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Sample records for dupla chave na

  1. Transferability Of DEMETER. A Case Study Of The Irrigation Scheme Of Veiga De Chaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, A.; Sousa, V.

    2006-08-01

    DEMETER is a research and demonstration project, designed to assess and demonstrate how the integration of Earth Observation techniques in routine Irrigation Advisory Services can improve efficiency in the use of irrigation water. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to analyze the interest in the feasibility of transferring the DEMETER technology to the irrigation scheme of Chaves: (2) to identify the factors that, in general, favour the usefulness of this technology. The irrigation infrastructure and methods, the size and number of irrigation parcels and the main crops grown at the irrigation scheme of Chaves have been recorded. Also a socio-economic description has been done. Field visits, interviews with the staff of water association, and an inquiry to a sample of 107 farmers were made. The main results are: each farmer pays an area based annual fee, independent of the amount of water used for irrigation; most of the irrigated parcels are of very small size, 0.3 ha in average, mostly irrigated by surface methods; the most representative crops grown are potato, forage maize, and several different horticultural crops; an important part of the production is for self-consumption. The farmers are aging and the new generations prefer other jobs than agriculture. A considerable number of farmers have another job in the nearby cities. The small size of the irrigated parcels limits the use of earth observation technologies to expensive high space resolution images. For the time being, farmers do not feel the need for an irrigation advisory service, manly because there is plenty of water which is not bought proportionally to its use. However, circumstances are changing rapidly and, relatively new for the region, environmental concerns related with irrigation, manly nitrate leaching by excess watering of crops prompts the need for an irrigation advisory service in order to maintain crop production with a more rational use of water. The DEMETER technology could be a

  2. New insights into Gondwana paleography based on palinological data from Morro do Chaves Formation (Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves Garcia, Gustavo; Vasconcellos Garcia, Antônio Jorge; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2016-04-01

    The Sergipe-Alagoas basin (NE Brazil) has been widely studied in the frame of oil exploration, because it displays the most complete exposition of the stratigraphic sequences from the basins of the Brazilian continental margin. In this context, the aim of this workis to present the results of the bio-stratigraphic and paleo-environmental analysis of Morro do Chaves Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in Alagoas Sub-basin, part of the transitional section situated between the rift phase and restricted marine environment associated with the South Atlantic ocean opening. The material was analyzed from the palynological point of view and was collected in the InterCement quarry, located in São Miguel dos Campos, State of Alagoas. From 17 outcrop rock samples collected, nine had palynological content; among these only six were considered for biostratigraphic analysis purposes. In addition to outcrop samples, 28 samples were processed from four core drill. The paleoenvironmental analysis was based on the palynological content of the collected samples and on the paleontological and geological information available. The studied sedimentary package corresponds to carbonate and fine siliciclastic deposits, with approximately 70.0 m in thickness. The unit in question is formed by carbonatic "coquinóides" rocks interspersed with shale levels of dark green color. Palinofloristic assemblages were recuperated between 5.0 m and 70.0 m of the outcropping section. In the recovered material it was possible to identify 9 kinds of spores and 8 kinds of pollen grains, and two genera of fungi. Due to the degree of preservation of the material, age was established by the occurrence of Dicheiropollis etruscus specimens, which has enabled the recognition of the Dicheiropollis etruscus palinozone (upper Barremian). In microscopic observations under fluorescent light some algalic vesicles components were also recognized and classified as possible algae of the Prasinophyceae class, indicating

  3. Depositional systems in the lower Cretaceous Morro Do Chaves and Coqueiro Seco formations, and their relationship to petroleum accumulations, middle rift sequence, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    de Figueiredo, A.M.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, northeast coast of Brazil, the Lower Cretaceous lacustrine, middle rift sequence is composed of the Morro do Chaves and Coqueiro Seco Formations. Subsurface analysis permitted recognition and mapping of four principal types of depositional environments: Morro do Chaves carbonate platform, and Coqueiro Seco fluvial-deltaic, fan delta, and slope systems. Morro do Chaves lacustrine carbonate sediments were deposited in positive areas flanking the principal point sources (rivers), and are composed of high energy limestones. Contemporaneous deep-water euxinic and bituminous lacustrine shales were deposited under starved basin conditions. Sublacustrine canyon excavation attested to the presence of a destructional slope episode. Coqueiro Seco fluvial-deltaic and fan delta facies display high sand/shale ratios and blocky to massive E-log patterns; slope facies display serrate to digitate E-log patterns and is less sandy. Delta plain channel-fill facies and coarse-grained meanderbelt fluvial facies are dominant in fluvial-deltaic systems of the Alagoas Sub-basin; and proximal to medial conglomerates and coarse conglomeratic sandstones are dominant facies in fan delta systems of the Rio Sao Francisco Sub-basin. Slope facies are composed of sublacustrine fans formed by fine- to medium-grained sandstones enveloped by subbituminous shales, and lacustrine limestones. Coqueiro Seco coarse clastic systems prograded across the basin and buried Morro do Chaves carbonate platforms in response to cyclic tectonic pulses related to rift development. Evaluation of petroleum occurrences in relationship to defined depositional systems permitted recognition of several types of plays characterized by unique structural and stratigraphic relationships exhibited by reservoirs, source beds and structure. The Coqueiro Seco slope play, formed by updip pinchout of turbidite fans, is judged the most promising in the sequence.

  4. Seasonal changes in ground-water levels in the shallow aquifer near Hagerman and the Pecos River, Chaves County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Pecos River near Hagerman in Chaves County, New Mexico, historically has been a gaining stream. In 1938, the slope of the water table in the shallow alluvial aquifer near Hagerman was toward the Pecos River. By 1950, a large water-table depression had formed in the alluvial aquifer southwest of Hagerman. Continued enlargement of this depression could reverse the direction of groundwater flow to the Pecos River. Water levels were measured during 1981-85 in wells along a section extending from the Pecos River to a point within the depression. Although the water-table depression has not caused a perennial change in direction of groundwater flow, it has caused a seasonal reversal in the slope of the water table between the river and the depression during the growing season when pumpage from the shallow aquifer is the greatest. (USGS)

  5. Testing Na+ in blood

    PubMed Central

    Lava, Sebastiano A.G.; Bianchetti, Mario G.; Milani, Gregorio P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both direct potentiometry and indirect potentiometry are currently used for Na+ testing in blood. These measurement techniques show good agreement as long as protein and lipid concentrations in blood remain normal. In severely ill patients, indirect potentiometry commonly leads to relevant errors in Na+ estimation: 25% of specimens show a disagreement between direct and indirect potentiometry, which is ≥4 mmol/L (mostly spuriously elevated Na+ level due to low circulating albumin concentration). There is a need for increased awareness of the poor performance of indirect potentiometry in some clinical settings.

  6. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I- symporter.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-09-13

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid-the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis-with a 2 Na(+): 1 I(-) stoichiometry. The two Na(+) binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I(-) binding site interact allosterically: when Na(+) binds to a Na(+) site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na(+) and for I(-) increases significantly. In all Na(+)-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na(+) ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues-S66, D191, Q194, and Q263-are also involved in Na(+) coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I(-) These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance.

  7. Na Cauda do Cometa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  8. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I− symporter

    PubMed Central

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E.; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L. Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I− transport in the thyroid—the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis—with a 2 Na+: 1 I− stoichiometry. The two Na+ binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I− binding site interact allosterically: when Na+ binds to a Na+ site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na+ and for I− increases significantly. In all Na+-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na+ ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues—S66, D191, Q194, and Q263—are also involved in Na+ coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I−. These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance. PMID:27562170

  9. Solidification of NaCl-NaF eutectic in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, have been produced in space and on earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis.

  10. Na+ recirculation and isosmotic transport.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E H; Møbjerg, N

    2006-01-01

    The Na(+) recirculation theory for solute-coupled fluid absorption is an expansion of the local osmosis concept introduced by Curran and analyzed by Diamond & Bossert. Based on studies on small intestine the theory assumes that the observed recirculation of Na(+) serves regulation of the osmolarity of the absorbate. Mathematical modeling reproducing bioelectric and hydrosmotic properties of small intestine and proximal tubule, respectively, predicts a significant range of observations such as isosmotic transport, hyposmotic transport, solvent drag, anomalous solvent drag, the residual hydraulic permeability in proximal tubule of AQP1 (-/-) mice, and the inverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow. The model reproduces the volume responses of cells and lateral intercellular space (lis) following replacement of luminal NaCl by sucrose as well as the linear dependence of volume absorption on luminal NaCl concentration. Analysis of solvent drag on Na(+) in tight junctions provides explanation for the surprisingly high metabolic efficiency of Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts and explains low metabolic efficiency in diluted external baths. Hyperosmolarity of lis is governed by the hydraulic permeability of the apical plasma membrane and tight junction with 6-7 mOsm in small intestine and < or = 1 mOsm in proximal tubule. Truly isosmotic transport demands a Na(+) recirculation of 50-70% in small intestine but might be barely measurable in proximal tubule. The model fails to reproduce a certain type of observations: The reduced volume absorption at transepithelial osmotic equilibrium in AQP1 knockout mice, and the stimulated water absorption by gallbladder in diluted external solutions. Thus, it indicates cellular regulation of apical Na(+) uptake, which is not included in the mathematical treatment.

  11. Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves.

    PubMed

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Magistretti, Pierre J; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2004-10-12

    Glutamate-evoked Na+ increase in astrocytes has been identified as a signal coupling synaptic activity to glucose consumption. Astrocytes participate in multicellular signaling by transmitting intercellular Ca2+ waves. Here we show that intercellular Na+ waves are also evoked by activation of single cultured cortical mouse astrocytes in parallel with Ca2+ waves; however, there are spatial and temporal differences. Indeed, maneuvers that inhibit Ca2+ waves also inhibit Na+ waves; however, inhibition of the Na+/glutamate cotransporters or enzymatic degradation of extracellular glutamate selectively inhibit the Na+ wave. Thus, glutamate released by a Ca2+ wave-dependent mechanism is taken up by the Na+/glutamate cotransporters, resulting in a regenerative propagation of cytosolic Na+ increases. The Na+ wave gives rise to a spatially correlated increase in glucose uptake, which is prevented by glutamate transporter inhibition. Therefore, astrocytes appear to function as a network for concerted neurometabolic coupling through the generation of intercellular Na+ and metabolic waves.

  12. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  13. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; ...

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  14. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  15. Ionic regulation of Na absorption in proximal colon: cation inhibition of electroneutral Na absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, J.H.; De Soignie, R.

    1987-01-01

    Active Na absorption (J/sub net//sup NA/) in rabbit proximal colon in vitro is paradoxically stimulated as (Na) in the bathing media is lowered with constant osmolarity. J/sub m..-->..s//sup Na/ increases almost linearly from 0 to 50 mM (Na)/sub 0/ but then plateaus and actually decreases from 50 to 140 mM (Na)/sub 0/, consistent with inhibition of an active transport process. Both lithium and Na are equally effective inhibitors of J/sub net//sup Na/, whereas choline and mannitol do not block the high rate of J/sub net//sup Na/ observed in decreased (Na)/sub 0/. Either gluconate or proprionate replacement of Cl inhibits J/sub net//sup Na/. J/sub net//sup Na/ at lowered (Na)/sub 0/ is electrically silent and is accompanied by increased Cl absorption; it is inhibited by 10/sup -3/ M amiloride and 10/sup -3/ theophylline but not by 10/sup -4/ M bumetanide. Epinephrine is equally effective at stimulating Na absorption at 50 and 140 mM (Na). Na gradient experiments are consistent with a predominantly serosal effect of the decreased (Na)/sub 0/. These results suggest that 1) Na absorption in rabbit proximal colon in vitro is stimulated by decreased (Na); 2) the effect is cation specific, both Na and Li blocking the stimulatory effect; 3) the transport is mediated by Na-H exchange and is Cl dependent but 4) is under different regulatory mechanisms than the epinephrine-sensitive Na-Cl cotransport previously described in proximal colon. Under the appropriate conditions, proximal colon absorbs Na extremely efficiently. Na-H exchange in this epithelium is cation inhibitable, either directly or by a secondary regulatory process.

  16. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3 and KNO3-NaNO3 Salt Mixtures at 90C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Craig, L; Wolery, T

    2003-12-29

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO3-H2O and KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems at 90 C to determine relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Model predictions agree with experimental results for the NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system, but underestimate relative humidity by as much as 8% and solution composition by as much as 50% in the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system.

  17. Na+ Tolerance and Na+ Transport in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    TESTER, MARK; DAVENPORT, ROMOLA

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance to high soil [Na+] involves processes in many different parts of the plant, and is manifested in a wide range of specializations at disparate levels of organization, such as gross morphology, membrane transport, biochemistry and gene transcription. Multiple adaptations to high [Na+] operate concurrently within a particular plant, and mechanisms of tolerance show large taxonomic variation. These mechanisms can occur in all cells within the plant, or can occur in specific cell types, reflecting adaptations at two major levels of organization: those that confer tolerance to individual cells, and those that contribute to tolerance not of cells per se, but of the whole plant. Salt‐tolerant cells can contribute to salt tolerance of plants; but we suggest that equally important in a wide range of conditions are processes involving the management of Na+ movements within the plant. These require specific cell types in specific locations within the plant catalysing transport in a coordinated manner. For further understanding of whole plant tolerance, we require more knowledge of cell‐specific transport processes and the consequences of manipulation of transporters and signalling elements in specific cell types. PMID:12646496

  18. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2017-04-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  19. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2016-12-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  20. A long-life Na-air battery based on a soluble NaI catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen-Wen; Shadike, Zulipiya; Yang, Yin; Ding, Fei; Sang, Lin; Li, Hong; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2015-02-11

    A Na-air battery with NaI dissolved in a typical organic electrolyte could run up to 150 cycles with a capacity limit of 1000 mA h g(-1). The low charge voltage plateau of 3.2 V vs. Na(+)/Na in a Na-air battery should mainly be attributed to the oxidation reaction of active iodine anions.

  1. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  2. Revisiting the hydration structure of aqueous Na().

    PubMed

    Galib, M; Baer, M D; Skinner, L B; Mundy, C J; Huthwelker, T; Schenter, G K; Benmore, C J; Govind, N; Fulton, J L

    2017-02-28

    A combination of theory, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are used to probe the hydration structure of aqueous Na(+). The high spatial resolution of the XRD measurements corresponds to Qmax = 24 Å(-1) while the first-reported Na K-edge EXAFS measurements have a spatial resolution corresponding to 2k = Qmax = 16 Å(-1). Both provide an accurate measure of the shape and position of the first peak in the Na-O pair distribution function, gNaO(r). The measured Na-O distances of 2.384 ± 0.003 Å (XRD) and 2.37 ± 0.024 Å (EXAFS) are in excellent agreement. These measurements show a much shorter Na-O distance than generally reported in the experimental literature (Na-Oavg ∼ 2.44 Å) although the current measurements are in agreement with recent neutron diffraction measurements. The measured Na-O coordination number from XRD is 5.5 ± 0.3. The measured structure is compared with both classical and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Both of the DFT-based methods, revPBE and BLYP, predict a Na-O distance that is too long by about 0.05 Å with respect to the experimental data (EXAFS and XRD). The inclusion of dispersion interactions (-D3 and -D2) significantly worsens the agreement with experiment by further increasing the Na-O distance by 0.07 Å. In contrast, the use of a classical Na-O Lennard-Jones potential with SPC/E water accurately predicts the Na-O distance as 2.39 Å although the Na-O peak is over-structured with respect to experiment.

  3. The effect of Na vapor on the Na content of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. Dean; Lofgren, Gary E.; Franzen, Hugo F.; Windom, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Chondrules contain higher concentrations of volatiles (Na) than expected for melt droplets in the solar nebula. Recent studies have proposed that chondrules may have formed under non-canonical nebular conditions such as in particle/gas-rich clumps. Such chondrule formation areas may have contained significant Na vapor. To test the hypothesis of whether a Na-rich vapor would minimize Na volatilization reaction rates in a chondrule analog and maintain the Na value of the melt, experiments were designed where a Na-rich vapor could be maintained around the sample. A starting material with a melting point lower that typical chondrules was required to keep the logistics of working with Na volatilization from NaCl within the realm of feasibility. The Knippa basalt, a MgO-rich alkali olivine basalt with a melting temperature of 1325 +/- 5 C and a Na2O content of 3.05 wt%, was used as the chondrule analog. Experiments were conducted in a 1 atm, gas-mixing furnace with the fO2 controlled by a CO/CO2 gas mixture and fixed at the I-W buffer curve. To determine the extent of Na loss from the sample, initial experiments were conducted at high temperatures (1300 C - 1350 C) for duration of up to 72 h without a Na-rich vapor present. Almost all (up to 98%) Na was volatilized in runs of 72 h. Subsequent trials were conducted at 1330 C for 16 h in the presence of a Na-rich vapor, supplied by a NaCl-filled crucible placed in the bottom of the furnace. Succeeding Knudsen cell weight-loss mass-spectrometry analysis of NaCl determined the P(sub Na) for these experimental conditions to be in the 10(exp -6) atm range. This value is considered high for nebula conditions but is still plausible for non-canonical environments. In these trials the Na2O content of the glass was maintained or in some cases increased; Na2O values ranged from 2.62% wt to 4.37% wt. The Na content of chondrules may be controlled by the Na vapor pressure in the chondrule formation region. Most heating events capable

  4. Growth of binary organic NLO crystals: m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to grow 3.Nitroaniline (m.NA) crystals doped with 4.Nitroaniline (p.NA) and 2.chloro 4.Nitroaniline (CNA). The measured undercooling for m.NA, p.NA, and CNA were 0.21 tm K, 0.23 tm K, and 0.35 tm K respectively, where tm represents the melting temperature of the pure component. Because of the crystals' large heat of fusion and large undercooling, it was not possible to grow good quality crystals with low thermal gradients. In the conventional two-zone Bridgman furnace we had to raise the temperature of the hot zone above the decomposition temperature of CNA, p.NA, and m.NA to achieve the desired thermal gradient. To avoid decomposition, we used an unconventional Bridgman furnace. Two immiscible liquids, silicone oil and ethylene glycol, were used to build a special two-zone Bridgman furnace. A temperature gradient of 18 K/cm was achieved without exceeding the decomposition temperature of the crystal. The binary crystals, m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA, were grown in centimeter size in this furnace. X-ray and optical characterization showed good optical quality.

  5. Modification of single Na+ channels by batrachotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, F N; Narahashi, T

    1982-01-01

    The modifications in the properties of voltage-gated Na+ channels caused by batrachotoxin were studied by using the patch clamp method for measuring single channel currents from excised membranes of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. The toxin-modified open state of the Na+ channel has a decreased conductance in comparison to that of normal Na+ channels. The lifetime of the modified open state is drastically prolonged, and channels now continue to open during a maintained depolarization so that the probability of a channel being open becomes constant. Modified and normal open states of Na+ channels coexist in batrachotoxin-exposed membrane patches. Unlike the normal condition, Na+ channels exposed to batrachotoxin open spontaneously at large negative potentials. These spontaneous openings apparently cause the toxin-induced increase in Na+ permeability which, in turn, causes membrane depolarization. PMID:6292915

  6. Maintaining the NA atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    1993-02-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  7. Maintaining the Na atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  8. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  9. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  10. Simulation study of Na-majorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymshits, A.; Vinograd, V.; Paulsen, N.; Winkler, B.; Perchuk, L.; Bobrov, A.

    2009-04-01

    Garnets, which are found as inclusions in diamonds, often have the excess of Na2O and SiO2 [Stachel, 2001]. Experimental studies suggest that Na is incorporated in pyrope-rich garnet via the coupled substitution Mg+Al=Na+Si [Bobrov et al., 2008]. This study is concerned with the determination of the structure and the thermodynamic properties of NaGrt (Na2MgSi5O12), which is assumed to be the end-member of pyrope-rich garnets with the excess of Na2O and SiO2. Static lattice energy calculations were performed with the program GULP [Gale & Rohl, 2003] using the force-field model [Vinograd et al., 2007] for 200 structures of Na2MgSi5O12 composition. These structures were prepared from Ia3-d pyrope Mg3Al2Si3O12 by replacing all octahedral Al atoms with Si and 2/3 of Mg atoms with Na. The distribution of Mg and Na was varied randomly. The static energies of these structures were cluster expanded using 8 pairwise effective cluster interactions (ECI). The ECIs were used to constrain Monte Carlo simulations within a 4×4×4 supercell (NNN exchangeable sites). The annealing experiments have shown that the lowest energy structure has the space group I4

  11. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic.

  12. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  13. Exploration of NaVOPO4 as a cathode for a Na-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Xu, Maowen; Wang, Long; Goodenough, John B

    2013-06-11

    Monoclinic NaVOPO4 is explored as a cathode material for a sodium ion battery. It exhibits electrochemical activity operating at an average potential of 3.6 V (vs. Na(+)/Na) and delivers a reversible capacity of 90 mA h g(-1) at 1/15 C.

  14. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  15. High NA Nicrostepper Final Optical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudyma, R

    1999-09-24

    The development of a new EUV high NA small-field exposure tool has been proposed for obtaining mask defect printability data in a timeframe several years before beta-tools are available. The imaging system for this new Micro-Exposure Tool (MET), would have a numerical aperture (NA) of about 0.3, similar to the NA for a beta-tool, but substantially larger than the 0.10 NA for the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) and 0.088 NA for the existing 10x Microstepper. This memorandum discusses the development and summarizes the performance of the camera for the MET and includes a listing of the design prescription, detailed analysis of the distortion, and analysis demonstrating the capability to resolution 30 nm features under the conditions of partially coherent illumination.

  16. Na+ binding to the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter is potential dependent.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E; Kimmich, G A

    1992-02-01

    Activity of the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells was assayed by measuring sugar-induced currents (IAMG) using whole cell recording techniques. IAMG was compared among cells by standardizing the measured currents to cell size using cell capacitance measurements. IAMG at a given membrane potential was measured as a function of alpha-methylglucoside (AMG) concentration and can be fit to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. IAMG at varying Na+ concentrations can be described by the Hill equation with a Hill coefficient of 1.6 at all tested potentials. At high external Na+ levels (155 mM), Na+ is at least 90% saturating at all tested potentials. Maximal currents at a given membrane potential (Im) are calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation fit to data measuring IAMG vs. AMG concentration at a constant Na+ concentration. Im showed potential dependence under all conditions. Potential-dependent Na+ binding rate(s) cannot alone explain the observed potential dependence of Im under saturating Na+ conditions. Therefore, because Im is potential dependent, at least one step of the transport cycle other than external Na+ binding must be potential dependent. Im was also calculated from data taken at 40 mM external Na+. At all potentials studied, Im at 155 mM Na+ is greater than Im calculated at 40 mM Na+. This implies that the rate of external Na+ binding to the transporter at 40 mM also affects the maximal transport rate. Furthermore, Im at 40 mM external Na+ increases with hyperpolarization faster than Im at 155 mM Na+. Together, these facts indicate that the rate at which Na+ binds to the transporter is also potential dependent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pharmacological modulation of human cardiac Na+ channels.

    PubMed

    Krafte, D S; Davison, K; Dugrenier, N; Estep, K; Josef, K; Barchi, R L; Kallen, R G; Silver, P J; Ezrin, A M

    1994-02-15

    Pharmacological modulation of human sodium current was examined in Xenopus oocytes expressing human heart Na+ channels. Na+ currents activated near -50 mV with maximum current amplitudes observed at -20 mV. Steady-state inactivation was characterized by a V1/2 value of -57 +/- 0.5 mV and a slope factor (k) of 7.3 +/- 0.3 mV. Sodium currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 value of 1.8 microM. These properties are consistent with those of Na+ channels expressed in mammalian myocardial cells. We have investigated the effects of several pharmacological agents which, with the exception of lidocaine, have not been characterized against cRNA-derived Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Lidocaine, quinidine and flecainide blocked resting Na+ channels with IC50 values of 521 microM, 198 microM, and 41 microM, respectively. Use-dependent block was also observed for all three agents, but concentrations necessary to induce block were higher than expected for quinidine and flecainide. This may reflect differences arising due to expression in the Xenopus oocyte system or could be a true difference in the interaction between human cardiac Na+ channels and these drugs compared to other mammalian Na+ channels. Importantly, however, this result would not have been predicted based upon previous studies of mammalian cardiac Na+ channels. The effects of DPI 201-106, RWJ 24517, and BDF 9148 were also tested and all three agents slowed and/or removed Na+ current inactivation, reduced peak current amplitudes, and induced use-dependent block. These data suggest that the alpha-subunit is the site of interaction between cardiac Na+ channels and Class I antiarrhythmic drugs as well as inactivation modifiers such as DPI 201-106.

  18. Na-doped optical Germanium bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, G. S.; Singaevsky, A. F.

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to develop a material for infrared (IR) optics with improved parameters, bulk crystals of optical germanium doped with Na have been first grown and studied. Single-crystalline and coarse-crystalline Ge:Na boules of different shapes and dimensions, up to 10 kg by weight, have been grown. Sodium was incorporated into the Ge crystal during the crystal growing from the melt. Despite the fact that Na contamination in the source material was not strictly controlled, the density of Na in the grown crystals determined by the neutron activation analysis as well as by the glow discharge mass spectrometry did not exceed 1015 cm-3. Just this value may be supposed to be close to the solubility limit of Na incorporated in Ge in the course of bulk crystal growth. A first demonstration of donor behavior of Na in bulk Ge crystals is made by means of a thermoelectric type of testing. An interstitial location of Na impurity has been verified by experiments on donor drift in the dc electric field. The crystals are grown with free electron density in the range from 5ṡ1013 to 4ṡ1014 cm-3 which is optimal for using Ge crystals as an optical material for fabricating passive elements of the IR technique. A comparison between the properties of Ge:Na crystals and Ge crystals doped with Sb, a conventional impurity in optical germanium, grown under the same technological conditions and from the same intrinsic Ge as a source material, revealed a number of advantages of Ge:Na crystals; among them, the higher transparency in the IR region, smaller radiation scattering and higher regular optical transmission, lower dislocation density, more uniform distribution of electrical and optical characteristics over the crystal volume, the identity of optical parameters in the single-crystalline, and coarse-crystalline boules. No degradation of optical elements fabricated from Ge:Na crystals was detected in the course of their commercial application, starting from 1998.

  19. Anomalously high Na(+) and low Li(+) mobility in intercalated Na2Ti6O13.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Zhang, Ruigang

    2017-04-12

    We report an anomalous diffusion behavior in intercalated Na2Ti6O13. Using first-principles calculations, the direct migration of inserted Na(+) along the tunnel direction is predicted to have a barrier of 0.24-0.44 eV, while the migration of inserted Li(+) along the tunnel direction has a barrier of 0.86-1.15 eV. Although Li(+) can also diffuse along a zig-zag path in the tunnel, the barrier of 0.86-0.99 eV is still much higher than that for Na(+). Our results surprisingly lead to the conclusion that the diffusion of larger Na(+) is 4-8 orders of magnitude faster than Li(+) in the same host lattice, and explain the experimentally observed exceptional rate capability of Na2Ti6O13 as the Na-ion battery anode. The anomalous diffusion behavior is attributed to the geometric features of Na2Ti6O13. For migration of Li(+) it is necessary to weaken Li-O bonds and to overcome the repulsion between Li and host Na ions simultaneously, while for Na(+) diffusion the improved Na-O bonding at the transition state partially compensates for the energy penalty from the repulsion of host Na ions.

  20. Cytosolic Na+ Controls an Epithelial Na+ Channel Via the Go Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Regulatory Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komwatana, P.; Dinudom, A.; Young, J. A.; Cook, D. I.

    1996-07-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the rate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-β -S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the α -subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-.

  1. Cytosolic Na+ controls and epithelial Na+ channel via the Go guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Komwatana, P; Dinudom, A; Young, J A; Cook, D I

    1996-01-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the fate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-beta-S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the alpha-subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8755611

  2. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  3. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.C.Y.; Judge, D.L.; Roussel, F.; Carre, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-01-01

    The production of Na/sub 2//sup +/ ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200A region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na/sub 2/ molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na/sub 2/ D/sup 1/PI..mu.. Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na/sub 2//sup +/ ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al we estimate that the cross section for producing Na/sub 2//sup +/ through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na/sub 2/ molecules.

  4. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.; Roussel, F.; Carré, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-09-01

    The production of Na2+ ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200Å region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na2 molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na2 D1Πu Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na2+ ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al. we estimate that the cross section for producing Na2+ through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na2 molecules.

  5. NMR studies on Na+ transport in Synechococcus PCC 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitschmann, W. H.; Packer, L.

    1992-01-01

    The freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6311 is able to adapt to grow after sudden exposure to salt (NaCl) stress. We have investigated the mechanism of Na+ transport in these cells during adaptation to high salinity. Na+ influx under dark aerobic conditions occurred independently of delta pH or delta psi across the cytoplasmic membrane, ATPase activity, and respiratory electron transport. These findings are consistent with the existence of Na+/monovalent anion cotransport or simultaneous Na+/H+ +anion/OH- exchange. Na+ influx was dependent on Cl-, Br-, NO3-, or NO2-. No Na+ uptake occurred after addition of NaI, NaHCO3, or Na2SO4. Na+ extrusion was absolutely dependent on delta pH and on an ATPase activity and/or on respiratory electron transport. This indicates that Na+ extrusion via Na+/H+ exchange is driven by primary H+ pumps in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cells grown for 4 days in 0.5 m NaCl medium, "salt-grown cells," differ from control cells by a lower maximum velocity of Na+ influx and by lower steady-state ratios of [Na+]in/[Na+]out. These results indicate that cells grown in high-salt medium increase their capacity to extrude Na+. During salt adaptation Na+ extrusion driven by respiratory electron transport increased from about 15 to 50%.

  6. Characteristics and pharmacological regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and epithelial Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial Na(+) transport participates in control of various body functions and conditions: e.g., homeostasis of body fluid content influencing blood pressure, control of amounts of fluids covering the apical surface of alveolar epithelial cells at appropriate levels for normal gas exchange, and prevention of bacterial/viral infection. Epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is mediated by the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via Epithelial Na(+) Channel (ENaC) located at the apical membrane, and the extrusion step of Na(+) across the basolateral membrane via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase located at the basolateral membrane. The rate-limiting step of the epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is generally recognized to be the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via ENaC. Thus, up-/down-regulation of ENaC essentially participates in regulatory systems of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. Amount of ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport is determined by the number of ENaCs located at the apical membrane, activity (open probability) of individual ENaC located at the apical membrane, single channel conductance of ENaC located at the apical membrane, and driving force for the Na(+) entry via ENaCs across the apical membrane. In the present review article, I discuss the characteristics of ENaC and how these factors are regulated.

  7. Glutathionylation-Dependence of Na(+)-K(+)-Pump Currents Can Mimic Reduced Subsarcolemmal Na(+) Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alvaro; Liu, Chia-Chi; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2016-03-08

    The existence of a subsarcolemmal space with restricted diffusion for Na(+) in cardiac myocytes has been inferred from a transient peak electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current beyond steady state on reexposure of myocytes to K(+) after a period of exposure to K(+)-free extracellular solution. The transient peak current is attributed to enhanced electrogenic pumping of Na(+) that accumulated in the diffusion-restricted space during pump inhibition in K(+)-free extracellular solution. However, there are no known physical barriers that account for such restricted Na(+) diffusion, and we examined if changes of activity of the Na(+)-K(+) pump itself cause the transient peak current. Reexposure to K(+) reproduced a transient current beyond steady state in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes as reported by others. Persistence of it when the Na(+) concentration in patch pipette solutions perfusing the intracellular compartment was high and elimination of it with K(+)-free pipette solution could not be reconciled with restricted subsarcolemmal Na(+) diffusion. The pattern of the transient current early after pump activation was dependent on transmembrane Na(+)- and K(+) concentration gradients suggesting the currents were related to the conformational poise imposed on the pump. We examined if the currents might be accounted for by changes in glutathionylation of the β1 Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the pump. Susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, and glutathionylation with the pump stabilized in conformations equivalent to those expected to be imposed on voltage-clamped myocytes supported this hypothesis. So did elimination of the transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current when we included glutaredoxin 1 in patch pipette solutions to reverse glutathionylation. We conclude that transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current reflects the effect

  8. Interaction between Na+ and H+ ions on Na-H exchange in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers.

    PubMed

    Wu, M L; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1997-04-01

    The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions upon Na-H exchange (NHE) was examined in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers. Acid equivalent fluxes through NHE were examined using recordings of intracellular pH and Na+ in isolated preparations measured with ion selective microelectrodes. The extent of acid-extrusion by NHE was estimated from pH(i) recovery-rate, multiplied by beta(i) (intracellular buffering power) in response to an internal acid load induced by 20 mm NH4Cl removal (nominally HCO3- free media). A mixed inhibitory effect was found of extracellular H+ on external Na+-activation of NHE (i.e. an increase, at low pH(o), in the apparent Michaelis constant for external Na+ ions [K(Nao)(0.5)] and a decrease in the maximum transport rate [V(Nao)(max)]). In addition, we confirmed that the stoichiometry of Na(o) binding is unaffected by the pH(o) (between 7.5 and 6.5), showing a Hill coefficient close to one. The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions at the internal face of the cardiac NHE was also studied. Our evidence suggests that an increase in the intracellular Na+ ion concentration ([Na+]i) inhibits acid efflux and that this inhibition can be approximated by the decrease in thermodynamic driving force caused by reducing the transmembrane Na+ gradient. It appears, however, that small variations in [Na+]i from the normal resting level (intracellular sodium activity, a(i)Na = 7 to 13 mm) have little or no effect on acid efflux, suggesting that variation of a(i)Na is not a physiologically important controller of NHE activity in heart.

  9. Thermodynamic Model for the Solubility of Cr(OH)(3)(am) in Concentrated NaOH and NaOH-NaNO3 Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat ); Hess, Nancy J. ); Rao, Linfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Felmy, Andrew R. ); Moore, Dean A. ); Clark, Sue B.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a reliable thermodynamic model for predicting Cr(III) behavior in concentrated NaOH and in mixed NaOH-NaNO3 solutions for application to effective caustic leaching strategies for high-level tank sludges. To meet these objectives, the solubility of Cr(OH)3(am) was measured in 0.003 to 10.5 m NaOH, 3.0 m es in NaOH concentration...

  10. Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in NaBH4-NaBF4.

    PubMed

    Rude, L H; Filsø, U; D'Anna, V; Spyratou, A; Richter, B; Hino, S; Zavorotynska, O; Baricco, M; Sørby, M H; Hauback, B C; Hagemann, H; Besenbacher, F; Skibsted, J; Jensen, T R

    2013-11-07

    Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in the NaBH4-NaBF4 system is investigated using a range of experimental methods combined with DFT calculations and a possible mechanism for the reactions is proposed. Fluorine substitution is observed using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) as a new Rock salt type compound with idealized composition NaBF2H2 in the temperature range T = 200 to 215 °C. Combined use of solid-state (19)F MAS NMR, FT-IR and DFT calculations supports the formation of a BF2H2(-) complex ion, reproducing the observation of a (19)F chemical shift at -144.2 ppm, which is different from that of NaBF4 at -159.2 ppm, along with the new absorption bands observed in the IR spectra. After further heating, the fluorine substituted compound becomes X-ray amorphous and decomposes to NaF at ~310 °C. This work shows that fluorine-substituted borohydrides tend to decompose to more stable compounds, e.g. NaF and BF3 or amorphous products such as closo-boranes, e.g. Na2B12H12. The NaBH4-NaBF4 composite decomposes at lower temperatures (300 °C) compared to NaBH4 (476 °C), as observed by thermogravimetric analysis. NaBH4-NaBF4 (1:0.5) preserves 30% of the hydrogen storage capacity after three hydrogen release and uptake cycles compared to 8% for NaBH4 as measured using Sievert's method under identical conditions, but more than 50% using prolonged hydrogen absorption time. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity tends to decrease possibly due to the formation of NaF and Na2B12H12. On the other hand, the additive sodium fluoride appears to facilitate hydrogen uptake, prevent foaming, phase segregation and loss of material from the sample container for samples of NaBH4-NaF.

  11. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3, and NaCl-KNO3 Salt Mixtures From 90 to 120?C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Craig, L; Wolery, T J

    2004-10-20

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems from 90 to 120 C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Discrepancy between model prediction and experimental code can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25 C models for Cl-NO{sub 3} and K-NO{sub 3} ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the non-ideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

  12. Vascular contractile reactivity in hypotension due to reduced renal reabsorption of Na(+) and restricted dietary Na().

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saeed; Rapoport, Robert M; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2017-03-01

    Reduced renal Na(+) reabsorption along with restricted dietary Na(+) depletes intravascular plasma volume which can then result in hypotension. Whether hypotension occurs and the magnitude of hypotension depends in part on compensatory angiotensin II-mediated increased vascular resistance. We investigated whether the ability of vascular resistance to mitigate the hypotension was compromised by decreased contractile reactivity. In vitro reactivity was investigated in aorta from mouse models of reduced renal Na(+) reabsorption and restricted dietary Na(+) associated with considerable hypotension and renin-angiotensin system activation: (1) the Na(+)-Cl(-)-Co-transporter (NCC) knockout (KO) with Na(+) restricted diet (0.1%, 2 weeks) and (2) the relatively more severe pendrin (apical chloride/bicarbonate exchanger) and NCC double KO. Contractile sensitivity to KCl, phenylephrine, and/or U46619 remained unaltered in aorta from both models. Maximal KCl and phenylephrine contraction expressed as force/aorta length from NCC KO with Na(+)-restricted diet remained unaltered, while in pendrin/NCC double KO were reduced to 49 and 64%, respectively. Wet weight of aorta from NCC KO with Na(+)-restricted diet remained unaltered, while pendrin/NCC double KO was reduced to 67%, consistent with decreased medial width determined with Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain. These findings suggest that hypotension associated with severe intravascular volume depletion, as the result of decreased renal Na(+) reabsorption, may in part be due to decreased contractile reactivity as a consequence of reduced vascular hypertrophy.

  13. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na(+) Bound Na(+), K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2017-01-13

    The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na(+), K(+) -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na(+) or K(+) selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations to determine the protonation scheme of the Na(+) bound conformation of NKA. MD simulations of all possible protonation schemes show that the bound Na(+) ions are most stably bound when three or four protons reside in the binding sites, and that Glu954 in site III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na(+) binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na(+) from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na(+) release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na(+) bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na(+) binding and release mechanism of NKA.

  14. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain- sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS- treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES- buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o. Addition of 10 mM Ko to tartrate i,o ghosts, with or without Cli,o, resulted in full activation of Na/K exchange and the pump's electrogenicity

  15. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na+ Bound Na+, K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov’yov, Ilia A.; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na+, K+ -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na+ or K+ selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations to determine the protonation scheme of the Na+ bound conformation of NKA. MD simulations of all possible protonation schemes show that the bound Na+ ions are most stably bound when three or four protons reside in the binding sites, and that Glu954 in site III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na+ binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na+ from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na+ release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na+ bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na+ binding and release mechanism of NKA. PMID:28084301

  16. Stoichiometry and Na+ binding cooperativity of rat and flounder renal type II Na+-Pi cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Forster, I C; Loo, D D; Eskandari, S

    1999-04-01

    The stoichiometry of the rat and flounder isoforms of the renal type II sodium-phosphate (Na+-Pi) cotransporter was determined directly by simultaneous measurements of phosphate (Pi)-induced inward current and uptake of radiolabeled Pi and Na+ in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cotransporters. There was a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Pi uptake into the oocytes; the slope indicated that one net inward charge was transported per Pi. There was also a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Na+ influx; the slope indicated that the influx of three Na+ ions resulted in one net inward charge. This behavior was similar for both isoforms. We conclude that for both Na+-Pi cotransporter isoforms the Na+:Pi stoichiometry is 3:1 and that divalent Pi is the transported substrate. Steady-state activation of the currents showed that the Hill coefficients for Pi were unity for both isoforms, whereas for Na+, they were 1.8 (flounder) and 2.5 (rat). Therefore, despite significant differences in the apparent Na+ binding cooperativity, the estimated Na+:Pi stoichiometry was the same for both isoforms.

  17. Theoretical study of Na-atom emission from NaCl (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchin, Vladimir; Shluger, Alexander; Nakai, Yasuo; Itoh, Noriaki

    1994-04-01

    Several models for the elementary processes causing the emission of alkali atoms by electronic excitation of NaCl (100) surfaces have been investigated theoretically. First, the desorption of a Na atom neighboring an electronically excited F center on the surface is simulated using a quantum-mechanical embedded-cluster technique. It is shown that emission of a Na atom is energetically favorable. The kinetics of this process is shown to be controlled by the probability of a nonradiative transition between the two states: the excited state of the F center and that corresponding to a Na atom desorbing from the surface. The potential barrier for desorption of an excited Na atom from the excited F-center state is found to be 2.1 eV. It is also found that the energy for emission of a Na atom from a cluster of F centers (the F3 center) is considerably reduced (for a certain configuration of the defect) with respect to the similar energy for a single F center. The energy barrier for emission of a Na atom neighboring an F' center on the surface is calculated to be 1 eV. It is shown that the electronic excitation of kinklike sites, with a Na atom at the edge, can lead to a barrierless emission of a Na atom, leaving a Vk-type defect behind. The results of calculations are discussed critically on the basis of existing experimental data.

  18. Influence of sodium halides (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI) on the photocatalytic performance of hydrothermally synthesized hematite photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsinghai; Huang, Mao-Chia; Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Jing-Chie; Lee, Chih-Hao; Wang, Chu-Fang

    2013-08-28

    It has been suggested that a high concentration of Fe(3+) in solution, a low pH, and noncomplexing ions of high ionic strength are all essential for developing a high-quality hematite array. Our curiosity was piqued regarding the role of the electrolyte ions in the hydrothermal synthesis of hematite photoanodes. In this study, we prepared hematite photoanodes hydrothermally from precursor solutions of 0.1 M FeCl3 at pH 1.55 with a background electrolyte of 1.0 M sodium halide (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, or NaI). We compared the structures and properties of the as-obtained hematite photoanodes with those of the material prepared in 1.0 M NaNO3, the most widely adopted electrolyte in previous studies. Among our studied systems, we found that the hematite photoanode prepared in NaCl solution was the only one possessing properties similar to those of the sample obtained from the NaNO3 solution-most importantly in terms of photoelectrochemical performance (ca. 0.2 mA/cm(2) with +0.4 V vs SCE). The hematites obtained from the NaF, NaBr, and NaI solutions exhibited much lower (by approximately 2 orders of magnitude) photocurrent densities under the same conditions, possibly because of their relatively less ordered crystallinity and the absence of rodlike morphologies. Because the synthetic protocol was identical in each case, we believe that these two distinct features reflect the environments in which these hematite photoanodes were formed. Consistent with the latest studies reported in the literature of the X-ray photoelectron spectra of fast-frozen hematite colloids in aqueous solutions, it appears that the degree of surface ion loading at the electrolyte-hematite interface (Stern layer) is critical during the development of hematite photoanodes. We suspect that a lower ion surface loading benefits the hematite developing relatively higher-order and a rodlike texture, thereby improving the photoelectrochemical activity.

  19. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

  20. Quasi-solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi-solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]-4% SiO2/NaClO4-TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm(-1)), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na(+) plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm(-2)). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g(-1) with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g(-1) in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg(-1)). This study makes quasi-solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect.

  1. Quasi–solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]–4% SiO2/NaClO4–TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm−1), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na+ plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm−2). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g−1 with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g−1 in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg−1). This study makes quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect. PMID:28164158

  2. Electrophysiological Determination of Submembrane Na(+) Concentration in Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Bence; Bányász, Tamás; Shannon, Thomas R; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T

    2016-09-20

    In the heart, Na(+) is a key modulator of the action potential, Ca(2+) homeostasis, energetics, and contractility. Because Na(+) currents and cotransport fluxes depend on the Na(+) concentration in the submembrane region, it is necessary to accurately estimate the submembrane Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]sm). Current methods using Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators or Na(+) -sensitive electrodes cannot measure [Na(+)]sm. However, electrophysiology methods are ideal for measuring [Na(+)]sm. In this article, we develop patch-clamp protocols and experimental conditions to determine the upper bound of [Na(+)]sm at the peak of action potential and its lower bound at the resting state. During the cardiac cycle, the value of [Na(+)]sm is constrained within these bounds. We conducted experiments in rabbit ventricular myocytes at body temperature and found that 1) at a low pacing frequency of 0.5 Hz, the upper and lower bounds converge at 9 mM, constraining the [Na(+)]sm value to ∼9 mM; 2) at 2 Hz pacing frequency, [Na(+)]sm is bounded between 9 mM at resting state and 11.5 mM; and 3) the cells can maintain [Na(+)]sm to the above values, despite changes in the pipette Na(+) concentration, showing autoregulation of Na(+) in beating cardiomyocytes.

  3. Voltage dependence of Na translocation by the Na/K pump.

    PubMed

    Nakao, M; Gadsby, D C

    During each complete reaction cycle, the Na/K pump transports three Na ions out across the cell membrane and two K ions in. The resulting net extrusion of positive charge generates outward membrane current but, until now, it was unclear how that net charge movement occurs. Reasonable possibilities included a single positive charge moving outwards during Na translocation; or a single negative charge moving inwards during K translocation; or either positive or negative charges moving during both translocation steps, but in unequal quantities. Any step that involves net charge movement through the membrane must have voltage-dependent transition rates. Here we report measurements of transient, voltage-dependent, displacement currents generated by the pump when its normal Na/K transport cycle has been interrupted by removal of external K and it is thus constrained to carry out Na/Na exchange. The quantity and voltage sensitivity of the charge moved during these transient currents suggests that Na translocation includes a voltage-dependent transition involving movement of one positive charge across the membrane. This single step can thus fully account for the electrogenic nature of Na/K exchange. The result provides important new insight into the molecular mechanism of active cation transport.

  4. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  5. Dynamics of Na(+)(Benzene) + Benzene Association and Ensuing Na(+)(Benzene)2* Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Amit K; Kolakkandy, Sujitha; Hase, William L

    2015-07-16

    Chemical dynamics simulations were used to study Bz + Na(+)(Bz) → Na(+)(Bz)2* association and the ensuing dissociation of the Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster (Bz = benzene). An interesting and unexpected reaction found from the simulations is direct displacement, for which the colliding Bz molecule displaces the Bz molecule attached to Na(+), forming Na(+)(Bz). The rate constant for Bz + Na(+)(Bz) association was calculated at 750 and 1000 K, and found to decrease with increase in temperature. By contrast, the direct displacement rate constant increases with temperature. The cross section and rate constant for direct displacement are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those for association. The Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster, formed by association, dissociates with a biexponential probability, with the rate constant for the short-time component approximately an order of magnitude larger than that for the longer time component. The latter rate constant agrees with that of Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, consistent with rapid intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and intrinsic RRKM dynamics for the Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster. A coupled phase space model was used to analyze the biexponential dissociation probability.

  6. Low-affinity Na+ uptake in the halophyte Suaeda maritima.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suo-Min; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Flowers, Timothy J

    2007-10-01

    Na(+) uptake by plant roots has largely been explored using species that accumulate little Na(+) into their shoots. By way of contrast, the halophyte Suaeda maritima accumulates, without injury, concentrations of the order of 400 mM NaCl in its leaves. Here we report that cAMP and Ca(2+) (blockers of nonselective cation channels) and Li(+) (a competitive inhibitor of Na(+) uptake) did not have any significant effect on the uptake of Na(+) by the halophyte S. maritima when plants were in 25 or 150 mM NaCl (150 mM NaCl is near optimal for growth). However, the inhibitors of K(+) channels, TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (5 mM), significantly reduced the net uptake of Na(+) from 150 mM NaCl over 48 h, by 54%, 24%, and 29%, respectively. TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (1 mm) also significantly reduced (22)Na(+) influx (measured over 2 min in 150 mM external NaCl) by 47%, 30%, and 31%, respectively. In contrast to the situation in 150 mm NaCl, neither TEA(+) (1-10 mM) nor Cs(+) (0.5-10 mM) significantly reduced net Na(+) uptake or (22)Na(+) influx in 25 mM NaCl. Ba(2+) (at 5 mm) did significantly decrease net Na(+) uptake (by 47%) and (22)Na(+) influx (by 36% with 1 mM Ba(2+)) in 25 mM NaCl. K(+) (10 or 50 mM) had no effect on (22)Na(+) influx at concentrations below 75 mM NaCl, but the influx of (22)Na(+) was inhibited by 50 mM K(+) when the external concentration of NaCl was above 75 mM. The data suggest that neither nonselective cation channels nor a low-affinity cation transporter are major pathways for Na(+) entry into root cells. We propose that two distinct low-affinity Na(+) uptake pathways exist in S. maritima: Pathway 1 is insensitive to TEA(+) or Cs(+), but sensitive to Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under low salinities (25 mM NaCl); pathway 2 is sensitive to TEA(+), Cs(+), and Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under higher external salt concentrations (150 mM NaCl). Pathway 1 might be mediated by a high-affinity K transporter

  7. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dissing, S.; Hoffman, J.F. )

    1990-07-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain-sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS-treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES-buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o.

  8. A thermochemical explanation for the stability of NaCl3 and NaCl7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2017-03-01

    Thermodynamically stable cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 as well as NaCl7 have been synthesized (Zhang et al., 2013). In the present work, a thermochemical explanation for the stability of such unusual sodium chlorides is provided, based on lattice energy values. Using the Glasser-Jenkins generalized equation (Glasser and Jenkins, 2000) lattice energies (kJ mol-1) of -162.5, -168.9 and -113.1 are calculated for Pm3n NaCl3, Pnma NaCl3 and NaCl7, respectively. It is postulated that any NaxCly compound could be synthesized, if the ionic character of the Nasbnd Cl bond in the prepared compound remains around 80%, and the sodium charge below unit.

  9. Changes in Intracellular Na+ following Enhancement of Late Na+ Current in Virtual Human Ventricular Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Karen; Trenor, Beatriz; Giles, Wayne R

    2016-01-01

    The slowly inactivating or late Na+ current, INa-L, can contribute to the initiation of both atrial and ventricular rhythm disturbances in the human heart. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these pro-arrhythmic influences are not fully understood. At present, the major working hypothesis is that the Na+ influx corresponding to INa-L significantly increases intracellular Na+, [Na+]i; and the resulting reduction in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ reduces and (may reverse) Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These changes increase intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i; which may further enhance INa-L due to calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Na+ channels. This paper is based on mathematical simulations using the O'Hara et al (2011) model of baseline or healthy human ventricular action potential waveforms(s) and its [Ca2+]i homeostasis mechanisms. Somewhat surprisingly, our results reveal only very small changes (≤ 1.5 mM) in [Na+]i even when INa-L is increased 5-fold and steady-state stimulation rate is approximately 2 times the normal human heart rate (i.e. 2 Hz). Previous work done using well-established models of the rabbit and human ventricular action potential in heart failure settings also reported little or no change in [Na+]i when INa-L was increased. Based on our simulations, the major short-term effect of markedly augmenting INa-L is a significant prolongation of the action potential and an associated increase in the likelihood of reactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, ICa-L. Furthermore, this action potential prolongation does not contribute to [Na+]i increase.

  10. Changes in Intracellular Na+ following Enhancement of Late Na+ Current in Virtual Human Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Wayne R.

    2016-01-01

    The slowly inactivating or late Na+ current, INa-L, can contribute to the initiation of both atrial and ventricular rhythm disturbances in the human heart. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these pro-arrhythmic influences are not fully understood. At present, the major working hypothesis is that the Na+ influx corresponding to INa-L significantly increases intracellular Na+, [Na+]i; and the resulting reduction in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ reduces and (may reverse) Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These changes increase intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i; which may further enhance INa-L due to calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Na+ channels. This paper is based on mathematical simulations using the O’Hara et al (2011) model of baseline or healthy human ventricular action potential waveforms(s) and its [Ca2+]i homeostasis mechanisms. Somewhat surprisingly, our results reveal only very small changes (≤ 1.5 mM) in [Na+]i even when INa-L is increased 5-fold and steady-state stimulation rate is approximately 2 times the normal human heart rate (i.e. 2 Hz). Previous work done using well-established models of the rabbit and human ventricular action potential in heart failure settings also reported little or no change in [Na+]i when INa-L was increased. Based on our simulations, the major short-term effect of markedly augmenting INa-L is a significant prolongation of the action potential and an associated increase in the likelihood of reactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, ICa-L. Furthermore, this action potential prolongation does not contribute to [Na+]i increase. PMID:27875582

  11. Targeting voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.7, Na V1.8, and Na V1.9 for treatment of pathological cough.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Yukiko; Undem, Bradley J

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) lead to the rational hypothesis that drugs capable of selective blockade of NaV subtypes may be a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of unwanted cough. Among the nine NaV subtypes (NaV1.1-NaV1.9), the afferent nerves involved in initiating cough, in common with nociceptive neurons in the somatosensory system, express mainly NaV1.7, NaV1.8, and NaV1.9. Although knowledge about the effect of selectively blocking these channels on the cough reflex is limited, their biophysical properties indicate that each may contribute to the hypertussive and allotussive state that typifies subacute and chronic nonproductive cough.

  12. Intracellular [Na+], Na+ pathways, and fluid transport in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Kunyan; Li, Yansui; Yiming, Maimaiti; Sánchez, José M; Iserovich, Pavel; Cragoe, E J; Diecke, Friedrich P J; Fischbarg, Jorge

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism of fluid transport across corneal endothelium remains unclear. We examine here the relative contributions of cellular mechanisms of Na+ transport and the homeostasis of intracellular [Na+] in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells, and the influence of ambient Na+ and HCO3- on the deturgescence of rabbit cornea. Bovine corneal endothelial cells plated on glass coverslips were incubated for 60 min with 10 microm of the fluorescent Na+ indicator SBFI precursor in HCO3- HEPES (BH) Ringer's solution. After loading, cells were placed in a perfusion chamber. Indicator fluorescence (490 nm) was determined with a Chance-Legallais time-sharing fluorometer. Its voltage output was the ratio of the emissions excited at 340 and 380 nm. For calibration, cells were treated with gramicidin D. For fluid transport measurements, rabbit corneas were mounted in a Dikstein-Maurice chamber, and stromal thickness was measured with a specular microscope. The steady-state [Na+]i in BH was 14.36+/-0.38 mM (n = mean+/-s.e.). Upon exposure to Na+ -free BH solution (choline substituted), [Na+]i decreased to 1.81+/-0.20mM (n = 19). When going from Na+ -free plus 100 microm ouabain to BH plus ouabain, [Na+]i increased to 46.17+/-2.50 (n = 6) with a half time of 1.26+/-0.04 min; if 0.1 microm phenamil plus ouabain were present, it reached only 21.78+/-1.50mm. The exponential time constants (min-1) were: 0.56+/-0.04 for the Na+ pump; 0.39+/-0.01 for the phenamil sensitive Na+ channel; and 0.17+/-0.02 for the ouabain-phenamil-insensitive pathways. In HCO3- free medium (gluconate substituted), [Na+]i was 14.03+/-0.11mM; upon changing to BH medium, it increased to 30.77+/-0.74 mm. This last [Na+]i increase was inhibited 66% by 100 microm DIDS. Using BH medium, corneal thickness remained nearly constant, increasing at a rate of only 2.9+/-0.9 microm hr-1 during 3 hr. However, stromal thickness increased drastically (swelling rate 36.1+/-2.6 microm hr-1) in corneas superfused with BH

  13. Compact clinical high-NA multiphoton endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton imaging methods are excellent for non-invasive imaging of living tissue without any need of additional contrast agents. The increasing demand for endoscopic techniques has forced the development of multiphoton endoscopes for imaging of areas with reduced accessibility like chronic wounds. Gradient index (GRIN) lenses can miniaturize the bulky distal focusing optics of conventional tomographs to a diameter of less than 1.4 mm and a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.8. We combined a high NA clinical multiphoton endoscope with existing multiphoton tomographs like the DermaInspect® and the MPTflex® to enable the examination of wound healing processes.

  14. Sodium-difluoro(oxalato)borate (NaDFOB): a new electrolyte salt for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juner; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Caiyun; Porter, Spencer; Wang, Baofeng; Lie, Wilford; Liu, Hua Kun

    2015-06-18

    A new electrolyte salt, sodium-difluoro(oxalato)borate (NaDFOB), was synthesized and studied, which enables excellent reversible capacity and high rate capability when used in Na/Na0.44MnO2 half cells. NaDFOB has excellent compatibility with various common solvents used in Na-ion batteries, in strong contrast to the solvent dependent performances of NaClO4 and NaPF6. In addition, NaDFOB possesses good stability and generates no toxic or dangerous products when exposed to air and water. All these properties demonstrate that NaDFOB could be used to prepare high performance electrolytes for emerging Na-ion batteries.

  15. Role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in voltage generation and Na(+) extrusion in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, Thomas; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Brosig, Alexander; Bok, Eva; Schunke, Emina; Steffen, Wojtek; Mayer, Sonja; Götz, Friedrich; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia

    2016-04-01

    For Vibrio cholerae, the coordinated import and export of Na(+) is crucial for adaptation to habitats with different osmolarities. We investigated the Na(+)-extruding branch of the sodium cycle in this human pathogen by in vivo (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy. The Na(+) extrusion activity of cells was monitored after adding glucose which stimulated respiration via the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR). In a V. cholerae deletion mutant devoid of the Na(+)-NQR encoding genes (nqrA-F), rates of respiratory Na(+) extrusion were decreased by a factor of four, but the cytoplasmic Na(+) concentration was essentially unchanged. Furthermore, the mutant was impaired in formation of transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ, inside negative) and did not grow under hypoosmotic conditions at pH8.2 or above. This growth defect could be complemented by transformation with the plasmid encoded nqr operon. In an alkaline environment, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters acidify the cytoplasm at the expense of the transmembrane voltage. It is proposed that, at alkaline pH and limiting Na(+) concentrations, the Na(+)-NQR is crucial for generation of a transmembrane voltage to drive the import of H(+) by electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Our study provides the basis to understand the role of the Na(+)-NQR in pathogenicity of V. cholerae and other pathogens relying on this primary Na(+) pump for respiration.

  16. Electronic Polarisability of NaNO2-NaNO3 and NaOH-NaNO3 Ionic Melts and Effective Ionic Radius of OH-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Ohnishi, Ryosuke; Ohkubo, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Molar volumes and refractive indexes of molten NaNO2-NaNO3 and NaOH-NaNO3 systems were measured by dilatometry and goniometry, respectively. The molar volumes of both systems increased with increasing temperature. Refractive indexes decreased with a rise of temperature or with increasing wavelength of the incident visible light. Assuming that the electronic polarisability is inherent in an ion, the electronic polarisability of a OH- ion in the melt was estimated from the Lorentz-Lorenz equation to be 1.26×10-30 m3, being comparable with that in the crystal. The effective ionic radius of a OH- ion was evaluated from the obtained electronic polarisability to be 1.34×10-10 m, using the correlation between the third power of the ionic radius and the electronic polarisability of an ion so far reported. The effective ionic radius obtained in this work was in good agreement with that assigned by Shannon.

  17. Recent results and prospects from NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzeti, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    A large sample of charged kaon decays in 2007 has been collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN SPS using the experimental setup of the former NA48 experiment. Its intense kaon beam provides an abundant source of tagged neutral pions in vacuum. A measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factor slope of the neutral pion from 1:05 × 106 fully reconstructed π0 Dalitz decays is presented. The obtained preliminary value a = (3.70 ± 0.53stat ± 0.36syst) × 10-2 is the first 5.8σ observation of a non-zero slope in the time-like region of momentum transfer. K+ → π+ vv¯ is a theoretically very clean decay where indirect effects of new physics may be detectable. The NA62 apparatus has been significantly upgraded between 2008 and 2014 in order to measure the branching ratio of this decay with 10% precision. The NA62 experiment took data with the new setup in pilot runs in 2014 and 2015, reaching the design beam intensity. Results of first data quality studies in view of the 2016-2017 physics runs are presented.

  18. Light-induced drift of Na atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werij, H. G. C.; Woerdman, J. P.

    1988-10-01

    Light can induce a flux of optically absorbing particles immersed in a buffer gas, when these particles have a different mobility in the ground and excited state. This paper presents a study of light-induced drift (LID) of Na atoms in noble gases, which can be regarded as the “canonical” system for experiments in this field. We have experimentally studied the LID effect in the optically thin and the optically thick regimes. Parameters which have been varied are laser frequency, laser intensity, buffer gas pressure and buffer gas species. This work gives the first critical comparison of LID experiments with realistic theory in which the multilevel complications of the Na atom have been incorporated. In the optically thick case (“optical piston”) one can distinguish the open cell and the closed cell regimes. Effects of adsorption and desorption of Na atoms at the surface of the cell wall have been incorporated into the theory. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with the results of a four-level rate-equation model for LID which incorporates the fine and hyperfine structure of the level scheme of the Na absorbers.

