AP can be present without obstructive jaundice and without being visible through preoperative diagnostics. PMID:20593508

  10. Duodenal carcinoid tumor - a case report.

    PubMed

    Debnath, C R; Debnath, M R; Haque, M A; Das, S N; Moshwan, M M; Karim, R; Uddoula, M S

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are well differentiated neuroendochrine tumors which most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract; however duodenal carcinoid tumors are rare. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. A 52 years old lady presented with the symptoms of recurrent upper abdominal pain, burning sensation of whole body and passage of loose stool. On endoscopy of upper GIT, there was a duodenal polyp. Polyp was removed by endoscopic resection and tissue was taken for biopsy. Histological findings of biopsy specimen shows carcinoid tumor. As duodenal carcinoid tumor is a rare presentation so we are going to present this case in this article.

  11. [Curative and preventive treatment of NSAID-associated gastroduodenal ulcers].

    PubMed

    Dupas, Jean-Louis; Grigy, Claire

    2004-04-01

    The use of treatments to heal or to prevent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) associated gastroduodenal lesions is based on replacement of mucosal prostaglandin deficiency or inhibition of acid secretion. Four-week acid suppression by proton pump inhibitors (PPI) with 7-day eradication triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori positive patients is effective in healing gastric and duodenal ulcer upon discontinuation of NSAIDs. In the event NSAIDs must be continued, PPIs (omeprazole 20 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg) are more effective than H2-blockers and cytoprotective agents (sucralfate, misoprostol) to heal mucosal lesions. In long-term prevention studies, omeprazole 20 mg, lansoprazole 15 mg, and pantoprazole 20 mg significantly reduce gastric and duodenal ulcer rates. Misoprostol 800 microg is as effective as PPIs for preventing symptomatic and complicated gastric ulcers, but less effective to prevent duodenal ulcer, with a high rate of adverse effects such as diarrhea. Helicobacter pylori eradication in infected patients decrease the risk of NSAIDs-associated lesions but is less effective than concomitant antisecretory treatment. Current data from comparative studies of PPIs vs ranitidine or misoprostol are in favor of the PPIs as well tolerated and effective drugs in the prophylaxis of NSAIDs-related gastroduodenal lesions in high-risk patients.

  12. [The choice of the method for restoring gastrointestinal tract continuity in gastric resection for peptic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Us, V G; Miliaev, M M; Zaikina, I D; Kuznetsov, S S; Gazazian, B R

    1992-02-01

    Resection of the stomach was carried out in 299 patients (in 151 for gastric ulcer and in 148 for duodenal ulcer). The method for restoring the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract after gastric resection was individualized according to the location of the ulcer, the patient's age, the character of complications of peptic ulcer, the topographoanatomical conditions in the zone of the operation, and the motility and acid-producing activity of the stomach. The indications and contraindications for various types of gastrointestinal anastomoses are discussed. Direct gastroduodenal anastomosis is considered the operation of choice, if it cannot be established a terminolateral gastroduodenal anastomosis is formed. One patient died after the operation.

  13. Risk factors influencing the outcome of peptic ulcer bleeding in chronic kidney disease after initial endoscopic hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Tai, Wei-Chen; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shih, Chih-Wei; Ku, Ming-Kun; Yuan, Lan-Ting; Wang, Jiunn-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Lun; Sun, Wei-Chih; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Nguang, Seng-Howe; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who had peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) may have more adverse outcomes. This population-based cohort study aimed to identify risk factors that may influence the outcomes of patients with CKD and PUB after initial endoscopic hemostasis. Data from 1997 to 2008 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included a cohort dataset of 1 million randomly selected individuals and a dataset of patients with CKD who were alive in 2008. A total of 18,646 patients with PUB were screened, and 1229 patients admitted for PUB after endoscopic hemostasis were recruited. The subjects were divided into non-CKD (n = 1045) and CKD groups (n = 184). We analyzed the risks of peptic ulcer rebleeding, sepsis events, and mortality among in-hospital patients, and after discharge. Results showed that the rebleeding rates associated with repeat endoscopic therapy (11.96% vs 6.32%, P = 0.0062), death rates (8.7%, vs 2.3%, P < 0.0001), hospitalization cost (US$ 5595±7200 vs US$2408 ± 4703, P < 0.0001), and length of hospital stay (19.6 ± 18.3 vs 11.2 ± 13.1, P < 0.0001) in the CKD group were higher than those in the non-CKD group. The death rate in the CKD group was also higher than that in the non-CKD group after discharge. The independent risk factor for rebleeding during hospitalization was age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; P = 0.0063), whereas risk factors for death were CKD (OR, 2.37; P = 0.0222), shock (OR, 2.99; P = 0.0098), and endotracheal intubation (OR, 5.31; P < 0.0001). The hazard ratio of rebleeding risk for aspirin users after discharge over a 10-year follow-up period was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45–0.95, P = 0.0223). On the other hand, old age (P < 0.0001), CKD (P = 0.0090), diabetes (P = 0.0470), and congestive heart failure (P = 0.0013) were the independent risk factors for death after discharge. In-hospital patients with CKD and PUB after

  14. Non-Helicobacter pylori, non-NSAIDs peptic ulcers: a descriptive study on patients referred to Taleghani hospital with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Rajabalinia, Hasan; Ghobakhlou, Mehdi; Nikpour, Shahriar; Dabiri, Reza; Bahriny, Rasoul; Sherafat, Somayeh Jahani; Moghaddam, Pardis Ketabi

    2012-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the number and proportion of various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and actual numbers of non-NSAID, non-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) peptic ulcers seen in endoscopy of these patients. Background The number and the proportion of patients with non- H.pylori, non-NSAIDs peptic ulcer disease leading to upper gastrointestinal bleeding is believed to be increasing after eradication therapy for H.pylori. Patients and methods Medical records of patients referred to the emergency room of Taleghani hospital from 2010 with a clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, coffee ground vomiting and melena) were included in this study. Patients with hematochezia with evidence of a source of bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract in endoscopy were also included in this study. Results In this study, peptic ulcer disease (all kinds of ulcers) was seen in 61 patients which were about 44.85% of abnormalities seen on endoscopy of patients. Among these 61 ulcers, 44 were duodenal ulcer, 22 gastric ulcer (5 patients had the both duodenal and gastric ulcers). Multiple biopsies were taken and be sent to laboratory for Rapid Urease Test and pathological examination. About 65.53% of patients had ulcers associated with H.pylori, 9.83% had peptic ulcer disease associated with NSAIDs and 11.47% of patients had ulcers associated with both H.pylori and consumption of NSAIDs. 13.11% of patients had non-NSAIDs non- H.pylori peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion The results of this study supports the results of other studies that suggest the incidence of H.pylori infection related with duodenal ulcer is common, and that non-H pylori and non-NSAIDs duodenal ulcer is also common. PMID:24834225

  15. Comparison of solcoseryl and epidermal growth factors (EGF) in healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcerations and mucosal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Dembinski, A; Warzecha, A; Drozdowicz, D

    1988-02-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract of calf blood, and EGF, produced by salivary glands, have been shown to enhance the healing of peptic ulcerations, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Since both solcoseryl and EGF have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation, we designed the study to compare the ulcer healing and growth promoting actions of these two agents in the same animals. Gastric and duodenal ulcerations were produced by serosal application of 100% acetic acid on an area of 13.8 mm2 of gastric and duodenal wall, respectively. In the control animals, 7 days after ulcer induction, the mean ulcer area was reduced to 7.1 +/- 1.2 mm2 in the stomach, and to 6.1 +/- 0.8 mm2 in the duodenum. After 14 days all ulcers were healed, both in the stomach and duodenum. Oral administration of solcoseryl (10 ml/kg-day) or EGF (30 micrograms/kg-day) for 7 days after ulcer induction resulted in a significant reduction in the ulcer area in the stomach, and to a greater extent in the duodenum. This enhancement of ulcer healing by solcoseryl was accompanied by a significant increase in the weight of the duodenal mucosa and the total contents of DNA and RNA after 7 days of treatment, and in the weight and nucleic acid contents in both the gastric and duodenal mucosa after 14 days of treatment. EGF also increased the weights and the nucleic acid contents in gastric and duodenal mucosa, but this was significant only after 14 days of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Variant on Manifestation of Duodenal Metastasis 26 Years after Initial Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Kumiko; Bardier-Dupas, Armelle; Breton, Sylvie; Rousseau, Géraldine; Siksik, Jean-Michel; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Malignant duodenal neoplasms are relatively rare, and the diagnosis is often delayed because of their vague and nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a 79-year-old female who had a medical history of malignant melanoma of the cheek that had initially been diagnosed at 53 years of age. Work-up revealed severe stenosis of the duodenum caused by a large mass with ulceration at the tip of its mucosal surface. Tumor biopsy led to a histological diagnosis of extremely poorly differentiated carcinoma, but it was impossible to determine whether the lesion was a primary neoplasm or represented secondary involvement. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed, and the surgical specimen showed a protuberant tumor in the nonampullary region of the second portion of the duodenum. Final diagnosis of metastatic duodenal melanoma was made by immunohistological examination. She is currently alive without recurrence 28 months after the surgical treatment. PMID:21103234

  17. Duodenal Lipomatosis as a Curious Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed: A Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Majid; Tiwari, Priyanka; Ramaswamy, Palaniswamy Kalipatti; Kumar, Reddy Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. Duodenal lipomas are incidental and mostly asymptomatic. Tumours may produce symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort or cause bleeding due to ulceration or intestinal obstruction due to intussusception. We describe a 45-year-old man presenting in emergency with 3 days history of melena with normal gastroduodenoscopy and contrast enhanced computed tomography revealing multiple polypoid lesion in duodenum and proximal jejunum suggestive of lipoma. Due to ongoing bleed, he underwent laparotomy with duodenectomy and uneventful postoperative recovery. Our review of cases published in last 67 years indicate that duodenal lipomas are rare to occur but commonly found in second part, they may be seen in third and fourth part of duodenum which may be missed on endoscopy. They can be multiple and may present as severe UGI bleeding which could be managed surgically. Though CT is diagnostic, histopathology confirms the diagnosis which shows lipomatous lesion composed of mature adipose arranged in lobules. PMID:27437304

  18. Duodenal carcinoma in MUTYH‐associated polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, M; Poley, J W; Verhoef, S; van Puijenbroek, M; Weiss, M M; Burger, G T; Dommering, C J; Vasen, H F A; Kuipers, E J; Wagner, A; Morreau, H; Hes, F J

    2006-01-01

    Bi‐allelic germline mutations in the MUTYH gene give rise to multiple adenomas and an increased incidence of colorectal cancer. In addition, duodenal adenomas and other extra‐colonic manifestations have been described in MUTYH‐associated polyposis (MAP) patients. We describe two patients with bi‐allelic MUTYH gene mutations with duodenal carcinoma. The tumour in Patient A was detected during evaluation of non‐specific abdominal complaints. Patient B was already diagnosed with tens of adenomas and a colon carcinoma, when a duodenal neoplasm was detected. The identification of somatic G>T mutations in codon 12 of the K‐RAS2 gene provides evidence that the duodenal lesions were induced by MUTYH deficiency. Studies in larger series of MAP patients are needed to investigate the risk of upper‐gastro‐intestinal malignancies and to determine further guidelines for endoscopical surveillance. PMID:16943222

  19. Celiac Disease and Other Causes of Duodenitis.

    PubMed

    Owen, Daniel R; Owen, David A

    2017-07-31

    - Patients who receive an upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination frequently have biopsies taken from the duodenum. Accurate interpretation of duodenal biopsies is essential for patient care. Celiac disease is a common clinical concern, but pathologists need to be aware of other conditions of the duodenum that mimic celiac disease. - To review the normal histologic features of duodenal mucosa and describe the clinical and histologic findings in celiac disease and its mimics, listing the differentiating features of biopsies with villous atrophy and epithelial lymphocytosis. - The study comprises a literature review of pertinent publications as of November 30, 2016. - Celiac disease is a common cause of abnormal duodenal histology. However, many of the histologic features found in the duodenal biopsy of patients with celiac disease are also present in other conditions that affect the small bowel. Diagnostic precision may be enhanced by obtaining a careful patient history and by ancillary laboratory testing, particularly for the presence of antitissue transglutaminase antibodies.

  20. [A clamp for suturing of duodenal stump].

    PubMed

    Komarov, I A

    1991-03-01

    An original clamp was used in suturing a duodenal stump after gastric resection in 77 patients. The complex relief of the blades of the clamp holds the duodenum reliably during application of the sutures and ensures their air-tightness. The trauma inflicted to the duodenum in this case is minimal. During resection of the stomach in 37 patients the author used the clamp in closure of the lesser curvature. Incompetence of the duodenal stump was not encountered.

  1. Cytoprotection with misoprostol: use in the treatment and prevention of ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, A

    1994-01-01

    Prostaglandins protect the gastric mucosa by decreasing gastric acid secretion, increasing mucus and bicarbonate production and maintaining mucosal blood flow. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastroduodenal damage and this is due, at least in part, to inhibition of mucosal prostaglandin production. Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 which has been used in the healing of ulcers and prevention of peptic ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs. Misoprostol is of equal efficacy to H2 antagonists in the healing of ordinary peptic ulcers (not associated with NSAIDs). Misoprostol is superior to placebo in healing NSAID ulcers during continued NSAID treatment but there have been no comparative trials with other ulcer-healing drugs. Misoprostol, H2 antagonists and sucralfate are of similar efficacy in prevention of NSAID-associated duodenal ulcers but misoprostol is more effective in prevention of gastric ulcers. Misoprostol has not been compared to omeprazole in this situation.

  2. Geraniol-a flavoring agent with multifunctional effects in protecting the gastric and duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid Moraes; Bonamin, Flavia; Dos Santos, Raquel Cássia; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Filho, José Maria Barbosa; da Rocha, Lucia Regina Machado; Hiruma-Lima, Clelia Akiko

    2014-04-01

    Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol commonly used as a flavoring agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate antiulcerogenic effects of geraniol and to determine the possible mechanisms involved in this action. In the model of the ethanol-induced ulcer, treatment of rats with geraniol by oral route significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 70 % (7.50 mg/kg) to 99 % (200 mg/kg). Analysis of the gastric tissue of rats treated with geraniol (7.50 mg/kg) revealed that total glutathione content levels (GSH) increased and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) decreased in the gastric mucosa. Oral treatment with geraniol significantly decreased the number of ulcerative lesions induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury by 71 % and the duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine by 68 %. The action of geraniol was mediated by the activation of defensive mucosa-protective factors such as the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endogenous prostaglandins, increased mucus production, increased sulfhydryl compounds, antioxidant properties and the stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release through the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV). The multifaceted gastroprotective mechanisms of geraniol represent a promising option for the treatment of gastric and duodenal mucosa injury.

  3. Future directions of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic therapies for lesions of the duodenum are technically more difficult than those for lesions of the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to the anatomical features of the duodenum, and the incidence rate of complications such as perforation and bleeding is also higher. These aforementioned trends were especially noticeable for the case of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The indication for ESD of duodenal tumors should be determined by assessment of the histopathology, macroscopic morphology, and diameter of the tumors. The three types of candidate lesions for endoscopic therapy are adenoma, carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. For applying endoscopic therapies to duodenal lesions, accurate preoperative histopathological diagnosis is necessary. The most important technical issue in duodenal ESD is the submucosal dissection process. In duodenal ESD, a short needle-type knife is suitable for the mucosal incision and submucosal dissection processes, and the Small-caliber-tip Transparent hood is an important tool. After endoscopic therapies, the wound should be closed by clipping in order to prevent complications such as secondary hemorrhage and delayed perforation. At present, the criteria for selection between ESD and EMR vary among institutions. The indications for ESD should be carefully considered. Duodenal ESD should have limitations, such as the need for its being performed by experts with abundant experience in performing the procedure. PMID:25901218

  4. Duodenal Somatostatinoma: A Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung A; Choi, Won-Ho; Kim, Chul Nam; Moon, Young Soo; Chang, Sun Hee

    2011-01-01

    Somatostatinomas are rare functioning carcinoid tumors that usually arise in the pancreas and duodenum. They are seldom associated with typical clinical symptoms; their diagnosis is confirmed only by histological and immunohistochemical studies and the presence of specific hormones. Two distinct clinicopathological forms of somatostatinoma exist: duodenal and pancreatic somatostatinomas. Clinically, compared to pancreatic somatostatinomas, duodenal somatostatinomas are more often associated with nonspecific symptoms and neurofibromatosis, but less often with somatostatinoma syndrome or metastasis. Histologically, duodenal somatostatinomas frequently have psammoma bodies in the tumor cells. We report a case of duodenal somatostatinoma in 58-year-old man with vague epigastric pain and nausea. He did not have diabetes, steatorrhea, or cholelithiasis. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 25-mm mass in the duodenum and 25-mm nodule in the liver. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a duodenal submucosal tumor. Although the endoscopic biopsies were free of malignancy, the patient subsequently underwent Whipple's operation for the duodenal mass. Examination revealed as a somatostatinoma using a special stain for somatostatin. PMID:21437171

  5. Role of dietary polyphenols in the management of peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a multifactorial and complex disease involving gastric and duodenal ulcers. Despite medical advances, the management of peptic ulcer and its complications remains a challenge, with high morbidity and death rates for the disease. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that, among a broad reach of natural molecules, dietary polyphenols with multiple biological mechanisms of action play a pivotal part in the management of gastric and duodenal ulcers. The current review confirmed that dietary polyphenols possess protective and therapeutic potential in peptic ulcer mediated by: improving cytoprotection, re-epithelialization, neovascularization, and angiogenesis; up-regulating tissue growth factors and prostaglandins; down-regulating anti-angiogenic factors; enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO; suppressing oxidative mucosal damage; amplifying antioxidant performance, antacid, and anti-secretory activity; increasing endogenous mucosal defensive agents; and blocking Helicobacter pylori colonization associated gastric morphological changes and gastroduodenal inflammation and ulceration. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity due to down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and cellular and intercellular adhesion agents, suppressing leukocyte-endothelium interaction, inhibiting nuclear signaling pathways of inflammatory process, and modulating intracellular transduction and transcription pathways have key roles in the anti-ulcer action of dietary polyphenols. In conclusion, administration of a significant amount of dietary polyphenols in the human diet or as part of dietary supplementation along with conventional treatment can result in perfect security and treatment of peptic ulcer. Further well-designed preclinical and clinical tests are recommended in order to recognize higher levels of evidence for the confirmation of bioefficacy and safety of dietary polyphenols in the management of peptic ulcer. PMID:26074689

  6. Role of dietary polyphenols in the management of peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-06-07

    Peptic ulcer disease is a multifactorial and complex disease involving gastric and duodenal ulcers. Despite medical advances, the management of peptic ulcer and its complications remains a challenge, with high morbidity and death rates for the disease. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that, among a broad reach of natural molecules, dietary polyphenols with multiple biological mechanisms of action play a pivotal part in the management of gastric and duodenal ulcers. The current review confirmed that dietary polyphenols possess protective and therapeutic potential in peptic ulcer mediated by: improving cytoprotection, re-epithelialization, neovascularization, and angiogenesis; up-regulating tissue growth factors and prostaglandins; down-regulating anti-angiogenic factors; enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO; suppressing oxidative mucosal damage; amplifying antioxidant performance, antacid, and anti-secretory activity; increasing endogenous mucosal defensive agents; and blocking Helicobacter pylori colonization associated gastric morphological changes and gastroduodenal inflammation and ulceration. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity due to down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and cellular and intercellular adhesion agents, suppressing leukocyte-endothelium interaction, inhibiting nuclear signaling pathways of inflammatory process, and modulating intracellular transduction and transcription pathways have key roles in the anti-ulcer action of dietary polyphenols. In conclusion, administration of a significant amount of dietary polyphenols in the human diet or as part of dietary supplementation along with conventional treatment can result in perfect security and treatment of peptic ulcer. Further well-designed preclinical and clinical tests are recommended in order to recognize higher levels of evidence for the confirmation of bioefficacy and safety of dietary polyphenols in the management of peptic ulcer.

  7. Duodenal injury post laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Incidence, mechanism, management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman Oneil

    2016-04-27

    and pyloric exclusion. The day of detection among those who survived was a mean of 1.6 d (including those detected on table), compared to 4.25 d in those who died. Based on the random effect model, the overall mean duration of detection of injury was 1.6 (1.0-2.2) d (95%CI). Based on the fixed effect model, the overall mortality rate from these studies was 10% (0%-25%). On application of the Kaplan Meier survival probabilities, the cumulative probability of survival was 94%, if the injury was detected on day 1 and 80% if detected on day 2. In those that were detected later, the survival probabilities dropped steeply. Duodenal injuries are caused by thermal burns or by dissection during LC and require prompt treatment. Delay in repair could negatively influence the outcome.

  8. Duodenal injury post laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Incidence, mechanism, management and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil

    2016-01-01

    , Whipple resection and pyloric exclusion. The day of detection among those who survived was a mean of 1.6 d (including those detected on table), compared to 4.25 d in those who died. Based on the random effect model, the overall mean duration of detection of injury was 1.6 (1.0-2.2) d (95%CI). Based on the fixed effect model, the overall mortality rate from these studies was 10% (0%-25%). On application of the Kaplan Meier survival probabilities, the cumulative probability of survival was 94%, if the injury was detected on day 1 and 80% if detected on day 2. In those that were detected later, the survival probabilities dropped steeply. CONCLUSION: Duodenal injuries are caused by thermal burns or by dissection during LC and require prompt treatment. Delay in repair could negatively influence the outcome. PMID:27152141

  9. Intestinal amebiasis in a group of patients with ulcerative colitis: influence on clinical course of the disease.

    PubMed

    Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Bijedic, Nina; Bjelogrlic, Ivana; Djuran, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common disease with a chronic and relapsing presentation requiring regular clinical follow up. Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical presentation and extent of inflammatory bowel disease. To evaluate the presence of intestinal infections by Entamoeba hystolitica in patients with ulcerative colitis, their impact on clinical outcome, and to identify associated risk factors. A total of 31 patients hospitalized on Gastroenterohepatology Department with patohystologically proved ulcerative colitis were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from 20 patients were examined immediately using Eosin and Lugol-staining methods and analyzing the presence of vegetative and MIFC (Meriolat and Iod staining). A total of 16 female and 15 male hospitalized UC patients were analysed in a period of two years (2010-2011). The mean age at diagnosis was 43 years. We analyzed relation of amoeba infection with localization of ulcerative colitis. Our results indicate that amoeba infection is related to extent of disease (they were mostly present in pancolitis). Presence of amoeba is not related to age nor gender. Furthermore, presence of amoeba was not associated with more severe clinical course of disease. Similarly, higher value of serum marker of inflammation was not associated with amoeba infection. Amoeba infections in UC patients treated at Gastroenterohepatology Department was not related to the grade of disease activity, and other clinical variables such as gender, age and parameters of inflammation. These microorganisms could be a contributing cause of extended localization of disease.