  19. Mechanisms contributing to the cardiac inotropic effect of Na pump inhibition and reduction of extracellular Na

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Reduction of the transsarcolemmal [Na] gradient in rabbit cardiac muscle leads to an increase in the force of contraction. This has frequently been attributed to alteration of Ca movements via the sarcolemmal Na/Ca exchange system. However, the specific mechanisms that mediate the increased force at individual contractions have not been clearly established. In the present study, the [Na] gradient was decreased by reduction of extracellular [Na] or inhibition of the Na pump by either the cardioactive steroid acetylstrophanthidin or by reduction of extracellular [K]. Contractile performance and changes in extracellular Ca (sensed by double-barreled Ca-selective microelectrodes) were studied in order to elucidate the underlying basis for the increase in force. In the presence of agents that inhibit sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function (10 mM caffeine, 100-500 nM ryanodine), reduction of the [Na] gradient produced increases in contractile force similar to that observed in the absence of caffeine or ryanodine. It is concluded that an intact, functioning SR is not required for the inotropic effect of [Na] gradient reduction (at least in rabbit ventricle). However, this does not exclude a possible contribution of enhanced SR Ca release in the inotropic response to [Na] gradient reduction in the absence of caffeine or ryanodine. Acetylstrophanthidin (3-5 microM) usually leads to an increase in the magnitude of extracellular Ca depletions associated with individual contractions. However, acetylstrophanthidin can also increase extracellular Ca accumulation during the contraction, especially at potentiated contractions. This extracellular Ca accumulation can be suppressed by ryanodine and it is suggested that this apparent enhancement of Ca efflux is secondary to an enhanced release of Ca from the SR. Under conditions where Ca efflux during contractions is minimized (after a rest interval in the presence of ryanodine), acetylstrophanthidin increased both the rate and the

  20. Intracellular Na(+) and metabolic modulation of Na/K pump and excitability in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Yang, Jyh-Jeen; Huang, Rong-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Na/K pump activity and metabolic rate are both higher during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that houses the circadian clock. Here we investigated the role of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity and neuronal excitability. Removal of extracellular K(+) to block the Na/K pump excited SCN neurons to fire at higher rates and return to normal K(+) to reactivate the pump produced rebound hyperpolarization to inhibit firing. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to block the action potentials, both zero K(+)-induced depolarization and rebound hyperpolarization were blocked by the cardiac glycoside strophanthidin. Ratiometric Na(+) imaging with a Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye indicated saturating accumulation of intracellular Na(+) in response to pump blockade with zero K(+). The Na(+) ionophore monensin also induced Na(+) loading and hyperpolarized the membrane potential, with the hyperpolarizing effect of monensin abolished in zero Na(+) or by pump blockade. Conversely, Na(+) depletion with Na(+)-free pipette solution depolarized membrane potential but retained residual Na/K pump activity. Cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation blocked the Na/K pump to depolarize resting potential and increase spontaneous firing in most cells, and to raise intracellular Na(+) levels in all cells. Nonetheless, the Na/K pump was incompletely blocked by cyanide but completely blocked by iodoacetate to inhibit glycolysis, indicating the involvement of both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in fueling the Na/K pump. Together, the results indicate the importance of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity as well as neuronal excitability in the SCN neurons.

  1. [Regulation of the Na/Ca exchanger].

    PubMed

    DiPolo, R; Rojas, H; Beaugé, L

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of the squid giant axon preparation to studies on Ca homeostasis has proven very useful in laying the foundations in the study of Ca regulation. In particular the Na/Ca exchange mechanism has been characterized in terms of its regulatory processes using the well define technique of intracellular dialysis and membrane potential control. The Na/Ca exchange countertransport system plays a critical role in physiological processes including cardiac contractility and photoreception. It has also been implicate in the etiology of essential hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias and cell death. The ability of the Na/Ca exchanger to regulate the intracellular ionized Ca concentration ([Ca2+i]) under physiological conditions, is determined by the direction (net Ca efflux or Ca influx), and magnitude of transport. The direction of Ca transport is decided by the chemical gradient of sodium and calcium. The magnitude of the exchange is regulated by kinetic factors. This kinetic factors are critical since they decide whether the exchanger will mediate a net Ca movement under certain conditions. Recently, a large effort has been put together to characterize the secondary modulation of the Na/Ca exchanger. In particular modulation by MgATP and intracellular Ca2+. In nerve cells we have discover that MgATP regulates the exchanger through as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation processes most probably relate to the action of a kinase-phosphatase system. The other important ligand that regulates the exchange activity is the level of [Ca2+i]. We have found the presence of a regulatory site in the cytoplasmic face of the exchanger different from the transport site and probably responsible for turning the carrier "on" or "off". In this article we will depict some of the processes involved in the metabolic and ionic regulation of the Na/Ca exchanger.

  2. Laser trapping of {sup 21}Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive {sup 21}Na (t{sub l/2} = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped {sup 21}Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of {sup 21}Na {yields} {sup 21}Ne + {Beta}{sup +} + v{sub e}, which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, {sup 21}Na atoms were produced by bombarding {sup 24}Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The {sup 21}Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined.

  3. The Na4(+3) Clusters in Sodium Sodalite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    ATES COVOIN0i-15-92 Technical 06-01-91 to 05-31-92 4. TITLE ANA SUGTITLE S. RNORNG NUMBER The Na4+ 3 Clusters in Sodium Sodalite NN l14-e0-J-se59a 𔄀...3 [AlSiO 4]3 sodalite prepared by high vacuum deposition of sodium atoms. The samples with a Na 43 +:Na33+ cluster ratio up to 1:10 show a single...absorption feature with -m. = 628 nm (1.99 eV). The absorption originates from the individual sodalite cages containing Na 43+ cluster. For the Na 43+:Na

  4. The solubility of Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) in concentrated NaOH and NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, A.R.; Rai, D.; Fulton, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    Chromium is a major component of the Hanford waste tank sludges, and the presence of Cr in the sludges is a significant concern in the disposal of these sludges because Cr can interfere with the formation of waste glasses. One of the current pretreatment strategies for removing constituents that can interfere with glass formation, such as P and Cr, is to wash/dissolve the sludges in basic NaOH solutions. The solubility of Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) was measured in concentrated NaOH ranging in concentration from 0.1M to 6.0M and in NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions with fixed NaOH concentration and variable NaNO{sub 3} concentration at room temperature (22--23 C). Equilibrium between solids and solutions was approached relatively slowly and required approximately 60--70 days before steady-state concentrations were reached. A thermodynamic model, based upon the Pitzer equations, was developed from the solubility data in NaOH, which includes only two aqueous Cr species (Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NaCr(OH){sub 4}(aq)) and ion-interaction parameters for Na{sup +} with Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}}. This model was then tested in the mixed NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions and found to be reliable.

  5. Effects of non-uniform root zone salinity on water use, Na+ recirculation, and Na+ and H+ flux in cotton.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Li, Weijiang

    2012-03-01

    A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100 mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150 mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the non- and low salinity side. Non-uniform treatments decreased Na(+) concentrations in leaves. The [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots of the 0/200 treatment was significantly higher than that in either side of the 0/0 control, but greatly decreased when the '0' side phloem was girdled, suggesting that the increased [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots was possibly due to transportation of foliar Na(+) to roots through phloem. Plants under non-uniform salinity extruded more Na(+) from the root than those under uniform salinity. Root Na(+) efflux in the low salinity side was greatly enhanced by the higher salinity side. NaCl-induced Na(+) efflux and H(+) influx were inhibited by amiloride and sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that root Na(+) extrusion was probably due to active Na(+)/H(+) antiport across the plasma membrane. Improved plant growth under non-uniform salinity was thus attributed to increased water use, reduced leaf Na(+) concentration, transport of excessive foliar Na(+) to the low salinity side, and enhanced Na(+) efflux from the low salinity root.

  6. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-01

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO 2 and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 °C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO 2/Al 2O 3, H 2O/Na 2O and Na 2O/SiO 2 molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH 4+-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m 2/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m 2/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of ˜3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously.

  7. Regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility by phospholemman: Na+/Ca2+ exchange versus Na+ -K+ -ATPase.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Cheskis, Ellina; Chan, Tung O; Feldman, Arthur M; Tucker, Amy L; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2008-10-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) regulates cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in cardiac myocytes. PLM, when phosphorylated at Ser(68), disinhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but inhibits NCX1. PLM regulates cardiac contractility by modulating Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and/or NCX1. In this study, we first demonstrated that adult mouse cardiac myocytes cultured for 48 h had normal surface membrane areas, t-tubules, and NCX1 and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase levels, and retained near normal contractility, but alpha(1)-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was slightly decreased. Differences in contractility between myocytes isolated from wild-type (WT) and PLM knockout (KO) hearts were preserved after 48 h of culture. Infection with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) did not affect contractility at 48 h. When WT PLM was overexpressed in PLM KO myocytes, contractility and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transients reverted back to those observed in cultured WT myocytes. Both Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase current (I(pump)) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (I(NaCa)) in PLM KO myocytes rescued with WT PLM were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes. Overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant (phosphomimetic) in PLM KO myocytes resulted in the suppression of I(NaCa) but had no effect on I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. Overexpressing the PLMS68A mutant (mimicking unphosphorylated PLM) in PLM KO myocytes had no effect on I(NaCa) but decreased I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the S68A mutant were similar to PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. We conclude that at the single-myocyte level, PLM affects cardiac contractility and [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis primarily by its direct

  8. Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherng, Jing-Yih; Bennion, Douglas N.

    1987-09-01

    A study was made of a high specific energy battery based on a sodium negative electrode and a chlorine positive electrode with molten AlCl3-NaCl electrolyte and a solid beta alumina separator. The basic performance of a Na beta-alumina NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell at 200 C was demonstrated. This cell can be started at 150 C. The use of melting sodium chloroaluminate electrolyte overcomes some of the material problems associated with the high working temperatures of present molten salt systems, such as Na/S and LiAl/FeS, and retains the advantages of high energy density and relatively efficient electrode processes. Preliminary investigations were conducted on a sodium-chlorine static cell, material compability, electrode design, wetting, and theoretical calculations to assure a better chance of success before assembling a Na/Cl2 circulating cell. Mathematical models provide a theoretical explanation for the performance of the NaCl2 battery. The results of mathematical models match the experimental results very well. According to the result of the mathematical modeling, an output at 180 mA/sq cm and 3.2 V can be obtained with optimized cell design.

  9. Final-state symmetry of Na 1s core-shell excitons in NaCl and NaF

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, K.P.; Seidler, G.T.; Shirley, E.L.; Fister, T.T.; Bradley, J.A.; Brown, F.C.

    2009-08-13

    We report measurements of the Na 1s contribution to the nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) from NaCl and NaF. Prior x-ray absorption studies have observed two pre-edge excitons in both materials. The momentum-transfer dependence (q dependence) of the measured NRIXS cross section and of real-space full multiple scattering and Bethe-Salpeter calculations determine that the higher-energy core excitons are s type for each material. The lower-energy core excitons contribute at most weakly to the NRIXS signal and we propose that these may be surface core excitons, as have been observed in several other alkali halides. The analysis of the orbital angular momentum of these features leads to a discussion of the limited sensitivity of NRIXS measurements to d-type final states when investigating 1s initial states. In this case the s- and p-type final density of states can be characterized by measurements at a small number of momentum transfers. This is in contrast to the case of more complex initial states for which measurements at a large number of momentum transfers are needed to separate the rich admixture of accessible and contributing final-state symmetries.

  10. Computational interpretation of 23Na MQMAS NMR spectra: A comprehensive investigation of the Na environment in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzzi, Elisa; Charpentier, Thibault; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Pedone, Alfonso

    2014-09-01

    Molecular dynamics, density functional theory calculations and 23Na NMR experiments have been used to inspect the chemical and structural characteristics of the Na environment in soda-lime silicate (CSN) and aluminosilicate (CASN) glasses. The use of an improved 3QMAS pulse sequence has allowed a clear identification of different Na sites. Average coordination numbers have been extracted by fitting the 23Na 3QMAS spectra with the computed NMR parameters. The results show that the 23Na δiso values correlate with the average <Na-O> distances only when the different coordination numbers are explicitly taken into account.

  11. Elementary immunology: Na(+) as a regulator of immunity.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Valentin; Neubert, Patrick; Schröder, Agnes; Binger, Katrina; Gebhard, Matthias; Müller, Dominik N; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens; Jantsch, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The skin can serve as an interstitial Na(+) reservoir. Local tissue Na(+) accumulation increases with age, inflammation and infection. This increased local Na(+) availability favors pro-inflammatory immune cell function and dampens their anti-inflammatory capacity. In this review, we summarize available data on how NaCl affects various immune cells. We particularly focus on how salt promotes pro-inflammatory macrophage and T cell function and simultaneously curtails their regulatory and anti-inflammatory potential. Overall, these findings demonstrate that local Na(+) availability is a promising novel regulator of immunity. Hence, the modulation of tissue Na(+) levels bears broad therapeutic potential: increasing local Na(+) availability may help in treating infections, while lowering tissue Na(+) levels may be used to treat, for example, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Mechanisms and regulation of Na(+) uptake by freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F

    2012-12-01

    Mechanisms of ion uptake by freshwater (FW) fish have received considerable attention over the past 80 years. Through an assortment of techniques incorporating whole animal physiology, electrophysiology and molecular biological approaches, three models have been proposed to account for Na(+) uptake. (1) Direct exchange of Na(+) and H(+) via one or more types of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (slc9), (2) uptake of Na(+) through epithelial Na(+) channels energized by an electrical gradient created by H(+)-ATPase and (3) Na(+)/Cl(-) co-transport (slc12). While each mechanism is supported at least in part by theoretical or experimental data, there are several outstanding questions that have not yet been fully resolved. Furthermore, there are few details concerning how these Na(+) uptake mechanisms are fine tuned in response to the fluctuating FW environments. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of these three Na(+) uptake mechanisms and discuss their regulation by endocrine (cortisol and prolactin) and neurohumoral (catecholamines) factors.

  13. An enhancement to the NA4 gear vibration diagnostic parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1994-01-01

    A new vibration diagnostic parameter for health monitoring of gears, NA4*, is proposed and tested. A recently developed gear vibration diagnostic parameter NA4 outperformed other fault detection methods at indicating the start and initial progression of damage. However, in some cases, as the damage progressed, the sensitivity of the NA4 and FM4 parameters tended to decrease and no longer indicated damage. A new parameter, NA4* was developed by enhancing NA4 to improve the trending of the parameter. This allows for the indication of damage both at initiation and also as the damage progresses. The NA4* parameter was verified and compared to the NA4 and FM4 parameters using experimental data from single mesh spur and spiral bevel gear fatigue rigs. The primary failure mode for the test cases was naturally occurring tooth surface pitting. The NA4* parameter is shown to be a more robust indicator of damage.

  14. U. S. EPA’S NA APPROACH FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most evaluations of NA of petroleum hydrocarbons use geochemical data to document the NA through biodegradation. The expected trends during biodegradation (plume interior vs. background concentrations) are Dissolved oxygen concentrations below background, Nitrate concentrations ...

  15. Inelastic and reactive collisions with polarized excited Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Hertel, I.V.; Lee, Y.T.

    1985-07-01

    Polarization effects in inelastic collisions of laser state-prepared Na(3/sup 2/P, M/sub J/) with Na/sup +/ leading to Na(3/sup 2/D) or Na(3/sup 2/S) are discussed for the energy range E/sub cm/ = 5-47.5eV. Studies with linearly polarized light can be explained with a simple ''locking'' model of the Na(P)-orbital. The investigations employing circularly polarized light are a very sensitive test of the models describing the nonadiabatic angular momentum coupling between electronic and nuclear motion. The dynamical effects of the electronic spin on the angular momentum transfer are discussed. Recent crossed-beam experiments on the Na + O/sub 2/ -> NaO = O reaction in the energy range E/sub cm/ = 0/3-0.8eV show a pronounced dependence on the electric electronic symmetry of Na. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Design of Na(+) -Selective Fluorescent Probes: A Systematic Study of the Na(+) -Complex Stability and the Na(+) /K(+) Selectivity in Acetonitrile and Water.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Thomas; Müller, Holger; Schmidt, Darya; Riemer, Janine; Holdt, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-02-14

    There is a tremendous demand for highly Na(+) -selective fluoroionophores to monitor the top analyte Na(+) in life science. Here, we report a systematic route to develop highly Na(+) /K(+) selective fluorescent probes. Thus, we synthesized a set of fluoroionophores 1, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9 (see Scheme ) to investigate the Na(+) /K(+) selectivity and Na(+) - complex stability in CH3 CN and H2 O. These Na(+) -probes bear different 15-crown-5 moieties to bind Na(+) stronger than K(+) . In the set of the diethylaminocoumarin-substituted fluoroionophores 1-5, the following trend of fluorescence quenching 1>3>2>4>5 in CH3 CN was observed. Therefore, the flexibility of the aza-15-crown-5 moieties in 1-4 determines the conjugation of the nitrogen lone pair with the aromatic ring. As a consequence, 1 showed in CH3 CN the highest Na(+) -induced fluorescence enhancement (FE) by a factor of 46.5 and a weaker K(+) induced FE of 3.7. The Na(+) -complex stability of 1-4 in CH3 CN is enhanced in the following order of 2>4>3>1, assuming that the O-atom of the methoxy group in the ortho-position, as shown in 2, strengthened the Na(+) -complex formation. Furthermore, we found for the N-(o-methoxyphenyl)aza-15-crown-5 substituted fluoroionophores 2, 8 and 9 in H2 O, an enhanced Na(+) -complex stability in the following order 8>2>9 and an increased Na(+) /K(+) selectivity in the reverse order 9>2>8. Notably, the Na(+) -induced FE of 8 (FEF=10.9), 2 (FEF=5.0) and 9 (FEF=2.0) showed a similar trend associated with a decreased K(+) -induced FE [8 (FEF=2.7)>2 (FEF=1.5)>9 (FEF=1.1)]. Here, the Na(+) -complex stability and Na(+) /K(+) selectivity is also influenced by the fluorophore moiety. Thus, fluorescent probe 8 (Kd =48 mm) allows high-contrast, sensitive, and selective Na(+) measurements over extracellular K(+) levels. A higher Na(+) /K(+) selectivity showed fluorescent probe 9, but also a higher Kd value of 223 mm. Therefore, 9 is a suitable tool to measure Na(+) concentrations up to

  17. Na+-driven bacterial flagellar motors.

    PubMed

    Imae, Y; Atsumi, T

    1989-12-01

    Bacterial flagellar motors are the reversible rotary engine which propels the cell by rotating a helical flagellar filament as a screw propeller. The motors are embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane, and the energy for rotation is supplied by the electrochemical potential of specific ions across the membrane. Thus, the analysis of motor rotation at the molecular level is linked to an understanding of how the living system converts chemical energy into mechanical work. Based on the coupling ions, the motors are divided into two types; one is the H+-driven type found in neutrophiles such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and the other is the Na+-driven type found in alkalophilic Bacillus and marine Vibrio. In this review, we summarize the current status of research on the rotation mechanism of the Na+-driven flagellar motors, which introduces several new aspects in the analysis.

  18. The two C-terminal tyrosines stabilize occluded Na/K pump conformations containing Na or K ions.

    PubMed

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C

    2010-07-01

    Interactions of the three transported Na ions with the Na/K pump remain incompletely understood. Na/K pump crystal structures show that the extended C terminus of the Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) alpha subunit directly contacts transmembrane helices. Deletion of the last five residues (KETYY in almost all Na/K pumps) markedly lowered the apparent affinity for Na activation of pump phosphorylation from ATP, a reflection of cytoplasmic Na affinity for forming the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation. ATPase assays further suggested that C-terminal truncations also interfere with low affinity Na interactions, which are attributable to extracellular effects. Because extracellular Na ions traverse part of the membrane's electric field to reach their binding sites in the Na/K pump, their movements generate currents that can be monitored with high resolution. We report here electrical measurements to examine how Na/K pump interactions with extracellular Na ions are influenced by C-terminal truncations. We deleted the last two (YY) or five (KESYY) residues in Xenopus laevis alpha1 Na/K pumps made ouabain resistant by either of two kinds of point mutations and measured their currents as 10-mM ouabain-sensitive currents in Xenopus oocytes after silencing endogenous Xenopus Na/K pumps with 1 microM ouabain. We found the low affinity inhibitory influence of extracellular Na on outward Na/K pump current at negative voltages to be impaired in all of the C-terminally truncated pumps. Correspondingly, voltage jump-induced transient charge movements that reflect pump interactions with extracellular Na ions were strongly shifted to more negative potentials; this signals a several-fold reduction of the apparent affinity for extracellular Na in the truncated pumps. Parallel lowering of Na affinity on both sides of the membrane argues that the C-terminal contacts provide important stabilization of the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation, regardless of the route of Na ion entry into the

  19. The NA62 experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the NA62 experiment at CERN is to collect O(100) events of the ultrarare K+→ π +ν bar {ν } decay in two years. After a long R&D phase and a successful pilot run in 2014, the first data-taking phase took place in 2015. In this paper the importance of the experiment's physics goal, as well as the experimental solutions adopted in order to attain it, will be reviewed.

  20. The complex lightcurve of 1992 NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, Wieslaw Z.; Harris, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Amor asteroid 1992 NA was monitored during three nights at a large phase angle of -65 deg. The lightcurves obtained did not reveal a repeatable curve with two maxima and two minima. However, some features suggested a periodicity with three maxima and three minima. A satisfactory composite lightcurve of this form was obtained by means of an 'eyeball' fit and by Fourier analysis. Individual and composite lightcurves are presented. The observed colors are consistent with the C class.

  1. Spontaneous NA+ transients in individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Azarias, Guillaume; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Unser, Michael; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondria in intact cells maintain low Na(+) levels despite the large electrochemical gradient favoring cation influx into the matrix. In addition, they display individual spontaneous transient depolarizations. The authors report here that individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit spontaneous increases in their Na(+) concentration (Na(mit)(+) spiking), as measured using the mitochondrial probe CoroNa Red. In a field of view with approximately 30 astrocytes, up to 1,400 transients per minute were typically detected under resting conditions. Na(mit)(+) spiking was also observed in neurons, but was scarce in two nonneural cell types tested. Astrocytic Na(mit)(+) spikes averaged 12.2 +/- 0.8 s in duration and 35.5 +/- 3.2 mM in amplitude and coincided with brief mitochondrial depolarizations; they were impaired by mitochondrial depolarization and ruthenium red pointing to the involvement of a cation uniporter. Na(mit)(+) spiking activity was significantly inhibited by mitochondrial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition and sensitive to cellular pH and Na(+) concentration. Ca(2+) played a permissive role on Na(mit)(+) spiking activity. Finally, the authors present evidence suggesting that Na(mit)(+) spiking frequency was correlated with cellular ATP levels. This study shows that, under physiological conditions, individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit fast Na(+) exchange across their inner membrane, which reveals a new form of highly dynamic and localized functional regulation.

  2. Glial Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in pathophysiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Boscia, Francesca; Begum, Gulnaz; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Sirabella, Rossana; Cuomo, Ornella; Casamassa, Antonella; Sun, Dandan; Annunziato, Lucio

    2016-10-01

    Sodium dynamics are essential for regulating functional processes in glial cells. Indeed, glial Na(+) signaling influences and regulates important glial activities, and plays a role in neuron-glia interaction under physiological conditions or in response to injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Emerging studies indicate that Na(+) pumps and Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes regulate Na(+) homeostasis and play a fundamental role in modulating glial activities in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduced the emerging roles of each glial cell type in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and myelin diseases. Then, we discussed the current knowledge on the main roles played by the different glial Na(+) -dependent ion transporters, including Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchangers, Na(+) /H(+) exchangers, Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporters, and Na(+) - HCO3- cotransporter in the pathophysiology of the diverse CNS diseases. We highlighted their contributions in cell survival, synaptic pathology, gliotransmission, pH homeostasis, and their role in glial activation, migration, gliosis, inflammation, and tissue repair processes. Therefore, this review summarizes the foundation work for targeting Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in glia as a novel strategy to control important glial activities associated with Na(+) dynamics in different neurological disorders. GLIA 2016;64:1677-1697.

  3. Route, mechanism, and implications of proton import during Na+/K+ exchange by native Na+/K+-ATPase pumps.

    PubMed

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C

    2014-04-01

    A single Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three Na(+) outwards and two K(+) inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na(+) than K(+) generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na(+)/K(+) pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K(+) and Na(+) ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K(+) and Na(+) concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na(+) release from phosphorylated Na(+)/K(+) pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an acidic side chain and to be subsequently released to the cytoplasm. This back-step of phosphorylated Na(+)/K(+) pumps that enables proton import is not required for completion of the 3 Na(+)/2 K(+) transport cycle. However, the back-step occurs readily during Na(+)/K(+) transport when external K(+) ion binding and occlusion are delayed, and it occurs more frequently when lowered extracellular pH raises the probability of protonation of the externally accessible carboxylate side chain. The proton route passes through the Na(+)-selective binding site III and is distinct from the principal pathway traversed by the majority of transported Na(+) and K(+) ions that passes through binding site II. The inferred occurrence of Na(+)/K(+) exchange and H(+) import during the same conformational cycle of a single molecule identifies the Na(+)/K(+) pump as a hybrid transporter. Whether Na(+)/K(+) pump-mediated proton inflow may have any physiological or

  4. pNaKtide inhibits Na/K-ATPase reactive oxygen species amplification and attenuates adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Komal; Maxwell, Kyle; Yan, Yanling; Liu, Jiang; Chaudhry, Muhammad A.; Getty, Morghan; Xie, Zijian; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice fed a high-fat diet corroborated our in vitro observations. Administration of pNaKtide in these mice reduced body weight gain, restored systemic redox and inflammatory milieu, and, crucially, improved insulin sensitivity. Thus, we propose that inhibition of Na/K-ATPase amplification of oxidative stress may ultimately be a novel way to combat obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26601314

  5. Zero-gravity growth of NaF-NaCl eutectics in the NASA Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Allen, F. G.; Yu, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, were produced in space and on earth. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture is attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It is shown that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis. A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelengths is known. Experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  6. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Dracatos, Peter M.; Payne, Jennifer; Di Pietro, Antonio; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Plummer, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An) O-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (KO) mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC). An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI) and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2. PMID:27598152

  7. Effect of Na+ on surface fractal dimension of compacted bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, G. S.; Xu, Y. F.; Jiang, H.

    2015-05-01

    Compacted Tsukinuno bentonite was immersed into NaCl solutions of different concentrations in oedometers, and the surface fractal dimension of bentonite-saline association was measured by nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The application of the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equation and the Neimark thermodynamic method to nitrogen adsorption isotherms indicated that the surface roughness was greater for the bentonite-saline association. The surface fractal dimension of bentonite increased in the NaCl solution with low Na+ concentration, but decreased at high Na+ concentration. This process was accompanied by the same tendency in specific surface area and microporosity with the presence of Na+ coating in the clay particles.

  8. Na+-K+ pump regulation and skeletal muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben

    2003-10-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation may cause loss of K+, increased extracellular K+ ([K+]o), intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i), and depolarization. Since these events interfere with excitability, the processes of excitation can be self-limiting. During work, therefore, the impending loss of excitability has to be counterbalanced by prompt restoration of Na+-K+ gradients. Since this is the major function of the Na+-K+ pumps, it is crucial that their activity and capacity are adequate. This is achieved in two ways: 1) by acute activation of the Na+-K+ pumps and 2) by long-term regulation of Na+-K+ pump content or capacity. 1) Depending on frequency of stimulation, excitation may activate up to all of the Na+-K+ pumps available within 10 s, causing up to 22-fold increase in Na+ efflux. Activation of the Na+-K+ pumps by hormones is slower and less pronounced. When muscles are inhibited by high [K+]o or low [Na+]o, acute hormone- or excitation-induced activation of the Na+-K+ pumps can restore excitability and contractile force in 10-20 min. Conversely, inhibition of the Na+-K+ pumps by ouabain leads to progressive loss of contractility and endurance. 2) Na+-K+ pump content is upregulated by training, thyroid hormones, insulin, glucocorticoids, and K+ overload. Downregulation is seen during immobilization, K+ deficiency, hypoxia, heart failure, hypothyroidism, starvation, diabetes, alcoholism, myotonic dystrophy, and McArdle disease. Reduced Na+-K+ pump content leads to loss of contractility and endurance, possibly contributing to the fatigue associated with several of these conditions. Increasing excitation-induced Na+ influx by augmenting the open-time or the content of Na+ channels reduces contractile endurance. Excitability and contractility depend on the ratio between passive Na+-K+ leaks and Na+-K+ pump activity, the passive leaks often playing a dominant role. The Na+-K+ pump is a central target for regulation of Na+-K+ distribution and excitability, essential for second

  9. Na+ channel function, regulation, structure, trafficking and sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Shaw, Robin M; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Sack, Jon T; Abriel, Hugues; Aldrich, Richard W; Belardinelli, Luiz; Cannell, Mark B; Catterall, William A; Chazin, Walter J; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Deschenes, Isabelle; Grandi, Eleonora; Hund, Thomas J; Izu, Leighton T; Maier, Lars S; Maltsev, Victor A; Marionneau, Celine; Mohler, Peter J; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rasmusson, Randall L; Sobie, Eric A; Clancy, Colleen E; Bers, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second of a series of three reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on Na+ channel function and regulation, Na+ channel structure and function, and Na+ channel trafficking, sequestration and complexing. PMID:25772290

  10. Jahn–Teller Assisted Na Diffusion for High Performance Na Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Di; Liu, Lei; Bo, Shou-Hang; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-08-30

    Na energy storage technology is strategically attractive for large scale applications such as grid energy storage. Here, we show in this paper that there is a clear relation between the Jahn$-$Teller activity of a transition metal ion at the end of charge and the mobility of Na in a cathode material. This is particularly important as mobility at the end of charge limits the capacity of current materials. Consequently, by using this classical piece of physics in the battery world, it is possible to create higher capacity Na-cathode materials. Even more exciting is that the ideal element to impart this effect on cathodes is Fe, which is the least expensive of the transition metal oxides and can therefore enable low cost cathode materials.

  11. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-15

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO{sub 2} and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 deg. C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m{sup 2}/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m{sup 2}/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of {approx}3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously. - Graphical Abstract: Novel Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composite.

  12. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions.

  13. Neutron spectroscopy of water dynamics in NaX and NaA zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitakahara, William A.; Wada, Noboru

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of water molecules in zeolites NaA and NaX by high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering methods. Between 260 and 310 K, the local translational diffusive motion of water in the zeolites is one to two orders of magnitude slower than in bulk water. The Q dependence of the scattering shows effects of confinement and the presence of both relatively mobile and immobile molecules. The speed of the diffusive motion depends strongly on hydration level. Comparison with other hydrated siliceous materials indicates that the host charge per water molecule is a major factor in determining the time scale of diffusion.

  14. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.

  15. 75 FR 39273 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land, Chaves County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... parcels are being proposed for direct sale to the Roswell Gun Club at no less than the appraised fair... property is currently owned by the New Mexico Military Institute and the Roswell Gun Club. The unauthorized... Roswell Gun Club, firing ranges, sightings-in range, small arms firing range, and various earthen...

  16. Intensive Survey of Two Rivers Dam and Reservoir Project, Chaves County, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    County, New Mexico (EIS 1973). There are actually two earthfill structures to control the floodpool, one astride the Rio Hondo and a second across a...River valley (Figure 1). The local hills are carved from Permian limestones and dolomites of the San Andres formation. The Rio Rondo drains parts of the...Pleistocene or earlier) when the local valleys were not as deeply cut -- as they are today. These materials were also used for chipped stone. The Rio

  17. Geohydrologic framework of the Roswell ground-water basin, Chaves and Eddy Counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Welder, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the geohydrology of the Roswell ground-water basin and shows the long-term hydrostatic-head changes in the aquifers. The Roswell ground-water basin consists of a carbonate artesian aquifer overlain by a leaky confining bed, which, in turn is overlain by an alluvial water-table aquifer. The water-table aquifer is hydraulically connected to the Pecos River. Ground-water pumpage from about 1500 wells in the basin was about 378,000 acre-feet in 1978. Irrigation use on about 122,000 acres accounted for 95% of that pumpage. Permeable zones in the artesian aquifer are generally controlled by lithologic changes in the Permian San Andres Limestone and Grayburg Formation and by fractures in the carbonate rock. The thickness of the artesian aquifer in the more heavily pumped part of the basin ranges from 260 to 460 feet. The confining bed is composed of slightly to moderately permeable rocks of the Permian Grayburg, Queen, and Seven Rivers Formations. The shallow aquifer is composed of permeable beds of sand and gravel in the valley-fill alluvium, which is Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene in age. In 1975, the maximum saturated thickness of the valley fill was about 250 feet in depressions northeast of Roswell, south of Dexter, and at Artesia. Hydrostatic heads in the artesian aquifer declined 230 feet in the south part of the basin from 1905 to 1975. The maximum decline in the head of the shallow aquifer from 1938 to 1975 was 120 feet. The chloride concentration of ground-water samples collected in 1978 ranged from 15 to 7000 milligrams per liter for the artesian aquifer and from 20 to 3700 milligrams per liter for the shallow aquifer. The chloride content has gradually increased through the years in the eastern parts of both aquifers. 31 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

  18. FT-IR and XRD analysis of natural Na-bentonite and Cu(II)-loaded Na-bentonite.

    PubMed

    Zhirong, Liu; Azhar Uddin, Md; Zhanxue, Sun

    2011-09-01

    Na-bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity and complexation ability. In this work, surface area, total pore volume, mean pore diameter, TG, DTA, FT-IR and XRD were carried out in order to reveal the characteristics of natural Na-bentonite. XRD and FT-IR of natural Na-bentonite (China) and Cu-loaded Na-bentonite as a function of Na-bentonite dosage and temperature using batch technique were characterized in detail, respectively.

  19. FT-IR and XRD analysis of natural Na-bentonite and Cu(II)-loaded Na-bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirong, Liu; Azhar Uddin, Md.; Zhanxue, Sun

    2011-09-01

    Na-bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity and complexation ability. In this work, surface area, total pore volume, mean pore diameter, TG, DTA, FT-IR and XRD were carried out in order to reveal the characteristics of natural Na-bentonite. XRD and FT-IR of natural Na-bentonite (China) and Cu-loaded Na-bentonite as a function of Na-bentonite dosage and temperature using batch technique were characterized in detail, respectively.

  20. The NA62 experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccini, Mauro

    2016-11-01

    The rare decays K → πvv¯ are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleanness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking for the decay K+ → π+vv¯, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The diverse and innovative experimental techniques will be explained and some preliminary results obtained during the 2014 pilot run will be reviewed.

  1. Status of the NA62 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Vito

    2016-04-01

    The rare decays {{{K}}^ + } to {π ^ + }{{ν bar ν }} are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleaness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The physics prospects and the status of the experiment will be reviewed after the commissioning run of 2014 and the data taking in 2015.

  2. The NA62 Gigatracker pixel detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Fiorini, M.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Noy, M.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2010-05-01

    The silicon tracker for the NA62 experiment has to provide both a time resolution of 150 ps rms and a space resolution of about 100 μm rms. These challenging specifications require the development of a new readout electronics in order to address the problem of measuring the tracks arrival time with such a high channel density. Moreover, the high particle density (up to 1.5 MHz/mm2 in the center and 0.8-1 GHz in total) requires a high speed measurement and data transmission in order to keep the dead time below 1%.

  3. Novel regulation of cell [Na(+)] in macula densa cells: apical Na(+) recycling by H-K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Bell, P Darwin

    2002-02-01

    Na-K-ATPase is the nearly ubiquitous enzyme that maintains low-Na(+), high-K(+) concentrations in cells by actively extruding Na(+) in exchange for K(+). The prevailing paradigm in polarized absorbing epithelial cells, including renal nephron segments and intestine, has been that Na-K-ATPase is restricted to the basolateral membrane domain, where it plays a prominent role in Na(+) absorption. We have found, however, that macula densa (MD) cells lack functionally and immunologically detectable amounts of Na-K-ATPase protein. In fact, these cells appear to regulate their cytosolic [Na(+)] via another member of the P-type ATPase family, the colonic form of H-K-ATPase, which is located at the apical membrane in these cells. We now report that this constitutively expressed apical MD colonic H-K-ATPase can function as a Na(H)-K-ATPase and regulate cytosolic [Na(+)] in a novel manner. This apical Na(+)-recycling mechanism may be important as part of the sensor function of MD cells and represents a new paradigm in cell [Na(+)] regulation.

  4. Penning and associative ionization in crossed-beam Na/Na collisions assisted by strong resonant laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, J.; Polak-Dingels, P.

    1981-01-01

    We observe the production of Na/sub 2//sup +/ and Na/sup +/ arising from single collisions between crossed beams of sodium atoms when a laser field is tuned near the Na(3p /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3p /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/) transitions. Measurements of ion intensity vs laser intensity show that at moderately high power true laser-induced processes dominate over purely collisional effects. Relative intensity of mass-selected ions produced at either member of the Na resonance doublet shows conclusively that Na/sup +/ does not arise simply from photodissociation of Na/sub 2//sup +/ but must result from a direct, laser-induced collisional ionization.

  5. Vanadate sensitivity of Na+, K+-ATPase from Schistosoma mansoni and its modulation by Na+, K+ and Mg2+.

    PubMed

    Noel, F; Pardon, R S

    1989-01-01

    Vanadate inhibitory effects on Na+, K+-ATPases from carcass of Schistosoma mansoni and from lamb kidney outer medulla were compared in the presence of various concentrations of Na+, K+ and Mg2+. Depending on the ionic conditions, the schistosomal Na+, K+-ATPase was 2.4- to 175-fold less sensitive to vanadate than the lamb kidney enzyme. In 100 mM Na+, 3 mM K+ and 3 mM Mg2+, schistosomal Na+, K+-ATPase was surprisingly resistant to vanadate (I50 = 944 microM). The difference in vanadate sensitivity between schistosomal and lamb Na+, K+-ATPases may be due to a species difference in the efficacy of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ in promoting conformational changes between E1 and E2 forms of the enzyme.

  6. NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7: novel single crystal pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, M. B.; Krizan, J. W.; Plumb, K. W.; McQueen, T. M.; Cava, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of three previously unreported A2B2F7 pyrochlore materials, NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7 are presented. In these compounds, either S  =  2Fe2+ or S  =  5/2Mn2+ is on the B site, while nonmagnetic Na and Ca (Na and Sr) are disordered on the A site. The materials, which were grown as crystals via the floating zone method, display high effective magnetic moments and large Curie-Weiss thetas. Despite these characteristics, no ordering transition is detected. However, freezing of the magnetic spins, characterized by peaks in the susceptibility or specific heat, is observed at very low temperatures. The empirical frustration index, f  =  -θ CW/T f, for the materials are 36 (NaSrMn2F7), 27 (NaSrFe2F7), and 19 (NaCaFe2F7). AC susceptibility, DC susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements are used to characterize the observed spin glass behavior. The results suggest that the compounds are frustrated pyrochlore antiferromagnets with weak bond disorder. The magnetic phenomena that these fluoride pyrochlores exhibit, in addition to their availability as relatively large single crystals, make them promising candidates for the study of geometric magnetic frustration.

  7. The NA62 GigaTracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglieri Rinella, G.; Feito, D. Alvarez; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Bonacini, S.; Ceccucci, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Gil, E. Cortina; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Degrange, J.; Fiorini, M.; Gamberini, E.; Gianoli, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Minucci, E.; Morel, M.; Noël, J.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Romagnoli, G.; Ruggiero, G.; Velghe, B.; Wahl, H.

    2017-02-01

    The GigaTracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+ →π+ ν ν bar at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm2 and provide single-hit timing with 200 ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 0.5% X0 per station. The tracker comprises three 60.8 mm×27 mm stations installed in vacuum (∼10-6 mbar) and cooled with liquid C6F14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside a few hundred micron thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 μm thick silicon sensor read out by 2×5 custom 100 μm thick ASICs, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40×45 asynchronous pixels, 300 μm×300 μm each and is instrumented with 100 ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2 Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 and 2015 NA62 runs.

  8. Elevated intracellular Na(+) concentrations in developing spinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lindsly, Casie; Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Wenner, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Over 25 years ago it was first reported that intracellular chloride levels (Cl(-)in ) were higher in developing neurons than in maturity. This finding has had significant implications for understanding the excitability of developing networks and recognizing the underlying causes of hyperexcitability associated with disease and neural injury. While there is some evidence that intracellular sodium levels (Na(+)in ) change during the development of non-neural cells, it has largely been assumed that Na(+)in is the same in developing and mature neurons. Here, using the sodium indicator SBFI, we test this idea and find that Na(+)in is significantly higher in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons than in maturity. We find that Na(+)in reaches ~ 60 mM in mid-embryonic development and is then reduced to ~ 30 mM in late embryonic development. By retrogradely labeling motoneurons with SBFI we can reliably follow Na(+)in levels in vitro for hours. Bursts of spiking activity, and blocking voltage-gated sodium channels did not influence observed motoneuron sodium levels. On the other hand, Na(+)in was reduced by blocking the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1, and was highly sensitive to changes in external Na(+) and a blocker of the Na(+) /K(+) ATPase. Our findings suggest that the Na(+) gradient is weaker in embryonic neuronal development and strengthens in maturity in a manner similar to that of Cl(-) .

  9. Minimizing Load Effects on NA4 Gear Vibration Diagnostic Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2001-01-01

    NA4 is a vibration diagnostic parameter, developed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, for health monitoring of gears in helicopter transmissions. The NA4 reacts to the onset of gear pitting damage and continues to react to the damage as it spreads. This research also indicates NA4 reacts similarly to load variations. The sensitivity of NA4 to load changes will substantially affect its performance on a helicopter gearbox that experiences continuously changing load throughout its flight regimes. The parameter NA4 has been used to monitor gear fatigue tests at constant load. At constant load, NA4 effectively detects the onset of pitting damage and tracks damage severity. Previous research also shows that NA4 reacts to changes in load applied to the gears in the same way it reacts to the onset of pitting damage. The method used to calculate NA4 was modified to minimize these load effects. The modified NA4 parameter was applied to four sets of experimental data. Results indicate the modified NA4 is no longer sensitive to load changes, but remains sensitive to pitting damage.

  10. Rydberg States of Na-doped Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabbels, Marcel

    2008-03-01

    The dynamics of excited states of Na atoms deposited on the surface of helium nanodroplets has been investigated with velocity map ion imaging, photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass-spectroscopy. For the first time, the excitation spectra of Na-doped helium nanodroplets corresponding to Rydberg states of Na atoms have been measured from the lowest excited 3p state up to the ionization threshold. All lines in the excitation spectra are shifted and broadened with respect to the corresponding atomic lines. In addition to bare Na* atoms also Na*HeN (N = 1-6) exciplexes are detected upon excitation. Photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the desorption of Na* not only in the initially excited states but also in lower lying states, indicating that relaxation plays an important role. The recorded velocity distributions show interesting characteristics: for the lowest states the mean kinetic energy of Na* increases linearly with excitation energy. The velocity distributions of Na*HeN exciplexes do not manifest such remarkable properties. The observations can be largely explained by assuming that the interaction of Na* with the helium nanodroplet can be described by the sum of Na*-He pair potentials.

  11. Direct interaction of Na-azide with the KATP channel.

    PubMed

    Trapp, S; Ashcroft, F M

    2000-11-01

    1. The effects of the metabolic inhibitor sodium azide were tested on excised macropatches from Xenopus oocytes expressing cloned ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels of the Kir6.2/SUR1 type. 2. In inside-out patches from oocytes expressing Kir6.2 delta C36 (a truncated form of Kir6.2 that expresses in the absence of SUR), intracellular Na-azide inhibited macroscopic currents with an IC50 of 11 mM. The inhibitory effect of Na-azide was mimicked by the same concentration of NaCl, but not by sucrose. 3. Na-azide and NaCl blocked Kir6.2/SUR1 currents with IC50 of 36 mM and 19 mM, respectively. Inhibition was abolished in the absence of intracellular Mg2+. In contrast, Kir6.2 delta C36 currents were inhibited by Na-azide both in the presence or absence of intracellular Mg2+. 4. Kir6.2/SUR1 currents were less sensitive to 3 mM Na-azide in the presence of MgATP. This apparent reduction in sensitivity is caused by a small activatory effect of Na-azide conferred by SUR. 5. We conclude that, in addition to its well-established inhibitory effect on cellular metabolism, which leads to activation of KATP channels in intact cells, intracellular Na-azide has direct effects on the KATP channel. Inhibition is intrinsic to Kir6.2, is mediated by Na+, and is modulated by SUR. There is also a small, ATP-dependent, stimulatory effect of Na-azide mediated by the SUR subunit. The direct effects of 3 mM Na-azide on KATP channels are negligible in comparison to the metabolic activation produced by the same Na-azide concentration.

  12. Theoretical calculation of low-lying states of NaAr and NaXe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskowski, B. C.; Langhoff, S. R.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Potential curves as well as dipole moments and linking transition moments are calculated for the ground X 2 Sigma + and low lying excited A 2 Pi, B 2 Sigma +, C 2 Sigma +, (4) 2 Sigma +, (2) 2 Pi and (1) 2 Delta states of NaAr and NaXe. Calculations are performed using a self-consistent field plus configuration-interaction procedure with the core electrons replaced by an ab initio effective core potential. The potential curves obtained are found to be considerably less repulsive than the semiempirical curves of Pascale and Vandeplanque (1974) and to agree well with existing experimental data, although the binding energies of those states having potential minima due to van der Waals interactions are underestimated. Emission bands are also calculated for the X 2 Sigma + - C 2 Sigma + excimer transitions of NaAr and NaXe using the calculated transition moments and potential curves, and shown to agree well with experiment on the short-wavelength side of the maximum.

  13. 24Mg(p, α)21Na reaction study for spectroscopy of 21Na

    DOE PAGES

    Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Kim, A.; ...

    2015-11-03

    The Mg-24(p, alpha)Na-21 reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain the spins and parities of the energy levels in Na-21 for the astrophysically important F-17(alpha, p)Ne-20 reaction rate calculation. 31-MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched Mg-24 solid targets were used. When recoiling He-4 particles from the Mg-24(p, alpha)Na-21 reaction we used a highly segmented silicon detector array to detect them; it measured the yields of He-4 particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A observed a new level at 6661 ± 5 keVmore » in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of Na-21 and the results from distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract the angular momentum transfer.« less

  14. Regulation of persistent Na current by interactions between beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels.

    PubMed

    Aman, Teresa K; Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Chen, Chunling; Rusconi, Raffaella; Slat, Emily A; Isom, Lori L; Raman, Indira M

    2009-02-18

    The beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels (Scnxb) regulate the gating of pore-forming alpha subunits, as well as their trafficking and localization. In heterologous expression systems, beta1, beta2, and beta3 subunits influence inactivation and persistent current in different ways. To test how the beta4 protein regulates Na channel gating, we transfected beta4 into HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells stably expressing Na(V)1.1. Unlike a free peptide with a sequence from the beta4 cytoplasmic domain, the full-length beta4 protein did not block open channels. Instead, beta4 expression favored open states by shifting activation curves negative, decreasing the slope of the inactivation curve, and increasing the percentage of noninactivating current. Consequently, persistent current tripled in amplitude. Expression of beta1 or chimeric subunits including the beta1 extracellular domain, however, favored inactivation. Coexpressing Na(V)1.1 and beta4 with beta1 produced tiny persistent currents, indicating that beta1 overcomes the effects of beta4 in heterotrimeric channels. In contrast, beta1(C121W), which contains an extracellular epilepsy-associated mutation, did not counteract the destabilization of inactivation by beta4 and also required unusually large depolarizations for channel opening. In cultured hippocampal neurons transfected with beta4, persistent current was slightly but significantly increased. Moreover, in beta4-expressing neurons from Scn1b and Scn1b/Scn2b null mice, entry into inactivated states was slowed. These data suggest that beta1 and beta4 have antagonistic roles, the former favoring inactivation, and the latter favoring activation. Because increased Na channel availability may facilitate action potential firing, these results suggest a mechanism for seizure susceptibility of both mice and humans with disrupted beta1 subunits.

  15. [Na] and [K] dependence of the Na/K pump current-voltage relationship in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Na/K pump current was determined between -140 and +60 mV as steady- state, strophanthidin-sensitive, whole-cell current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, voltage-clamped and internally dialyzed via wide- tipped pipettes. Solutions were designed to minimize all other components of membrane current. A device for exchanging the solution inside the pipette permitted investigation of Na/K pump current-voltage (I-V) relationships at several levels of pipette [Na] [( Na]pip) in a single cell; the effects of changes in external [Na] [( Na]o) or external [K] [( K]o) were also studied. At 50 mM [Na]pip, 5.4 mM [K]o, and approximately 150 mM [Na]o, Na/K pump current was steeply voltage dependent at negative potentials but was approximately constant at positive potentials. Under those conditions, reduction of [Na]o enhanced pump current at negative potentials but had little effect at positive potentials: at zero [Na]o, pump current was only weakly voltage dependent. At 5.4 mM [K]o and approximately 150 mM [Na]o, reduction of [Na]pip from 50 mM scaled down the sigmoid pump I-V relationship and shifted it slightly to the right (toward more positive potentials). Pump current at 0 mV was activated by [Na]pip according to the Hill equation with best-fit K0.5 approximately equal to 11 mM and Hill coefficient nH approximately equal to 1.4. At zero [Na]o, reduction of [Na]pip seemed to simply scale down the relatively flat pump I-V relationship: Hill fit parameters for pump activation by [Na]pip at 0 mV were K0.5 approximately equal to 10 mM, nH approximately equal to 1.4. At 50 mM [Na]pip and high [Na]o, reduction of [K]o from 5.4 mM scaled down the sigmoid I-V relationship and shifted it slightly to the right: at 0 mV, K0.5 approximately equal to 1.5 mM and nH approximately equal to 1.0. At zero [Na]o, lowering [K]o simply scaled down the flat pump I-V relationships yielding, at 0 mV, K0.5 approximately equal to 0.2 mM, nH approximately equal to 1.1. The voltage

  16. Coordinated regulation of cardiac Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger and Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase by phospholemman (FXYD1).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Chan, Tung O; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Koch, Walter J; Feldman, Arthur M; Wang, JuFang

    2013-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is the founding member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport. PLM is a 72-amino acid protein consisting of the signature PFXYD motif in the extracellular N terminus, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing three phosphorylation sites. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. The TM domain of PLM interacts with TM9 of the α-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, while its cytoplasmic tail interacts with two small regions (spanning residues 248-252 and 300-304) of the proximal intracellular loop of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Under stress, catecholamine stimulation phosphorylates PLM at serine(68), resulting in relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by decreasing K(m) for Na(+) and increasing V(max), and simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity lowers intracellular Na(+), thereby minimizing Ca(2+) overload and risks of arrhythmias. Inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger reduces Ca(2+) efflux, thereby preserving contractility. Thus, the coordinated actions of PLM during stress serve to minimize arrhythmogenesis and maintain inotropy. In acute cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure, either expression or phosphorylation of PLM or both are altered. PLM regulates important ion transporters in the heart and offers a tempting target for development of drugs to treat heart failure.

  17. Pyrophosphate-Fueled Na+ and H+ Transport in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Malinen, Anssi M.; Luoto, Heidi H.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In its early history, life appeared to depend on pyrophosphate rather than ATP as the source of energy. Ancient membrane pyrophosphatases that couple pyrophosphate hydrolysis to active H+ transport across biological membranes (H+-pyrophosphatases) have long been known in prokaryotes, plants, and protists. Recent studies have identified two evolutionarily related and widespread prokaryotic relics that can pump Na+ (Na+-pyrophosphatase) or both Na+ and H+ (Na+,H+-pyrophosphatase). Both these transporters require Na+ for pyrophosphate hydrolysis and are further activated by K+. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of H+- and Na+-pyrophosphatases has been another recent breakthrough in the studies of these cation pumps. Structural and functional studies have highlighted the major determinants of the cation specificities of membrane pyrophosphatases and their potential use in constructing transgenic stress-resistant organisms. PMID:23699258

  18. The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Amor, Veronique; Zhang, Chuansheng; Vainshtein, Anna; Zhang, Ao; Zollinger, Daniel R; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Brophy, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior

    2017-01-30

    A high density of Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na(+) channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na(+) channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na(+) channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na(+)channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton.

  19. Neutron diffraction studies of the Na-ion battery electrode materials NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, H. Ben; Essehli, R.; Avdeev, M.; Park, J.-B.; Sun, Y.-K.; Al-Maadeed, M. A.; Belharouak, I.

    2016-06-01

    The new compounds NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 were synthesized by sol-gel method and their crystal structures were determined by using neutron powder diffraction data. These compounds were characterized by galvanometric cycling and cyclic voltammetry. NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 crystallize with a stuffed α-CrPO4-type structure. The structure consists of a 3D-framework made of octahedra and tetrahedra that are sharing corners and/or edges generating channels along [100] and [010], in which the sodium atoms are located. Of significance, in the structures of NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 a statistical disorder Ni2+/Cr3+ was observed on both the 8g and 4a atomic positions, whereas in NaCoCr2(PO4)3 the statistical disorder Co2+/Cr3+ was only observed on the 8g atomic position. When tested as negative electrode materials, NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 delivered specific capacities of 352, 385, and 368 mA h g-1, respectively, which attests to the electrochemical activity of sodium in these compounds.

  20. Simulation of Na D emission near Europa during eclipse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassidy, T.A.; Johnson, R.E.; Geissler, P.E.; Leblanc, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini imaging science subsystem observed Europa in eclipse during Cassini's Jupiter flyby. The disk-resolved observations revealed a spatially nonuniform emission in the wavelength range of 200-1050 nm (clear filters). By building on observations and simulations of Europa's Na atmosphere and torus we find that electron-excited Na in Europa's tenuous atmosphere can account for the observed emission if the Na is ejected preferentially from Europa's dark terrain. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Magnesium correction to the NaKCa chemical geothermometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Potter, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Equations and graphs have been devised to correct for the adverse effects of magnesium upon the Na-K-Ca chemical geothermometer. Either the equations or graphs can be used to determine appropriate temperature corrections for given waters with calculated NaKCa temperatures > 70??C and R 50 are probably derived from relatively cool aquifers with temperatures approximately equal to the measured spring temperature, irrespective of much higher calculated Na-K-Ca temperatures. ?? 1979.

  2. Kinetic properties and Na+ dependence of rheogenic Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport in frog retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    la Cour, M

    1991-01-01

    1. Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport across the retinal membrane of the frog retinal pigment epithelium was studied by means of double-barrelled pH-selective microelectrodes. Transient changes in the intracellular pH were monitored in response to abrupt changes in the Na+ concentration on the retinal side of the epithelium. 2. The experiments were performed as follows. The Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport was inhibited by perfusing the retinal side of the epithelium with a Na(+)-free solution. The co-transport was then stimulated by changing the perfusate from the Na(+)-free solution to a solution which contained from 5 to 110 mM-Na+. The resulting inward Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport produced an intracellular alkalinization, the initial rate of which was used to calculate the initial rate of Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport, JHCO3-. 3. The Na+ dependence of the Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport was studied at two different values of extracellular pH (7.40 and 7.10), at constant extracellular HCO3- concentration (27.5 mM) and at two different extracellular HCO3- concentrations (27.5 mM and 55 mM) at constant extracellular pH (7.40). In these experiments, the calculated values of JHCO3- followed single Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to the extracellular Na+ concentration. 4. The data are consistent with a model in which the co-transporter has a single binding site for the Na+ ion with an apparent affinity constant (apparent Km) of 37 mM. The apparent affinity constant for Na+ was independent of the extracellular concentration of CO3(2-) in the range of 16-65 microM, and of the extracellular HCO3- concentration in the range 27.5-55 mM. 5. The NaCO3- ion-pair hypothesis, in which sodium binds to the co-transporter and is translocated across the cell membrane as the NaCO3- ion pair, was analysed. For stoichiometries 1:2 and 1:3 of the Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport, the NaCO3- ion-pair hypothesis was found incompatible with the data. 6. The intracellular buffer capacity as measured by the CO2 method was

  3. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, S.; Alber, T.; Appelshäuser, H.; Bächler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R. A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Bieser, F.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C. O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F. P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H. L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G. E.; Cramer, J. G.; Csato, P.; Cyprian, M.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Empl, T.; Eschke, J.; Ferguson, M. I.; Fessler, H.; Fischer, H. G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Frankenfeld, U.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gaździcki, M.; Gładysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Günther, J.; Harris, J. W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L. A.; Hlinka, V.; Huang, I.; Hümmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P. G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lévai, P.; Liebicher, K.; Lynen, U.; Malakhov, A. I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Marks, C.; Mayes, B.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mock, A.; Molnár, J.; Nelson, J. M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Pestov, Y.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pimpl, W.; Pinsky, L.; Piper, A.; Porter, R. J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D. J.; Pühlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J. G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H. G.; Röhrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schäfer, E.; Schmidt, R.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schönfelder, S.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G. T. A.; Stelzer, H.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Ströbele, H.; Struck, C.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Szymański, P.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F. Q.; Weerasundara, D. D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T. A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R.

    1999-07-01

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via d E/d x. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

  4. Pion and kaon freezeout in NA44

    SciTech Connect

    NA44 Collaboration

    1994-12-01

    The NA44 spectrometer is optimized for the study of single and two-particle particle spectra near mid-rapidity for transverse momenta below {approx} 1 GeV/c. A large fraction of all pairs in the spectrometer`s acceptance are at low relative momenta, resulting in small statistical uncertainties on the extracted size parameters. In addition, the spectrometer`s clean particle identification allows the authors to measure correlation functions for pions, kaons, and protons. This contribution will concentrate on the source size parameters determined from pion and kaon correlation functions. These size parameters will be compared to calculations from the RQMD event generator and also interpreted in the context of a hydrodynamic model. Finally, the measured single particle spectra will be examined from the viewpoint of hydrodynamics.

  5. Na-Zn liquid metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junli; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin

    2016-11-01

    A new kind of membrane free liquid metal battery was developed. The battery employs liquid sodium and zinc as electrodes both in liquid state, and NaCl-CaCl2 molten salts as electrolyte. The discharge flat voltage is in the range of about 1.4 V-1.8 V, and the cycle efficiency achieved is about 90% at low discharge current densities (below 40 mA cm-2). Moreover, this battery can also be charged and discharged at high current density with good performance. The discharge flat voltage is above 1.1 V when it is discharged at 100 mA cm-2, while it is about 0.8 V with 100% cycle efficiency when it is discharged at 200 mA cm-2. Compared to other reported liquid metal battery, this battery has lower cost, which suggests broad application prospect in energy storage systems for power grid.

  6. Study of OSL in NaF: Ca,Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium Fluoride containing Cu+ ions was prepared by R.A.P. followed by melt-quenching technique. Results on photo, thermo and optically stimulated luminescence in NaF:Ca,Cu are reported. OSL sensitivity of NaF:Ca,Cu is approximately 2 times than that of standard phosphor LMP. The rate of OSL depletion for 90% decay for NaF:Ca,Cu is 0.3 times as that of OSL phosphor LMP. NaF:Ca,Cu thus deserves much more attention than it has received up till now.

  7. New solid conductors of Na/+/ and K/+/ ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Fielder, W. L.; Kautz, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    About 40 structure types for solid conductors of Na(+) and K(+) ions are surveyed. Five compounds in three structure types are discovered to be good solid conductors of alkali metal ions, capable of ion transport with conductivities in the vicinity of 0.00001/ohm-cm at 25 C. These compounds are a bcc form of NaSbO3, an orthorhombic layer structure of the composition 2M2O.3Nb2O5 with M equal to Na or K, and the Na pyrochlores NaTa2O5F and NaTaWO6. Ion exchange is required to produce each of these Na compounds. Only the 2K2O.3Nb2O5 can so far be synthesized directly from the oxides and thus is the only one which can be sintered readily. The niobate is about as good a conductor of K(+) ion as is K-beta alumina. The NaSbO3 compares well with Na beta at 280 C. A number of phase diagrams are developed.

  8. The Physiological Relevance of Na+-Coupled K+-Transport.

    PubMed Central

    Maathuis, FJM.; Verlin, D.; Smith, F. A.; Sanders, D.; Fernandez, J. A.; Walker, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant roots utilize at least two distinct pathways with high and low affinities to accumulate K+. The system for high-affinity K+ uptake, which takes place against the electrochemical K+ gradient, requires direct energization. Energization of K+ uptake via Na+ coupling has been observed in algae and was recently proposed as a mechanism for K+ uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To investigate whether Na+ coupling has general physiological relevance in energizing K+ transport, we screened a number of species, including Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia, wheat, and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), for the presence of Na+-coupled K+ uptake. Rb+-flux analysis and electrophysiological K+-transport assays were performed in the presence and absence of Na+ and provided evidence for a coupling between K+ and Na+ transport in several aquatic species. However, all investigated terrestrial species were able to sustain growth and K+ uptake in the absence of Na+. Furthermore, the addition of Na+ was either without effect or inhibited K+ absorption. The latter characteristic was independent of growth conditions with respect to Na+ status and pH. Our results suggest that in terrestrial species Na+-coupled K+ transport has no or limited physiological relevance, whereas in certain aquatic angiosperms and algae this type of secondary transport energization plays a significant role. PMID:12226467

  9. Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA): a target for antivirals and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jagadesh, Anitha; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2016-08-01

    Influenza, the most common infectious disease, poses a great threat to human health because of its highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, often leading to high morbidity and mortality. Effective vaccination strategies may aid in the prevention and control of recurring epidemics and pandemics associated with this infectious disease. However, antigenic shifts and drifts are major concerns with influenza virus, requiring effective global monitoring and updating of vaccines. Current vaccines are standardized primarily based on the amount of hemagglutinin, a major surface antigen, which chiefly constitutes these preparations along with the varying amounts of neuraminidase (NA). Anti-influenza drugs targeting the active site of NA have been in use for more than a decade now. However, NA has not been approved as an effective antigenic component of the influenza vaccine because of standardization issues. Although some studies have suggested that NA antibodies are able to reduce the severity of the disease and induce a long-term and cross-protective immunity, a few major scientific issues need to be addressed prior to launching NA-based vaccines. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies have shown NA to be a promising target for future influenza vaccines. This review is an attempt to consolidate studies that reflect the strength of NA as a suitable vaccine target. The studies discussed in this article highlight NA as a potential influenza vaccine candidate and support taking the process of developing NA vaccines to the next stage.

  10. Tuning NaYF4 Nanoparticles through Alkaline Earth Doping

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xian; Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Phase and size of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are the most important characteristics that dictate optical properties of these nanoparticles and affect their technological applications. Herein, we present a systematic study to examine the effect of alkaline earth doping on the formation of NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles. We show that alkaline earth doping has a dual function of tuning particle size of hexagonal phase NaYF4 nanoparticles and stabilizing cubic phase NaYF4 nanoparticles depending on composition and concentration of the dopant ions. The study described here represents a facile and general strategy to tuning the properties of NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles. PMID:28348353

  11. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    2013-03-01

    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  12. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  13. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  14. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. E.; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-10-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft to infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The hot portion of the source appears to be highly variable. The authors acknowledge support from NASA through the MESSENGER Participating Scientist Program and Planetary Atmospheres research grants.

  15. Attenuation of Na/K-ATPase Mediated Oxidant Amplification with pNaKtide Ameliorates Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiang; Tian, Jiang; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Maxwell, Kyle; Yan, Yanling; Wang, Xiaoliang; Shah, Preeya T.; Khawaja, Asad A.; Martin, Rebecca; Robinette, Tylor J.; El-Hamdani, Adee; Dodrill, Michael W.; Sodhi, Komal; Drummond, Christopher A.; Haller, Steven T.; Kennedy, David J.; Abraham, Nader G.; Xie, Zijian; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase) can effect the amplification of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined whether attenuation of oxidant stress by antagonism of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification might ameliorate experimental uremic cardiomyopathy induced by partial nephrectomy (PNx). PNx induced the development of cardiac morphological and biochemical changes consistent with human uremic cardiomyopathy. Both inhibition of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification with pNaKtide and induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) markedly attenuated the development of phenotypical features of uremic cardiomyopathy. In a reversal study, administration of pNaKtide after the induction of uremic cardiomyopathy reversed many of the phenotypical features. Attenuation of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification may be a potential strategy for clinical therapy of this disorder. PMID:27698370

  16. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  17. Decomposition reactions for NaAl H4 , Na3 Al H6 , and NaH: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xuezhi; Tanaka, Isao

    2005-01-01

    The electronic properties and lattice dynamics of the sodium alanate phases have been studied by the density functional calculations. The phases include NaAlH4 (space group, I41/a ), Na3AlH6 (space group, P21/n ), and NaH (space group, Fm-3m ). The electronic properties are discussed on the basis of the electronic band structures, the atomic charges, the bond overlap population analysis, and the Born effective charges. The phonon dispersion relations and phonon density of states (DOS) of the phases are calculated by a direct force-constant method. Within the quasiharmonic approximation, the calculated thermodynamic functions including the heat capacity, the vibrational enthalpy, and the vibrational entropy are in good agreement with experimental values. Three decomposition reactions are studied based on the thermodynamic functions. The reactions are (1) NaAlH4→(1)/(3)Na3AlH6+(2)/(3)Al+H2 , (2) (1)/(3)Na3AlH6→NaH+(1)/(3)Al+(1)/(2)H2 , and (3) NaH→Na+(1)/(2)H2 . The reactions (1), (2), and (3) are predicted to take place at 285, 390, and 726K , respectively, which are in good agreement with the experiment (353, 423, and 698K , respectively). The individual contributions to the reactions including the enthalpy and entropy are investigated. We found that the enthalpy for the reaction is almost constant, and the net entropy contribution ( TΔS ) to the reaction is approximately equal to the entropy contribution of the H2 gas molecule (produced in that reaction).

  18. RNA adducts with Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 - Stability and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Montazeri, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Selenium compounds are widely available in dietary supplements and have been extensively studied for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Low blood Se levels were found to be associated with an increased incidence and mortality from various types of cancers. Although many in vivo and clinical trials have been conducted using these compounds, their biochemical and chemical mechanisms of efficacy are the focus of much current research. This study was designed to examine the interaction of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 with RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant RNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various sodium selenate and sodium selenite/polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. Fourier transform infrared, UV-Visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the drug binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3-RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 bind to the major and minor grooves of RNA ( via G, A and U bases) with some degree of the Se-phosphate (PO 2) interaction for both compounds with overall binding constants of K(Na 2SeO 4-RNA) = 8.34 × 10 3 and K(Na 2SeO 3-RNA) = 4.57 × 10 3 M -1. The order of selenium salts-biopolymer stability was Na 2SeO 4-RNA > Na 2SeO 3-RNA. RNA aggregations occurred at higher selenium concentrations. No biopolymer conformational changes were observed upon Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 interactions, while RNA remains in the A-family structure.

  19. A 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, XANES, and high-temperature X-ray diffraction study of NaUO3, Na4UO5, and Na2U2O7.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Raison, P E; Martel, L; Charpentier, T; Farnan, I; Prieur, D; Hennig, C; Scheinost, A C; Konings, R J M; Cheetham, A K

    2014-01-06

    The valence state of uranium has been confirmed for the three sodium uranates NaU(V)O3/[Rn](5f(1)), Na4U(VI)O5/[Rn](5f(0)), and Na2U(VI)2O7/[Rn](5f(0)), using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Solid-state (23)Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements have been performed for the first time, yielding chemical shifts at -29.1 (NaUO3), 15.1 (Na4UO5), and -14.1 and -19 ppm (Na1 8-fold coordinated and Na2 7-fold coordinated in Na2U2O7), respectively. The [Rn]5f(1) electronic structure of uranium in NaUO3 causes a paramagnetic shift in comparison to Na4UO5 and Na2U2O7, where the electronic structure is [Rn]5f(0). A (23)Na multi quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) study on Na2U2O7 has confirmed a monoclinic rather than rhombohedral structure with evidence for two distinct Na sites. DFT calculations of the NMR parameters on the nonmagnetic compounds Na4UO5 and Na2U2O7 have permitted the differentiation between the two Na sites of the Na2U2O7 structure. The linear thermal expansion coefficients of all three compounds have been determined using high-temperature X-ray diffraction: αa = 22.7 × 10(-6) K(-1), αb = 12.9 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 16.2 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = 52.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for NaUO3 in the range 298-1273 K; αa = 37.1 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 6.2 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = 81.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Na4UO5 in the range 298-1073 K; αa = 6.7 × 10(-6) K(-1), αb = 14.4 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 26.8 × 10(-6) K(-1), αβ = -7.8 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = -217.6 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Na2U2O7 in the range 298-573 K. The α to β phase transition reported for the last compound above about 600 K was not observed in the present studies, either by high-temperature X-ray diffraction or by differential scanning calorimetry.

  20. Limitation of heavy-ion fusion: Fusion of aligned /sup 23/Na with /sup 23/Na

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, K.; Becker, K.; Heck, B.; Jaensch, H.; Leucker, H.; Fick, D.; Chacekaplar, R.; Butsch, R.; Kraemer, D.; Moebius, K.h.

    1986-08-18

    The excitation function for fusion of /sup 23/Na with /sup 23/Na was measured in the energy range 40 less than or equal to E/sub c.m./less than or equal to 88.5 MeV. Additionally the tensor analyzing power T/sub 20/ was determined to be T/sub 20/ = -0.0060 +- 0.0125 at E/sub c.m./ = 85 MeV. The results are discussed in terms of an entrance-channel versus a compound-nucleus model for the observed limitation of fusion. A typical entrance-channel model, the surface-friction model, which is able to describe all fusion excitation functions leading to /sup 46/Ti, fails to reproduce the observed value of T/sub 20/. The data are consistent, on the other hand, with the compound-nucleus interpretation.

  1. Path integral study of the correlated electronic states of Na4-Na6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Randall W.

    1990-12-01

    Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is used to study the correlated electronic states of Na4-Na6. Two types of simulations are performed: in the first, the nuclei are allowed to move at finite temperature in order to find the most stable geometries. In agreement with previous calculations, we find that planar structures are the most stable and that there is significant vibrational amplitude at finite temperatures, indicating that the Born-Oppenheimer surface is relatively flat. In the second type of simulation, the nuclei are held fixed at symmetric and asymmetric geometries and the correlated electron density is found. Our results show that the electrons are localized, rather than delocalized as previous workers have concluded from examination of the single-particle orbitals. We find that the best picture of these clusters is that they contain three-center, two-electron bonds.

  2. Expression of diverse Na+ channel messenger RNAs in rat myocardium. Evidence for a cardiac-specific Na+ channel.

    PubMed Central

    Sills, M N; Xu, Y C; Baracchini, E; Goodman, R H; Cooperman, S S; Mandel, G; Chien, K R

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the diversity of Na+ channel gene expression in intact cardiac tissue and purified myocardial cells. The screening of neonatal rat myocardial cell cDNA libraries with a conserved rat brain Na+ channel cDNA probe, resulted in the isolation and characterization of a putative rat cardiac Na+ channel cDNA probe (pCSC-1). The deduced amino acid sequence of pCSC-1 displayed a striking degree of homology with the eel, rat brain-1, and rat brain-2 Na+ channel, thereby identifying pCSC-1 as a related member of the family of Na+ channel genes. Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of a 7-kb CSC-1 transcript in rat cardiac tissue and purified myocardial cells, but little or no detectable expression of CSC-1 in rat brain, skeletal muscle, denervated skeletal muscle, or liver. Using RNase protection and Northern blot hybridization with specific rat brain Na+ channel gene probes, expression of the rat brain-1 Na+ channel was observed in rat myocardium, but no detectable expression of the rat brain-2 gene was found. This study provides evidence for the expression of diverse Na+ channel mRNAs in rat myocardium and presents the initial characterization of a new, related member of the family of Na+ channel genes, which appears to be expressed in a cardiac-specific manner. Images PMID:2544627

  3. Estimating the hydrogen ion concentration in concentrated NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.; Felmy, A.R.; Juracich, S.P.; Rao, F.

    1995-06-01

    Combination glass electrodes were tested for determining H{sup +} concentrations in concentrated pure and mixed NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, as well as natural brine systems. NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and mixtures of NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were analyzed. Correction factors for estimating pC{sub H}{sup +} (negative logarithm of H{sup +} concentration) were determined from measured/observed pH values. Required Gran-type titrations were done with HCl and/or NaOH. The titration method is described and a step-by-step procedure provided; it has been used previously for determining pC{sub H}{sup +} values of synthetic chloride-dominated brines. Precautions are required to determine correction factors for electrolytes that react with H{sup +} or OH{sup {minus}} [sulfate brines for titration with acid; magnesium brines for titration with base because of precipitation of Mg(OH)2]. Correction factors A (pC{sub H}{sup +} = pH{sub ob} + A) from HCl titrations were similar to those from NaOH titrations where the concentration of free H{sup +} was calculated using a thermodynamic model. These values should be applicable to solns with a very large range in measured pH values (2 to 12). Because a large number of solns were titrated with HCl and the A values are similar for HCl and NaOH titrations, the A values for NaCl and Na2SO4 solns were fit as a function of molality to allow extrapolation. For NaCl solns 0 to 6.0 M, A can be obtained by multiplying the molality by 0.159. For Na2SO4 solns 0 to 2.0 M, the values of A can be obtained from (0.221 {minus} 0.549X + 0.201X{sup 2}), where X is the molality of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Orion-Ross electrode evaluations indicated that the A values did not differ significantly for different electrodes. Results suggest that the data in this report can be used to estimate A values for different NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solns even for noncalibrated electrodes.

  4. Temperature-dependent formation of NaCl dihydrate in levitated NaCl and sea salt aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Kiselev, Alexei; Wagner, Robert; Duft, Denis; Leisner, Thomas

    2016-12-28

    Recent laboratory studies indicate that the hydrated form of crystalline NaCl is potentially important for atmospheric processes involving depositional ice nucleation on NaCl dihydrate particles under cirrus cloud conditions. However, recent experimental studies reported a strong discrepancy between the temperature intervals where the efflorescence of NaCl dihydrate has been observed. Here we report the measurements of the volume specific nucleation rate of crystalline NaCl in the aqueous solution droplets of pure NaCl suspended in an electrodynamic balance at constant temperature and humidity in the range from 250 K to 241 K. Based on these measurements, we derive the interfacial energy of crystalline NaCl dihydrate in a supersaturated NaCl solution and determined its temperature dependence. Taking into account both temperature and concentration dependence of nucleation rate coefficients, we explain the difference in the observed fractions of NaCl dihydrate reported in the previous studies. Applying the heterogeneous classical nucleation theory model, we have been able to reproduce the 5 K shift of the NaCl dihydrate efflorescence curve observed for the sea salt aerosol particles, assuming the presence of super-micron solid inclusions (hypothetically gypsum or hemihydrate of CaSO4). These results support the notion that the phase transitions in microscopic droplets of supersaturated solution should be interpreted by accounting for the stochastic nature of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and cannot be understood on the ground of bulk phase diagrams alone.

  5. Na+ and K+ levels in living cells: do they depend on the rate of outward transport of Na+?

    PubMed

    Ling, G N; Ochsenfeld, M M

    1976-01-01

    At 25 degrees C, frog sartorius muslces rapidly gained Na+ and lost K+ in iodoacetamide and pure nitrogen. Beginning at normal levels, the concentrations of these ions in the cells reached those in the surrounding Ringer solution in 140 min. Yet during that time the Na+ efflux rate showed no sign of the slowing down demanded by Na-pump theory. The data support the view that maintenance and alterations of N1+ levels in frog muslce cells reflect adsorption on protein sites and the solubility property of bulk phase water and are independent of the rate at which Na+ leaves the cell surface.

  6. Kinetics and stoichiometry of coupled Na efflux and Ca influx (Na/Ca exchange) in barnacle muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Coupled Na+ exit/Ca2+ entry (Na/Ca exchange operating in the Ca2+ influx mode) was studied in giant barnacle muscle cells by measuring 22Na+ efflux and 45Ca2+ influx in internally perfused, ATP-fueled cells in which the Na+ pump was poisoned by 0.1 mM ouabain. Internal free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, was controlled with a Ca-EGTA buffering system containing 8 mM EGTA and varying amounts of Ca2+. Ca2+ sequestration in internal stores was inhibited with caffeine and a mitochondrial uncoupler (FCCP). To maximize conditions for Ca2+ influx mode Na/Ca exchange, and to eliminate tracer Na/Na exchange, all of the external Na+ in the standard Na+ sea water (NaSW) was replaced by Tris or Li+ (Tris-SW or LiSW, respectively). In both Na-free solutions an external Ca2+ (Cao)-dependent Na+ efflux was observed when [Ca2+]i was increased above 10(-8) M; this efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]i = 0.3 microM (LiSW) to 0.7 microM (Tris-SW). The Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]o = 2.0 mM in LiSW and 7.2 mM in Tris-SW; at saturating [Ca2+]o, [Ca2+]i, and [Na+]i the maximal (calculated) Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was approximately 75 pmol#cm2.s. This efflux was inhibited by external Na+ and La3+ with IC50's of approximately 125 and 0.4 mM, respectively. A Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was also observed in Tris-SW. This Ca2+ influx also required [Ca2+]i greater than 10(-8) M. Internal Ca2+ activated a Nai-independent Ca2+ influx from LiSW (tracer Ca/Ca exchange), but in Tris-SW virtually all of the Cai-activated Ca2+ influx was Nai-dependent (Na/Ca exchange). Half-maximal activation was observed with [Na+]i = 30 mM. The fact that internal Ca2+ activates both a Cao-dependent Na+ efflux and a Nai- dependent Ca2+ influx in Tris-SW implies that these two fluxes are coupled; the activating (intracellular) Ca2+ does not appear to be transported by the exchanger. The maximal (calculated) Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was -25 pmol/cm2.s. At various [Na+]i between 6 and 106 m

  7. Clinical and therapeutic significance of the Na+,K+ pump*.

    PubMed

    Clausen, T

    1998-07-01

    1. The Na+,K+-ATPase or Na+,K+-pump, mediating the active transport of Na+ and K+, which was first identified 40 years ago, is a central target for acute and long-term regulation, as well as for therapeutic intervention. Acute stimulation of the Na+,K+-pump in skeletal muscle by insulin, catecholamines, beta2-agonists or theophylline increases the intracellular uptake of K+ and accounts for the hypokalaemia elicited by these agents. Conversely, digitalis intoxication elicits hyperkalaemia via acute inhibition of the Na+, K+-pump. 2. Simple and accurate methods have been developed for the quantification of the total concentration of Na+,K+-pumps in small (0.5-5 mg) fresh or frozen biopsies of human skeletal muscle, myocardium or other tissues. This has allowed the identification of several long-term regulatory changes in the concentration of this transport system in human tissues. In skeletal muscle, upregulation is induced by training, thyroid hormones or glucocorticoids. Downregulation is seen in hypothyroidism, cardiac insufficiency, myotonic dystrophy, McArdle disease, K+ deficiency and after muscle inactivity. 3. Since the skeletal muscles contain one of the major pools of Na+,K+-pumps, these changes are important for the ability to counterregulate the hyperkalaemia elicited by exercise or the ingestion of K+. Moreover, downregulation or inhibition of the Na+, K+-pumps in skeletal muscle interferes with contractile performance. Since digitalis glycosides bind to the Na+,K+-pump, the muscles constitute a large distribution volume for these agents and are therefore an important determinant for their plasma level. 4. In cardiac insufficiency, the decrease in the concentration of Na+, K+-pumps in the myocardium is over a wide range correlated to the concomitant reduction in ejection fraction. The regulatory and pathophysiological changes in the activity and concentration of Na+, K+-pumps are important for the contractile function of skeletal muscle and heart as

  8. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  9. 33 CFR 147.833 - Na Kika FDS safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Na Kika FDS safety zone. 147.833 Section 147.833 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.833 Na Kika FDS safety zone. (a) Description....

  10. Direct Measurement of {sup 21}Na+{alpha} Stellar Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Binh, D. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kume, N.; Kato, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Tho, N. T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2010-08-12

    The measurement of the resonant alpha scattering and the {sup 21}Na({alpha}, p) reaction were performed for the first time in inverse kinematics with the thick target method using a {sup 21}Na radioisotope (RI) beam. This paper reports the current result of alpha scattering measurement and its astrophysics implication.

  11. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification. PMID:27429967

  12. Resurgent current of voltage-gated Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H; Raman, Indira M

    2014-01-01

    Resurgent Na+ current results from a distinctive form of Na+ channel gating, originally identified in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In these neurons, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels responsible for action potential firing have specialized mechanisms that reduce the likelihood that they accumulate in fast inactivated states, thereby shortening refractory periods and permitting rapid, repetitive, and/or burst firing. Under voltage clamp, step depolarizations evoke transient Na+ currents that rapidly activate and quickly decay, and step repolarizations elicit slower channel reopening, or a ‘resurgent’ current. The generation of resurgent current depends on a factor in the Na+ channel complex, probably a subunit such as NaVβ4 (Scn4b), which blocks open Na+ channels at positive voltages, competing with the fast inactivation gate, and unblocks at negative voltages, permitting recovery from an open channel block along with a flow of current. Following its initial discovery, resurgent Na+ current has been found in nearly 20 types of neurons. Emerging research suggests that resurgent current is preferentially increased in a variety of clinical conditions associated with altered cellular excitability. Here we review the biophysical, molecular and structural mechanisms of resurgent current and their relation to the normal functions of excitable cells as well as pathophysiology. PMID:25172941

  13. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vereninov, Igor A.; Yurinskaya, Valentina E.; Model, Michael A.; Vereninov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1–10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential. PMID:27159324

  14. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells.

    PubMed

    Vereninov, Igor A; Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Model, Michael A; Vereninov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1-10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential.

  15. Interplanetary dust distribution and temporal variability of Mercury's atmospheric Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Kagitani, Masato; Okano, Shoichi

    2009-08-01

    The interplanetary dust (IPD) distribution in the inner solar system is not yet well understood because of lack of direct dust measurements in the inner solar system and so one needs to rely on zodiacal light observations that are difficult to interpret. Mercury has an unstable atmosphere, and the source processes of Na in its atmosphere are unclear. Results of past observations have revealed that the atmospheric Na density has no or low correlation with the solar flux, sunspot number, heliocentric distance, or solar radiation pressure. We show that the variability of Mercury's atmospheric Na density depends strongly on the IPD distribution. That is, Na density is low (high) when Mercury is far away from (close to) the symmetry plane of IPD, and so one can infer the IPD distribution near Mercury orbit from the temporal variability of Na density in Mercury's atmosphere.

  16. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  17. Feasibility study for a secondary Na/S battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Schiff, R.; Brummer, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of a moderate temperature Na battery was studied. This battery is to operate at a temperature in the range of 100-150 C. Two kinds of cathode were investigated: (1) a soluble S cathode consisting of a solution of Na2Sn in an organic solvent and (2) an insoluble S cathode consisting of a transition metal dichalcogenide in contact with a Na(+)ion conducting electrolyte. Four amide solvents, dimethyl acetamide, diethyl acetamide, N-methyl acetamide and acetamide, were investigated as possible solvents for the soluble S cathode. Results of stability and electrochemical studies using these solvents are presented. The dialkyl substituted amides were found to be superior. Although the alcohol 1,3-cyclohexanediol was found to be stable in the presence of Na2Sn at 130 C, its Na2Sn solutions did not appear to have suitable electrochemical properties.

  18. Na-rich layered Na2Ru0.95Zr0.05O3 cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shufeng; Kotobuki, Masashi; Zheng, Feng; Li, Qibin; Xu, Chaohe; Wang, Yu; Li, Wei Dong Z.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2017-02-01

    Structures and electrochemical performances of Na-rich layered cathode Na2RuO3 are studied by substitution of Zr for Ru. Na2Ru0.95Zr0.05O3 exhibits a combination of disordered and ordered stacking state with a weight fraction of ∼61.57% and 38.43%, respectively. The disordered and ordered Na2Ru0.95Zr0.05O3 exhibits reversible capacity of 137 mAh g-1 that is consistent with the theoretical capacity at a current density of 1 C. In addition, the material shows good cyclability with a capacity retention of 77% after 200 cycles at current density of 1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency remains at about 99% during cycling. The structural evolutions of the Na-rich layered Na2Ru0.95Zr0.05O3 during de(sodiation) have been investigated and found to proceed via a biphasic mechanism.

  19. Role of Na+,K+-pumps and transmembrane Na+,K+-distribution in muscle function. The FEPS lecture - Bratislava 2007.

    PubMed

    Clausen, T

    2008-03-01

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase situated in the plasma membrane mediates active extrusion of Na(+) and intracellular accumulation of K(+). This transport system the Na(+),K(+)-pump is the major regulator of the transmembrane distribution of Na(+) and K(+), and is itself subject to regulation by a wide variety of factors in skeletal muscles. The excitation of skeletal muscles is elicited by a rapid influx of Na(+), followed by an equivalent efflux of K(+) across sarcolemmal and t-tubular membranes. Due to their size and sudden onset, these events constitute the major transport challenge for the Na(+),K(+)-pumps. Skeletal muscles contain the largest single pool of K(+) in the organism. During intense exercise, the Na(+),K(+)-pumps cannot readily reaccumulate K(+) into the muscle cells. Therefore, the working muscles undergo a net loss of K(+), causing up to a doubling of the K(+) concentration in the arterial blood plasma in less than 1 min and even larger increases in interstitial K(+). This may induce depolarization, loss of excitability and force, in particular in muscles, where the excitation-induced passive Na(+),K(+)-fluxes are large. During continuous stimulation of isolated rat muscles, there is a highly significant correlation between the rise in extracellular K(+) and the rate of force decline. Fortunately, excitation increases the Na(+),K(+)-pumping rate within seconds. Thus, maximum activation of up to 20-fold above the resting transport rate may be reached in 10 s, with utilization of all available Na(+),K(+)-pumps. In muscles, where excitability is reduced by pre-exposure to high [K(+)]o, acute activation of the Na(+),K(+)-pumps by hormones or intermittent electrical stimulation restores excitability and contractility. In working muscles, the Na(+),K(+)-pumps, due to rapid activation of their large transport capacity, play a dynamic regulatory role in the from second to second ongoing restoration and maintenance of excitability and force. Excitation is a self

  20. Single Na+ channels activated by veratridine and batrachotoxin

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Voltage-sensitive Na+ channels from rat skeletal muscle plasma membrane vesicles were inserted into planar lipid bilayers in the presence of either of the alkaloid toxins veratridine (VT) or batrachotoxin (BTX). Both of these toxins are known to cause persistent activation of Na+ channels. With BTX as the channel activator, single channels remain open nearly all the time. Channels activated with VT open and close on a time scale of 1-10 s. Increasing the VT concentration enhances the probability of channel opening, primarily by increasing the rate constant of opening. The kinetics and voltage dependence of channel block by 21-sulfo-11-alpha-hydroxysaxitoxin are identical for VT and BTX, as is the ionic selectivity sequence determined by bi-ionic reversal potential (Na+ approximately Li+ greater than K+ greater than Rb+ greater than Cs+). However, there are striking quantitative differences in open channel conduction for channels in the presence of the two activators. Under symmetrical solution conditions, the single channel conductance for Na+ is about twice as high with BTX as with VT. Furthermore, the symmetrical solution single channel conductances show a different selectivity for BTX (Na+ greater than Li+ greater than K+) than for VT (Na+ greater than K+ greater than Li+). Open channel current-voltage curves in symmetrical Na+ and Li+ are roughly linear, while those in symmetrical K+ are inwardly rectifying. Na+ currents are blocked asymmetrically by K+ with both BTX and VT, but the voltage dependence of K+ block is stronger with BTX than with VT. The results show that the alkaloid neurotoxins not only alter the gating process of the Na+ channel, but also affect the structure of the open channel. We further conclude that the rate-determining step for conduction by Na+ does not occur at the channel's "selectivity filter," where poorly permeating ions like K+ are excluded. PMID:2435846

  1. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I.

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  2. New results from the NA48 collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NA48 Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The list of new or recent NA48 results is the following: On CP Violation 1) New CP violation measurement in KS to 3 pi0 decays (eta000 parameter) 2) CP Violation measurement in the KL -> pi+pi-e+e- decay channel, where the violation is the maximal observed in the K system (about 15cross-check, no CP violation has been observed in the KS decay into the same final state. Rare KL, KS decays and Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) 1) First measurement of the BR KS -> pi0 gamma gamma. It gives contraints on ChPT development terms in p**n (see also 2). 2) First precision measurement of KS -> gamma gamma. The result is incompatible with ChPT predictions at p**4 order: it gives indications on the need of a 'big' p**6 contribution. 3) Precision measurement of KL to pi0 gamma gamma; the measurement allows the av parameter (vector coupling constant) extraction used to characterize O(p**6) contributions in ChPT. Other new results from ongoing analyses that might be completed and blessed before your conference: Radiative and S.L. hyperon decays (cascade) KS to pi0 e+e- , KS to pi0 mu+mu- Ke3, Kmu3 form factors KL to 4 leptons Ke3 charge asymmetry

  3. In situ fluorescence imaging of glutamate-evoked mitochondrial Na+ responses in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2006-10-01

    Astrocytes can experience large intracellular Na+ changes following the activation of the Na+-coupled glutamate transport. The present study investigated whether cytosolic Na+ changes are transmitted to mitochondria, which could therefore influence their function and contribute to the overall intracellular Na+ regulation. Mitochondrial Na+ (Na+(mit)) changes were monitored using the Na+-sensitive fluorescent probe CoroNa Red (CR) in intact primary cortical astrocytes, as opposed to the classical isolated mitochondria preparation. The mitochondrial localization and Na+ sensitivity of the dye were first verified and indicated that it can be safely used as a selective Na+(mit) indicator. We found by simultaneously monitoring cytosolic and mitochondrial Na+ using sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate and CR, respectively, that glutamate-evoked cytosolic Na+ elevations are transmitted to mitochondria. The resting Na+(mit) concentration was estimated at 19.0 +/- 0.8 mM, reaching 30.1 +/- 1.2 mM during 200 microM glutamate application. Blockers of conductances potentially mediating Na+ entry (calcium uniporter, monovalent cation conductances, K+(ATP) channels) were not able to prevent the Na+(mit) response to glutamate. However, Ca2+ and its exchange with Na+ appear to play an important role in mediating mitochondrial Na+ entry as chelating intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA or inhibiting Na+/Ca2+ exchanger with CGP-37157 diminished the Na+(mit) response. Moreover, intracellular Ca2+ increase achieved by photoactivation of caged Ca2+ also induced a Na+(mit) elevation. Inhibition of mitochondrial Na/H antiporter using ethylisopropyl-amiloride caused a steady increase in Na+(mit) without increasing cytosolic Na+, indicating that Na+ extrusion from mitochondria is mediated by these exchangers. Thus, mitochondria in intact astrocytes are equipped to efficiently sense cellular Na+ signals and to dynamically regulate their Na+ content.

  4. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  5. Tetrodotoxin sensitivity of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current.

    PubMed

    Vornanen, Matti; Hassinen, Minna; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary origin and physiological significance of the tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance of the vertebrate cardiac Na(+) current (I(Na)) is still unresolved. To this end, TTX sensitivity of the cardiac I(Na) was examined in cardiac myocytes of a cyclostome (lamprey), three teleost fishes (crucian carp, burbot and rainbow trout), a clawed frog, a snake (viper) and a bird (quail). In lamprey, teleost fishes, frog and bird the cardiac I(Na) was highly TTX-sensitive with EC(50)-values between 1.4 and 6.6 nmol·L(-1). In the snake heart, about 80% of the I(Na) was TTX-resistant with EC(50) value of 0.65 μmol·L(-1), the rest being TTX-sensitive (EC(50) = 0.5 nmol·L(-1)). Although TTX-resistance of the cardiac I(Na) appears to be limited to mammals and reptiles, the presence of TTX-resistant isoform of Na(+) channel in the lamprey heart suggest an early evolutionary origin of the TTX-resistance, perhaps in the common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  6. Growth and characterization of struvite-Na crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihirkumar J.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium magnesium phosphate heptahydrate [NaMgPO4·7H2O], also known as struvite-Na, is the sodium analog to struvite. Among phosphate containing bio-minerals, struvite has attracted considerable attention, because of its common occurrence in a wide variety of environments. Struvite and family crystals were found as urinary calculi in humans and animals. Struvite-Na crystals were grown by a single diffusion gel growth technique in a silica hydro gel medium. Struvite-Na crystals with different morphologies having transparent to translucent diaphaneity were grown with different growth parameters. The phenomenon of Liesegang rings was also observed with some particular growth parameters. The powder XRD study confirmed the structural similarity of the grown struvite-Na crystals with struvite and found that struvite-Na crystallized in the orthorhombic Pmn21 space group with unit cell parameters such as a= 6.893 Å, b=6.124 Å, c=11.150 Å, and α=β=γ=90°. FT-IR spectra of struvite-Na crystals revealed the presence of functional groups. The TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. The variation of dielectric constant with frequency of applied field was studied in the range from 400 Hz to 100 kHz.

  7. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  8. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Drabińska, Aneta Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  9. Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities of zebrafish NHE3b expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yusuke; Kato, Akira; Hirata, Taku; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (zNHE3b) is highly expressed in the apical membrane of ionocytes where Na+ is absorbed from ion-poor fresh water against a concentration gradient. Much in vivo data indicated that zNHE3b is involved in Na+ absorption but not leakage. However, zNHE3b-mediated Na+ absorption has not been thermodynamically explained, and zNHE3b activity has not been measured. To address this issue, we overexpressed zNHE3b in Xenopus oocytes and characterized its activity by electrophysiology. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to Na+-free media resulted in significant decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) and intracellular Na+ activity (aNai). aNai increased significantly when the cytoplasm was acidified by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. Activity of zNHE3b was inhibited by amiloride or 5-ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA). Although the activity was accompanied by a large hyperpolarization of ∼50 mV, voltage-clamp experiments showed that Na+/H+ exchange activity of zNHE3b is electroneutral. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to medium containing NH3/NH4+ resulted in significant decreases in pHi and aNai and significant increase in intracellular NH4+ activity, indicating that zNHE3b mediates the Na+/NH4+ exchange. In low-Na+ (0.5 mM) media, zNHE3b oocytes maintained aNai of 1.3 mM, and Na+-influx was observed when pHi was decreased by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. These results provide thermodynamic evidence that zNHE3b mediates Na+ absorption from ion-poor fresh water by its Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities. PMID:24401990

  10. Phyla- and Subtype-Selectivity of CgNa, a Na Channel Toxin from the Venom of the Giant Caribbean Sea Anemone Condylactis Gigantea.

    PubMed

    Billen, Bert; Debaveye, Sarah; Béress, Lászlo; Garateix, Anoland; Tytgat, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Because of their prominent role in electro-excitability, voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels have become the foremost important target of animal toxins. These toxins have developed the ability to discriminate between closely related Na(V) subtypes, making them powerful tools to study Na(V) channel function and structure. CgNa is a 47-amino acid residue type I toxin isolated from the venom of the Giant Caribbean Sea Anemone Condylactis gigantea. Previous studies showed that this toxin slows the fast inactivation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(V) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. To illuminate the underlying Na(V) subtype-selectivity pattern, we have assayed the effects of CgNa on a broad range of mammalian isoforms (Na(V)1.2-Na(V)1.8) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This study demonstrates that CgNa selectively slows the fast inactivation of rNa(V)1.3/β(1), mNa(V)1.6/β(1) and, to a lesser extent, hNa(V)1.5/β(1), while the other mammalian isoforms remain unaffected. Importantly, CgNa was also examined on the insect sodium channel DmNa(V)1/tipE, revealing a clear phyla-selectivity in the efficacious actions of the toxin. CgNa strongly inhibits the inactivation of the insect Na(V) channel, resulting in a dramatic increase in peak current amplitude and complete removal of fast and steady-state inactivation. Together with the previously determined solution structure, the subtype-selective effects revealed in this study make of CgNa an interesting pharmacological probe to investigate the functional role of specific Na(V) channel subtypes. Moreover, further structural studies could provide important information on the molecular mechanism of Na(V) channel inactivation.

  11. 23 Na and 17O NMR studies of hyperkagome Na4Ir3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shockley, Abigail; Bert, Fabrice; Orain, Jean-Christophe; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Mendels, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Na4Ir3O8 is a unique case of a 3D corner sharing triangular lattice which can be decorated with quantum spins. It has spurred a lot of theoretical interest as a spin liquid candidate of a new kind where the Hamiltonian might not be thought in terms of a simple Heisenberg case because of spin orbit coupling on the Ir 5d element. We present a comprehensive set of NMR data taken on both the 23Na and 17O sites. We have found that magnetic freezing of all Ir sites sets in below Tf ~ 7.5K ~ 0 . 019 J with a clear hyperfine field transferred from Ir moments and a drastic decrease of 1 /T1 . Above Tf, physical properties are expected to be a landmark of frustration in this exotic geometry. We will discuss our shift and relaxation data in the temperature range of 300K to 7.5 K in the light of published thermodynamic measurements (Y. Okamotoa et al, PRL 99 137207, 2007 and Y. Singh et al, PRB 88 220413(R), 2013) and comment on their implications for the already existing large body of theoretical work.

  12. Structure determination in 55-atom Li-Na and Na-K nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Andrés; López, José M

    2010-09-07

    The structure of 55-atom Li-Na and Na-K nanoalloys is determined through combined empirical potential (EP) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The potential energy surface generated by the EP model is extensively sampled by using the basin hopping technique, and a wide diversity of structural motifs is reoptimized at the DFT level. A composition comparison technique is applied at the DFT level in order to make a final refinement of the global minimum structures. For dilute concentrations of one of the alkali atoms, the structure of the pure metal cluster, namely, a perfect Mackay icosahedron, remains stable, with the minority component atoms entering the host cluster as substitutional impurities. At intermediate concentrations, the nanoalloys adopt instead a core-shell polyicosahedral (p-Ih) packing, where the element with smaller atomic size and larger cohesive energy segregates to the cluster core. The p-Ih structures show a marked prolate deformation, in agreement with the predictions of jelliumlike models. The electronic preference for a prolate cluster shape, which is frustrated in the 55-atom pure clusters due to the icosahedral geometrical shell closing, is therefore realized only in the 55-atom nanoalloys. An analysis of the electronic densities of states suggests that photoelectron spectroscopy would be a sufficiently sensitive technique to assess the structures of nanoalloys with fixed size and varying compositions.

  13. Desensitization by external Na of the cyclic AMP-dependent Na+/H+ antiporter in trout red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romeu, F; Motais, R; Borgese, F

    1988-04-01

    The erythrocytes of the trout, Salmo gairdneri, react to beta-adrenergic stimulation by activating a cyclic AMP-dependent and amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiporter (see Borgese, F., F. Garcia-Romeu, and R. Motais, Journal of General Physiology, 1986, 87:551-566). The present study traces the kinetic behavior of the unidirectional Na fluxes after stimulation by isoproterenol. A very considerable increase (100-fold) of the unidirectional Na influx (JNa(in)) follows the addition of isoproterenol to the erythrocyte suspension. After 1.5 min, JNa(in) falls suddenly, and asymptotically diminishes toward the nonstimulated flux level. The unidirectional Na efflux (JNa(out)) proceeds according to similar kinetics. The decrease of JNa(in) and JNa(out)is not linked to either a change in the driving forces of the transported ions or a decrease of the cyclic AMP concentration but to a desensitization of the Na+/H+ antiporter. This desensitization is dependent on the external Na concentration and is not controlled by internal Na, cell swelling, or external Ca.

  14. (-)-Englerin A-evoked Cytotoxicity Is Mediated by Na+ Influx and Counteracted by Na+/K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Melanie J; Gaunt, Hannah J; Rubaiy, Hussein N; Musialowski, Katie E; Blythe, Nicola M; Vasudev, Naveen S; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Beech, David J

    2017-01-13

    (-)-Englerin A ((-)-EA) has a rapid and potent cytotoxic effect on several types of cancer cell that is mediated by plasma membrane ion channels containing transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) protein. Because these channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, it was initially thought that the cytotoxicity arose as a consequence of Ca(2+) overload. Here we show that this is not the case and that the effect of (-)-EA is mediated by a heteromer of TRPC4 and TRPC1 proteins. Both TRPC4 and TRPC1 were required for (-)-EA cytotoxicity; however, although TRPC4 was necessary for the (-)-EA-evoked Ca(2+) elevation, TRPC1 was not. TRPC1 either had no role or was a negative regulator of Ca(2+) entry. By contrast, both TRPC4 and TRPC1 were necessary for monovalent cation entry evoked by (-)-EA, and (-)-EA-evoked cell death was dependent upon entry of the monovalent cation Na(+) We therefore hypothesized that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase might act protectively by counteracting the Na(+) load resulting from sustained Na(+) entry. Indeed, inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by ouabain potently and strongly increased (-)-EA-evoked cytotoxicity. The data suggest that (-)-EA achieves cancer cell cytotoxicity by inducing sustained Na(+) entry through heteromeric TRPC1/TRPC4 channels and that the cytotoxic effect of (-)-EA can be potentiated by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition.

  15. Robust NaO2 Electrochemistry in Aprotic Na-O2 Batteries Employing Ethereal Electrolytes with a Protic Additive.

    PubMed

    Abate, Iwnetim I; Thompson, Leslie E; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Aetukuri, Nagaphani B

    2016-06-16

    Aprotic metal-oxygen batteries, such as Li-O2 and Na-O2 batteries, are of topical research interest as high specific energy alternatives to state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. In particular, Na-O2 batteries with NaO2 as the discharge product offer higher practical specific energy with better rechargeability and round-trip energy efficiency when compared to Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we show that the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of NaO2 in Na-O2 batteries is unperturbed by trace water impurities in Na-O2 battery electrolytes, which is desirable for practical battery applications. We find no evidence for the formation of other discharge products such as Na2O2·H2O. Furthermore, the electrochemical efficiency during charge remains near ideal in the presence of trace water in electrolytes. Although sodium anodes react with trace water leading to the formation of a high-impedance solid electrolyte interphase, the increase in discharge overpotential is only ∼100 mV when compared to cells employing nominally anhydrous electrolytes.

  16. Desensitization by external Na of the cyclic AMP-dependent Na+/H+ antiporter in trout red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The erythrocytes of the trout, Salmo gairdneri, react to beta- adrenergic stimulation by activating a cyclic AMP-dependent and amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiporter (see Borgese, F., F. Garcia- Romeu, and R. Motais, Journal of General Physiology, 1986, 87:551-566). The present study traces the kinetic behavior of the unidirectional Na fluxes after stimulation by isoproterenol. A very considerable increase (100-fold) of the unidirectional Na influx (JNa(in)) follows the addition of isoproterenol to the erythrocyte suspension. After 1.5 min, JNa(in) falls suddenly, and asymptotically diminishes toward the nonstimulated flux level. The unidirectional Na efflux (JNa(out)) proceeds according to similar kinetics. The decrease of JNa(in) and JNa(out)is not linked to either a change in the driving forces of the transported ions or a decrease of the cyclic AMP concentration but to a desensitization of the Na+/H+ antiporter. This desensitization is dependent on the external Na concentration and is not controlled by internal Na, cell swelling, or external Ca. PMID:2839593

  17. Hole Doping Effects on Spin-gapped Na2Cu2TeO6 via Topochemical Na Deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Kumiko; Itoh, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Kato, Masaki; Hirota, Ken

    2006-08-01

    We report the magnetic susceptibility and NMR studies of a spin-gapped layered compound Na2Cu2TeO6 (the spin gap Δ˜ 250 K), the hole doping effect on the Cu2TeO6 plane via a topochemical Na deficiency by soft chemical treatment, and the static spin vacancy effect by nonmagnetic impurity Zn substitution for Cu. A finite Knight shift at the 125Te site was observed for pure Na2Cu2TeO6. The negative hyperfine coupling constant 125Atr is an evidence for the existence of a superexchange pathway of the Cu-O-Te-O-Cu bond. It turned out that both the Na deficiency and Zn impurities induce a Curie-type magnetism in the uniform spin susceptibility in an external magnetic field of 1 T, but only the Zn impurities enhance the low-temperature 23Na nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate whereas the Na deficiency suppresses it. A spin glass behavior was observed for the Na-deficient samples but not for the Zn-substituted samples. The dynamics of the unpaired moments of the doped holes are different from that of the spin vacancy in the spin-gapped Cu2TeO6 planes.

  18. (−)-Englerin A-evoked Cytotoxicity Is Mediated by Na+ Influx and Counteracted by Na+/K+-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Melanie J.; Gaunt, Hannah J.; Rubaiy, Hussein N.; Musialowski, Katie E.; Blythe, Nicola M.; Vasudev, Naveen S.; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Beech, David J.

    2017-01-01

    (−)-Englerin A ((−)-EA) has a rapid and potent cytotoxic effect on several types of cancer cell that is mediated by plasma membrane ion channels containing transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) protein. Because these channels are Ca2+-permeable, it was initially thought that the cytotoxicity arose as a consequence of Ca2+ overload. Here we show that this is not the case and that the effect of (−)-EA is mediated by a heteromer of TRPC4 and TRPC1 proteins. Both TRPC4 and TRPC1 were required for (−)-EA cytotoxicity; however, although TRPC4 was necessary for the (−)-EA-evoked Ca2+ elevation, TRPC1 was not. TRPC1 either had no role or was a negative regulator of Ca2+ entry. By contrast, both TRPC4 and TRPC1 were necessary for monovalent cation entry evoked by (−)-EA, and (−)-EA-evoked cell death was dependent upon entry of the monovalent cation Na+. We therefore hypothesized that Na+/K+-ATPase might act protectively by counteracting the Na+ load resulting from sustained Na+ entry. Indeed, inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase by ouabain potently and strongly increased (−)-EA-evoked cytotoxicity. The data suggest that (−)-EA achieves cancer cell cytotoxicity by inducing sustained Na+ entry through heteromeric TRPC1/TRPC4 channels and that the cytotoxic effect of (−)-EA can be potentiated by Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. PMID:27875305

  19. K+-induced natriuresis is preserved during Na+ depletion and accompanied by inhibition of the Na+-Cl- cotransporter.

    PubMed

    van der Lubbe, Nils; Moes, Arthur D; Rosenbaek, Lena L; Schoep, Sharon; Meima, Marcel E; Danser, Alexander H J; Fenton, Robert A; Zietse, Robert; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2013-10-15

    During hypovolemia and hyperkalemia, the kidneys defend homeostasis by Na(+) retention and K(+) secretion, respectively. Aldosterone mediates both effects, but it is unclear how the same hormone can evoke such different responses. To address this, we mimicked hypovolemia and hyperkalemia in four groups of rats with a control diet, low-Na(+) diet, high-K(+) diet, or combined diet. The low-Na(+) and combined diets increased plasma and kidney ANG II. The low-Na(+) and high-K(+) diets increased plasma aldosterone to a similar degree (3-fold), whereas the combined diet increased aldosterone to a greater extent (10-fold). Despite similar Na(+) intake and higher aldosterone, the high-K(+) and combined diets caused a greater natriuresis than the control and low-Na(+) diets, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). This K(+)-induced natriuresis was accompanied by a decreased abundance but not phosphorylation of the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). In contrast, the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) increased in parallel with aldosterone, showing the highest expression with the combined diet. The high-K(+) and combined diets also increased WNK4 but decreased Nedd4-2 in the kidney. Total and phosphorylated Ste-20-related kinase were also increased but were retained in the cytoplasm of distal convoluted tubule cells. In summary, high dietary K(+) overrides the effects of ANG II and aldosterone on NCC to deliver sufficient Na(+) to ENaC for K(+) secretion. K(+) may inhibit NCC through WNK4 and help activate ENaC through Nedd4-2.

  20. Characterization and antibacterial activity of silver exchanged regenerated NaY zeolite from surfactant-modified NaY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Salim, Mashitah Mad; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading.

  1. Determinants of substrate and cation transport in the human Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC3.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Avner; Sun, Nina N; Colas, Claire; Pajor, Ana M

    2014-06-13

    Metabolic intermediates, such as succinate and citrate, regulate important processes ranging from energy metabolism to fatty acid synthesis. Cytosolic concentrations of these metabolites are controlled, in part, by members of the SLC13 gene family. The molecular mechanism underlying Na(+)-coupled di- and tricarboxylate transport by this family is understood poorly. The human Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC3 (SLC13A3) is found in various tissues, including the kidney, liver, and brain. In addition to citric acid cycle intermediates such as α-ketoglutarate and succinate, NaDC3 transports other compounds into cells, including N-acetyl aspartate, mercaptosuccinate, and glutathione, in keeping with its dual roles in cell nutrition and detoxification. In this study, we construct a homology structural model of NaDC3 on the basis of the structure of the Vibrio cholerae homolog vcINDY. Our computations are followed by experimental testing of the predicted NaDC3 structure and mode of interaction with various substrates. The results of this study show that the substrate and cation binding domains of NaDC3 are composed of residues in the opposing hairpin loops and unwound portions of adjacent helices. Furthermore, these results provide a possible explanation for the differential substrate specificity among dicarboxylate transporters that underpin their diverse biological roles in metabolism and detoxification. The structural model of NaDC3 provides a framework for understanding substrate selectivity and the Na(+)-coupled anion transport mechanism by the human SLC13 family and other key solute carrier transporters.

  2. Regulation of the cardiac Na+ channel NaV1.5 by post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Marionneau, Céline; Abriel, Hugues

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac voltage-gated Na(+) channel, Na(V)1.5, is responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiomyocytes and for efficient propagation of the electrical impulse in the myocardium. Even subtle alterations of Na(V)1.5 function, as caused by mutations in its gene SCN5A, may lead to many different arrhythmic phenotypes in carrier patients. In addition, acquired malfunctions of Na(V)1.5 that are secondary to cardiac disorders such as heart failure and cardiomyopathies, may also play significant roles in arrhythmogenesis. While it is clear that the regulation of Na(V)1.5 protein expression and function tightly depends on genetic mechanisms, recent studies have demonstrated that Na(V)1.5 is the target of various post-translational modifications that are pivotal not only in physiological conditions, but also in disease. In this review, we examine the recent literature demonstrating glycosylation, phosphorylation by Protein Kinases A and C, Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein Kinase II, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinases, Fyn and Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, methylation, acetylation, redox modifications, and ubiquitylation of Na(V)1.5. Modern and sensitive mass spectrometry approaches, applied directly to channel proteins that were purified from native cardiac tissues, have enabled the determination of the precise location of post-translational modification sites, thus providing essential information for understanding the mechanistic details of these regulations. The current challenge is first, to understand the roles of these modifications on the expression and the function of Na(V)1.5, and second, to further identify other chemical modifications. It is postulated that the diversity of phenotypes observed with Na(V)1.5-dependent disorders may partially arise from the complex post-translational modifications of channel protein components.

  3. Beyond lithium-ion batteries: A computational study on Na-S and Na-O batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masedi, M. C.; Ngoepe, P. E.; Sithole, H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The first principle pseudopotential calculations based on the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within density functional theory (DFT) has been utilized to investigate the stabilities of insoluble discharge products of oxygen and sulphur in the Na-O and Na-S batteries. Their structural, mechanical and electronic properties were determined. The lattice parameters were well reproduced and agree with the available experimental data. The heats of formation predict that all structures are generally stable and Na2S has the lowest value. The elastic constants suggest that all the structures are mechanically stable which in good agreement with the calculated phonon dispersions.

  4. Infrared and SEM analyses of polyethyleneglycol-400 adsorbed on zeolites NaA, CaA, NaX and NaY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Nuri; Ucun, Fatih; Didem Muhtar, A.; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of polyethyleneglycol-400 (PEG-400) on zeolites NaA, CaA, NaX and NaY have been investigated by using FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses. The spectral data have indicated that the source of adsorption of the PEG-400 on the mentioned zeolites is the interaction between the (OH) group of the liquid adsorbent and the surface silanol groups of the zeolites by means of a hydrogen bond. Shortly, the PEG binds with the silanol groups through the hydrogen bonding where the ethereal oxygen acts as a hydrogen bond accepter. A part of the PEG molecule remains adsorbed on the surface and the rest part remains protruded. So, the most of the silanol groups on the zeolites are masked by the PEG-400.

  5. A Comparative Investigation on the JT Effect in Triangular Compounds of NaMnO2, NaNiO2 and NaTiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Sheng-De; Quan, Ya-Min; Liu, Da-Yong; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2011-06-01

    We present a study on the Jahn—Teller (JT) distortions of the TiO6, NiO6 and MnO6 complexes in NaTiO2, NaNiO2 and NaMnO2 triangular compounds with a C2/m structure. The JT vibronic normal modes are found to be Q3, Q'4 and Q6 by the group symmetry on the C2/m structure. The magnitude of the normal coordinates (Q3, Q'4, Q6) and the structural parameters of distorted octahedra MO6 (M=Ti, Ni, Mn) are obtained and in good agreement with experimental data. The energy level splitting of 3d orbitals and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) character in the MO6 complex are also calculated in accordance with the JT distortions. These results provide a first insight into the groundstate and magnetic properties of distorted triangular compounds AMO2.

  6. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Bisterzo, S.; Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-02-01

    The cross section of the 23Na(n ,γ )24Na reaction was measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at k T =5.1 and 25 keV produced via the 18O(p ,n )18F and 7Li(p ,n )7Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections <σ> kT =5 keV=9.1 ±0.3 mb and <σ> kT =25 keV=2.03 ±0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first 23Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s -process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  7. Na2MoO2As2O7

    PubMed Central

    Jouini, Raja; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Disodium molybdenum dioxide diarsenate, Na2MoO2As2O7, has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The structure is built up from MoAs2O12 linear units sharing corners to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels running along the a-axis direction in which the Na+ cations are located. In this framework, the AsV atoms are tetra­hedrally coordinated and form an As2O7 group. The MoVI atom is displaced from the center of an octa­hedron of O atoms. Two Na+ cations are disordered about inversion centres. Structural relationships between different compounds: A 2MoO2As2O7 (A = K, Rb), AMOP2O7 (A = Na, K, Rb; M = Mo, Nb) and MoP2O7 are discussed. PMID:23468669

  8. Mg and Na clusters in a helium matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höller, Johannes; Krotscheck, Eckhard; Zillich, Robert E.

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the adsorption properties of liquid 4He on small Mg and Na clusters. The calculation requires three components: a calculation of the cluster structure, a path-integral Monte Carlo calculation of the structure of the surrounding helium, and the determination of the cluster-helium interaction. The two types of clusters are examples for two physically very different situations: small Mg clusters are insulating and their interaction with the surrounding helium is relatively strong. We find for all cases considered here that these clusters are submersed in the helium droplet and reside basically at its center. Na clusters, on the other hand, are conducting down to very small particle numbers. More important, however, is the fact that the Na-He interaction is much weaker than the He-He attraction which causes small Na clusters to reside at the cluster surface.

  9. Interpretation of Na-K-Mg relations in geothermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    When using a Na-K-???Mg triangular diagram as an aid in the interpretation of a geothermal water, the estimated temperature of last water-rock equilibration may change by as much as 50??C, depending on which of the many Na/K geothermometers one assumes is correct. A particular geothermometer may work well in one place and not in another because of differences in the mineralogy of the phases that are in contact with the reservoir fluid. The position of the full equilibrium line that is used for geothermometry and for assessing degrees of departure from equilibrium also changes as the assumed K/???Mg geothermometer equation changes. The degree of ambiguity can be evaluated by utilizing the results of all the recently published Na/K geothermometers on a single Na-K-???Mg triangular plot.

  10. Reactions of NaCl with gaseous SO3, SO2, and O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, W. L.; Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Hot corrosion of gas turbine engine components involves deposits of Na2SO4 which are produced by reactions between NaCl and oxides of sulfur. For the present investigation, NaCl single crystals were exposed at 100 to 850 C to gaseous mixtures of SO3, SO2, and O2. The products formed during this exposure depend, primarily, on the temperatures. The four product films were: NaCl-SO3; Na2S2O7; Na2SO4; and NaCl-Na2SO4. The kinetics of the reactions were measured.

  11. In search of synaptosomal Na+,K(+)-ATPase regulators.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, G

    1992-01-01

    The arrival of the nerve impulse to the nerve endings leads to a series of events involving the entry of sodium and the exit of potassium. Restoration of ionic equilibria of sodium and potassium through the membrane is carried out by the sodium/potassium pump, that is the enzyme Na+,K(+)-ATPase. This is a particle-bound enzyme that concentrates in the nerve ending or synaptosomal membranes. The activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase is essential for the maintenance of numerous reactions, as demonstrated in the isolated synaptosomes. This lends interest to the knowledge of the possible regulatory mechanisms of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the synaptic region. The aim of this review is to summarize the results obtained in the author's laboratory, that refer to the effect of neurotransmitters and endogenous substances on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Mention is also made of results in the field obtained in other laboratories. Evidence showing that brain Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity may be modified by certain neurotransmitters and insulin have been presented. The type of change produced by noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin on synaptosomal membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase was found to depend on the presence or absence of a soluble brain fraction. The soluble brain fraction itself was able to stimulate or inhibit the enzyme, an effect that was dependent in turn on the time elapsed between preparation and use of the fraction. The filtration of soluble brain fraction through Sephadex G-50 allowed the separation of two active subfractions: peaks I and II. Peak I increased Na+,K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPases, and peak II inhibited Na+,K(+)-ATPase. Other membrane enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase and 5'-nucleotidase were unchanged by peaks I or II. In normotensive anesthetized rats, water and sodium excretion were not modified by peak I but were increased by peak II, thus resembling ouabain effects. 3H-ouabain binding was unchanged by peak I but decreased by peak II in some areas of the CNS assayed by

  12. Structural, electronic, sodium diffusion and elastic properties of Na-P alloy anode for Na-ion batteries: Insight from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huansheng; Xu, Bo; Shi, Jing; Wu, Musheng; Hu, Yinquan; Ouyang, Chuying

    2016-11-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have recently received great attentions because of the relatively high abundance of sodium. Searching for suitable anode materials has always been a hot topic in the field of NIB study. Recent reports show that phosphorus-based materials are potential as the anode materials for NIBs. Using first-principles calculations, herein, we study the atomic and electronic structures, diffusion dynamics and intrinsic elastic properties of various Na-P alloy compounds (NaP5, Na3P11, NaP and Na3P) as the intermediate phases during Na extraction/insertion in phosphorus-based anode materials. It is found that all the crystalline phases of Na-P alloy phases considered in our study are semiconductors with band gaps larger than that of black phosphorus (BP). The calculations of Na diffusion dynamics indicate a relatively fast Na diffusion in these materials, which is important for good rate performance. In addition, the diffusion channels of sodium ions are one-dimensional in NaP5 phase and three-dimensional in other three phases (Na3P11, NaP and Na3P). Elastic constant calculations indicate that all four phases are mechanically stable. Among them, however, NaP5, Na3P11 and NaP alloy phases are ductile, while the fully sodiated phase Na3P is brittle. In order to improve the electrochemical performance of Na-P alloy anodes for NIBs, thus, promoting ductility of Na-P phase with high sodium concentration may be an effective way.

  13. The β-γ decay of 21Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achouri, N. L.; Angélique, J. C.; Ban, G.; Bastin, B.; Blank, B.; Dean, S.; Dendooven, P.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grévy, S.; Jungmann, K.; Laurent, B.; Liénard, E.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Orr, N. A.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Sohani, M.; Traykov, E.; Wilschut, H.

    2010-04-01

    A new and independent determination of the Gamow-Teller branching ratio in the β-decay of 21Na is reported. The value 5.13 ± 0.43% obtained is in agreement with the currently adopted value and the most recent measurement. In contrast to previous experiments, the present method was based on the counting of the parent 21Na ions and the resulting 351 keV γ-rays without coincident β-particle detection.

  14. Na + Xe collisions in the presence of two nonresonant lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vries, P. L.; Chang, C. H.; George, T. F.; Laskowski, B.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Na+Xe collisions in the presence of two distinct laser fields (rhodamine 110 and Nd:glass) are investigated with reference to the response to nonresonant radiation of alkali metals collisionally perturbed by a buffer gas. It is found that the excited Na-asterisk (4s)+Xe state is produced with a measurable cross section due to two-photon absorption with field intensities as low as 10 MW/sq cm.

  15. Radioprotective effects of ON 01210.Na upon oral administration.

    PubMed

    Suman, Shubhankar; Datta, Kamal; Doiron, Kathryn; Ren, Chen; Kumar, Ramesh; Taft, David R; Fornace, Albert J; Maniar, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    ON 01210.Na (Ex-RAD), a chlorobenzylsulfone derivative was investigated for its pharmacologic and radioprotective properties when administered via oral and subcutaneous (SC) routes. The goals of the study were to assess the comparative bioavailability of ON 01210.Na when administered by oral versus SC routes and to demonstrate that the oral drug delivery of ON 01210.Na afforded survival advantage similar to SC dosing. Pharmacokinetics was studied after two doses, 24 h apart, of ON 01210.Na (500 mg/kg) administered to male C3H/Hen mice (7-9 weeks) via SC injection or oral route. The dose response (100 to 750 mg/kg) and survival advantage of ON 01210.Na administered at 24 h and 15 min prior to 7.5 or 8 Gy whole body irradiation from a ¹³⁷Cs source (dose rate 1 Gy/min) were studied in these mice. Effects on the hematopoietic system were investigated by complete blood count and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming unit assay. A significant survival advantage and hematopoietic protection were observed after prophylactic oral ON 01210.Na and results were comparable to SC administration. These findings correlated well with pharmacokinetic data. Both SC and oral ON 01210.Na showed significant survival advantage against radiation toxicity and ON 01210.Na mediated hematopoietic protection plays key role in enhanced survival of mice. Oral administration holds better clinical promise as an effective countermeasure not only for early-responders in a nuclear accident, but also for the at-risk civilian population.