  10. Suitable closure for post-duodenal endoscopic resection taking medical costs into consideration.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirohito; Ayaki, Maki; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Yachida, Tatsuo; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-05-07

    To compare closure methods, closure times and medical costs between two groups of patients who had post-endoscopic resection (ER) artificial ulcer floor closures. Nineteen patients with duodenal adenoma, early duodenal cancer, and subepithelial tumors that received ER between September 2009 and September 2014 at Kagawa University Hospital and Ehime Rosai Hospital, an affiliated hospital of Kagawa University, were included in the study. We retrospectively compared two groups of patients who received post-ER artificial ulcer floor closure: the conventional clip group vs the over-the-scope clip (OTSC) group. Delayed bleeding, procedure time of closure, delayed perforation, total number of conventional clips and OTSCs and medical costs were analyzed. Although we observed delayed bleeding in three patients in the conventional clip group, we observed no delayed bleeding in the OTSC group (P = 0.049). We did not observe perforation in either group. The mean procedure times for ulcer closure were 33.26 ± 12.57 min and 9.71 ± 2.92 min, respectively (P = 0.0001). The resection diameters were 18.8 ± 1.30 mm and 22.9 ± 1.21 mm for the conventional clip group and the OTSC group, respectively, with significant difference (P = 0.039). As for medical costs, the costs of all conventional clips were USD $1257 and the costs of OTSCs were $7850 (P = 0.005). If the post-ER ulcer is under 20 mm in diameter, a conventional clip closure may be more suitable with regard to the prevention of delayed perforation and to medical costs. If the post-ER ulcer is over 20 mm, the OTSC closure should be selected with regard to safety and reliable closure even if there are high medical costs.

  11. Campylobacter-like organisms and Candida in peptic ulcers and similar lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract: a study of 247 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, N K; Whitehead, R

    1988-01-01

    Campylobacter-like organisms were detected by light microscopy in association with 57 of 102 (56%) of gastric ulcers, all the gastric erosions associated with gastritis, three of five (60%) of gastric erosions without gastritis, five of 13 (39%) of mild superficial gastritis and two of 36 (6%) of normal gastric mucosa. They were also seen in four of 20 (20%) of duodenal ulcers, but not in duodenal erosions with duodenitis or normal duodenal biopsy specimens. They were seen in association with 12 of 64 (19%) of cases of Barrett's oesophagus. Moniliasis was seen in nine of 78 (12%) of the gastric ulcers in which campylobacter-like organisms were found, and the incidence of moniliasis was three of 15 (20%) in association with duodenal ulcers when ulcer debris was present in biopsy material, and in association with six of 25 (24%) of cases of Barrett's oesophagus. These findings do not support the hypothesis that campylobacter-like organisms cause inflammatory and ulcerative lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:3056979

  12. Peptic ulcers after the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami: possible existence of psychosocial stress ulcers in humans.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Iijima, Kastunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Norihiro; Hoshi, Tatsuya; Sano, Nozomu; Ohyauchi, Motoki; Ito, Hirotaka; Atsumi, Tomoaki; Konishi, Hidetomo; Asonuma, Sho; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-04-01

    Societal stress derived from an event that affects the whole society, e. g., a natural disaster, provides a unique, indirect way of determining the relationship between psychological stress and peptic ulcer disease in humans. In this study, we investigated the changing patterns of the incidence of peptic ulcers before and after the Great East Japan earthquake, which occurred on 11 March, 2011. Clinical data of patients with peptic ulcers were retrospectively collected during the 3 months after the earthquake (2011) from 7 major hospitals in the middle of the stricken area, and were compared with the data for the same period of the previous year (2010). The eligible subjects were classified into four groups according to Helicobacter pylori infection status and intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The incidence of all types of peptic ulcers was 1.5-fold increased after the earthquake, and in particular, the incidence of hemorrhagic ulcers was 2.2-fold increased; the gastric ulcer/duodenal ulcer ratio in hemorrhagic ulcers was also significantly increased (p < 0.05). Regarding the etiology of the peptic ulcers, the proportion of non-H. pylori and non-NSAID ulcers was significantly increased, from 13 % in 2010 to 24 % in 2011 after the earthquake (p < 0.05). In addition to the increased incidence of peptic ulcers, compositional changes in the disease were observed after the Great East Japan earthquake. The significant increase in the proportion of non-H. pylori and non-NSAID ulcers after the earthquake indicated that psychological stress alone induced peptic ulcers in humans independently of H. pylori infection and NSAID intake.

  13. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may ... mouth Images Oral thrush Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Mouth sores References Daniels TE, Jordan RC. ...

  14. Anti-ulcer actions of phytosphingosine hydrochloride in different experimental rat ulcer models.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Woo; Kim, Nam Ki; Jin, Hwan-Jun; Koh, Chang-Woong; Kim, Chul Kyung; Kwon, O-Hyep; Kim, Jun-Sung; Cho, Myung-Haing; Park, Chan-Koo

    2005-01-01

    The gastroprotective activity of phytosphingosine hydrochloride (PS-HCl, CAS 554-62-1) was assessed in four different rat models of experimentally induced gastric ulcer. Various doses (2.5-10 mg/kg) of PS-HCI were orally administered to rats 30 min before the treatment with HCl/ethanol, indometacin, cysteamine, or to rats with ligated pylorus. Oral administration of PS-HCl (2.5-10 mg/kg) to rats prevented the acute ulcer formation in 4 different types of ulcer in a dose-dependent manner as follows: (1) HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal membrane lesions (20.1-47.8% inhibition), (2) indometacin-induced gastric mucosal membrane lesions (4.6-31.9% inhibition), (3) duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine (10-20% inhibition), (4) gastric secretion and ulceration following pylorus ligation (33.3-61.9% inhibition). These results indicate that PS-HCI may be useful for the prevention of gastric ulcer.

  15. Duodenal adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Bülow, S; Björk, J; Christensen, I J; Fausa, O; Järvinen, H; Moesgaard, F; Vasen, H F A

    2004-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of duodenal carcinoma is much higher in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) than in the background population, and duodenal adenomatosis is found in most polyposis patients. Aims: To describe the long term natural history of duodenal adenomatosis in FAP and evaluate if cancer prophylactic surveillance of the duodenum is indicated. Methods: A prospective five nation study was carried out in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands. Patients: A total of 368 patients were examined by gastroduodenoscopy at two year intervals during the period 1990–2001. Results: At the first endoscopy, 238 (65%) patients had duodenal adenomas at a median age of 38 years. Median follow up was 7.6 years. The cumulative incidence of adenomatosis at age 70 years was 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79–100%), and of Spigelman stage IV 52% (95% CI 28–76%). The probability of an advanced Spigelman score increased during the study period (p<0.0001) due to an increasing number and size of adenomas. Two patients had asymptomatic duodenal carcinoma at their first endoscopy while four developed carcinoma during the study at a median age of 52 years (range 26–58). The cumulative incidence rate of cancer was 4.5% at age 57 years (95% CI 0.1–8.9%) and the risk was higher in patients with Spigelman stage IV at their first endoscopy than in those with stages 0–III (p<0.01). Conclusions: The natural course of duodenal adenomatosis has now been described in detail. The high incidence and increasing severity of duodenal adenomatosis with age justifies prophylactic examination, and a programme is presented for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic surveillance. PMID:14960520

  16. Influence of beliefs about health and illness on self-care and care-seeking in foreign-born people with diabetic foot ulcers: dissimilarities related to origin.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K; Apelqvist, J

    2016-11-02

    To describe beliefs about health and illness among foreign-born people with diabetic foot ulcers that might affect self-reported self-care and health-care seeking and to study whether there are dissimilarities related to origin. Qualitative descriptive study. Semi-structured interviews with people aged 38-86 years; 13 born in European and 13 in non-European countries (all except one in the Middle East). All resident in Sweden for 7-60 years (median: 18.5 years). Most believed foot ulcers were unavoidable and difficult to detect. Foot problems were mainly believed to be due to internal factors (diabetes), sometimes combined with external factors (inappropriate footwear, hot water, or barefoot walking). Health was described as freedom from illness and health professionals were seen as important sources of information. Perceived health deteriorated after the onset of the foot problems due to immobility and pain. People from the Middle East differed from other respondents as they discussed the importance of adapting to the will of Allah, leading to even poorer quality of life and a more negative view of future health. They also described more foot problems and perceived religion (Islam) with ritual washing of the feet to be important for health. However, they were regularly monitored to a lesser extent than European migrants. Economy affected health, more so in Europeans, due to expenses for medications and shoes. Many described limited activity in self-care, few had sought help for their problems and then solely among professionals, and had limited knowledge about the influence of glycaemic control on diabetes and foot status. Foreign-born people felt unable to prevent the incidence of foot ulcers, experienced problems with detection, and had limited knowledge of self-care. Dissimilarities in beliefs related to origin negatively influenced self-care of the feet, so it is important to assess individual beliefs and plan care and education accordingly.

  17. Acid-NSAID/aspirin interaction in peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Richard H; Yuan, Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    The presence of gastric acid plays a critical role in the mechanisms of NSAIDs/aspirin-associated gastric and duodenal mucosal injury and ulceration. The role of gastric acid and its relationship to NSAIDs/aspirin in mucosal damage, ulcer and ulcer complications continues to be an important concern because of the increasing worldwide use of NSAIDs and aspirin. Acid suppression continues to be an important prevention strategy for NSAID-associated gastric and duodenal ulcer and ulcer complications. While a coxib or an NSAID and PPI in combination are considered to have comparable safety profiles, the evidence from direct comparisons in high-risk patients is limited, and the cardiovascular safety of coxibs and NSAIDs remains a concern especially in patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. An evaluation of individual gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks and benefits, selection of the most appropriate NSAID and dose for each particular patient should always be emphasized. Twice daily PPI is more appropriate to protect a patient who is taking NSAIDs twice daily. PPI co-therapy is still recommended in patients receiving dual antiplatelet treatment, although conflicting results have been reported about adverse drug interactions between PPIs and clopidogrel.

  18. [Soy products for dietary treatment of children with erosive-ulcerative lesions of the alimentary tract].

    PubMed

    Kolupaeva, Iu I; Anisimova, Iu N; Borovskiĭ, V R

    2008-01-01

    The usage of soy products for dietary treatment of children with erosive-ulcer lesions of alimentary tract brings positive clinical dynamics, normalization of colon function and protein metabolism, acceleration of erosive defects repair, immune status correction. The obtained results justify inclusion of soy products into duodenal pathology treatment--especially when accompanied by protein deficiency.

  19. Metabolic Alkalosis resulting from a Congenital Duodenal Diaphragm.

    PubMed

    A, Passariello; Y, Maddalena; M, Malamisura; S, Rojo; N, Aragione; E, Iaccarino; G, Franco; P, Giliberti

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal diaphragm is an unusual cause of upper intestinal obstruction. We present here a neonate with duodenal diaphragm who presented with features of metabolic alkalosis. Further, an algorithm of management of metabolic alkalosis in a newborn is suggested.

  20. Metabolic Alkalosis resulting from a Congenital Duodenal Diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    A, Passariello; Y, Maddalena; M, Malamisura; S, Rojo; N, Aragione; E, Iaccarino; G, Franco; P, Giliberti

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal diaphragm is an unusual cause of upper intestinal obstruction. We present here a neonate with duodenal diaphragm who presented with features of metabolic alkalosis. Further, an algorithm of management of metabolic alkalosis in a newborn is suggested. PMID:26023519

  1. Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636

  2. [Is the successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori sufficient for the healing of peptic ulcer?].

    PubMed

    Pregun, István; Herszényi, László; Juhász, Márk; Miheller, Pál; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2006-03-12

    Helicobacter pylori has a major role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. Cure of the infection is essential in ulcer healing, but an additional PPI therapy after completing eradication treatment is widespread in clinical practice. In the present work clinical studies evaluating peptic ulcer healing followed or not by PPI treatment after eradication therapy were analyzed. The results of these trials are concordant that only a minority of patients with duodenal ulcer would benefit from prolonged acid suppressive treatment, a successful eradication therapy (that counts for a large proportion) is sufficient. There are less data available concerning gastric ulcer: successful eradication is also essential to ulcer healing and to avoid relapse, however it seems that post-eradication PPI therapy might be beneficial.

  3. Is duodenal biopsy appropriate in areas endemic for Helicobacter pylori?

    PubMed

    Sahin, Abdurrahman; Cihangiroglu, Gulcin; Bilgic, Yilmaz; Calhan, Turan; Cengiz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The primary reason for obtaining duodenal biopsy sample is to diagnose celiac disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and drug injury are common causes of duodenitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to explore effects of H. pylori and drugs on duodenal mucosa. Duodenal biopsy samples of patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) between February 2014 and December 2014 were retrospectively examined. Clinical symptoms, referral indications, endoscopic findings, H. pylori status, and drug history were recorded. Duodenal biopsy findings were compared based on presence of H. pylori and drug history. Of 2389 patients who underwent UGIE, 206 had duodenal biopsy. Eight patients (3.9%) were diagnosed with celiac disease. After excluding cases with celiac disease, 76 patients of remaining 198 patients (36.9%) had duodenal histopathological abnormality. H. pylori was found in 95 (47.9%) patients. Drug usage was less common (42%). Of patients who had histopathological duodenitis, 59% were H. pylori-infected. Rate of duodenitis was higher in H. pylori (+) group than in H. pylori (-) group (45% vs 27.1%; odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.4; p=0.005). There was no difference between groups regarding drug use in terms of histopathological duodenitis. H. pylori is the major contributor to duodenitis in high prevalence regions. Serological testing may be more appropriate before performing duodenal biopsy in patients with suspected celiac disease.

  4. A Periampullary Duodenal Diverticula in Patient with Choledocholithiasis - Single Endoscopic Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Major, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Winiarski, Marek; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Rubinkiewicz, Mateusz; Stanek, Maciej; Dworak, Jadwiga; Pisarska, Magdalena; Rembiasz, Kazimierz; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    The reported prevalence of periampullary duodenal diverticula varies between 9 and 32.8%. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of periampullary diverticula in the studied population and establish whether their presence influence the risk of choledocholithiasis and the risk of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP) related complications.

  5. The intriguing relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and acid secretion in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Malfertheiner, P

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and thus profoundly affects gastric physiology. In the acute phase of infection, gastric acid secretion is transiently impaired. The morphological damage of the gastric mucosa, changes in gastric hormone release, and disruption of neural pathways all contribute to influence gastric acid secretion in a distinct manner. Changes in gastric acid secretion, whether impaired or increased, are intimately related with the topographic phenotypes of gastritis and the presence of atrophy or absence of corpus atrophy. The interplay of gastritis phenotype and acid secretion are key determinants in disease outcomes. Corpus-predominant gastritis and corpus atrophy are accompanied by hypochlorhydria and carry the highest risk for gastric cancer, whereas antrum-predominant gastritis with little involvement of the corpus-fundic mucosa is associated with hyperchlorhydria and predisposes to duodenal ulcer disease.

  6. Duodenal neuroendocrine tumor and the onset of severe diabetes mellitus in a US veteran

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Lauren; Haley, Chelsey; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Toledo, Almond

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neuroendocrine tumors are neoplasms derived from endocrine cells, most commonly occurring in the gastrointestinal tract. Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors are rare tumors averaging 1.2–1.5 cm, and most are asymptomatic. Common presentation is abdominal pain, upper gastrointestinal bleed, constipation, anemia, and jaundice. Methods: An adult, Black, male patient with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with elevated liver function test and fatigue. Results: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated a large obstructing mass (3.6 cm × 4.4 cm × 3 cm) within the second and third portions of the duodenum at the ampulla. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated an ulcerated duodenal mass that was biopsied. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin B, and CK7. Chromogranin A was in normal range. Post-Whipple procedure demonstrated a 5.5 cm × 4.1 cm × 2.9 cm duodenal mass with invasion of the subserosal tissue of the small intestine, a mitotic rate of 2 per high-power field, and antigen Ki-67 of 2%–5%. Conclusion: This case raises the question as to if the patient developed diabetes mellitus due to the tumor size and location or if the new onset of diabetes was coincidental. This case also demonstrates the importance of a proficient history and physical. PMID:27489708

  7. An unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a blister pack: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yao, Si-Yuan; Matsui, Yugo; Shiotsu, Souichi

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of foreign bodies is a relatively common clinical problem. Blister packs have been known to be a causative agent of gastrointestinal perforation. We report a rare case of duodenal perforation caused by a blister pack, which was complicated by retroperitoneal abscess and having a poor outcome. A 72 year-old man with a history of dementia presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of backache. Upon radiological findings, perforated peptic ulcer was suspected. However, emergency laparotomy revealed a blister pack protruding from the posterior wall of the third portion of the duodenum. It was complicated by a widespread retroperitoneal abscess. After removal of the foreign body, the perforation was treated with primary suture repair and an omental patch. However, the patient died two days after operation due to sepsis. According to a literature review, the ileum is the most common site of perforation caused by blister packs. To our knowledge, duodenal perforations have not been documented to date. Curative treatment often involves emergent surgery. However, duodenal perforation in the third portion may lead to retroperitoneal abscess, which can result in severe sepsis and have a poor outcome. As there is no consensus about an ideal surgical approach, retroperitoneal abscess is one of the clinical challenges for surgeons. Even with prompt management, duodenal perforation may become fatal. Unnoticed ingestion of blister packs can cause duodenal perforation. Although prompt management is necessary, duodenal perforation, especially in the third portion, may be potentially fatal. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholecystokinin release and biliopancreatic secretion in response to selective perfusion of the duodenal loop with aminoacids in man.

    PubMed

    Colombel, J F; Sutton, A; Chayvialle, J A; Modigliani, R

    1988-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the role of the duodenal loop in biliopancreatic secretion in man by infusing various stimuli at the ampulla of Vater and collecting duodenal contents at the ligament of Treitz, above an occluding balloon. Perfusion at 10 ml/min of a first mixture of aminoacids - phenylalanine (47.2 mmol), methionine (38.2 mmol), tryptophan (11 mmol), valine (61.6 mmol) - increased cholecystokinin (CCK) plasma concentrations and duodenal bile salt output (p less than 0.005) as compared with a control electrolyte solution, but did not change pancreatic enzyme secretion significantly; duodenal infusion of another aminoacid mixture - arginine (32.4 mmol), histidine (14.1 mmol), leucine (36 mmol), isoleucine (21.5 mmol), lysine (31 mmol), threonine (23 mmol) - did not change CCK plasma concentrations, bile salt or pancreatic enzyme output. The respective role of duodenal distension and endogenous CCK was investigated by perfusing the first aminoacid solution and the control solution at 2, 5, and 10 ml/min. Changing the perfusion rate of control solution from 2 to 5 ml/min led to a significant increase (p less than 0.01) in pancreatic secretion with no further increase at 10 ml/min. Bile salt output was not influenced by the perfusion rate of control solution. During the perfusion of the aminoacid solution, despite a stepwise increase in CCK release, the only significant change in pancreatic secretion was an increase of lipase output (p less than 0.05) when the infusion rate was raised from 2 to 5 ml/min. Our results suggest that duodenal CCK release (1) depends on the nature of aminoacids (2) has predominant role in the regulation of pancreatic secretion at low perfusion rate but is less effective when superimposed on a mechanical stimulus caused by duodenal distension (3) is a major stimulus for gall bladder contraction which is not influenced by duodenal distension.

  9. Venous ulcer review

    PubMed Central

    Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation. PMID:21673869

  10. Therapeutic attitude in perforated stress ulcer.

    PubMed

    Balalau, C; Popa, F; Negrei, Carolina; Andreianu, P

    2011-01-01

    There are medical conditions where the etiology is not at the level of digestive system, but as a result of a distant lesion, determined by head trauma. The latter is a severe impact on the whole body, not only locally; it produces damages in the gastro-duodenal area mainly as acute stress ulcer. Our study includes 4 cases of patients with multiple trauma, admitted in the "St. Pantelimon" Emergency Hospital, where, despite medication, they subsequently developed stress ulcer (Cushing ulcer). Laboratory tests were followed in the development the level of leukocytes, ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and abdominal ultrasound. Around the fifth day it was observed that the level of the leukocytes were high (between 15000-20000/microl). ESR between 40-70mm/hour and ultrasound showed fluid in peritoneal cavity, mainly in subhepatic space (Morison's pouch). A positive radiological result highlight the crescent transparency (mesogastric pneumoperitoneum) in dorsal decubitus position, lateral incidence (pacients that could not be mobilised and the radiologic exam was made in intensive care bed). On the group of four patients studied with multiple trauma and Cushing ulcer perforation, it was laparoscopically intervined in order to reduce the negativ effects of combined anesthesic and surgical trauma on an already fragile status. The study showed that emergency laparoscopy in patients with multiple trauma is a successful approach in it's minimally invasivity, being a diagnosis and therapeutic first option in acute abdominal conditions in these patients.

  11. The complicated duodenal diverticulum: retrospective analysis of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    de Perrot, Thomas; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Platon, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    A series of rare complicated duodenal diverticula were reported with emphasis on causes for misdiagnosis. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of complicated duodenal diverticulum were retrospectively obtained. Computed tomographic (CT) reports and findings were reviewed. Complications consisted of diverticulitis (n=2), perforation (n=7), or obstructive cholangitis (n=2). CT imaging demonstrated a duodenal diverticular structure with findings due to the kind of complications. At the time of CT interpretation, a complicated duodenal diverticulum was suspected in 5 out of 11 patients. Awareness of the duodenal diverticulum and complications may improve the diagnostic value of CT in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Helicobacter pylori eradication as prevention against chronic peptic ulcer disease in children.

    PubMed

    Maciorkowska, E; Kaczmarski, M; Skowrońska, J; Cieśla, J M; Chrzanowska, U; Olejnik, B T; Sacharewicz, A; Ryszczuk, E

    2005-01-01

    The changes caused by Helicobacter pylori are a slow, progressing inflammatory process developing from several to dozen years. H. pylori infection leads to an inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa with granulocyte infiltrates in an acute form of the inflammation, and lymphocytes, plasmatic, macrophages and eosinophils in a chronic form inducing the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer in some patients. The frequency and the type of morphological changes in the gastric mucosa were analyzed in children with positive IgG against H. pylori and the incidence of gastric and duodenal ulcers in family members of children examined was evaluated in our study. Gastritis was reported in 68.8% of children with positive IgG against H. pylori. Gastric ulcer was confirmed in 37.1% of families of children included in the study. Duodenal ulcers were found in 22.9% of families. The results obtained, indicate the usefulness of long-term observation and clinical follow-up of children with chronic gastritis of H. pylori ethiology taking into consideration bacterium eradication as prophylaxis of peptic ulceration.

  13. Duodenal Amyloidosis Masquerading as Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    The present study is a unique illustration of duodenal amyloidosis initially manifesting with iron deficiency anemia. It underscores the importance of clinical suspicion of amyloidosis while performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a biopsy to establish the definite diagnosis in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia. PMID:27625911

  14. Trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Eileen K; Callan, Robert J; Holt, Timothy N; Van Metre, David C

    2005-01-01

    To describe clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcome associated with trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids. Retrospective study. Alpacas (7) and 1 llama. Historical and clinical data were obtained from the medical records of New World camelids with a diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction confirmed by surgical exploration or necropsy. Seven camelids were <1 year old. Abnormal clinical findings included anorexia, reduced fecal output, recumbency, colic, abdominal distension, regurgitation, decreased serum chloride concentration, increased serum bicarbonate concentration, and/or elevated first gastric compartment chloride concentration. Survey abdominal radiographs obtained (4 animals) revealed gastric distension (4) and/or visualization of the obstruction (2). Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy (1) or surgery (7). Right paracostal celiotomy was performed on all animals and duodenotomy (3) or retropulsion of the trichophytobezoar combined with third compartment gastrotomy (4) was used to remove the obstruction. Six animals survived to discharge and 5 were healthy at follow-up, 8-20 months later. The remaining discharged alpaca was healthy at 12 months but subsequently died of unrelated causes. Diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction should be considered in juvenile New World camelids with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Right paracostal celiotomy can be used for access to the descending duodenum and third gastric compartment for surgical relief of obstruction. Duodenal obstruction from bezoars should be considered in New World camelids <1year of age with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Surgical relief of the obstruction by right paracostal celiotomy has a good prognosis.

  15. Duodenal web with preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Golombek, S; Bilgi, J; Ukabiala, O

    1995-06-01

    This article described an unusual case of an infant with duodenal atresia and preduodenal portal vein without Down's syndrome or other anatomical anomalies associated with this condition. Duodenoduodenostomy was effective. Enteral feeding was re-established 72 hours post-operatively and the patient was discharged home one day later.

  16. Duodenal organ injury severity (OIS) and outcome.

    PubMed

    Kline, G; Lucas, C E; Ledgerwood, A M; Saxe, J M

    1994-07-01

    The effect of organ injury severity on outcome was assessed in 101 patients treated for duodenal trauma. Most patients were men (89%) and victims of penetrating wounds (93%). Grade I is minor hematoma or incomplete perforation; Grade II is major hematoma or small complete perforation; Grade III is large perforation excluding ampulla; Grade IV is large perforation at ampulla; Grade V is duodenopancreatic crunch. The injuries were as follows: Grade I (5 patients), Grade II (31), Grade III (40), Grade IV (12), and Grade V (13). Fourteen patients exsanguinated from associated vessel injury; each had Grade IV or Grade V injury. All 36 patients with Grade I and Grade II injury had primary repair; the single death was due to liver necrosis. Most (31 patients) Grade III injuries and three Grade IV injuries were treated by primary repair alone; the three deaths were unrelated to the duodenal injury. Other major injuries were treated by duodenal exclusion (4 patients), duodenal diverticulization (6), or resection (4); the single death was unrelated to the duodenum. Primary closure is favored for minor injuries and most Grade III injuries. Severe injuries may require exclusion, diverticulization, or resection.

  17. Duodenal leiomyosarcoma mimicking a pancreatic pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Sperti, C; Pasquali, C; Di Prima, F; Baffa, R; Pedrazzoli, S

    1994-01-01

    A case of duodenal leiomyosarcoma presenting as a cystic mass is reported. Amylase, tumour markers levels in the cyst fluid and radiological findings suggested an inflammatory pancreatic pseudocyst. Exploratory laparotomy and frozen section examination showed a smooth muscle tumour of the duodenum. Pancreatoduodenectomy with pylorus-preser vation was performed and the patient remained symptom-free at 8 months follow-up.

  18. Feasibility and safety of endoscopic cryoablation at the duodenal papilla: Porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; Reinhard, Mary K; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-01-01

    no bleeding, infection, or perforation on necropsy. Endoscopic on POD#7 showed edema and ulceration at the duodenal papilla. On histology, there was loss of crypt architecture with moderate to severe necrosis and acute mixed inflammatory infiltration in each specimen following cryotherapy. The extent of cryogen-induced tissue necrosis (depth of injury) was limited to the mucosa on full-thickness specimen evaluation. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy is feasible and safe for ablation at the duodenal papilla in a porcine model. PMID:26140100

  19. Proximal small bowel obstruction caused by a massive intraluminal thrombus from a stress ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Siddiky, AH; Gupta, P

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of proximal small bowel obstruction caused by an occlusive thrombus as a result of bleeding from a duodenal ulcer, which is likely to be stress induced. Initial presentation was confused as a bleeding duodenal ulcer and resultant ileus. Such reports are incredibly rare in the literature and never has one been reported as a result of a stress ulcer. Obstructive symptoms in the acute postoperative patient may be confused for an ileus but mechanical causes must be excluded. The presence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding must not detract from that possibility. Future identification of an occlusive clot on endoscopy that is impossible to circumnavigate may benefit from intraluminal injection of thrombolytic agents to prevent obstruction but this must be weighed with the risk of exacerbating any bleeding. Clearly a risk versus benefit analysis will be necessary on an individual basis. PMID:24960721

  20. Mucosal polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Lo, Wen-Ching; Perng, Chin-Lin; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Li, Anna Fen-Yau; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and MALT-lymphoma. Conventional invasive tests are less sensitive than non-invasive tests in diagnosing H pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Polymerase chain reaction is a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosing H pylori infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of mucosal polymerase chain reaction for H pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. METHODS: In patients with bleeding, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, we checked rapid urease test, histology, bacterial culture and mucosal polymerase chain reaction for detecting H pylori infection. Positive H pylori infection was defined as positive culture or both a positive histology and a positive rapid urease test. For mucosal polymerase chain reaction of H pylori, we checked vacA (s1a, s1b, s1c, s2, m1, m1T, m2), iceA1, iceA2 and cag A. RESULTS: Between October 2000 and April 2002, 88 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (males/females: 60/28, gastric ulcers/duodenal ulcers: 55/33), 81 patients with non-bleeding peptic ulcers (males/females: 54/27, gastric ulcers/duodenal ulcers: 45/36) and 37 patients with chronic gastritis (males/females: 24/13) were enrolled in this study. In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, 45 patients (51%), 71 patients (88%) and 20 patients (54%) respectively were found to have positive H pylori infection (P<0.001). In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, polymerase chain reaction for H pylori infection was positive in 54 patients (61%), 70 patients (86%) and 20 patients (54%) respectively (P<0.001). The sensitivity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mucosal polymerase reaction for H pylori infection were significantly lower in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (84%, 79% and 81

  1. The prevalence of lymphoid follicles in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis in patients with ulcers and non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitoun, A M

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine the prevalence of lymphoid follicles in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative gastritis in antral and body type gastric mucosa in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), duodenal ulcer, or gastric ulcer; to correlate follicle presence with patient age; to evaluate the correlation between the prevalence of lymphoid follicles and active and inactive gastritis and its severity; and to assess the positive predictive value of lymphoid follicle prevalence with respect to H pylori infection. METHODS--Gastric biopsy specimens, graded according to the Sydney system, from 337 patients were studied. RESULTS--Lymphoid follicles occurred more often in antral mucosa (78%) than in body type mucosa (41%) and were observed in 85% of patients with H pylori positive gastritis. There was no significant difference between NUD and gastric and duodenal ulcer disease with regard to the presence of lymphoid follicles. The positive predictive value of the presence of lymphoid follicles in H pylori infection was 96%. Lymphoid follicles were more commonly observed in patients aged between 10 and 29 years. Lymphoid follicles were more frequently found in pangastritis of all subtypes than in antral gastritis and also in active gastritis than in inactive gastritis. The presence of lymphoid follicles correlated strongly with the degree and severity of gastritis. CONCLUSION--Lymphoid follicles are a constant morphological feature of H pylori associated gastritis. Images PMID:7615851

  2. Biphasic effect of duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine (C), mepirizole (M) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropryridine (MPTP) on gastric emptying in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pihan, G.; Kline, T.J.; Szabo, S.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of acute or chronic administration of duodenal ulcerogens on gastric emptying (GE) of a liquid meal was investigated. In Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200g) 2 ml of /sup 51/Cr in 2% dextrose (5000 CPM) was given intragastrically and the GE half life was established as 7.6 min (controls). In acute experiments, C (30mg/100g), M (40mg/100g) or MPTP (4mg/100g) injected subcutaneously all delayed GE at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hr by 15-77%. Maximal GE delay (p<0.05) by 77, 48 or 71% was found 1, 1 or 2 hr after C, M or MPTP, respectively. In chronic experiments, C (22mg/100g) was given x3 on the first day and once daily (25mg/100g) for 3 or 10 additional days. M (20mg/100g) once daily and MPTP (4mg/100g) x3 daily were given for 4 or 11 days. GE was measured on the 5th and 12th day. Chronically, MPTP accelerated GE by 63 and 31% at 5 and 12 days (p<0.05) and C and M did not change GE. The severity of duodenal ulcers correlated (p<0.05) with the amount of /sup 51/Cr remaining in the stomach: r=-0.68, -0.74 and -0.70 after C, M and MPTP, respectively. Acute administration of duodenal ulcerogens delay GE in rats. Chronic treatment with duodenal ulcerogens either accelerates or does not change GE. The most severe chronic ulcers exhibit the most rapid emptying. The authors data suggest that rapid GE might be a secondary rather than a primary alteration in duodenal ulceration.

  3. Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Elena; Siegmund, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that is chronically present in patients throughout their lives. Hence, the chronic nature of the disease invariably requires continuous medical treatment. Advances in medical therapy over the last decades and current developments offer increasing options and are closely associated with a better life quality in patients. Recent developments in understanding the pathogenesis of UC are discussed. The current standard therapeutic regimens are outlined and recent developments and upcoming strategies introduced. (1) Environmental factors that are yet to be defined contribute to the pathogenesis of UC. (2) An accelerated step-up therapy represents the current standard in UC. (3) Anti-integrins represent the most recently introduced pharmacological class in the therapy of UC. (4) Novel strategies including Janus kinase inhibitors are in the near future. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus association with peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G.; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD. PMID:26199856

  6. Healing of aspirin-associated peptic ulcer disease despite continued salicylate ingestion.

    PubMed

    O'Laughlin, J C; Silvoso, G R; Ivey, K J

    1981-05-01

    Patients who have rheumatic disease and who are undergoing long-term aspirin therapy have a high incidence of peptic ulcer disease. Whether it is possible to heal long-term aspirin-related peptic ulcer disease if aspirin intake is continued is unknown. Nine patients with rheumatic disease who were receiving long-term aspirin therapy and who had 15 endoscopically verified gastric and/or duodenal ulcers were studied. Patients were treated daily with 1,200 mg of cimetidine plus at least 120 mL of antacid (Mylanta II), while continuing aspirin therapy at the same dose and type. By eight weeks, 14 ulcers had healed. This study shows that some aspirin-associated peptic ulcers can be healed, despite continued aspirin intake, by intensive medical therapy aimed at lowering intragastric acidity.

  7. [Acid-base blood balance in patients with ulcer under treatment by the gastric secretion inhibitors and antacids].

    PubMed

    Grinevich, V B; Sablin, O A; Uspenskiĭ, Iu L

    2002-01-01

    There was an analysis of the results of the study of intragastric acidity and acid-base balance (ABB) of the blood in 25 patients with duodenal ulcer. The patients were examined before and against the background of the 14-day monotherapy with one of the following preparations: Losec, 40 mg (omeprazole), famotidine, 80 mg (Quamatel), Phosphalugel, or placebo.

  8. [An unusual case of duodenal sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Girard, C; Girard-Madoux, M-H; Coppéré, B; Desmurs-Clavel, H; Pérard, L; Hot, A; Ninet, J

    2015-11-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. It may rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract. We reported a 54-year-old woman with a delayed diagnosis of duodenal sarcoidosis. She presented with gastric and right upper abdominal pain associated with vomiting and marked weight loss. Abdominal computed tomographic scan showed non-compressive retroperitoneal lymph nodes and histological examination revealed non-caseating epithelioid granulomas typical of sarcoidosis. Diagnosis of duodenal sarcoidosis was obtained at the third gastroscopy. The patient's condition improved quickly with corticosteroid therapy. Gastrointestinal sarcoidosis should be looked for in patients with digestive symptoms and another sarcoid localisation. Furthermore, it is important to repeat gastroscopy to confirm diagnosis because treatment improved most patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. A duodenal role in gastrin release

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, J. R.; Ardill, Joy; Kennedy, T. L.; Buchanan, K. D.

    1974-01-01

    Observations on the plasma gastrin response to feeding protein in patients with the dumping syndrome, patients with pyloric stenosis, and patients asymptomatic after gastric surgery suggested that the duodenum might be important in the mechanism of gastrin release. This duodenal role was confirmed by the finding that when the stimulus was placed directly in the duodenum peak gastrin levels occurred earlier than when the stimulus was placed directly in the stomach. PMID:4422726

  10. [Peritonitis following gastroduodenal ulcer perforation disease in children: report of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Ndour, O; Bansouda, J; Fall, A F; Alumeti, D M; Diouf, C; Ngom, G; Ndoye, M

    2012-10-01

    Peritonitis due to gastroduodenal ulcer perforation disease is a rare entity in pediatric surgery. In Senegal, no study has been dedicated to ulcer complications in children. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of perforated peptic ulcer in patients less than 15 years old. This retrospective study was conducted in the Surgical Emergencies and Paediatric Surgery Department at Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital Center in Dakar, Senegal, during a period of 11 years (January 1999 to December 2010). We found 4 children who presented perforated gastroduodenal ulcer: 3 females and 1 male. The average age of these patients was 9 years (range, 7-14 years). No family history was found. We noted 3 cases of perforated duodenal ulcer and one perforated gastric ulcer. The clinical diagnosis was suspected based on a peritoneal irritation syndrome. A plain x-ray of the abdomen was taken in all patients, which objectified a pneumoperitoneum image in 3 cases. The leukocytosis was constant. Treatment in all patients consisted on pre-, intra-, and postoperative intensive care, supra- and infraumbilical midline laparotomy, which allowed us to perform a debridement-suture of the gap followed by epiploplasty and extensive washing with lukewarm physiologic serum. Adjuvant therapy based on anti-ulcer and antibiotic therapy was initiated. Bacteriological examination of peritoneal fluid isolated a polymicrobial flora. Helicobacter pylori was not isolated. Histological examination of the biopsied perforation edges showed a benign ulcer in all cases. The follow-up endoscopy was performed 4 weeks after surgery and showed cicatrization of the ulcer in all patients. After a mean of 2 years, no recurrence was noted. The gastric or duodenal ulcer in children is rare. It is often discovered at the stage of perforation, a complication for which the essential treatment is surgery. Routine screening would certainly help to reduce the risk of this

  11. Optimal management of peptic ulcer disease in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Alberto; Franceschi, Marilisa; Maggi, Stefania; Addante, Filomena; Sancarlo, Daniele

    2010-07-01

    Recent data report that the incidence of peptic ulcer is decreasing in the general population; conversely, the rates of gastric and duodenal ulcer hospitalization and mortality remain very high in older patients. Two major factors that might explain this epidemiological feature in the elderly population are the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the increasing prescriptions of gastroduodenal damaging drugs, including NSAIDs and/or aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). The main goals for treating peptic ulcer disease in old age are to reduce recurrence of the disease and to prevent complications, especially bleeding and perforation. The available treatments for peptic ulcer are essentially based on gastric acid suppression with antisecretory drugs and the eradication of H. pylori infection. The aim of this article is to report the available data on clinical efficacy and tolerability of peptic ulcer treatments in elderly patients and provide recommendations for their optimal use in this special population. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapies for 7 days are highly effective for the cure of H. pylori-positive peptic ulcers as well as for reducing ulcer recurrence. Antisecretory drugs are also the treatment of choice for NSAID- or aspirin-related peptic ulcers and are useful as preventive therapy in chronic users of NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin as antiplatelet therapy. Antisecretory PPI therapy has a favourable tolerability profile in geriatric patients; however, monitoring is suggested in older patients with frequent pulmonary infections, gastrointestinal malabsorption, unexplained chronic diarrhoea, osteoporosis or those taking concomitant cytochrome P450 2C19-metabolized medications. The overall approach to the geriatric patient should include a comprehensive geriatric assessment that ensures multidimensional evaluation of the patient in order to better define the clinical risk of adverse outcomes in the older patient with peptic ulcer and

  12. An Overview of History, Pathogenesis and Treatment of Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease with Evaluation of Prognostic Scoring in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, V; Shivani, A

    2014-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease including both gastric and duodenal ulcer form a substantial part of patients seeking surgical opinion world-wide. The concept of acid in peptic ulcer disease, which was the basis of treatment of peptic ulcer was revolutionized by the discovery of H2-receptor antagonists, that led to the principle of acid suppression therapy for duodenal ulcer which followed decades of preference for surgical interventions in the form of gastric resections, vagotomy etc., After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori organism as the causative factor a triple drug regime was identified to treat peptic disease which was further modified to sequential therapy to avoid antibiotic resistance. This recognition has not concluded the chapter on peptic ulcers. The management of ulcer disease and its complications remain a surgical challenge. All the materials for this review have been accessed from various internet search engines. The references have been narrowed down to 34 by excluding cross references, duplicated citations, pediatric studies, case reports, iatrogenic and malignant perforations and including microbiological, immunohistochemistry references and studies with more than a sample size of ten. Case control, cohort studies, prospective/retrospective, metaanalytical studies were preferred in that order. This article attempts to take an overview of all aspects of the management of peptic ulcer. PMID:24669326

  13. An overview of history, pathogenesis and treatment of perforated peptic ulcer disease with evaluation of prognostic scoring in adults.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, V; Shivani, A

    2014-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease including both gastric and duodenal ulcer form a substantial part of patients seeking surgical opinion world-wide. The concept of acid in peptic ulcer disease, which was the basis of treatment of peptic ulcer was revolutionized by the discovery of H2-receptor antagonists, that led to the principle of acid suppression therapy for duodenal ulcer which followed decades of preference for surgical interventions in the form of gastric resections, vagotomy etc., After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori organism as the causative factor a triple drug regime was identified to treat peptic disease which was further modified to sequential therapy to avoid antibiotic resistance. This recognition has not concluded the chapter on peptic ulcers. The management of ulcer disease and its complications remain a surgical challenge. All the materials for this review have been accessed from various internet search engines. The references have been narrowed down to 34 by excluding cross references, duplicated citations, pediatric studies, case reports, iatrogenic and malignant perforations and including microbiological, immunohistochemistry references and studies with more than a sample size of ten. Case control, cohort studies, prospective/retrospective, metaanalytical studies were preferred in that order. This article attempts to take an overview of all aspects of the management of peptic ulcer.

  14. More Distally Located Duodenal Webs: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rahul; Mathur, Praveen; Gubbi, Sharanabasappa; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Shukla, Ramendra; Bhandari, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal atresia is a frequent cause of intestinal obstruction in the newborn. Obstruction due to duodenal web is infrequent, but its location other than second part of duodenum is rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. We are reporting three patients where we found duodenal webs at unusual locations. In one neonate the web was located at third part of duodenum and in other two patients the web was present at duodeno-jejunal junction (DJ). PMID:27896164

  15. Postoperative Gastric Perforation in a Newborn with Duodenal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Antabak, Anko; Bogović, Marko; Vuković, Jurica; Grizelj, Ruža; Babić, Vinka Barbarić; Papeš, Dino; Luetić, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Gastric perforation (GP) in neonates is a rare entity with high mortality. Although the etiology is not completely understood, it mostly occurs in premature neonates on assisted ventilation. Combination of duodenal atresia and gastric perforation is very rare. We present a case duodenal atresia who developed gastric perforation after operetion for duodenal atresia. Analysis of the patient medical record and histology report did not reveal the etiology of the perforation. PMID:27896170

  16. Analyzing the influence of gastric intestinal metaplasia on gastric ulcer healing in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients without atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Wei; Chang, Liang-Che; Hua, Chung-Ching; Hsieh, Bor-Jen; Chen, Shuo-Wei; Chien, Rong-Nan

    2017-01-03

    Gastric epithelial hyper-proliferation was reported in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia (IM) changes. In patients with gastric ulcer (GU) and IM, the GU may have a different healing rate in comparison to patients without IM. This study aimed to compare the difference in GU healing between H. pylori-infected patients with IM and those without IM. We retrospectively analyzed patients at the Keelung Chung Gung Memorial Hospital during the period from March 2005 to January 2011. The inclusion criteria were: 1) endoscopic findings of GU and biopsy histological examination plus rapid urease test indicating H. pylori infection; 2) gastric IM adjacent to a GU but with no atrophic gastritis changes; 3) patients receiving H. pylori eradication triple therapy and 8 weeks of maintenance therapy with a proton pump inhibitor; and 4) patients receiving follow-up endoscopy within the 3(rd) and the 4(th) months after treatment. In total, 327 patients with GU and H. pylori infection (136 with IM and 191 without IM) were included. Patients with IM had a higher GU healing rate than those without IM (91.9% vs. 84.3%, P = 0.040). Multivariate logistical regression analysis revealed that failure of H. pylori eradication (Odds = 4.013, 95% CI: 1.840-8.951, P < 0.001) and gastric IM (Odds = 0.369, 95% CI: 0.168-0.812, P = 0.013) were the predictors of non-healing GU following treatment. Patient with gastric IM change may have a higher GU healing rate than those without gastric IM. However, successful H. pylori eradication is a more important factor for GU healing than gastric IM.