  16. Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold highly excited NaCs molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Haruza, Marek; Bigelow, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    We report on our spectroscopic investigations of translationally ultracold NaCs molecules. Photoassociation from laser cooled mixtures of ground state sodium and excited cesium atoms creates molecules in excited states detuned from the Na(3s) + Cs(6d) dissociation asymptote. This is an as yet unexplored asymptote for molecule formation. We infer properties of the scattering wave from the PA spectra, and investigate the populated ground states using photoionization and depletion spectroscopy.

  17. An empirical NaKCa geothermometer for natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical method of estimating the last temperature of water-rock interaction has been devised. It is based upon molar Na, K and Ca concentrations in natural waters from temperature environments ranging from 4 to 340??C. The data for most geothermal waters cluster near a straight line when plotted as the function log ( Na K) + ?? log [ ??? (Ca) Na] vs reciprocal of absolute temperature, where ?? is either 1 3 or 4 3 depending upon whether the water equilibrated above or below 100??C. For most waters tested, the method gives better results than the Na K methods suggested by other workers. The ratio Na K should not be used to estimate temperature if ??? ( MCa) MNa is greater than 1. The Na K values of such waters generally yield calculated temperatures much higher than the actual temperature at which water interacted with the rock. A comparison of the composition of boiling hot-spring water with that obtained from a nearby well (170??C) in Yellowstone Park shows that continued water-rock reactions may occur during ascent of water even though that ascent is so rapid that little or no heat is lost to the country rock, i.e. the water cools adiabatically. As a result of such continued reaction, waters which dissolve additional Ca as they ascend from the aquifer to the surface will yield estimated aquifer temperatures that are too low. On the other hand, waters initially having enough Ca to deposit calcium carbonate during ascent may yield estimated aquifer temperatures that are too high if aqueous Na and K are prevented from further reaction with country rock owing to armoring by calcite or silica minerals. The Na-K-Ca geothermometer is of particular interest to those prospecting for geothermal energy. The method also may be of use in interpreting compositions of fluid inclusions. ?? 1973.

  18. Xenon adsorption in NaA zeolite cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, A. V.; Chmelka, B. F.

    Adsorption of xenon atoms in the α-cages of NaA zeolite has been studied using 129Xe NMR spectroscopy to probe directly the distribution and configuration of molecules in confined, microporous environments. The 129Xe NMR spectrum is sensitive to subtle changes in xenon environment, so relative populations of α-cages containing different numbers of xenon guests can be determined and the effects of other co-adsorbed species monitored. On the basis of 129Xe NMR spectra, the distribution of xenon atoms among NaA α-cages is shown to exhibit a marked dependence on the pressure at which the xenon guests are introduced. 129Xe NMR spectra recorded at 200 K reveal that xenon atoms in the NaA α-cages experience diminished mobility (resembling condensation phenomena) at higher temperatures than in the bulk gas of equivalent density. Thus, the chemical potential of adsorbed xenon can be investigated experimentally as a function of both temperature and guest density. The density dependence of the 129Xe chemical shift in Xe/NaA and in bulk xenon gas shows that Xe-Xe interactions in the proximity of the NaA cage wall are important in α-cages containing more than five xenon guests. This trend is linked to entropic effects which may enhance xenon adsorption in the confined environment of the NaA α-cages.

  19. Deliquescence of NaCl–NaNO3, KNO3–NaNO3, and NaCl–KNO3 salt mixtures from 90 to 120°C

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Susan; Craig, Laura; Wolery, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl–NaNO3–H2O, KNO3–NaNO3–H2O, and NaCl–KNO3–H2O systems from 90 to 120°C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO3, and KNO3 represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV. Discrepancy between model prediction and experiment can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25°C models for Cl–NO3 and K–NO3 ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the nonideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

  20. High performance MCFC using Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Donado, R.A.; Ong, E.T.; Sishtla, C.I.

    1995-08-01

    The substitution of a lithium/ sodium carbonate (Li/Na) mixture for the lithium/potassium carbonate (Li/K) electrolyte used in MCFCs holds the promise of higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current density at both electrodes, lower vapor pressure, and lower cathode dissolution rates. However, when the substitution is made in cells optimized for use with the Li/K electrolyte, the promised increase in performance is not realized. As a consequence the literature contains conflicting data with regard to the performance, compositional stability, and chemical reactivity of the Li/Na electrolyte. Experiments conducted at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) concluded that the source of the problem is the different wetting characteristics of the two electrolytes. Electrode pore structures optimized for use with Li/K do not work well with Li/Na. Using proprietary methods and materials, IGT was able to optimize a set of electrodes for the Li/Na electrolyte. Experiments conducted in bench-scale cells have confirmed the superior performance of the Li/Na electrolyte compared to the Li/K electrolyte. The Li/Na cells exhibited a 5 to 8 percent improvement in overall performance, a substantial decrease in the rate of cathode dissolution, and a decreased decay rate. The longest running cell has logged over 13,000 hours of operation with a decay rate of less than 2 mV/1000 hours.

  1. 23Na and 1H NMR Microimaging of Intact Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olt, Silvia; Krötz, Eva; Komor, Ewald; Rokitta, Markus; Haase, Axel

    2000-06-01

    23Na NMR microimaging is described to map, for the first time, the sodium distribution in living plants. As an example, the response of 6-day-old seedlings of Ricinus communis to exposure to sodium chloride concentrations from 5 to 300 mM was observed in vivo using 23Na as well as 1H NMR microimaging. Experiments were performed at 11.75 T with a double resonant 23Na-1H probehead. The probehead was homebuilt and equipped with a climate chamber. T1 and T2 of 23Na were measured in the cross section of the hypocotyl. Within 85 min 23Na images with an in-plane resolution of 156 × 156 μm were acquired. With this spatial information, the different types of tissue in the hypocotyl can be discerned. The measurement time appears to be short compared to the time scale of sodium uptake and accumulation in the plant so that the kinetics of salt stress can be followed. In conclusion, 23Na NMR microimaging promises great potential for physiological studies of the consequences of salt stress on the macroscopic level and thus may become a unique tool for characterizing plants with respect to salt tolerance and salt sensitivity.

  2. 23Na and (1)H NMR microimaging of intact plants.

    PubMed

    Olt, S; Krötz, E; Komor, E; Rokitta, M; Haase, A

    2000-06-01

    (23)Na NMR microimaging is described to map, for the first time, the sodium distribution in living plants. As an example, the response of 6-day-old seedlings of Ricinus communis to exposure to sodium chloride concentrations from 5 to 300 mM was observed in vivo using (23)Na as well as (1)H NMR microimaging. Experiments were performed at 11.75 T with a double resonant (23)Na-(1)H probehead. The probehead was homebuilt and equipped with a climate chamber. T(1) and T(2) of (23)Na were measured in the cross section of the hypocotyl. Within 85 min (23)Na images with an in-plane resolution of 156 x 156 micrometer were acquired. With this spatial information, the different types of tissue in the hypocotyl can be discerned. The measurement time appears to be short compared to the time scale of sodium uptake and accumulation in the plant so that the kinetics of salt stress can be followed. In conclusion, (23)Na NMR microimaging promises great potential for physiological studies of the consequences of salt stress on the macroscopic level and thus may become a unique tool for characterizing plants with respect to salt tolerance and salt sensitivity.

  3. The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier

    PubMed Central

    Amor, Veronique; Zhang, Chuansheng; Vainshtein, Anna; Zhang, Ao; Zollinger, Daniel R; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Brophy, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior

    2017-01-01

    A high density of Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na+ channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na+ channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na+ channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na+channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21392.001 PMID:28134616

  4. Na-caseinate/oil/water systems: emulsion morphology diagrams.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2012-09-01

    The concentrated (dispersed phase 50-70 wt%) composition space of Na-caseinate, a family of milk proteins, stabilised emulsions was investigated for three different oils: soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer continuous phase. The variation of emulsion stability and microstructure were explored using static light scattering, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, rheology and the time varying macroscopic phase separation of the emulsions. For soybean oil and palm olein a rich diversity of emulsion microstructures and stabilities are realised. Five emulsion domains, each having a different microstructure and macroscopic stability have been identified within the composition space probed. For the lowest concentrations of emulsifier bridging flocculation is evident and emulsions are of low stability. Increasing Na-caseinate concentration leads to an increased stability and the existence of distinct individual oil droplets, visualised using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Further increases in Na-caseinate concentration reduce emulsion stability due to depletion flocculation. Na-caseinate self-assembly is then initiated. At sufficiently high Na-caseinate and/or oil concentrations the continuous phase of the emulsion is a three-dimensional protein network and emulsion stability is again enhanced. At the limits of the emulsion composition space a gel-like paste is formed. The diversity of emulsion microstructure is reduced when tetradecane is the discrete phase. Na-caseinate self-assembly is limited and there is no evidence for formation of a protein network.

  5. Theoretical considerations underlying Na(+) uptake mechanisms in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Parks, Scott K; Tresguerres, Martin; Goss, Greg G

    2008-11-01

    Ion and acid-base regulating mechanisms have been studied at the fish gill for almost a century. Original models proposed for Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake, and their linkage with H(+) and HCO(3)(-) secretion have changed substantially with the development of more sophisticated physiological techniques. At the freshwater fish gill, two dominant mechanisms for Na(+) uptake from dilute environments have persisted in the literature. The use of an apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger driven by a basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase versus an apical Na(+) channel electrogenically coupled to an apical H(+)-ATPase have been the source of debate for a number of years. Advances in molecular biology have greatly enhanced our understanding of the basic ion transport mechanisms at the fish gill. However, it is imperative to ensure that thermodynamic principles are followed in the development of new models for gill ion transport. This review will focus on the recent molecular advances for Na(+) uptake in freshwater fish. Emphasis will be placed on thermodynamic constraints that prevent electroneutral apical NHE function in most freshwater environments. By combining recent advances in molecular and functional physiology of fish gills with thermodynamic considerations of ion transport, our knowledge in the field should continue to grow in a logical manner.

  6. NaNaX 4--4th event of the international conference series "Nanoscience with Nanocrystals".

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter

    2010-07-27

    The conference "NaNaX 4--Nanoscience with Nanocrystals" held near Munich (April 11-15, 2010) brought together a wide range of scientists discussing the most important current issues in the field of colloidal nanoparticles. Chemical synthesis gives access to nanocrystals of controlled size, shape, composition, and surface functionalization. Past research mainly concentrated on cadmium and lead chalcogenide nanocrystals as well as on gold and iron oxide nanoparticles. Today, there is a trend toward the development of nanoscale heterostructures, which combine different classes of materials and exhibit unique optical, magnetic, and electronic properties. Beside their interest for fundamental science, colloidal nanoparticles hold great promise for a wide range of applications. To this end, speakers and poster presenters showed routes for designing and using nanocrystals in biological imaging and sensing, in energy-related applications, and in catalysis. This report gives a nonexhaustive overview of selected "hot topics" in nanoparticle research discussed at NaNaX 4.

  7. The discharge properties of Na/Ni 3S 2 cell at ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Seon; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Kim, Dong-Ju; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Kim, Ki-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Ahn, Jou Hyeon

    The discharge properties of a Na/Ni 3S 2 cell using 1 M NaCF 3SO 3 in tetra(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether liquid electrolyte were investigated at room temperature. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Electrochemical properties of Na/Ni 3S 2 cells were also presented by cyclic voltammetry and the galvanostatic current method. Na/Ni 3S 2 cells have an initial discharge capacity of 420 mAh g -1 with a plateau potential at 0.94 V versus Na/Na +. After the first discharge, Ni 3S 2 and Na react at room temperature and then form sodium sulfide (Na 2S) and nickel. Sodium ion can be partially deintercalated from Na 2S charge reaction. The discharge process can be explained as follows: Ni 3S 2 + 4Na ↔ 3Ni + 2Na 2S.

  8. Na(+)-translocating cytochrome bo terminal oxidase from Vitreoscilla: some parameters of its Na+ pumping and orientation in synthetic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Park, C; Moon, J Y; Cokic, P; Webster, D A

    1996-09-10

    Vitreoscilla cytochrome bo ubiquinol oxidase is similar in some properties to the Escherichia coli enzyme, but unlike the latter, the Vitreoscilla oxidase functions as a primary Na+ pump. When purified Vitreoscilla cytochrome bo is incorporated into liposomes made from Vitreoscilla phospholipids and energized with a quinol substrate, it translocates Na+, not H+, across the vesicle membrane. Since protonophores CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone) and DTHB (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) stimulated the Na+ pumping, it is unlikely that it is a secondary effect due to the presence of Na+/H+ antiporter activity in the preparations. The efficiency of the Na+ pumping was 3.93 Na+ pumped per O2 consumed when ascorbate/TMPD was used as the substrate. The cytochrome has a K(m) and Kcat for Na+ of 2.9 mM and 277 s-1, respectively. When ferricytochrome c was entrapped within liposomes prepared from Vitreoscilla phospholipids, it was reduced by Q1H2 (ubiquinol-1) but not by ascorbate/TMPD (N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine). Although Q1H2 was oxidized by cytochrome bo in solution at a rate approximately 14 times that of the latter substrate, the rate of accumulation of Na+ within cytochrome bo vesicles driven by the membrane impermeable ascorbate/TMPD was 1.23 times that of the membrane permeable ubiquinol. These data allowed a calculation that in these synthetic proteoliposomes the cytochrome bo molecules are only 51% directed inward; a value of 61% inward-directed was estimated by measuring the ascorbate/TMPD oxidase activity of the proteoliposomes before and after disrupting them with Triton X-100. A random orientation of the E. coli cytochrome bo oxidase in proteoliposomes has also been reported.

  9. Effect of NaCl and NaHCO3 on serum ionised calcium and blood gas status during sprinting.

    PubMed

    Beard, L A; Hinchcliff, K W

    2002-09-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is often administered to horses before racing in an attempt to delay fatigue and improve performance. We examined the effect of acid-base status on serum ionised calcium concentration (iCa) during high intensity exercise in 8 Standardbred mares. In a randomised, blinded, cross-over study, mares were administered each of 3 treatments, NaCl (0.7 g/kg bwt), NaHCO3 (1 g/kg bwt) in 3 l water, or 3 l of water only, 4 h before performing a standardised exercise test to fatigue on a treadmill. Mixed venous blood samples were collected as the horses ran for 5 min at 3 m/s, to fatigue at a predetermined speed (approximately 113% VO2max) and for 5 min at 3 m/s. There was no effect of treatment on time to fatigue (P = 0.744). NaHCO3 attenuated (P<0.05) the exercise-induced decrease in venous pH (mean +/- s.e. 6.97, 6.95 and 7.06 +/- 0.02 at end of sprint for water, NaCl and NaHCO3, respectively). Both serum total calcium concentration (tCa) and iCa increased (P<0.05) with running. NaHCO3 decreased iCa (P<0.05) compared to water; iCa of 1.58 and 1.44 +/- 0.04 mmol/l before exercise and 1.69 and 1.49 +/- 0.05 end sprint, for water and NaHCO3 treatments, respectively. These results demonstrate an effect of NaHCO3 on iCa during exercise. Further study is necessary to determine the effect of alterations in iCa on exercise performance.

  10. Na(+) transport, and the E(1)P-E(2)P conformational transition of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Babes, A; Fendler, K

    2000-01-01

    We have used admittance analysis together with the black lipid membrane technique to analyze electrogenic reactions within the Na(+) branch of the reaction cycle of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. ATP release by flash photolysis of caged ATP induced changes in the admittance of the compound membrane system that are associated with partial reactions of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Frequency spectra and the Na(+) dependence of the capacitive signal are consistent with an electrogenic or electroneutral E(1)P <--> E(2)P conformational transition which is rate limiting for a faster electrogenic Na(+) dissociation reaction. We determine the relaxation rate of the rate-limiting reaction and the equilibrium constants for both reactions at pH 6.2-8.5. The relaxation rate has a maximum value at pH 7.4 (approximately 320 s(-1)), which drops to acidic (approximately 190 s(-1)) and basic (approximately 110 s(-1)) pH. The E(1)P <--> E(2)P equilibrium is approximately at a midpoint position at pH 6.2 (equilibrium constant approximately 0.8) but moves more to the E(1)P side at basic pH 8.5 (equilibrium constant approximately 0.4). The Na(+) affinity at the extracellular binding site decreases from approximately 900 mM at pH 6.2 to approximately 200 mM at pH 8.5. The results suggest that during Na(+) transport the free energy supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP is mainly used for the generation of a low-affinity extracellular Na(+) discharge site. Ionic strength and lyotropic anions both decrease the relaxation rate. However, while ionic strength does not change the position of the conformational equilibrium E(1)P <--> E(2)P, lyotropic anions shift it to E(1)P. PMID:11053130

  11. Comparative study of NaTiO2 and NaNiO2 using first principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhariwal, Monika; Maitra, T.; Singh, Ishwar

    2013-02-01

    The electronic band structure of NaTiO2 and NaNiO2 in their low temperature phase is studied using full potential LAPW method within LSDA+U approach. Magnetic and orbital order is studied for both the compounds in their low temperature phase. Various energy scales such as crystal field splitting, Jahn Teller splitting, exchange splitting etc. are estimated and compared for these two systems.

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration using NaHSO4 and NaOH: A dissolution and carbonation optimisation study.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Aimaro; Steel, Luc; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2017-03-15

    The use of NaHSO4 to leach out Mg fromlizardite-rich serpentinite (in form of MgSO4) and the carbonation of CO2 (captured in form of Na2CO3 using NaOH) to form MgCO3 and Na2SO4 was investigated. Unlike ammonium sulphate, sodium sulphate can be separated via precipitation during the recycling step avoiding energy intensive evaporation process required in NH4-based processes. To determine the effectiveness of the NaHSO4/NaOH process when applied to lizardite, the optimisation of the dissolution and carbonation steps were performed using a UK lizardite-rich serpentine. Temperature, solid/liquid ratio, particle size, concentration and molar ratio were evaluated. An optimal dissolution efficiency of 69.6% was achieved over 3 h at 100 °C using 1.4 M sodium bisulphate and 50 g/l serpentine with particle size 75-150 μm. An optimal carbonation efficiency of 95.4% was achieved over 30 min at 90 °C and 1:1 magnesium:sodium carbonate molar ratio using non-synthesised solution. The CO2 sequestration capacity was 223.6 g carbon dioxide/kg serpentine (66.4% in terms of Mg bonded to hydromagnesite), which is comparable with those obtained using ammonium based processes. Therefore, lizardite-rich serpentinites represent a valuable resource for the NaHSO4/NaOH based pH swing mineralisation process.

  13. Na sup + uptake into colonic enterocyte membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, R.J.; Garty, H.; Benos, D.J.; Rummel, W. Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham )

    1988-04-01

    Na{sup +} uptake was studied in colonic enterocyte membrane vesicles prepared from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats. Vesicles from rats treated with dexamethasone demonstrated a fivefold greater {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake compared with vesicles from normal rats. Most of the tracer uptake in membranes derived from treated rats occurred through a conductive, amiloride-blockable pathway located in vesicles with low native K{sup +} permeability and high Cl{sup {minus}} permeability. Kinetic analysis of the amiloride inhibition curve revealed the presence of two amiloride-blockable pathways, one with a high affinity accounting for 85% of the uptake, and one with a low affinity accounting for only 12% of the uptake. Only the low-affinity pathway was detected with vesicles from normal rats. The high sensitivity to amiloride, the dependence on dexamethasone pretreatment, and the relative permeabilities to K{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} indicate that most of the {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake in membranes derived from treated rats is through a Na{sup +}-specific channel located in apical membrane vesicles. Preincubation of the isolated cells from dexamethasone-treated rats at 37{degree}C in Ca{sup 2+}-free solutions before homogenization and membrane vesicle purification caused a 5- to 10-fold increase in amiloride-blockable {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake compared with vesicles derived from cells maintained at 0{degree}C. The addition of Ca{sup 2+}, but not of Mg{sup 2+}, to the incubation solution markedly reduced this temperature-dependent enhancement in {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake. These results suggest that Na{sup +} transport in colonic enterocytes from dexamethasone-treated rats is regulated by a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, temperature-sensitive process which causes a sustained change in the apical membrane.

  14. Thyroid thermogenesis. Relationships between Na+-dependent respiration and Na+ + K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Liberman, U A; Edelman, I S

    1976-02-01

    The effect of thyroid status on QO2, QO2 (t) and NaK-ATPase activity was examined in rat skeletal muscle. QO2(t) (i.e. Na+-transport-dependent respiration) was estimated with ouabain or Na+-free media supplemented with K+. In contrast to the effects of ouabain on ion composition, intracellular K+ was maintained at about 125 meq/liter, and intracellular Na+ was almost nil in the Na+-free media. The estimates of QO2(t) were independent of the considerable differences in tissue ion concentrations. The increase in QO2(t) account for 47% of the increase in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and 84% of the increase in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Surgical thyroidectomy lowered NaK-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction (expressed per milligram protein) 32%; injections of triodothyronine (T3) increased this activity 75% in initially hypothyroid rats and 26% in initially euthyroid rats. Thyroidectomy was attended by significant falls in serum Ca and Pi concentrations. Administration of T3 resulted in further declines in serum Ca and marked increases in serum Ps concentrations. Similar effects were seen in 131I-treated rats, but the magnitude of the declines in serum Ca were less. The effects of T3 on QO2, QO2(t), and NaK-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle were indistinguishable in the 131I-ablated and surgically thyroidectomized rats. In thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats given repeated doses of T3, QO2(t) and NaA-ATPase activity increased proportionately. In thyroidectomized rats injected with single doses of T3, either 10, 50, or 250 mug/100 g body wt, QO2(t) increased linearly with NaK-ATPase activity. The kinetics of the NaK-ATPase activity was assessed with an ATP-generating system. T3 elicited a significant increase in Vmax with no change in Km for ATP.

  15. C-peptide, Na+,K+-ATPase, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Coste, T. C.; Jannot, M. F.; Raccah, D.; Tsimaratos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K+-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K+-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non–insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene.Apolymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K+-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K+-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K+-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K+-ATPase activity, mainly

  16. [Impact of SDBS/Na+ on red soil colloidal stability].

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Li, Hang; Zhu, Hua-Ling; Tian, Rui; Gao, Xiao-Dan

    2014-04-01

    The interactions between soil colloidal-sized particles and organic contaminants or inorganic ions profoundly affect numerous soil physical, chemical and biological processes. The coupling effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and Na+ on the aggregation process of red soil colloid was studied using the dynamic light scattering method, and the mechanism of interactions between soil colloidal-sized particles and SDBS/Na+ was analyzed according to the pH and Zeta potential of suspension during the aggregation process. Results show that, (1) under a given concentration of Na+, the soil colloidal suspension becomes more stable with increasing SDBS concentrations. For example, under 120 mmol x L(-1) Na+, as the concentrations of SDBS increase from 0 mmol x L(-1) to 10 mmol x L(-1), the effective diameters of aggregates decrease from 702 nm to 193 nm, and the total average aggregation rates of aggregates decrease from 28.6 nm x min(-1) to 3.36 nm x min(-1). (2) Under a given concentration of SDBS, as the concentrations of Na+ increase, the Zeta potential of suspension sharply decreases, while the effective diameters and the total average aggregation rates of aggregates gradually increase. (3) The absolute values of Zeta potential for suspensions without adding NaNO3 solution increase from 47.6 mV to 62.2 mV as the SDBS concentrations increase, and the pH of the suspensions increase from 6.17 to 6.76, although these pH values are lower than that of initial soil colloidal suspension (6.89). Therefore, the adsorption of SDBS onto soil colloidal-sized particles, which is attributed to the hydrophobic effect and electrostatic effect, results in the increment of surface charge number, as well as the decrease in effective concentration of Na+ around colloidal-sized particles' surface (resulting from the steric hindrance of long hydrophobic chain of adsorbed SDBS and adsorption of Na+ by SDBS micelle). As a result, soil colloidal suspension becomes more stable and

  17. LiNa5Mo9O30

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Hamadi; Ennajeh, Ines; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The tite compound, lithium penta­sodium nona­molybdate, LiNa5Mo9O30, was synthesized by solid-state reaction. The three-dimensional [Mo9O30]6− framework is built up from MoO6 octa­hedra and MoO5 bipyramids, linked together by edges and corners. The framework delimits two types of inter­secting tunnels running along [100] and [010] in which the Na+ and Li+ ions are located. The asymmetric unit contains one Mo, one Na and one Li site located on a twofold rotation axis. The crystal studied was a racemic twin with site a twin ratio of 0.51 (10):0.49 (10). Relationships between the structures of K2Mo3O10, K2Mo4O13, Cs2Mo7O22, Na6Mo10O33 and Na6Mo11O36 compounds are discussed. PMID:23284311

  18. NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications

    PubMed

    Gardner; El; Zheng; Hayden; Mayo

    2000-10-01

    When NaI detectors are used in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis devices, they are activated by neutrons that penetrate the detector. While thermal neutron filters like boron or lithium can be used to reduce this activation, it can never be completely eliminated by this approach since high energy neutrons can penetrate the detector and thermalize inside it. This activation results in the emission of prompt gamma rays from both the I and Na and the production of the radioisotopes 128I and 24Na that subsequently decay and emit their characteristic beta particles and gamma rays. The resulting three spectra represent a background for this measurement. An experimental method for obtaining these three spectra is described and results are reported for 2" x 2", 5" x 5", 6" x 6", and 1" x 6" NaI detectors using the thermal neutron beam of the NCSU PULSTAR nuclear reactor. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation programs have been developed and used for simulating these spectra. Good results have been obtained by the Monte Carlo method for the two radioisotope spectra, and it is anticipated that good results will also be obtained for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum when the I and Na coincidence schemes are known.

  19. Estragole blocks neuronal excitability by direct inhibition of Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Alves, K.S.; Ferreira-da-Silva, F.W.; Peixoto-Neves, D.; Viana-Cardoso, K.V.; Moreira-Júnior, L.; Oquendo, M.B.; Oliveira-Abreu, K.; Albuquerque, A.A.C.; Coelho-de-Souza, A.N.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Estragole is a volatile terpenoid, which occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of many plants. It has several pharmacological and biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of estragole on neuronal excitability. Intact and dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats were used to record action potential and Na+ currents with intracellular and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Estragole blocked the generation of action potentials in cells with or without inflexions on their descendant (repolarization) phase (Ninf and N0 neurons, respectively) in a concentration-dependent manner. The resting potentials and input resistances of Ninf and N0 cells were not altered by estragole (2, 4, and 6 mM). Estragole also inhibited total Na+ current and tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 3.2 and 3.6 mM, respectively). Kinetic analysis of Na+ current in the presence of 4 mM estragole showed a statistically significant reduction of fast and slow inactivation time constants, indicating an acceleration of the inactivation process. These data demonstrate that estragole blocks neuronal excitability by direct inhibition of Na+ channel conductance activation. This action of estragole is likely to be relevant to the understanding of the mechanisms of several pharmacological effects of this substance. PMID:24345915

  20. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. Here we investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form. PMID:26027504

  1. Genetic variability of NaCl tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Saeed, A; Saleem, M F; Zakria, M; Anjum, S A; Shakeel, A; Saeed, N

    2011-07-12

    Cultivation of crops in soils with high salt (NaCl) content can affect plant development. We examined the morphological and physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance in tomato. The responses of 72 accessions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to salinity were compared by measuring shoot and root lengths, and fresh shoot and root weights relative to those of controls (plants grown in normal salt levels). All traits were reduced at the seedling stage when salinity levels were increased. The accession x salinity interaction was significant for all traits. Root length had higher heritability than other traits and was used as a selection criterion to identify salt-tolerant and -non-tolerant accessions. On the basis of root length, accessions LA2661, CLN2498A, CLN1621L, BL1176, 6233, and 17870 were considered to be more tolerant than accessions 17902, LO2875 and LO4360. The degree of salt tolerance was checked by analyzing K+ and Na+ concentrations and K+/Na+ ratio in tissues of plants treated with 10 and 15 dS/m salinity levels. Tolerance of these accessions to salinity was most associated with low accumulation of Na+ and higher K+/Na+ ratios.

  2. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites.

    PubMed

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. Here we investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.

  3. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    DOE PAGES

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; ...

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material nearmore » an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.« less

  4. Salinity controls on Na incorporation in Red Sea planktonic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, E. M.; Nooijer, L. J.; Boer, W.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas several well-established proxies are available for reconstructing past temperatures, salinity remains challenging to assess. Reconstructions based on the combination of (in)organic temperature proxies and foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes result in relatively large uncertainties, which may be reduced by application of a direct salinity proxy. Cultured benthic and planktonic foraminifera showed that Na incorporation in foraminiferal shell calcite provides a potential independent proxy for salinity. Here we present the first field calibration of such a potential proxy. Living planktonic foraminiferal specimens from the Red Sea surface waters were collected and analyzed for their Na/Ca content using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the Red Sea as a natural laboratory, the calibration covers a broad range of salinities over a steep gradient within the same water mass. For both Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer calcite Na/Ca increases with salinity, albeit with a relatively large intraspecimen and interspecimen variability. The field-based calibration is similar for both species from a salinity of 36.8 up to 39.6, while values for G. sacculifer deviate from this trend in the northernmost transect. It is hypothesized that the foraminifera in the northernmost part of the Red Sea are (partly) expatriated and hence should be excluded from the Na/Ca-salinity calibration. Incorporation of Na in foraminiferal calcite therefore provides a potential proxy for salinity, although species-specific calibrations are still required and more research on the effect of temperature is needed.

  5. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.

  6. Links between hydrothermal environments, pyrophosphate, na(+), and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Holm, Nils G; Baltscheffsky, Herrick

    2011-10-01

    The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is a H(+)-pump, and like the Na(+)-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na(+)-pump, both in archaeal and bacterial membranes. We suggest that PPi and Na(+) transport preceded ATP and H(+) transport in association with geochemistry of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. Life may have started in connection with early plate tectonic processes coupled to alkaline hydrothermal activity. A hydrothermal environment in which Na(+) is abundant exists in sediment-starved subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the W Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. The forearc pore fluids have a pH up to 12.6, a Na(+)-concentration of 0.7 mol/kg seawater. PPi could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. A key to PPi formation in these geological environments is a low local activity of water.

  7. EDITORIAL: TaCoNa-Photonics 2008 TaCoNa-Photonics 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Busch, Kurt; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on theoretical and computational nano-photonics features papers presented at the first International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Nano-Photonics (TaCoNa-Photonics 2008) held in Bad Honnef, Germany, 3-5 December 2008. The workshop covered a broad range of topics related to current developments and achievements in this interdisciplinary area of research. Since the late 1960s, the word `photonics' has been understood as the science of generating, controlling, and detecting light. Nowadays, a routine fabrication of complex structures with micro- and nano-scale dimensions opens up many new and exciting possibilities in photonics. The science of generating, routing and detecting light in micro- and nano-structured matter, `nano-photonics', is becoming more important both in research and technology and offers many promising applications. The inherently sub-wavelength character of the structures that nano-photonics deals with challenges modern theoretical and computational physics and engineering with many nontrivial questions: Up to what length-scale can one use a macroscopic phenomenological description of matter? Where is the interface between the classical and quantum description of light in nano-scale structures? How can one combine different physical systems, different time- and length-scales in a single computational model? How can one engineer nano-structured materials in order to achieve the desired optical properties for particular applications? Any attempt at answering these kinds of questions is impossible without the joint efforts of physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and programmers. This is the reason why the major goal of the TaCoNa-Photonics workshops is to provide a forum where theoreticians and specialists in numerical methods from all branches of physics, engineering sciences and mathematics can compare their results, report on novel results and breakthroughs, and discuss new challenges ahead. In order to

  8. Residues Contributing to the Na+-binding Pocket of the SLC24 Na+/Ca2+-K+ Exchanger NCKX2*

    PubMed Central

    Altimimi, Haider F.; Fung, Eric H.; Winkfein, Robert J.; Schnetkamp, Paul P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+-K+ exchangers (NCKX; gene family SLC24) are plasma membrane Ca2+ transporters that mediate the extrusion of one Ca2+ ion and one K+ ion in exchange for four Na+ ions. NCKX is modeled to have two sets of five transmembrane segments separated by a large cytosolic loop; within each set of transmembrane segments are regions of internal symmetry termed α1 and α2 repeats. The central residues that are important for Ca2+ and K+ liganding and transport have been identified in NCKX2, and they comprise three central acidic residues, Glu188 in α1 and Asp548 and Asp575 in α2, as well as Ser/Thr residues one-helical turn away from these residues. In this study, we have scanned through more than 100 single-residue substitutions of NCKX2 for shifts in Na+ affinity using a fluorescence assay to monitor changes in free Ca2+ in HEK293 cells treated with gramicidin to control intracellular Na+. We have identified 31 residues that, when substituted, result in shifts in Na+ affinity, either toward higher or lower Km values when compared with wild type NCKX2 (Km for Na+ 58 mm). These residues include the central acidic residues Glu188, Asp548, and Asp575, and their neighboring residues in α1 and α2, in addition to a number of newly investigated residues in transmembrane segment 3. Our results relate the identification of residues important for Na+ transport in this study to those previously identified as important in the counter-transport of Ca2+ and K+, lending support to the alternating access model of transmembrane transport. PMID:20231282

  9. Results of tests of weathered K5NA closeout material in the MSFC Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    The application of K5NA over hypolon was investigated. The effects of using K5NA over painted cork surfaces, the effects of weathering on the unpainted K5NA surfaces are determined, and the use of water versus solvent for tooling K5NA in place were compared. It is concluded that: (1) K5NA can be applied to hypalon surfaces; (2) K5NA can be left unpainted; and (3) K5NA can be tested with water or solvent.

  10. High-NA HPCS optical fibers for medical diagnosis and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnik, Bolesh J.

    2010-02-01

    Hard Plastic Clad Silica (HPCS) optical fibers with pure silica cores have been developed which are robust and have NA(Numerical Aperture)>0.50. Improved clad only HPCS fibers have been produced for both new 'standard' and 'high' NA versions. Based on new cladding formulations, the 'standard' NA fiber has an NA of 0.41, while the new ultrahigh NA fiber has an NA of 0.54. Mechanical strength and preliminary fatigue data are presented along with spectral characterization data. For the first time significant results were obtained for clad only high NA fibers, The fibers are useful for diagnostic and surgical applications. Short to medium length time to failure results, indicate that the static fatigue parameters of the new high numerical aperture (NA) optical fibers are at least as good as those for former standard NA (0.37) HPCS fibers, which is an advance from previous results on the older formulation high NA fibers.

  11. HARP and NA61 (SHINE) hadron production experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Boris A.

    2009-11-25

    The hadroproduction experiments HARP and NA61 (SHINE) as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. Recent HARP measurements have already been used for precise predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First preliminary data from NA61 are of significant importance for a precise prediction of a new neutrino beam at J-PARC to be used for the first stage of the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61 provide a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadroproduction models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  12. Sonochemical synthesis of zeolite NaP from clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Behin, Jamshid; Kazemian, Hossein; Rohani, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, natural clinoptilolite was converted to zeolite NaP using ultrasonic energy, in which the transformation time shortened remarkably. The effect of post-synthesis treatment using conventional hydrothermal was also investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, TGA/DTA, SEM, and PSD analysis. The results showed that, increasing the sonication time (energy) has no significant effect on the product's morphology. The crystallinity of the synthesized samples increased slightly with increasing sonication time, but their yield remained relatively unchanged. Furthermore, post-synthesis hydrothermal treatment showed very little influence on properties of the final product. Because the ultrasonic irradiation creates acoustic cavitation cracks on the surface structure of clinoptilolite particulates and increases the concentration of soluble alumino-silicate species, which favors the prevailing super-saturation, crystallization and crystal growth of zeolite NaP happen faster. The particles of zeolite NaP synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation consist of small crystallites of uniform size.

  13. Binding energy and structure of e{sup +}Na

    SciTech Connect

    Shertzer, J.; Ward, S. J.

    2010-06-15

    We calculate the nonadiabatic binding energy and geometry of the weakly bound state of e{sup +}Na. We use the Peach model potential, which includes both the dipole and an effective quadrupole term in the polarization, to describe the interaction of the electron and positron with the ion core. The effective three-body Schroedinger equation is solved with the finite element method. Because the model potential gives rise to three spurious states, the true ground state of e{sup +}Na is embedded in a dense spectrum of spurious states. We develop a method for extracting the correct ground state for e{sup +}Na, even when the energy is nearly degenerate with a spurious level. The calculated value for the binding energy is consistent with other calculations.

  14. Superconducting properties and electronic structure of NaBi.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, S K; Krizan, J W; Xiong, J; Klimczuk, T; Gibson, Q D; Liang, T; Ong, N P; Cava, R J

    2014-05-28

    Resistivity, dc magnetization, and heat capacity measurements are reported for superconducting NaBi. T(c), the electronic contribution to the specific heat γ, the ΔC(p)/γT(c) ratio, and the Debye temperature are found to be 2.15 K, 3.4 mJ mol(-1) K(-2), 0.78, and 140 K respectively. The calculated electron-phonon coupling constant (λ(ep) = 0.62) implies that NaBi is a moderately coupled superconductor. The upper critical field and coherence length are found to be 250 Oe and 115 nm, respectively. Electronic structure calculations show NaBi to be a good metal, in agreement with the experiments; the p(x) and p(y) orbitals of Bi dominate the electronic states at the Fermi Energy.

  15. Prospects for exotics and LFV at NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.

    2017-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS is designed to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare decay with 10% precision. For this purpose the experiment aims to collect of the order of 100 events which would require at least 1013 K + decays in the fiducial volume of the detector. The large sample of K+ decays that will be available at NA62 allows the experiment to carry out a rich program for rare and forbidden K+ and π 0 decays, including lepton flavour and/or number violating modes, sterile neutrinos, exotic particles (e.g. Dark Photons). NA62’s potential for such searches in K+ and π 0 decays is discussed, with initial sensitivity estimates. In addition, plans for continuing the experiment after 2021 (Long Shutdown 2) are presented, including in particular the possibility to operate in a beam-dump mode for exploring various Dark Matter scenarios.

  16. Na3Al(AsO4)2

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar Bourguiba, Noura; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title compound tris­odium aluminium bis­(arsenate), Na3Al(AsO4)2, is built up from AlO4 and AsO4 corner-sharing tetra­hedra, forming an undulating two-dimensional framework parallel to (100). The layers are constituted of large Al6As6O36 rings made up from six AlO4 and AsO4 tetra­hedra in which two sodium cations are situated, the third sodium cation being located in the inter­layer space. The structural relationships between the title compound and Na3Fe(PO4)2, NaAlCo(PO4)2 and Al5Co3(PO4)8 are discussed. PMID:23424394

  17. The stability of sodalite in the system NaAlSiO sub 4 -NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Z.D. ); Helffrich, G.R. ); Bohlen, S.R. ); Essene, E.J. )

    1989-08-01

    The reaction sodalite = {beta}-nepheline + NaCl (s) was reversed in solid-medium apparatus and the reaction sodalite = carnegieite + NaCl (l) was reversed at 1 bar (1,649-1,652 K). The experimental reversals between 923 K and 973 K can be fit with a dP/dT of {minus}11 bar/K, suggesting that the excess entropy for sodalite is present only above 923 K. A phase diagram for the NaAlSiO{sub 4}-NaCl system that is consistent with the measured thermochemical data and the experiments between 973 and 1,650 K can be generated if the 61.7 J/mol{center dot}K entropy contribution is included in the S{sup 0}{sub 298} of sodalite. This entropy contribution must be removed below 973 K for the experiments to fit with calculations. Previously unreported thermodynamic data estimated in this study are {Delta}G{sup 0}{sub 298} for sodalite ({minus}12,697 kJ/mol) and carnegieite (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) ({minus}1,958 kJ/mol), S{sup 0}{sub 298} of carnegieite (129.6 J/mol{center dot}K) and compressibility of NaCl{sub liquid} (V{sup P}{sub 298} (cm{sup 3}) = 31.6{center dot}(1 - 24.7{center dot}10{sup {minus}3}{center dot}P + 800{center dot}10{sup {minus}6}{center dot}P{sup 2}))(T in K; P in kbar). Sodalite is a high-temperature, low-pressure phase, stable well above the solidus in sodic silica-undersaturated magmas enriched in NaCl, and its presence constrains NaCl activities in magmas. Estimates of minimum NaCl (l) activities in the Mont St-Hilaire sodalite syenites are 0.05 at 1,073 K and 0.13 at 1,273 K. Density calculations are consistent with the field observations that sodalite phenocrysts will float in a nepheline syenite liquid. This explains the enrichment of sodalite in the upper levels of the sodalite syenites at Mont St.Hilaire and elsewhere.

  18. Spatiotemporal gradients of intra-axonal [Na+] after transection and resealing in lizard peripheral myelinated axons.

    PubMed Central

    David, G; Barrett, J N; Barrett, E F

    1997-01-01

    1. Post-transection changes in intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) were measured in lizard peripheral axons ionophoretically injected with the Na(+)-sensitive ratiometric dye, sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI). 2. Following axonal transection in physiological saline [Na+]i increased to more than 100 mM in a region that quickly extended hundreds of micrometers from the transection site. This post-transection increase in [Na+]i was similar when the bath contained 5 microM tetrodotoxin, but was absent in Na(+)-free solution. Depolarization of uncut axons in 50 mM K+ produced little or no elevation of [Na+]i until veratridine was added. These results suggest that the post-transection increase in [Na+]i was due mainly to Na+ entry via the cut end, rather than via depolarization-activated Na+ channels. 3. The spatiotemporal profile of the post-transection increase in [Na+]i could be accounted for by movement of Na+ from the cut end with an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.3 x 10(-5) cm2 s-1. 4. [Na+]i began to decline toward resting levels by 20 +/- 15 min (mean +/- S.D.) post-transection, except in regions of the axon within 160 +/- 85 microns of the transection site, where [Na+]i remained high. The boundary between axonal regions in which [Na+]i did or did not recover probably defines a locus of resealing of the axonal membrane. 5. [Na+]i returned to resting values within about 1 h after resealing, even in axonal regions where the normal transmembrane [Na+] gradient had completely dissipated. The recovery of [Na+]i was faster and reached lower levels than expected by diffusional redistribution of Na+ along the axon. Partial recovery occurred even in an isolated internode, indicating that the internodal axolemma can actively extrude Na+. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9032679

  19. Plant response to Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios under saline conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This research was undertaken to more clearly determine plant response to saline-sodic waters. In the first experiment, the response of wheat and sorghum to different K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios at different osmotic potentials was investigated. The plants were grown in outdoor solution culture tanks containing polyethylene glycol and/or NaCl as osmoticum with 1/2 strength Hoagland as the base nutrient solution. The mass of the root system for both wheat and sorghum was determined primarily by the osmotic potential. However, root elongation was controlled primarily by the Na/sup +/ concentration. Sorghum root elongation rates decreased with increasing Na/sup +/ while those for wheat increased. Sodium was not translocated out of the sorghum root system until a critical Na/sup +/ root saturation level of .6 moles/kg was obtained. The second experiment was designed to investigate the water, nutrient and growth responses of the second crop of wheat in a wheat-sorghum-wheat rotation to zonal saline-sodic conditions.

  20. Measurement of the low-energy Na+-Na total collision rate in an ion-neutral hybrid trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.; Kwolek, J. M.; Blümel, R.; Narducci, F. A.; Smith, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of the total elastic and resonant charge-exchange ion-atom collision rate coefficient kia of cold sodium (Na) with optically dark low-energy Na+ ions in a hybrid ion-neutral trap. To determine kia, we measured the trap loading and loss rates from both a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT) and a linear radio-frequency quadrupole Paul trap. We found the total rate coefficient to be 7.4 ±1.9 ×10-8 cm3/s for the type-I Na MOT immersed within an ≈140 -K ion cloud and 1.10 ±0.25 ×10-7 cm3/s for the type-II Na MOT within an ≈1070 -K ion cloud. Our measurements show excellent agreement with previously reported theoretical fully quantal ab initio calculations. In the process of determining the total rate coefficient, we demonstrate that a MOT can be used to probe an optically dark ion cloud's spatial distribution within a hybrid trap.

  1. Role of cationic amino acids in the Na+/dicarboxylate co-transporter NaDC-1.

    PubMed Central

    Pajor, A M; Kahn, E S; Gangula, R

    2000-01-01

    The role of cationic amino acids in the Na(+)/dicarboxylate co-transporter NaDC-1 was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent expression of mutant transporters in Xenopus oocytes. Of the ten residues chosen for mutagenesis, eight (Lys-34, Lys-107, Arg-108, Lys-333, Lys-390, Arg-368, Lys-414 and Arg-541) were found to be non-essential for function or targeting. Only two conserved residues, Lys-84 (at the cytoplasmic end of helix 3) and Arg-349 (at the extracellular end of helix 7), were found to be important for transport. Both mutant transporters were expressed at the plasma membrane. The mutation of Lys-84 to Ala resulted in an increased K(m) for succinate of 1.8 mM, compared with 0.3 mM in the wild-type NaDC-1. The R349A mutant had Na(+) and citrate kinetics that were similar to those of the wild type. However, succinate handling in the R349A mutant was altered, with evidence of inhibition at high succinate concentrations. In conclusion, charge neutralization of Lys-84 and Arg-349 in NaDC-1 affects succinate handling, suggesting that these residues might have roles in substrate binding. PMID:10970779

  2. High Pressure Strength Study on NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Z.; Shieh, S. R.; High Pressure Mineral Physics Group

    2010-12-01

    Yield strength is regarded as one important property related to rheological characteristics of minerals in the Earth’s interior. The strength study of NaCl, a popular pressure medium in static high pressure experiments, has been carried out under non-hydrostatic conditions in a diamond anvil cell up to 43 GPa at room temperature using radial energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique. Phase transformation from B1 (rock salt structure) to B2 (CsCl structure) starts at 29.4 GPa, and is complete at 32.1 GPa. Bulk modulus obtained by third order Birch-Manurgham equation of state is 25.5 GPa with pressure derivative 4.6 for B1 phase, and 30.78 GPa with pressure derivative 4.32 GPa for B2 phase, which are in a good agreement with previous studies. The differential stress of NaCl B1 phase shows very gentle increase with pressure, which indicates that NaCl is a very good pressure-transmitting medium at pressure below 30 GPa. However, the differential stress increases more abruptly for B2 phase and this may imply that NaCl can no longer be regarded as a “soft” pressure medium at very high pressures. For B1 phase, (111) is the strongest plane and (200) is the weakest plane, while (200) becomes the strongest plane in B2 phase. Pure NaCl is weaker than mixture MgO and NaCl, which indicates that soft material become stronger when mixed with hard material. The yield strength of B2 obtained through energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique increase linearly, while the value derived by pressure gradient method shows jagged trend.

  3. Performance of lime-BHA solidified plating sludge in the presence of Na2SiO3 and Na2CO3.

    PubMed

    Piyapanuwat, Rungroj; Asavapisit, Suwimol

    2011-09-01

    This research investigated the performance of lime-BHA (black rice husk ash) solidified plating sludge with 2 wt% NaO from Na(2)SiO(3) and Na(2)CO(3) at the level of 0, 30 and 50 wt%. The sludge was evaluated for strength development, leachability, solution chemistry and microstructure. The lime-BHA solidified plating sludge with Na(2)SiO(3) and Na(2)CO(3) had higher early strength when compared to the control. The addition of Na(2)SiO(3) and Na(2)CO(3) increased the OH(-) concentration and decreased the Ca(2+) and heavy metal ions in solution after the first minute. The XRD patterns showed that the addition of Na(2)SiO(3) resulted in the formation of calcium silicate hydrates, while the addition of Na(2)CO(3) resulted in CaCO(3). The heavy metals from the plating sludge, especially Zn, were immobilized in calcium zincate and calcium zinc silicate forms for the lime-BHA with and without Na(2)SiO(3) solidified wastes, while samples with Na(2)CO(3) contained Zn that was fixed in the form of CaZnCO(3). The cumulative leaching of Fe, Cr and Zn from the lime-BHA solidified plating sludge decreased significantly when activators were added, especially Na(2)CO(3).

  4. Shoot Na+ Exclusion and Increased Salinity Tolerance Engineered by Cell Type–Specific Alteration of Na+ Transport in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Inge S.; Gilliham, Matthew; Jha, Deepa; Mayo, Gwenda M.; Roy, Stuart J.; Coates, Juliet C.; Haseloff, Jim; Tester, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield globally. The Na+ toxicity of many crop plants is correlated with overaccumulation of Na+ in the shoot. We have previously suggested that the engineering of Na+ exclusion from the shoot could be achieved through an alteration of plasma membrane Na+ transport processes in the root, if these alterations were cell type specific. Here, it is shown that expression of the Na+ transporter HKT1;1 in the mature root stele of Arabidopsis thaliana decreases Na+ accumulation in the shoot by 37 to 64%. The expression of HKT1;1 specifically in the mature root stele is achieved using an enhancer trap expression system for specific and strong overexpression. The effect in the shoot is caused by the increased influx, mediated by HKT1;1, of Na+ into stelar root cells, which is demonstrated in planta and leads to a reduction of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity tolerance. By contrast, plants constitutively expressing HKT1;1 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated high shoot Na+ and grew poorly. Our results demonstrate that the modification of a specific Na+ transport process in specific cell types can reduce shoot Na+ accumulation, an important component of salinity tolerance of many higher plants. PMID:19584143

  5. First principles study of the crystal, electronic structure, and diffusion mechanism of polaron-Na vacancy of Na3MnPO4CO3 for Na-ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debbichi, M.; Debbichi, L.; Dinh, Van An; Lebègue, S.

    2017-02-01

    Based on first principles calculations, we investigate the geometry, electronic structure, and diffusion mechanism of Na ions in Na3MnPO4CO3 using density functional theory with a Hubbard potential correction. Our results suggest that the structure of Na3MnPO4CO3 can be deintercalated with more than one Na ion, and that the removal of a Na ion can form a bound polaron. We find that our calculations of the intercalation voltages for the redox couples Mn2+ /Mn3+ and Mn3+ /Mn4+ agree very well with the experimental data. In addition, we demonstrate that Na in Na3MnPO4CO3 can diffuse in three directions with low activation energy barriers, allowing a fast charging rate.

  6. Elastic properties of NaXH4 (X = B, Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Zhen-Yi; Hou, Yu-Qing; Li, Li-Sha

    2009-07-01

    Elastic properties of NaXH4 (X = B, Al) have been studied by first-principles calculations using a projected augmented plane-wave approach. The calculated elastic constants compare favorably with experimental values. Our calculations show that the theoretically calculated elastic constants and bulk moduli have small values compared with those of typical metals and intermetallic compounds, which indicates that NaXH4 (X = B, Al) are highly compressible. Comparison of bulk moduli B of different complex hydrides shows a correlation between B and the decomposition temperatures. Also, we calculated the elastic anisotropies and the Debye temperatures from the elastic constants.

  7. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  8. Neutral pion form factor measurement by the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Monica

    2017-03-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN collected a large sample of charged kaon decays with a highly efficient trigger for decays into electrons in 2007. A measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factor slope of the neutral pion in the time-like region from about one million fully reconstructed π0 Dalitz decays is presented. The limits on dark photon production from a sample of about 1.7 × 107 π0 Dalitz decays collected in 2003-2004 by the earlier kaon experiment at CERN NA48/2 are also reported.

  9. GPU real-time processing in NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-01-01

    A commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to build a fast Level 0 (L0) trigger system tested parasitically with the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition systems) of the NA62 experiment at CERN. In particular, the parallel computing power of the GPU is exploited to perform real-time fitting in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. Direct GPU communication using a FPGA-based board has been used to reduce the data transmission latency. The performance of the system for multi-ring reconstrunction obtained during the NA62 physics run will be presented.

  10. Kinetics of 9-aminoacridine block of single Na channels

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) block of single Na channels in neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells were studied using the gigohm seal, patch clamp technique, under the condition in which the Na current inactivation had been eliminated by treatment with N-bromoacetamide (NBA). Following NBA treatment, the current flowing through individual Na channels was manifested by square-wave open events lasting from several to tens of milliseconds. When 9-AA was applied to the cytoplasmic face of Na channels at concentrations ranging from 30 to 100 microM, it caused repetitive rapid transitions (flickering) between open and blocked states within single openings of Na channels, without affecting the amplitude of the single channel current. The histograms for the duration of blocked states and the histograms for the duration of open states could be fitted with a single-exponential function. The mean open time (tau o) became shorter as the drug concentration was increased, while the mean blocked time (tau b) was concentration independent. The association (blocking) rate constant, kappa, calculated from the slope of the curve relating the reciprocal mean open time to 9-AA concentration, showed little voltage dependence, the rate constant being on the order of 1 X 10(7) M-1s-1. The dissociation (unblocking) rate constant, l, calculated from the mean blocked time, was strongly voltage dependent, the mean rate constant being 214 s-1 at 0 mV and becoming larger as the membrane being hyperpolarized. The voltage dependence suggests that a first-order blocking site is located at least 63% of the way through the membrane field from the cytoplasmic surface. The equilibrium dissociation constant for 9-AA to block the Na channel, defined by the relation of l/kappa, was calculated to be 21 microM at 0 mV. Both tau -1o and tau -1b had a Q10 of 1.3, which suggests that binding reaction was diffusion controlled. The burst time in the presence of 9-AA, which is the sum of open times and blocked

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine bilayer with Na+ counterions.

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Sagar A; Berkowitz, Max L

    2002-01-01

    We performed a molecular dynamics simulation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS) bilayer with Na+ counterions. We found that hydrogen bonding between the NH group and the phosphate group leads to a reduction in the area per headgroup when compared to the area in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. The Na+ ions bind to the oxygen in the carboxyl group of serine, thus giving rise to a dipolar bilayer similar to dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayer. The results of the simulation show that counterions play a crucial role in determining the structural and electrostatic properties of DPPS bilayer. PMID:11916841

  12. Toward Triplet Ground State NaLi Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Sepehr; Jamison, Alan; Rvachov, Timur; Jing, Li; Son, Hyungmok; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The NaLi molecule is expected to have a long lifetime in the triplet ground-state due to its fermionic nature, large rotational constant, and weak spin-orbit coupling. The triplet state has both electric and magnetic dipole moments, affording unique opportunities in quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. We have mapped the excited state NaLi triplet potential by means of photoassociation spectroscopy. We report on this and our further progress toward the creation of the triplet ground-state molecules using STIRAP. NSF, ARO-MURI, Samsung, NSERC.

  13. Ability of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix species to secrete Na+ and K+ selectively.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu; Yuan, Junfeng

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the mechanism of cation-selective secretion by multicellular salt glands. Using a hydroponic culture system, the secretion and accumulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Tamarix ramosissima and T. laxa under different salt stresses (NaCl, KCl and NaCl+KCl) were studied. Additionally, the effects of salt gland inhibitors (orthovanadate, Ba(2+), ouabain, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and verapamil) on Na(+) and K(+) secretion and accumulation were examined. Treatment with NaCl (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased Na(+) secretion, whereas KCl treatment (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased K(+) secretion. The ratio of secretion to accumulation of Na(+) was higher than that of K(+). The changes in Na(+) and K(+) secretion differed after adding different ions into the single-salt solutions. Addition of NaCl to the KCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) led to a significant decrease in K(+) secretion rate, whereas addition of KCl to the NaCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) had little impact on the Na(+) secretion rate. These results indicated that Na+ secretion in Tamarix was highly selective. In addition, Na(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by orthovanadate, ouabain, TEA and verapamil, and K(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by ouabain, TEA and verapamil. The different impacts of orthovanadate on Na(+) and K(+) secretion might be the primary cause for the different Na(+) and K(+) secretion abilities of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix.

  14. Two Na+ Sites Control Conformational Change in a Neurotransmitter Transporter Homolog.

    PubMed

    Tavoulari, Sotiria; Margheritis, Eleonora; Nagarajan, Anu; DeWitt, David C; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Rosado, Edwin; Ravera, Silvia; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Forrest, Lucy R; Rudnick, Gary

    2016-01-15

    In LeuT, a prokaryotic homolog of neurotransmitter transporters, Na(+) stabilizes outward-open conformational states. We examined how each of the two LeuT Na(+) binding sites contributes to Na(+)-dependent closure of the cytoplasmic pathway using biochemical and biophysical assays of conformation. Mutating either of two residues that contribute to the Na2 site completely prevented cytoplasmic closure in response to Na(+), suggesting that Na2 is essential for this conformational change, whereas Na1 mutants retained Na(+) responsiveness. However, mutation of Na1 residues also influenced the Na(+)-dependent conformational change in ways that varied depending on the position mutated. Computational analyses suggest those mutants influence the ability of Na1 binding to hydrate the substrate pathway and perturb an interaction network leading to the extracellular gate. Overall, the results demonstrate that occupation of Na2 stabilizes outward-facing conformations presumably through a direct interaction between Na(+) and transmembrane helices 1 and 8, whereas Na(+) binding at Na1 influences conformational change through a network of intermediary interactions. The results also provide evidence that N-terminal release and helix motions represent distinct steps in cytoplasmic pathway opening.

  15. Two Na+ Sites Control Conformational Change in a Neurotransmitter Transporter Homolog*

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Sotiria; Margheritis, Eleonora; Nagarajan, Anu; DeWitt, David C.; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Rosado, Edwin; Ravera, Silvia; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Forrest, Lucy R.; Rudnick, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In LeuT, a prokaryotic homolog of neurotransmitter transporters, Na+ stabilizes outward-open conformational states. We examined how each of the two LeuT Na+ binding sites contributes to Na+-dependent closure of the cytoplasmic pathway using biochemical and biophysical assays of conformation. Mutating either of two residues that contribute to the Na2 site completely prevented cytoplasmic closure in response to Na+, suggesting that Na2 is essential for this conformational change, whereas Na1 mutants retained Na+ responsiveness. However, mutation of Na1 residues also influenced the Na+-dependent conformational change in ways that varied depending on the position mutated. Computational analyses suggest those mutants influence the ability of Na1 binding to hydrate the substrate pathway and perturb an interaction network leading to the extracellular gate. Overall, the results demonstrate that occupation of Na2 stabilizes outward-facing conformations presumably through a direct interaction between Na+ and transmembrane helices 1 and 8, whereas Na+ binding at Na1 influences conformational change through a network of intermediary interactions. The results also provide evidence that N-terminal release and helix motions represent distinct steps in cytoplasmic pathway opening. PMID:26582198

  16. In rat hepatocytes, the hypertonic activation of Na(+) conductance and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symport--but not Na(+)-H(+) antiport--is mediated by protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Heinzinger, H; van den Boom, F; Tinel, H; Wehner, F

    2001-11-01

    1. The initial event in the regulatory volume increase (RVI) of rat hepatocytes is an import of extracellular Na(+) via Na(+) conductance, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symport, and Na(+)-H(+) antiport. 2. Here, the protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine (100 nmol l(-1)) and bis-indolyl-maleimide I (400 nmol l(-1)) were used to test for a possible contribution of protein kinase C (PKC) to the hypertonic activation of these transporters in confluent primary cultures. 3. Stimulation of Na(+) conductance was monitored: (i) by use of a differential approach based on Na(+) fluxes, (ii) by means of cable analysis, and (iii) in experiments with low Na(+) pulses. All three experimental protocols in concert demonstrated a block of the activation of Na(+) conductance by staurosporine and bis-indolyl-maleimide I. 4. In addition, both compounds significantly reduced the hypertonic activation of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symport (quantified on the basis of furosemide-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake) to approximately 30 %. 5. In contrast, neither staurosporine nor bis-indolyl-maleimide I had any detectable effect on the hypertonicity-induced alkalinization of cell pH via Na(+)-H(+) antiport (determined fluorometrically). 6. Staurosporine and bis-indolyl-maleimide I completely blocked the RVI of rat hepatocytes (quantified by means of confocal laser-scanning microscopy). The high efficiency of the block suggests an additional inhibitory effect of both compounds on the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (determined as ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake). 7. It is concluded that the hypertonic activation of rat hepatocyte Na(+) conductance and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symport--but not Na(+)-H(+) antiport--is probably mediated by PKC.