  17. The influence of patient and wound variables on healing of venous leg ulcers in a randomized controlled trial of growth-arrested allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lantis, John C; Marston, William A; Farber, Alik; Kirsner, Robert S; Zhang, Yuxin; Lee, Tommy D; Cargill, D Innes; Slade, Herbert B

    2013-08-01

    To examine patient and wound variables presumed to influence healing outcomes in the context of therapeutic trials for chronic venous leg ulcers. This double-blind, vehicle-controlled study was conducted with randomized assignment to one of four cell therapy dose groups (n = 46, 43, 44, 45) or vehicle control (n = 50). A 2-week run-in period was used to exclude rapid healers and those with infection or uncontrolled edema. This was a multicenter (ambulatory, private, hospital-based and university-based practices, and wound care centers in North America) study. Adults ≥ 18 years old with chronic venous insufficiency associated with an uninfected venous leg ulcer (2-12 cm(2) area, 6-104 weeks' duration) were included in the study. Excluded were pregnant or lactating women, wounds with exposed muscle, tendon or bone, patients unable to tolerate compression bandages, or patients who had exclusionary medical conditions or exposure to certain products. Exclusion during run-in included patients with infection, uncontrolled severe edema or with healing rates ≥ 0.349 cm/2 wk. Screen fail rate was 37% (134/362), and the withdrawal rate was~10% (23 of 228). Growth-arrested neonatal dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were delivered via pump spray in a fibrin sealant-based matrix, plus a foam dressing and four-layer compression bandaging. Treatment continued for 12 weeks or until healed, whichever occurred first. Patient demographic and wound-related variables were evaluated for influence on complete wound healing in all patients, as well as the subsets of treated and control patients. Wound duration (P = .004) and the presence of specific quantities of certain bacterial species (P < .001) affected healing in the vehicle group, while healing in the cell-treated groups was influenced by wound duration (P = .012), wound area (P = .026), wound location (P = .011), and specific quantities of certain bacterial species (P = .002). Age, sex, race, diabetes, HbA1C, peripheral

  18. Clinical significance of pyloric aperture in the aetiology of peptic ulcer disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sisir Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Despite so much contributions reported in the literature, the aetiology of the duodenal ulcer remains an enigmatic subject to the medical profession. Findings of Helicobacter pylori seem to have overshadowed the real issue, in that, how a small area of the duodenal mucosa could be inflicted with the acid-pepsin injury has not been questioned? One hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients, presented with epigastric pain were included in the endoscopic study. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and its clinical importance on the sizes of the pyloric aperture in the aetiology of peptic ulcer disease. Demographic data on the sizes of the pyloric aperture were divided into two groups, in that, those up to 3 mm in diameter were included in one and those over the size of 3 mm in another. Among the 168 cases, the gastric ulcer was found in 12 and duodenal ulcer in 27 patients. The sex ratio of men to women was 1.4:1 found in the former and 8:1 in the latter. Among other findings, a knuckle of duodenal mucoa was noticed prolapsing through the large pyloric aperture. It could be postulated that a knuckle of the mucosa that keeps peeping through the pylorus acts as a mucosal plug in empty stomach, like a cork in the acid bottle. The main physiological function is to protect the mucosa from being damaged by the acid-pepsin injury or by the reflux of bile, but the tip of the plug seems to be subjected to such injury. Furthermore, the surface epithelial cells could also be subjected to ischaemic change while prolapsing through the pylorus. This may lead to reduced production of the mucosal gel and bicarbonate secretion, thus exposing the damaged mucosa to acid bath. This supports the concept, how a small area of the stomach or duodenum could be inflicted with ulceration.

  19. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction.

    PubMed

    Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-16

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis.

  20. Comparison of the upper gastrointestinal safety of Arthrotec 75 and nabumetone in osteoarthritis patients at high risk for developing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, N M; Caldwell, J; Kivitz, A J; Weaver, A L; Bocanegra, T S; Ball, J; Dhadda, S; Hurley, S; Hancock, L

    1999-04-01

    A 6-week, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study compared the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) safety of Arthrotec 75 (diclofenac sodium 75 mg-misoprostol 200 microg; G.D. Searle & Co., Skokie, Illinois) administered twice daily with that of nabumetone 1500 mg administered once daily in 1203 patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. All patients had a documented clinical history of endoscopically confirmed gastric, pyloric-channel, or duodenal ulcer or > or = 10 erosions in the stomach or duodenum. UGI endoscopy was performed at baseline and again at week 6 or early withdrawal. Treatment with Arthrotec 75 resulted in a significantly lower combined incidence of endoscopically confirmed gastric and duodenal ulcers compared with nabumetone (4% vs 11%), and its rate of endoscopically confirmed ulceration was equivalent to that of placebo. The incidence of gastric ulcers alone was also significantly lower with Arthrotec 75 than with nabumetone (1% vs 9%). The incidence of duodenal ulcer with Arthrotec 75 was not significantly different from that with nabumetone (4% vs 3%). Types of adverse events were similar for all treatment groups, with GI adverse events predominating. Arthrotec 75 was well tolerated by the majority of patients. The results of this study demonstrate that Arthrotec 75 has a superior UGI safety profile, causing significantly fewer UGI ulcers, in comparison with nabumetone in patients with symptomatic OA and a documented history of ulcers or > or = 10 erosions.

  1. Factors influencing the sporulation and cyst formation of Aphanomyces invadans, etiological agent of ulcerative mycosis in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiryu, Y.; Blazer, V.S.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Shields, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Oomycete infections caused by Aphanomyces invadans occur in freshwater and estuarine fishes around the world. Along the east coast of the USA, skin ulcers caused by A. invadans are prevalent in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. From laboratory observations low salinities appear crucial to transmission of the pathogen. To better understand aspects of transmission, we characterized sporulation and cyst formation of secondary zoospores of two isolates of A. invadans at different salinities and temperatures. Sporulation occurred only at low salinities. At room temperature (ca. 20-22 C), using "pond water" augmented with artificial sea salts, the endemic strain WIC and the Thailand strain PA7 of A. invadans produced free-swimming secondary zoospores at salinities of 0, 1 and 2 psu (practical salinity unit = ???), but not at 4 psu or higher. Secondary zoospores of another species, ATCC-62427 (Aphanomyces sp.), were observed at 1, 2, 4 and 8 psu but not at 0 and 12 psu. Secondary zoospores of all three isolates, especially WIC, were abundant and motile 1-2 d post-sporulation. Sporulation was temperature dependent and occurred over a relatively narrow range. No sporulation occurred at 4, 30 or 35 C for either WIC or PA7. For both strains zoospore production within 1-3 d after the initiation of sporulation was more prolific at 25 C than at 20 and 15 C. At 15 C production of zoospores was sustained over 11 d for WIC and 5 d for PA7. At room temperature single WIC secondary zoospores remained motile 12-18 h. Salinities exceeding 4 psu or vigorous shaking caused immediate cyst formation of WIC secondary zoospores. Exposure to menhaden tissue, but not tissues of other fishes to secondary zoospores (WIC), caused rapid (2 h) cyst formation. Cysts were capable of excysting when transferred to 1 psu water within 2-3 h of cyst formation. Cysts that had remained encysted in 6.5 psu for 24 h did not excyst when transferred to 1 psu water. Salinity and temperature requirements

  2. Gastric carcinogenesis by duodenal reflux through gut regenerative cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Mukaisho, Ken-Ichi; Miwa, Koichi; Kumagai, Hitomi; Bamba, Masamichi; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Takanori

    2003-11-01

    To elucidate the histogenesis of gastric stump cancer, we performed an operation in rats to make all duodenal contents flow back into the glandular stomach. The subjects were 41 rats, and sequential morphological changes of the duodenogastric stoma and the incidence of stump cancers were studied. Serial sections around the stoma were studied with mucin stains such as paradoxical concanavalin A (Con A), galactose oxidase Schiff (GOS), and high-iron diamine-Alcian blue (HID-AB). An immunohistochemical study on cell proliferation with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was also done. At week 30, pyloric gland type cells positive for Con A first appeared at the base of the intestinal crypts and the fundic glands adjacent to the anastomosis. These glands became large with time, resulting in formation of cystically dilated glands. These gland cells were partially stained with GOS, and then they retained a proliferative activity. These changes seemed to resemble "gastritis cystica profunda" in human remnant stomachs. At 50 and 80 weeks, adenocarcinomas were observed in 4 of 10 rats (40.0%) and in 16 of 21 rats (76.2%), respectively. We have noted that the early change of cystic proliferation of mucous glands resembled the so-called "ulcer associated cell lineage (UACL)" described by others, but our characteristic finding was not only pyloric but also foveolar metaplasia. This pyloric-foveolar metaplasia subsequently led to development of glands with intestinal-type goblet cells, which looked like incomplete intestinal metaplasia. This sequence was different from UACL, and very recently, we proposed a concept of "gut regenerative cell lineage (GRCL); from pyloric-foveolar to with goblet cell metaplasia in regeneration," common to all parts of the gut, and the stump cancer appeared to arise from GRCL.

  3. [Clinical impact of dual antiplatelet therapy on peptic ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dae Geon; Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Jeong Wook; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2014-08-01

    Increased incidence of coronary artery disease has led to the increased use of dual antiplatelet therapy composed of aspirin and clopidogrel. We investigated the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in patients who received single or dual antiplatelet therapy and analyzed their clinical characteristics in order to predict the prognostic factors. Between January 2009 and December 2011, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent coronary angiography at Chung-Ang University Hospital (Seoul, Korea). One hundred and ninety-four patients were classified into two groups: aspirin alone group and dual antiplatelet group. Clinical characteristics, past medical history, and presence of peptic ulcer were analyzed. During the follow-up period, 11 patients had duodenal ulcer; the event rate was 2.02% in the aspirin alone group and 9.47% in the dual antiplatelet group (hazard ratio [HR] 5.24, 95% CI 1.03-26.55, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding: 0% vs. 4.2% (p=0.78). In patients who received proton pump inhibitor (PPI), 24 patients had gastric ulcer; the event rate was significantly different between the two groups: 4.87% vs. 22.98% (HR 3.40, 95% CI 1.02-11.27, p<0.05). Dual antiplatelet groups had a higher incidence of duodenal ulcers without significant bleeding compared with the aspirin alone group. In patients who received PPI, the dual antiplatelet therapy group had a higher incidence of gastric ulcers without significant bleeding compared with the aspirin alone group. Therefore, physicians must pay attention to high risk groups who receive dual antiplatelet therapy and aggressive diagnostic endoscopy should also be considered.

  4. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  5. Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach and duodenum to diagnose or treat disease. Erosion – a very shallow sore, similar to an abrasion ... Ulcer – an open sore. Ulcers are deeper than erosions. Author(s) and Publication Date(s) Sean P. Caufield, MD, ...

  6. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  7. A mutein of human basic fibroblast growth factor TGP-580 accelerates colonic ulcer healing by stimulating angiogenesis in the ulcer bed in rats.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Szabo, S

    2015-10-01

    Previously, we reported that TGP-580, a mutein of human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), accelerated the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of TGP-580 on the healing of colonic ulcers. In male Sprague Dawley rats, ulcers were induced in the colon 6 cm from the anus by enema of 50 μl of 3% N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylator. The lesions were examined under a dissecting microscope (x10). The concentration of bFGF in the ulcerated colon was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and both the distribution of bFGF and the density of microvessels in the ulcer bed were examined by immunohistochemical staining. The content of bFGF in the ulcerated colon was markedly increased associated with ulcer healing, and ulcer healing was significantly delayed by intravenous administration of a monoclonal antibody for bFGF (MAb 3H3) once daily for 10 days. In the ulcer bed, many cells such as fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and macrophages were positively stained with bFGF antiserum. TGP-580, human bFGF or dexamethasone was given intracolonally twice daily for 10 days, starting the day after ulcer induction. TGP-580 (0.2 - 20 μg/ml, 200 μl/rat) dose-dependently accelerated ulcer healing, and its effect was more than 10 times stronger than that of human bFGF. Density (μm/0.01 mm(2)) of microvessels in the ulcer bed was significantly increased by treatment with TGP-580, and there was a good correlation between the density of microvessels and the decrease of ulcerated area (R(2) = 0.633). On the other hand dexamethasone (20 μg/ml) inhibited angiogenesis in the ulcer bed and delayed ulcer healing. These results suggest that angiogenesis in the ulcer bed plays an important role in ulcer healing, and that bFGF mutein TGP-580 accelerated colonic ulcer healing, at least in part, by stimulating angiogenesis, whereas glucocorticoids may delay the healing by inhibiting angiogenesis.

  8. Effects of antioxidant supplementation on duodenal Se-Met absorption in ethanol-exposed rat offspring in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Fátima; Ojeda, M Luisa; Delgado, M Josefa; Jotty, Karick; Diaz Castro, Javier; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2011-12-01

    The nutritional deficiencies provoked by ethanol consumption, during gestation or lactation, can contribute to multiple birth defects in offspring. In order to improve our knowledge about selenium (Se) distribution in pups exposed to ethanol, the present study evaluated the effect of this drug on intestinal development and determined its action on duodenal absorption of selenomethionine (Se-Met). To determinate if supplementation could improve Se absorption and its serum values, we used two antioxidant supplemented regimens on dams, with selenium alone or selenium plus folic acid, and obtained six groups of pups: C (control), A (alcohol), CS (control + Se), AS (alcohol + Se), CFS (control + Se + folic acid) and AFS (alcohol + Se + folic acid). Duodenal Se-Met transport was performed using an in vivo perfusion method. Se levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The supplemented diets utilized had a positive influence on body growth, duodenal perimeter and Se content in ethanol-exposed pups. Ethanol exposure increased Se-Met duodenal absorption in all pups, supplemented or not, presenting the highest values of maximal velocity (V(max)) compared with their control counterparts. The affinity constant (K(m)) increased according to rank: A>AS>AFS groups. These results suggest that although antioxidant supplementation does not restore Se-Met absorption to normal values, it enhances the affinity of the transporters for the substrate and improves the damage caused by ethanol in the duodenal mucosa.

  9. Risk factors influencing the outcome of peptic ulcer bleeding in chronic kidney disease after initial endoscopic hemostasis: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Tai, Wei-Chen; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shih, Chih-Wei; Ku, Ming-Kun; Yuan, Lan-Ting; Wang, Jiunn-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Lun; Sun, Wei-Chih; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Nguang, Seng-Howe; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who had peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) may have more adverse outcomes. This population-based cohort study aimed to identify risk factors that may influence the outcomes of patients with CKD and PUB after initial endoscopic hemostasis. Data from 1997 to 2008 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included a cohort dataset of 1 million randomly selected individuals and a dataset of patients with CKD who were alive in 2008. A total of 18,646 patients with PUB were screened, and 1229 patients admitted for PUB after endoscopic hemostasis were recruited. The subjects were divided into non-CKD (n = 1045) and CKD groups (n = 184). We analyzed the risks of peptic ulcer rebleeding, sepsis events, and mortality among in-hospital patients, and after discharge. Results showed that the rebleeding rates associated with repeat endoscopic therapy (11.96% vs 6.32%, P = 0.0062), death rates (8.7%, vs 2.3%, P < 0.0001), hospitalization cost (US$ 5595±7200 vs US$2408 ± 4703, P < 0.0001), and length of hospital stay (19.6 ± 18.3 vs 11.2 ± 13.1, P < 0.0001) in the CKD group were higher than those in the non-CKD group. The death rate in the CKD group was also higher than that in the non-CKD group after discharge. The independent risk factor for rebleeding during hospitalization was age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; P = 0.0063), whereas risk factors for death were CKD (OR, 2.37; P = 0.0222), shock (OR, 2.99; P = 0.0098), and endotracheal intubation (OR, 5.31; P < 0.0001). The hazard ratio of rebleeding risk for aspirin users after discharge over a 10-year follow-up period was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45-0.95, P = 0.0223). On the other hand, old age (P < 0.0001), CKD (P = 0.0090), diabetes (P = 0.0470), and congestive heart failure (P = 0.0013) were the independent risk factors for death after discharge. In-hospital patients with CKD and PUB after endoscopic therapy

  10. Congenital duodenal obstruction due to a preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Pathak, D; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Only about 80 cases of pre-duodenal portal vein (PDPV), a rare congenital anomaly of portal vein development that was first described by Knight in 1921, have been reported till date.[1] We report a neonate with duodenal obstruction caused by PDPV and briefly review the available literature.

  11. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  12. Idiopathic duodenal obstruction: an unappreciated complication of pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, E L; Clements, J L

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction as a complication of pancreatitis is infrequently recognized. Only four cases of idiopathic duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis have been previously reported. In a three-year study of 878 patients with pancreatitis, nine cases of idiopathic duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis have been found. Each of the nine cases was characterized by frank obstruction in the second or third portions of the duodenum and an intact mucosa in the area of stricture. Four patients gave an abrupt history of moderately severe pancreatitis. Resolution of the duodenal obstruction occurred by three weeks in each of these four cases. Surgical exploration in one of these patients revealed marked duodenal edema with intramural hematoma. The remaining five patients reported a chronic history of obstruction. Inadequate resolution of the obstruction after four weeks of hyperalimentation led to surgical bypass. Duodenal biopsy specimens revealed inflammation, muscle destruction, and extensive fibrosis. Duodenal involvement in the inflammatory process of moderately severe pancreatitis was discovered in 25% of the upper gastrointestinal studies, but was usually self-limiting and of a mild degree. Since contiguous duodenal edema is common and fibrosing pancreatoduodenitis only occurs in an occasional patient, surgical intervention for duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis should only be considered after demonstrated failure of conservative management. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:7235767

  13. A New Strategy to Address Loss of Submarine Qualifications in Submariners Who are Helicobacter Pylori Positive and Diagnosed with Peptic Ulcer Disease: Background to the Change in Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-25

    peptic ulcer disease has been changed. FINDINGS: The medical literature shows that infection with Helicobacter pylori is causally related to the...drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, etc). Repeated studies have demonstrated that eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with...duodenal, gastric, and complicated ulcers. Re-infection with Helicobacter pylori is uncommon in western countries, with rates ranging between zero and

  14. [The role of biliary dyskinesia in the mechanism of the damage to the protective properties of the mucosal barrier in peptic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Oparin, A G; Demerchian, T I; Korenovskiĭ, I P; Chonka, V Iu; Iakovenko, E L; Pandeĭ, I

    1993-01-01

    Mucous barrier resistance was studied in 232 duodenal ulcer patients with signs of exacerbation as shown by PAS-positive substances and acid mucopolysaccharides in antral mucosa of the stomach and duodenum as well as by gastric juice levels of gastromucoproteins, fucose and sialic acids. In addition, measurements were performed of biliary motility. The tests indicated that half of the ulcer patients developed biliary dyskinesia manifesting as hyperkinesia or hypokinesia. The resultant decrease in gastric mucins requires individual correction.

  15. The limitations of current therapy in peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Salena, B J; Hunt, R H

    1987-05-01

    The current therapeutic approach to peptic ulcer disease includes agents that reduce gastric acidity and hence peptic activity, inactivate or adsorb pepsin, create a physical barrier against the effects of acid and pepsin, or enhance mucosal defence. Profound gastric acid reduction may predispose to infection, and it has been suggested that carcinogenesis is possible, although a cause-effect relationship has never been established. The side-effects of therapy are well-described, and may limit the therapeutic approach. Healing rates correlate closely with acid suppression in duodenal ulcer, but not entirely in gastric ulcer. Maintenance therapy lowers the relapse rate, but does not alter the ulcer diathesis. The optimal strategy for long-term management remains unclear, but in the future one should consider outcome measures which include a decrease in pain, improvement in the quality of life, reduction work loss, and a reduction of complications, in addition to ulcer healing. The ideal therapy should be efficacious, safe, and convenient--with no side-effects--and cost-effective. New agents should suppress acid and peptic activity, while enhancing the gastric mucosal defence mechanisms (such as mucosal blood flow, mucus, and bicarbonate secretion) and stimulating gastric cellular regeneration and restitution.

  16. Seronegative Herpes simplex Associated Esophagogastric Ulcer after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Matevossian, Edouard; Doll, Dietrich; Weirich, Gregor; Burian, Maria; Knebel, Carolin; Thorban, Stefan; Hüser, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex infection is characterized by acute or subacute infection, often followed by a chronic carrier state. Consecutive recurrences may flare up if immunocompromise occurs. Herpes simplex associated esophagitis or duodenal ulcer have been reported in immunocompromised patients due to neoplasm, HIV/AIDS or therapeutically induced immune deficiency. Here we report the case of an HSV-DNA seronegative patient who developed grade III dysphagia 13 days after allogeneic liver transplantation. Endoscopy revealed an esophageal-gastric ulcer, and biopsy histopathology showed a distinct fibroplastic and capillary ulcer pattern highly suspicious for viral infection. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed a distinct nuclear positive anti-HSV reaction. Antiviral therapy with acyclovir and high-dose PPI led to a complete revision of clinical symptoms within 48 h. Repeat control endoscopy after 7 days showed complete healing of the former ulcer site at the gastroesophageal junction. Although the incidence of post-transplantation Herpes simplex induced gastroesophageal disease is low, the viral HSV ulcer may be included into a differential diagnosis if dysphagia occurs after transplantation even if HSV-DNA PCR is negative. PMID:21490847

  17. A case of a duodenal duplication cyst presenting as melena

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung Yeon; Ko, Sun Hye; Ha, Sungeun; Kim, Mi Sung; Shin, Hyang Mi; Baeg, Myong Ki

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal duplication cysts are benign rare congenital anomalies reported mainly in the pediatric population, but seldom in adults. Symptoms depend on the type and location and can present as abdominal pain, distension, dysphagia or dyspepsia. They have been reported to be responsible for duodenal obstruction, pancreatitis and, in rare cases, gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of a duodenal duplication cyst in a 43-year-old man presenting as melena. Initial gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding focus. However, the patient began passing melena after 3 d, with an acute decrease in hemoglobin levels. Subsequent studies revealed a duplication cyst in the second portion of the duodenum which was surgically resected. Histology revealed a duodenal duplication cyst consisting of intestinal mucosa. There was no further bleeding and the patient recovered completely. In rare cases, duodenal duplication cysts might cause gastrointestinal bleeding and should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24151370

  18. Non-classified type duodenal atresia: case report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to present a case with initial diagnosis of non-classified type duodenal atresia operated in our clinic. A patient with prenatally suspected to be duodenal atresia was explored. At laparotomy type 3 duodenal atresia was found between 2(nd) and 3(rd) parts of duodenum. In addition, a web was detected distal to the atresic part. Duodenoduodenostomy together with web excision was performed. He had not any additional pathology. Although duodenal atresia is a very well known pathology by pediatric surgeons, though rarely a non-classified type duodenal atresia can be encountered. Possible presence of a second atresia should be kept in mind, proximal and distal segments of the duodenum and intestinal passage must be explored carefully for the presence of second atresic segment before performing duodenoduodenostomy.

  19. Protective effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on gastroduodenal ulcers: a comparative study in rats.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Mohammad; Moutaery, Meshal Al; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Arshaduddin, Mohammad; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-08-01

    Stabilization of mast cells plays a key mechanism to protect gastrointestinal tract from injury. This study presents a comparative evaluation of mast cell stabilizers nedocromil sodium (NDS) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in experimental gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. Wistar rats of either sex were used in this study. Both NDS and SCG, in the doses of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg were given intraperitoneally for gastric secretion studies and by gavage for antiulcer studies. Acid secretion studies were undertaken in pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric lesions were induced by water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), indomethacin and ethanol whereas duodenal ulcers were produced by cysteamine. The level of glutathione (GSH) and gastric wall mucus were measured in glandular stomach of rats following ethanol-induced gastric lesions. SCG was more effective than NDS in preventing WIRS- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions whereas reverse was true in ethanol- and cysteamine-induced ulcers. All the 3 doses of SCG offered almost equal protection against WIRS-induced gastric lesions whereas only medium and high dose of NDS provided significant protection in this model of ulcer. NDS significantly inhibited cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers whereas SCG failed to do so. Pretreatment with NDS or SCG significantly and dose-dependently protected gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced injury, while the former drug appeared to be more effective. The cytoprotective effects of these two drugs were accompanied by the attenuation of ethanol-induced depletion of gastric wall mucus and GSH. The differential effects of NDS and SCG against various gastric lesions rationalize the possible benefits of a combined therapy (NDS+SCG) for the treatment of complex gastroduodenal ulcers.

  20. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 both play an important role in the protection of the duodenal mucosa in cats.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Amagase, Kikuko; Ebara, Satomi; Akiba, Yasutada; Takeuchi, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs often cause ulcers in the duodenum in humans, the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcers has not been fully elucidated. We examined in cats the 1) ulcerogenic effects of selective COX-1 (SC-560, ketorolac) and COX-2 (celecoxib, meloxicam) inhibitors on the gastrointestinal mucosa, 2) effect of feeding and cimetidine on the expression of COX isoforms and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) level in the duodenum, and 3) localization of COX isoforms in the duodenum. COX inhibitors were administered after the morning meal in cats once daily for 3 days. Gastrointestinal lesions were examined on day 4. Localization and expression of COX isoforms (by immunohistochemistry, Western blot) and PGE(2) level (by enzyme immunoassay) were examined. Results were as follows. First, selective COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors alone produced marked ulcers in the duodenum but did not cause obvious lesions in the small intestine. Coadministration of SC-560 and celecoxib produced marked lesions in the small intestine. Second, feeding increased both the expression of COX isoforms and PGE(2) level in the duodenum, and the effects were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with cimetidine. Third, COX-1 was localized in goblet and Brunner's gland cells, Meissner's and Auerbach's plexus, smooth muscle cells, and arterioles; and COX-2 was observed in capillaries, venules, and basal granulated cells. The expression of COX isoforms in the duodenum is up-regulated by feeding, and inhibition of either COX-1 or COX-2 causes ulcers in the duodenum, suggesting that both isoforms play an important role in the protection of the duodenal mucosa.

  1. Molecular pathogenesis of sporadic duodenal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Achille, A.; Baron, A.; Zamboni, G.; Orlandini, S.; Bogina, G.; Bassi, C.; Iacono, C.; Scarpa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Whether duodenal adenocarcinoma should be considered as a gastrointestinal or as a peripancreatic cancer is a matter of debate, as is the opportunity and type of treatment. We investigated 12 such cancers for the genetic anomalies involved in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal malignancies, including (a) those occurring in common-type cancers - allelic losses at chromosomes 3p, 5q, 17p and 18q, and Ki-ras and p53 alterations; and (b) those characteristic of mutator-phenotype cancers - microsatellite instability and TGF-betaRII gene mutations. We found Ki-ras and p53 mutations in five (42%) and eight cancers (67%), respectively; chromosome 3p, 5q, 17p and 18q allelic losses in two of nine (22%), six of ten (60%), six of nine (67%) and three of ten (30%) informative cancers, respectively. Finally, three cancers (25%) showed widespread microsatellite instability and two of them had a TGF-betaRII gene mutation. Our data suggest that duodenal cancers may arise from either of the two known pathogenetic molecular pathways of gastric and colorectal cancers. The majority of our cases were highly aggressive cancers with frequent chromosomal changes and p53 mutations as observed in the common-type gastrointestinal malignancies, while widespread subtle alterations characteristic of mutator-phenotype cancers occurred in a minority, which also showed a favourable long-term outcome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9514055

  2. Duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J; Lembo, A; Elashoff, J; Fass, R; Mayer, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) frequently report that meals high in fat worsen heartburn. Nevertheless, studies to determine whether high fat meals promote gastro-oesophageal reflux have produced conflicting and equivocal conclusions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—To determine, alternatively, whether fat in the small intestinal lumen intensifies the perception of heartburn, we studied 11 patients with typical heartburn from GORD. After being placed on omeprazole to suppress endogenous acid, these fasting subjects underwent oesophageal perfusions with graded doses of HCl at pH values of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. Oesophageal perfusions were conducted while the duodenum was perfused with saline (control) and again with fat at 8 g/h.
RESULTS—Time to onset, intensity, and severity of heartburn varied with dose of oesophageal acid (p<0.01). Time to onset was significantly (p<0.01) shorter, and intensity and severity of heartburn significantly (p<0.05) greater, during duodenal perfusion with fat.
CONCLUSION—We conclude that duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; heartburn; perception; fat PMID:11600463

  3. New mechanistic explanation for the localization of ulcers in the rat duodenum: role of iron and selective uptake of cysteamine.

    PubMed

    Khomenko, Tetyana; Kolodney, Joanna; Pinto, John T; McLaren, Gordon D; Deng, Xiaoming; Chen, Longchuan; Tolstanova, Ganna; Paunovic, Brankica; Krasnikov, Boris F; Hoa, Neil; Cooper, Arthur J L; Szabo, Sandor

    2012-09-01

    Cysteamine, a coenzyme A metabolite, induces duodenal ulcers in rodents. Our recent studies showed that ulcer formation was aggravated by iron overload and diminished in iron deficiency. We hypothesized that cysteamine is selectively taken up in the duodenal mucosa, where iron absorption primarily occurs, and is transported by a carrier-mediated process. Here we report that cysteamine administration in rats leads to cysteamine accumulation in the proximal duodenum, where the highest concentration of iron in the gastrointestinal tract is found. In vitro, iron loading of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) accelerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased [(14)C]cysteamine uptake. [(14)C]Cysteamine uptake by isolated gastrointestinal mucosal cells and by IEC-6 was pH-dependent and inhibited by unlabeled cysteamine. The uptake of [(14)C]cysteamine by IEC-6 was Na(+)-independent, saturable, inhibited by structural analogs, H(2)-histamine receptor antagonists, and organic cation transporter (OCT) inhibitors. OCT1 mRNA was markedly expressed in the rat duodenum and in IEC-6, and transfection of IEC-6 with OCT1 siRNA decreased OCT1 mRNA expression and inhibited [(14)C]cysteamine uptake. Cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers were decreased in OCT1/2 knockout mice. These studies provide new insights into the mechanism of cysteamine absorption and demonstrate that intracellular iron plays a critical role in cysteamine uptake and in experimental duodenal ulcerogenesis.

  4. [Prevention of leg ulcer].

    PubMed

    Marinović Kulisić, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Lower leg ulcers is the most common form of ulceration of the lower extremities. The prevalence of leg ulcer varies among studies from 0.1% to 0.6%. In the majority of studies, 1% of the population develop leg ulcer at least once in lifetime. The prevalence is higher in elderly people. There are several hypotheses used to explain the pathophysiological steps leading from the popliteal venous hypertension in value. Currently, the treatment of leg ulcer relies on due knowledge of ulcer pathophysiology and making an accurate diagnosis. Venous disease has a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity. In addition, costs associated with the prevention and treatment of lower leg ulcers are significant.

  5. Management of leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, P; Ballantyne, S

    2000-01-01

    Leg ulcer is a leading cause of morbidity among older subjects, especially women in the Western world. About 400 years BC, Hippocrates wrote, "In case of an ulcer, it is not expedient to stand, especially if the ulcer be situated on the leg". Hippocrates himself had a leg ulcer. The best treatment of any leg ulcer depends upon the accurate diagnosis and the underlying aetiology. The majority of leg ulcers are due to venous disease and/or arterial disease, but the treatment of the underlying cause is far more important than the choice of dressing. The aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and the future trends in the management of the leg ulcers are discussed in this review.
 PMID:11060140

  6. A case of Cushing ulcer in an 8-month-old patient with medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Walavan; Spader, Heather S.; Scaife, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the first case of a Cushing ulcer in an infant with medulloblastoma who, despite being administered stress ulcer prophylaxis, worsened after corticosteroids were initiated. An 8-month-old boy presented with progressive vomiting, lethargy, and decreased oral intake. Imaging revealed a heterogeneous fourth ventricular mass. Preoperatively, the patient was started on dexamethasone. The patient underwent an uncomplicated external ventricular drain placement and suboccipital craniotomy for resection of the lesion. The results of the pathological analysis were consistent with medulloblastoma. Postoperatively, the patient had melanotic stools, which were reported to be occurring for months prior to presentation. Two proximal duodenal bulb ulcers were found and required definitive surgical repair. The patient recovered from the acute postsurgical course after continued stress ulcer prophylaxis and is currently undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27186526

  7. Dutch Venous Ulcer guideline update.

    PubMed

    Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter

    2014-05-01

    The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates.

  8. Help-Seeking for Pre-Ulcer and Ulcer Conditions of Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease (Buruli Ulcer) in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ackumey, Mercy M.; Gyapong, Margaret; Pappoe, Matilda; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural features of help-seeking for Buruli ulcer–affected persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in a disease-endemic area in Ghana. A sample of 181 respondents were purposively selected. Fisher's exact test was used to compare help-seeking variables for pre-ulcers and ulcers. Qualitative phenomenologic analysis of narratives clarified the meaning and content of selected quantitative help-seeking variables. For pre-ulcers, herbal dressings were used to expose necrotic tissues and subsequently applied as dressings for ulcers. Analgesics and left-over antibiotics were used to ease pain and reduce inflammation. Choices for outside-help were influenced by the perceived effectiveness of the treatment, the closeness of the provider to residences, and family and friends. Health education is required to emphasize the risk of self-medication with antibiotics and the importance of medical treatment for pre-ulcers, and to caution against the use of herbs to expose necrotic tissues, which could lead to co-infections. PMID:22144453

  9. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for peptic ulcer disease 2015.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kiichi; Yoshino, Junji; Akamatsu, Taiji; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Kato, Mototsugu; Kamada, Tomoari; Takagi, Atsushi; Chiba, Toshimi; Nomura, Sachiyo; Mizokami, Yuji; Murakami, Kazunari; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Hiraishi, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao; Uemura, Naomi; Goto, Hidemi; Joh, Takashi; Miwa, Hiroto; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-03-01

    The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for peptic ulcer disease in 2014 and has created an English version. The revised guidelines consist of seven items: bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy, non-eradication therapy, drug-induced ulcer, non-H. pylori, non-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer, surgical treatment, and conservative therapy for perforation and stenosis. Ninety clinical questions (CQs) were developed, and a literature search was performed for the CQs using the Medline, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases between 1983 and June 2012. The guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Therapy is initially provided for ulcer complications. Perforation or stenosis is treated with surgery or conservatively. Ulcer bleeding is first treated by endoscopic hemostasis. If it fails, surgery or interventional radiology is chosen. Second, medical therapy is provided. In cases of NSAID-related ulcers, use of NSAIDs is stopped, and anti-ulcer therapy is provided. If NSAID use must continue, the ulcer is treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or prostaglandin analog. In cases with no NSAID use, H. pylori-positive patients receive eradication and anti-ulcer therapy. If first-line eradication therapy fails, second-line therapy is given. In cases of non-H. pylori, non-NSAID ulcers or H. pylori-positive patients with no indication for eradication therapy, non-eradication therapy is provided. The first choice is PPI therapy, and the second choice is histamine 2-receptor antagonist therapy. After initial therapy, maintenance therapy is provided to prevent ulcer relapse.

  10. Temporary duodenal stenting as a bridge to ERCP for inaccessible papilla due to duodenal obstruction: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Donatelli, Gianfranco; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Dumont, Jean-Loup; Dhumane, Parag; Tuszynski, Thierry; Derhy, Serge; Meduri, Alexandre; Vergeau, Bertrand Marie; Meduri, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Duodenal obstruction may prevent performance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or Endoscopic ultrasonograhy-guided biliary access (EUS-BD) are alternative treatments but are associated with a higher morbidity and mortality rate. The aim of the study is to report overall technical success rate and clinical outcome with deployment of temporary fully or partially covered self-expanding duodenal stent (pc/fcSEMS) as a bridge to ERCP in case of inaccessible papilla due to duodenal strictures. Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 66 consecutive patients presenting with a duodenal stricture impeding the ability to perform an ERCP. Provisional duodenal stenting was performed as a bridge to ERCP. A second endoscopic session was performed to remove the provisional stent and to perform an ERCP. Afterward, a permanent duodenal stent was delivered if necessary. Results: Sixty-six duodenal stents (17 pcSEMS and 49 fcSEMS) were delivered with a median indwelling time of 3.15 (1 – 7) days. Two migrations occurred in the pcSEMS group, 1 of which required lower endoscopy for retrieval. No other procedure-related complications were observed. At second endoscopy a successful ERCP was performed in 56 patients (85 %); 10 patients (15 %) with endoscopic failure underwent PTBD or EUS-BD. Forty patients needed permanent duodenal stenting. Conclusions: Provisional removable covered duodenal stenting as a bridge to ERCP for duodenal obstruction is safe procedure and in most cases allows successful performance of therapeutic ERCP. This technique could be a sound option as a step up approach before referring such cases for more complex techniques such as EUS-BD or PTBD. PMID:27652301

  11. Maggot Debridement Therapy of Infected Ulcers: Patient and Wound Factors Influencing Outcome – A Study on 101 Patients with 117 Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Steenvoorde, Pascal; Jacobi, Cathrien E; Van Doorn, Louk; Oskam, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION It has been known for centuries that maggots are potent debriding agents capable of removing necrotic tissue and slough. In January 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration decided to regulate maggot debridement therapy (MDT). As it is still not clear which wounds are likely or unlikely to benefit from MDT, we performed a prospective study to gain more insight in patient and wound characteristics influencing outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS In the period between August 2002 and December 2005, patients with infected wounds with signs of gangrenous or necrotic tissue who seemed suited for MDT were enrolled in the present study. In total, 101 patients with 117 ulcers were treated. Most wounds were worst-case scenarios, in which maggot therapy was a treatment of last resort. RESULTS In total, 72 patients (71%) were classified as ASA III or IV. In total, 78 of 116 wounds (67%) had a successful outcome. These wounds healed completely (n = 60), healed almost completely (n = 12) or were clean at least (n = 6) at last follow-up. These results seem to be in line with those in the literature. All wounds with a traumatic origin (n = 24) healed completely. All wounds with septic arthritis (n = 13), however, failed to heal and led in half of these cases to a major amputation. According to a multivariate analysis, chronic limb ischaemia (odds ratio [OR], 7.5), the depth of the wound (OR, 14.0), and older age (≥ 60 years; OR, 7.3) negatively influenced outcome. Outcome was not influenced by gender, obesity, diabetes mellitus, smoking, ASAclassification, location of the wound, wound size or wound duration. CONCLUSIONS Some patient characteristics (i.e. gender, obesity, smoking behaviour, presence of diabetes mellitus and ASA-classification at presentation) and some wound characteristics (i.e. location of the wound, wound duration and size) do not seem to contra-indicate eligibility for MDT. However, older patients and patients with chronic limb ischaemia or deep wounds

  12. Molecular hydrogen in human breath: a new strategy for selectively diagnosing peptic ulcer disease, non-ulcerous dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Maity, Abhijit; Pal, Mithun; Maithani, Sanchi; Ghosh, Barnali; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Pradhan, Manik

    2016-07-22

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori utilizes molecular hydrogen (H2) as a respiratory substrate during colonization in the gastric mucosa. However, the link between molecular H2 and the pathogenesis of peptic-ulcer disease (PUD) and non-ulcerous dyspepsia (NUD) by the enzymatic activity of H. pylori still remains mostly unknown. Here we provide evidence that breath H2 excretion profiles are distinctly altered by the enzymatic activity of H. pylori for individuals with NUD and PUD. We subsequently unravelled the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the alteration of H2 in exhaled breath in association with peptic ulcers, encompassing both gastric and duodenal ulcers, along with NUD. We also established that carbon-isotopic fractionations in the acid-mediated bacterial environment regulated by bacterial urease activity cannot discriminate the actual disease state i.e. whether it is peptic ulcer or NUD. However, our findings illuminate the unusual molecular H2 in breath that can track the precise evolution of PUD and NUD, even after the eradication of H. pylori infection. This deepens our understanding of the pathophysiology of PUD and NUD, reveals non-invasively the actual disease state in real-time and thus offers a novel and robust new-generation strategy for treating peptic-ulcer disease together with non-ulcer related complications even when the existing (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) fails to diagnose.

  13. Acute Duodenal Obstruction After Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Biliary Stents: Peroral Treatment with Enteral Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Alvarez, Oscar A.; Perdigao, Joseph; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2003-09-15

    Three patients with malignant biliary obstruction were treated with placement of metallic biliary stents. Two patients had known partial duodenal stenosis but had no symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction. The patients developed symptomatic duodenal obstruction early after biliary metallic stent placement. The symptomatic duodenal obstructions were successfully treated with peroral placement of duodenal stents, which obviated the need for surgical intervention.

  14. [Role of yeasts in diabetic foot ulcer infection].

    PubMed

    Missoni, Emilija Mlinarić; Kalenić, Smilja; Vukelić, Milan; De Syo, Drago; Belicza, Mladen; Kern, Josipa; Babić, Verica Vazić

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to assess the incidence of isolation of individual fungal species and interpret the meaning of fungal isolates from foot ulcers of 509 diabetic outpatients using mycologic and histopathologic methods. Another aim was to explore risk factors for the development of fungal infections in foot ulcer. Fungus isolation was made on selective media and their identification by standard mycologic methods. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal ulcer infections was made on PAS-stained histopathologic preparations and imprint preparations (PAS and Papanicolaou staining) of foot wound biopsy specimens. Fungal and mixed foot ulcer infections were found in 14.9% of diabetic patients. In 33.8% of patients, these infections were confirmed by a finding of fungal elements in histopathologic preparations of ulcer biopsy specimens, as follows: in 16.9% of patients, by finding fungal elements in imprint preparations of ulcer biopsy specimens and by isolation fungus from the swab of the same ulcer; in 2.3% by fungus isolation from ulcer biopsy specimens; in 36.9% by fungus isolation from ulcer swabs in pure culture and/or in a large number of colonies and/or from several ulcers on the foot of the same patient. More than 89% of patients had a single foot ulcer with fungal or mixed infection, big toe and the plantar-metatarsal region in one foot or both feet being the most common sites of ulcer. Fifteen species from the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula were the causative agents of fungal and mixed foot ulcer infections. C. parapsilosis (in 61.5% of patients), and C. albicans and C. tropicalis (in 10.8% of patients each) were the most common causes of these infections. The presence of yeasts and/or dermatophytes in the toe web of the same or other foot, or of both feet, did not influence the incidence of fungal and mixed foot ulcer infections. Patient sex and age, type and length of diabetes, or clinical picture of diabetic foot did not affect it either. In

  15. Characteristics of gastric cancer in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ae-Ra; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-04-28

    To evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of gastric cancer (GC) in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Between January 2003 and December 2013, the medical records of patients diagnosed with GC were retrospectively reviewed. Those with previous gastric ulcer (GU) and H. pylori infection were assigned to the HpGU-GC group (n = 86) and those with previous duodenal ulcer (DU) disease and H. pylori infection were assigned to the HpDU-GC group (n = 35). The incidence rates of GC in the HpGU-GC and HpDU-GC groups were analyzed. Data on demographics (age, gender, peptic ulcer complications and cancer treatment), GC clinical characteristics [location, pathological diagnosis, differentiation, T stage, Lauren's classification, atrophy of surrounding mucosa and intestinal metaplasia (IM)], outcome of eradication therapy for H. pylori infection, esophagogastroduodenoscopy number and the duration until GC onset were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors influencing GC development. The relative risk of GC was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The incidence rates of GC were 3.60% (86/2387) in the HpGU-GC group and 1.66% (35/2098) in the HpDU-GC group. The annual incidence was 0.41% in the HpGU-GC group and 0.11% in the HpDU-GC group. The rates of moderate-to-severe atrophy of the surrounding mucosa and IM were higher in the HpGU-GC group than in the HpDU-GC group (86% vs 34.3%, respectively, and 61.6% vs 14.3%, respectively, P < 0.05). In the univariate analysis, atrophy of surrounding mucosa, IM and eradication therapy for H. pylori infection were significantly associated with the development of GC (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the prognosis of GC patients between the HpGU-GC and HpDU-GC groups (P = 0.347). The relative risk of GC development in the HpGU-GC group compared to that of the HpDU-GC group, after correction for age and gender, was 1.71 (95%CI

  16. Duodenal obstruction due to a preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Vilakazi, Mnc; Ismail, F; Swanepoel, H M; Muller, E W; Lockhat, Z I

    2014-01-01

    An infant presented with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of a pyloric stenosis. On abdominal ultrasound, pyloric stenosis was excluded, and other causes for proximal duodenal obstruction, such as a duodenal web or annular pancreas, were suspected. At surgery, the cause was found to be due to an anterior portal vein or preduodenal portal vein, compressing the duodenum. There were no associated findings such as midgut malrotation, duodenal web and congenital anomalies. The treatment was a diamond-shaped duodeno-duodenostomy anterior to the portal vein. The patient improved after surgery.