  17. Study of resonant scattering of 21Na+p relevant to astrophysical 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.; Zhang, L. Y.; Xu, S. W.; Chen, S. Z.; Hu, J.; Ma, P.; Chen, R. F.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kubono, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Togano, Y.; Wang, H. W.; Tian, W. D.; Guo, B.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Yamada, T.; Komatsubara, T.

    2012-11-01

    Astrophysical 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction is one of the most probable breakout routes, which lead to the rp-process from the hot-CNO cycle, converting the initial CNO elements into heavier elements in Type I x-ray bursters. Presently, there is no much experimental cross-section data reported at the energy of astrophysical interest, and resonant spectroscopic information in compound 22Mg is scarce as well. The experiment has been carried out by using the CNS radioactive ion beam separator (CRIB). Resonant properties in 22Mg have been studied via the resonant elastic scattering of 21Na+p, and cross section of the time-reversal reaction of 21Na(p,α)18Ne been measured simultaneously. A wide excitation energy region up to Ex ~ 9.5 MeV in 22Mg has been scanned with a thick-target method. Some preliminary results will be reported.

  18. Comparative evaluation of Na(+) uptake in Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus (Lacepede) and Cyprinodon variegatus hubbsi (Carr) (Cyprinodontiformes, Teleostei): Evaluation of NHE function in high and low Na(+) freshwater.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The euryhaline pupfish, Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus (Cvv), can successfully osmoregulate in ≥2 mM Na(+) and a freshwater population (Cyprinodon variegatus hubbsi; Cvh) osmoregulates at ≥0.1mM Na(+). We previously demonstrated that Cvv relies on an apical NKCC and NHE in the gill for Na(+) uptake in high (7mM) and intermediate (2 mM) Na(+) concentrations, while Cvh relies only on NHE for Na(+) uptake. This study investigated whether differential NHE isoform use explains differences in Na(+) uptake kinetics between these two populations. We further studied whether Cvh uses a NHE-Rh metabolon or carbonic anhydrase (CA) to overcome thermodynamic challenges of NHE function in dilute freshwater. Transfer to more dilute freshwater resulted in upregulation of nhe-2 (Cvv only) and nhe-3 (Cvv and Cvh). Relative expression of nhe-3 compared to nhe-2 was 2-fold higher in Cvv, but 200-fold higher in Cvh suggesting that nhe-3 expression is an important freshwater adaptation for Cvh. Simultaneous measurement of Na(+) and Tamm flux under various conditions provided no support for a NHE-Rh metabolon in either population. Carbonic anhydrase activity in Cvv was comparable in 7 and 2 mM Na(+) acclimated fish. In Cvh, CA activity increased by 75% in 0.1 mM Na(+) acclimated fish compared to 7 mM Na(+) fish. Ethoxzolamide had variable effects, stimulating and reducing Na(+) uptake in Cvv acclimated to 7 and 2 mM Na(+), while reducing Na(+) uptake in 7 and 0.1mM Na(+) acclimated Cvh. This suggests that CA plays important, but different roles in regulating Na(+) uptake in Cvv and Cvh.

  19. In Situ SAXS/WAXS of Zeolite Microwave Synthesis: NaY, NaA, and Beta Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Panzarella,B.; Tompsett, G.; Conner, W.; Jones, K.

    2007-01-01

    A custom waveguide apparatus is constructed to study the microwave synthesis of zeolites by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The WR-284 waveguide is used to heat precursor solutions using microwaves at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The reaction vessels are designed to include sections of thin-walled glass, which permit X-rays to pass through the precursor solutions with minimal attenuation. Slots were machined into the waveguide to provide windows for X-ray energy to enter and scatter from solutions during microwave heating. The synthesis of zeolites with conventional heating is also studied using X-ray scattering in the same reactor. SAXS studies show that the crystallization of beta zeolite and NaY zeolite is preceded by a reorganization of nanosized particles in their precursor solutions or gels. The evolution of these particles during the nucleation and crystallization stages of zeolite formation depends on the properties of the precursor solution. The synthesis of NaA and NaX zeolites and sodalite from a single zeolite precursor is studied by microwave and conventional heating. Microwave heating shifts the selectivity of this synthesis in favor of NaA and NaX over sodalite; conventional heating leads to the formation of sodalite for synthesis from the same precursor. The use of microwave heating also led to a more rapid onset of NaA zeolite product crystallization compared to conventional heating. Pulsed and continuous microwave heating are compared for zeolite synthesis. The resulting rates of formation of the zeolite products, and the relative amounts of the products determined from the WAXS spectra, are similar when either pulsed or continuous microwave heating is applied in the reactor while maintaining the same synthesis temperature. The consequences of these results in terms of zeolite synthesis are discussed.

  20. In situ SAXS/WAXS of zeolite microwave synthesis: NaY, NaA, and beta zeolites.

    PubMed

    Panzarella, Bernard; Tompsett, Geoffrey; Conner, William C; Jones, Keith

    2007-02-19

    A custom waveguide apparatus is constructed to study the microwave synthesis of zeolites by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The WR-284 waveguide is used to heat precursor solutions using microwaves at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The reaction vessels are designed to include sections of thin-walled glass, which permit X-rays to pass through the precursor solutions with minimal attenuation. Slots were machined into the waveguide to provide windows for X-ray energy to enter and scatter from solutions during microwave heating. The synthesis of zeolites with conventional heating is also studied using X-ray scattering in the same reactor. SAXS studies show that the crystallization of beta zeolite and NaY zeolite is preceded by a reorganization of nanosized particles in their precursor solutions or gels. The evolution of these particles during the nucleation and crystallization stages of zeolite formation depends on the properties of the precursor solution. The synthesis of NaA and NaX zeolites and sodalite from a single zeolite precursor is studied by microwave and conventional heating. Microwave heating shifts the selectivity of this synthesis in favor of NaA and NaX over sodalite; conventional heating leads to the formation of sodalite for synthesis from the same precursor. The use of microwave heating also led to a more rapid onset of NaA zeolite product crystallization compared to conventional heating. Pulsed and continuous microwave heating are compared for zeolite synthesis. The resulting rates of formation of the zeolite products, and the relative amounts of the products determined from the WAXS spectra, are similar when either pulsed or continuous microwave heating is applied in the reactor while maintaining the same synthesis temperature. The consequences of these results in terms of zeolite synthesis are discussed.

  1. The loss of Na and Cl during the pyrolysis of a NaCl-loaded brown coal sample

    SciTech Connect

    Mody, D.; Li, C.Z.

    1999-07-01

    A Victorian brown coal was physically loaded with NaCl and pyrolyzed in a quartz fluidized-bed reactor. The fluidized-bed reactor was equipped with a quartz frit in the freeboard zone to enable the total devolatilization of the coal particles. The introduction of NaCl into the coal has caused only minor reductions in the weight loss. A significant amount of chlorine was volatilized during pyrolysis at temperatures as low as 200 C. At temperatures around 400--500 C where the loss of sodium was not very significant, about 70% of chlorine was volatilized from the coal particles. With the volatilization of chlorine at this temperature level, sodium must have been bonded to the char matrix. With increasing temperature, the volatilization of chlorine decreased and then increased again, whereas the volatilization of sodium increased monotonically with increasing temperature. Almost all the Na in coal could be volatilized at temperatures higher than about 800 C. These experimental results clearly indicate that chlorine and Na interacted strongly with coal/char at high temperatures. Na and Cl in the coal did not volatilize as NaCl molecules. Significant amounts of species containing a COO-group such as acetate, formate and oxalate were observed in the pyrolysis products although the exact forms of these species (i.e., as acids, salts or esters) in the pyrolysis product remain unknown. The yields of the species containing a COO-group decreased with increasing temperature, possibly due to the intensified thermal cracking reactions at high temperatures.

  2. Na+-dependent and Na+-independent betaine transport across the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cano, Mercedes; Calonge, María L; Ilundáin, Anunciación A

    2015-10-01

    The low renal excretion of betaine indicates that the kidney efficiently reabsorbs the betaine filtered by the glomeruli but the mechanisms involved in such a process have been scarcely investigated. We have detected concentrative and non-concentrative betaine transport activity in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from rat renal cortex and medulla. The concentrative system is the Sodium/Imino-acid Transporter 1 (SIT1) because it is Na+- and Cl--dependent, electrogenic and is inhibited by an anti-SIT1 antibody. Its apparent affinity constant for betaine, Kt, is 1.1±0.5 mM and its maximal transport velocity, Vmax, 0.5±0.1 nmol betaine/mg protein/s. Inhibitors of the Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake are L-proline (75%) and cold betaine, L-carnitine and choline (40-60%). Neither creatine, TEA, taurine, β-alanine, GABA nor glycine significantly inhibited Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake. The non-concentrative betaine transport system is Na+- and H+-independent, electroneutral, with a Kt for betaine of 47±7 μM and a Vmax of 7.8±1 pmol betaine/mg protein/s. Its transport activity is nearly abolished by betaine, followed by L-carnitine (70-80%) and proline (40-50%), but a difference from the Na+/Cl-/betaine transport is that it is inhibited by TEA (approx. 50%) and unaffected by choline. The underlying carrier functions as an antiporter linking betaine entry into the BBMV with the efflux of either L-carnitine or betaine, an exchange unaffected by the anti-SIT1 antibody. As far as we know this is the first work reporting that betaine crosses the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium by SIT1 and by a Na+- and H+-independent transport system.

  3. Observation of structure in laser-induced Penning and associative ionization in crossed-beam Na+Na collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Polak-Dingels, P.; Delpech, J.; Weiner, J.

    1980-06-23

    The results of double-laser experiments in which Na/sup +//sub 2/ and Na/sup +/ are produced in crossed-alkali beams under single-collision conditions in the presence of strong optical fields are reported. Structure in the mass-selected product ion intensity as a function laser frequency is observed when the optical field is strongly focused and tuned far off atomic or dimer transitions. These measurements are the first to show that nuclear motion of the quasimolecular collision intermediate plays an important role in laser-induced collisional ionization.

  4. Synthesis and Neutron Diffraction Study of Na 3WN 3 and Na 3MoN 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, P. E.; DiSalvo, F. J.; Brese, N. E.; Partin, D. E.; O'Keeffe, M.

    1994-05-01

    We have used our ambient pressure method for the synthesis of ternary alkali metal nitrides to synthesize a new class of nitrides, Na 3MN 3 ( M = Mo or W). These compounds were synthesized from the metal nitride and NaNH 2 at 500°C under flowing ammonia at atmospheric pressure. The structures were examined using X-ray powder diffraction and neutron powder diffraction and were found to be identical with that obtained from the single crystal prepared at high pressure by Ostermann, Zachwieja, and Jacobs.

  5. Luminescence and radiation resistance of undoped NaI crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shiran, N. Boiaryntseva, I.; Gektin, A.; Gridin, S.; Shlyakhturov, V.; Vasuykov, S.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The performance of NaI scintillators depends on luminescence properties. • A criterion of crystals’ purity level is radiation colorability at room temperature. • The traces of the most dangerous impurities were detected. • Crucial role in efficiency of pure NaI scintillator play the crystal perfection. - Abstract: Undoped NaI single crystal is an excellent scintillator at low temperature. However, scintillation parameters of different quality crystals vary in a wide range, significantly exceeding measurement error. Experimental data demonstrate the features of luminescence, radiation induced coloration, and afterglow dependence on the quality of nominally pure crystals. It is found that defects level that allows to elucidate artefacts introduced by traces of harmful impurities corresponds to 3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} that significantly overhead accuracy of chemical and absorption analysis. It is shown that special raw material treatment before and during the single crystal growth allows to reach NaI purity level that avoids impurities influence to the basic luminescence data.

  6. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage <3.7 V. The porous structure, high electro-conductivity, and good wettability of electrolyte to cathode lead to reduced electrochemical polarization of the battery and further result in high performance. Our work provides an alternative approach towards clean recycling and utilization of CO2 .

  7. Neutron detection by large NaI crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Gervino, G.

    2016-07-01

    In present days new neutron detection methods are under developed due to the global shortage of 3He and the toxicity of BF3. Neutrons can be indirectly detected by high-energy photons. The performance of a cylindrical NaI crystal, 4 in. diameter and 8 in. length as an indirect neutron detector has been investigated. Measurements were performed with 252Cf source with bare and shielded NaI detector. With a proper converter and moderator structure for the NaI detector, the detection efficiencies and the minimum detectable activities are improved, making the method very interesting for security applications. The indirect detection of neutrons by photons has several advantages. First, this method can in principle be suited by any gamma spectrometer with only slight modifications that do not compromise with its gamma spectrometry measurements. Second, fission neutron sources and neutron generators can be discriminated thanks to their different gamma energy spectra, a discrimination easily done by a NaI spectrometer.

  8. Substituting KCl for NaCl in fresh Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the sodium level in cheese is challenging when a signature salty flavor is expected, such as in high-moisture Queso Fresco (QF). Fresh starter-free QF was fine milled and dry salted at different levels of NaCl and KCl to obtain total salt levels of 1.5 to 2.0%. The treatments contained 1....

  9. Stainless Steel NaK Circuit Integration and Fill Submission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne E.

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has been tasked by the Marshall Space Flight Center Nuclear Systems Office to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit. The system, which was originally designed to hold a eutectic mixture of sodium potassium (NaK), was redesigned to hold lithium; but due to a shift in focus, it is once again being prepared for use with NaK. Changes made to the actively pumped, high temperature loop include the replacement of the expansion reservoir, addition of remotely operated valves, and modification of the support table. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and a spill reservoir. A 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full design) was selected for fabrication and test. This document summarizes the integration and fill of the pumped liquid metal NaK flow circuit.

  10. Formation of oriented membrane multilayers of Na/K-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pachence, J.M.; Knott, R.; Edelman, I.S.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Wallace, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isolated membrane-bound enzyme retains its ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis activity, and produces ATP-dependent Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ fluxes when incorporated into phospholipid vesicles. The ultimate goal of this work is to determine its low resolution structure using both X-ray and neutron diffraction. A number of methods were used to impart lamellar stacking order to highly purified pig Na/K-ATPase membranes. Upon partial dehydration, x-ray diffraction from Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers at 98% relative humidity yielded discrete reflections of 118 A periodicity, diffracting to 1/14.8 A/sup -1/, additionally, continuous diffraction to 1/10 A/sup -1/ was obtained. Subjecting the membrane multilayers to high magnetic fields improved the quality of the lamellar diffraction dramatically. Neutron diffraction studies of the partially dehydrated Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers detected a mosaic spread of 2/sup 0/ when the samples were subjected to a magnetic field of 5 Tesla perpendicular to the membrane surface; the reflections were narrower than the camera line width; hence, the lattice disorder has also decreased significantly, although only four orders were measured.

  11. Influence of salt purity on Na+ and palmitic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-12-19

    The influence of salt purity on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the carboxylate (COO(-)) head group of palmitic acid (PA) monolayers is studied in the COO(-) and OH stretching regions using broad-band vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous solution preparation after proper pretreatment. The time evolution of VSFG spectra of PA monolayers on solutions made from these two grades of salts is different, which reveals that the salt purity has a significant impact on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the COO(-) group of PA. The trace metal impurities in ACS grade salt, which are more abundant than those in UP grade salt, are responsible for this difference due to their stronger affinity for the carboxylate group relative to Na(+) and further affects the interfacial water structure. These results suggest that the alkali salt grade even after pretreatment is critical in the studies of alkali cation-carboxylate interactions and comparison of relative binding affinities of different cations.

  12. Altered erythrocyte Na-K pump in anorectic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquali, R.; Strocchi, E.; Malini, P.; Casimirri, F.; Ambrosioni, E.; Melchionda, N.; Labo, G.

    1985-07-01

    The status of the erythrocyte sodium pump was evaluated in a group of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and a group of healthy female control subjects. Anorectic patients showed significantly higher mean values of digoxin-binding sites/cell (ie, the number of Na-K-ATPase units) with respect to control subjects while no differences were found in the specific /sup 86/Rb uptake (which reflects the Na-K-ATPase activity) between the two groups. A significant correlation was found between relative weight and the number of Na-K-ATPase pump units (r = -0.66; P less than 0.0001). Anorectic patients showed lower serum T3 concentrations (71.3 +/- 53 ng/dL) with respect to control subjects (100.8 +/- 4.7 ng/dL; P less than 0.0005) and a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and the number of pump units (r = -0.52; P less than 0.003) was found. This study therefore shows that the erythrocyte Na-K pump may be altered in several anorectic patients. The authors suggest that this feature could be interrelated with the degree of underweight and/or malnutrition.

  13. Reductive amination of carbohydrates using NaBH(OAc)3.

    PubMed

    Dalpathado, Dilusha S; Jiang, Hui; Kater, Marcus A; Desaire, Heather

    2005-03-01

    An improved protocol for reductive amination of carbohydrates is developed. This derivatization facilitates the detection of oligosaccharides in HPLC-UV and mass spectrometric applications by enhancing the signal of the carbohydrates. In this study, reductive amination was achieved using NaBH(OAc)3. This reducing agent is an attractive alternative to the toxic, but extensively used reducing agent, NaBH3CN. Several types of carbohydrates were successfully derivatized using NaBH(OAc)3, and the results obtained from this protocol were compared with those obtained with NaBH(OAc)3. Both reducing agents were equally effective in side-by-side analysis. Two purification strategies (purification by zip-tip and HPLC) were implemented and the instrumental limit of detection of each method was compared. The detection limit was approximately 1,000 times lower when the purification was done using HPLC, compared to using the zip-tip. Since the derivatization by-products in this protocol are not toxic, MS analysis also could also be performed directly, without purification. The MS/MS data of derivatized and underivatized oligosaccharides were acquired as well. The derivatized oligosaccharides produce more easily interpretable product ions than underivatized oligosaccharides.

  14. Bilingual Education at Dzil Na'oodilii Community School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Roy E.

    Proceedings of a Navajo Bilingual Education Conference held April 26 and 27, 1985, are summarized in this report which focuses on the implementation of Navajo language and cultural education at the Dzlith Na O Dith Hle Community School (DCS). The paper begins by stating that the conference was intended to assist educators in understanding and…

  15. Project ELaNa and NASA's CubeSat Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrobot, Garrett Lee

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA program to use expendable lift vehicles (ELVs) to launch nanosatellites for the purpose of enhancing educational research. The Education Launch of Nanosatellite (ELaNa) project, run out of the Launch Services Program is requesting proposals for CubeSat type payload to provide information that will aid or verify NASA Projects designs while providing higher educational research

  16. Results from NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Usai, G.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.

    2006-07-11

    The NA60 experiment studies open charm and prompt dimuon production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS. During 2003 the experiment collected data in Indium-Indium collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon. In this paper the first results on low mass dimuons, intermediate mass dimuons and J/{psi} suppression are presented.

  17. Li-Na ternary amidoborane for hydrogen storage: experimental and first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Miao, Ling; Scheicher, Ralph H; Xiong, Zhitao; Wu, Guotao; Araújo, C Moysés; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev; Feng, Yuanping; Chen, Ping

    2012-04-28

    Li-Na ternary amidoborane, Na[Li(NH(2)BH(3))(2)], was recently synthesized by reacting LiH and NaH with NH(3)BH(3). This mixed-cation amidoborane shows improved dehydrogenation performance compared to that of single-cation amidoboranes, i.e., LiNH(2)BH(3) and NaNH(2)BH(3). In this paper, we synthesized the Li-Na ternary amidoborane by blending and re-crystallizing equivalent LiNH(2)BH(3) and NaNH(2)BH(3) in tetrahydrofuran (THF), and employed first-principles calculations and the special quasirandom structure (SQS) method to theoretically explore the likelihood for the existence of Li(1-x)Na(x)(NH(2)BH(3)) for various Li/Na ratios. The thermodynamic, electronic and phononic properties were investigated to understand the possible dehydrogenation mechanisms of Na[Li(NH(2)BH(3))(2)].

  18. Multiple quantum filtered (23)Na NMR in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart: Ratio of triple/double quantum filtered signals correlates with [Na]i.

    PubMed

    Eykyn, Thomas R; Aksentijević, Dunja; Aughton, Karen L; Southworth, Richard; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the potential of multiple quantum filtered (MQF) (23)Na NMR to probe intracellular [Na]i in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart. In the presence of Tm(DOTP) shift reagent the triple quantum filtered (TQF) signal originated largely from the intracellular sodium pool with a 32±6% contribution of the total TQF signal arising from extracellular sodium, whilst the rank 2 double-quantum filtered signal (DQF), acquired with a 54.7° flip-angle pulse, originated exclusively from the extracellular sodium pool. Given the different cellular origins of the (23)Na MQF signals we propose that the TQF/DQF ratio can be used as a semi-quantitative measure of [Na]i in the mouse heart. We demonstrate a good correlation of this ratio with [Na]i measured with shift reagent at baseline and under conditions of elevated [Na]i. We compare the measurements of [Na]i using both shift reagent and TQF/DQF ratio in a cohort of wild type mouse hearts and in a transgenic PLM(3SA) mouse expressing a non-phosphorylatable form of phospholemman, showing a modest but measurable elevation of baseline [Na]i. MQF filtered (23)Na NMR is a potentially useful tool for studying normal and pathophysiological changes in [Na]i, particularly in transgenic mouse models with altered Na regulation.

  19. Multiple quantum filtered 23Na NMR in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart: Ratio of triple/double quantum filtered signals correlates with [Na]i

    PubMed Central

    Eykyn, Thomas R.; Aksentijević, Dunja; Aughton, Karen L.; Southworth, Richard; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the potential of multiple quantum filtered (MQF) 23Na NMR to probe intracellular [Na]i in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart. In the presence of Tm(DOTP) shift reagent the triple quantum filtered (TQF) signal originated largely from the intracellular sodium pool with a 32 ± 6% contribution of the total TQF signal arising from extracellular sodium, whilst the rank 2 double-quantum filtered signal (DQF), acquired with a 54.7° flip-angle pulse, originated exclusively from the extracellular sodium pool. Given the different cellular origins of the 23Na MQF signals we propose that the TQF/DQF ratio can be used as a semi-quantitative measure of [Na]i in the mouse heart. We demonstrate a good correlation of this ratio with [Na]i measured with shift reagent at baseline and under conditions of elevated [Na]i. We compare the measurements of [Na]i using both shift reagent and TQF/DQF ratio in a cohort of wild type mouse hearts and in a transgenic PLM3SA mouse expressing a non-phosphorylatable form of phospholemman, showing a modest but measurable elevation of baseline [Na]i. MQF filtered 23Na NMR is a potentially useful tool for studying normal and pathophysiological changes in [Na]i, particularly in transgenic mouse models with altered Na regulation. PMID:26196304

  20. In vivo sup 23 Na and sup 31 P NMR measurement of a tonoplast Na sup + /H sup + exchange process and its characteristics in two barley cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, T.W.M.; Norlyn, J.; Epstein, E. ); Higashi, R.M. )

    1989-12-01

    A Na{sup +} uptake-associated vacuolar alkalinization was observed in roots of two barley cultivars (Arivat and the more salt-tolerant California Mariout) by using {sup 23}Na and {sup 31}P in vivo NMR spectroscopy. A NaCl uptake-associated broadening was also noted for both vacuolar P{sub i} and intracellular Na NMR peaks, consistent with Na{sup +} uptake into the same compartment as the vacuolar P{sub i}. A close coupling of Na{sup +} with H{sup +} transport (presumably the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport) in vivo was evidence by qualitative and quantitative correlations between Na{sup +} accumulation and vacuolar alkalinization for both cultivars. Prolongation of the low NaCl pretreatment (30 mM) increased the activity of the putative antiport in Arivat but reduced it in California Mariout. This putative antiport also showed a dependence on NaCl concentration for California Mariout but not for Arivat. No cytoplasmic acidification accompanied the antiporter activity for either cultivar. The response of adenosine phosphates indicated that ATP utilization exceeded the capacity for ATP synthesis in Arivat, but the two processes seemed balanced in California Mariout. These comparisons provide clues to the role of the tonoplast Na{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport and compensatory cytoplasmic adjustments including pH, osymolytes, and energy phosphates in governing the different salt tolerance of the two cultivars.

  1. The I427T neuraminidase (NA) substitution, located outside the NA active site of an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 variant with reduced susceptibility to NA inhibitors, alters NA properties and impairs viral fitness.

    PubMed

    Tu, Véronique; Abed, Yacine; Barbeau, Xavier; Carbonneau, Julie; Fage, Clément; Lagüe, Patrick; Boivin, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of pan neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI)-resistant variants constitutes a serious clinical concern. An influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 variant containing the I427T/Q313R neuraminidase (NA) substitutions was previously identified in a surveillance study. Although these changes are not part of the NA active site, the variant showed reduced susceptibility to many NAIs. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of resistance for the I427T/Q313R substitution and its impact on the NA enzyme and viral fitness. Recombinant wild-type (WT), I427T/Q313R and I427T A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were generated by reverse genetics and tested for their drug susceptibilities, enzymatic properties and replication kinetics in vitro as well as their virulence in mice. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for NA structural analysis. The I427T substitution, which was responsible for the resistance phenotype observed in the double (I427T/Q313R) mutant, induced 17-, 56-, 7-, and 14-fold increases in IC50 values against oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir, respectively. The I427T substitution alone or combined to Q313R significantly reduced NA affinity. The I427T/Q313R and to a lesser extent I427T recombinant viruses displayed reduced viral titers vs WT in vitro. In experimentally-infected mice, the mortality rates were 62.5%, 0% and 14.3% for the WT, I417T/Q313R and I427T viruses, respectively. There were about 2.5- and 2-Log reductions in mean lung viral titers on day 5 post-infection for the I427T/Q313R and I427T mutants, respectively, compared to WT. Results from simulations revealed that the I427T change indirectly altered the stability of the catalytic R368 residue of the NA enzyme causing its reduced binding to the substrate/inhibitor. This study demonstrates that the I427T/Q313R mutant, not only alters NAI susceptibility but also compromises NA properties and viral fitness, which could explain its infrequent detection in clinic.

  2. The Na+ transport in gram-positive bacteria defect in the Mrp antiporter complex measured with 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Kamil; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Drakenberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-15

    (23)Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has previously been used to monitor Na(+) translocation across membranes in gram-negative bacteria and in various other organelles and liposomes using a membrane-impermeable shift reagent to resolve the signals resulting from internal and external Na(+). In this work, the (23)Na NMR method was adapted for measurements of internal Na(+) concentration in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, with the aim of assessing the Na(+) translocation activity of the Mrp (multiple resistance and pH) antiporter complex, a member of the cation proton antiporter-3 (CPA-3) family. The sodium-sensitive growth phenotype observed in a B. subtilis strain with the gene encoding MrpA deleted could indeed be correlated to the inability of this strain to maintain a lower internal Na(+) concentration than an external one.

  3. Effects of Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 on molybdenum and tungsten electrodes for the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Wheeler, B. L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Loveland, M. E.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of adding Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to porous Mo and W electrodes, respectively, on the performance and impedance characteristics of the electrodes in an alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) were investigated. It was found that corrosion of the porous electrode by Na2MoO4 or Na2WO4 to form Na2MO3O6 and WO2, respectively, and recrystallization of the Mo or W as the salt evaporates, result in major morphological changes including a loss of columnar structure and a significant increase in porosity. This effect is more pronounced in Na2MoO4/Mo electrodes, due to the lower stability of Na2MoO4.

  4. Ca2+ signaling evoked by activation of Na+ channels and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers is required for GABA-induced NG2 cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiao-ping; Li, Xiang-yao; Zhou, Bing; Shen, Wanhua; Zhang, Zhi-jun; Xu, Tian-le

    2009-01-01

    NG2 cells originate from various brain regions and migrate to their destinations during early development. These cells express voltage-gated Na+ channels but fail to produce typical action potentials. The physiological role of Na+ channels in these cells is unclear. We found that GABA induces membrane depolarization and Ca2+ elevation in NG2 cells, a process requiring activation of GABAA receptors, Na+ channels, and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs), but not Ca2+ channels. We have identified a persistent Na+ current in these cells that may underlie the GABA-induced pathway of prolonged Na+ elevation, which in turn triggers Ca2+ influx via NCXs. This unique Ca2+ signaling pathway is further shown to be involved in the migration of NG2 cells. Thus, GABAergic signaling mediated by sequential activation of GABAA receptors, noninactivating Na+ channels, and NCXs may play an important role in the development and function of NG2 glial cells in the brain. PMID:19596850

  5. Functional identification and characterization of sodium binding sites in Na symporters.

    PubMed

    Loo, Donald D F; Jiang, Xuan; Gorraitz, Edurne; Hirayama, Bruce A; Wright, Ernest M

    2013-11-19

    Sodium cotransporters from several different gene families belong to the leucine transporter (LeuT) structural family. Although the identification of Na(+) in binding sites is beyond the resolution of the structures, two Na(+) binding sites (Na1 and Na2) have been proposed in LeuT. Na2 is conserved in the LeuT family but Na1 is not. A biophysical method has been used to measure sodium dissociation constants (Kd) of wild-type and mutant human sodium glucose cotransport (hSGLT1) proteins to identify the Na(+) binding sites in hSGLT1. The Na1 site is formed by residues in the sugar binding pocket, and their mutation influences sodium binding to Na1 but not to Na2. For the canonical Na2 site formed by two -OH side chains, S392 and S393, and three backbone carbonyls, mutation of S392 to cysteine increased the sodium Kd by sixfold. This was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the apparent sugar and phlorizin affinities. We suggest that mutation of S392 in the Na2 site produces a structural rearrangement of the sugar binding pocket to disrupt both the binding of the second Na(+) and the binding of sugar. In contrast, the S393 mutations produce no significant changes in sodium, sugar, and phlorizin affinities. We conclude that the Na2 site is conserved in hSGLT1, the side chain of S392 and the backbone carbonyl of S393 are important in the first Na(+) binding, and that Na(+) binding to Na2 promotes binding to Na1 and also sugar binding.

  6. Structure of hydrated Na-Nafion polymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Blake, Nick P; Petersen, Matt K; Voth, Gregory A; Metiu, Horia

    2005-12-29

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure of the hydrated Na-Nafion membranes. The membrane is "prepared" by starting with the Nafion chains placed on a cylinder having the water inside it. Minimizing the energy of the system leads to a filamentary hydrophilic domain whose structure depends on the degree of hydration. At 5 wt % water the system does not have enough water molecules to solvate all the ions that could be formed by the dissociation of the -SO3Na groups. As a result, the -SO3Na groups aggregate with the water to form very small droplets that do not join into a continuous phase. The size of the droplets is between 5 and 8 A. As the amount of water present in the membrane is increased, the membrane swells, and SO3Na has an increasing tendency to dissociate into ions. Furthermore, a transition to a percolating hydrophilic network is observed. In the percolating structure, the water forms irregular curvilinear channels branching in all directions. The typical dimension of the cross section of these channels is about 10-20 A. Calculated neutron scattering from the simulated system is in qualitative agreement with experiment. In all simulations, the pendant sulfonated perfluorovinyl side chains of the Nafion hug the walls of the hydrophilic channel, while the sulfonate groups point toward the center of the hydrophilic phase. The expulsion of the side chains from the hydrophilic domain is favored because it allows better interaction between the water molecules. We have also examined the probability of finding water molecules around the Na+ and the -SO3(-) ions as well as the probability of finding other water molecules next to a given water molecule. These probabilities are much broader than those found in bulk water or for one ion in bulk water (calculated with the potentials used in the present simulation). This is due to the highly inhomogeneous nature of the material contained in the small hydrophilic pores.

  7. Aldosterone augments Na+-induced reduction of cardiac norepinephrine reuptake.

    PubMed

    Kreusser, Michael M; Lehmann, Lorenz H; Riffel, Johannes H; Haass, Markus; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Backs, Johannes; Katus, Hugo A; Buss, Sebastian J

    2014-10-15

    Impairment of the cardiac norepinephrine (NE) reuptake by the neuronal NE transporter contributes to enhanced cardiac NE net release in congestive heart failure. Elevated plasma levels of aldosterone (AL) promote sympathetic overstimulation in failing hearts by unclear mechanisms. Our aim was to evaluate if elevated AL and/or alterations in Na(+) intake regulate cardiac NE reuptake. To test the effects of AL and Na(+) on cardiac NE reuptake, Wistar rats were fed a normal-salt (NS) diet (0.2% NaCl), a low-salt (LS) diet (0.015% NaCl), or a high-salt (HS) diet (8% NaCl). Another group of animals received AL infusion alone (0.75 μg/h) or AL infusion plus HS diet. Specific cardiac [(3)H]NE uptake via the NE transporter in a Langendorff preparation and AL plasma levels were measured at different time points between 5 and 42 days of treatment. To compare these findings from healthy animals with a disease model, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were investigated as a model of congestive heart failure with endogenously elevated AL. In summary, neither exogenous nor endogenous elevations of AL alone were sufficient to reduce cardiac NE reuptake. Only the HS diet induced a reduction of NE reuptake by 26%; additional infusion of AL augmented this effect to a further reduction of NE reuptake by 36%. In concordance, Dahl salt-sensitive rats treated with a HS diet displayed elevated AL and a marked reduction of NE reuptake. We conclude that exogenous or endogenous AL elevations alone do not reduce cardiac NE reuptake, but AL serves as an additional factor that negatively regulates cardiac NE reuptake in concert with HS intake.

  8. Semi-volatiles at Mercury: Sodium (Na) and potassium (K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A.

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of evidence now suggest that Mercury is a planet rich in moderately-volatile elements such as Na and K. Recent mid-infrared spectral observations of Mercury's equatorial and mid-latitude region near 120 degrees mercurian longitude indicate the presence of plagioclase feldspar. Spectra of Mercury's surface exhibit spectral activity similar to labradorite (plagioclase feldspar with NaAlSi3O8: 30-50 percent) and bytownite (NaAlSi3O8: 10-30 percent). These surface studies were stimulated by the relatively large abundance of Na and K observed in Mercury's atmosphere. An enhanced column of K is observed at the longitudes of Caloris Basin and of the antipodal terrain. Extreme heating at these 'hot' longitudes and severe fracturing suffered from the large impact event could lead to enhanced outgassing from surface or subsurface materials. Alternatively, sputtering from a surface enriched in K could be the source of the observed enhancement. Recent microwave measurements of Mercury also give indirect evidence of a mercurian regolith less FeO-rich than the Moon. An anomalously high index of refraction derived from the whole-disk integrated phase curve of Danjon may also be indicative of surface sulfides contributing to a regolith that is moderately volatile-rich. The recent exciting observations of radar-bright spots at high latitudes also indicate that a substance of high volume scattering, like ice, is present in shadowed regions. Other radar-bright spots have been seen at locations of Na enhancements on the atmosphere. All combined, these pieces of evidence point to a planet that is not severely depleted in volatiles or semi-volatiles.

  9. Na+-independent phosphate transport in Caco2BBE cells.

    PubMed

    Candeal, Eduardo; Caldas, Yupanqui A; Guillén, Natalia; Levi, Moshe; Sorribas, Víctor

    2014-12-15

    Pi transport in epithelia has both Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent components, but so far only Na(+)-dependent transporters have been characterized in detail and molecularly identified. Consequently, in the present study, we initiated the characterization and analysis of intestinal Na(+)-independent Pi transport using an in vitro model, Caco2BBE cells. Only Na(+)-independent Pi uptake was observed in these cells, and Pi uptake was dramatically increased when cells were incubated in high-Pi DMEM (4 mM) from 1 day to several days. No response to low-Pi medium was observed. The increased Pi transport was mainly caused by Vmax changes, and it was prevented by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Pi transport in cells grown in 1 mM Pi (basal DMEM) decreased at pH > 7.5, and it was inhibited with proton ionophores. Pi transport in cells incubated with 4 mM Pi increased with alkaline pH, suggesting a preference for divalent phosphate. Pi uptake in cells in 1 mM Pi was completely inhibited only by Pi and partially inhibited by phosphonoformate, oxalate, DIDS, SITS, SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), and arsenate. This inhibition pattern suggests that more than one Pi transporter is active in cells maintained with 1 mM Pi. Phosphate transport from cells maintained at 4 mM Pi was only partially inhibited by phosphonoformate, oxalate, and arsenate. Attempts to identify the responsible transporters showed that multifunctional anion exchangers of the Slc26 family as well as members of Slc17, Slc20, and Slc37 and the Pi exporter xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 are not involved.

  10. Na+-independent phosphate transport in Caco2BBE cells

    PubMed Central

    Candeal, Eduardo; Caldas, Yupanqui A.; Guillén, Natalia; Levi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Pi transport in epithelia has both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components, but so far only Na+-dependent transporters have been characterized in detail and molecularly identified. Consequently, in the present study, we initiated the characterization and analysis of intestinal Na+-independent Pi transport using an in vitro model, Caco2BBE cells. Only Na+-independent Pi uptake was observed in these cells, and Pi uptake was dramatically increased when cells were incubated in high-Pi DMEM (4 mM) from 1 day to several days. No response to low-Pi medium was observed. The increased Pi transport was mainly caused by Vmax changes, and it was prevented by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Pi transport in cells grown in 1 mM Pi (basal DMEM) decreased at pH > 7.5, and it was inhibited with proton ionophores. Pi transport in cells incubated with 4 mM Pi increased with alkaline pH, suggesting a preference for divalent phosphate. Pi uptake in cells in 1 mM Pi was completely inhibited only by Pi and partially inhibited by phosphonoformate, oxalate, DIDS, SITS, SO42−, HCO3−, and arsenate. This inhibition pattern suggests that more than one Pi transporter is active in cells maintained with 1 mM Pi. Phosphate transport from cells maintained at 4 mM Pi was only partially inhibited by phosphonoformate, oxalate, and arsenate. Attempts to identify the responsible transporters showed that multifunctional anion exchangers of the Slc26 family as well as members of Slc17, Slc20, and Slc37 and the Pi exporter xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 are not involved. PMID:25298422

  11. Light-driven Na(+) pump from Gillisia limnaea: a high-affinity Na(+) binding site is formed transiently in the photocycle.

    PubMed

    Balashov, Sergei P; Imasheva, Eleonora S; Dioumaev, Andrei K; Wang, Jennifer M; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lanyi, Janos K

    2014-12-09

    A group of microbial retinal proteins most closely related to the proton pump xanthorhodopsin has a novel sequence motif and a novel function. Instead of, or in addition to, proton transport, they perform light-driven sodium ion transport, as reported for one representative of this group (KR2) from Krokinobacter. In this paper, we examine a similar protein, GLR from Gillisia limnaea, expressed in Escherichia coli, which shares some properties with KR2 but transports only Na(+). The absorption spectrum of GLR is insensitive to Na(+) at concentrations of ≤3 M. However, very low concentrations of Na(+) cause profound differences in the decay and rise time of photocycle intermediates, consistent with a switch from a "Na(+)-independent" to a "Na(+)-dependent" photocycle (or photocycle branch) at ∼60 μM Na(+). The rates of photocycle steps in the latter, but not the former, are linearly dependent on Na(+) concentration. This suggests that a high-affinity Na(+) binding site is created transiently after photoexcitation, and entry of Na(+) from the bulk to this site redirects the course of events in the remainder of the cycle. A greater concentration of Na(+) is needed for switching the reaction path at lower pH. The data suggest therefore competition between H(+) and Na(+) to determine the two alternative pathways. The idea that a Na(+) binding site can be created at the Schiff base counterion is supported by the finding that upon perturbation of this region in the D251E mutant, Na(+) binds without photoexcitation. Binding of Na(+) to the mutant shifts the chromophore maximum to the red like that of H(+), which occurs in the photocycle of the wild type.

  12. Apical membrane Na+/H+ exchange in Necturus gallbladder epithelium. Its dependence on extracellular and intracellular pH and on external Na+ concentration

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrode techniques and extracellular pH measurements were used to study the dependence of apical Na+/H+ exchange on mucosal and intracellular pH and on mucosal solution Na+ concentration ([Na+]o). When mucosal solution pH (pHo) was decreased in gallbladders bathed in Na(+)-containing solutions, aNai fell. The effect of pHo is consistent with titration of a single site with an apparent pK of 6.29. In Na(+)-depleted tissues, increasing [Na+]o from 0 to values ranging from 2.5 to 110 mM increased aNai; the relationship was well described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km was 15 mM at pHo 7.5 and increased to 134 mM at pHo 6.5, without change in Vmax. In Na(+)-depleted gallbladders, elevating [Na+]o from 0 to 25 mM increased aNai and pHi and caused acidification of a poorly buffered mucosal solution upon stopping the superfusion; lowering pHo inhibited both apical Na+ entry and mucosal solution acidification. Both effects can be ascribed to titration of a single site; the apparent pK's were 7.2 and 7.4, respectively. Diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), a histidine- specific reagent, reduced mucosal acidification by 58 +/- 4 or 39 +/- 6% when exposure to the drug was at pHo 7.5 or 6.5, respectively. Amiloride (1 mM) did not protect against the DEPC inhibition, but reduced both apical Na+ entry and mucosal acidification by 63 +/- 5 and 65 +/- 9%, respectively. In the Na(+)-depleted tissues mean pHi was 6.7. Cells were alkalinized by exposure to mucosal solutions containing high concentrations of nicotine or methylamine. Estimates of apical Na+ entry at varying pHi, upon increasing [Na+]o from 0 to 25 mM, indicate that Na+/H+ exchange is active at pHi 7.4. Intracellular H+ stimulated apical Na+ entry by titration of more than one site (apparent pK 7.1, Hill coefficient 1.7). The results suggest that external Na+ and H+ interact with one site of the Na+/H+ exchanger and that cytoplasmic H+ acts on at least two sites. The external titratable group

  13. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of supercritical CO2 adsorption on NaA and NaX zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Xiaoning

    2006-06-01

    Adsorption of supercritical carbon dioxide on two kinds of zeolites with identical chemical composition but different pore structure (NaA and NaX) was studied using the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. The model frameworks for the two zeolites with Si /Al ratio being unity have been chosen as the solid structures in the simulation. The adsorption behaviors of supercritical CO2 on the NaA and NaX zeolites, based on the adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption, were discussed in detail and were compared with the available experimental results. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental results is obtained for both the adsorbed amount and the bulk phase density. The intermediate configurational snapshots and the radial distribution functions between zeolite and adsorbed CO2 molecules were collected in order to investigate the preferable adsorption locations and the confined structure behavior of CO2. The structure behaviors of the adsorbed CO2 molecules show various performances, as compared with the bulk phase, due to the confined effect in the zeolite pores.

  14. Framework structured Na4Mn4Ti5O18 as an electrode for Na-ion storage hybrid devices.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, M; Hemalatha, K; Ramesha, K; Prakash, A S

    2015-08-28

    In this study, framework structured Na4Mn4Ti5O18 possessing S-shaped tunnels for sodium intercalation is reported as an electrode for hybrid sodium ion batteries. Galvanostatic cycling of Na4Mn4Ti5O18vs. Na in the voltage region from 1.5 V to 3.95 V exhibits a capacity of 102 mA h g(-1) at 0.1C rate corresponding to a specific capacitance of 149 F g(-1) with a capacity retention of 90% over 50 cycles. The electrochemical analysis using CV measurements revealed the charge storage involving intercalation and pseudocapacitance. For instance, total charge storage of 345 C g(-1) is observed at 0.01 mV s(-1), which is attributed to 63% intercalation and 37% capacitance. Na4Mn4Ti5O18 was also studied for sodium ion storage in an aqueous medium. It delivered a capacity of 36 mA h g(-1) (144 F g(-1)) in the voltage window of 0-0.8 V.

  15. Electrodeposited Na2VOx[Fe(CN)6] films As a Cathode Material for Aqueous Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Paulitsch, Bianca; Yun, Jeongsik; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S

    2017-03-08

    The so-called Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) are spotlighted as promising cathode materials for aqueous Na-ion batteries regarding their good performance for the application in future large-scale energy storage systems. In this work, we demonstrate that one of the PBA representatives, namely Na2VOx[Fe(CN)6] thin films (VHCFs), is a promising cathode material for aqueous Na-ion batteries with very positive intercalation/deintercalation potentials, which might likely designate a new benchmark in the field. To maximize the material utilization, we have formed VHCF thin films on model current collectors from aqueous solutions. The resulting films demonstrated a very positive half-charge potential (ΔE1/2 ≈ 0.91 V vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode) in acidic media with a specific capacity of ∼80 mAh g(-1) recorded at high C-rates (30 C) in 1 M LiNO3, 3 M NaNO3 and 3 M KNO3 electrolytes in the presence of 3.6 M H2SO4. It is also shown that well-known solvation effects related to the nature of the alkali metal cations during intercalation and deintercalation are surprisingly not pronounced in the case of VHCFs.

  16. G4MoNA - A Geant4 Simulation for unbound nuclides detected with MoNA/LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, Paul; Freeman, Jessica; Frank, Nathan; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MoNA Collaboration has conducted a plethora of experiments to study unbound nuclei near the neutron dripline using the invariant mass technique since 2005. These experiments used a variety of secondary beams from the Coupled Cyclotron Facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The experimental setup consists of a large gap superconducting Sweeper magnet for charged fragments separation and the MoNA/LISA neutron detector arrays for neutron detection. Recently, a multi-layered Si/Be segmented target consisting of three 700 mg/cm2 thick 9Be slabs and four 140 μ m Si detectors were added to the setup. This target improves the resolution of the reconstructed decay energy spectra of the unbound nuclides. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was used to develop a complete realistic model of the setup including a new class to treat the decay of unbound nuclei, the Si/Be segmented target, the MoNA/LISA and the charged fragments detector systems. Comparison between simulated and experimental data will be presented. DoENNSA - DE-NA0000979.

  17. Genetic Variation of the Alpha Subunit of the Epithelial Na+ Channels Influences Exhaled Na+ in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Lupo, William T.; Wheatley, Courtney M.; Baker, Sarah E.; Cassuto, Nicholas A.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Snyder, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial Na+ Channels (ENaC) are located on alveolar cells and are important in β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated lung fluid clearance through the removal of Na+ from the alveolar airspace. Previous work has demonstrated that genetic variation of the alpha subunit of ENaC at amino acid 663 is important in channel function: cells with the genotype resulting in alanine at amino acid 663 (A663) demonstrate attenuated function when compared to genotypes with at least one allele encoding threonine (T663, AT/TT). We sought to determine the influence of genetic variation at position 663 of ENaC on exhaled Na+ in healthy humans. Exhaled Na+ was measured in 18 AA and 13 AT/TT subjects (age=27±8 vs. 30±10yrs., ht.=174±12 vs. 171±10cm., wt=68±12 vs. 73±14kg., BMI=22±3 vs. 25±4kg/m2, mean±SD, for AA and AT/TT, respectively). Measurements were made at baseline and at 30, 60 and 90 minutes following the administration of a nebulized β2-agonist (albuterol sulfate, 2.5mg diluted in 3ml normal saline). The AA group had a higher baseline level of exhaled Na+ and a greater response to β2-agonist stimulation (baseline= 3.1±1.8 vs. 2.3±1.5mmol/l; 30min-post= 2.1±0.7 vs. 2.2±0.8mmol/l; 60min-post= 2.0±0.5 vs. 2.3±1.0mmol/l; 90min-post= 1.8±0.8 vs. 2.6±1.5mmol/l, mean±SD, for AA and AT/TT, respectively, p<0.05). The results are consistent with the notion that genetic variation of ENaC influences β2-adrenergic receptor stimulated Na+ clearance in the lungs, as there was a significant reduction in exhaled Na+ over time in the AA group. PMID:21889619

  18. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    INTEX-NA is an integrated atmospheric chemistry field experiment to be performed over North America using the NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft as its primary platforms. It seeks to understand the exchange of chemicals and aerosols between continents and the global troposphere. The constituents of interest are ozone and its precursors (hydrocarbons, NOX and HOX), aerosols, and the major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). INTEX-NA will provide the observational database needed to quantify inflow, outflow, and transformations of chemicals over North America. INTEX-NA is to be performed in two phases. Phase A will take place during the period of May-August 2004 and Phase B during March-June 2006. Phase A is in summer when photochemistry is most intense and climatic issues involving aerosols and carbon cycle are most pressing, and Phase B is in spring when Asian transport to North America is at its peak. INTEX-NA will coordinate its activities with concurrent measurement programs including satellites (e. g. Terra, Aura, Envisat), field activities undertaken by the North American Carbon Program (NACP), and other U.S. and international partners. However, it is being designed as a 'stand alone' mission such that its successful execution is not contingent on other programs. Synthesis of the ensemble of observation from surface, airborne, and space platforms, with the help of global/regional models is an important It is anticipated that approximately 175 flight hours for each of the aircraft (DC-8 and P-3B) will be required for each Phase. Principal operational sites are tentatively selected to be Bangor, ME; Wallops Island, VA; Seattle, WA; Rhinelander, WI; Lancaster, CA; and New Orleans, LA. These coastal and continental sites can support large missions and are suitable for INTEX-NA objectives. The experiment will be supported by forecasts from meteorological and chemical models, satellite observations, surface networks, and enhanced O3,-sonde releases. In addition to

  19. Analysis of cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Daniel; Jupiter, Ryan C.; Pankey, Edward A.; Reddy, Vishwaradh G.; Edward, Justin A.; Swan, Kevin W.; Peak, Taylor C.; Mostany, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule formed from L-cysteine in vascular tissue. In the present study, cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS were investigated in the anesthetized rat. The intravenous injections of Na2S and NaHS 0.03–0.5 mg/kg produced dose-related decreases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate, and at higher doses decreases in cardiac output, pulmonary arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. H2S infusion studies show that decreases in systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance are well-maintained, and responses to Na2S are reversible. Decreases in heart rate were not blocked by atropine, suggesting that the bradycardia was independent of parasympathetic activation and was mediated by an effect on the sinus node. The decreases in systemic arterial pressure were not attenuated by hexamethonium, glybenclamide, Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, sodium meclofenamate, ODQ, miconazole, 5-hydroxydecanoate, or tetraethylammonium, suggesting that ATP-sensitive potassium channels, nitric oxide, arachidonic acid metabolites, cyclic GMP, p450 epoxygenase metabolites, or large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are not involved in mediating hypotensive responses to the H2S donors in the rat and that responses are not centrally mediated. The present data indicate that decreases in systemic arterial pressure in response to the H2S donors can be mediated by decreases in vascular resistance and cardiac output and that the donors have an effect on the sinus node independent of the parasympathetic system. The present data indicate that the mechanism of the peripherally mediated hypotensive response to the H2S donors is uncertain in the intact rat. PMID:26071540

  20. Analysis of cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Daniel; Jupiter, Ryan C; Pankey, Edward A; Reddy, Vishwaradh G; Edward, Justin A; Swan, Kevin W; Peak, Taylor C; Mostany, Ricardo; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule formed from L-cysteine in vascular tissue. In the present study, cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS were investigated in the anesthetized rat. The intravenous injections of Na2S and NaHS 0.03-0.5 mg/kg produced dose-related decreases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate, and at higher doses decreases in cardiac output, pulmonary arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. H2S infusion studies show that decreases in systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance are well-maintained, and responses to Na2S are reversible. Decreases in heart rate were not blocked by atropine, suggesting that the bradycardia was independent of parasympathetic activation and was mediated by an effect on the sinus node. The decreases in systemic arterial pressure were not attenuated by hexamethonium, glybenclamide, N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, sodium meclofenamate, ODQ, miconazole, 5-hydroxydecanoate, or tetraethylammonium, suggesting that ATP-sensitive potassium channels, nitric oxide, arachidonic acid metabolites, cyclic GMP, p450 epoxygenase metabolites, or large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are not involved in mediating hypotensive responses to the H2S donors in the rat and that responses are not centrally mediated. The present data indicate that decreases in systemic arterial pressure in response to the H2S donors can be mediated by decreases in vascular resistance and cardiac output and that the donors have an effect on the sinus node independent of the parasympathetic system. The present data indicate that the mechanism of the peripherally mediated hypotensive response to the H2S donors is uncertain in the intact rat.

  1. Hygroscopic properties of NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles as reacted inorganic sea-salt aerosol surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, D.; Kim, H.; Park, G.; Li, X.; Eom, H.-J.; Ro, C.-U.

    2014-12-01

    NaCl in fresh sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles can partially or fully react with atmospheric NOx / HNO3, so internally mixed NaCl and NaNO3 aerosol particles can co-exist over a wide range of mixing ratios. Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles at ten mixing ratios (mole fractions of NaCl (XNaCl) = 0.1 to 0.9) were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, derive experimental phase diagrams for deliquescence and efflorescence, and understand the efflorescence mechanism. During the humidifying process, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) showed only one phase transition at their mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 67.9(± 0.5)%. On the other hand, particles with other mixing ratios showed two distinct deliquescence transitions, i.e., the eutonic component dissolved at MDRH and the remainder in the solid phase dissolved completely at their DRHs depending on the mixing ratios, resulting in a phase diagram composed of four different phases, as predicted thermodynamically. During the dehydration process, NaCl-rich particles (XNaCl > 0.38) showed two-stage efflorescence transitions: the first stage was purely driven by the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the second stage at the mutual efflorescence RH (MERH) of the eutonic components, with values in the range of 30.0-35.5%. Interestingly, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) also showed two-stage efflorescence with NaCl crystallizing first followed by heterogeneous nucleation of the remaining NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. NaNO3-rich particles XNaCl ≤ 0.3) underwent single-stage efflorescence transitions at ERHs progressively lower than the MERH, because of the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the almost simultaneous heterogeneous nucleation of NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. SEM/EDX elemental mapping indicated that the effloresced NaCl-NaNO3 particles at all mixing ratios were composed of a homogeneously

  2. Hygroscopic properties of NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles as reacted inorganic sea-salt aerosol surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, D.; Kim, H.; Park, G.; Li, X.; Eom, H.-J.; Ro, C.-U.

    2015-03-01

    NaCl in fresh sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles can partially or fully react with atmospheric NOx/HNO3, so internally mixed NaCl and NaNO3 aerosol particles can co-exist over a wide range of mixing ratios. Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles at 10 mixing ratios (mole fractions of NaCl (XNaCl) = 0.1 to 0.9) were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, derive experimental phase diagrams for deliquescence and efflorescence, and understand the efflorescence mechanism. During the humidifying process, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) showed only one phase transition at their mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 67.9 (±0.5)% On the other hand, particles with other mixing ratios showed two distinct deliquescence transitions; i.e., the eutonic component dissolved at MDRH, and the remainder in the solid phase dissolved completely at their DRHs depending on the mixing ratios, resulting in a phase diagram composed of four different phases, as predicted thermodynamically. During the dehydration process, NaCl-rich particles (XNaCl > 0.38) showed a two stage efflorescence transition: the first stage was purely driven by the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the second stage at the mutual efflorescence RH (MERH) of the eutonic components, with values in the range of 30.0-35.5%. Interestingly, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) also showed two-stage efflorescence, with NaCl crystallizing first followed by heterogeneous nucleation of the remaining NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. NaNO3-rich particles (XNaCl ≤ 0.3) underwent single-stage efflorescence transitions at ERHs progressively lower than the MERH because of the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the almost simultaneous heterogeneous nucleation of NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. SEM/EDX elemental mapping indicated that the effloresced NaCl-NaNO3 particles at all mixing ratios were composed of a homogeneously

  3. Cerebral regulation of renal sodium excretion in sheep infused intravenously with hypertonic NaCl.

    PubMed Central

    Chodobski, A; McKinley, M J

    1989-01-01

    1. The natriuretic response to intravenous infusion of 2 M-NaCl was investigated in six conscious sheep. This hypertonic NaCl load resulted in relatively small, physiological (2-3 mmol l-1) increases in plasma Na+ concentration and was followed by a natriuresis with a maximum mean urinary sodium excretion 5 times higher than pre-infusion values. 2. Intravenous infusion of isotonic NaCl, delivering the same Na+ load as hypertonic NaCl infusion, did not induce natriuresis. This suggested, therefore, that with the hypertonic sodium load administered in the present study, the rise in plasma Na+ and/or tonicity rather than increase in blood volume is important in evoking the natriuretic response. 3. Intracerebroventricular infusion of low-Na+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reduced CSF Na+ concentration, decreased plasma vasopressin (AVP) levels and caused a copious water diuresis. This was associated with excessive loss of water and large increases in plasma Na+ concentration and osmolality. 4. The natriuresis induced by intravenous hypertonic NaCl load could be blocked by lowering CSF Na+ concentration in situations where water diuresis was either prevented or reduced by intravenous infusion of AVP or by delayed intracerebroventricular infusion of low-Na+ CSF, respectively. 5. The results of the present study provide further evidence that renal sodium excretion can be controlled by the central nervous system. PMID:2621619

  4. Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Duquette, L.S.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied 22sodium (22Na) turnover as a means of estimating food intake in 6 captive, adult gray wolves (Canis lupus) (2 F, 4 M) over a 31-day feeding period. Wolves were fed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) meat only. Mean mass-specific exchangeable Na pool was 44.8 .+-. 0.7 mEq/kg; there was no differeence between males and females. Total exchangeable Na was related (r2 = 0.85, P < 0.009) to body mass. Overall, 22Na turnover overestimated Na intake by 9.8 .+-. 2.4% after 32 days. Actual Na intake was similar in males and females; however, Na turnover (P < 0.05) and the discrepancy (P < 0.01) between turnover and actual Na intake were greater in females than males. From Day 8 to the end of the study, the absolute difference (mEq) between Na intake and Na turnover remained stable. Sodium turnover (mEq/kg/day) was a reliable (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) estimator of food consumption (g/kg/day) in wolves over a 32-day period. Sampling blood and weighing wolves every 1-4 days permitted identification of several potential sources of error, including changes in size of exchangeable Na pools, exchange of 22Na with gastrointestinal and bone Na, and rapid loss of the isotope by urinary excretion.

  5. Na+-K+ pump stimulation improves contractility in damaged muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben

    2005-12-01

    Skeletal muscles have a high content of Na+-K+-ATPase, an enzyme that is identical to the Na+-K+ pump, a transport system mediating active extrusion of Na+ from the cells and accumulation of K+ in the cells. The major function of the Na+-K+ pumps is to maintain the concentration gradients for Na+ and K+ across the plasma membrane. This generates the resting membrane potential, allowing the propagation of action potentials, excitation-contraction coupling and force development. Muscles exposed to (1) high extracellular K+ or (2) low extracellular Na+ show a considerable loss of force. A similar force decline is elicited by (3) increasing Na+ permeability or (4) decreasing K+ permeability. Under all of these four conditions, stimulation of the Na+-K+ pumps can restore contractility. Following exposure to electroporation or fatiguing stimulation, muscle cell membranes develop leaks to Na+ and K+ and a partially reversible loss of force. The restoration of force is abolished by blocking the Na+-K+ pumps and markedly improved by stimulating the Na+-K+ pumps with beta 2-agonists, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or dbcAMP. These observations indicate that the Na+-K+ pumps are important for the functional compensation of the commonly occurring loss of muscle cell integrity. Stimulation of the Na+-K+ pumps with beta 2-agonists or other agents may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of muscle cell damage induced by electrical shocks, prolonged exercise, burns, or bruises.

  6. Osmolyte and Na+ transport balances of rat hepatocytes as a function of hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Wehner, F; Tinel, H

    2000-11-01

    The initial event in the regulatory volume increase (RVI) of rat hepatocytes is an influx of Na+ that is then exchanged for K+ via stimulation of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). In this study, we analysed the activation pattern of the Na+ transporters underlying RVI as a function of the degree of hypertonic stress. In confluent primary cultures, four hypertonic conditions were tested (changes from 300 to 327, 360, 400 or 450 mosmol/l) and the activities of Na+ conductance, Na+/H+ antiport, Na+-K+-2Cl- symport and Na+/K+-ATPase were quantified using intracellular microelectrodes, microfluorometry and time-dependent, furosemide- or ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, respectively. Neither Na+ conductance nor Na+-K+-2Cl- symport responded to 327 mosmol/A. At 360, 400 and 450 mosmol/l, uptake via these transporters would lead to increases of cell Na+ by 33.0, 49.0 and 49.0 and by 4.5, 10.4 and 9.2 mmol/l per 10 min, respectively. In contrast, Na+/H+ antiport exhibited 65% of its maximal activation already at 327 mosmol/l. At the four osmolarities tested, this transporter would augment cell Na+ by 6.9, 8.9, 9.8 and 10.6 mmol/l per 10 min. The sums of Na+ import were consistent with the amounts of Na+ exported via Na+/K+-ATPase plus the actual increases of cell Na+ (21.2, 58.5, 63.6 and 68.3 mmol/l per 10 min and 2.2, 4.0, 6.3 and 8.2 mmol/l, respectively). In addition, these elevations of cell Na+ plus the increases of cell K+ (via Na+/K+-ATPase) that amounted to 5.0, 6.5, 17.5 and 18.4 mmol/l were consistent with the increases of intracellular osmotic (cationic) activity of 2.5, 11.5, 21.0 and 28.5 mmol/l, respectively, computed from RVI data. It is concluded that the principle of rat hepatocyte RVI, i.e. an initial uptake of Na+ that is then exchanged for K+ via Na+/K+-ATPase, is realized over the entire range of 9-50% hypertonicity tested. The set-point for the activation of RVI clearly lies below 327 mosmol/l. Na+/H+ antiport is the most sensitive Na+ importer

  7. Importance of a Potential Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation Site of Na+,K+-ATPase and Its Interaction Network for Na+ Binding.