  17. Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

  18. Ectopic Opening of the Common Bile Duct into the Duodenal Bulb Accompanied with Cholangitis and Gallbladder Cancer: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Hong Jun; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae

    2015-05-01

    An ectopic opening of the common bile duct (CBD) into the duodenal bulb is a very rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system, which may cause recurrent duodenal ulcer or biliary diseases such as choledocholithiasis and cholangitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) plays a major role in the diagnosis of this anomaly. We report two such cases: one in a 61-year-old man and the other in a 57-year-old man. In the first case, this anomaly caused acute cholangitis with multiple CBD stones, which were successfully treated by ERCP. In the second case, abdominal computed tomography showed pneumobilia, which was further evaluated using ERCP. Besides, this patient was diagnosed with an ectopic opening of the CBD associated with gallbladder cancer. We report these unusual cases and review the relevant medical literature.

  19. Duodenal injuries due to trauma: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    García Santos, Esther; Soto Sánchez, Ana; Verde, Juan M; Marini, Corrado P; Asensio, Juan A; Petrone, Patrizio

    2015-02-01

    Duodenal injuries constitute a challenge to the Trauma Surgeon, mainly due to their retroperitoneal location. When identified, they present associated with other abdominal injuries. Consequently, they have an increased morbidity and mortality. At best estimates, duodenal lesions occur in 4.3% of all patients with abdominal injuries, ranging from 3.7% to 5%, and because of their anatomical proximity to other organs, they are rarely an isolated injury. The aim of this paper is to present a concise description of the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management and treatment of complications of duodenal trauma, and an analysis of complications and mortality rates of duodenal injuries based on a 46-year review of the literature. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Pellagra revealing a congenital duodenal diaphragm in an adult.

    PubMed

    Khouloud, Bouslama; Haykel, Bedioui; Ahmed, Saidani; Houcine, Maghrebi; Yacine, Ben Safta; Farah, Jokho; Zoubeir, Ben Safta

    2013-12-01

    Pellagra is a nutritional disease caused by the deficiency of niacin. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by four "D's": diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and ultimately death. We describe a case of pellagra as the initial presentation of congenital duodenal diaphragm.

  1. Lemmel Syndrome Secondary to Duodenal Diverticulitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wermers, Joshua D; Beteselassie, Nebiyu

    2017-01-01

    Lemmel syndrome occurs when a duodenal diverticulum causes obstructive jaundice due to a mechanical obstruction of the common bile duct. Additional pathophysiologic processes may also contribute to the development of Lemmel syndrome. These include duodenal diverticula causing dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi as well as compression of the common bile duct by duodenal diverticula. It is uncommon for duodenal diverticulum to become inflamed. We report the case of a 25-year-old female presenting with unintentional weight loss and fatigue. Since her initial labs were concerning for possible infection with hepatobiliary abnormalities, a contrast-enhanced CT was obtained. This study revealed a large periampullary diverticulum with mucosal enhancement and fat stranding consistent with diverticulitis. PMID:28409067

  2. Duodenal Bulb Adenocarcinoma Benefitted from Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng-Yuan; Mao, Jie; Zhao, Bin; Long, Bo; Zhan, Hao; Zhang, Jun-Qiang; Zhou, Hui-Nian; Guo, Ling-Yun; Jiao, Zuo-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the alimentary tract which has a low incidence rate and nonspecific symptoms. It is difficult to diagnose early, and the misdiagnosis rate is high. CT, MRI, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and other advanced imaging modalities should be combined to make a comprehensive evaluation. The diagnostic confirmation of this tumor type mainly depends on the pathological examination. The combination of surgery with other treatment modalities is effective. A review of reports on duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with chemotherapy revealed 6 cases since 1990. However, there are few reports on neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the disease. In this report, preoperative S-1 in combination with oxaliplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy achieved a complete pathological response in the treatment of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows a better clinical efficacy in the treatment of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma, but its value needs to be further verified. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Duodenal adenoma surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Sulbaran, Marianny; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary disorder caused by Adenomatous Polyposis Gene mutations that lead to the development of colorectal polyps with great malignant risk throughout life. Moreover, numerous extracolonic manifestations incorporate different clinical features to produce varied individual phenotypes. Among them, the occurrence of duodenal adenomatous polyps is considered an almost inevitable event, and their incidence rates increase as a patient’s age advances. Although the majority of patients exhibit different grades of duodenal adenomatosis as they age, only a small proportion (1%-5%) of patients will ultimately develop duodenal carcinoma. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to review the data regarding the epidemiology, classification, genetic features, endoscopic features, carcinogenesis, surveillance and management of duodenal polyps in patients with FAP. PMID:26265988

  4. Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Prabha, P; Karpagam, Thirunethiran; Varalakshmi, B; Packiavathy, A Sohna Chandra

    2011-10-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum) were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Our findings from High - Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin) with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research.

  5. Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, P.; Karpagam, Thirunethiran; Varalakshmi, B.; Packiavathy, A. Sohna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. Material and Methods: The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum) were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Results: Our findings from High - Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin) with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research. PMID:22224045

  6. Peptic ulcer disease in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    El Mouzan, Mohammad Issa; Abdullah, Asaad Mohammad

    2004-12-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been reported to occur in children worldwide, but no information is available for our community. The aim of the study was to report our experience on the pattern of this condition in Saudi Arabian children. The records of all children below 18 years of age who were diagnosed by endoscopy to have PUD over a period of 10 years were analysed. From 1993 to 2002, 24 children out of 521(5 per cent) who presented with upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptoms were diagnosed by endoscopy to have PUD. All but one (96 per cent) were Saudi nationals, the average age was 15 years (range 5-18 years), and the male to female ratio was 7:1. The commonest presentation was chronic abdominal pain in 15/24 (63 per cent) of the children, followed by vomiting associated with abdominal pain in four (17 per cent). Hematemesis and melena occurred in three (13 per cent), and two children (8 per cent), respectively. There were 20 duodenal (92 per cent) and four gastric ulcers. The primary type was the most common, occurring in 19 (79 per cent) of the children. Histopathology results of antral biopsies were available for 15 children; all of them had antral gastritis. Helicobacter pylori organisms were present in 13/15 (87 per cent) of the antral biopsy specimens. In Saudi children, peptic ulcer disease occurs more commonly in boys. It is a rare cause of upper GIT symptoms, but highly associated with H. pylori antral gastritis. This study documents a pattern similar to descriptions from other countries.

  7. Preduodenal Portal Vein with Situs Inversus Totalis causing Duodenal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Flavia; Bendre, Pradnya

    2016-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction sometimes may be secondary to unusual entities like preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) the identification of which is very important to avoid inadvertent injury or incorrect surgery. A 6-day old neonate presented with congenital duodenal obstruction. Investigations revealed situs inversus totalis with many congenital cardiovascular anomalies. At operation preduodenal portal vein and malrotation were found. Correction of malrotation and bypass duodeno-duodenostomy were done. PMID:27398325

  8. Preduodenal portal vein: a cause of prenatally diagnosed duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Choi, S O; Park, W H

    1995-10-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare congenital anomaly that causes high intestinal obstruction. The authors report on a newborn who was diagnosed as having duodenal obstruction at 30 weeks' gestation. During surgery the patient was found to have duodenal obstruction caused by a preduodenal portal vein. Malrotation was an associated finding. Treatment consisted of Ladd's procedure and a diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy performed anterior to the portal vein.

  9. Preduodenal Portal Vein with Situs Inversus Totalis causing Duodenal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Flavia; Nage, Amol; Bendre, Pradnya

    2016-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction sometimes may be secondary to unusual entities like preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) the identification of which is very important to avoid inadvertent injury or incorrect surgery. A 6-day old neonate presented with congenital duodenal obstruction. Investigations revealed situs inversus totalis with many congenital cardiovascular anomalies. At operation preduodenal portal vein and malrotation were found. Correction of malrotation and bypass duodeno-duodenostomy were done.

  10. Combined Gastric and Duodenal Perforation Through Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Adarshpal; Singla, Archan Lal; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal traumas are uncommonly encountered despite their high prevalence, and injuries to the organ like duodenum are relatively uncommon (occurring in only 3%-5% of abdominal injuries) because of its retroperitoneal location. Duodenal injury combined with gastric perforation from a single abdominal trauma impact is rarely heard. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of blunt abdominal trauma with combined gastric and duodenal injuries. PMID:25738037

  11. Cyclophosphamide induced stomach and duodenal lesions as a NO-system disturbance in rats: L-NAME, L-arginine, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Luetic, Krešimir; Sucic, Mario; Vlainic, Josipa; Halle, Zeljka Belosic; Strinic, Dean; Vidovic, Tinka; Luetic, Franka; Marusic, Marinko; Gulic, Sasa; Pavelic, Tatjana Turudic; Kokot, Antonio; Seiwerth, Ranka Serventi; Drmic, Domagoj; Batelja, Lovorka; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-04-01

    We revealed a new point with cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 7 days): we counteracted both rat stomach and duodenal ulcers and increased NO- and MDA-levels in these tissues. As a NO-system effect, BPC 157 therapy (10 µg/kg, 10 ng/kg, intraperitoneally once a day or in drinking water, till the sacrifice) attenuated the increased NO- and MDA-levels and nullified, in rats, severe cyclophosphamide-ulcers and even stronger stomach and duodenal lesions after cyclophosphamide + L-NAME (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day). L-arginine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day not effective alone) led L-NAME-values only to the control values (cyclophosphamide + L-NAME + L-arginine-rats). Briefly, rats were sacrificed at 24 h after last administration on days 1, 2, 3, or 7, and assessment included sum of longest lesions diameters (mm) in the stomach and duodenum, oxidative stress by quantifying thiobarbituric acid reactivity as malondialdehyde equivalents (MDA), NO in stomach and duodenal tissue samples using the Griess reaction. All these parameters were highly exaggerated in rats who underwent cyclophosphamide treatment. We identified high MDA-tissue values, high NO-tissue values, ulcerogenic and beneficial potential in cyclophosphamide-L-NAME-L-arginine-BPC 157 relationships. This suggests that in cyclophosphamide damaged rats, NO excessive release generated by the inducible isozyme, damages the vascular wall and other tissue cells, especially in combination with reactive oxygen intermediates, while failing endothelial production and resulting in further aggravation by L-NAME which was inhibited by L-arginine. Finally, BPC 157, due to its special relations with NO-system, may both lessen increased MDA- and NO-tissues values and counteract effects of both cyclophosphamide and L-NAME on stomach and duodenal lesions.

  12. [Perforated duodenal diverticula. Case report and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Guardado-Bermúdez, Fernando; Ardisson-Zamora, Fernando Josafat; Rojas-González, Juan Daniel; Medina-Benítez, Alberto; Corona-Suárez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    the presence of duodenal diverticula was first described in 1710 by Chromel. Duodenal diverticulum is the second most common site of diverticula in the digestive tract. Anatomically duodenal diverticula are located in 10 to 67% in the second portion of duodenum, and its finding in most cases incidental. About 90% of patients appear asymptomatic, manifesting symptoms mostly once established complications such as: gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation. 78-years-old woman who attended our Emergency department with dyspnea, moderate epigastralgia, abdominal bloating, constipation and difficulty to pass gas; Laparotomy was performed to identify duodenal diverticulum in the third portion of the duodenum with a perforation of 5 mm in its cupula. It proceeds with diverticulectomy. The diagnosis of duodenal diverticulum as a cause of acute abdomen must be considered in our differential diagnosis in acute abdomen supported by imaging and endoscopy. The surgical management of duodenal diverticulum, in particular the resection of the diverticulum, remains as the recommendation for treatment with less morbidity and a good recovery.

  13. Early, Isolated Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting without Symptoms or Grossly Apparent Endoscopic Lesions and Diagnosed by Random Duodenal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Makki, Issa; Khanal, Pradeep; Amin, Mitual B.; Blenc, Ann Marie; Desai, Tusar; Cappell, Mitchell S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data regarding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) solely involving the duodenum are sparse because of the relative rarity of the disease. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 17 cases reported until 2004, and only a moderate number of cases have been reported since. MALToma can be asymptomatic in its very early stages but frequently produces localized or nonspecific symptoms, including early satiety, abdominal pain, vomiting, and involuntary weight loss in later stages. While gastric MALToma is strongly associated with gastric Helicobactor pylori infection, duodenal MALToma is often unassociated with H. pylori infection. A 74-year-old female presented with only dysphagia (without symptoms referable to a duodenal lesion), without systemic ‘B’ symptoms, and with no evident duodenal lesions at esophagogastroduodenoscopy; however, she was diagnosed with duodenal MALToma by pathologic examination of random duodenal biopsies performed to exclude celiac disease. An important clinical feature of this case is that duodenal MALToma was diagnosed by pathologic analysis of duodenal biopsies despite (1) no endoscopically apparent duodenal lesions; (2) duodenal involvement without gastric involvement; (3) lack of symptoms attributable to duodenal MALToma, and (4) absence of evident H. pylori infection. This work shows that early duodenal MALToma can be difficult to diagnose because of absent symptoms, absence of gastric involvement, absence of endoscopic abnormalities, and absence of H. pylori infection; it may require random duodenal biopsies for diagnosis. PMID:27482191

  14. Both Preoperative pANCA and Anti-CBir1 Expression in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Influence Pouchitis Development after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleshner, Phillip; Ippoliti, Andrew; Dubinsky, Marla; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Mei, Ling; Papadakis, Konstantinos A.; Rotter, Jerome; Landers, Carol; Targan, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Acute pouchitis (AP) and chronic pouchitis (CP) are common after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to assess associations of preoperative pANCA (perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody) and anti-CBir1 flagellin on AP or CP development. METHODS Patients were prospectively assessed for clinically and endoscopically proven AP (antibiotic responsive) or CP (antibiotic dependent or refractory to antibiotic therapy). Sera from 238 patients were analyzed for ANCA and anti-CBir1 using ELISA. pANCA+ patients were substratified into high-level (>100 EU/ml) and low-level (<100 EU/ml) groups. RESULTS After a median followup of 47 months, 72 patients (30%) developed pouchitis. Pouchitis developed in 36% of pANCA+ patients vs. 16% of pANCA- patients (p=0.005), 46% of anti-CBir1+ patients vs. 26% of anti-CBir1- patients (p=0.02), and 54% of 35 pANCA+/anti-CBir1+ patients vs. 31% of 136 pANCA+/anti-CBir1- patients (p=0.02). AP developed in 37 pANCA+ patients (22%) vs. 6 pANCA- patients (9%) (p=0.02), and 12 anti-CBir1+ patients (26%) vs. 31 anti-CBir1- patients (16%) (p=0.1). Although AP was not influenced by pANCA level, AP was seen in 38% of low-level pANCA+/anti-CBir1+ patients vs. 18% low-level pANCA+/anti-CBir1- patients (p=0.03). CP was seen in 29% of high-level pANCA+ patients vs.11% of low-level pANCA+ patients (p=0.03). CONCLUSION Both pANCA and anti-CBir1 expression are associated with pouchitis after IPAA. Anti-CBir1 increases the incidence of AP only in patients who have low-level pANCA expression, and increases the incidence of CP only in patients who have high-level pANCA expression. Diverse patterns of reactivity to microbial antigens may manifest as different forms of pouchitis after IPAA. PMID:18378498

  15. Acute Appendicitis Is Associated with Peptic Ulcers: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Kao, Li-Ting; Lin, Herng-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Despite some studies having indicated a possible association between appendicitis and duodenal ulcers, this association was mainly based on regional samples or limited clinician experiences, and as such, did not permit unequivocal conclusions. In this case-control study, we examined the association of acute appendicitis with peptic ulcers using a population-based database. We included 3574 patients with acute appendicitis as cases and 3574 sex- and age-matched controls. A Chi-squared test showed that there was a significant difference in the prevalences of prior peptic ulcers between cases and controls (21.7% vs. 16.8%, p < 0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of prior peptic ulcers for cases was 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24~1.54, p < 0.001) compared to controls. The results further revealed that younger groups demonstrated higher ORs for prior peptic ulcers among cases than controls. In particular, the adjusted OR for cases < 30 years old was as high as 1.65 (95% CI = 1.25~2.19; p < 0.001) compared to controls. However, we failed to observe an association of acute appendicitis with peptic ulcers in the ≥ 60-year age group (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.93~1.52). We concluded that there is an association between acute appendicitis and a previous diagnosis of peptic ulcers. PMID:26643405

  16. Selective coating of gastric ulcer by tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Koo, J; Ho, J; Lam, S K; Wong, J; Ong, G B

    1982-05-01

    Controlled clinical trials have shown that tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate healed duodenal and gastric ulcers significantly better than placebo. One mechanism suggested is that it forms a protective coat at the ulcer base. We studied this coating action in rats with chronic gastric ulcers produced by a standardized technique for mucosal wounding at the fundoantral junction. Bismuth was identified by histochemical staining using Castel's reagent, the specificity of which was verified in vitro against 13 other metallic compounds and chemicals. Our results showed that tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate had a coating affinity for the ulcer base, but not for the adjacent normal mucosa. All rats treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate 1, 2, 4, and 6 h previously, but not the control rats treated with water or those treated with four other bismuth compounds, manifested a layer of bismuth that coated the ulcer base. Light and electron microscopy of the tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate-treated ulcers--but not their controls-revealed an abundance of macrophages, which had ingested the bismuth. This unique bismuth coat may insulate the ulcer base from acid-pepsin digestion, while the influx of macrophages may expedite reparative processes.

  17. [Abomasal ulcers in cattle].

    PubMed

    Hund, Alexandra; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-03-29

    Abomasal ulcers lead to several problems. They cause pain resulting in a decrease in productivity and even the possible loss of the animal. Because they are frequently difficult to diagnose, information on their prevalence is variable. Additionally, therapeutic options are limited. Abomasal ulcers are graded as type 1 through 4, type 1 being a superficial defect and type 2 an ulcer where a large blood vessel has been eroded, leading to substantial blood loss. Types 3 and 4 are perforated abomasal ulcers leading to local and diffuse peritonitis, respectively. Causes of abomasal ulcers are multifactorial, for example, mistakes in feeding that lead to gastrointestinal disturbances or other diseases that induce stress. Ulcers can also result from side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In principal, the pathophysiological cause is the disturbance of the balance between protective and aggressive mechanisms at the abomasal mucosa due to stress. Clinical symptoms vary and are mostly non-specific. Fecal occult blood tests, hematology and blood chemistry as well as ultrasonographic examination and abdominocentesis can help to establish the diagnosis. Ulcers can be treated symptomatically, surgically and medically. To prevent abomasal ulcers, animals should be kept healthy by providing adequate nutrition and housing as well as early and effective medical care. Stressful management practices, including transport and commingling, should be avoided.

  18. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  19. [Ulcers of lower limb veins: venous ulcers].

    PubMed

    López Herranz, Marta; Bas Caro, Pedro; Moraleja Millán, Tania; Mateos García, Marina; García Jábega, Rosa Ma; López Corral, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The lower extremity vascular ulcers currently represent a major public health problem, particularly because of different situations: the chronic nature of the injury, a poor response to treatment, recurrence rates, high absenteeism, poor training in some cases of the health staff that treats, etc. Lower extremity ulcers mean a serious personal, family, health and social problem, with a significant expenditure of human and material resources. Since the prevalence and incidence of lower extremity vascular ulcers is high worldwide, it is necessary to go into detail about the knowledge of the epidemiology and to favour, in different countries, the creation of interdisciplinary research groups that addresses issues related to risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment, health care costs, quality of life and, above all, specialized training aimed at health professionals.

  20. Inferoposterior duodenal approach for laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Wei-Dong; Hu, Ming-Hua; Wang, Gua-Nan; Jiang, Ya-Qi; Fang, Xiao-San; Han, Meng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the advantages of inferoposterior duodenal approach (IPDA) for laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD). METHODS: A total of 36 patients subjected to LPD were admitted to the Affiliated Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College from December 2009 to February 2015. These patients were diagnosed with an ampullary tumour or a pancreatic head tumour through computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography preoperatively. The cases were selected on the basis of the following criteria: tumour diameter < 4 cm; no signs of peripheral vascular invasion; evident lymph node swelling; and distant metastasis. Of the 36 cases, 20 were subjected to anterior approach (AA; AA group) and 16 were subjected to IPDA (IPDA group). Specimen removal time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications in the two groups were observed, and their differences were compared. RESULTS: During the operation, 2 cases in the AA group and 2 cases in the IPDA group were converted to laparotomy; these cases were excluded from statistical analysis. The remaining 32 cases successfully completed the surgery. The AA group and IPDA group exhibited the specimen removal time of 205 ± 52 and 160 ± 35 min, respectively, and the difference was significant (P < 0.01). The AA group and IPDA group revealed the intraoperative blood loss of 360 ± 210 mL and 310 ± 180 mL, respectively, but these values were not significantly different. Postoperative pathological results revealed 4 cases of inferior common bile duct cancer, 8 cases of duodenal papillary cancer, 6 cases of ampullary cancer, 13 cases of pancreatic cancer, 3 cases of chronic pancreatitis accompanied with cyst formation or duct expansion, and 2 cases of mucinous cystic tumour in the pancreatic head. The postoperative complications were pulmonary Staphylococcus aureus infection, incision faulty union, ascites induced poor drainage accompanied with infection, bile

  1. Duodenal obstruction caused by duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus in dairy cattle: 29 cases (2006-2010).

    PubMed

    Vogel, Susan R; Nichols, Sylvain; Buczinski, Sébastien; Desrochers, André; Babkine, Marie; Veillette, Manon; Francoz, David; Doré, Elizabeth; Fecteau, Gilles; Bélanger, Anne-Marie; Badillo, Mauricio

    2012-09-01

    To characterize duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus (DSFV) and determine the prognosis for affected cattle undergoing surgery. Retrospective case series. 29 dairy cattle. The medical records were analyzed for history, signalment, clinical signs, medical management, surgical findings, and outcome. 29 cattle were determined to have DSFV between December 2006 and August 2010. Twenty cattle had had an omentopexy or pyloropexy performed 1 day to 2 years before initial evaluation. Cattle were afebrile, tachycardic, and moderately dehydrated, with a small zone of percussion with a ping at the 10th to 12th right intercostal spaces and associated succussion. Biochemical changes were a severe hypokalemic (mean ± SD, 2.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L; median, 3.1 mmol/L; range, 2.08 to 3.92 mmol/L), hypochloremic (mean, 69.7 ± 11.1 mmol/L; median, 71.7 mmol/L; range, 49.1 to 94.1 mmol/L) metabolic alkalosis (mean total CO(2), 44.5 ± 7.4 mmol/L; median, 45.3 mmol/L; range, 31.5 to 59.6 mmol/L) and hyperbilirubinemia (mean, 32.4 ± 29.0 μmol/L; median, 20.5 μmol/L; range, 7.8 to 107 μmol/L). Surgical findings for DSFV included an empty descending duodenum adjacent to a dorsally displaced and dilated cranial segment of the duodenum, distended abomasum and gallbladder, and a tight volvulus at the base of the duodenal sigmoid flexure. Manual reduction was considered successful if the descending duodenum filled after cranial duodenal massage. Twenty-two patients were successfully treated; the remaining 7 died or were euthanized within 4 days after surgery. A condition clinically resembling abomasal volvulus but affecting the duodenal sigmoid flexure has been recognized in dairy cattle. When a focal, dorsal right-sided ping and succussion are present combined with severe hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and high bilirubin concentration, DSFV should be suspected, especially when there is a history of prior abomasal fixation. After surgical correction, the prognosis is fair to good.

  2. The Effect of Parietal Cell and Truncal Vagotomy on Gastric and Duodenal Contractile Activity of the Unanesthetized Dog

    PubMed Central

    Walker, G. Daly; Stewart, John J.; Bass, Paul

    1974-01-01

    The antral-duodenal contractile relationship was studied in control, after parietal cell vagotomy and truncal vagotomy conditions using extraluminal strain gage transducers. All conditions were investigated under interdigestive and digestive states and after insulin, bethanechol and histamine. After parietal cell vagotomy, there was minimal alteration of the antral-duodenal relationship in both the interdigestive and digestive states. The number and amplitude of contractions on both the antrum and duodenum (as reflected by a motility index) were not changed from control by the various stimulants. The one exception was that histamine markedly stimulated the duodenal contractile activity. In the truncal vagotomy condition, there was a total disruption of the antral-duodenal relationship in the interdigestive and digestive states. There was a significant decrease in the number and amplitude of contractions occurring on the antrum during the interdigestive and after insulin stimulation. Food was ineffective in stimulating the antrum in 2 of 3 dogs. In contrast, motor activity of the duodenum was minimally influenced by truncal vagotomy. In conclusion, parietal cell vagotomy has minimal disruptive effects on the antralduodenal relationship while truncal vagotomy reduces antral contractile activity. PMID:4835504

  3. Peptic ulcer disease today.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuhong; Padol, Ireneusz T; Hunt, Richard H

    2006-02-01

    Over the past few decades, since the introduction of histamine H(2)-receptor antagonists, proton-pump inhibitors, cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective anti-inflammatory drugs (coxibs), and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, the incidence of peptic ulcer disease and ulcer complications has decreased. There has, however, been an increase in ulcer bleeding, especially in elderly patients. At present, there are several management issues that need to be solved: how to manage H. pylori infection when eradication failure rates are high; how best to prevent ulcers developing and recurring in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and aspirin users; and how to treat non-NSAID, non-H. pylori-associated peptic ulcers. Looking for H. pylori infection, the overt or surreptitious use of NSAIDs and/or aspirin, and the possibility of an acid hypersecretory state are important diagnostic considerations that determine the therapeutic approach. Combined treatment with antisecretory therapy and antibiotics for 1-2 weeks is the first-line choice for H. pylori eradication therapy. For patients at risk of developing an ulcer or ulcer complications, it is important to choose carefully which anti-inflammatory drugs, nonselective NSAIDs or coxibs to use, based on a risk assessment of the patient, especially if the high-risk patient also requires aspirin. Testing for and eradicating H. pylori infection in patients is recommended before starting NSAID therapy, and for those currently taking NSAIDs, when there is a history of ulcers or ulcer complications. Understanding the pathophysiology and best treatment strategies for non-NSAID, non-H. pylori-associated peptic ulcers presents a challenge.

  4. Calmodulin independence of human duodenal adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J A; Griffin, M; Mireylees, S E; Long, R G

    1991-01-01

    The calmodulin and calcium dependence of human adenylate cyclase from the second part of the duodenum was assessed in washed particulate preparations of biopsy specimens by investigating (a) the concentration dependent effects of free [Ca2+] on enzyme activity, (b) the effects of exogenous calmodulin on enzyme activity in ethylene glycol bis (b-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) washed particulate preparations, and (c) the effects of calmodulin antagonists on enzyme activity. Both basal (IC50 = 193.75 (57.5) nmol/l (mean (SEM)) and NaF stimulated (IC50 = 188.0 (44.0) nmol/l) adenylate cyclase activity was strongly inhibited by free [Ca2+] greater than 90 nmol/l. Free [Ca2+] less than 90 nmol/l had no effect on adenylate cyclase activity. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by 50% at 2.5 mmol/l EGTA. This inhibition could not be reversed by free Ca2+. The addition of exogenous calmodulin to EGTA (5 mmol/l) washed particulate preparations failed to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity. Trifluoperazine and N-(8-aminohexyl)-5-IODO-1-naphthalene-sulphonamide (IODO 8) did not significantly inhibit basal and NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity when measured at concentrations of up to 100 mumol/l. These results suggest that human duodenal adenylate cyclase activity is calmodulin independent but is affected by changes in free [Ca2+]. PMID:1752461

  5. The terminal web of the duodenal enterocyte.

    PubMed

    Leeson, T S

    1982-06-01

    The terminal web-brush border complex of rodent duodenal enterocytes has been studied by electron microscopy to investigate its structure in relation to currently accepted models of motility in this region. The main adherens zone is composed chiefly of a fine feltwork of 5 to 7 nm filaments, some of which originate in zonulae adherentes. In some cells, this is not a complete layer or sheet. Passing into it from its deep aspect are 10 nm tonofilaments, which also form the basal zone. The filament density in the basal zone is less than that of the adherens zone, and many of the tonofilaments are associated with spot desmosomes. The apical zone contains a loose meshwork of 5 to 7 nm filaments with more filaments lying adjacent to plasmalemmae of the zonula occludens. The core of each microvillus contains a bundle of 17 to 48 microfilaments, 5-7 nm in diameter, apparently attached to the apical plasmalemma and with some slender cross filaments between core filaments and the plasmalemma. In the main, these core bundles of microfilaments pass deeply into and often through the adherens zone of the terminal web where they terminate abruptly. Filaments of the terminal web appear to interconnect microfilaments of adjacent core bundles but without positive evidence of 'splaying' of microfilaments of a core bundle within the adherens zone. These findings are discussed in relation to movement of microvilli.

  6. Duodenal perforation caused by a bird feather.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Anil

    2013-02-15

    Ingestion of gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies represents a challenging clinical scenario. The greater risk is at extremes of age, in those wearing dentures, alcoholics and mentally handicapped. We present a case of duodenal perforation caused by a bird feather. A 64-year-old man was presented with abdominal pain for 4 days. Abdominal examination showed signs of peritonitis. The erect abdominal x-ray showed free gas under diaphragm. Exploratory laparotomy showed purulent fluid, but no definite site of perforation could be found. So the abdomen was closed with a drain in Morison's pouch. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. He came for a repeat check-up at 4 weeks with dull aching pain in the upper abdomen and was advised for a routine upper GI endoscopy which revealed a feather penetrating the first part of the duodenum, which was removed with a foreign body removing forceps. GI foreign bodies represent a significant problem and an increased level of suspicion is important for timely diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Biliary Stent Migration with Duodenal Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Yaprak, Muhittin; Mesci, Ayhan; Colak, Taner; Yildirim, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal perforation from a migrated biliary stent is a known complication of endoscopic biliary stent placement. We present a case of stent migration and resultant duodenal perforation after stent placement for a malignant biliary stricture in a 52-year-old woman. We review the current literature on the diagnosis and management of stent migration and intestinal perforation after endoscopic stent placement for biliary strictures. A plain abdominal radiograph is necessary for early diagnosis of biliary stent migration. If a stent becomes lodged in the gastrointestinal tract, endoscopic or operative extraction of the stent is necessary to prevent subsequent intestinal perforation and peritonitis. Intestinal perforation secondary to biliary stent dislocation should be considered in all patients presenting with fever and abdominal pain after biliary stent insertion. Any abnormality that prevents stent migration through the intestinal tract such as gastroenterostomy, abdominal wall hernia, extensive adhesions or colonic divertucula may be a contraindication for insertion of a plastic biliary stent because of increased perforation risk. PMID:25610053

  8. [Effectiveness of ulcer treatment with electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency (EHF therapy) and some mechanism of its therapeutic action].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Teliaper, I I

    2002-01-01

    A clinical response to and some mechanisms of therapeutic action of extremely high frequency (EHF) therapy were studied in 132 patients with exacerbation of duodenal ulcer vs routine pharmacological treatment. EHF-therapy was used alone and in combination with famotidin (antisecretory drug) and norfloxacine (antibacterial drug). EHF monotherapy proved highly effective in duodenal ulcer exacerbation. It normalizes secretory and motor functions of the stomach, suppresses initially high activity of free radical lipid oxidation, corrects abnormal vegetative and psychoemotional status of the patients, moderately potentiates the antihelicobacter effect of antibacterial drugs. These effects are produced due to specific action of EHF therapy: mobilisation of sanogenesis mechanisms, correction of mechanisms of adaptive regulation and self regulation at different levels. Additional administration of antisecretory and antibacterial drugs improved immediate but deteriorates long-term response to EHF-therapy.

  9. [Frequency, diagnosis and dependance of duodenitis upon the morphological status of the gastric mucosa (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, T; Wagner, P K

    1978-08-01

    In a attempt to prove the dependence of duodenitis upon the morphological status of the gastric mucosa, a biopsy of the corpus, antrum, and duodenal canal had been made of 354 patients. In 56 cases, a superficial duodenitis was histologically verified; however, this infection had not contaminated the Brunner' glands. A duodenitis was found to be more often associated with surface gastritis of the corpus and antrum than it was with atropic gastritis. A duodenitis was discovered by a biopsy in 16 patients possessing a normal antrum mucosa and in 25 patients having a normal corpus mucosa, thus proving the possibility of isolated duodenitis.

  10. Arterial supply to the bleeding diverticulum in the ascending duodenum treated by transcatheter arterial embolization- a duodenal artery branched from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Hiroki H; Kawai, Nobuyuki N; Sato, Morio M; Tanaka, Fumihiro F; Nakata, Kouhei K; Minamiguchi, Hiroki H; Nakai, Motoki M; Sonomura, Tetsuo T

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of endoscopically unmanageable hemorrhagic diverticulum in the ascending duodenum. The ventral and dorsal walls of the ascending duodenum were supplied from the first jejunal artery (1JA) and inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA), respectively. The hemorrhage mainly occurred from IPDA. The abruptly branching of IPDA from superior mesenteric artery enabled successful catheterization of the IPDA with an angled microcatheter. Hemostasis was obtained by embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Gastroendoscopy depicted a duodenal hemi-circumferential ulcer. No symptoms related to hemorrhage were found at the last follow-up at 12 months.

  11. Peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Malfertheiner, Peter; Chan, Francis K L; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2009-10-24

    Peptic ulcer disease had a tremendous effect on morbidity and mortality until the last decades of the 20th century, when epidemiological trends started to point to an impressive fall in its incidence. Two important developments are associated with the decrease in rates of peptic ulcer disease: the discovery of effective and potent acid suppressants, and of Helicobacter pylori. With the discovery of H pylori infection, the causes, pathogenesis, and treatment of peptic ulcer disease have been rewritten. We focus on this revolution of understanding and management of peptic ulcer disease over the past 25 years. Despite substantial advances, this disease remains an important clinical problem, largely because of the increasingly widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and low-dose aspirin. We discuss the role of these agents in the causes of ulcer disease and therapeutic and preventive strategies for drug-induced ulcers. The rare but increasingly problematic H pylori-negative NSAID-negative ulcer is also examined.

  12. Connective Tissue Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren’s syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers. PMID:23756459

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE GASTRO-JEJUNO-DUODENAL TRANSIT AFTER JEJUNAL POUCH INTERPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Alcino Lázaro; GOMES, Célio Geraldo de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background : The jejunal pouch interposition between the gastric body and the duodenum after the gastrectomy, although not frequent in the surgical practice today, has been successfully employed for the prevention and treatment of the postgastrectomy syndromes. In the latter, it is included the dumping syndrome, which affects 13-58% of the patients who undergo gastrectomy. Aim : Retrospective assessment of the results of this procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome. Methods : Fourty patients were selected and treatetd surgically for peptic ulcer, between 1965 and 1970. Of these, 29 underwent vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunalduodenostomy at the lesser curvature level, and the 11 remaining were submitted to vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunal-duodenostomy at the greater curvature level. The gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit was assessed in the immediate or late postoperative with the contrasted study of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The clinical evolution was assessed according to the Visick grade. Results : Of the 40 patients, 28 were followed with the contrast evaluation in the late postoperative. Among those who were followed until the first month (n=22), 20 (90%) had slow gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit and in two (10%) the transit was normal. Among those who were followed after the first month (n=16), three (19%) and 13 (81%) had slow and normal gastric emptying, respectively. None had the contrasted exam compatible with the dumping syndrome. Among the 40 patients, 22 underwent postoperative clinical evaluation. Of these, 19 (86,5%) had excellent and good results (Visick 1 and 2, respectively). Conclusions : The jejunal pouch interposition showed to be a very effective surgical procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome in gastrectomized patients. PMID:26734789

  14. An endoscopic laser Doppler flowmetry of a gastroduodenal mucosa at bleeding ulcer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapkin, U. G.; Kapralov, C. V.; Gogolev, A. A.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    One of the important problems of a bleeding gastroduodenal ulcer surgery is a prognosis of the recurrent hemorrhage and appraisal of endoscopic hemostasis quality. Endoscopic Laser Doppler Flowmetry of a mucous coat of stomach and a duodenum was made on 34 patients for the purpose of investigation of features of microcirculation. Analogous researches are made on 30 patients with a peptic ulcer and on 28 practically healthy people. Analysis of LDF-grams has shown certain differences in regional microcirculations in stomach and duodenal at normal and at a pathology. Increase of regional perfusion in periulcerose zone with its pathology disbalance can serve as a criterion for activities of an alteration processes in gastroduodenal ulcer defining the risk of possible hemorrhage.

  15. [Mannheim peritonitis index as a surgical criterion for perforative duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Krylov, N N; Babkin, O V; Babkin, D O

    Цель - установить корреляцию величины Мангеймского индекса перитонита (МИП) в баллах и результатов различных вариантов радикального и паллиативного оперативного вмешательства при перфоративной язве двенадцатиперстной кишки. Материал и методы. Представлен опыт лечения 386 больных с перфоративной язвой двенадцатиперстной кишки. Проанализированы непосредственные результаты различных операций: резекции желудка, различных вариантов ваготомии с дренирующими операциями и без них, ушивания перфоративной язвы и иссечения краев перфоративной язвы с ушиванием в группах пациентов, имевших МИП менее 21 балла, 21-29 баллов и более 29 баллов. При анализе послеоперационных осложнений после радикальных операций использовали классификацию Clavien-Dindo. Результаты. Летальный исход при перфоративных язвах в 64,3% наблюдений обусловлен в основном перитонитом и связанными с ним осложнениями, в 35,7% наблюдений - особенностями оперативного вмешательства. При выполнении радикальных операций тяжелые осложнения, требующие повторных оперативных вмешательств, чаще всего отмечали после резекции желудка. Выводы. Для выбора метода лечения больного с перфоративной язвой двенадцатиперстной кишки необходимо рассчитывать МИП, использование которого является высокочувствительным методом и позволяет прогнозировать исход заболевания. При МИП менее 21 балла обосновано выполнение радикальных оперативных вмешательств, в остальных случаях целесообразно производить паллиативные - ушивание язвы или иссечение язвы с ушиванием. Если радикальные операции выполняют по строгим показаниям (МИП менее 21 балла), их объем и характер не оказывают существенного влияния на частоту летальных исходов.

  16. [Combination of endoscopic methods in diagnostics and surgical treatment of perforative duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, M E; Shapoval'yants, S G; Mikhalev, A I; Fedorov, E D; Konyukhov, G V

    2016-01-01

    Представлен анализ оперативного лечения 279 пациентов с перфоративной язвой луковицы двенадцатиперстной кишки за период с 1996 по 2012 г. Диагностика и лечебная тактика базировались на разработанном в клинике лечебно-диагностическом алгоритме, основу которого составляли два взаимодополняющих эндоскопических метода (эзофагогастродуоденоскопия и лапароскопия), позволившие в 100% наблюдений поставить правильный диагноз, определить лечебную тактику и индивидуализировать выбор метода и объем оперативного лечения. У 67 пациентов были выявлены противопоказания к лапароскопическому ушиванию, им выполнены традиционные операции, при этом послеоперационные осложнения имели место у 25 (37,3%), летальный исход — у 9 (13,4%). Лапароскопическое ушивание было произведено 212 пациентам, осложнения отмечены у 19 (8,9%) пациентов, в том числе интраоперационные у 8 (3,7%), послеоперационные у 11 (5,2%), летальных исходов не было.

  17. Classification of pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Yarkony, G M; Kirk, P M; Carlson, C; Roth, E J; Lovell, L; Heinemann, A; King, R; Lee, M Y; Betts, H B

    1990-09-01

    Several systems exist for classifying pressure ulcers, though none of them have been evaluated for interrater reliability. A new grading scale was compared with the commonly used Shea classification. This new scale was developed to provide a more complete description of pressure ulcer healing. The advantages of this scale include a classification of red areas as ulcers to help prevent further deterioration and classification of healed sores to note potential problems. The Yarkony-Kirk scale classifies a red area as a grade 1 ulcer, and involvement of the epidermis and dermis with no subcutaneous fat observed as a grade 2 ulcer. Grade 3 indicates exposed subcutaneous fat with no muscle observed. Exposed muscle without bone involvement is classified as a grade 4 ulcer, and grade 5 describes exposed bone with no joint space involvement. Grade 6 indicates joint space involvement. There is a classification of pressure sore healed to indicate a healed pressure ulcer. Interrater reliability was assessed by two nurses. In spite of an increased number of categories for the Yarkony-Kirk scale, there was no decline in reliability. Reliability was excellent with an interrater correlation of 0.90 for the Yarkony-Kirk scale and 0.86 for the Shea classification when measured for 72 patients. Eighty-five percent of the ratings for the Yarkony-Kirk scale were identical, whereas only 68% were identical for the Shea classification. Three percent of the ratings for the Shea classification were greater than +/- 1 category; 6% of the ratings for the Yarkony-Kirk scale were greater than +/- 1 category. This scale appears to possess good reliability and to describe pressure ulcers more completely. This scale may also be used to teach prevention activities as well as ulcer classification.

  18. [The prevention of stress-related postoperative and drug-induced erosive-ulcerative lesions of the upper digestive tract].

    PubMed

    Degtiareva, I I; Khatib, Z; Lodianaia, E V; Kharchenko, N V; Buchnev, V I; Nevstruev, V P; Piletskiĭ, A M; Chervak, I I

    1995-01-01

    Based on the studies made in 84 patients with calculous cholecystitis and 12 patients with calcifying pancreatitis, an efficiency was shown of infusional administration of pyrencepine or ranitidine to prevent stress postoperative erosive-and-ulcerous lesions of gastroduodenal zone. Gastrocepine is shown to be superior to ranitidine and can be withdrawn without a maintenance dose, as well as becouse its cytoprotective effects with respect of the gastric and duodenal mucosa.

  19. Corneal ulcers in horses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lynn B; Pinard, Chantale L

    2013-01-01

    Corneal ulceration is commonly diagnosed by equine veterinarians. A complete ophthalmic examination as well as fluorescein staining, corneal cytology, and corneal bacterial (aerobic) and fungal culture and sensitivity testing are necessary for all infected corneal ulcers. Appropriate topical antibiotics, topical atropine, and systemic NSAIDs are indicated for all corneal ulcers. If keratomalacia (melting) is observed, anticollagenase/antiprotease therapy, such as autologous serum, is indicated. If fungal infection is suspected, antifungal therapy is a necessity. Subpalpebral lavage systems allow convenient, frequent, and potentially long-term therapy. Referral corneal surgeries provide additional therapeutic options when the globe's integrity is threatened or when improvement has not been detected after appropriate therapy.