    PubMed

    Einholm, Anja P; Nielsen, Hang N; Holm, Rikke; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-05-13

    The molecular mechanism underlying PKA-mediated regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was explored in mutagenesis studies of the potential PKA site at Ser-938 and surrounding charged residues. The phosphomimetic mutations S938D/E interfered with Na(+) binding from the intracellular side of the membrane, whereas Na(+) binding from the extracellular side was unaffected. The reduction of Na(+) affinity is within the range expected for physiological regulation of the intracellular Na(+) concentration, thus supporting the hypothesis that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-938 regulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in vivo Ser-938 is located in the intracellular loop between transmembrane segments M8 and M9. An extended bonding network connects this loop with M10, the C terminus, and the Na(+) binding region. Charged residues Asp-997, Glu-998, Arg-1000, and Lys-1001 in M10, participating in this bonding network, are crucial to Na(+) interaction. Replacement of Arg-1005, also located in the vicinity of Ser-938, with alanine, lysine, methionine, or serine resulted in wild type-like Na(+) and K(+) affinities and catalytic turnover rate. However, when combined with the phosphomimetic mutation S938E only lysine substitution of Arg-1005 was compatible with Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function, and the Na(+) affinity of this double mutant was reduced even more than in single mutant S938E. This result indicates that the positive side chain of Arg-1005 or the lysine substituent plays a mechanistic role as interaction partner of phosphorylated Ser-938, transducing the phosphorylation signal into a reduced affinity of Na(+) site III. Electrostatic interaction of Glu-998 is of minor importance for the reduction of Na(+) affinity by phosphomimetic S938E as revealed by combining S938E with E998A.

  8. Phospholemman Overexpression Inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase in Adult Rat Cardiac Myocytes: Relevance to Decreased Na+ pump Activity in Post-Infarction Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Qian; Moorman, J. Randall; Ahlers, Belinda A.; Carl, Lois L.; Lake, Douglas E.; Song, Jianliang; Mounsey, J. Paul; Tucker, Amy L.; Chan, Yiu-mo; Rothblum, Lawrence I.; Stahl, Richard C.; Carey, David J.; Cheung, Joseph Y.

    2005-01-01

    Messenger RNA levels of phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of small single-span membrane proteins with putative ion-transport regulatory properties, were increased in postinfarction (MI) rat myocytes. We tested the hypothesis that the previously observed reduction in Na+-K+-ATPase activity in MI rat myocytes was due to PLM overexpression. In rat hearts harvested 3 and 7 days post-MI, PLM protein expression was increased by 2- and 4-fold, respectively. To simulate increased PLM expression post-MI, PLM was overexpressed in normal adult rat myocytes by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. PLM overexpression did not affect the relative level of phosphorylation on serine68 of PLM. Na+-K+-ATPase activity was measured as ouabain-sensitive Na+-K+ pump current (Ip). Compared to control myocytes overexpressing green fluorescent protein alone, Ip measured in myocytes overexpressing PLM was significantly (P<0.0001) lower at similar membrane voltages, pipette Na+ ([Na+]pip) and extracellular K+ concentrations ([K+]o). From −70 to +60 mV, neither [Na+]pip nor [K+]o required to attain half-maximal Ip was significantly different between control and PLM myocytes. This phenotype of decreased Vmax without appreciable changes in Km for Na+ and K+ in PLM overexpressed myocytes was similar to that observed in MI rat myocytes. Inhibition of Ip by PLM overexpression was not due to decreased Na+-K+-ATPase expression since there were no changes in either protein or messenger RNA levels of either α1 or α2 isoforms of Na+-K+-ATPase. In native rat cardiac myocytes, PLM co-immunoprecipitated with α-subunits of Na+-K+-ATPase. Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase by PLM overexpression, in addition to previously reported decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase expression, may explain altered Vmax but not Km of Na+-K+-ATPase in postinfarction rat myocytes. PMID:16195392

  9. Fusion of Na-ASP-2 with human immunoglobulin Fcγ abrogates histamine release from basophils sensitized with anti-Na-ASP-2 IgE.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Bin; Santiago, H; Keegan, B; Gillespie, P; Xue, J; Bethony, J; de Oliveira, L M; Jiang, D; Diemert, D; Xiao, S-H; Jones, K; Feng, X; Hotez, P J; Bottazzi, M E

    2012-01-01

    Na-ASP-2 is a major protein secreted by infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the human hookworm Necator americanus upon host entry. It was chosen as a lead vaccine candidate for its ability to elicit protective immune responses. However, clinical development of this antigen as a recombinant vaccine was halted because it caused allergic reactions among some of human volunteers previously infected with N. americanus. To prevent IgE-mediated allergic reactions induced by Na-ASP-2 but keep its immunogenicity as a vaccine antigen, we designed and tested a genetically engineered fusion protein, Fcγ/Na-ASP-2, composed of full-length Na-ASP-2 and truncated human IgG Fcγ1 that targets the negative signalling receptor FcγRIIb expressed on pro-allergic cells. The chimeric recombinant Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and shared the similar antigenicity as native Na-ASP-2. Compared to Na-ASP-2, the chimeric fusion protein efficiently reduced the release of histamine in human basophils sensitized with anti-Na-ASP-2 IgE obtained from individuals living in a hookworm-endemic area. In dogs infected with canine hookworm, Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 resulted in significantly reduced immediate-type skin reactivity when injected intradermally compared with Na-ASP-2. Hamsters vaccinated with Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 formulated with Alhydrogel(®) produced specific IgG that recognized Na-ASP-2 and elicited similar protection level against N. americanus L3 challenge as native Na-ASP-2.

  10. Sequential growth of sandwiched NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb core-shell-shell nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huang-Yong; Ding, Bin-Bin; Ma, Yin-Chu; Sun, Shi-Qi; Tao, Wei; Guo, Yan-Chuan; Guo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Xian-Zhu; Qian, Hai-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Upconversion (UC) nanostructures have attracted much interest for their extensive biological applications. In this work, we describe a sequential synthetic route to prepare sandwiched NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb core-shell upconversion nanoparticles. The as-prepared products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEM 2100F), respectively. The as-prepared core-shell nanoparticles of NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb are composed of elliptical nanoparticles with a length of 80 nm and width of 42 nm, which show efficient upconversion fluorescence excited at 808 nm indicating the formation of core-shell-shell sandwiched nanostructures. In addition, the as-prepared sandwiched NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb core-shell upconversion nanoparticles also show strong upconversion fluorescence excited at 980 nm. Amphiphilic mPEG2k-b-PEBEP6K copolymers (denoted as PPE) were chosen to transfer these hydrophobic UCNPs into the aqueous phase for biological application. In vitro photodynamic therapy of cancer cells show that the viability of cells incubated with the nanoparticles loaded with MC 540 was significantly lower as compared to the nanoparticles without photosensitizers exposed to NIR laser.

  11. Preferential Interaction of Na+ over K+ to Carboxylate-functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elucidating mechanistic interactions between specific ions (Na+/ K+) and nanoparticle surfaces to alter particle stability in polar media has received little attention. We investigated relative preferential binding of Na+ and K+ to carboxylate-functionalized silver nanoparticles ...

  12. Origin of high Coulombic loss during sodiation in Na-Sn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Young-Woon; Choi, Yong-Seok; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemical sodiation is performed in crystalline Sn foil using in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to simultaneously measure the changes in the electrical resistivity and volume of the Sn anode in a Na-Sn battery. We observe that sodiation causes an increase in the Sn anode resistivity by six orders of magnitude. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the Na-Sn alloy system demonstrate that the increased resistivity of the anode is caused by the formation of an electrically resistive amorphous NaSn phase (a-NaSn) with a pseudogap. It is also observed that the formation of a-NaSn is always accompanied by a large volume expansion of ∼200%, causing the development of residual tensile stress. The residual stress in turn alters the electronic structure of the a-NaSn phase, further increasing the resistivity of a-NaSn and thus decreasing the energy efficiency of the Na-Sn battery.

  13. Maui mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MALT) Na lidar enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Chad G.; Swenson, Gary R.; Dragic, Peter; Liu, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Na Wind/Temperature lidar offers a method to study the dynamics and thermal structure of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MALT) through Doppler methods. The University of Illinois system has been operated at both the USAF Starfire Optical Range in Albuquerque, NM (94, 98-00') and at the USAF AMOS Maui facilities with receiving mirrors that are 3.5 m in diameter. An autonomous receiving system is being developed which will provide unrestricted and continuous operational capabilities. The bi-static operational receivers will be coupled with multiple fibers so that Na (589 nm) returns from the MALT region and Rayleigh (355 nm) returns from the stratosphere and mesosphere can be received simultaneously. The system will be described with attention to increased efficiencies in the receiver.

  14. Imaging performance of the EUV high NA anamorphic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ingen Schenau, Koen; Bottiglieri, Gerardo; van Schoot, Jan; Neumann, Jens-Timo; Roesch, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the predicted imaging performance for an anamorphic EUV high NA (>0.5) exposure system with a 4x magnification in X orientation and a 8x magnification in Y orientation. It has a half field size with which the productivity requirements can be maintained. The main findings of the study are that horizontal and vertical features have very similar process window sizes despite magnification difference. A new definition of the Mask Error Factor (MEF) is introduced that is more relevant for anamorphic imaging; it shows that reticle CD errors have 2x larger impact for vertical compared to horizontal features. For dark field horizontal two-bar trenches relatively small mask induced focus shift was observed compared to the 0.33NA case, probably due to the relatively small Mask Angle of Incidence in the Y orientation with the 8x magnification. Finally a Ni type absorber has potential to further improve imaging performance.

  15. Cation Transport in Li+ and Na+ Rich Antiperovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, John; Daemen, Luke; Zhao, Yusheng; LANL Team; UNLV Team

    2014-03-01

    A large number of compounds possessing the perovskite crystal structure demonstrate interesting properties such as ferroelectricity, magnetoresistance, and superconductivity. In this study, we present findings on a new class of materials, namely Li+ and Na+ rich antiperovskites, with emphasis on cation transport for solid state battery applications. The electrolytes have the general formula A3 BX where A is a Li+ or Na+ cation, B is an O2- or S2- anion, and X is a Cl- or Br- anion; mixed compositions were also studied. X-ray diffraction techniques were used for phase identification, sample purity, and unit cell refinement. In each case, the materials crystallize in a cubic unit cell with space group Pm 3 m . The ionic conductivity was determined for each material as a function of temperature using impedance spectroscopy methods. Activation energies for cation diffusion were determined by fitting the conductivity data to the Arrhenius equation σ = σ0/T e -Ea /kB T .

  16. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  17. Phase diagram studies on the Na-Mo-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanasekaran, T.; Mahendran, K. H.; Kutty, K. V. G.; Mathews, C. K.

    1989-06-01

    The phase diagram of the Na-Mo-O ternary system is of interest in interpreting the behaviour of structural materials in the sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors and sodium-filled heat pipes. Experiments involving heating of sodium oxide with molybdenum metal under vacuum, selective removal of oxygen from polymolybdates by reducing them under hydrogen and confirmation of the coexistence of various phase mixtures were conducted in the temperature range of 673 to 923 K. Phase fields involving molybdenum metal, dioxide of molybdenum and ternary compounds were derived from these results. The ternary phase diagram of the Na-Mo-O system was constructed and isothermal cross sections of the phase diagram are presented.

  18. Robert K. Crane—Na+-glucose cotransporter to cure?

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kirk L.

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Robert K. Crane made major contributions to our understanding of carbohydrate metabolism and transport of the intestine over a very long and productive career. This Perspective examines, briefly, his early life and academic positions, but more importantly, this Perspective highlights his contributions to the understanding of coupled Na+-glucose absorption by the small intestine. I discuss how his early hypothesis of a “cotransport” of sodium and glucose ushered in and provided the physiological explanation for the clinical treatment of acute diarrhea and cholera when using oral rehydration therapy (ORT). ORT saves millions of lives each year. Certainly, humankind is better off because of Crane's hypothesis of the Na+-glucose cotransporter that he put forth over 50 years ago? PMID:23525627

  19. Dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsien-Yu; Lu, Tsai-Lien; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chang, Yung-Yung; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2010-07-01

    The dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH was determined by analyzing the observed near dissociation rovibrational levels. These levels were reached by stimulated emission pumping and fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. A total of 114 rovibrational levels in the ranges 9≤v″≤21 and 1≤J″≤14 were assigned to the X Σ1+ state of NaH. The highest vibrational level observed was only about 40 cm-1 from the dissociation limit in the ground state. One quasibound state, above the dissociation limit and confined by the centrifugal barrier, was observed. Determining the vibrational quantum number at dissociation vD from the highest four vibrational levels yielded the dissociation energy De=15 815±5 cm-1. Based on new observations and available data, a set of Dunham coefficients and the rotationless Rydberg-Klein-Rees curve were constructed. The effective potential curve and the quasibound states were discussed.

  20. A Versatile Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Zintl Phase Precursors: Na4Si4, Na4Ge4 and K4Ge4 as Examples

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuchu; Xu, Fen; Atkins, Tonya; Goforth, Andrea M.; Neiner, Doinita; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 are ideal chemical precursors for inorganic clathrate structures, clusters, and nanocrystals. The monoclinic Zintl phases, Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4, contain isolated homo-tetrahedranide [Si4]4− and [Ge4]4− clusters surrounded by alkali metal cations. In this study, a simple scalable route has been applied to prepare Zintl phases of composition Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 using the reaction between NaH and Si or Ge at low temperature (420 °C for Na4Si4 and 270 °C for Na4Ge4). The method was also applied to K4Ge4, using KH and Ge as raw materials, to show the versatility of this approach. The influence of specific reaction conditions on the purity of these Zintl phases has been studied by controlling five factors: the method of reagent mixing (manual or ball milled), the stoichiometry between raw materials, the reaction temperature, the heating time and the gas flow rate. Moderate ball-milling and excess NaH or KH facilitate the formation of pure Na4Si4, Na4Ge4 or K4Ge4 at 420 °C (Na4Si4) or 270 °C (both M4Ge4 compounds, M = Na, K). TG/DSC analysis of the reaction of NaH and Ge indicates that ball milling reduces the temperature for reaction and confirms the formation temperature. This method provides large quantities of high quality Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 without the need for specialized laboratory equipment, such as Schlenk lines, niobium/tantalum containers, or an arc welder, thereby expanding the accessibility and chemical utility of these phases by making them more convenient to prepare. This new synthetic method may also be extended to lithium-containing Zintl phases (LiH is commercially available) as well as to alkali metal-tetrel Zintl compounds of other compositions, e.g. K4Ge9. PMID:19921060

  1. Competition between Na + and Li + for Unsealed and Cytoskeleton-Depleted Human Red Blood Cell Membrane: A 23Na Multiple Quantum Filtered and 7Li NMR Relaxation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Chandra; Minadeo, Nicole; Toon, Jason; Graham, Daniel; Mota de Freitas, Duarte; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    1999-09-01

    Evidence for competition between Li+ and Na+ for binding sites of human unsealed and cytoskeleton-depleted human red blood cell (csdRBC) membranes was obtained from the effect of added Li+ upon the 23Na double quantum filtered (DQF) and triple quantum filtered (TQF) NMR signals of Na+-containing red blood cell (RBC) membrane suspensions. We found that, at low ionic strength, the observed quenching effect of Li+ on the 23Na TQF and DQF signal intensity probed Li+/Na+ competition for isotropic binding sites only. Membrane cytoskeleton depletion significantly decreased the isotropic signal intensity, strongly affecting the binding of Na+ to isotropic membrane sites, but had no effect on Li+/Na+ competition for those sites. Through the observed 23Na DQF NMR spectra, which allow probing of both isotropic and anisotropic Na+ motion, we found anisotropic membrane binding sites for Na+ when the total ionic strength was higher than 40 mM. This is a consequence of ionic strength effects on the conformation of the cytoskeleton, in particular on the dimer-tetramer equilibrium of spectrin. The determinant involvement of the cytoskeleton in the anisotropy of Na+ motion at the membrane surface was demonstrated by the isotropy of the DQF spectra of csdRBC membranes even at high ionic strength. Li+ addition initially quenched the isotropic signal the most, indicating preferential Li+/Na+ competition for the isotropic membrane sites. High ionic strength also increased the intensity of the anisotropic signal, due to its effect on the restructuring of the membrane cytoskeleton. Further Li+ addition competed with Na+ for those sites, quenching the anisotropic signal. 7Li T1 relaxation data for Li+-containing suspensions of unsealed and csdRBC membranes, in the absence and presence of Na+ at low ionic strength, showed that cytoskeleton depletion does not affect the affinity of Na+ for the RBC membrane, but increases the affinity of Li+ by 50%. This clearly indicates that cytoskeleton

  2. Cosmogenic radionuclide production in NaI(Tl) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2015-02-01

    The production of long-lived radioactive isotopes in materials due to the exposure to cosmic rays on Earth surface can be an hazard for experiments demanding ultra-low background conditions, typically performed deep underground. Production rates of cosmogenic isotopes in all the materials present in the experimental set-up, as well as the corresponding cosmic rays exposure history, must be both well known in order to assess the relevance of this effect in the achievable sensitivity of a given experiment. Although NaI(Tl) scintillators are being used in experiments aiming at the direct detection of dark matter since the first nineties of the last century, very few data about cosmogenic isotopes production rates have been published up to date. In this work we present data from two 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) detectors, developed in the frame of the ANAIS project, which were installed inside a convenient shielding at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory just after finishing surface exposure to cosmic rays. The very fast start of data taking allowed to identify and quantify isotopes with half-lives of the order of tens of days. Initial activities underground have been measured and then production rates at sea level have been estimated following the history of detectors; values of about a few tens of nuclei per kg and day for Te isotopes and 22Na and of a few hundreds for I isotopes have been found. These are the first direct estimates of production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in NaI crystals. A comparison of the so deduced rates with calculations using typical cosmic neutron flux at sea level and a carefully selected description of excitation functions will be also presented together with an estimate of the corresponding contribution to the background at low and high energies, which can be relevant for experiments aiming at rare events searches.

  3. Tissue kallikrein activation of the epithelial Na channel

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ankit B.; Chao, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial Na Channels (ENaC) are responsible for the apical entry of Na+ in a number of different epithelia including the renal connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct. Proteolytic cleavage of γ-ENaC by serine proteases, including trypsin, furin, elastase, and prostasin, has been shown to increase channel activity. Here, we investigate the ability of another serine protease, tissue kallikrein, to regulate ENaC. We show that excretion of tissue kallikrein, which is secreted into the lumen of the connecting tubule, is stimulated following 5 days of a high-K+ or low-Na+ diet in rats. Urinary proteins reconstituted in a low-Na buffer activated amiloride-sensitive currents (INa) in ENaC-expressing oocytes, suggesting an endogenous urinary protease can activate ENaC. We next tested whether tissue kallikrein can directly cleave and activate ENaC. When rat ENaC-expressing oocytes were exposed to purified tissue kallikrein from rat urine (RTK), ENaC currents increased threefold in both the presence and absence of a soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). RTK and trypsin both decreased the apparent molecular mass of cleaved cell-surface γ-ENaC, while immunodepleted RTK produced no shift in apparent molecular mass, demonstrating the specificity of the tissue kallikrein. A decreased effect of RTK on Xenopus ENaC, which has variations in the putative prostasin cleavage sites in γ-ENaC, suggests these sites are important in RTK activation of ENaC. Mutating the prostasin site in mouse γ-ENaC (γRKRK186QQQQ) abolished ENaC activation and cleavage by RTK while wild-type mouse ENaC was activated and cleaved similar to that of the rat. We conclude that tissue kallikrein can be a physiologically relevant regulator of ENaC activity. PMID:22622459

  4. Prospects for observation at CERN in NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, F.; NA62 Collaboration; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Aliberti, R.; Ambrosino, F.; Angelucci, B.; Antonelli, A.; Anzivino, G.; Arcidiacono, R.; Azhinenko, I.; Balev, S.; Bendotti, J.; Biagioni, A.; Biino, C.; Bizzeti, A.; Blazek, T.; Blik, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Bolotov, V.; Bonaiuto, V.; Bragadireanu, M.; Britton, D.; Britvich, G.; Brook, N.; Bucci, F.; Butin, F.; Capitolo, E.; Capoccia, C.; Capussela, T.; Carassiti, V.; Cartiglia, N.; Cassese, A.; Catinaccio, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Cenci, P.; Cerny, V.; Cerri, C.; Chikilev, O.; Ciaranfi, R.; Collazuol, G.; Cooke, P.; Cooper, P.; Corradi, G.; Cortina Gil, E.; Costantini, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Coward, D.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.; Dalpiaz, P.; Danielsson, H.; Degrange, J.; De Simone, N.; Di Filippo, D.; Di Lella, L.; Dixon, N.; Doble, N.; Duk, V.; Elsha, V.; Engelfried, J.; Enik, T.; Falaleev, V.; Fantechi, R.; Federici, L.; Fiorini, M.; Fry, J.; Fucci, A.; Fulton, L.; Gallorini, S.; Gatignon, L.; Gianoli, A.; Giudici, S.; Glonti, L.; Goncalves Martins, A.; Gonnella, F.; Goudzovski, E.; Guida, R.; Gushchin, E.; Hahn, F.; Hallgren, B.; Heath, H.; Herman, F.; Hutchcroft, D.; Iacopini, E.; Jamet, O.; Jarron, P.; Kampf, K.; Kaplon, J.; Karjavin, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kholodenko, S.; Khoriauli, G.; Khudyakov, A.; Kiryushin, Yu; Kleinknecht, K.; Kluge, A.; Koval, M.; Kozhuharov, V.; Krivda, M.; Kudenko, Y.; Kunze, J.; Lamanna, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Leitner, R.; Lenci, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Lichard, P.; Lietava, R.; Litov, L.; Lomidze, D.; Lonardo, A.; Lurkin, N.; Madigozhin, D.; Maire, G.; Makarov, A.; Mannelli, I.; Mannocchi, G.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Massarotti, P.; Massri, K.; Matak, P.; Mazza, G.; Menichetti, E.; Mirra, M.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Morant, J.; Morel, M.; Moulson, M.; Movchan, S.; Munday, D.; Napolitano, M.; Newson, F.; Norton, A.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Obraztsov, V.; Padolski, S.; Page, R.; Palladino, V.; Pardons, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pepe, M.; Perez Gomez, F.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrucci, F.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pietreanu, D.; Pinzino, J.; Pivanti, M.; Polenkevich, I.; Popov, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu; Protopopescu, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raggi, M.; Riedler, P.; Romano, A.; Rubin, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Russo, V.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Samsonov, V.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Sargeni, F.; Schifano, S.; Semenov, V.; Sergi, A.; Serra, M.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Sotnikov, A.; Sougonyaev, V.; Sozzi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Spinella, F.; Staley, R.; Statera, M.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szilasi, N.; Tagnani, D.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valente, P.; Vasile, M.; Vassilieva, V.; Velghe, B.; Veltri, M.; Venditti, S.; Vormstein, M.; Wahl, H.; Wanke, R.; Wertelaers, P.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Wrona, B.; Yushchenko, O.; Zamkovsky, M.; Zinchenko, A.

    2015-07-01

    The rare decays are excellent processes to probe the Standard Model and indirectly search for new physics complementary to the direct LHC searches. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect and analyse O(1013) kaon decays before the CERN long-shutdown 2 (in 2018). This will allow to measure the branching ratio to a level of 10% accuracy. The experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a first run in autumn 2014.

  5. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using Large Area NaSICON Structures (LANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Balagopal, S.; Bhavaraju, S.

    2009-03-31

    This report presents the results of a 5-day test of an electrochemical bench-scale apparatus using a proprietary (NAS-GY) material formulation of a (Na) Super Ion Conductor (NaSICON) membrane in a Large Area NaSICON Structures (LANS) configuration. The primary objectives of this work were to assess system performance, membrane seal integrity, and material degradation while removing Na from Group 5 and 6 tank waste from the Hanford Site.

  6. Hofmeister effects of anions on the kinetics of partial reactions of the Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Ganea, C; Babes, A; Lüpfert, C; Grell, E; Fendler, K; Clarke, R J

    1999-01-01

    The effects of lyotropic anions, particularly perchlorate, on the kinetics of partial reactions of the Na+,K+-ATPase from pig kidney were investigated by two different kinetic techniques: stopped flow in combination with the fluorescent label RH421 and a stationary electrical relaxation technique. It was found that 130 mM NaClO4 caused an increase in the Kd values of both the high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites, from values of 7.0 (+/- 0.6) microM and 143 (+/- 17) microM in 130 mM NaCl solution to values of 42 (+/- 3) microM and 660 (+/- 100) microM in 130 mM NaClO4 (pH 7.4, 24 degrees C). The half-saturating concentration of the Na+-binding sites on the E1 conformation was found to decrease from 8-10 mM in NaCl to 2.5-3.5 mM in NaClO4 solution. The rate of equilibration of the reaction, E1P(Na+)3 left arrow over right arrow E2P + 3Na+, decreased from 393 (+/- 51) s-1 in NaCl solution to 114 (+/- 15) s-1 in NaClO4. This decrease is attributed predominantly to an inhibition of the E1P(Na+)3 --> E2P(Na+)3 transition. The effects can be explained in terms of electrostatic interactions due to perchlorate binding within the membrane and/or protein matrix of the Na+,K+-ATPase membrane fragments and alteration of the local electric field strength experienced by the protein. The kinetic results obtained support the conclusion that the conformational transition E1P(Na+)3 --> E2P(Na+)3 is a major charge translocating step of the pump cycle. PMID:10388756

  7. Membrane Na+-pyrophosphatases can transport protons at low sodium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Heidi H; Nordbo, Erika; Baykov, Alexander A; Lahti, Reijo; Malinen, Anssi M

    2013-12-06

    Membrane-bound Na(+)-pyrophosphatase (Na(+)-PPase), working in parallel with the corresponding ATP-energized pumps, catalyzes active Na(+) transport in bacteria and archaea. Each ~75-kDa subunit of homodimeric Na(+)-PPase forms an unusual funnel-like structure with a catalytic site in the cytoplasmic part and a hydrophilic gated channel in the membrane. Here, we show that at subphysiological Na(+) concentrations (<5 mM), the Na(+)-PPases of Chlorobium limicola, four other bacteria, and one archaeon additionally exhibit an H(+)-pumping activity in inverted membrane vesicles prepared from recombinant Escherichia coli strains. H(+) accumulation in vesicles was measured with fluorescent pH indicators. At pH 6.2-8.2, H(+) transport activity was high at 0.1 mM Na(+) but decreased progressively with increasing Na(+) concentrations until virtually disappearing at 5 mM Na(+). In contrast, (22)Na(+) transport activity changed little over a Na(+) concentration range of 0.05-10 mM. Conservative substitutions of gate Glu(242) and nearby Ser(243) and Asn(677) residues reduced the catalytic and transport functions of the enzyme but did not affect the Na(+) dependence of H(+) transport, whereas a Lys(681) substitution abolished H(+) (but not Na(+)) transport. All four substitutions markedly decreased PPase affinity for the activating Na(+) ion. These results are interpreted in terms of a model that assumes the presence of two Na(+)-binding sites in the channel: one associated with the gate and controlling all enzyme activities and the other located at a distance and controlling only H(+) transport activity. The inherent H(+) transport activity of Na(+)-PPase provides a rationale for its easy evolution toward specific H(+) transport.

  8. Direct observation of electronic conductivity transitions and solid electrolyte interphase stability of Na2Ti3O7 electrodes for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrabeitia, Maider; Nobili, Francesco; Muñoz-Márquez, Miguel Ángel; Rojo, Teófilo; Casas-Cabanas, Montse

    2016-10-01

    This communication reports the first experimental evidence of an interesting change of transport properties, and particularly of electron conductivity, during the Na+ insertion/extraction process in Na2Ti3O7 negative electrodes. Probed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, for 0.0 ≤ x < 1.4 in Na2+xTi3O7 the material exhibits insulator behaviour, the bulk electronic conductivity being the limiting factor in the insertion process. After further Na+ insertion, the material becomes electronic conductor and at around 0.13 V vs. Na+/Na the rate of interfacial charge-transfer becomes the limiting factor. The observed conductivity transition is reversible upon cycling. Additionally, this impedance study sheds new light on the solid electrolyte interphase layer performance which is found to be unstable upon electrochemical cycling and negatively contributes on the capacity fading observed for this electrode material.

  9. Microscopy analysis of pyramid formation evolution with ultra-low concentrated Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solution on (100) Si for solar cell application.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada; Orive, Alejandro González; Creus, Alberto Hernández; González-Díaz, Benjamín; Borchert, Dietmar; Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    An analysis of the nucleation mechanism of pyramids formed in (100) silicon in Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solution has been carried out. This texturization process of silicon by means of Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solutions is of special interest because it can be applied to the silicon solar cell industry to texture solar cell surfaces to decrease the front reflection and enhance light trapping in the cells. For this purpose, two microscopy techniques-scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy-have been used to study the different stages of pyramidal nucleation and formation. The different aspects and factors involved in the texturization process require different analysis conditions and microscopy resolution. Tracing the transformation of determined surface areas and structures has been achieved, contributing clarification of the mechanism of pyramid nucleation in Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solutions.

  10. Sodium ion transport mechanisms in antiperovskite electrolytes Na3OBr and Na4OI2: An in Situ neutron diffraction study

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Jinlong; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Shuai; ...

    2016-06-02

    Na-rich antiperovskites are recently developed solid electrolytes with enhanced sodium ionic conductivity and show promising functionality as a novel solid electrolyte in an all solid-stat battery. In this work, the sodium ionic transport pathways of the parent compound Na3OBr, as well as the modified layered antiperovskite Na4OI2, were studied and compared through temperature dependent neutron diffraction combined with the maximum entropy method. In the cubic Na3OBr antiperovskite, the nuclear density distribution maps at 500 K indicate that sodium ions ho within and among oxygen octahedra, and Br- ions are not involved in the tetragonal Na4OI2 antiperovskite, Na ions, which connectmore » octahedra in the ab plane, have the lowest activation energy barrier. In conclusion, the transport of sodium ions along the c axis is assisted by I- ions.« less

  11. Sodium Ion Transport Mechanisms in Antiperovskite Electrolytes Na3OBr and Na4OI2: An in Situ Neutron Diffraction Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinlong; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Shuai; Howard, John W; Neuefeind, Jörg; Ren, Yang; Wang, Hui; Liang, Chengdu; Yang, Wenge; Zou, Ruqiang; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-06-20

    Na-rich antiperovskites are recently developed solid electrolytes with enhanced sodium ionic conductivity and show promising functionality as a novel solid electrolyte in an all solid-state battery. In this work, the sodium ionic transport pathways of the parent compound Na3OBr, as well as the modified layered antiperovskite Na4OI2, were studied and compared through temperature-dependent neutron diffraction combined with the maximum entropy method. In the cubic Na3OBr antiperovskite, the nuclear density distribution maps at 500 K indicate that sodium ions hop within and among oxygen octahedra, and Br(-) ions are not involved. In the tetragonal Na4OI2 antiperovskite, Na ions, which connect octahedra in the ab plane, have the lowest activation energy barrier. The transport of sodium ions along the c axis is assisted by I(-) ions.

  12. Ion permeation through the Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Nicolás; Gadsby, David C

    2006-09-28

    P-type ATPase pumps generate concentration gradients of cations across membranes in nearly all cells. They provide a polar transmembrane pathway, to which access is strictly controlled by coupled gates that are constrained to open alternately, thereby enabling thermodynamically uphill ion transport (for example, see ref. 1). Here we examine the ion pathway through the Na+,K+-ATPase, a representative P-type pump, after uncoupling its extra- and intracellular gates with the marine toxin palytoxin. We use small hydrophilic thiol-specific reagents as extracellular probes and we monitor their reactions, and the consequences, with cysteine residues introduced along the anticipated cation pathway through the pump. The distinct effects of differently charged reagents indicate that a wide outer vestibule penetrates deep into the Na+,K+-ATPase, where the pathway narrows and leads to a charge-selectivity filter. Acidic residues in this region, which are conserved to coordinate pumped ions, allow the approach of cations but exclude anions. Reversing the charge at just one of those positions converts the pathway from cation selective to anion selective. Close structural homology among the catalytic subunits of Ca2+-, Na+,K+- and H+,K+-ATPases argues that their extracytosolic cation exchange pathways all share these physical characteristics.

  13. Optimization of BARC process for hyper-NA immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kilyoung; Lee, Junghyung; Lee, Sungkoo; Park, Dongheok; Bok, Cheolkyu; Moon, Seungchan

    2008-03-01

    The extension of current 193nm immersion lithography technology is depending on increasing the numerical aperture (NA). High-resolution imaging requires the decrease of photoresist thickness to compensate for smaller depth of focus (DOF) and prevent pattern collapse. Poor etch selectivity between photoresist and BARC reads to the use of thinner BARC with faster etch-rate. Also, controlling reflectance over a wider range of incident angles for hyper-NA above 1.0 gives more challenge for thin BARC. To reduce substrate reflectivity, various material strategies (dual-layer BARC such as organic/inorganic BARC or organic/organic BARC, Si-based ARC/spin-on carbon (SOC), and so on) have been introduced through many papers. Organic dual-layer BARC is capable of suppressing reflectivity through wide range of incident angles. But, the inevitable increase of its thickness is not a desirable direction due to the decreasing trend of photoresist thickness. When amorphous carbon (a-C) is used as a hardmask for sub-stack, the combination of organic/inorganic BARC (i.e. SiON) is currently well known process. Si-ARC/SOC may be the promising candidates of hardmask because Si component of Si-ARC affords a high etch selectivity to photoresist and its combination with SOC decreases reflectance. The optical constants of above organic materials can be tuned to control the substrate reflectivity for hyper-NA.

  14. Inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport by mercury.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, S C; Gagnon, E; Caron, L; Chang, J; Isenring, P

    1999-10-01

    Mercury alters the function of proteins by reacting with cysteinyl sulfhydryl (SH(-)) groups. The inorganic form (Hg(2+)) is toxic to epithelial tissues and interacts with various transport proteins including the Na(+) pump and Cl(-) channels. In this study, we determined whether the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter type 1 (NKCC1), a major ion pathway in secretory tissues, is also affected by mercurial substrates. To characterize the interaction, we measured the effect of Hg(2+) on ion transport by the secretory shark and human cotransporters expressed in HEK-293 cells. Our studies show that Hg(2+) inhibits Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransport, with inhibitor constant (K(i)) values of 25 microM for the shark carrier (sNKCC1) and 43 microM for the human carrier. In further studies, we took advantage of species differences in Hg(2+) affinity to identify residues involved in the interaction. An analysis of human-shark chimeras and of an sNKCC1 mutant (Cys-697-->Leu) reveals that transmembrane domain 11 plays an essential role in Hg(2+) binding. We also show that modification of additional SH(-) groups by thiol-reacting compounds brings about inhibition and that the binding sites are not exposed on the extracellular face of the membrane.

  15. Solvation of Na+, K+, and their dimers in helium.

    PubMed

    An der Lan, Lukas; Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Jochum, Roland; Denifl, Stephan; Echt, Olof; Scheier, Paul

    2012-04-02

    Helium atoms bind strongly to alkali cations which, when embedded in liquid helium, form so-called snowballs. Calculations suggest that helium atoms in the first solvation layer of these snowballs form rigid structures and that their number (n) is well defined, especially for the lighter alkalis. However, experiments have so far failed to accurately determine values of n. We present high-resolution mass spectra of Na(+)He(n), K(+)He(n), Na(2)(+)He(n) and K(2)(+)He(n), formed by electron ionization of doped helium droplets; the data allow for a critical comparison with several theoretical studies. For sodium and potassium monomers the spectra indicate that the value of n is slightly smaller than calculated. Na(2)(+)He(n) displays two distinct anomalies at n=2 and n=6, in agreement with theory; dissociation energies derived from experiment closely track theoretical values. K(2)(+)He(n) distributions are fairly featureless, which also agrees with predictions.

  16. A controllable molecular sieve for Na+ and K+ ions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jichen; Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Hui

    2010-02-17

    The selective rate of specific ion transport across nanoporous material is critical to biological and nanofluidic systems. Molecular sieves for ions can be achieved by steric and electrical effects. However, the radii of Na(+) and K(+) are quite similar; they both carry a positive charge, making them difficult to separate. Biological ionic channels contain precisely arranged arrays of amino acids that can efficiently recognize and guide the passage of K(+) or Na(+) across the cell membrane. However, the design of inorganic channels with novel recognition mechanisms that control the ionic selectivity remains a challenge. We present here a design for a controllable ion-selective nanopore (molecular sieve) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube with specially arranged carbonyl oxygen atoms modified inside the nanopore, which was inspired by the structure of potassium channels in membrane spanning proteins (e.g., KcsA). Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the remarkable selectivity is attributed to the hydration structure of Na(+) or K(+) confined in the nanochannels, which can be precisely tuned by different patterns of the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The results also suggest that a confined environment plays a dominant role in the selectivity process. These studies provide a better understanding of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in the KcsA channel and possible technical applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology, including serving as a laboratory-in-nanotube for special chemical interactions and as a high-efficiency nanodevice for purification or desalination of sea and brackish water.

  17. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.

    2008-09-18

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-{micro}m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured {sigma} values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA.

  18. Actinic EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno. B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Huh, S.

    2008-03-24

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-{micro}m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured {sigma} values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA.

  19. Structure and stability of Na+Xen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slama, M.; Issa, K.; Ben Mohamed, F. E.; Ben El Hadj Rhouma, M.; Spiegelman, F.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and stability features of Na+Xen (n ≤ 54) clusters are theoretically investigated via model potential energy surfaces (PES) and unconstrained global optimization. The potential energy is described in terms of pair-additive potentials including polarization parametrized from accurate ab initio data on Na+Xe, complemented by three-body contributions describing the interaction between the dipoles induced by the sodium ion on the rare gas atoms. We show that the three-body contributions stabilize the linear or planar structures versus more compact shapes for n< 4. At larger sizes, the growth around the square antisprism (SA) or capped square antisprism (CSA) core is favored while icosahedral pattern based isomers exist but not as the lowest ones. A transition in the metal ion coordination from 8 (square antiprism) to 12 (icosahedron) is seen to occur near n = 50. The results are discussed and analyzed in view of existing accurate ab initio calculations on Na+Xe2 and comparisons with similar metal-ion clusters.

  20. Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 and Na17Au5.87(2)Ga46.63: The diversity of pseudo 5-fold symmetries in the Na-Au-Ga system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Corbett, John D.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2013-11-01

    The Na-rich part (~30% Na) of the Na-Au-Ga system between NaAu2, NaGa4, and Na22Ga39 has been found to contain the ternary phases Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 (I) and Na17Au5.87(2)Ga46.63 (II), according to the results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. I is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a=5.3040(1), b=24.519(5), c=14.573(3) Å, and contains a network of clusters with local 5-fold symmetry along the a-axis. Such clusters are frequent building units in decagonal quasicrystals and their approximants. II is rhombohedral, R3¯m, a=16.325(2), c=35.242(7) Å, and contains building blocks that are structurally identical to the Bergman-type clusters as well as fused icosahedral units known with active metals, triels and late transition elements. II also contains a polycationic network with elements of the clathrate V type structure. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on idealized models of I and II indicate that both compounds are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the corresponding Fermi levels. The overall Hamilton bond populations are generally dominated by Au-Ga and Au-Au bonds in I and by Ga-Ga bonds in II; moreover, the Na-Au and Na-Ga contributions in I are unexpectedly large, ~20% of the total. A similar involvement of sodium in covalent bonding has also been found in the electron-richer i-Na13Au12Ga15 quasicrystal approximant.

  1. 78 FR 32472 - Intertek Testing Services NA, Inc.: Application for Expansion of Recognition and Request To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Intertek Testing Services NA, Inc.: Application for Expansion of... Testing Services NA, Inc. for expansion of its recognition as a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory... Services NA, Inc. requests the addition of two new sites and for OSHA to remove a special condition of...

  2. 78 FR 47053 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 706-NA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 706-NA AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 706-NA, United States Estate... nonresident not a citizen of the United States. OMB Number: 1545-0531. Form Number: 706-NA. Abstract: Form...

  3. 24 CFR 401.473 - HUD grants for rehabilitation under section 236(s) of NA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD grants for rehabilitation under section 236(s) of NA. 401.473 Section 401.473 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... 236(s) of NA. HUD will consider a direct grant for rehabilitation under section 236(s) of the NA...

  4. 75 FR 38874 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 706-NA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Request for Form 706-NA AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... Form 706-NA, United States Estate (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return, Estate of nonresident... not a citizen of the United States. OMB Number: 1545-0531. Form Number: 706-NA. Abstract: Form...

  5. Kinetic Behavior of Salmonella on Low NaNO2 Sausages during Aerobic and Vacuum Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jimyeong; Gwak, Eunji; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beomyoung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth kinetics of Salmonella spp. in processed meat products formulated with low sodium nitrite (NaNO2). A 5-strain mixture of Salmonella spp. was inoculated on 25-g samples of sausages formulated with sodium chloride (NaCl) (1.0%, 1.25%, and 1.5%) and NaNO2 (0 and 10 ppm) followed by aerobic or vacuum storage at 10℃ and 15℃ for up to 816 h or 408 h, respectively. The bacterial cell counts were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar, and the modified Gompertz model was fitted to the Salmonella cell counts to calculate the kinetic parameters as a function of NaCl concentration on the growth rate (GR; Log CFU/g/h) and lag phase duration (LPD; h). A linear equation was then fitted to the parameters to evaluate the effect of NaCl concentration on the kinetic parameters. The GR values of Salmonella on sausages were higher (p<0.05) with 10 ppm NaNO2 concentration than with 0 ppm NaNO2. The GR values of Salmonella decreased (p<0.05) as NaCl concentration increased, especially at 10℃. This result indicates that 10 ppm NaNO2 may increase Salmonella growth at low NaCl concentrations, and that NaCl plays an important role in inhibiting Salmonella growth in sausages with low NaNO2. PMID:27194936

  6. Search for K + to π + ν bar{ν } at the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minucci, Elisa

    The NA62 experiment aims to measure the branching ratio (BR) of the ultra-rare K + to π + ν bar{ν } decay with a 10% precision. NA62 started in October 2014, took data during the pilot runs in 2014 and 2015. The NA62 experimental strategy and the quality of data collected during the 2015 run are reported.

  7. Na-H Exchanger Isoform-2 (NHE2) Mediates Butyrate-dependent Na+ Absorption in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced Colitis*

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M.; Nanda Kumar, Navalpur S.; Tse, Chung M.; Binder, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) occurs primarily as a result of reduced Na+ absorption. Although colonic Na+ absorption is mediated by both epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and Na-H exchangers (NHE), inhibition of NHE-mediated Na+ absorption is the primary cause of diarrhea in UC. As there are conflicting observations reported on NHE expression in human UC, the present study was initiated to identify whether NHE isoforms (NHE2 and NHE3) expression is altered and how Na+ absorption is regulated in DSS-induced inflammation in rat colon, a model that has been used to study UC. Western blot analyses indicate that neither NHE2 nor NHE3 expression is altered in apical membranes of inflamed colon. Na+ fluxes measured in vitro under voltage clamp conditions in controls demonstrate that both HCO3−-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na+ absorption are inhibited by S3226 (NHE3-inhibitor), but not by HOE694 (NHE2-inhibitor) in normal animals. In contrast, in DSS-induced inflammation, butyrate-, but not HCO3−-dependent Na+ absorption is present and is inhibited by HOE694, but not by S3226. These observations indicate that in normal colon NHE3 mediates both HCO3−-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na+ absorption, whereas DSS-induced inflammation activates NHE2, which mediates butyrate-dependent (but not HCO3−-dependent) Na+ absorption. In in vivo loop studies HCO3−-Ringer and butyrate-Ringer exhibit similar rates of water absorption in normal rats, whereas in DSS-induced inflammation luminal butyrate-Ringer reversed water secretion observed with HCO3−-Ringer to fluid absorption. Lumen butyrate-Ringer incubation activated NHE3-mediated Na+ absorption in DSS-induced colitis. These observations suggest that the butyrate activation of NHE2 would be a potential target to control UC-associated diarrhea. PMID:26350456

  8. Evaluation of Salmonella Growth at Low Concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl in Processed Meat Products Using Probabilistic Model

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, E.; Lee, H.; Lee, S.; Oh, M-H.; Park, B-Y.; Ha, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Yoon, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed probabilistic models to predict Salmonella growth in processed meat products formulated with varying concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. A five-strain mixture of Salmonella was inoculated in nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.25%, and 1.75%) and NaNO2 (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 ppm). The inoculated samples were then incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 4°C, 7°C, 10°C, 12°C, and 15°C for up to 60 days. Growth (assigned the value of 1) or no growth (assigned the value of 0) for each combination was evaluated by turbidity. These growth response data were analyzed with a logistic regression to evaluate the effect of NaCl and NaNO2 on Salmonella growth. The results from the developed model were compared to the observed data obtained from the frankfurters to evaluate the performance of the model. Results from the developed model showed that a single application of NaNO2 at low concentrations did not inhibit Salmonella growth, whereas NaCl significantly (p<0.05) inhibited Salmonella growth at 10°C, 12°C, and 15°C, regardless of the presence of oxygen. At 4°C and 7°C, Salmonella growth was not observed in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. When NaNO2 was combined with NaCl, the probability of Salmonella growth decreased. The validation value confirmed that the performance of the developed model was appropriate. This study indicates that the developed probabilistic models should be useful for describing the combinational effect of NaNO2 and NaCl on inhibiting Salmonella growth in processed meat products. PMID:26954121

  9. Evaluation of Salmonella Growth at Low Concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl in Processed Meat Products Using Probabilistic Model.

    PubMed

    Gwak, E; Lee, H; Lee, S; Oh, M-H; Park, B-Y; Ha, J; Lee, J; Kim, S; Yoon, Y

    2016-07-01

    This study developed probabilistic models to predict Salmonella growth in processed meat products formulated with varying concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. A five-strain mixture of Salmonella was inoculated in nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.25%, and 1.75%) and NaNO2 (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 ppm). The inoculated samples were then incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 4°C, 7°C, 10°C, 12°C, and 15°C for up to 60 days. Growth (assigned the value of 1) or no growth (assigned the value of 0) for each combination was evaluated by turbidity. These growth response data were analyzed with a logistic regression to evaluate the effect of NaCl and NaNO2 on Salmonella growth. The results from the developed model were compared to the observed data obtained from the frankfurters to evaluate the performance of the model. Results from the developed model showed that a single application of NaNO2 at low concentrations did not inhibit Salmonella growth, whereas NaCl significantly (p<0.05) inhibited Salmonella growth at 10°C, 12°C, and 15°C, regardless of the presence of oxygen. At 4°C and 7°C, Salmonella growth was not observed in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. When NaNO2 was combined with NaCl, the probability of Salmonella growth decreased. The validation value confirmed that the performance of the developed model was appropriate. This study indicates that the developed probabilistic models should be useful for describing the combinational effect of NaNO2 and NaCl on inhibiting Salmonella growth in processed meat products.

  10. Probabilistic Models to Predict the Growth Initiation Time for Pseudomonas spp. in Processed Meats Formulated with NaCl and NaNO2.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyunji; Park, Beomyoung; Oh, Mihwa; Gwak, Eunji; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    This study developed probabilistic models to determine the initiation time of growth of Pseudomonas spp. in combinations with NaNO2 and NaCl concentrations during storage at different temperatures. The combination of 8 NaCl concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%) and 9 NaNO2 concentrations (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 ppm) were prepared in a nutrient broth. The medium was placed in the wells of 96-well microtiter plates, followed by inoculation of a five-strain mixture of Pseudomonas in each well. All microtiter plates were incubated at 4, 7, 10, 12, and 15℃ for 528, 504, 504, 360 and 144 h, respectively. Growth (growth initiation; GI) or no growth was then determined by turbidity every 24 h. These growth response data were analyzed by a logistic regression to produce growth/no growth interface of Pseudomonas spp. and to calculate GI time. NaCl and NaNO2 were significantly effective (p<0.05) on inhibiting Pseudomonas spp. growth when stored at 4-12℃. The developed model showed that at lower NaCl concentration, higher NaNO2 level was required to inhibit Pseudomonas growth at 4-12℃. However, at 15℃, there was no significant effect of NaCl and NaNO2. The model overestimated GI times by 58.2±17.5 to 79.4±11%. These results indicate that the probabilistic models developed in this study should be useful in calculating the GI times of Pseudomonas spp. in combination with NaCl and NaNO2 concentrations, considering the over-prediction percentage.

  11. Sodium channel diversity in the vestibular ganglion: NaV1.5, NaV1.8, and tetrodotoxin-sensitive currents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Wooltorton, Julian R A; Gaboyard-Niay, Sophie; Yang, Fu-Chia; Lysakowski, Anna; Eatock, Ruth Anne

    2016-05-01

    Firing patterns differ between subpopulations of vestibular primary afferent neurons. The role of sodium (NaV) channels in this diversity has not been investigated because NaV currents in rodent vestibular ganglion neurons (VGNs) were reported to be homogeneous, with the voltage dependence and tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitivity of most neuronal NaV channels. RT-PCR experiments, however, indicated expression of diverse NaV channel subunits in the vestibular ganglion, motivating a closer look. Whole cell recordings from acutely dissociated postnatal VGNs confirmed that nearly all neurons expressed NaV currents that are TTX-sensitive and have activation midpoints between -30 and -40 mV. In addition, however, many VGNs expressed one of two other NaV currents. Some VGNs had a small current with properties consistent with NaV1.5 channels: low TTX sensitivity, sensitivity to divalent cation block, and a relatively negative voltage range, and some VGNs showed NaV1.5-like immunoreactivity. Other VGNs had a current with the properties of NaV1.8 channels: high TTX resistance, slow time course, and a relatively depolarized voltage range. In two NaV1.8 reporter lines, subsets of VGNs were labeled. VGNs with NaV1.8-like TTX-resistant current also differed from other VGNs in the voltage dependence of their TTX-sensitive currents and in the voltage threshold for spiking and action potential shape. Regulated expression of NaV channels in primary afferent neurons is likely to selectively affect firing properties that contribute to the encoding of vestibular stimuli.

  12. Thermal conductivity of molten Na 2SiO 3 and CaNa 4Si 3O 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gier, Elizabeth J.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

    1996-01-01

    we have measured the thermal conductivity of two molten silicates using the transient hot-wire method developed by Nieto de Castro et al. (1976) and adapted for high temperature measurement by Snyder et al. (1994). The results for Na 2SiO 3 and CaNa 4Si 3O 9 show the same strong temperature dependence as shown for CaMgSi 2O 6, with activation energies whose magnitudes are similar to those for viscous flow. As the effect of composition is comparable to that of temperature, we suggest that to model cooling of magmas, values of λ between 0.05 and 0.3 (W/mK) should be used.

  13. Investigation of influence of NaOH and NaCl activating solutions on bentonite stabilization in suspension fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef; Mikła, Daniel; Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Skut, Jakub

    2010-05-01

    purposes. In this paper research aimed at activating Jaroszów bentonite were presented. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS The studies on activating clay minerals were carried out using the exchange of Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ ions to Na+ ions. For activation process the NaOH and NaCl solutions of concentrations 0,1M and 2,0M respectively were applied. For the purposes mentioned above 5g of weighed portion of mineral were introduced into four 250 ml conical flasks, two of them were filled with 100 ml of 0,1M and 2.0 M NaOH solution. Two remaining flasks were filled with 100 ml of 0,1M and 2.0 M NaCl solution. The samples preparred acoording to this instructions were shaken for 1 and 8 hours, and subsequently subjected to a vacuum filtration in order to separete solid fraction from filtrate. Mineral which remaied on the filter was dried in temperature of 110oC for 2 hours. 1g of dried mineral was collected for further examinations, mixed with 100 ml of distilled water and poured into the 25 ml measuring cylinder. Then every day for 14 days a change of the volume of deposit, suspension and pure solution above the suspension have been measured. 3. RESULTS DISCUSSION "Jaroszów" bentonite, activated with Na+ ions using 0,1M NaOH solution constitutes the most beneficial agent stabilizing the solid phase in the aqueous environment. The time factor didn't have considerable influence on bentonite activation. Results were similar for 1h as well as 8h. The addition of NaOH sustained suspension on respectively high level, about 80% vol., after 14 measurement days.

  14. Evaluation of recombinant monoclonal antibody SVmab1 binding to Na V1.7 target sequences and block of human Na V1.7 currents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Tseng, Mandy; Epstein, Linda F; Green, Lydia; Chan, Brian; Soriano, Brian; Lim, Desiree; Pan, Oscar; Murawsky, Christopher M; King, Chadwick T; Moyer, Bryan D

    2016-01-01

    Identification of small and large molecule pain therapeutics that target the genetically validated voltage-gated sodium channel Na V1.7 is a challenging endeavor under vigorous pursuit. The monoclonal antibody SVmab1 was recently published to bind the Na V1.7 DII voltage sensor domain and block human Na V1.7 sodium currents in heterologous cells. We produced purified SVmab1 protein based on publically available sequence information, and evaluated its activity in a battery of binding and functional assays. Herein, we report that our recombinant SVmAb1 does not bind peptide immunogen or purified Na V1.7 DII voltage sensor domain via ELISA, and does not bind Na V1.7 in live HEK293, U-2 OS, and CHO-K1 cells via FACS. Whole cell manual patch clamp electrophysiology protocols interrogating diverse Na V1.7 gating states in HEK293 cells, revealed that recombinant SVmab1 does not block Na V1.7 currents to an extent greater than observed with an isotype matched control antibody. Collectively, our results show that recombinant SVmab1 monoclonal antibody does not bind Na V1.7 target sequences or specifically inhibit Na V1.7 current.

  15. Insights into Electrochemical Oxidation of NaO2 in Na-O2 Batteries via Rotating Ring Disk and Spectroscopic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Morasch, Robert; Kwabi, David G; Tulodziecki, Michal; Risch, Marcel; Zhang, Shiyu; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2017-02-08

    O2 reduction in aprotic Na-O2 batteries results in the formation of NaO2, which can be oxidized at small overpotentials (<200 mV) on charge. In this study, we investigated the NaO2 oxidation mechanism using rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) measurements of Na-O2 reaction products and by tracking the morphological evolution of the NaO2 discharge product at different states of charge using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that negligible soluble species are formed during NaO2 oxidation, and that the oxidation occurs predominantly via charge transfer at the interface between NaO2 and carbon electrode fibers rather than uniformly from all NaO2 surfaces. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show that the band gap of NaO2 is smaller than that of Li2O2 formed in Li-O2 batteries, in which charging overpotentials are much higher (∼1000 mV). These results emphasize the importance of discharge product electronic structure for rationalizing metal-air battery mechanisms and performance.

  16. Evaluation of recombinant monoclonal antibody SVmab1 binding to Na V1.7 target sequences and block of human Na V1.7 currents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Tseng, Mandy; Epstein, Linda F.; Green, Lydia; Chan, Brian; Soriano, Brian; Lim, Desiree; Pan, Oscar; Murawsky, Christopher M.; King, Chadwick T.; Moyer, Bryan D.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of small and large molecule pain therapeutics that target the genetically validated voltage-gated sodium channel Na V1.7 is a challenging endeavor under vigorous pursuit. The monoclonal antibody SVmab1 was recently published to bind the Na V1.7 DII voltage sensor domain and block human Na V1.7 sodium currents in heterologous cells. We produced purified SVmab1 protein based on publically available sequence information, and evaluated its activity in a battery of binding and functional assays. Herein, we report that our recombinant SVmAb1 does not bind peptide immunogen or purified Na V1.7 DII voltage sensor domain via ELISA, and does not bind Na V1.7 in live HEK293, U-2 OS, and CHO-K1 cells via FACS. Whole cell manual patch clamp electrophysiology protocols interrogating diverse Na V1.7 gating states in HEK293 cells, revealed that recombinant SVmab1 does not block Na V1.7 currents to an extent greater than observed with an isotype matched control antibody. Collectively, our results show that recombinant SVmab1 monoclonal antibody does not bind Na V1.7 target sequences or specifically inhibit Na V1.7 current. PMID:27990272

  17. Complex transition metal hydrides incorporating ionic hydrogen: thermal decomposition pathway of Na2Mg2FeH8 and Na2Mg2RuH8.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Terry D; Matsuo, Motoaki; Li, Guanqiao; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2015-03-28

    Complex transition metal hydrides have potential technological application as hydrogen storage materials, smart windows and sensors. Recent exploration of these materials has revealed that the incorporation of anionic hydrogen into these systems expands the potential number of viable complexes, while varying the countercation allows for optimisation of their thermodynamic stability. In this study, the optimised synthesis of Na2Mg2TH8 (T = Fe, Ru) has been achieved and their thermal decomposition properties studied by ex situ Powder X-ray Diffraction, Gas Chromatography and Pressure-Composition Isotherm measurements. The temperature and pathway of decomposition of these isostructural compounds differs considerably, with Na2Mg2FeH8 proceeding via NaMgH3 in a three-step process, while Na2Mg2RuH8 decomposes via Mg2RuH4 in a two-step process. The first desorption maxima of Na2Mg2FeH8 occurs at ca. 400 °C, while Na2Mg2RuH8 has its first maxima at 420 °C. The enthalpy and entropy of desorption for Na2Mg2TH8 (T = Fe, Ru) has been established by PCI measurements, with the ΔHdes for Na2Mg2FeH8 being 94.5 kJ mol(-1) H2 and 125 kJ mol(-1) H2 for Na2Mg2RuH8.

  18. Structural and Na-ion conduction characteristics of Na 3 PS x Se 4-x

    SciTech Connect

    Bo, Shou-Hang; Wang, Yan; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-05-19

    The recent discovery of the isostructrual cubic Na3PS4 and Na3PSe4 as fast Na-ion conductors provided a general structural framework for the exploration of new sodium superionic conductors. In this work, we systematically investigated the structures and ionic conduction characteristics of a series of compounds with the general chemical formula of Na3PSxSe4-x. Synthesis of Na3PS4 under different conditions (e.g., temperature, reaction vessel, mass of the precursors) reveals the reactivity of the precursors with the reaction tubes, producing different polymorphs. X-ray diffraction studies on the solid solution phases Na3PSxSe4-x identified a tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition with increasing Se concentration. This observation is consistent with the computed stability of the tetragonal and cubic polymorphs, where the energy difference between the two polymorphs becomes very close to zero in Se-rich compositions. Furthermore, ab initio molecular dynamic simulations suggest that the fast Na-ion conduction in Na3PSxSe4-x may not be causally related with the symmetry or the composition of these phases. The formation of defects, instead, enables fast Na-ion conduction in this class of materials.

  19. A Na+-activated K+ current (IK,Na) is present in guinea-pig but not rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C; Rodrigo, G C

    1999-05-01

    The effects of removing extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the membrane potential, membrane current and intracellular Na+ activity (aiNa) were investigated in guinea-pig and rat ventricular myocytes. Membrane potential was recorded with a patch pipette and whole-cell membrane currents using a single-electrode voltage clamp. Both guinea-pig and rat cells depolarize when the bathing Ca2+ and Mg2+ are removed and the steady-state aiNa increases rapidly from a resting value of 6.4+/- 0.6 mM to 33+/-3.8 mM in guinea-pig (n=9) and from 8.9+/-0.8 mM to 29.3+/-3.0 mM (n=5) in rat ventricular myocytes. Guinea-pig myocytes partially repolarized when, in addition to removal of the bathing Ca2+ and Mg2+, K+ was also removed, however rat cells remained depolarized. A large diltiazem-sensitive inward current was recorded in guinea-pig and rat myocytes, voltage-clamped at -20 mV, when the bathing divalent cations were removed. When the bathing K+ was removed after Ca2+ and Mg2+ depletion, a large outward K+ current developed in guinea-pig, but not in rat myocytes. This current had a reversal potential of -80+/-0.7 mV and was not inhibited by high Mg2+ or glybenclamide indicating that it is not due to activation of non-selective cation or adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K channels. The current was not activated when Li+ replaced the bathing Na+ and was blocked by R-56865, suggesting that it was due to the activation of KNa channels.