  20. Hemoglobinopathies and Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients.

  1. Effects of duodenal redox status on calcium absorption and related genes expression in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Cui, Jue; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin; Wang, Zhou-Ping; Le, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether duodenal redox imbalance induced by high-fat diet (HFD) influenced expression of genes involved in transcellular calcium absorption, thus leading to reduced intestinal calcium absorption. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups with eight mice in each group. The control group consumed an ordinary diet (4.9% fat, w/w). The other three groups were fed a HFD (21.2% fat), the HFD plus 0.1% lipoic acid, or the HFD plus an additional 0.9% calcium supplement. After 9 wk, plasma and duodenal oxidative stress biomarkers including malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and reactive oxygen species were examined. The intestinal calcium absorption state was evaluated through examining the calcium balance, bone mineral density, and calcium metabolism biomarkers. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out to analyze the changes in expression of transcellular calcium absorption-related genes. The HFD induced marked decreases in intestinal calcium absorption and bone mineral density of the whole body, accompanied by redox imbalance and increased oxidative damage in duodenum; duodenal expression of calbindin-D(9K), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA(1b)), and sodium-calcium exchanger was significantly down-regulated by 1.9-, 2.7-, and 1.5-fold, respectively. Furthermore, duodenal glutathione and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratios were strongly positively correlated with the apparent calcium absorption rate and the expression of PMCA(1b) and Calbindin-D(9K), whereas reactive oxygen species levels were negatively correlated with them. Our results demonstrated that a HFD-induced duodenal oxidation state could significantly down-regulate expression of calbindin-D(9K), PMCA(1b), and sodium-calcium exchanger, thus causing an inhibitory effect on intestinal calcium absorption. Copyright © 2010

  2. UNUSUAL CAUSES OF CUTANEOUS ULCERATION

    PubMed Central

    Panuncialman, Jaymie; Falanga, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Skin ulceration is a major source of morbidity and is often difficult to manage. Ulcers due to an inflammatory etiology or microvascular occlusion are particularly challenging in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The management of such ulcers requires careful assessment of associated systemic conditions and a thorough analysis of the ulcer's clinical and histologic findings. In this report, we discuss several examples of inflammatory ulcers and the approach to their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21074034

  3. CagA antibodies in Japanese children with nodular gastritis or peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Sugiyama, T; Kudo, M; Ohnuma, K; Ozawa, K; Iinuma, K; Asaka, M; Blaser, M J

    2000-01-01

    cagA(+) Helicobacter pylori strains have been linked to more severe gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer in adults, but there have been few studies of cagA in children. We examined the relationship between H. pylori cagA status and clinical status in Japanese children. Forty H. pylori-positive children were studied: 15 with nodular gastritis, 5 with gastric ulcers, and 20 with duodenal ulcers. H. pylori status was confirmed by biopsy-based tests and serum anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. As controls, 77 asymptomatic children with sera positive for anti-H. pylori IgG were enrolled. Levels of IgG antibodies to CagA in serum were measured by an antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In 16 patients with successful H. pylori eradication, posttreatment levels of CagA and H. pylori IgG antibodies also were studied. The CagA antibody seropositivities of asymptomatic controls (81.8%) and patients with nodular gastritis, gastric ulcers, and duodenal ulcers (80.0 to 95.0%) were not significantly different. Compared with pretreatment levels of CagA antibodies, posttreatment levels decreased progressively and significantly. We conclude that, as in Japanese adults, a high prevalence of cagA(+) H. pylori strains was found in Japanese children, and that there was no association with nodular gastritis or peptic ulcer disease. In the assessment of eradicative therapies, monitoring of serum anti-CagA antibodies does not appear to offer any direct benefit over monitoring of anti-H. pylori antibodies.

  4. Transluminal endoscopic electrosurgical incision of fenestrated duodenal membranes.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Penchyna-Grub, Jaime; Porras-Hernández, Juan D; Trujillo-Ponce, Adrián

    2008-06-01

    Duodenal fenestrated membranes are traditionally treated by side-to-side diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy, or duodenotomy and resection. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach for its resolution. A flexible panendoscopy reaching the duodenal membrane was performed. A balloon was inserted to dilate its orifice. Traction was applied to the balloon to differentiate the border of the membrane forming the duodenal wall. After visualizing the ampulla, the membrane was incised using a sphincterotome or needle knife on two sites opposite to the bile duct. From May 2001 to August 2007, ten patients with a fenestrated duodenal membrane underwent transluminal endoscopic electrosurgical incision (TEEI). Mean patient age was 3.4 years (range 1 month to 15 years). The endoscopic procedure lasted from 30 to 60 min. Oral intake began 24 h postsurgery in eight patients and at 48 h postsurgery in two patients. Hospital stay lasted for 2-5 days. After 1 year of follow-up, eight patients were asymptomatic and thriving at present, and one had a double membrane, required a second endoscopy with TEEI, and has experienced occasional vomiting. An additional asymptomatic patient was lost after 3 months of follow-up. TEEI of fenestrated duodenal membranes is a feasible and effective procedure in children.

  5. Percutaneous management of postoperative duodenal stump leakage with foley catheter.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  6. [Endoscopic diagnosis of local chemical burn of mucous membranes of the stomach, induced with the purpose of simulation of gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Byzov, N V; Plekhanov, V N

    2013-01-01

    With the purpose of improvement of diagnosis of induced gastric ulcer were examined 11 patients who took aggressive agents for simulation of gastric ulcer and 33 patients who took pseudo-aggressive agents. Observables, conduced diagnosis of local chemical burn of mucous coat of stomach during initial 6 days after taking aggressive agents. Stages of ulcerous process, resulting from local chemical burn of mucous coat of stomach, coressponds to real gactric ulcer. Gelatin capsule using as a container for delivery of aggressive agents, melts in stomach in 5-6 minutes after taking. Independent from body position, mucous coat of greater curvature of the stomach is damaged. It is impossible to simulate duodenal bulb ulcer using the gelatine capsule or ball made of breadcrumb. The last method of delivery of aggressive agent can damage the small intestine because of uncontrollability of the place of breaking the ball.

  7. Management of gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Mizuno, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Manabu; Terai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, like all NETs. However, the incidence of GI-NETS has been increasing in recent years. Gastric NETs (G-NETs) and duodenal NETs (D-NETs) are the common types of upper GI-NETs based on tumor location. G-NETs are classified into three distinct subgroups: type I, II, and III. Type I G-NETs, which are the most common subtype (70%-80% of all G-NETs), are associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, including autoimmune gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated atrophic gastritis. Type II G-NETs (5%-6%) are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1-ZES). Both type I and II G-NETs are related to hypergastrinemia, are small in size, occur in multiple numbers, and are generally benign. In contrast, type III G-NETs (10%-15%) are not associated with hypergastrinemia, are large-sized single tumors, and are usually malignant. Therefore, surgical resection and chemotherapy are generally necessary for type III G-NETs, while endoscopic resection and follow-up, which are acceptable for the treatment of most type I and II G-NETs, are only acceptable for small and well differentiated type III G-NETs. D-NETs include gastrinomas (50%-60%), somatostatin-producing tumors (15%), nonfunctional serotonin-containing tumors (20%), poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (< 3%), and gangliocytic paragangliomas (< 2%). Most D-NETs are located in the first or second part of the duodenum, with 20% occurring in the periampullary region. Therapy for D-NETs is based on tumor size, location, histological grade, stage, and tumor type. While endoscopic resection may be considered for small nonfunctional D-NETs (G1) located in the higher papilla region, surgical resection is necessary for most other D-NETs. However, there is no consensus regarding the ideal treatment of D-NETs. PMID:27570419

  8. Optimal management of chronic leg ulcers in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Goodfield, M

    1997-05-01

    Chronic leg ulceration is a very common clinical problem in the elderly. Good management depends entirely on making an accurate diagnosis, and planning treatment after considering all aspects of patient well-being. All elderly patients with leg ulcers benefit from an assessment of their vascular status, since the effects of gravity influence treatment and healing irrespective of the diagnosis. The most common causes of ulceration are venous and arterial disease. Diabetes mellitus, pressure, vasculitis, metabolic abnormalities and skin cancer are all unusual causes of leg ulceration, but must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Almost all patients with ulcerated legs benefit from the use of compression bandaging at a level appropriate to their vascular status. In patients with venous ulcers, this can be achieved with a number of bandaging techniques; however, multilayer bandaging appears to be the most cost-effective means available, particularly when combined with community-based leg ulcer clinics. The effects of oral drug therapy for venous and arterial disease have been disappointing. Local dressings are important in ulcers that are not suitable for compression therapy. The choice of dressing depends on the nature of the ulcer and the tolerability of the dressing for the patient.

  9. Homicide by decubitus ulcers.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Vincent J M; Di Maio, Theresa G

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, the only penalties for poor treatment of nursing home patients have been civil lawsuits against nursing homes and their employees by families, or fines and license suspension by government organizations. Recently, government agencies have become much more aggressive in citing institutions for the development of decubitus ulcers (pressure sores) in their patients. A few government institutions have concluded that in some cases, the development of ulcers with resultant death is so grievous that there should be criminal prosecution of the individuals and/or institutions providing care. A leader in this concept has been the State of Hawaii. In November 2000, the State of Hawaii convicted an individual of manslaughter in the death of a patient at an adult residential care home (a form of nursing home) for permitting the progression of decubitus ulcers without seeking medical help, and for not bringing the patient back to a physician for treatment of the ulcers.

  10. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lose weight or your diet becomes very limited. Stress You may feel worried about having a bowel ... DB. Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastroenterol . ...

  11. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  12. Duodenal Atresia Associated with Apple Peel Atresia and Situs Inversus Abdominus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ben Hamida, H.; Hadj Salem, R.; Ben Ameur, K.; Rassas, A.; Chioukh, FZ.; Sakka, R.; Kechiche, N.; Bizid, M.; Sahnoun, L.; Monastiri, K.

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal atresia is rarely associated with situs inversus abdominus. We report a case of duodenal atresia associated with small bowel atresia of apple peel type and situs inversus abdominus. PMID:27896168

  13. Isolated duodenal exclusion increases energy expenditure and improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Rodrigo; Carmody, Jill S.; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Davis, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in rodent models reduces food intake (FI), increases resting energy expenditure (EE), and improves glycemic control. We have shown that mimicking the duodenal component of RYGB by implantation of a 10-cm endoluminal sleeve device (ELS-10) induces weight loss and improves glycemic control in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. We sought to determine the mechanisms and structural requirements of these effects. We examined the effects of ELS-10 devices implanted in male DIO rats on body weight, food intake (FI), meal patterns, total and resting EE, and multiple parameters of glucose homeostasis, comparing them with sham-operated (SO) rats and with SO rats weight matched to the ELS-10-treated group. To determine the extent of duodenal exclusion required to influence metabolic outcomes, we compared the effects of implanting 10-, 4-, or 1-cm ELS devices. ELS-10 rats exhibited 13% higher total and 9% higher resting EE than SO controls. ELS-10 rats also exhibited enhanced postprandial GLP-1 secretion and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity out of proportion to the effects of weight loss alone. Implantation of 4- or 1-cm ELS devices had no effect on EE and limited effects on glucose homeostasis. Complete duodenal exclusion with ELS-10 induces weight loss by decreasing FI and increasing EE and improves glycemic control through weight loss-independent mechanisms. Thus signals originating in the proximal small intestine appear to exert a direct influence on the physiological regulation of EE and glucose homeostasis. Their selective manipulation could provide effective new therapies for obesity and diabetes that mimic the benefits of RYGB. PMID:22972837

  14. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  15. Preduodenal portal vein with situs inversus and duodenal atresia.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Y; Lombrozo, R; Dintsman, M

    1986-02-01

    In a 7-day-old infant referred because of bile-stained vomiting, jaundice and lack of meconium, radiological examination revealed the 'double-bubble' sign of duodenal atresia as well as dextrocardia. This infant also had a strawberry haemangioma on the right shoulder. Operation disclosed situs inversus and a preduodenal portal vein as well as duodenal atresia. A side-to-side duodeno-jejunostomy was performed successfully without damage to the anomalous vein. The history of polyhydramnion during gestation, the presence of other anomalies, the rapid onset of bile-stained vomiting and the classic 'double-bubble' sign, together appeared to indicate that the duodenal atresia was intrinsic and not due to the external pressure of the anomalous vein on the duodenum.

  16. Simple closure of a perforated duodenal diverticulum: "a case report".

    PubMed

    Yokomuro, Shigeki; Uchida, Eiji; Arima, Yasuo; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Kawamoto, Masao; Takahashi, Ken; Arai, Masao; Arima, Yasuo; Tajiri, Takashi

    2004-10-01

    Spontaneous perforation of a duodenal diverticulum is a rare but serious complication with significant mortality rates. Just over 100 cases have been reported in the world literature. One case of perforated duodenal diverticulum treated by simple closure is reported. An elderly female was admitted to our hospital with an acute abdomen. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed retroperitoneal air around the duodenum and right kidney. Laparotomy with a Kocher maneuver disclosed a perforated diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum. Although diverticulectomy is the most common treatment, simple closure of the perforated duodenal diverticulum with drainage was performed to avoid injury to the distal common bile duct and ampulla of Vater, which were close to the diverticulum. The patient has fully recovered and has been asymptomatic with no signs of recurrence for 25 months.

  17. A newborn with duodenal atresia and a gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Akcora, Bulent; Eris, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    Congenital duodenal atresia complicated by gastric perforation (GP) is a very rare and a very mortal condition. Only three newborns could be cured in the reported 13 cases. We report a successfully treated newborn with this complicated disease. A 2-day-old male was hospitalized with prediagnosis of duodenal obstruction. Twelve hours later, significant abdominal distention occurred promptly. At laparotomy, GP and preampullary duodenal atresia were detected. Gastrorrhaphy and duodenoduodenostomy were performed in the same operation. The patient was discharged on the 15th postoperative day. This complicated disease can be treated by early diagnosis and surgical intervention. We choose one-stage operation because of the clean peritoneal cavity. However, generalized peritonitis may require two-stage operation in delayed cases.

  18. Duodenal adenocarcinoma: Advances in diagnosis and surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Jordan M; George, Elizabeth; Visser, Brendan C

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare but aggressive malignancy. Given its rarity, previous studies have traditionally combined duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA) with either other periampullary cancers or small bowel adenocarcinomas, limiting the available data to guide treatment decisions. Nevertheless, management primarily involves complete surgical resection when technically feasible. Surgery may require pancreaticoduodenectomy or segmental duodenal resection; either are acceptable options as long as negative margins are achievable and an adequate lymphadenectomy can be performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation are important components of multi-modality treatment for patients at high risk of recurrence. Further research would benefit from multi-institutional trials that do not combine DA with other periampullary or small bowel malignancies. The purpose of this article is to perform a comprehensive review of DA with special focus on the surgical management and principles. PMID:27022448

  19. Duodenal varices successfully treated with cyanoacrylate injection therapy

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ahsan; Junglee, Naushad; Khan, Anwar; Sutton, Jonathon; Gasem, Jaber; Ahmed, Waqar

    2011-01-01

    Duodenal varices are a rare complication of portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis. Compared to oesophageal varices, they bleed less often but are also more difficult to diagnose and treat. There is no established treatment for bleeding duodenal varices and different treatment strategies have been employed with variable results. The authors present a case of 52-year-old male who was admitted with melaena. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed which identified bleeding varices in the second part of duodenum. The varices were injected with cyanoacrylate and the outcome was favourable. Subsequent endoscopies showed complete resolution of the varices. The authors conclude that cyanoacrylate injection is an effective first-line treatment for bleeding duodenal varices. PMID:22694885

  20. Duodenal adenocarcinoma presenting as a mass with aneurismal dilatation.

    PubMed

    Mama, Nadia; Ben Slama, Aïda; Arifa, Nadia; Kadri, Khaled; Sriha, Badreddine; Ksiaa, Mehdi; Jemni, Hela; Tlili-Graiess, Kalthoum

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal adenocarcinoma is frequent. Aneurysmal dilatation of the small bowel is reported to be a lymphoma characteristic imaging finding. A 57-year-old male was found to have a duodenal adenocarcinoma with aneurismal dilatation on imaging which is an exceptional feature. On laparotomy, the wall thickening of the dilated duodenum extended to the first jejunal loop, with multiple mesenteric lymph nodes and ascites. Segmental palliative resection with gastro-entero-anastomosis was done. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with neuro-endocrine differentiation foci. Wide areas of necrosis and vascular emboli were responsible for the radiological feature of the dilated duodenum with wall thickening.

  1. Duodenal rupture secondary to blunt trauma from a football.

    PubMed

    Luther, Alison; Mann, Christopher; Hart, Colin; Khalil, Khalil

    2013-01-04

    Duodenal rupture secondary to blunt trauma is a relatively uncommon event and is usually a result of a road traffic accident. As the duodenum is a retroperitoneal organ, delays in diagnosis can occur, as the patient may present with vague abdominal symptoms and other non-specific signs. Computed tomographic scanning is therefore a useful tool in the diagnosis of this condition. We present a 19-year-old girl who was hit in the abdomen with a football and subsequently had a duodenal rupture.

  2. Duodenal Lipoma as a Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Helga M; Raber; Freling, G; Klaase, J M

    2010-12-01

    A 52-year-old female was referred because of melaena. After initital work-up, including gastroduodenoscopy, endosonography and CT scan, a duodenotomy was performed. Definite diagnosis was a duodenal lipoma based on histological findings. Lipomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. Only 4% occur in the duodenum. The peak incidence is around the 5th and 7th decade of life, with a slight female preponderance. Gastrointestinal lipomas are usually asymptomatic, but can present with mild to severe gastrointestinal bleeding, intussusceptions, abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Clinical, endoscopical, surgical, and radiological features are described in this case of duodenal lipoma.

  3. Duodenal Lipoma as a Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ouwerkerk, Helga M.; Raber; Freling, G.; Klaase, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A 52-year-old female was referred because of melaena. After initital work-up, including gastroduodenoscopy, endosonography and CT scan, a duodenotomy was performed. Definite diagnosis was a duodenal lipoma based on histological findings. Lipomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. Only 4% occur in the duodenum. The peak incidence is around the 5th and 7th decade of life, with a slight female preponderance. Gastrointestinal lipomas are usually asymptomatic, but can present with mild to severe gastrointestinal bleeding, intussusceptions, abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Clinical, endoscopical, surgical, and radiological features are described in this case of duodenal lipoma. PMID:27942311

  4. Successful Treatment of Bleeding Duodenal Varix by Percutaneous Transsplenic Embolization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Hun; Park, Ji Won; Jeon, Eui Yong; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Kwon, Young Seok; Park, Seung Ah; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-11-01

    Variceal bleeding occurs primarily in the esophagus or stomach in patients with liver cirrhosis, but can also occur rarely in the duodenum. Duodenal variceal bleeding has a high mortality and poor prognosis due to heavy blood flow originating from the portal vein (PV) and the technical difficulty of hemostatic procedures. Treatments including endoscopic sclerotherapy, endoscopic ligations, endoscopic clipping and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt have been tried, with only moderate and variable success. A percutaneous transsplenic approach offers another way of accessing the PV. Here we report a case of successfully treated duodenal variceal bleeding by percutaneous transsplenic embolization.

  5. Preduodenal Portal Vein Associated with Duodenal Obstruction of other Etiology: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Punit; Shaikh, Mishraz; Mirza, Bilal; Jaiman, Richa; Arshad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    DuodenalPreduodenal portal vein is a rare and interesting entity which often causes duodenal obstruction. It is also associated with other congenital anomalies. We report here three cases of preduodenal portal vein associated with other anomalies causing duodenal obstruction not related to direct compression by portal vein itself.

  6. Preduodenal Portal Vein Associated with Duodenal Obstruction of other Etiology: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Punit; Shaikh, Mishraz; Mirza, Bilal; Jaiman, Richa; Arshad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    DuodenalPreduodenal portal vein is a rare and interesting entity which often causes duodenal obstruction. It is also associated with other congenital anomalies. We report here three cases of preduodenal portal vein associated with other anomalies causing duodenal obstruction not related to direct compression by portal vein itself. PMID:27896162

  7. Collagenous gastroduodenitis with recurrent gastric ulcer in 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Koide, Tatsuo; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Kawai, Naoki; Yashiro, Kenta; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Nishigaki, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    This report describes a rare case of collagenous gastroduodenitis found in a 12-year-old Japanese girl who had recurrent hematemesis. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed many lotus leaf-like lesions on the gastric mucosa surrounded by atrophic gastric mucosa in the antrum, with a cobblestone appearance and a scarred duodenal ulcer in the duodenal bulb. A biopsy of the gastric mucosa indicated subepithelial collagen band. The patient was treated with H2-blockers for her symptoms for 4 years following the endoscopic findings. Follow-up endoscopy showed the same appearance as before. The pathology, however, showed a more prominent subepithelial collagen deposition. To make the correct diagnosis, it is critical to know from which part the pathological biopsy specimens were taken because there were numerous collagen bands in the atrophic membrane. It is important to monitor the patient regularly for evaluation of the etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis of this rare disease. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. For your information: pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    Pressure ulcers (also called bedsores) affect 3% to 11% of hospital and nursing home patients. Although most seen in the elderly, these ulcers can also occur in younger people who are unable to move about following musculoskeletal or neurological damage. Despite the belief that pressure ulcers are caused by neglect and inattention by hospital or nursing home personnel, even the most diligent nursing care may still not be able to prevent pressure ulcers. Increased understanding of the formation, treatment, and prevention of pressure ulcers by family members, home caregivers, and handicapped individuals can be a great help to those who suffer from these ulcers.

  9. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  10. Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Vuorisalo, S; Venermo, M; Lepäntalo, M

    2009-06-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are a major health care problem. Complications of foot ulcers are a leading cause of hospitalization and amputation in diabetic patients. Diabetic ulcers result from neuropathy or ischemia. Neuropathy is characterized by loss of protective sensation and biomechanical abnormalities. Lack of protective sensation allows ulceration in areas of high pressure. Autonomic neuropathy causes dryness of the skin by decreased sweating and therefore vulnerability of the skin to break down. Ischemia is caused by peripheral arterial disease, not by microangiopathy. Poor arterial inflow decreases blood supply to ulcer area and is associated with reduced oxygenation, nutrition and ulcer