  20. Challenges with hyper-NA (NA>1.0) polarized light lithography for sub λ/4 resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagello, Donis G.; Hansen, Steven; Geh, Bernd; Totzeck, Michael

    2005-05-01

    The use of immersion technology will extend the lifetime of 193nm and 157nm lithography by enabling numerical apertures (NA) much greater than 1.0. This paper explores the effects that will occur when the high NA systems are augmented with polarization.. Specifically we show that there are strong interactions between the polarization induced by the reticle and polarization in the optics. This has a direct impact on the across-field specification of the polarization of the optical system as it causes a large variation in the imaging impact in photoresist. The impact of lens and reticle birefringence on the imaging is also analyzed. We show that reticle birefringence should not be a major concern when the birefringence is maintained to 2nm/cm - 4nm/cm levels. The lens can be modeled by a Jones matrix approach, where multiple pupils must be defined for each polarization state. We show the impact of the optical components by using a rigorous photoresist simulation on the process window of sub-50nm features using NA>1.3. The simulator uses a full Maxwell equation solver for the mask, polarized illumination, a Jones matrix approach for the pupil, and a photoresist simulation with calibrated model. The photoresist process is also shown to interact with polarization. Different photoresist will show varying degrees of sensitivity to polarization variation.

  1. Spectrophotometric Investigation of U(VI) Chloride Complexation in the NaCl/NaClO{sub 4} System

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P.; Lin, M.R.; Runde, W.H.

    1998-11-30

    Post closure radioactive release scenarios from geologic salt formation, such as the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)(USA) include hydrologic transport of radionuclides through a chloride saturated aquifer. Consequently, the understanding of actinide solution chemistry in brines is essential for modeling requiring accurate knowledge of the interaction between AnO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and chloride ions. Complexation constants of two U(VI) chloride species, UO{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}{sup 0}, have been intensively studied for about 40 years using different methods. However, large uncertainties reflect the general difficulty in determining accurate stability constants of weak complexes. In order to model the behavior of U(VI) in brines, we studied the formation of its chloride complexes by UV-Vis spectroscopy as a function of the NaCl concentration at 25 C. The experiments were performed at constant ionic strength by varying the concentration ratio of NaCl and NaClO{sub 4}. Deconvolution resulted in single component absorption spectra for UO{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}{sup 0}. The apparent stability constants of UO{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}{sup 0} are at different ionic strengths and the experimental data are used to parameterize using the SIT approach.

  2. CO2 reduction over NaNbO3 and NaTaO3 perovskite photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Fresno, F; Jana, P; Reñones, P; Coronado, J M; Serrano, D P; de la Peña O'Shea, V A

    2017-01-18

    The activity of NaNbO3 and NaTaO3 perovskites for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 is studied in this work. For this purpose, sodium niobate and tantalate have been prepared using solid-state reactions, extensively characterised by means of powder X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopies and N2 adsorption isotherms, and tested in the gas-phase reduction of CO2 under UV light in a continuous flow photoreactor. NaNbO3 is constituted of an orthorhombically distorted perovskite structure, while a ca. 4.5 : 1 combination of the orthorhombic and monoclinic modifications is found in the tantalate. Both catalysts exhibit interesting intrinsic activities, with the tantalate material giving rise to a slightly higher performance. This is attributed to a compromise situation between electron-hole recombination and the reducing potential of conduction band electrons. In addition, a decrease in the competition of water protons for photogenerated electrons is observed with both catalysts with respect to TiO2.

  3. The coordinated regulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Hordeum brevisubulatum responding to time of salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Xia, Zeng-Run; Wu, Guo-Qiang; Yuan, Hui-Jun; Wang, Xin-Rui; Li, Jin-Hua; Tian, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Xin-Qiang; He, Jiong-Jie; Kumar, Tanweer; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Jin-Lin

    2016-11-01

    Hordeum brevisubulatum, called as wild barley, is a useful monocotyledonous halophyte for soil improvement in northern China. Although previously studied, its main salt tolerance mechanism remained controversial. The current work showed that shoot Na(+) concentration was increased rapidly with stress time and significantly higher than in wheat during 0-168h of 100mM NaCl treatment. Similar results were also found under 25 and 50mM NaCl treatments. Even K(+) was increased from 0.01 to 50mM in the cultural solution, no significant effect was found on tissue Na(+) concentrations. Interestingly, shoot growth was improved, and stronger root activity was maintained in H. brevisubulatum compared with wheat after 7days treatment of 100mM NaCl. To investigate the long-term stress impact on tissue Na(+), 100mM NaCl was prolonged to 60 days. The maximum values of Na(+) concentrations were observed at 7th in shoot and 14th day in roots, respectively, and then decreased gradually. Micro-electrode ion flux estimation was used and it was found that increasing Na(+) efflux while maintaining K(+) influx were the major strategies to reduce the Na(+) concentration during long-term salt stress. Moreover, leaf Na(+) secretions showed little contribution to the tissue Na(+) decrease. Thereby, the physiological mechanism for H. brevisubulatum to survive from long-term salt stress was proposed that rapid Na(+) accumulation occurred in the shoot to respond the initial salt shock, then Na(+) efflux was triggered and K(+) influx was activated to maintain a stable K(+)/Na(+) ratio in tissues.

  4. Excitatory amino acid-stimulated uptake of /sup 22/Na+ in primary astrocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kimelberg, H.K.; Pang, S.; Treble, D.H.

    1989-04-01

    In this study we have found that L-glutamic acid, as well as being taken up by a Na+-dependent mechanism, will stimulate the uptake of 22Na+ by primary astrocyte cultures from rat brain in the presence of ouabain. By simultaneously measuring the uptake of 22Na+ and L-3H-glutamate a stoichiometry of 2-3 Na+ per glutamate was measured, implying electrogenic uptake. Increasing the medium K+ concentration to depolarize the cells inhibited L-3H-glutamate uptake, while calculations of the energetics of the observed L-3H-glutamate accumulation also supported an electrogenic mechanism of at least 2 Na+:1 glutamate. In contrast, kinetic analysis of the Na+ dependence of L-3H-glutamate uptake indicated a stoichiometry of Na+ to glutamate of 1:1, but further analysis showed that the stoichiometry cannot be resolved by purely kinetic studies. Studies with glutamate analogs, however, showed that kainic acid was a very effective stimulant of 22Na+ uptake, but 3H-kainic acid showed no Na+ -dependent uptake. Furthermore, while L-3H-glutamate uptake was very sensitive to lowered temperatures, glutamate-stimulated 22Na+ uptake was relatively insensitive. These results indicate that glutamate-stimulated uptake of 22Na+ in primary astrocytes cultures cannot be explained solely by cotransport of Na+ with glutamate, and they suggest that direct kainic acid-type receptor induced stimulation of Na+ uptake also occurs. Since both receptor and uptake effects involve transport of Na+, accurate measurements of the Na+ :glutamate stoichiometry for uptake can only be done using completely specific inhibitors of these 2 systems.

  5. Search for solid conductors of Na/+/ and K/+/ ions - Five new conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Kautz, H.; Fielder, W.; Fordyce, J.

    1975-01-01

    Five new conductors of positive Na and K ions, for use as separators in high energy secondary batteries, have been discovered. They include: (1) the pyrochlores NaTaWO6 and NaTa2O5F; (2) the bcc form of NaSbO3; and (3) the niobates 2Na2O-3Nb2O5 and 2K2O-3Nb2O5, with the alkali ions probably in open layers of the completely determined structure. On the basis of approximately 40 structure types, generalizations have been made regarding the relation between structure and ionic transport.

  6. Threshold processes of sodium ion emission from NaAu surface alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knat'ko, M. V.; Lapushkin, M. N.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied threshold processes of Na+ ion emission from a semiconductor Na x Au y film formed on the surface of a gold substrate. In contrast to the classical notions of threshold processes involved in the surface ionization of alkali metal ions from heated metal surfaces, the diffusion exchange of atomic species between the surface and volume of the Na x Au y film ensures stable emission of Na+ ions from the substrate in the region of threshold temperatures. A diffusion mechanism of self-regulation of the surface coverage of alkali metal in the Na x Au y film is proposed.

  7. Phase equilibria in the NaF-CdO-NaPO3 system at 873 K and crystal structure and physico-chemical characterizations of the new Na2CdPO4F fluorophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboussatar, Mohamed; Mbarek, Aïcha; Naili, Houcine; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Avignant, Daniel; Zambon, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Isothermal sections of the diagram representing phase relationships in the NaF-CdO-NaPO3 system have been investigated by solid state reactions and powder X-ray diffraction. This phase diagram investigation confirms the polymorphism of the NaCdPO4 side component and the structure of the ß high temperature polymorph (orthorhombic, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=9.3118(2), b=7.0459(1), c=5.1849(1) Å has been refined. A new fluorophosphate, Na2CdPO4F, has been discovered and its crystal structure determined and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. It exhibits a new 3D structure with orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=5.3731(1), b=6.8530(1), c=12.2691(2) Å. The structure is closely related to those of the high temperature polymorph of the nacaphite Na2CaPO4F and the fluorosilicate Ca2NaSiO4F but differs essentially in the cationic repartition since the structure is fully ordered with one Na site (8d) and one Cd site (4c). Relationships with other Na2MIIPO4F (MII=Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) have been examined and the crystal-chemical and topographical analysis of these fluorophosphates is briefly reviewed. IR, Raman, optical and 19F, 23Na, 31P MAS NMR characterizations of Na2CdPO4F have been investigated.

  8. Salicylic acid alleviates NaCl-induced changes in the metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Backor, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Influence of 100 mM NaCl and 50 microM salicylic acid (SA) and their combination on the metabolism of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) during 7 days was studied. NaCl reduced growth and selected physiological parameters and SA in combined treatment (NaCl + SA) reversed majority of these symptoms. Application of SA reduced NaCl-induced increase of Na+ in the rosettes, but not in the roots. Accumulation of total amino acids was stimulated in NaCl-treated roots, especially due to exceptional increase of proline (4.4-fold). Among phenolic acids, accumulation of protocatechuic acid was the most enhanced in NaCl-exposed leaf rosettes (ca. 3-fold) while chlorogenic and caffeic acids in the roots (2.4- and 2.8-fold, respectively). Total soluble phenols increased after NaCl and SA treatments, but root lignin content was not affected. Activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and shikimate dehydrogenase increased in response to NaCl, but cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase was not affected and polyphenol oxidase decreased. Stress parameters were elevated by NaCl treatment (superoxide radical and malondialdehyde content, activities of catalase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) and substantially prevented by SA, while accumulation of hydrogen peroxide decreased. Overall, SA showed strong beneficial properties against NaCl-induced negative symptoms. Protective effect of SA was the most visible at the level of guaiacol-peroxidase and through amelioration of stress parameters and mineral nutrient contents.

  9. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tao; Liu, Li-ying; Xiao, Penny; Che, Shuai; Wang, He-ming

    2014-08-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  10. Unexpected positive role of oxygen vacancies in Na-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. P.; Lu, J. G.; Zhang, H. H.; Lu, B.; Huang, J. Y.; Ye, C. L.; Ye, Z. Z.

    2012-12-01

    The interaction of Na impurities and O vacancies (VO) in ZnO was studied in theory and experiment. The VO facilitated substitutional Na (NaZn/NaZn-) acceptors with inhibiting interstitial Na (Nai/Nai+) donors, which may benefit the p-type conductivity. The formed (NaZn-VO)+/0 complexes induced the change of band structures of ZnO, with the broadening of gap energies and disappearance of the VO2+-related impurity level, which confirmed by the blue shift of the near-band-edge (NBE) UV emission and the decay of the visible emission in PL spectra. The strong and dominant NBE UV emission suggested acceptable luminescence behaviors of Na-doped ZnO.

  11. Regulation of cough and action potentials by voltage-gated Na channels.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    The classical role ascribed to voltage-gated Na channels is the conduction of action potentials. Some excitable tissues such as cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle predominantly express a single voltage-gated Na channels isoform. Of the nine voltage-gated Na channels, seven are expressed in neurons, of these Nav 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 are expressed in sensory neurons including vagal sensory neurons that innervate the airways and initiate cough. Nav 1.7 and Nav 1.9 are of particular interest as they represent two extremes in the functional diversity of voltage-gated Na channels. Voltage-gated Na channel isoforms expressed in airway sensory neurons produce multiple distinct Na currents that underlie distinct aspects of sensory neuron function. The interaction between voltage-gated Na currents underlies the characteristic ability of airway sensory nerves to encode encounters with irritant stimuli into action potential discharge and evoke the cough reflex.

  12. Development of Network Interface Cards for TRIDAQ systems with the NaNet framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Valente, P.; Vicini, P.

    2017-03-01

    NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the network protocol stack, the stream processing capability, and the zero-copy CPU and GPU Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA). Three NIC designs have been developed with the NaNet framework: NaNet-1 and NaNet-10 for the CERN NA62 low level trigger and NaNet3 for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope DAQ system. We will focus our description on the NaNet-10 design, as it is the most complete of the three in terms of capabilities and integrated IPs of the framework.

  13. Sodium titanate nanotube/graphite, an electric energy storage device using Na+-based organic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liping; Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu

    2013-11-01

    Sodium titanate nanotube (Na-TNT) sample has been prepared by a hydrothermal method using TiO2 and NaOH as starting materials and then calcined at 400 °C in air. X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption tests have been employed to characterize its crystal and pore structure. The Na-TNT can be used as the negative electrode for electric energy storage devices using Na+-based organic electrolytes. The charge storage mechanism at the Na-TNT negative electrode has been investigated by electrochemical tests (galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry, etc.), ex-situ XRD and HRTEM measurements. The electric energy storage devices of Na-TNT/graphite have been constructed and the influence of graphite/Na-TNT mass ratio on their performance has been studied.

  14. Effect of dronedarone on Na+, Ca2+ and HCN channels.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Roman; Goegelein, Heinz; Ruetten, Hartmut

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies showed that amiodarone causes state-dependent inhibition of Na(+) channels thereby mediating an atrial-selective drug effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the new antiarrhythmic compound dronedarone on Na(+), Ca(2+) and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. Monophasic action potentials (MAP) and effective refractory period (ERP) were studied in arterially perfused left atria and ventricular wedge preparations of the pig. Fast Na(+) and Ca(2+) currents in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes as well as human HCN4 channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were investigated with the patch-clamp technique. In left atrial epicardial tissue, dronedarone (3 μM) had no effect on the MAP duration, but the drug caused a significant prolongation of the ERP from 145 ± 9 to 184 ± 17 ms (n = 6; p < 0.05). In guinea pig ventricular myocytes, dronedarone exhibited a state-dependent inhibition of the fast Na(+) channel current with an IC(50) of 0.7 ± 0.1 μM, when the holding potential (V (hold)) was -80 mV. The maximal block at the highest concentration used was 77 ± 8%. In contrast, when V (hold) was -100 mV, inhibition with 10 μM dronedarone was only 9 ± 3% (n = 7). Dronedarone blocked Ca(2+) currents elicited by rectangular pulses at V (hold) = -40 mV with an IC(50) value of 0.4 ± 0.1 μM (maximal block by 10 μM dronedarone, 80 ± 6%), whereas at V (hold) = -80 mV, 10 μM dronedarone blocked only 20 ± 6% (n = 4) of the current. Applying an action potential clamp (V (hold) = -80 mV) yielded an IC(50) of 0.4 ± 0.3 μM. Human HCN4 channels expressed in CHO cells were blocked by dronedarone with an IC(50) of 1.0 ± 0.1 μM. Inhibition of fast Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels by dronedarone depends on the cell's resting membrane potential (state-dependent block) favouring an atrial-selective mode of

  15. Characterization of NaCl tolerance in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough through experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aifen; Baidoo, Edward; He, Zhili; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Baumohl, Jason K; Benke, Peter; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Xie, Ming; Song, Rong; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Keasling, Jay D; Wall, Judy D; Stahl, David A; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-09-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough strains with significantly increased tolerance to NaCl were obtained via experimental evolution. A NaCl-evolved strain, ES9-11, isolated from a population cultured for 1200 generations in medium amended with 100 mM NaCl, showed better tolerance to NaCl than a control strain, EC3-10, cultured for 1200 generations in parallel but without NaCl amendment in medium. To understand the NaCl adaptation mechanism in ES9-11, we analyzed the transcriptional, metabolite and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of strain ES9-11 with 0, 100- or 250 mM-added NaCl in medium compared with the ancestral strain and EC3-10 as controls. In all the culture conditions, increased expressions of genes involved in amino-acid synthesis and transport, energy production, cation efflux and decreased expression of flagellar assembly genes were detected in ES9-11. Consistently, increased abundances of organic solutes and decreased cell motility were observed in ES9-11. Glutamate appears to be the most important osmoprotectant in D. vulgaris under NaCl stress, whereas, other organic solutes such as glutamine, glycine and glycine betaine might contribute to NaCl tolerance under low NaCl concentration only. Unsaturation indices of PLFA significantly increased in ES9-11. Branched unsaturated PLFAs i17:1 ω9c, a17:1 ω9c and branched saturated i15:0 might have important roles in maintaining proper membrane fluidity under NaCl stress. Taken together, these data suggest that the accumulation of osmolytes, increased membrane fluidity, decreased cell motility and possibly an increased exclusion of Na(+) contribute to increased NaCl tolerance in NaCl-evolved D. vulgaris.

  16. A Gustatory Neural Circuit of Caenorhabditis elegans Generates Memory-Dependent Behaviors in Na(+) Chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifang; Sato, Hirofumi; Satoh, Yohsuke; Tomioka, Masahiro; Kunitomo, Hirofumi; Iino, Yuichi

    2017-02-22

    Animals show various behaviors in response to environmental chemicals. These behaviors are often plastic depending on previous experiences. Caenorhabditis elegans, which has highly developed chemosensory system with a limited number of sensory neurons, is an ideal model for analyzing the role of each neuron in innate and learned behaviors. Here, we report a new type of memory-dependent behavioral plasticity in Na(+) chemotaxis generated by the left member of bilateral gustatory neuron pair ASE (ASEL neuron). When worms were cultivated in the presence of Na(+), they showed positive chemotaxis toward Na(+), but when cultivated under Na(+)-free conditions, they showed no preference regarding Na(+) concentration. Both channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) activation with blue light and up-steps of Na(+) concentration activated ASEL only after cultivation with Na(+), as judged by increase in intracellular Ca(2+) Under cultivation conditions with Na(+), photoactivation of ASEL caused activation of its downstream interneurons AIY and AIA, which stimulate forward locomotion, and inhibition of its downstream interneuron AIB, which inhibits the turning/reversal behavior, and overall drove worms toward higher Na(+) concentrations. We also found that the Gq signaling pathway and the neurotransmitter glutamate are both involved in the behavioral response generated by ASEL.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Animals have acquired various types of behavioral plasticity during their long evolutionary history. Caenorhabditis elegans prefers odors associated with food, but plastically changes its behavioral response according to previous experience. Here, we report a new type of behavioral response generated by a single gustatory sensory neuron, the ASE-left (ASEL) neuron. ASEL did not respond to photostimulation or upsteps of Na(+) concentration when worms were cultivated in Na(+)-free conditions; however, when worms were cultivated with Na(+), ASEL responded and inhibited AIB to avoid turning and

  17. Do Src Kinase and Caveolin Interact Directly with Na,K-ATPase?

    PubMed

    Yosef, Eliyahu; Katz, Adriana; Peleg, Yoav; Mehlman, Tevie; Karlish, Steven J D

    2016-05-27

    Much evidence points to a role of Na,K-ATPase in ouabain-dependent signal transduction. Based on experiments with different cell lines and native tissue membranes, a current hypothesis postulates direct interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and Src kinase (non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Na,K-ATPase is proposed to bind Src kinase and inhibit its activity, whereas ouabain, the specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, binds and stabilizes the E2 conformation, thus exposing the Src kinase domain and its active site Tyr-418 for activation. Ouabain-dependent signaling is thought to be mediated within caveolae by a complex consisting of Na,K-ATPase, caveolin, and Src kinase. In the current work, we have looked for direct interactions utilizing purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase (human α1β1FXYD1 or porcine α1D369Nβ1FXYD1) and purified human Src kinase and human caveolin 1 or interactions between these proteins in native membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney. By several independent criteria and techniques, no stable interactions were detected between Na,K-ATPase and purified Src kinase. Na,K-ATPase was found to be a substrate for Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr-144. Clear evidence for a direct interaction between purified human Na,K-ATPase and human caveolin was obtained, albeit with a low molar stoichiometry (1:15-30 caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase). In native renal membranes, a specific caveolin 14-5 oligomer (95 kDa) was found to be in direct interaction with Na,K-ATPase. We inferred that a small fraction of the renal Na,K-ATPase molecules is in a ∼1:1 complex with a caveolin 14-5 oligomer. Thus, overall, whereas a direct caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase interaction is confirmed, the lack of direct Src kinase/Na,K-ATPase binding requires reassessment of the mechanism of ouabain-dependent signaling.

  18. Sex-specific effects of sex steroids on alveolar epithelial Na(+) transport.

    PubMed

    Haase, Melanie; Laube, Mandy; Thome, Ulrich H

    2017-03-01

    Alveolar fluid clearance mediates perinatal lung transition to air breathing in newborn infants, which is accomplished by epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) and Na-K-ATPase. Male sex represents a major risk factor for developing respiratory distress, especially in preterm infants. We previously showed that male sex is associated with reduced epithelial Na(+) transport, possibly contributing to the sexual dimorphism in newborn respiratory distress. This study aimed to determine sex-specific effects of sex steroids on epithelial Na(+) transport. The effects of testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and progesterone on Na(+) transport and Na(+) channel expression were determined in fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells of male and female rat fetuses by Ussing chamber and mRNA expression analyses. DHT showed a minor effect only in male FDLE cells by decreasing epithelial Na(+) transport. However, flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, did not abolish the gender imbalance, and testosterone lacked any effect on Na(+) transport in male and female FDLE cells. In contrast, estradiol and progesterone increased Na(+) transport and Na(+) channel expression especially in females, and prevented the inhibiting effect of DHT in males. Estrogen receptor inhibition decreased Na(+) channel expression and eliminated the sex differences. In conclusion, female sex steroids stimulate Na(+) transport especially in females and prevent the inhibitory effect of DHT in males. The ineffectiveness of testosterone suggests that Na(+) transport is largely unaffected by androgens. Thus, the higher responsiveness of female cells to female sex steroids explains the higher Na(+) transport activity, possibly leading to a functional advantage in females.

  19. Voltage-dependent sodium (NaV) channels in group IV sensory afferents

    PubMed Central

    Elmslie, Keith S

    2016-01-01

    Patients with intermittent claudication suffer from both muscle pain and an exacerbated exercise pressor reflex. Excitability of the group III and group IV afferent fibers mediating these functions is controlled in part by voltage-dependent sodium (NaV) channels. We previously found tetrodotoxin-resistant NaV1.8 channels to be the primary type in muscle afferent somata. However, action potentials in group III and IV afferent axons are blocked by TTX, supporting a minimal role of NaV1.8 channels. To address these apparent differences in NaV channel expression between axon and soma, we used immunohistochemistry to identify the NaV channels expressed in group IV axons within the gastrocnemius muscle and the dorsal root ganglia sections. Positive labeling by an antibody against the neurofilament protein peripherin was used to identify group IV neurons and axons. We show that >67% of group IV fibers express NaV1.8, NaV1.6, or NaV1.7. Interestingly, expression of NaV1.8 channels in group IV somata was significantly higher than in the fibers, whereas there were no significant differences for either NaV1.6 or NaV1.7. When combined with previous work, our results suggest that NaV1.8 channels are expressed in most group IV axons, but that, under normal conditions, NaV1.6 and/or NaV1.7 play a more important role in action potential generation to signal muscle pain and the exercise pressor reflex. PMID:27385723

  20. Characterization of NaCl tolerance in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough through experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aifen; Baidoo, Edward; He, Zhili; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Baumohl, Jason K; Benke, Peter; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Xie, Ming; Song, Rong; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Keasling, Jay D; Wall, Judy D; Stahl, David A; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough strains with significantly increased tolerance to NaCl were obtained via experimental evolution. A NaCl-evolved strain, ES9-11, isolated from a population cultured for 1200 generations in medium amended with 100 mM NaCl, showed better tolerance to NaCl than a control strain, EC3-10, cultured for 1200 generations in parallel but without NaCl amendment in medium. To understand the NaCl adaptation mechanism in ES9-11, we analyzed the transcriptional, metabolite and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of strain ES9-11 with 0, 100- or 250 mM-added NaCl in medium compared with the ancestral strain and EC3-10 as controls. In all the culture conditions, increased expressions of genes involved in amino-acid synthesis and transport, energy production, cation efflux and decreased expression of flagellar assembly genes were detected in ES9-11. Consistently, increased abundances of organic solutes and decreased cell motility were observed in ES9-11. Glutamate appears to be the most important osmoprotectant in D. vulgaris under NaCl stress, whereas, other organic solutes such as glutamine, glycine and glycine betaine might contribute to NaCl tolerance under low NaCl concentration only. Unsaturation indices of PLFA significantly increased in ES9-11. Branched unsaturated PLFAs i17:1 ω9c, a17:1 ω9c and branched saturated i15:0 might have important roles in maintaining proper membrane fluidity under NaCl stress. Taken together, these data suggest that the accumulation of osmolytes, increased membrane fluidity, decreased cell motility and possibly an increased exclusion of Na+ contribute to increased NaCl tolerance in NaCl-evolved D. vulgaris. PMID:23575373

  1. Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse muscle is regulated by AMPK and PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Ingwersen, Maria S; Kristensen, Michael; Pilegaard, Henriette; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Juel, Carsten

    2011-07-01

    Na,K-ATPase activity, which is crucial for skeletal muscle function, undergoes acute and long-term regulation in response to muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AMP kinase (AMPK) and the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α are underlying factors in long-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase isoform (α,β and PLM) abundance and Na(+) affinity. Repeated treatment of mice with the AMPK activator AICAR decreased total PLM protein content but increased PLM phosphorylation, whereas the number of α- and β-subunits remained unchanged. The K(m) for Na(+) stimulation of Na,K-ATPase was reduced (higher affinity) after AICAR treatment. PLM abundance was increased in AMPK kinase-dead mice compared with control mice, but PLM phosphorylation and Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity remained unchanged. Na,K-ATPase activity and subunit distribution were also measured in mice with different degrees of PGC-1α expression. Protein abundances of α1 and α2 were reduced in PGC-1α +/- and -/- mice, and the β(1)/β(2) ratio was increased with PGC-1α overexpression (TG mice). PLM protein abundance was decreased in TG mice, but phosphorylation status was unchanged. Na,K-ATPase V (max) was decreased in PCG-1α TG and KO mice. Experimentally in vitro induced phosphorylation of PLM increased Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity, confirming that PLM phosphorylation is important for Na,K-ATPase function. In conclusion, both AMPK and PGC-1α regulate PLM abundance, AMPK regulates PLM phosphorylation and PGC-1α expression influences Na,K-ATPase α(1) and α(2) content and β(1)/β(2) isoform ratio. Phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase subunit PLM is an important regulatory mechanism.

  2. Intracellular Na(+) modulates large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K (+) currents in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guo Hua; Kim, Moon Young; Park, Seonghee; Kim, Ji Aee; Choi, Shinkyu; Suh, Suk Hyo

    2008-10-01

    We studied the effects of Na(+) influx on large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by means of patch clamp and SBFI microfluorescence measurements. In current-clamped HUVECs, extracellular Na(+) replacement by NMDG(+) or mannitol hyperpolarized cells. In voltage-clamped HUVECs, changing membrane potential from 0 mV to negative potentials increased intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)](i)) and vice versa. In addition, extracellular Na(+) depletion decreased [Na(+)](i). In voltage-clamped cells, BK(Ca) currents were markedly increased by extracellular Na(+) depletion. In inside-out patches, increasing [Na(+)](i) from 0 to 20 or 40 mM reduced single channel conductance but not open probability (NPo) of BK(Ca) channels and decreasing intracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](i)) gradually from 140 to 70 mM reduced both single channel conductance and NPo. Furthermore, increasing [Na(+)](i) gradually from 0 to 70 mM, by replacing K(+), markedly reduced single channel conductance and NPo. The Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange blocker Ni(2+) or KB-R7943 decreased [Na(+)](i) and increased BK(Ca) currents simultaneously, and the Na(+) ionophore monensin completely inhibited BK(Ca) currents. BK(Ca) currents were significantly augmented by increasing extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) from 6 to 12 mM and significantly reduced by decreasing [K(+)](o) from 12 or 6 to 0 mM or applying the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain. These results suggest that intracellular Na(+) inhibit single channel conductance of BK(Ca) channels and that intracellular K(+) increases single channel conductance and NPo.

  3. The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide decreases Na+ transport across pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Althaus, M; Urness, KD; Clauss, WG; Baines, DL; Fronius, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The transepithelial absorption of Na+ in the lungs is crucial for the maintenance of the volume and composition of epithelial lining fluid. The regulation of Na+ transport is essential, because hypo- or hyperabsorption of Na+ is associated with lung diseases such as pulmonary oedema or cystic fibrosis. This study investigated the effects of the gaseous signalling molecule hydrogen sulphide (H2S) on Na+ absorption across pulmonary epithelial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ion transport processes were electrophysiologically assessed in Ussing chambers on H441 cells grown on permeable supports at air/liquid interface and on native tracheal preparations of pigs and mice. The effects of H2S were further investigated on Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in vitro. Membrane abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase was determined by surface biotinylation and Western blot. Cellular ATP concentrations were measured colorimetrically, and cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations were measured with Fura-2. KEY RESULTS H2S rapidly and reversibly inhibited Na+ transport in all the models employed. H2S had no effect on Na+ channels, whereas it decreased Na+/K+-ATPase currents. H2S did not affect the membrane abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase, its metabolic or calcium-dependent regulation, or its direct activity. However, H2S inhibited basolateral calcium-dependent K+ channels, which consequently decreased Na+ absorption by H441 monolayers. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H2S impairs pulmonary transepithelial Na+ absorption, mainly by inhibiting basolateral Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. These data suggest that the H2S signalling system might represent a novel pharmacological target for modifying pulmonary transepithelial Na+ transport. PMID:22352810

  4. Excimer lasers for superhigh NA 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzel, Rainer; Albrecht, Hans S.; Lokai, Peter; Zschocke, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Thomas; Bragin, Igor; Schroeder, Thomas; Reusch, Christian; Spratte, Stefan

    2003-06-01

    Excimer lasers are widely used as the light source for microlithography scanners. The volume shipment of scanner systems using 193nm is projected to begin in year 2003. Such tools will directly start with super high numerical aperture (NA) in order to take full advantage of the 193nm wavelength over the advanced 248nm systems. Reliable high repetition rate laser light sources enabling high illumination power and wafer throughput are one of the fundamental prerequisites. In addition these light sources must support a very high NA imaging lens of more than 0.8 which determines the output spectrum of the laser to be less than 0.30 pm FWHM. In this paper we report on our recent progress in the development of high repetition rate ultra-narrow band lasers for high NA 193nm microlithography scanners. The laser, NovaLine A4003, is based on a Single Oscillator Ultral Line-narrowed (SOUL) design which yields a bandwidth of less than 0.30pm FWHM. The SOUL laser enables superior optical performance without adding complexity or cost up to the 4 kHz maximum repetition rate. The A4003's high precision line-narrowing optics used in combination with the high repetition rate of 4 kHz yields an output power of 20 W at an extremely narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.30 pm FWHM and highest spectral purity of less than 0.75 pm for the 95% energy content. We present performance and reliability data and discuss the key laser parameters. Improvements in the laser-internal metrology and faster regulation control result in better energy stability and improved overall operation behavior. The design considerations for line narrowing and stable laser operation at high repetition rates are discussed.

  5. Potassium, Na+,K+-pumps and fatigue in rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben; Nielsen, Ole Baekgaard

    2007-10-01

    During contractile activity, skeletal muscles undergo a net loss of cytoplasmic K(+) to the interstitial space. During intense exercise, plasma K(+) in human arterial blood may reach 8 mm, and interstitial K(+) 10-12 mm. This leads to depolarization, loss of excitability and contractile force. However, little is known about the effects of these physiological increases in extracellular K(+) ([K(+)](o)) on contractile endurance. Soleus muscles from 4-week-old rats were mounted on transducers for isometric contractions in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 4-10 mm K(+), and endurance assessed by recording the rate of force decline during continuous stimulation at 60 Hz. Increasing [K(+)](o) from 4 to 8 or 10 mm and equilibrating the muscles for 40 or 20 min augmented the rate of force decline 2.4-fold and 7.2-fold, respectively (P < 0.001). The marked loss of endurance elicited by exposure to 8 or 10 mm K(+) was alleviated or significantly reduced by stimulating the Na(+),K(+)-pumps by intracellular Na(+) loading, the beta(2)-agonist salbutamol, adrenaline, calcitonin gene related peptide, insulin or repeated excitation. In conclusion, excitation-induced increase in [K(+)](o) is an important cause of high-frequency fatigue, and the Na(+),K(+)-pumps are essential for the maintenance of contractile force in the physiological range of [K(+)](o). Recordings of contractile force during continuous stimulation at 8-10 mm K(+) may be used to analyse the effects of agents or conditions influencing the excitability of working isolated muscles.

  6. Kinetics of veratridine action on Na channels of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sutro, JB

    1986-01-01

    Veratridine bath-applied to frog muscle makes inactivation of INa incomplete during a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse and leads to a persistent veratridine-induced Na tail current. During repetitive depolarizations, the size of successive tail currents grows to a plateau and then gradually decreases. When pulsing is stopped, the tail current declines to zero with a time constant of approximately 3 s. Higher rates of stimulation result in a faster build-up of the tail current and a larger maximum value. I propose that veratridine binds only to open channels and, when bound, prevents normal fast inactivation and rapid shutting of the channel on return to rest. Veratridine-modified channels are also subject to a "slow" inactivation during long depolarizations or extended pulse trains. At rest, veratridine unbinds with a time constant of approximately 3 s. Three tests confirm these hypotheses: (a) the time course of the development of veratridine-induced tail currents parallels a running time integral of gNa during the pulse; (b) inactivating prepulses reduce the ability to evoke tails, and the voltage dependence of this reduction parallels the voltage dependence of h infinity; (c) chloramine-T, N-bromoacetamide, and scorpion toxin, agents that decrease inactivation in Na channels, each greatly enhance the tail currents and alter the time course of the appearance of the tails as predicted by the hypothesis. Veratridine-modified channels shut during hyperpolarizations from -90 mV and reopen on repolarization to -90 mV, a process that resembles normal activation gating. Veratridine appears to bind more rapidly during larger depolarizations. PMID:2419478

  7. Effective contractile response to voltage-gated Na+ channels revealed by a channel activator.

    PubMed

    Ho, W-S Vanessa; Davis, Alison J; Chadha, Preet S; Greenwood, Iain A

    2013-04-15

    This study investigated the molecular identity and impact of enhancing voltage-gated Na(+) (Na(V)) channels in the control of vascular tone. In rat isolated mesenteric and femoral arteries mounted for isometric tension recording, the vascular actions of the Na(V) channel activator veratridine were examined. Na(V) channel expression was probed by molecular techniques and immunocytochemistry. In mesenteric arteries, veratridine induced potent contractions (pEC(50) = 5.19 ± 0.20, E(max) = 12.0 ± 2.7 mN), which were inhibited by 1 μM TTX (a blocker of all Na(V) channel isoforms, except Na(V)1.5, Na(V)1.8, and Na(V)1.9), but not by selective blockers of Na(V)1.7 (ProTx-II, 10 nM) or Na(V)1.8 (A-80347, 1 μM) channels. The responses were insensitive to endothelium removal but were partly (~60%) reduced by chemical destruction of sympathetic nerves by 6-hydroxydopamine (2 mM) or antagonism at the α1-adrenoceptor by prazosin (1 μM). KB-R7943, a blocker of the reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (3 μM), inhibited veratridine contractions in the absence or presence of prazosin. T16A(inh)-A01, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel blocker (10 μM), also inhibited the prazosin-resistant contraction to veratridine. Na(V) channel immunoreactivity was detected in freshly isolated mesenteric myocytes, with apparent colocalization with the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Veratridine induced similar contractile effects in the femoral artery, and mRNA transcripts for Na(V)1.2 and Na(V)1.3 channels were evident in both vessel types. We conclude that, in addition to sympathetic nerves, NaV channels are expressed in vascular myocytes, where they are functionally coupled to the reverse mode of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and subsequent activation of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, causing contraction. The TTX-sensitive Na(V)1.2 and Na(V)1.3 channels are likely involved in vascular control.

  8. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: functional significance.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben

    2013-10-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na(+) and lose K(+), leading to a rise in extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (also known as the Na(+),K(+) pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K(+). As a result of their electrogenic action, Na(+),K(+) pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na(+),K(+)-pump function and the capacity of the Na(+),K(+) pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [(3)H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na(+) and K(+) fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na(+) loading or intense excitation, all the Na(+),K(+) pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na(+),K(+)-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na(+),K(+) pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K(+) deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their

  9. Activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase with DRm217 attenuates oxidative stress-induced myocardial cell injury via closing Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/Src/Ros amplifier.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaofei; Xun, Meng; Dou, Xiaojuan; Wu, Litao; Zhang, Fujun; Zheng, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has close relationship with cardiomyocyte death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also plays an important role in cardiac cell damage. It has been proved that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and ROS form a feed-forward amplifier. The aim of this study was to explore whether DRm217, a proved Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase's DR-region specific monoclonal antibody and direct activator, could disrupt Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier and protect cardiac cells from ROS-induced injury. We found that DRm217 protected myocardial cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cardiac cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. DRm217 also alleviated the effect of H2O2 on inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase cell surface expression, and Src phosphorylation. H2O2-treatment increased intracellular ROS, mitochondrial ROS and induced intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. DRm217 closed Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier, alleviated Ca(2+) accumulation and finally inhibited ROS and mitochondrial ROS generation. These novel results may help us to understand the important role of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in oxidative stress and oxidative stress-related disease.

  10. Paramagnetism and improved upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb,Er/NaGdF4 nanocomposites synthesized by a boiling water seed-mediated route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao-Qing; Li, Ao-Ju; Guo, Wei; Tian, Peng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Zhong-Xin; Cao, Yang; Sun, Zhong-Liang

    2016-03-01

    In a route boiling water served as reaction medium, a stoichiometric amount of rare-earth compound and fluoride are put into this system to form α-NaYF4:Yb, Er nuclei. Then prepared sample is heated at elevated temperature to improve the fluorescence intensity, and next a NaGdF4 shell grows on the surface of NaYF4 nuclei. NaYF4:Yb,Er/NaGdF4 core-shell structured upconversion nanoparticles (CSUCNPs) have been successfully synthesized by above route. The use of boiling water decreases the cubic-to-hexagonal phase transition temperature of NaYF4:Yb,Er to 350°C and increases its upconversion (UC) luminescence intensity. A heterogeneous NaGdF4 epitaxially growing on the surface of Ln3+-doped NaYF4 not only improves UC luminescence, but also creates a paramagnetic shell, which can be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The solution of CSUCNPs shows bright green UC fluorescence under the excitation at 980 nm in a power density only about 50 mW·cm-2. A broad spectrum with a dominant resonance at g of about 2 is observed by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of CSUCNPs. Above properties suggest that the obtained CSUCNPs could be potential candidates for dual-mode optical/magnetic bioapplications.

  11. Phase diagram of the LiNO3-NaNO3-NaCl-Sr(NO3)2 salt system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasulov, A. I.; Gasanaliev, A. M.; Mamedova, A. K.; Gamataeva, B. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The phase diagram of the quaternary LiNO3-NaNO3-NaCl-Sr(NO3)2 system is studied by means of differential thermal analysis, and the compositions and crystallization temperatures of nonvariant equilibrium phases are revealed. The temperature dependence of conductivity in eutectic and peritectic salt compositions is investigated.

  12. Ghrelin increases growth hormone production and functional expression of NaV1.1 and Na V1.2 channels in pituitary somatotropes.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno-Méndez, Adasue; Domínguez, Belisario; Rodríguez-Andrade, Araceli; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Cervantes-Acosta, Patricia; Hernández-Beltrán, Antonio; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Felix, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A variety of ion channels are expressed in the plasma membrane of somatotropes within the anterior pituitary gland. Modification of these channels is linked to intracellular Ca2+ levels and therefore to hormone secretion. Previous investigations have shown that the gut-derived orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin and synthetic GH-releasing peptides (GHRPs) stimulate release of growth hormone (GH) and increase the number of functional voltage-gated Ca2+ and Na+ channels in the membrane of clonal GC somatotropes. Here, we reveal that chronic treatment with ghrelin and its synthetic analog GHRP-6 also increases GH release from bovine pituitary somatotropes in culture, and that this action is associated with a significant increase in Na+ macroscopic current. Consistent with this, Na+ current blockade with tetrodotoxin (TTX) abolished the ghrelin- and GHRP-6-induced increase in GH release. Furthermore, semi-quantitative and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed an upregulation in the transcript levels of GH, as well as of NaV1.1 and NaV1.2, two isoforms of TTX-sensitive Na+ channels expressed in somatotropes, after treatment with ghrelin or GHRP-6. These findings improve our knowledge on (i) the cellular mechanisms involved in the control of GH secretion, (ii) the molecular diversity of Na+ channels in pituitary somatotropes, and (iii) the regulation of GH and Na+ channel gene expression by ghrelin and GHRPs.

  13. Changes in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and alpha 3 subunit expression in CNS after administration of Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bersier, María Geraldina; Peña, Clara; Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores

    2011-02-01

    The expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit and synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity were analyzed after administration of ouabain and endobain E, respectively commercial and endogenous Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors. Wistar rats received intracerebroventricularly ouabain or endobain E dissolved in saline solution or Tris-HCl, respectively or the vehicles (controls). Two days later, animals were decapitated, cerebral cortex and hippocampus removed and crude and synaptosomal membrane fractions were isolated. Western blot analysis showed that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit expression increased roughly 40% after administration of 10 or 100 nmoles ouabain in cerebral cortex but remained unaltered in hippocampus. After administration of 10 μl endobain E (1 μl = 28 mg tissue) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit enhanced 130% in cerebral cortex and 103% in hippocampus. The activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in cortical synaptosomal membranes diminished or increased after administration of ouabain or endobain E, respectively. It is concluded that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors modify differentially the expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit and enzyme activity, most likely involving compensatory mechanisms.

  14. Composition and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase in Na2Ti3O7 electrodes for Na-ion batteries: XPS and Auger parameter analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Márquez, Miguel A; Zarrabeitia, Maider; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Eguía-Barrio, Aitor; Rojo, Teófilo; Casas-Cabanas, Montse

    2015-04-15

    Na2Ti3O7 is considered a promising negative electrode for Na-ion batteries; however, poor capacity retention has been reported and the stability of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) could be one of the main actors of this underperformance. The composition and evolution of the SEI in Na2Ti3O7 electrodes is hereby studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To overcome typical XPS limitations in the photoelectron energy assignments, the analysis of the Auger parameter is here proposed for the first time in battery materials characterization. We have found that the electrode/electrolyte interface formed upon discharge, mostly composed by carbonates and semicarbonates (Na2CO3, NaCO3R), fluorides (NaF), chlorides (NaCl) and poly(ethylene oxide)s, is unstable upon electrochemical cycling. Additionally, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies prove the reaction of the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF) binder with sodium. The powerful approach used in this work, namely Auger parameter study, enables us to correctly determine the composition of the electrode surface layer without any interference from surface charging or absolute binding energy calibration effects. As a result, the suitability for Na-ion batteries of binders and electrolytes widely used for Li-ion batteries is questioned here.

  15. NaBC1 is a ubiquitous electrogenic Na+ -coupled borate transporter essential for cellular boron homeostasis and cell growth and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Park, Meeyoung; Li, Qin; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Zeng, Weizong; Muallem, Shmuel

    2004-11-05

    Boron is a vital micronutrient in plants and may be essential for animal growth and development. Whereas the role of boron in the life cycle of plants is well documented, nothing is known about boron homeostasis and function in animal cells. NaBC1, the mammalian homolog of AtBor1, is a borate transporter. In the absence of borate, NaBC1 conducts Na(+) and OH(-) (H(+)), while in the presence of borate, NaBC1 functions as an electrogenic, voltage-regulated, Na(+)-coupled B(OH)(4)(-) transporter. At low concentrations, borate activated the MAPK pathway to stimulate cell growth and proliferation, and at high concentrations, it was toxic. Accordingly, overexpression of NaBC1 shifted both effects of borate to the left, whereas knockdown of NaBC1 halted cell growth and proliferation. These findings may reveal a previously unrecognized role for NaBC1 in borate homeostasis and open the way to better understanding of the many presumed physiological roles of borate in animals.

  16. Probabilistic models to describe the effect of NaNO2 in combination with NaCl on the growth inhibition of Lactobacillus in frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Gwak, Eunji; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Jin-Seok; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic models were developed to describe the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 (0-210 ppm) in combination with NaCl (0-1.75%) on Lactobacillus growth under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Growth (1) or no growth (0) was assessed every 24h as turbid or not turbid, respectively. The growth response data were analyzed by logistic regression to select significant variables (P<0.05) for Lactobacillus growth inhibition, and these variables were used to generate a probabilistic model. The model was then validated with observed data from frankfurters (a model system). NaNO2 and NaCl inhibited (P<0.05) Lactobacillus growth at all temperatures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 increased as the NaCl concentration increased. Validation showed that the performance of the developed model was appropriate. These results indicate that the models developed in this study should be useful for describing the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 in combination with NaCl on Lactobacillus.

  17. Solvation structure of I- and Na+ on the surface of NaI aqueous solution studied by photodetachment spectroscopy in combination with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Makoto; Kaniwa, Keisuke; Hiranuma, Yojiro; Maselli, Olivia; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2011-03-24

    We investigated solvation structures of I(-) and Na(+) on an aqueous solution surface by photodetachment spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. An aqueous solution of NaI was introduced into the vacuum as a continuous liquid flow (liquid beam), and the liquid beam was irradiated with a UV laser pulse. The abundance of electrons emitted by the laser excitation was measured as a function of wavelength (photodetachment spectroscopy). For a concentrated aqueous solution of NaI, we observe an absorption peak at longer wavelengths than the charge-transfer-to-solvent band of I(-) in solution. This feature is assigned to the photoabsorption of I(-) at the surface. This finding indicates that when the concentration of NaI is high (>1.0 M), I(-) exists on the solution surface. The identity of the ion clusters ejected from the liquid beam following selective laser excitation of I(-) on the surface or I(-) inside the solution was revealed by mass spectrometry. The mass spectra show that Na rich clusters are formed when I(-) inside the solution is excited, whereas Na rich clusters are hardly formed by the excitation of surface I(-). These findings lead us to conclude that Na(+) does not exist on the surface of the NaI aqueous solution.

  18. MoNA - The Modular Neutron Array at the NSCL

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, T.; Brown, J.A.; DeYoung, P.; Peaslee, G.F.; Finck, J.E.; Hinnefeld, J.D.; Howes, R.; Kemper, K.W.; Tabor, S.L.; Luther, B.A.; Pancella, P.V.; Rogers, W.F.; Thoennessen, M.

    2003-08-26

    The Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) is a highly efficient large-area neutron detector for the detection of high-energy neutrons to be used in experiments with fast rare isotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The detector is designed for the detection of neutrons between 50 MeV and 250 MeV with an efficiency of up to 70%. This detector was proposed and is being built by a collaboration of ten institutions, including a large number of undergraduate schools.

  19. Phase transitions in antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Filippov, B. N.

    2006-05-01

    A revised derivation scheme of possible magnetic structures in an FCC lattice with the nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions taken into account is proposed. A model of simultaneous magnetic and structural phase transitions of the first order is developed for antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure and with a strong cubic magnetic anisotropy on the base of synthesis of magnetic modified 6-state Potts model and theoretical models of structural phase transitions in cubic crystals. It is shown that the high-temperature diffuse magnetic scattering of neutrons transforms into magnetic Bragg reflections below Néel point.

  20. Subbarrier fusion with aligned /sup 23/Na ions

    SciTech Connect

    Butsch, R.; Jaensch, H.; Kraemer, D.; Moebius, K.h.; Moroz, Z.; Ott, W.; Rusek, K.; Steffens, E.; Suntz, R.; Tungate, G.; and others

    1986-10-20

    Fusion cross sections and second-rank-tensor analyzing powers for fusion have been measured at energies around the fusion barrier for /sup 23/Na+ /sup 48/Ti, /sup 206/Pb with polarized (aligned) projectiles. The data are compared with results from coupled-channels calculations. The energy dependence of the second-rank-tensor analyzing power for fusion is well described for both systems if we take into account coupling to excited states of projectile and target. The same calculations still underpredict the cross section for fusion at subbarrier energies.

  1. Analysis of Cl and Na in Hyperimmune Sera by NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.

    2011-08-01

    The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.

  2. Geodetic satellite observations in North American (solution NA-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Reilly, J. P.; Soler, T.

    1972-01-01

    A new detailed geoidal map with claimed accuracies of plus or minus 2 meters (on land), based on gravimetric and satellite data, was presented. With the new geoid and the orthometric heights given, more reliable height constraints were calculated and applied. The basic purpose of this experiment was to compute the new solution NA9 by defining the origin of the system, from the point of view of error propagation, in the most favorable position applying inner constraints and imposing new weighted height constraints to all of the stations. The major differences with respect to formerly published adjustments are presented.

  3. Superionicity in Na3 PO4 : A molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wei-Guo; Liu, Jianjun; Duan, Chun-Gang; Mei, W. N.; Smith, R. W.; Hardy, J. R.

    2004-08-01

    Fast ionic conduction in solid Na3PO4 is studied by use of molecular dynamics simulation based on the modified Lu -Hardy approach. We obtain reasonable agreement with experiment for the structural transition and diffusion of the sodium ions. All the sodium ions are found to contribute comparably to the high ionic conductivity. The results of the simulation are discussed in terms of the relative magnitude of the two proposed transport mechanisms: percolation and paddle-wheel. It appears to us that the percolation mechanism dominates the sodium diffusion.

  4. New reference electrode for Na/MCI2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1993-12-01

    The use of aluminum as a reference electrode in the neutral and basic chloroaluminate molten salts poses certain problems related to the uncertainty and irreproducibility in the measured electrode potential as well as lack of stability in long-term studies. A new reference electrode based on an insoluble transition metal chloride, e.g., NiCl2 is proposed to address these problems. Ni/NiCl2 forms an electrode of the second kind with high exchange current density and long durability and would be an ideal choice for the electrochemical studies in neutral and basic chloroaluminate melts, including Na/NiCl2 cells.

  5. Spin excitations in the antiferromagnet NaNiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brion, S.; Darie, C.; Holzapfel, M.; Talbayev, D.; Mihály, L.; Simon, F.; Jánossy, A.; Chouteau, G.

    2007-03-01

    In NaNiO2 , Ni3+ ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice of S=1/2 spins. The magnetic order observed below 20K has been described as an A type antiferromagnet with ferromagnetic layers weakly coupled antiferromagnetically. We studied the magnetic excitations with the electron spin resonance for frequencies 1-20cm-1 , in magnetic fields up to 14T . The bulk of the results are interpreted in terms of a phenomenological model involving biaxial anisotropy for the spins: a strong easy-plane term, and a weaker anisotropy within the plane.

  6. Spin Excitations in the Antiferromagnet NaNiO2

    SciTech Connect

    de Brion,S.; Darie, C.; Holzapfel, M.; Talbayev, D.; Mihaly, L.; Simon, F.; Janossy, A.; Chouteau, G.

    2007-01-01

    In NaNiO2 , Ni3+ ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice of S=1/2 spins. The magnetic order observed below 20K has been described as an A type antiferromagnet with ferromagnetic layers weakly coupled antiferromagnetically. We studied the magnetic excitations with the electron spin resonance for frequencies 1 20cm-1 , in magnetic fields up to 14T . The bulk of the results are interpreted in terms of a phenomenological model involving biaxial anisotropy for the spins: a strong easy-plane term, and a weaker anisotropy within the plane

  7. Enhanced Infrared Surveillance Imaging Report for NA-22

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2005-10-04

    The purpose of this report is to describe our work on enhanced infrared (IR) surveillance using speckle imaging for NA-22. Speckle imaging in this context is an image post-processing algorithm that aims to solve the atmospheric blurring problem of imaging through horizontal or slant path turbulence. We will describe the IR imaging systems used in our data collections and show imagery before and after speckle processing. We will also compare IR imagery with visible wavelength imagery of the same target in the same conditions and demonstrate how going to longer wavelengths can be beneficial in the presence of strong turbulence.

  8. Classification of Na channel receptors specific for various scorpion toxins.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, K P; Watt, D D; Lazdunski, M

    1983-04-01

    1. The specific binding to rat brain synaptosomes of a radiolabelled derivative of toxin II from the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus could be prevented by toxins III and IV, but not by toxin V or variants 1-3, from the venom of Centruroides sculpturatus. 2. The specific binding of a similar derivative of toxin II from Androctonus australis Hector was not affected by any of the toxins from Centruroides sculpturatus. 3. There is biochemical evidence for only two distinct classes of Na channel receptors specific for known scorpion toxins.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of Na narrowband wind-temperature lidar systems.

    PubMed

    Papen, G C; Pfenninger, W M; Simonich, D M

    1995-01-20

    The performance and measurement accuracy of Na narrowband wind-temperature lidar systems are characterized. Error budgets are derived that include several effects not previously reported, such as power-dependent spectral characteristics in the frequency reference, magnetic-field-dependent oscillator line strengths (Hanle effect), saturation, and optical pumping. It is shown that the overall system uncertainty is dependent on the power, pulse temporal characteristics, and beam divergence of the laser transmitter. Results indicate that even systems with significant saturation can produce accurate measurements, which implies the prospect of continuous daytime wind and temperature measurements on semidiurnal and diurnal time periods.

  10. The effect of antidiuretic hormone on Na movement across frog skin

    PubMed Central

    Cereijido, M.; Rotunno, Catalina A.

    1971-01-01

    1. The effect of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on the movement and distribution of Na was studied. This was done using three different approaches: (a) the measurement of Na and 22Na in slices of epithelium of skins which were exposed to Ringer of varied composition containing 22Na, (b) the measurement of the influx of Na from the outer to the inner bathing solution with 22Na added to the outside, and (c) the use of a recently introduced technique which permits the direct evaluation of the flux from the outer solution → epithelium, (JOT), i.e. the flux across the barrier which is generally regarded as the site of ADH activity. 2. ADH increased the influx from the outer to the inner bathing solution of Na (50%) not only when the concentration of Na on the outside was 115 mM (i.e. higher than in the epithelium) but even when the concentration was 1 mM (67%). 3. When the skin was bathed with 1mM-Na Ringer on the outside, ADH increased the unidirectional Na flux JOT by 56% (Rana pipiens) and 71% (Leptodactylus ocellatus). When the concentration was 115 mM a small increase (17%) was observed in paired skins of R. pipiens. Under this condition no change was observed in L. ocellatus. 4. The amount of epithelial sodium which is labelled by 22Na added to the outside was taken to reflect the amount of Na involved in Na transport across the epithelium. Depending on whether the concentration of Na on the outside was high (115 mM) or low (1 mM), ADH produced an increase, or a decrease, of both the total Na content and the amount of 22Na exchanged. 5. When the concentration of Na on the outside was low, ADH increased the total influx and JOT in spite of the fact that it lowers the total Na content and does not affect the exchangeable pool of Na. This observation is inconsistent with the view that the effect of ADH is due to the fact that the increased permeability of the outer barrier allows more Na into the cell, and that the resulting increase of Na concentration in the

  11. NaV3O8 nanosheet@polypyrrole core-shell composites with good electrochemical performance as cathodes for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hongyan; Liu, Yongchang; Shang, Minghui; Lu, Tianyu; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang

    2015-05-01

    Novel NaV3O8 nanosheet@polypyrrole core-shell composites have been successfully prepared for the first time via a chemical oxidative polymerization method. Based on the morphological and microstructural characterization, it was found that polypyrrole (PPy) was uniformly wrapped on the surfaces of the NaV3O8 nanosheets. When used as a cathode for Na-ion batteries, the as-synthesized NaV3O8@10% PPy composite showed significantly improved cycling performance (with a discharge capacity of 99 mA h g-1 after 60 cycles at 80 mA g-1) and better rate capacity (with a discharge capacity of 63 mA h g-1 at a high current density of 640 mA g-1) than pristine NaV3O8 nanosheets. The greatly enhanced performance benefits from the unique core-shell structure, where the PPy coating not only prevents the pulverization and aggregation of the lamellar NaV3O8 nanosheets during cycling, which can improve the cycling stability, but also enhances the electrical conductivity of the composite, which can facilitate Na+ ion diffusion.Novel NaV3O8 nanosheet@polypyrrole core-shell composites have been successfully prepared for the first time via a chemical oxidative polymerization method. Based on the morphological and microstructural characterization, it was found that polypyrrole (PPy) was uniformly wrapped on the surfaces of the NaV3O8 nanosheets. When used as a cathode for Na-ion batteries, the as-synthesized NaV3O8@10% PPy composite showed significantly improved cycling performance (with a discharge capacity of 99 mA h g-1 after 60 cycles at 80 mA g-1) and better rate capacity (with a discharge capacity of 63 mA h g-1 at a high current density of 640 mA g-1) than pristine NaV3O8 nanosheets. The greatly enhanced performance benefits from the unique core-shell structure, where the PPy coating not only prevents the pulverization and aggregation of the lamellar NaV3O8 nanosheets during cycling, which can improve the cycling stability, but also enhances the electrical conductivity of the

  12. Precursor Routes to Complex Ternary Intermetallics: Single-Crystal and Microcrystalline Preparation of Clathrate-I Na8Al8Si38 from NaSi + NaAlSi.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongkwan; Chai, Ping; Beekman, Matt; Zeng, Xiaoyu; Tritt, Terry M; Nolas, George S

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of the ternary clathrate-I Na8Al8Si38 were synthesized by kinetically controlled thermal decomposition (KCTD), and microcrystalline Na8Al8Si38 was synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using a NaSi + NaAlSi mixture as the precursor. Na8AlxSi46-x compositions with x ≤ 8 were also synthesized by SPS from precursor mixtures of different ratios. The crystal structure of Na8Al8Si38 was investigated using both Rietveld and single-crystal refinements. Temperature-dependent transport and UV/vis measurements were employed in the characterization of Na8Al8Si38, with diffuse-reflectance measurement indicating an indirect optical gap of 0.64 eV. Our results indicate that, when more than one precursor is used, both SPS and KCTD are effective methods for the synthesis of multinary inorganic phases that are not easily accessible by traditional solid-state synthesis or crystal growth techniques.

  13. Energetic aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion battery based on Na2 CuFe(CN)6 -NaTi2 (PO4 )3 intercalation chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Yong; Sun, Meng-Ying; Shen, Yi-Fei; Qian, Jiang-Feng; Cao, Yu-Liang; Ai, Xin-Ping; Yang, Han-Xi

    2014-02-01

    Aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion batteries have the potential to meet growing demand for grid-scale electric energy storage because of the widespread availability and low cost of sodium resources. In this study, we synthesized a Na-rich copper hexacyanoferrate(II) Na2 CuFe(CN)6 as a high potential cathode and used NaTi2 (PO4 )3 as a Na-deficient anode to assemble an aqueous sodium ion battery. This battery works very well with a high average discharge voltage of 1.4 V, a specific energy of 48 Wh kg(-1) , and an excellent high-rate cycle stability with approximately 90 % capacity retention over 1000 cycles, achieving a new record in the electrochemical performance of aqueous Na-ion batteries. Moreover, all the anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are low cost and naturally abundant and are affordable for widespread applications.

  14. 20 Ne(p, γ)22Na and 22Ne(p, γ)23Na Reaction Study with 5U-4 St. Ana Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Stephanie; Goerres, Joachim; Jung, Hyo Soon; Robertson, Dan; Setoodehnia, Kiana; Stech, Ed; Wiescher, Michael; Kontos, Antonios

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen burning can proceed via the NeNa cycle in stars whose stellar temperature is greater than 0.05GK. The NeNa cycle is important for the nucleosynthesis of Ne, Na, and Mg isotopes. Direct capture and the high energy tail of a subthreshold resonance dominate the stellar reaction rate for 20Ne(p, γ)21Na. The strength of the non-resonant contributions were measured relative to the resonance at 1.17 MeV. Due to conflicting results, we have remeasured the strength of this resonance relative to the 1.28 MeV resonance in 22Ne(p, γ)23Na using implanted neon targets. Study of this reaction has continued using the newly commissioned 5U-4 St. Ana Accelerator and re-furbished Rhinoceros Gas Target.

  15. NapA Na(+)/H(+) Antiporter as a Sodium Extrusion System Supplementary to the Vacuolar Na(+)-ATPase in Enterococcus hirae.

    PubMed

    Kawano, M; Igarashi, K; Solioz, M; Kakinuma, Y

    1998-01-01

    Enterococcus hirae has two sodium extrusion systems: the NapA Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and the vacuolar Na(+)-ATPase. We found that a NapA mutant, WD4, which is deficient in Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity, grew well in the pH range of 6 to 10 up to 200 mM sodium. This was due to active, potential-independent sodium extrusion by the Na(+)-ATPase, which was induced under these conditions. The NapA Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is thus not a prerequisite for growth of E. hirae in the presence of sodium, but plays a supplementary role in sodium extrusion at acidic pH.

  16. Experimental study of the astrophysically important 23Na(α ,p )26Mg and 23Na(α ,n )26Al reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Dickerson, C.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-12-01

    The 23Na(α ,p )26Mg and 23Na(α ,n )26Al reactions are important for our understanding of the 26Al abundance in massive stars. The aim of this work is to report on a direct and simultaneous measurement of these astrophysically important reactions using an active target system. The reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using 4He as the active target gas in the detector. We measured the excitation functions in the energy range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We have found that the cross sections of the 23Na(α ,p )26Mg and the 23Na(α ,n )26Al reactions are in good agreement with previous experiments and with statistical-model calculations. The astrophysical reaction rate of the 23Na(α ,n )26Al reaction has been reevaluated and it was found to be larger than the recommended rate.

  17. Results from Boiling Temperature Measurements for Saturated Solutions in the Systems NaCl + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O, NaNO3 + KNO3 + H2O, and NaCl + KNO3 + H2O, and Dry Out Temperatures for NaCl + NaNO3 + KNO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A

    2005-11-29

    Boiling temperature measurements have been made for saturated ternary solutions of NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O and NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O at three selected salt ratios and for NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O over the full composition range. The maximum boiling temperature found for the NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system is 164.7 {+-} 0.6 C, and the composition is estimated to occur at x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) {approx} 0.25. Experiments were also performed for the five component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O mixtures with the molar ratio of NaCl:NaNO{sub 3}:KNO{sub 3} held essentially constant at 1:0.9780:1.1468 as the solute mole fraction of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), was varied between 0 and 0.25. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system forms low melting mixtures and thus boiling temperatures for saturated were not determined. Instead, the temperatures corresponding to the cessation of boiling (i.e., dry out temperatures) of these liquid mixtures were determined. These dry out temperatures range from {approx} 300 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0 to {ge} 400 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0.20 and 0.25. The investigated mixture compositions correspond to some of the major mineral assemblages that are predicted to control the deliquescence relative humidity of salts formed by leaching dust samples from the proposed nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  18. Co-intercalation of Mg(2+) and Na(+) in Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 as a High-Voltage Cathode for Magnesium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Youngjin; Arumugam, Durairaj; Woo, Sang Won; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-04-06

    Thanks to the advantages of low cost and good safety, magnesium metal batteries get the limelight as substituent for lithium ion batteries. However, the energy density of state-of-the-art magnesium batteries is not high enough because of their low operating potential; thus, it is necessary to improve the energy density by developing new high-voltage cathode materials. In this study, nanosized Berlin green Fe2(CN)6 and Prussian blue Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 are compared as high-voltage cathode materials for magnesium batteries. Interestingly, while Mg(2+) ions cannot be intercalated in Fe2(CN)6, Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 shows reversible intercalation and deintercalation of Mg(2+) ions, although they have the same crystal structure except for the presence of Na(+) ions. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that Mg(2+) ions are more stable in Na(+)-containing Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 than in Na(+)-free Fe2(CN)6, indicating Na(+) ions in Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 plays a crucial role in stabilizing Mg(2+) ions. Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 delivers reversible capacity of approximately 70 mA h g(-1) at 3.0 V vs Mg/Mg(2+) and shows stable cycle performance over 35 cycles. Therefore, Prussian blue analogues are promising structures for high-voltage cathode materials in Mg batteries. Furthermore, this co-intercalation effect suggests new avenues for the development of cathode materials in hybrid magnesium batteries that use both Mg(2+) and Na(+) ions as charge carriers.

  19. Mathematical Model for Predicting the Growth Probability of Staphylococcus aureus in Combinations of NaCl and NaNO2 under Aerobic or Evacuated Storage Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Gwak, Eunji; Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Oh, Nam Su; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the growth patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in combinations of NaCl and NaNO2, using a probabilistic model. A mixture of S. aureus strains (NCCP10826, ATCC13565, ATCC14458, ATCC23235, and ATCC27664) was inoculated into nutrient broth plus NaCl (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%) and NaNO2 (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 ppm). The samples were then incubated at 4, 7, 10, 12 and 15℃ for up to 60 d under aerobic or vacuum conditions. Growth responses [growth (1) or no growth (0)] were then determined every 24 h by turbidity, and analyzed to select significant parameters (p<0.05) by a stepwise selection method, resulting in a probabilistic model. The developed models were then validated with observed growth responses. S. aureus growth was observed only under aerobic storage at 10-15℃. At 10-15℃, NaCl and NaNO2 did not inhibit S. aureus growth at less than 1.25% NaCl. Concentration dependency was observed for NaCl at more than 1.25%, but not for NaNO2. The concordance percentage between observed and predicted growth data was approximately 93.86%. This result indicates that S. aureus growth can be inhibited in vacuum packaging and even aerobic storage below 10℃. Furthermore, NaNO2 does not effectively inhibit S. aureus growth. PMID:28115886

  20. Growth inhibition of human melanoma tumor cells by the combination of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) and substituted dextrans and one NaPA-dextran conjugate.

    PubMed

    Gervelas, C; Avramoglou, T; Crépin, M; Jozefonvicz, J

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the cytostatic effects of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) in association with several substituted dextrans on human tumor melanoma 1205LU cells. We show that NaPA alone inhibits the growth of these cells (IC50 = 3.9 mM) while a weak inhibitory effect appears at a concentration of 37 microM (10 microg/ml) for a dextran methyl carboxylate benzylamide (LS17-DMCB). The precursors of LS17-DMCB [T40 Dextran and carboxymethyl dextran (LS17-DMC)] did not affect the growth of 1205LU cells. To potentiate the inhibitory activity of NaPA at low concentrations (below 5.6 mM), we have tested NaPA and LS17-DMCB in physical mixture (association) or linked together covalently (this conjugate is termed 'LS17-NaPaC'). We have observed an increase of the 1205LU cell growth inhibition effect with NaPA in association (IC50 1.8 mM). For a concentration of 5 mM of NaPA (free in the case of association or linked in the case of conjugate), the association with dextran derivative exhibits a 4.6-fold higher efficacy than with NaPA alone (9 versus 41% surviving fraction), while the conjugate is 1.3-fold smaller (52% growth inhibition). By performing isobologram analysis of the IC50 data, we have shown a synergistic effect for a particular molar ratio of NaPA and LS17-DMCB (NaPA:LS17-DMCB = 0.35).

  1. Growth mechanism and magnetic and electrochemical properties of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods as cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, S.; Oz, E.; Altin, E.; Altin, S.; Bayri, A.; Kaya, P.; Turan, S.; Avci, S.

    2015-07-15

    Nanorods of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} are a promising cathode material for Na-ion batteries due to their large surface area and single crystalline structure. We report the growth mechanism of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods via solid state synthesis and their physical properties. The structure and the morphology of the Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and tunneling electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The growth mechanism of the rods is investigated and the effects of vapor pressure and partial melting of Na-rich regions are discussed. The magnetic measurements show an antiferromagnetic phase transition at 25 K and the μ{sub eff} is determined as 3.41 and 3.24 μ{sub B} from the χ–T curve and theoretical calculation, respectively. The electronic configuration and spin state of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} are discussed in detail. The electrochemical properties of the cell fabricated using the nanorods are investigated and the peaks in the voltammogram are attributed to the diffusion of Na ions from different sites. Na intercalation process is explained by one and two Margules and van Laar models. - Highlights: • We synthesized Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods via a simple solid state reaction technique. • Our studies show that excess Na plays a crucial role in the nanorod formation. • Magnetization measurements show that Mn{sup 3+} ions are in LS and HS states. • The electrochemical properties of the cell fabricated using the nanorods are investigated. • Na intercalation process is explained by one and two Margules and van Laar models.

  2. A new diabatic representation of the coupled potential energy surfaces for Na(3p P-2) + H2 yields Na(3s S-2) + H2 or NaH + H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halvick, Philippe; Truhlar, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    A diabatic representation is presented of the coupled potential-energy surfaces for Na(3p P-2) + H2 yields Na (3s S-2) + H2 or NaH + H. The representation is designed to yield, upon diagonalization, realistic values for the two lowest energy adiabatic states at both asymptotes of the chemical reaction as well as near the conical intersection in the three-body interaction region. It is economical to evaluate and portable. It is suitable for dynamics calculations on both the quenching process and the electronically nonadiabatic chemical reaction.

  3. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10−3 S cm−1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles in NaA zeolite cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, S. K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Sudarsan, V.; Salunke, H. G.; Bhargava, S. C.

    2013-07-01

    Zeolite NaA samples with varying concentration of Fe3+ ions have been prepared by wet chemical method. Based on powder X-ray diffraction, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and Fe3+ EPR investigations, the formation of nano-sized ferric oxide particles inside the larger α-cages of zeolite NaA has been established. Both Mössbauer effect and magnetization measurements carried out down to 4.5 K established the superparamagnetic behaviour of these Fe2O3 particles with a blocking temperature of ≈20 K, where the magnetization values showed deviation for the zero field cooled and field cooled samples and the appearance of a very narrow magnetic hysteresis loop below this temperature. For all Fe3+ containing samples the room temperature Mössbauer spectrum is a broad quadrupole doublet with chemical shift, δ ≈ 0.33 mm/s and quadrupole splitting, ΔEq ≈ 0.68 mm/s. Variable temperature 57Fe Mössbauer effect measurements exhibited magnetic features below the blocking temperature and at 4.5 K, the observed spectrum is a broad magnetic sextet characterized by an internal hyperfine field value of ≈504 kOe along with a very weak central superparamagnetic quadrupole doublet.

  5. Successive orbital ordering transitions in NaVO_2

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczuk, Tomasz W; Mcqueen, T; Stephens, P W; Huang, Q; Ronning, Filip; Cava, R

    2008-01-01

    Temperature-dependent dc susceptibility, heat capacity, and x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements on powder samples of the layered triangular-lattice material NaY02 reveal two successive phase transitions. At high temperature the structure is rhomobohedral, with all six inplane V-V distances equivalent. At T = 98K, the system undergoes a second order phase transition to a monoclinic intermediate temperature phase in which the in-plane Y -Y distances separate into four short and two long bonds, corresponding to orbital ordering of one electron per y3+. Below T 93K, there is a first order phase transition to a low temperature monoclinic phase, in which there are four long and two short in-plane Y -Y distances, consistent with orbital ordering of two electrons per y 3+ on a triangular lattice. Long range magnetic ordering of 0.98(2),uB per y 3 + (3d2) sets in at the T 93K structural transition. The low temperature structure ofNa Y02 displays orbital ordering that, although predicted by first principle calculations, has not previously been observed in this class of materials.

  6. MINOS Calibration and NA49 Hadronic Production Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, Robert James

    2003-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is presented. MINOS is a long-baseline experiment with two detectors situated in North America. The near detector is based at the emission point of the NuMI beam at Fermilab, Chicago, the far detector is 735 km downstream in a disused iron mine in Soudan, Minnesota. A third detector, the calibration detector, is used to cross-calibrate these detectors by sampling different particle beams at CERN. A detailed description of the design and construction of the light-injection calibration system is included. Also presented are experimental investigations into proton-carbon collisions at 158 GeV/c carried out with the NA49 experiment at CERN. The NA49 experiment is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) based experiment situated at CERN's North Area. It is a well established experiment with well known characteristics. The data gained from this investigation are to be used to parameterize various hadronic production processes in accelerator and atmospheric neutrino production. These hadronic production parameters will be used to improve the neutrino generation models used in calculating the neutrino oscillation parameters in MINOS.

  7. Correction of the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome annotation.

    PubMed

    Ely, Bert; Scott, LaTia Etheredge

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial genome annotations are accumulating rapidly in the GenBank database and the use of automated annotation technologies to create these annotations has become the norm. However, these automated methods commonly result in a small, but significant percentage of genome annotation errors. To improve accuracy and reliability, we analyzed the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome utilizing computer programs Artemis and MICheck to manually examine the third codon position GC content, alignment to a third codon position GC frame plot peak, and matches in the GenBank database. We identified 11 new genes, modified the start site of 113 genes, and changed the reading frame of 38 genes that had been incorrectly annotated. Furthermore, our manual method of identifying protein-coding genes allowed us to remove 112 non-coding regions that had been designated as coding regions. The improved NA1000 genome annotation resulted in a reduction in the use of rare codons since noncoding regions with atypical codon usage were removed from the annotation and 49 new coding regions were added to the annotation. Thus, a more accurate codon usage table was generated as well. These results demonstrate that a comparison of the location of peaks third codon position GC content to the location of protein coding regions could be used to verify the annotation of any genome that has a GC content that is greater than 60%.

  8. The Kaon identification system of the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, E.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS is to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare decay with 10% accuracy. This can be achieved by detecting about 100 Standard Model events with 10% background in 2 - 3 years of data taking. NA62 is exposed to a 750 MHz high-energy unseparated charged hadron beam, with a 6% kaons component, and uses kaon decay-in-flight technique. Precise timing matching of the incident kaon and of the downstream charged track is essential to reject accidental coincidences when working in such a high rate environment. This is achieved by the kaon tagging system KTAG, which identifies kaons with an efficiency higher than 95% and provides precise time information with a resolution better than 100 ps. KTAG re-uses the Cherenkov radiator and optics of a CEDAR, a ring-focusing Cherenkov detector designed for MHz beam intensity in the 1970s. To reach the required performance, KTAG is equipped with new photon detectors, electronics readout, mechanics, cooling and safety systems.

  9. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10‑3 S cm‑1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  10. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhi-Yong; Su, Yi-Ji; Teng, Nian-Jun; Chen, Su-Mei; Sun, Hai-Nan; Li, Chu-Ling; Chen, Fa-Di

    2013-01-01

    Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance. PMID:24235883

  11. Regulation of Cardiac Remodeling by Cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Wu, Jian; Kennedy, David J

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling occurs after cardiac pressure/volume overload or myocardial injury during the development of heart failure and is a determinant of heart failure. Preventing or reversing remodeling is a goal of heart failure therapy. Human cardiomyocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has multiple α isoforms (1-3). The expression of the α subunit of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is often altered in hypertrophic and failing hearts. The mechanisms are unclear. There are limited data from human cardiomyocytes. Abundant evidences from rodents show that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase regulates cardiac contractility, cell signaling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The α1 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the ubiquitous isoform and possesses both pumping and signaling functions. The α2 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase regulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, contractility and pathological hypertrophy. The α3 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase may also be a target for cardiac hypertrophy. Restoration of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression may be an effective approach for prevention of cardiac remodeling. In this article, we will overview: (1) the distribution and function of isoform specific Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the cardiomyocytes. (2) the role of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the regulation of cell signaling, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Selective targeting of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoform may offer a new target for the prevention of cardiac remodeling.

  12. Intracellular Na+ modulates the cAMP-dependent regulation of ion channels in the heart.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R D; Jurevicius, J A; Hume, J R

    1991-01-01

    The cAMP-dependent regulation of ion channels was studied by using the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp technique. In isolated cardiac ventricular myocytes, the beta-adrenergically regulated Cl- current (ICl) exhibited an unusual dependence on Na+, such that replacement of extracellular Na+ with compounds such as tetramethylammonium, choline, Tris, or N-methyl-D-glucamine resulted in a reduction in current amplitude without changing the reversal potential. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with tetramethylammonium also reduced the magnitude of the beta-adrenergically enhanced Ca2+ current and delayed rectifier K+ current, suggesting that removal of Na+ was affecting the cAMP pathway that regulates all three currents. Replacement of extracellular Na+ also reduced ICl that was stimulated by (i) direct activation of adenylate cyclase with forskolin, (ii) inhibition of phosphodiesterase with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, (iii) exposure to the membrane-permeable cAMP derivative 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, or (iv) direct phosphorylation of the channel with protein kinase A catalytic subunit. This suggests that the Na+ dependence is at a point beyond the activation of protein kinase A. The Na+ dependence of ICl regulation could not be explained by changes in intracellular Ca2+. However, the sensitivity of the ICl to changes in extracellular Na+ depended significantly on the intracellular Na+ concentration, suggesting that intracellular Na+ plays an important role in the cAMP-dependent regulation of ion channels. Images PMID:1714581

  13. Cholinergic stimulation of the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase as revealed by microphysiometry.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D L; Olson, J C; Parce, J W; Owicki, J C

    1993-01-01

    The activation of a wide range of cellular receptors has been detected previously using a novel instrument, the microphysiometer. In this study microphysiometry was used to monitor the basal and cholinergic-stimulated activity of the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (the Na+/K+ pump) in the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671. Manipulations of Na+/K+ ATPase activity with ouabain or removal of extracellular K+ revealed that this ion pump was responsible for 8.8 +/- 0.7% of the total cellular energy utilization by those cells as monitored by the production of acid metabolites. Activation of the pump after a period of inhibition transiently increased the acidification rate above baseline, corresponding to increases in intracellular [Na+] ([Na+]i) occurring while the pump was off. The amplitude of this transient was a function of the total [Na+]i excursion in the absence of pump activity, which in turn depended on the duration of pump inhibition and the Na+ influx rate. Manipulations of the mode of energy metabolism in these cells by changes of the carbon substrate and use of metabolic inhibitors revealed that, unlike some other cells studied, the Na+/K+ ATPase in TE671 cells does not depend on any one mode of metabolism for its adenosine triphosphate source. Stimulation of cholinergic receptors in these cells with carbachol activated the Na+/K+ ATPase via an increase in [Na+]i rather than a direct activation of the ATPase. PMID:8386019

  14. Regulation of Cardiac Remodeling by Cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijun; Wu, Jian; Kennedy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling occurs after cardiac pressure/volume overload or myocardial injury during the development of heart failure and is a determinant of heart failure. Preventing or reversing remodeling is a goal of heart failure therapy. Human cardiomyocyte Na+/K+-ATPase has multiple α isoforms (1–3). The expression of the α subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase is often altered in hypertrophic and failing hearts. The mechanisms are unclear. There are limited data from human cardiomyocytes. Abundant evidences from rodents show that Na+/K+-ATPase regulates cardiac contractility, cell signaling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The α1 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase is the ubiquitous isoform and possesses both pumping and signaling functions. The α2 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase regulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling, contractility and pathological hypertrophy. The α3 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase may also be a target for cardiac hypertrophy. Restoration of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase expression may be an effective approach for prevention of cardiac remodeling. In this article, we will overview: (1) the distribution and function of isoform specific Na+/K+-ATPase in the cardiomyocytes. (2) the role of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of cell signaling, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Selective targeting of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase isoform may offer a new target for the prevention of cardiac remodeling. PMID:27667975

  15. Alpha adrenergic modulation of the Na/sup +/ pump of canine vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Navran, S.S.; Adair, S.E.; Allen, J.C.; Seidel, C.L.

    1986-03-01

    Some vasoactive agents, eg. beta adrenergic agonists and forskolin, stimulate the Na/sup 7/ pump by a cAMP- dependent mechanism. The authors have now demonstrated that phenylephrine (PE) stimulates the Na/sup 7/ pump in intact blood vessels as quantitated by an increased ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake. The stimulation is dose-dependent (ED/sub 50/, 3 x 10/sup -6/M) and blocked by phentolamine (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -7/M), prazosin (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -8/M) yohimbine (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -6/M) or elevated intracellular Na/sup +/. These data suggest that the Na/sup +/ pump stimulation is mediated through alpha/sub 1/ receptors which produce an influx of extracellular Na/sup +/. In vascular smooth muscle cell cultures PE stimulates the Na/sup +/ pump, but only when cells have been deprived of fetal calf serum (FCS). Since FCS is known to stimulate Na/sup +/influx, in the continuous presence of FCS, these cells may already be Na/sup +/-loaded and therefore refractory to further stimulation by alpha-adrenergic agents. Unlike those vasorelaxants whose mechanism involves stimulation of the Na/sup +/ pump, alpha adrenergic agents are vasoconstrictors and therefore the role of Na/sup +/ pump stimulation in this case may be as a mechanism of feedback inhibition of contractility.

  16. Formation of titanate nanostructures under different NaOH concentration and their application in wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiquan; Cao Yongge; Deng Zhonghua; Tong Hao

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the concentration of NaOH on the formation and transformation of various titanate nanostructures were studied. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. Nanotubes can only be obtained under moderate NaOH conditions, and should transform into nanowires with prolonged hydrothermal treatment, and their formation rate is accelerated by increasing NaOH concentration. Low concentration of NaOH results in the direct formation of nanowires, while extra high concentration of NaOH leads to the formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Adsorption and photocatalysis studies show that titanate nanowires and nanotubes might be potential adsorbents for the removal of both heavy metal ions and dyes and photocatalysts for the removal of dyes from wastewater. -- Graphical abstract: The morphologies of the titanates depend deeply on the concentration of NaOH. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. The application of these titanate nanostructures in the wastewater treatment was studied. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Effect of NaOH concentration on the structures of various titanates was reported. {yields} Three different formation mechanisms were presented with increasing NaOH concentration. {yields} Various titanates were used as adsorbents/photocatalysts in wastewater treatment.

  17. Development of improved materials for environmental applications: nanocrystalline NaY zeolites.

    PubMed

    Song, Weiguo; Li, Gonghu; Grassian, Vicki H; Larsen, Sarah C

    2005-03-01

    Two nanocrystalline NaY samples were synthesized with Si/Al ratios of 1.8 and crystal sizes of 23 and 50 nm, respectively. The synthesized NaY zeolites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, silicon solid-state magic angle spinning NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. A commercial NaY sample was analogously characterized for comparison with the synthesized nanocrystalline NaY. FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine was used to elucidate the adsorption sites on the different NaY samples. More Brønsted acid sites and more silanol sites were detected on the nanocrystalline NaY zeolites, relative to the commercial NaY. The nanocrystalline NaY exhibited increased adsorption capacities for representative pollutant molecules, such as toluene (approximately 10%) and nitrogen dioxide (approximately 30%), relative to commercial NaY. Functionalization of nanocrystalline NaY was examined as a method for tailoring the properties of nanocrystalline zeolites for specific environmental applications through the control of zeolite properties, such as hydrophobicity.

  18. Linking salinity stress tolerance with tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in wheat roots

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Honghong; Shabala, Lana; Liu, Xiaohui; Azzarello, Elisa; Zhou, Meixue; Pandolfi, Camilla; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Bose, Jayakumar; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress tolerance is a physiologically complex trait that is conferred by the large array of interacting mechanisms. Among these, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has always been considered as one of the key components differentiating between sensitive and tolerant species and genotypes. However, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has been rarely considered in the context of the tissue-specific expression and regulation of appropriate transporters contributing to Na+ removal from the cytosol. In this work, six bread wheat varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance (three tolerant and three sensitive) were used to understand the essentiality of vacuolar Na+ sequestration between functionally different root tissues, and link it with the overall salinity stress tolerance in this species. Roots of 4-day old wheat seedlings were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 3 days, and then Na+ distribution between cytosol and vacuole was quantified by CoroNa Green fluorescent dye imaging. Our major observations were as follows: (1) salinity stress tolerance correlated positively with vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability in the mature root zone but not in the root apex; (2) contrary to expectations, cytosolic Na+ levels in root meristem were significantly higher in salt tolerant than sensitive group, while vacuolar Na+ levels showed an opposite trend. These results are interpreted as meristem cells playing a role of the “salt sensor;” (3) no significant difference in the vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability was found between sensitive and tolerant groups in either transition or elongation zones; (4) the overall Na+ accumulation was highest in the elongation zone, suggesting its role in osmotic adjustment and turgor maintenance required to drive root expansion growth. Overall, the reported results suggest high tissue-specificity of Na+ uptake, signaling, and sequestration in wheat roots. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed

  19. The role of cAMP-mediated intracellular signaling in regulating Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kumai, Yusuke; Kwong, Raymond W. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the role of cAMP in stimulating Na+ uptake in larval zebrafish was investigated. Treating larvae at 4 days postfertilization (dpf) with 10 μM forskolin or 1 μM 8-bromo cAMP significantly increased Na+ uptake by three-fold and twofold, respectively. The cAMP-dependent stimulation of Na+ uptake was probably unrelated to protein trafficking via microtubules because pretreatment with 200 μM colchicine or 30 μM nocodazole did not attenuate the magnitude of the response. Na+ uptake was stimulated markedly following acute (2 h) exposure to acidic water. The acid-induced increase in Na+ uptake was accompanied by a twofold elevation in whole body cAMP levels and attenuated by inhibiting PKA with 10 μM H-89. Knockdown of Na+-H+ exchanger 3b (NHE3b) attenuated, but did not abolish, the stimulation of Na+ uptake during forskolin treatment. In glial cell missing 2 morphants, in which the role of NHE3b in Na+ uptake is diminished and the Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) becomes the predominant route of Na+ entry, forskolin treatment continued to increase Na+ uptake. These data suggest that at least NHE3b and NCC are targeted by cAMP in zebrafish larvae. Staining of larvae with fluorescent forskolin and propranolol revealed the presence of transmembrane adenylyl cyclase within multiple subtypes of ionocytes expressing β-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, results of the present study demonstrate that cAMP-mediated intracellular signaling may regulate multiple Na+ transporters and plays an important role in regulating Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae during acute exposure to an acidic environment. PMID:24259461

  20. Characterization of Na+ uptake in the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius (Baird and Girard)

    PubMed Central

    Brix, Kevin V.; Grosell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study provided an initial characterization of Na+ uptake in saline freshwater by the endangered pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This species occurs only in several saline water systems in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, where salinity is largely controlled by water-management practices. Consequently, understanding the osmoregulatory capacity of this species is important for their conservation. The lower acclimation limit of C. macularius in freshwater was found to be 2 mM Na+. Fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na+ displayed similar Na+ uptake kinetics, with Km values of 4321 and 3672 μM and Vmax values of 4771 and 3602 nmol g−1 h−1, respectively. A series of experiments using pharmacological inhibitors indicated that Na+ uptake in C. macularius was not sensitive to bumetanide, metolazone, or phenamil. These results indicate the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter, Na+–Cl− cotransporter, and the Na+ channel–H+-ATPase system are likely not to be involved in Na+ uptake at the apical membrane of fish gill ionocytes in fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na+. However, Na+ uptake was sensitive to 1 × 10−3 M amiloride (not 1 × 10−4 or 1 × 10−5 M), 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA), and ethoxzolamide. These data suggest that C. macularius relies on a low-affinity Na+–H+ exchanger for apical Na+ uptake and that H+ ions generated via carbonic anhydrase-mediated CO2 hydration are important for the function of this protein. PMID:27293589

  1. Characterization of Na(+) uptake in the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius (Baird and Girard).

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study provided an initial characterization of Na(+) uptake in saline freshwater by the endangered pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This species occurs only in several saline water systems in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, where salinity is largely controlled by water-management practices. Consequently, understanding the osmoregulatory capacity of this species is important for their conservation. The lower acclimation limit of C. macularius in freshwater was found to be 2 mM Na(+). Fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na(+) displayed similar Na(+) uptake kinetics, with K m values of 4321 and 3672 μM and V max values of 4771 and 3602 nmol g(-1) h(-1), respectively. A series of experiments using pharmacological inhibitors indicated that Na(+) uptake in C. macularius was not sensitive to bumetanide, metolazone, or phenamil. These results indicate the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter, Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, and the Na(+) channel-H(+)-ATPase system are likely not to be involved in Na(+) uptake at the apical membrane of fish gill ionocytes in fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na(+). However, Na(+) uptake was sensitive to 1 × 10(-3) M amiloride (not 1 × 10(-4) or 1 × 10(-5) M), 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA), and ethoxzolamide. These data suggest that C. macularius relies on a low-affinity Na(+)-H(+) exchanger for apical Na(+) uptake and that H(+) ions generated via carbonic anhydrase-mediated CO2 hydration are important for the function of this protein.

  2. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  3. Differential regulation of the renal sodium-phosphate cotransporters NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIc, and PiT-2 in dietary potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Takahashi, Hideaki; Giral-Arnal, Hector; Wang, Xiaoxin; Jiang, Tao; Verlander, Jill W; Wilson, Paul; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Sutherland, Eileen; Caldas, Yupanqui; Blaine, Judith T; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Barry, Nicholas P; Levi, Moshe

    2009-08-01

    Dietary potassium (K) deficiency is accompanied by phosphaturia and decreased renal brush border membrane (BBM) vesicle sodium (Na)-dependent phosphate (P(i)) transport activity. Our laboratory previously showed that K deficiency in rats leads to increased abundance in the proximal tubule BBM of the apical Na-P(i) cotransporter NaPi-IIa, but that the activity, diffusion, and clustering of NaPi-IIa could be modulated by the altered lipid composition of the K-deficient BBM (Zajicek HK, Wang H, Puttaparthi K, Halaihel N, Markovich D, Shayman J, Beliveau R, Wilson P, Rogers T, Levi M. Kidney Int 60: 694-704, 2001; Inoue M, Digman MA, Cheng M, Breusegem SY, Halaihel N, Sorribas V, Mantulin WW, Gratton E, Barry NP, Levi M. J Biol Chem 279: 49160-49171, 2004). Here we investigated the role of the renal Na-P(i) cotransporters NaPi-IIc and PiT-2 in K deficiency. Using Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR, we found that, in rats and in mice, K deficiency is associated with a dramatic decrease in the NaPi-IIc protein abundance in proximal tubular BBM and in NaPi-IIc mRNA. In addition, we documented the presence of a third Na-coupled P(i) transporter in the renal BBM, PiT-2, whose abundance is also decreased by dietary K deficiency in rats and in mice. Finally, electron microscopy showed subcellular redistribution of NaPi-IIc in K deficiency: in control rats, NaPi-IIc immunolabel was primarily in BBM microvilli, whereas, in K-deficient rats, NaPi-IIc BBM label was reduced, and immunolabel was prevalent in cytoplasmic vesicles. In summary, our results demonstrate that decreases in BBM abundance of the phosphate transporter NaPi-IIc and also PiT-2 might contribute to the phosphaturia of dietary K deficiency, and that the three renal BBM phosphate transporters characterized so far can be differentially regulated by dietary perturbations.

  4. Potassium depletion increases luminal Na+/H+ exchange and basolateral Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport in rat renal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimani, M.; Bergman, J.A.; Hosford, M.A.; McKinney, T.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Most HCO3- reabsorption in proximal tubules occurs via electroneutral Na+/H+ exchange in brush border membranes (BBMS) and electrogenic Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport in basolateral membranes (BLMS). Since potassium depletion (KD) increases HCO3- reabsorption in proximal tubules, we evaluated these transport systems using BBM and BLM vesicles, respectively, from control (C) and KD rats. Feeding rats a potassium deficient diet for 3-4 wk resulted in lower plasma (K+) (2.94 mEq/liter, KD vs. 4.47 C), and higher arterial pH (7.51 KD vs. 7.39 C). KD rats gained less weight than C but had higher renal cortical weight. Influx of 1 mM 22Na+ at 5 s (pHo 7.5, pHi 6.0, 10% CO2, 90% N2) into BLM vesicles was 44% higher in the KD group compared to C with no difference in equilibrium uptake. The increment in Na+ influx in the KD group was DIDS sensitive, suggesting that Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport accounted for the observed differences. Kinetic analysis of Na+ influx showed a Km of 8.2 mM in KD vs. 7.6 mM in C and Vmax of 278 nmol/min/mg protein in KD vs. 177 nmol/min/mg protein in C. Influx of 1 mM 22Na+ at 5 s (pHo 7.5, pHi 6.0) into BBM vesicles was 34% higher in the KD group compared to C with no difference in equilibrium uptake. The increment in Na+ influx in the KD group was amiloride sensitive, suggesting that Na+/H+ exchange was responsible for the observed differences. Kinetic analysis of Na+ influx showed a Km of 6.2 mM in KD vs. 7.1 mM in C and Vmax of 209 nmol/min/mg protein in KD vs. 144 nmol/min/mg protein in C. Uptakes of Na(+)-dependent (3H)glucose into BBM and (14C)succinate into BLM vesicles were not different in KD and C groups, suggesting that the Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransporter activities were specifically altered in KD.

  5. Identification of a 3rd Na+ Binding Site of the Glycine Transporter, GlyT2

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Scopelitti, Amanda J.; Carland, Jane E.; Ryan, Renae M.; O’Mara, Megan L.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Na+/Cl- dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 regulate synaptic glycine concentrations. Glycine transport by GlyT2 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions, whereas transport by GlyT1 is coupled to the co-transport of only two Na+ ions. These differences in ion-flux coupling determine their respective concentrating capacities and have a direct bearing on their functional roles in synaptic transmission. The crystal structures of the closely related bacterial Na+-dependent leucine transporter, LeuTAa, and the Drosophila dopamine transporter, dDAT, have allowed prediction of two Na+ binding sites in GlyT2, but the physical location of the third Na+ site in GlyT2 is unknown. A bacterial betaine transporter, BetP, has also been crystallized and shows structural similarity to LeuTAa. Although betaine transport by BetP is coupled to the co-transport of two Na+ ions, the first Na+ site is not conserved between BetP and LeuTAa, the so called Na1' site. We hypothesized that the third Na+ binding site (Na3 site) of GlyT2 corresponds to the BetP Na1' binding site. To identify the Na3 binding site of GlyT2, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Surprisingly, a Na+ placed at the location consistent with the Na1' site of BetP spontaneously dissociated from its initial location and bound instead to a novel Na3 site. Using a combination of MD simulations of a comparative model of GlyT2 together with an analysis of the functional properties of wild type and mutant GlyTs we have identified an electrostatically favorable novel third Na+ binding site in GlyT2 formed by Trp263 and Met276 in TM3, Ala481 in TM6 and Glu648 in TM10. PMID:27337045

  6. Complexation of pectin with macro- and microelements. Antianemic activity of Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe complexes.

    PubMed

    Minzanova, S T; Mironov, V F; Vyshtakalyuk, A B; Tsepaeva, O V; Mironova, L G; Mindubaev, A Z; Nizameev, I R; Kholin, K V; Milyukov, V A

    2015-12-10

    New water-soluble pectin complexes with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) on the basis of pectin biopolymer have been synthesized and successfully tested on white rats. For a starting, we have obtained a sodium pectate to enhance solubility of target complexes as a whole. Shortly afterwards, running the reaction of ligand exchange of Nа(+) ions with corresponding s-, d- metal cations we were able to synthesize new pectin complexes. The ranges of s-, d-metals salts concentrations were detected experimentally, in which the selective formation of water-soluble complexes occurred. Antianemic effect of new pectin complexes with Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe was investigated on white rats with posthemorrhagic anemia. Under the effect of complexes, the improvement of animals and prevention of erythropoiesis disorders were observed. Antianemic effect of the complexes manifested itself in the doses equivalent to 25% or 50% of the iron daily rate, recommended in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia with the drugs based on iron sulphate.

  7. Adsorption of Zn2+ ions onto NaA and NaX zeolites: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Nibou, D; Mekatel, H; Amokrane, S; Barkat, M; Trari, M

    2010-01-15

    The adsorption of Zn(2+) onto NaA and NaX zeolites was investigated. The samples were synthesized according to a hydrothermal crystallization using aluminium isopropoxide (Al[OCH(CH(3))(2)](3)) as a new alumina source. The effects of pH, initial concentration, solid/liquid ratio and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models were applied and the adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The uptake distribution coefficient (K(d)) indicated that the Zn(2+) removal was the highest at minimum concentration. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The negative values of standard enthalpy of adsorption revealed the exothermic nature of the adsorption process whereas the negative activation entropies reflected that no significant change occurs in the internal structure of the zeolites solid matrix during the sorption of Zn(2+). The negative values of Gibbs free energy were indicative of the spontaneity of the adsorption process. Analysis of the kinetic and rate data revealed that the pseudo second-order sorption mechanism is predominant and the intra particle diffusion was the determining step for the sorption of zinc ions. The obtained optimal parameters have been applied to wastewater from the industrial zone (Algeria) in order to remove the contained zinc effluents.

  8. DFT study of the formation mechanism of anthraquinone from the reaction of NO2 and anthracene on NaCl clusters: the role of NaNO3.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chao; Yu, Qiming; Wang, Hongming

    2016-12-08

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated-PAHs are globally worrisome air pollutants because of their highly direct-acting mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The formation of oxygenated-PAHs is of crucial importance for the prevention of their atmospheric pollution successfully. In this paper, the formation mechanism of oxygenated-PAHs from the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with anthracene on the surface of NaCl was studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At first, the various adsorption configurations of NO2 and N2O4 on NaCl were investigated. The chemical conversion mechanisms among these configurations were also investigated. It is found that these structures can easily interconvert due to their low energy barriers. NaNO3 was found to be the main product of the reaction of NO2/N2O4 on NaCl. Then the oxidation mechanism of anthracene by NO2 on the NaCl surface showed that NaNO3 is able to oxidize anthracene and plays a catalytic role in the reaction process. This means that the formation of NaNO3 is very important to promote the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone from the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with anthracene. Our calculations also showed that the introduction of water can greatly accelerate this reaction process.

  9. Influence of sodium ion dynamics on the 23Na quadrupolar interaction in sodalite: a high-temperature 23Na MAS NMR study.

    PubMed

    Fechtelkord, M

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature 33Na MAS NMR experiments up to 873 K for a number of different sodalites (Na8[AlSiO4]6(NO3)2, Na8[AlSiO4]6(NO2)2, Na8[AlSiO4]6I2, Na7.9[AlSiO4]6(SCN)7.9 x 0.5H2O, Na8[AlGeO4]6(NO3)2, and Na7[AlSiO4]6(H3O2) x 4H2O) were carried out. The spectra of the first five sodalites consist of a quadrupolar MAS pattern with different quadrupolar coupling constants. The quadrupolar interaction for the thiocyanate sodalite, the nitrate aluminosilicate, and germanate sodalite decreases strongly passing a coalescence state on heating, while the quadrupolar interaction of the iodide and nitrite sample shows nearly no change. The basic hydrosodalite shows an asymmetric lineshape at room temperature and, between 350 and 370 K, a second line due to the evaporation of cage-water emerges. The linewidth increases with rising temperature. The temperature dependence of the quadrupolar interaction seems to be a function of the sodalite beta-cage expansion. Two conceivable jump mechanisms are proposed for a tetrahedral two-site jump between occupied and unoccupied tetrahedral sites.

  10. Growth responses and ion accumulation in the halophytic legume Prosopis strombulifera are determined by Na2SO4 and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Reginato, M; Sosa, L; Llanes, A; Hampp, E; Vettorazzi, N; Reinoso, H; Luna, V

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes are potential gene sources for genetic manipulation of economically important crop species. This study addresses the physiological responses of a widespread halophyte, Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth to salinity. We hypothesised that increasing concentrations of the two major salts present in soils of central Argentina (Na2SO4, NaCl, or their iso-osmotic mixture) would produce distinct physiological responses. We used hydroponically grown P. strombulifera to test this hypothesis, analysing growth parameters, water relations, photosynthetic pigments, cations and anions. These plants showed a halophytic response to NaCl, but strong general inhibition of growth in response to iso-osmotic solutions containing Na2SO4. The explanation for the adaptive success of P. strombulifera in high NaCl conditions seems to be related to a delicate balance between Na(+) accumulation (and its use for osmotic adjustment) and efficient compartmentalisation in vacuoles, the ability of the whole plant to ensure sufficient K(+) supply by maintaining high K(+)/Na(+) discrimination, and maintenance of normal Ca(2+) levels in leaves. The three salt treatments had different effects on the accumulation of ions. Findings in bi-saline-treated plants were of particular interest, where most of the physiological parameters studied showed partial alleviation of SO4(2-)-induced toxicity by Cl(-). Thus, discussions on physiological responses to salinity could be further expanded in a way that more closely mimics natural salt environments.

  11. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yonggang E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn; Yang, Wenge E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn

    2016-01-14

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, respectively. The cubic Na{sub 3}OBr structure and tetragonal Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} with intergrowth K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.

  12. A Ca substitution study of NaV2O4: High-pressure synthesis of the Na1-xCaxV2O4 solid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Tamas; Mitchell, John F.; Yamaura, Kazunari; Mandrus, David; Wang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Ambient pressure CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} and high-pressure NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystallize in the CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure type containing double chains of edge-sharing VO{sub 6} octahedra. Recent measurements on NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} reveal low-dimensional metallicity and evidence of half-metallic ferromagnetism. In contrast, CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} is an antiferromagnetic insulator. To explore the evolution of these ground-state behaviors, we have prepared a series of Ca-doped NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} compounds with the formula Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0-1) using high-pressure synthesis. Samples at the Na end (x = 0-0.07) show a broad antiferromagnetic transition in the 120-160 K range in accordance with earlier reports. Transport measurements show an insulator-metal transition at x {approx} 0.2. Samples with higher Ca concentrations (x = 0.4-0.7) exhibit a metal-insulator transition around 150 K. The results for the Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid solution is discussed in comparison to existing studies at the Ca- and Na-rich ends.

  13. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na3OBr and Na4OI2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na3OBr and Na4OI2, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na3OBr and Na4OI2, respectively. The cubic Na3OBr structure and tetragonal Na4OI2 with intergrowth K2NiF4 structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na4OI2 exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20-80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.

  14. Mechanism of potassium ion uptake by the Na+/K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan P.; Rui, Huan; Basilio, Daniel; Das, Avisek; Roux, Benoît; Latorre, Ramon; Bezanilla, Francisco; Holmgren, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Na+/K+-ATPase restores sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) electrochemical gradients dissipated by action potentials and ion-coupled transport processes. As ions are transported, they become transiently trapped between intracellular and extracellular gates. Once the external gate opens, three Na+ ions are released, followed by the binding and occlusion of two K+ ions. While the mechanisms of Na+ release have been well characterized by the study of transient Na+ currents, smaller and faster transient currents mediated by external K+ have been more difficult to study. Here we show that external K+ ions travelling to their binding sites sense only a small fraction of the electric field as they rapidly and simultaneously become occluded. Consistent with these results, molecular dynamics simulations of a pump model show a wide water-filled access channel connecting the binding site to the external solution. These results suggest a mechanism of K+ gating different from that of Na+ occlusion. PMID:26205423

  15. Mechanism of potassium ion uptake by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan P; Rui, Huan; Basilio, Daniel; Das, Avisek; Roux, Benoît; Latorre, Ramon; Bezanilla, Francisco; Holmgren, Miguel

    2015-07-24

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase restores sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) electrochemical gradients dissipated by action potentials and ion-coupled transport processes. As ions are transported, they become transiently trapped between intracellular and extracellular gates. Once the external gate opens, three Na(+) ions are released, followed by the binding and occlusion of two K(+) ions. While the mechanisms of Na(+) release have been well characterized by the study of transient Na(+) currents, smaller and faster transient currents mediated by external K(+) have been more difficult to study. Here we show that external K(+) ions travelling to their binding sites sense only a small fraction of the electric field as they rapidly and simultaneously become occluded. Consistent with these results, molecular dynamics simulations of a pump model show a wide water-filled access channel connecting the binding site to the external solution. These results suggest a mechanism of K(+) gating different from that of Na(+) occlusion.

  16. Mechanism of potassium ion uptake by the Na+/K+-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Juan P.; Rui, Huan; Basilio, Daniel; Das, Avisek; Roux, Benoît; Latorre, Ramon; Bezanilla, Francisco; Holmgren, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    The Na+/K+-ATPase restores sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) electrochemical gradients dissipated by action potentials and ion-coupled transport processes. As ions are transported, they become transiently trapped between intracellular and extracellular gates. Once the external gate opens, three Na+ ions are released, followed by the binding and occlusion of two K+ ions. While the mechanisms of Na+ release have been well characterized by the study of transient Na+ currents, smaller and faster transient currents mediated by external K+ have been more difficult to study. Here we show that external K+ ions travelling to their binding sites sense only a small fraction of the electric field as they rapidly and simultaneously become occluded. Consistent with these results, molecular dynamics simulations of a pump model show a wide water-filled access channel connecting the binding site to the external solution. These results suggest a mechanism of K+ gating different from that of Na+ occlusion.

  17. Formation of titanate nanostructures under different NaOH concentration and their application in wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiquan; Cao, Yongge; Deng, Zhonghua; Tong, Hao

    2011-03-01

    The effects of the concentration of NaOH on the formation and transformation of various titanate nanostructures were studied. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. Nanotubes can only be obtained under moderate NaOH conditions, and should transform into nanowires with prolonged hydrothermal treatment, and their formation rate is accelerated by increasing NaOH concentration. Low concentration of NaOH results in the direct formation of nanowires, while extra high concentration of NaOH leads to the formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Adsorption and photocatalysis studies show that titanate nanowires and nanotubes might be potential adsorbents for the removal of both heavy metal ions and dyes and photocatalysts for the removal of dyes from wastewater.

  18. Nanoscale stabilization of sodium oxides: implications for Na-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Kang, ShinYoung; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2014-02-12

    The thermodynamic stability of materials can depend on particle size due to the competition between surface and bulk energy. In this Letter, we show that, while sodium peroxide (Na2O2) is the stable bulk phase of Na in an oxygen environment at standard conditions, sodium superoxide (NaO2) is considerably more stable at the nanoscale. As a consequence, the superoxide requires a much lower nucleation energy than the peroxide, explaining why it can be observed as the discharge product in some Na-O2 batteries. As the superoxide can be recharged (decomposed) at much lower overpotentials than the peroxide, these findings are important to create highly reversible Na-O2 batteries. We derive the specific electrochemical conditions to nucleate and retain Na-superoxides and comment on the importance of considering the nanophase thermodynamics when optimizing an electrochemical system.

  19. Laser ablation of NaN3 and CsN3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belau, Leonid; Gorodetsky, Jonathan; Haas, Yehuda

    2005-06-01

    Solid sodium azide and cesium azide crystals were irradiated by high power laser pulses; the ablation products were rapidly cooled by a supersonic expansion of helium and detected by a time of flight mass spectrometer. Neutral and positively charged species were separately recorded and analyzed using N15 isotopomers to help in their assignment. Cluster series of the sequences Na(NaN3)n [or Cs(CsN3)n] were observed, as well as clusters containing NaOH and NaCN; the origin of the C, H, and O atoms appears to be water and CO2 occluded in the salt. Addition of D2O increased the intensity of large clusters and added deuterated ones, whereas addition of chloroform leads to formation of clusters of a Na atom with (NaCl)n clusters. Possible mechanisms for the formation of these clusters are discussed.

  20. Laser ablation of NaN{sub 3} and CsN{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Belau, Leonid; Gorodetsky, Jonathan; Haas, Yehuda

    2005-06-08

    Solid sodium azide and cesium azide crystals were irradiated by high power laser pulses; the ablation products were rapidly cooled by a supersonic expansion of helium and detected by a time of flight mass spectrometer. Neutral and positively charged species were separately recorded and analyzed using {sup 15}N isotopomers to help in their assignment. Cluster series of the sequences Na(NaN{sub 3}){sub n} [or Cs(CsN{sub 3}){sub n}] were observed, as well as clusters containing NaOH and NaCN; the origin of the C, H, and O atoms appears to be water and CO{sub 2} occluded in the salt. Addition of D{sub 2}O increased the intensity of large clusters and added deuterated ones, whereas addition of chloroform leads to formation of clusters of a Na atom with (NaCl){sub n} clusters. Possible mechanisms for the formation of these clusters are discussed.

  1. On the formation of Na nanoparticles in femtosecond-laser irradiated glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Nan; Su Dong; Spence, John C. H.; Qiu Jianrong

    2010-03-15

    This work discusses the response of Na to both high-energy electrons and femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) pulses in the soda-lime glass. The evidence for different responses of Na to high-energy electron irradiation between glasses with and without fs-laser irradiation suggests that the chemical and/or physical states of Na in the fs-laser irradiated glass are different from those in the original glass. Fs-laser pulses in the glass may be able to neutralize Na, which may form clusters. These results suggest that close attention should be paid to the defects associated with Na when optical or physical data are interpreted in fs-laser irradiated Na glasses.

  2. Carbicarb: an effective substitute for NaHCO3 for the treatment of acidosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Filley, G F; Hord, K; Kindig, N B; Bartle, E J

    1987-11-01

    Carbicarb (Na2CO3 0.33 molar NaHCO3 0.33 molar), a mixture formulated to avoid the objections to sodium bicarbonate therapy, has been compared with 1 mol/L NaHCO3 and 1 mol/L NaCl in the treatment of mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis (pH 7.17) produced by asphyxia in rats. In clinically appropriate doses, intravenous NaHCO3 raised arterial pH only 0.03 unit, elevated arterial carbon dioxide pressure, and doubled lactate concentration. With Carbicarb, the pH rise was three times as great and the blood lactate level was unchanged. The new drug should be effective in treating the acidosis of cardiopulmonary failure without raising blood carbon dioxide pressure or lactate levels and at lower sodium doses than required for NaHCO3.

  3. NaCo(H2PO2)3: Crystal structure and physical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bali, Brahim; Lachkar, Mohammed; Essehli, Rachid; Dusek, Michal; Rohlicek, Jan; Mircescu, Nicoleta; Haisch, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    NaCo(H2PO2)3 was synthesized in solution and its structure was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the cubic space group P213 (#198), Z = 4, a = 9.2563(16) Å, V = 793.1(2) Å3. Final residual factors of the refined structure model R/Rw were 0.0367/0.0941. The cations Na+ and Co2+ are both octahedrally coordinated. [NaO6] and [CoO6] share edges to form channels propagating along [1,-1, -1] with the [H2PO2] pseudo-pyramids adjusted inside the channels to the above mentioned octahedra. The IR and Raman spectroscopic studies show the expected bands of the hypophosphite anion. NaCo(H2PO2)3 did not show any electrochemical activity under the electrochemical test conditions (2.4-4.5 V vs. Na/Na+).

  4. Protein kinase regulation of a cloned epithelial Na+ channel

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We examined the regulation of a cloned epithelial Na+ channel (alpha beta gamma-rENaC) by protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Experiments were performed in Xenopus oocytes and in planar lipid bilayers. At a holding potential of -100 mV, amiloride-sensitive current averaged -1,279 +/- 111 nA (n = 7) in alpha beta gamma-rENaC- expressing oocytes. Currents in water-injected oocytes were essentially unresponsive to 10 microM amiloride. A 1-h stimulation of PKC with 100 nM of PMA inhibited whole-cell currents in Xenopus oocytes to 17.1 +/- 1.8, and 22.1 +/- 2.6% of control (n = 7), at holding potentials of - 100 and +40 mV, respectively. Direct injection of purified PKC resulted in similar inhibition to that observed with PMA. Additionally, the inactive phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, 4-O-methyl, was without effect on alpha beta gamma-rENaC currents. Pretreatment with the microtubule inhibitor colchicine (100 microM) did not modify the inhibitory effect of PMA; however, pretreatment with 20 microM cytochalasin B decreased the inhibitory action of PMA to < 20% of that previously observed. In vitro-synthesized alpha beta gamma-rENaC formed an amiloride-sensitive Na(+)-selective channel when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. Addition of PKC, diacyl-glycerol, and Mg-ATP to the side opposite that which amiloride blocked, decreased the channel's open probability (Po) from 0.44 +/- 0.06 to 0.13 +/- 0.03 (n = 9). To study the effects of PKA on alpha beta gamma-rENaC expressed in Xenopus oocytes, cAMP levels were elevated with 10 microM forskolin and 1 mM isobutyl-methyl-xanthine. This cAMP-elevating cocktail did not cause any stimulation of alpha beta gamma-rENaC currents in either the inward or outward directions. This lack of activation was also observed in oocytes preinhibited with PMA and in oocytes pretreated with cytochalasin B and PMA. Neither alpha-rENaC nor alpha beta gamma-rENaC incorporated into planar lipid bilayers could be

  5. Neuronal Na+ Channels Are Integral Components of Pro-arrhythmic Na+/Ca2+ Signaling Nanodomain That Promotes Cardiac Arrhythmias During β-adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Radwański, Przemysław B.; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Veeraraghavan, Rengasayee; Brunello, Lucia; Liu, Bin; Belevych, Andriy E.; Unudurthi, Sathya D.; Makara, Michael A.; Priori, Silvia G.; Volpe, Pompeo; Armoundas, Antonis A.; Dillmann, Wolfgang H.; Knollmann, Bjorn C.; Mohler, Peter J.; Hund, Thomas J.; Györke, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death in the US. Vast majority of these arrhythmias including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) are associated with increased levels of circulating catecholamines and involve abnormal impulse formation secondary to aberrant Ca2+ and Na+ handling. However, the mechanistic link between β-AR stimulation and the subcellular/molecular arrhythmogenic trigger(s) remains elusive. Methods and Results We performed functional and structural studies to assess Ca2+ and Na+ signaling in ventricular myocyte as well as surface electrocardiograms in mouse models of cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2)-associated CPVT. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of Na+ channels (neuronal Na+ channels; nNav) that colocalize with RyR2 and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) are a part of the β-AR-mediated arrhythmogenic process. Specifically, augmented Na+ entry via nNav in the settings of genetic defects within the RyR2 complex and enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-mediated SR Ca2+ refill is both an essential and a necessary factor for the arrhythmogenesis. Furthermore, we show that augmentation of Na+ entry involves β-AR-mediated activation of CAMKII subsequently leading to nNav augmentation. Importantly, selective pharmacological inhibition as well as silencing of Nav1.6 inhibit myocyte arrhythmic potential and prevent arrhythmias in vivo. Conclusion These data suggest that the arrhythmogenic alteration in Na+/Ca2+ handling evidenced ruing β-AR stimulation results, at least in part, from enhanced Na+ influx through nNav. Therefore, selective inhibition of these channels and Nav1.6 in particular can serve as a potential antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:27747307

  6. Effects of low NaNO2 and NaCl concentrations on Listeria monocytogenes growth in emulsion-type sausage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Gwak, Eunji; Lee, Heeyoung; Ha, Jimyeong; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of combinations of NaNO2 and NaCl concentrations on Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) growth in emulsion-type sausage. Methods Emulsion-type sausages formulated with different combinations of NaNO2 (0 and 10 ppm) and NaCl (1.00%, 1.25%, and 1.50%) were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes mixture, and stored at 4°C, 10°C, and 15°C, under aerobic or vacuum conditions. L. monocytogenes cell counts were measured at appropriate intervals, and kinetic parameters such as growth rate and lag phase duration (LPD) were calculated using the modified Gompertz model. Results Growth rates increased (0.004 to 0.079 Log colony-forming unit [CFU]/g/h) as storage temperature increased, but LPD decreased (445.11 to 8.35 h) as storage temperature and NaCl concentration increased. The effect of combinations of NaCl and low-NaNO2 on L. monocytogenes growth was not observed at 4°C and 10°C, but it was observed at 15°C, regardless of atmospheric conditions. Conclusion These results indicate that low concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl in emulsion-type sausage may not be sufficient to prevent L. monocytogenes growth, regardless of whether they are vacuum-packaged and stored at low temperatures. Therefore, additional techniques are necessary for L. monocytogenes control in the product. PMID:27739291

  7. Comparative studies of CdS, CdS:Al, CdS:Na and CdS:(Al-Na) thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, S.; Atasoy, Y.; Tomakin, M.; Bacaksız, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the spray pyrolysis technique was used to prepare pure CdS, 4 at.% Al-doped CdS, 4 at.% Na-doped CdS and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doped CdS thin films. It was found from X-ray diffraction data that all the specimens showed hexagonal wurtzite structure with the preferred orientation of (101). Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that 4 at.% Al-doping caused a grain growth in the morphology of CdS thin films whereas the 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping led to porous structure with small grains. The band gap value of CdS thin films increased to 2.42 eV after 4 at.% Al-doping. However, it reduced to 2.30 eV and 2.08 eV for 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping, respectively. The room temperature photoluminescence measurements illustrated that the peak intensity of CdS thin films enhanced with 4 at.% Al-doping while 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping caused a decline in the intensity. The maximum carrier concentration and minimum resistivity were obtained for 4 at.% Al-doped CdS thin films, which is associated with the grain growth. Furthermore, (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping gave rise to a slight reduction in the carrier concentration and a slight increment in the resistivity. As a result, it can be said that 4 at.% Al-doped CdS thin films exhibited the best electrical and optical properties, which is important for the opto-electronic applications.

  8. Study of the quaternary Na+, K+//F-, Br-, NO 3 - reciprocal system using an innovative methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunova, O. E.; Ukhanov, A. S.; Katasonova, E. A.; Trunin, A. S.; Surinskii, K. D.

    2016-08-01

    The topological structure of the quaternary Na+, K+//F-, Br-, NO 3 - system is studied using a computer-assisted research system. A tree of phases is constructed, and the eutectic characteristics of the secant triangle NaNO3-KBr-NaF, (equiv. %) 84.6 NaNO3-9.1 KBr-6.3 NaF, at 255.3°C are determined.

  9. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate acutely inhibits and chronically stimulates Na/H antiporter in OKP cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, A; Preisig, P; Alpern, R J

    1993-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone, dopamine, alpha-adrenergic catecholamines, and angiotensin II regulate renal Na excretion, at least in part through modulation of acute cyclic (c)AMP-induced proximal tubule Na/H antiporter inhibition. The present studies examined the effect of chronic increases in cell cAMP on Na/H antiporter activity in OKP cells. Whereas 8-bromo cAMP acutely inhibited Na/H antiporter activity, chronic application for 6 h led to a 24% increase in Na/H antiporter activity measured 16-20 h after cAMP removal. This chronic persistent activation of the Na/H antiporter required > 2 h exposure. This effect was not a nonspecific effect of 8-bromo cAMP, in that addition of forskolin or forskolin + 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine for 6 h also led to a chronic persistent increase in Na/H antiporter activity. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide prevented 8-bromo cAMP-induced Na/H antiporter stimulation. Although 8-bromo cAMP addition decreased cell pH by 0.15-0.20 pH U, Na/H antiporter stimulation could be dissociated from cell acidification. In summary, while cAMP acutely inhibits Na/H antiporter activity, it chronically increases antiporter activity. This chronic activation occurs with exogenous addition or endogenous generation of cAMP. These results imply that for hormones that modulate renal Na excretion and proximal tubule Na/H antiporter activity via cAMP and protein kinase A, acute effects may not predict chronic effects. PMID:7691881

  10. Results from Boiling Temperature Measurements for Saturated Solutions in the Systems NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A

    2004-10-04

    Boiling temperature measurements have been made for saturated ternary solutions of NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O and NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O over the full solute mole fraction range, along with the limiting binary solutions NaCl + H{sub 2}O, NaNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, and KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O. Boiling temperatures have also been measured for the quaternary NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O mixtures with KNO{sub 3}:NaNO{sub 3} mole ratios of 1.01 and 1.19, which corresponding to the eutectic ratio and a near-eutectic ratio for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O subsystem. The maximum boiling temperature found for the NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is 134 C and for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is 160 C, but boiling temperatures as high as 196 C were measured the NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system. These mixture compositions correspond to the major mineral assemblages that are predicted to control the deliquescence relative humidity of salts found by leaching dust samples from the proposed nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  11. Long-term regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase in opossum kidney cells by ouabain.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Soares-da-Silva, P

    2011-09-01

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, a basolateral transporter responsible for tubular reabsorption of Na(+) and for providing the driving force for vectorial transport of various solutes and ions, can also act as a signal transducer in response to the interaction with steroid hormones. At nanomolar concentrations ouabain binding to Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activates a signaling cascade that ultimately regulates several membrane transporters including Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. The present study evaluated the long-term effect of ouabain on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity (Na(+) transepithelial flux) and expression in opossum kidney (OK) cells with low (40) and high (80) number of passages in culture, which are known to overexpress Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (Silva et al., 2006, J Membr Biol 212, 163-175). Activation of a signal cascade was evaluated by quantification of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by Western blot. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was determined by electrophysiological techniques and expression by Western blot. Incubation of cells with ouabain induced activation of ERK1/2. Long-term incubation with ouabain induced an increase in Na(+) transepithelial flux and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase expression only in OK cells with 80 passages in culture. This increase was prevented by incubation with inhibitors of MEK1/2 and PI-3K. In conclusion, ouabain-activated signaling cascade mediated by both MEK1/2 and PI-3K is responsible for long-term regulation of Na(+) transepithelial flux in epithelial renal cells. OK cell line with high number of passages is suggested to constitute a particular useful model for the understanding of ouabain-mediated regulation of Na(+) transport.

  12. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S M; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+) homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+) levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+) concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+) shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+) accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+) points to a role of stem Na(+) accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+) accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+) transport to the leaves.

  13. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostas