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  1. 8p23.1 duplication syndrome differentiated from copy number variation of the defensin cluster at prenatal diagnosis in four new families

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 8p23.1 duplication syndrome and copy number variation of the 8p23.1 defensin gene cluster are cytogenetically indistinguishable but distinct at the molecular level. To our knowledge, the 8p23.1 duplication syndrome has been described at prenatal diagnosis only once and we report our experience with four further apparent duplications ascertained at prenatal diagnosis. Methods Additional material at band 8p23.1 was detected using conventional G-banded cytogenetics in each case. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) or Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) were used depending on whether only DNA (Cases 1 and 4) or cytogenetic preparations (Cases 2 and 3) were available from the laboratory of origin. The extent of the duplication in Case 1 was retrospectively determined using array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (array CGH). Results Three cases of 8p23.1 duplication syndrome were found (Cases 1 to 3). Two were de novo and continued to term and the third, a paternally transmitted duplication, was terminated because of a previous child with psychomotor delay and 8p23.1 duplication syndrome. Case 1 was ascertained with a hypoplastic left heart but the ventricular septal and interventricular defects, in Cases 2 and 3 respectively, were found after ascertainment for advanced maternal age. By contrast, case 4 was a maternally transmitted copy number variation of the defensin cluster with normal outcome. Conclusions Our data underline the need to differentiate 8p23.1 duplications from copy number variation of the defensin cluster using FISH, MLPA or array CGH. Cardiac defects were ascertained by ultrasound in only one of the three duplication 8p23.1 pregnancies but were visible in two of the three at 21 to 22 weeks gestation. Our results provide further evidence that both deletion and duplication of the GATA4 transcription factor can give rise to a variety of conotruncal heart defects with variable penetrance and expressivity. PMID

  2. 16p11.2–p12.2 duplication syndrome; a genomic condition differentiated from euchromatic variation of 16p11.2

    PubMed Central

    Barber, John C K; Hall, Victoria; Maloney, Viv K; Huang, Shuwen; Roberts, Angharad M; Brady, Angela F; Foulds, Nicki; Bewes, Beverley; Volleth, Marianne; Liehr, Thomas; Mehnert, Karl; Bateman, Mark; White, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome 16 contains multiple copy number variations (CNVs) that predispose to genomic disorders. Here, we differentiate pathogenic duplications of 16p11.2–p12.2 from microscopically similar euchromatic variants of 16p11.2. Patient 1 was a girl of 18 with autism, moderate intellectual disability, behavioural difficulties, dysmorphic features and a 7.71-Mb (megabase pair) duplication (16:21 521 005–29 233 146). Patient 2 had a 7.81-Mb duplication (16:21 382 561–29 191 527), speech delay and obsessional behaviour as a boy and, as an adult, short stature, macrocephaly and mild dysmorphism. The duplications contain 65 coding genes of which Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) has the highest likelihood of being haploinsufficient and, by implication, a triplosensitive gene. An additional 1.11-Mb CNV of 10q11.21 in Patient 1 was a possible modifier containing the G-protein-regulated inducer of neurite growth 2 (GPRIN2) gene. In contrast, the euchromatic variants in Patients 3 and 4 were amplifications from a 945-kb region containing non-functional immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGHV), hect domain pseudogene (HERC2P4) and TP53-inducible target gene 3 (TP53TG3) loci in proximal 16p11.2 (16:31 953 353–32 898 635). Paralogous pyrosequencing gave a total copy number of 3–8 in controls and 8 to >10 in Patients 3 and 4. The 16p11.2–p12.2 duplication syndrome is a recurrent genomic disorder with a variable phenotype including developmental delay, dysmorphic features, mild to severe intellectual disability, autism, obsessive or stereotyped behaviour, short stature and anomalies of the hands and fingers. It is important to differentiate pathogenic 16p11.2–p12.2 duplications from harmless, microscopically similar euchromatic variants of proximal 16p11.2, especially at prenatal diagnosis. PMID:22828807

  3. Genetics Home Reference: MECP2 duplication syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of autism spectrum disorders that affect communication and social interaction. Females with a MECP2 gene duplication tend to ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  4. Williams Syndrome and 15q Duplication: Coincidence versus Association.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Aditi; Agarwal, Swashti; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a multisystem disorder caused by contiguous gene deletion in 7q11.23, commonly associated with distinctive facial features, supravalvular aortic stenosis, short stature, idiopathic hypercalcemia, developmental delay, joint laxity, and a friendly personality. The clinical features of 15q11q13 duplication syndrome include autism, mental retardation, ataxia, seizures, developmental delay, and behavioral problems. We report a rare case of a girl with genetically confirmed Williams syndrome and coexisting 15q duplication syndrome. The patient underwent treatment for central precocious puberty and later presented with primary amenorrhea. The karyotype revealed 47,XX,+mar. FISH analysis for the marker chromosome showed partial trisomy/tetrasomy for proximal chromosome 15q (15p13q13). FISH using an ELN -specific probe demonstrated a deletion in the Williams syndrome critical region in 7q11.23. To our knowledge, a coexistence of Williams syndrome and 15q duplication syndrome has not been reported in the literature. Our patient had early pubertal development, which has been described in some patients with Williams syndrome. However, years later after discontinuing gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment, she developed primary amenorrhea.

  5. Infectious and immunologic phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Kölsch, Uwe; Krüger, Renate; Unterwalder, Nadine; Hameister, Karin; Kaiser, Fabian Marc; Vignoli, Aglaia; Rossi, Rainer; Botella, Maria Pilar; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Rosello, Monica; Orellana, Carmen; Tejada, Maria Isabel; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Patat, Oliver; Julia, Sophie; Touraine, Renaud; Gomes, Thusari; Wenner, Kirsten; Xu, Xiu; Afenjar, Alexandra; Toutain, Annick; Philip, Nicole; Jezela-Stanek, Aleksandra; Gortner, Ludwig; Martinez, Francisco; Echenne, Bernard; Wahn, Volker; Meisel, Christian; Wieczorek, Dagmar; El-Chehadeh, Salima; Van Esch, Hilde; von Bernuth, Horst

    2015-02-01

    MECP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2) duplication causes syndromic intellectual disability. Patients often suffer from life-threatening infections, suggesting an additional immunodeficiency. We describe for the first time the detailed infectious and immunological phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome. 17/27 analyzed patients suffered from pneumonia, 5/27 from at least one episode of sepsis. Encapsulated bacteria (S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae) were frequently isolated. T-cell immunity showed no gross abnormalities in 14/14 patients and IFNy-secretion upon ConA-stimulation was not decreased in 6/7 patients. In 6/21 patients IgG2-deficiency was detected - in 4/21 patients accompanied by IgA-deficiency, 10/21 patients showed low antibody titers against pneumococci. Supra-normal IgG1-levels were detected in 11/21 patients and supra-normal IgG3-levels were seen in 8/21 patients - in 6 of the patients as combined elevation of IgG1 and IgG3. Three of the four patients with IgA/IgG2-deficiency developed multiple severe infections. Upon infections pronounced acute-phase responses were common: 7/10 patients showed CRP values above 200 mg/l. Our data for the first time show systematically that increased susceptibility to infections in MECP2 duplication syndrome is associated with IgA/IgG2-deficiency, low antibody titers against pneumococci and elevated acute-phase responses. So patients with MECP2 duplication syndrome and low IgA/IgG2 may benefit from prophylactic substitution of sIgA and IgG.

  6. Brief Report: Regression Timing and Associated Features in "MECP2" Duplication Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, S. U.; Hundley, R. J.; Wilson, A. K.; Carvalho, C. M. B.; Lupski, J. R.; Ramocki, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, timing, and associated features of developmental regression in "MECP2" duplication syndrome. We also examined whether duplication size was associated with regression. Comprehensive psychological evaluations were used to assess 17 boys with "MECP2" duplication syndrome.…

  7. Myelodysplastic syndrome in an infant with constitutional pure duplication 1q41-qter.

    PubMed

    Morokawa, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Motoko; Wakui, Keiko; Kobayashi, Mikiko; Kurata, Takashi; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kawamura, Rie; Kanno, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Nakazawa, Yozo; Kosho, Tomoki

    2018-01-01

    We report on a Japanese female infant as the fourth patient with the constitutional pure duplication 1q41-qter confirmed by chromosomal microarray and as the first who developed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) among those with the constitutional 1q duplication. Common clinical features of the constitutional pure duplication 1q41-qter include developmental delay, craniofacial characteristics, foot malformation, hypertrichosis, and respiratory insufficiency. The association between MDS and the duplication of the genes in the 1q41-qter region remains unknown.

  8. Silver-Russell syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome phenotypes associated with 11p duplication in a single family.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, Laura; Sparago, Angela; De Crescenzo, Agostina; Nalesso, Elisa; Zavan, Barbara; Cubellis, Maria Vittoria; Selicorni, Angelo; Cavicchioli, Paola; Pozzan, Giovanni Battista; Petrella, Marilena; Riccio, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting in differential expression of maternal and paternal alleles of a subset of genes. In the mouse, mutation of imprinted genes often results in contrasting phenotypes, depending on parental origin. The overgrowth-associated Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and the growth restriction-associated Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) have been linked with a variety of epigenetic and genetic defects affecting a cluster of imprinted genes at chromosome 11p15.5. Paternally derived and maternally derived 11p15.5 duplications represent infrequent findings in BWS and SRS, respectively. Here, we report a case in which a 6.5 Mb duplication of 11p15.4-pter resulted in SRS and BWS phenotypes in a child and her mother, respectively. Molecular analyses demonstrated that the duplication involved the maternal chromosome 11p15 in the child and the paternal chromosome 11p15 in the mother. This observation provides a direct demonstration that SRS and BWS represent specular images, both at the clinical and molecular levels.

  9. Diurnal salivary cortisol and regression status in MECP2 Duplication syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sarika U.; Byiers, Breanne J.; Symons, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    MECP2 duplication syndrome is an X-linked genomic disorder that is characterized by infantile hypotonia, intellectual disability, and recurrent respiratory infections. Regression affects a subset of individuals, and the etiology of regression has yet to be examined. In this study, alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, including diurnal patterns in salivary cortisol, were examined in four males with MECP2 duplication syndrome who had regression, and four males with the same syndrome without regression (ages 3–22 years). Individuals who had experienced regression do not exhibit typical diurnal cortisol rhythms, and their profiles were flatter through the day. In contrast, individuals with MECP2 duplication syndrome who had not experienced regression showed more typical patterns of higher cortisol levels in the morning with linear decreases throughout the day. This study is the first to suggest a link between atypical diurnal cortisol rhythms and regression status in MECP2 duplication syndrome, and may have implications for treatment. PMID:25999300

  10. Evolution of tuf genes: ancient duplication, differential loss and gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Lathe, W C; Bork, P

    2001-08-03

    The tuf gene of eubacteria, encoding the EF-tu elongation factor, was duplicated early in the evolution of the taxon. Phylogenetic and genomic location analysis of 20 complete eubacterial genomes suggests that this ancient duplication has been differentially lost and maintained in eubacteria.

  11. Children with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome: psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Huffman, Myra J; Velleman, Shelley L; Pitts, C Holley; Henderson, Danielle R; Woodruff-Borden, Janet; Morris, Colleen A; Osborne, Lucy R

    2015-07-01

    To begin to delineate the psychological characteristics associated with classic 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (duplication of the classic Williams syndrome region; hereafter classic Dup7), we tested 63 children with classic Dup7 aged 4-17 years. Sixteen toddlers aged 18-45 months with classic Dup7 and 12 adults identified by cascade testing also were assessed. For the child group, median General Conceptual Ability (similar to IQ) on the Differential Ability Scales-II was 85.0 (low average), with a range from severe disability to high average ability. Median reading and mathematics achievement standard scores were at the low average to average level, with a range from severe impairment to high average or superior ability. Adaptive behavior was considerably more limited; median Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised Broad Independence standard score was 62.0 (mild impairment), with a range from severe adaptive impairment to average adaptive ability. Anxiety disorders were common, with 50.0% of children diagnosed with Social Phobia, 29.0% with Selective Mutism, 12.9% with Separation Anxiety Disorder, and 53.2% with Specific Phobia. In addition, 35.5% were diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and 24.2% with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Disruptive Behavior Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. 33.3% of the children screened positive for a possible Autism Spectrum Disorder and 82.3% were diagnosed with Speech Sound Disorder. We compare these findings to previously reported results for children with Williams syndrome and argue that genotype/phenotype studies involving the Williams syndrome region offer important opportunities to understand the contribution of genes in this region to common disorders affecting the general population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Children with 7q11.23 Duplication Syndrome: Psychological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Huffman, Myra J.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Pitts, C. Holley; Henderson, Danielle R.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet; Morris, Colleen A.; Osborne, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    To begin to delineate the psychological characteristics associated with classic 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (duplication of the classic Williams syndrome region; hereafter classic Dup7), we tested 63 children with classic Dup7 aged 4–17 years. Sixteen toddlers aged 18–45 months with classic Dup7 and 12 adults identified by cascade testing also were assessed. For the child group, median General Conceptual Ability (similar to IQ) on the Differential Ability Scales-II was 85.0 (low average), with a range from severe disability to high average ability. Median reading and mathematics achievement standard scores were at the low average to average level, with a range from severe impairment to high average or superior ability. Adaptive behavior was considerably more limited; median Scales of Independent Behavior—Revised Broad Independence standard score was 62.0 (mild impairment), with a range from severe adaptive impairment to average adaptive ability. Anxiety disorders were common, with 50.0% of children diagnosed with Social Phobia, 29.0% with Selective Mutism, 12.9% with Separation Anxiety Disorder, and 53.2% with Specific Phobia. In addition, 35.5% were diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and 24.2% with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Disruptive Behavior Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. 33.3% of the children screened positive for a possible Autism Spectrum Disorder and 82.3% were diagnosed with Speech Sound Disorder. We compare these findings to previously reported results for children with Williams syndrome and argue that genotype/phenotype studies involving the Williams syndrome region offer important opportunities to understand the contribution of genes in this region to common disorders affecting the general population. PMID:25900101

  13. Interstitial duplication of proximal 22q: Phenotypic overlap with cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, J.H.M.; Asamoah, A.; Wagstaff, J.

    1995-01-16

    We describe a child with downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular malfunctions, congenital heart defect (total anomalous pulmonary venous return), unilateral absence of a kidney, and developmental delay with an apparent interstitial duplication of proximal 22q. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed duplication of the IGLC locus, and C-banding of the duplicated region was negative. The duplication appears to involve 22q11.2-q12. Although the child has neither colobomas nor microphthalmia, he shows phenotypic overlap with with the cat eye syndrome, which is caused by a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome arising from inverted duplication of the short arm and proximal long arm of chromosomemore » 22. Further molecular studies of this patient should help to define the regions responsible for the manifestations of cat eye syndrome. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Caudal Duplication Syndrome: the Vital Role of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Staged Correction

    PubMed Central

    Samuk, Inbal; Levitt, Marc; Dlugy, Elena; Kravarusic, Dragan; Ben-Meir, David; Rajz, Gustavo; Konen, Osnat; Freud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare entity that describes the association between congenital anomalies involving caudal structures and may have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A full-term male presented with combination of anomalies including anorectal malformation, duplication of the colon and lower urinary tract, split of the lower spine, and lipomyelomeningocele with tethering of the cord. We report this exceptional case of caudal duplication syndrome with special emphasis on surgical strategy and approach combining all disciplines involved. The purpose of this report is to present the pathology, assessment, and management strategy of this complex case. PMID:28018799

  15. Neuroblastoma in a boy with MCA/MR syndrome, deletion 11q, and duplication 12q

    SciTech Connect

    Koiffmann, C.P.; Vianna-Morgante, A.M.; Wajntal, A.

    Deletion 11q23{r_arrow}qter and duplication 12q23{r_arrow}qter are described in a boy with neuroblastoma, multiple congenital anomalies, and mental retardation. The patient has clinical manifestations of 11q deletion and 12q duplication syndromes. The possible involvement of the segment 11q23{r_arrow}24 in the cause of the neuroblastoma is discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Gene duplication, population genomics, and species-level differentiation within a tropical mountain shrub.

    PubMed

    Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Zamudio, Sergio; Jorgensen, Tove H; Arrigo, Nils; Alvarez, Nadir; Piñero, Daniel; Emerson, Brent C

    2014-09-14

    Gene duplication leads to paralogy, which complicates the de novo assembly of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. The issue of paralogous genes is exacerbated in plants, because they are particularly prone to gene duplication events. Paralogs are normally filtered from GBS data before undertaking population genomics or phylogenetic analyses. However, gene duplication plays an important role in the functional diversification of genes and it can also lead to the formation of postzygotic barriers. Using populations and closely related species of a tropical mountain shrub, we examine 1) the genomic differentiation produced by putative orthologs, and 2) the distribution of recent gene duplication among lineages and geography. We find high differentiation among populations from isolated mountain peaks and species-level differentiation within what is morphologically described as a single species. The inferred distribution of paralogs among populations is congruent with taxonomy and shows that GBS could be used to examine recent gene duplication as a source of genomic differentiation of nonmodel species. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Gene Duplication, Population Genomics, and Species-Level Differentiation within a Tropical Mountain Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Zamudio, Sergio; Jorgensen, Tove H.; Arrigo, Nils; Alvarez, Nadir; Piñero, Daniel; Emerson, Brent C.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication leads to paralogy, which complicates the de novo assembly of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. The issue of paralogous genes is exacerbated in plants, because they are particularly prone to gene duplication events. Paralogs are normally filtered from GBS data before undertaking population genomics or phylogenetic analyses. However, gene duplication plays an important role in the functional diversification of genes and it can also lead to the formation of postzygotic barriers. Using populations and closely related species of a tropical mountain shrub, we examine 1) the genomic differentiation produced by putative orthologs, and 2) the distribution of recent gene duplication among lineages and geography. We find high differentiation among populations from isolated mountain peaks and species-level differentiation within what is morphologically described as a single species. The inferred distribution of paralogs among populations is congruent with taxonomy and shows that GBS could be used to examine recent gene duplication as a source of genomic differentiation of nonmodel species. PMID:25223767

  18. Nutcracker syndrome and deep venous thrombosis in a patient with duplicated inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ricardo de Alvarenga; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; Costa, Renato Fanchiotti; Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Sobreira, Marcone Lima; Jaldin, Rodrigo Gibin

    2016-04-01

    Duplicated inferior vena cava is a rare anomaly, and thrombosis in one or both segments is even less frequent. We present a case of deep venous thrombosis of the left lower limb involving the popliteal, femoral, and iliac veins as well as the left segment of the duplicated vena cava and nutcracker syndrome. After catheter-directed thrombolysis complemented by mechanical thrombolysis, the compromised veins had complete revascularization; the nutcracker syndrome was treated with stent placement, followed by the use of anticoagulants. There was technical success and complete recovery of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential retention of metabolic genes following whole-genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Gout, Jean-François; Duret, Laurent; Kahn, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Classical studies in Metabolic Control Theory have shown that metabolic fluxes usually exhibit little sensitivity to changes in individual enzyme activity, yet remain sensitive to global changes of all enzymes in a pathway. Therefore, little selective pressure is expected on the dosage or expression of individual metabolic genes, yet entire pathways should still be constrained. However, a direct estimate of this selective pressure had not been evaluated. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) offer a good opportunity to address this question by analyzing the fates of metabolic genes during the massive gene losses that follow. Here, we take advantage of the successive rounds of WGD that occurred in the Paramecium lineage. We show that metabolic genes exhibit different gene retention patterns than nonmetabolic genes. Contrary to what was expected for individual genes, metabolic genes appeared more retained than other genes after the recent WGD, which was best explained by selection for gene expression operating on entire pathways. Metabolic genes also tend to be less retained when present at high copy number before WGD, contrary to other genes that show a positive correlation between gene retention and preduplication copy number. This is rationalized on the basis of the classical concave relationship relating metabolic fluxes with enzyme expression.

  20. Duplication of 20p12.3 associated with familial Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kimberly I; Anderson, Jacqueline; Levy, Philip T; Cole, F Sessions; Silva, Jennifer N A; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

    2013-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is caused by preexcitation of the ventricular myocardium via an accessory pathway which increases the risk for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The condition is often sporadic and of unknown etiology in the majority of cases. Autosomal dominant inheritance and association with congenital heart defects or ventricular hypertrophy were described. Microdeletions of 20p12.3 have been associated with WPW syndrome with either cognitive dysfunction or Alagille syndrome. Here, we describe the association of 20p12.3 duplication with WPW syndrome in a patient who presented with non-immune hydrops. Her paternal uncle carries the duplication and has attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and electrocardiographic findings consistent with WPW. The 769 kb duplication was detected by the Affymetrix Whole Genome-Human SNP Array 6.0 and encompasses two genes and the first two exons of a third gene. We discuss the potential role of the genes in the duplicated region in the pathogenesis of WPW and possible neurobehavioral abnormalities. Our data provide additional support for a significant role of 20p12.3 chromosomal rearrangements in the etiology of WPW syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. SHOX duplications found in some cases with type I Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Cristina; Grati, Francesca Romana; Lalatta, Faustina; Tabano, Silvia; Gentilin, Barbara; Colapietro, Patrizia; De Toffol, Simona; Frontino, Giada; Motta, Francesca; Maitz, Silvia; Bernardini, Laura; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Fedele, Luigi; Larizza, Lidia; Miozzo, Monica

    2010-10-01

    The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is defined as congenital aplasia of müllerian ducts derived structures in females with a normal female chromosomal and gonadal sex. Most cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome are sporadic, although familial cases have been reported. The genetic basis of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is largely unknown and seems heterogeneous, and a small number of cases were found to have mutations in the WNT4 gene. The aim of this study was to identify possible recurrent submicroscopic imbalances in a cohort of familial and sporadic cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to screen the subtelomeric sequences of all chromosomes in 30 patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (sporadic, n = 27 and familial, n = 3). Segregation analysis and pyrosequencing were applied to validate the MLPA results in the informative family. Partial duplication of the Xpter pseudoautosomal region 1 containing the short stature homeobox (SHOX) gene was detected in five patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (familial, n = 3 and sporadic, n = 2) and not in 53 healthy controls. The duplications were not overlapping, and SHOX was never entirely duplicated. Haplotyping in the informative family revealed that SHOX gene duplication was inherited from the unaffected father and was absent in two healthy sisters. Partial duplication of SHOX gene is found in some cases with both familial and sporadic Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser type I syndrome.

  2. Partial duplication of chromosome 19 associated with syndromic duane retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Kondkar, Altaf A; Al Otaibi, Abdullah; Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Khan, Arif O; Hellani, Ali M; Oystreck, Darren T; Bosley, Thomas M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate possible monogenic and chromosomal anomalies in a patient with unilateral Duane retraction syndrome, modest dysmorphism, cerebral white matter abnormalities, and normal cognitive function. Performing high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and sequencing of HOXA1, KIF21A, SALL4, and CHN1 genes. The proband had unilateral Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) type III on the right with low-set ears, prominent forehead, clinodactyly, and a history of frequent infections during early childhood. Motor development and cognitive function were normal. Parents were not related, and no other family member was similarly affected. MRI revealed multiple small areas of high signal on T2 weighted images in cerebral white matter oriented along white matter tracts. Sequencing of HOXA1, KIF21A, SALL4, and CHN1 did not reveal any mutation(s). Array CGH showed a 95 Kb de novo duplication on chromosome 19q13.4 encompassing four killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes. Conclusions. KIR genes have not previously been linked to a developmental syndrome, although they are known to be expressed in the human brain and brainstem and to be associated with certain infections and autoimmune diseases, including some affecting the nervous system. DRS and brain neuroimaging abnormalities may imply a central and peripheral oligodendrocyte abnormality related in some fashion to an immunomodulatory disturbance.

  3. Williams syndrome deletions and duplications: Genetic windows to understanding anxiety, sociality, autism, and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard J; Procyshyn, Tanya L

    2017-08-01

    We describe and evaluate an integrative hypothesis for helping to explain the major neurocognitive features of individuals with Williams syndrome region deletions and duplications. First, we demonstrate how the cognitive differences between Williams syndrome individuals, individuals with duplications of this region, and healthy individuals parallel the differences between individuals subject to effects of increased or decreased oxytocin. Second, we synthesize evidence showing that variation in expression of the gene GTF2I (General Transcription Factor II-I) underlies the primary social phenotypes of Williams syndrome and that common genetic variation in GTF2I mediates oxytocin reactivity, and its correlates, in healthy populations. Third, we describe findings relevant to the hypothesis that the GTF2I gene is subject to parent of origin effects whose behavioral expression fits with predictions from the kinship theory of genomic imprinting. Fourth, we describe how Williams syndrome can be considered, in part, as an autistic syndrome of Lorna Wing's 'active-but-odd' autism subtype, in contrast to associations of duplications with both schizophrenia and autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Congenital hyperinsulinism and Poland syndrome in association with 10p13-14 duplication.

    PubMed

    Giri, Dinesh; Patil, Prashant; Hart, Rachel; Didi, Mohammed; Senniappan, Senthil

    2017-01-01

    Poland syndrome (PS) is a rare congenital condition, affecting 1 in 30 000 live births worldwide, characterised by a unilateral absence of the sternal head of the pectoralis major and ipsilateral symbrachydactyly occasionally associated with abnormalities of musculoskeletal structures. A baby girl, born at 40 weeks' gestation with birth weight of 3.33 kg (-0.55 SDS) had typical phenotypical features of PS. She had recurrent hypoglycaemic episodes early in life requiring high concentration of glucose and glucagon infusion. The diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) was biochemically confirmed by inappropriately high plasma concentrations of insulin and C-peptide and low plasma free fatty acids and β-hydroxyl butyrate concentrations during hypoglycaemia. Sequencing of ABCC8 , KCNJ11 and HNF4A did not show any pathogenic mutation. Microarray analysis revealed a novel duplication in the short arm of chromosome 10 at 10p13-14 region. This is the first reported case of CHI in association with PS and 10p duplication. We hypothesise that the HK1 located on the chromosome 10 encoding hexokinase-1 is possibly linked to the pathophysiology of CHI. Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is known to be associated with various syndromes.This is the first reported association of CHI and Poland syndrome (PS) with duplication in 10p13-14.A potential underlying genetic link between 10p13-14 duplication, PS and CHI is a possibility.

  5. Congenital hyperinsulinism and Poland syndrome in association with 10p13–14 duplication

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Dinesh; Patil, Prashant; Hart, Rachel; Didi, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Summary Poland syndrome (PS) is a rare congenital condition, affecting 1 in 30 000 live births worldwide, characterised by a unilateral absence of the sternal head of the pectoralis major and ipsilateral symbrachydactyly occasionally associated with abnormalities of musculoskeletal structures. A baby girl, born at 40 weeks’ gestation with birth weight of 3.33 kg (−0.55 SDS) had typical phenotypical features of PS. She had recurrent hypoglycaemic episodes early in life requiring high concentration of glucose and glucagon infusion. The diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) was biochemically confirmed by inappropriately high plasma concentrations of insulin and C-peptide and low plasma free fatty acids and β-hydroxyl butyrate concentrations during hypoglycaemia. Sequencing of ABCC8, KCNJ11 and HNF4A did not show any pathogenic mutation. Microarray analysis revealed a novel duplication in the short arm of chromosome 10 at 10p13–14 region. This is the first reported case of CHI in association with PS and 10p duplication. We hypothesise that the HK1 located on the chromosome 10 encoding hexokinase-1 is possibly linked to the pathophysiology of CHI. Learning points: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is known to be associated with various syndromes. This is the first reported association of CHI and Poland syndrome (PS) with duplication in 10p13–14. A potential underlying genetic link between 10p13–14 duplication, PS and CHI is a possibility. PMID:28458900

  6. Novel partial duplication of EYA1 causes branchiootic syndrome in a large Brazilian family.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vitor G L; Freitas, Erika L; Della-Rosa, Valter A; Lezirovitz, Karina; de Moraes, Ana Maria S M; Ramos, Silvia B; Oiticica, Jeanne; Alves, Leandro U; Pearson, Peter L; Rosenberg, Carla; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C

    2015-01-01

    To identify novel genetic causes of syndromic hearing loss in Brazil. To map a candidate chromosomal region through linkage studies in an extensive Brazilian family and identify novel pathogenic variants using sequencing and array-CGH. Brazilian pedigree with individuals affected by BO syndrome characterized by deafness and malformations of outer, middle and inner ear, auricular and cervical fistulae, but no renal abnormalities. Whole genome microarray-SNP scanning on samples of 11 affected individuals detected a multipoint Lod score of 2.6 in the EYA1 gene region (chromosome 8). Sequencing of EYA1 in affected patients did not reveal pathogenic mutations. However, oligonucleotide-array-CGH detected a duplication of 71.8Kb involving exons 4 to 10 of EYA1 (heterozygous state). Real-time-PCR confirmed the duplication in fourteen of fifteen affected individuals and absence in 13 unaffected individuals. The exception involved a consanguineous parentage and was assumed to involve a different genetic mechanism. Our findings implicate this EYA1 partial duplication segregating with BO phenotype in a Brazilian pedigree and is the first description of a large duplication leading to the BOR/BO syndrome.

  7. Distal 7q11.23 Duplication, an Emerging Microduplication Syndrome: A Case Report and Further Characterisation.

    PubMed

    Faundes, Víctor; Santa María, Lorena; Morales, Paulina; Curotto, Bianca; Parraguez, María M

    2016-10-01

    Chromosome 7q11.23 duplication syndrome is a well-recognised syndrome which involves the duplication of the same genes located in the Williams-Beuren critical region. However, in 2010, 4 patients were reported with a microduplication only in the HIP1 and YWHAG genes. We refer to this as a distal 7q11.23 duplication (dup7q11.23D). Here, we report the fifth de novo patient with dup7q11.23D, whose symptoms may be explained by YWHAG overexpression as was demonstrated recently in mice and obese patients. Finally, further studies will be necessary to delineate this emerging microduplication syndrome.

  8. Surgical Management of Duplication of the Pituitary Gland-Plus Syndrome With Epignathus, Cleft Palate, Duplication of Mandible, and Lobulated Tongue.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tadahide; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Sasaguri, Ken-Ichi; Ono, Shigeru; Maeda, Kosaku; Nishino, Hiroshi; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Mori, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-01

    A 1-day-old male infant was referred to our department for evaluation of multiple malformations in his oral cavity. He was diagnosed duplication of the pituitary gland-plus syndrome with epignathus, cleft palate, duplication of the mandible, and a lobulated tongue. A thumb-sized mass lesion was visible on the hard palate. The duplicated mandible and lower lip was fused at the midline. The alveolar ridge was protruding through a wide-cleft soft palate involving the uvula. Further examination showed a lobulated tongue, which was seen behind the duplicated part of the mandible. Five days after birth, tracheotomy and epignathus resection were performed. At 7 months of age, the excess tissue of the duplicated mandible was resected at the area of adhesion on the lingual side, and the duplicated tongue and lip were reconstructed. A palatoplasty was performed at 20 months of age. Thereafter, the patient's progress was uneventful, with no abnormality in swallowing. No recurrence of epignathus has been observed during 2 years of follow-up.

  9. Duplication 12q24----qter in an infant with Dandy-Walker syndrome.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, E A; Holden, J J

    1985-04-01

    A boy with the Dandy-Walker syndrome associated with multiple congenital abnormalities is described. Chromosomal analyses revealed an abnormal chromosome 21, inherited from his father who had a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 12 and 21: rcp(12;21)(q24.1;q22.1). The clinical features of this patient are compared with published descriptions for duplication 12q24----qter and a review of the literature pertaining to chromosomal anomalies found in other patients with the Dandy-Walker syndrome is presented.

  10. KBG syndrome involving a single-nucleotide duplication in ANKRD11

    PubMed Central

    Kleyner, Robert; Malcolmson, Janet; Tegay, David; Ward, Kenneth; Maughan, Annette; Maughan, Glenn; Nelson, Lesa; Wang, Kai; Robison, Reid; Lyon, Gholson J.

    2016-01-01

    KBG syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by neurological involvement and distinct facial, hand, and skeletal features. More than 70 cases have been reported; however, it is likely that KBG syndrome is underdiagnosed because of lack of comprehensive characterization of the heterogeneous phenotypic features. We describe the clinical manifestations in a male currently 13 years of age, who exhibited symptoms including epilepsy, severe developmental delay, distinct facial features, and hand anomalies, without a positive genetic diagnosis. Subsequent exome sequencing identified a novel de novo heterozygous single base pair duplication (c.6015dupA) in ANKRD11, which was validated by Sanger sequencing. This single-nucleotide duplication is predicted to lead to a premature stop codon and loss of function in ANKRD11, thereby implicating it as contributing to the proband's symptoms and yielding a molecular diagnosis of KBG syndrome. Before molecular diagnosis, this syndrome was not recognized in the proband, as several key features of the disorder were mild and were not recognized by clinicians, further supporting the concept of variable expressivity in many disorders. Although a diagnosis of cerebral folate deficiency has also been given, its significance for the proband's condition remains uncertain. PMID:27900361

  11. Duplication of the pituitary gland associated with multiple blastogenesis defects: Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG)-plus syndrome. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Erin A; Vadera, Sumeet; Goel, Rishi K; Khan, Fahd R; Crowe, Carol; Geertman, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a rare craniofacial developmental anomaly occurring during blastogenesis with postulated etiology such as incomplete twinning, teratogens, median cleft face syndrome or splitting of the notochord. The complex craniocaudal spectrum of blastogenesis defects associated with DPG is examined with an illustrative case. We report for the first time in the medical literature some unique associations with DPG, such as a clival encephalocele, third cerebral peduncle, duplicate odontoid process and a double tongue with independent volitional control. This patient also has the previously reported common associations such as duplicated sella, cleft palate, hypertelorism, callosal agenesis, hypothalamic enlargement, nasopharyngeal teratoma, fenestrated basilar artery and supernumerary teeth. This study also reviews 37 cases of DPG identified through MEDLINE literature search from 1880 to 2011. It provides a detailed analysis of the current case through physical examination and imaging. The authors propose that the developmental deformities associated with duplication of pituitary gland (DPG) occur as part of a developmental continuum, not as chance associations. Considering the fact that DPG is uniquely and certainly present throughout the spectrum of these blastogenesis defects, we suggest the term DPG-plus syndrome.

  12. Duplication of the pituitary gland associated with multiple blastogenesis defects: Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG)-plus syndrome. Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Erin A.; Vadera, Sumeet; Goel, Rishi K.; Khan, Fahd R.; Crowe, Carol; Geertman, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a rare craniofacial developmental anomaly occurring during blastogenesis with postulated etiology such as incomplete twinning, teratogens, median cleft face syndrome or splitting of the notochord. The complex craniocaudal spectrum of blastogenesis defects associated with DPG is examined with an illustrative case. Case Description: We report for the first time in the medical literature some unique associations with DPG, such as a clival encephalocele, third cerebral peduncle, duplicate odontoid process and a double tongue with independent volitional control. This patient also has the previously reported common associations such as duplicated sella, cleft palate, hypertelorism, callosal agenesis, hypothalamic enlargement, nasopharyngeal teratoma, fenestrated basilar artery and supernumerary teeth. This study also reviews 37 cases of DPG identified through MEDLINE literature search from 1880 to 2011. It provides a detailed analysis of the current case through physical examination and imaging. Conclusion: The authors propose that the developmental deformities associated with duplication of pituitary gland (DPG) occur as part of a developmental continuum, not as chance associations. Considering the fact that DPG is uniquely and certainly present throughout the spectrum of these blastogenesis defects, we suggest the term DPG-plus syndrome. PMID:22439114

  13. Multisite Semiautomated Clinical Data Repository for Duplication 15q Syndrome: Study Protocol and Early Uses.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oluwaseun Jessica; Smith, Ebony Jeannae; Viangteeravat, Teeradache; Huang, Eunice Y; Nagisetty, Naga Satya V Rao; Urraca, Nora; Lusk, Laina; Finucane, Brenda; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Young, Jennifer; Jeste, Shafali; Thibert, Ronald; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2017-10-18

    Chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1 duplication syndrome (Dup15q syndrome) is a rare disorder caused by duplications of chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1, resulting in a wide range of developmental disabilities in affected individuals. The Dup15q Alliance is an organization that provides family support and promotes research to improve the quality of life of patients living with Dup15q syndrome. Because of the low prevalence of this condition, the establishment of a single research repository would have been difficult and more time consuming without collaboration across multiple institutions. The goal of this project is to establish a national deidentified database with clinical and survey information on individuals diagnosed with Dup15q syndrome. The development of a multiclinic site repository for clinical and survey data on individuals with Dup15q syndrome was initiated and supported by the Dup15q Alliance. Using collaborative workflows, communication protocols, and stakeholder engagement tools, a comprehensive database of patient-centered information was built. We successfully established a self-report populating, centralized repository for Dup15q syndrome research. This repository also resulted in the development of standardized instruments that can be used for other studies relating to developmental disorders. By standardizing the data collection instruments, it allows us integrate our data with other national databases, such as the National Database for Autism Research. A substantial portion of the data collected from the questionnaires was facilitated through direct engagement of participants and their families. This allowed for a more complete set of information to be collected with a minimal turnaround time. We developed a repository that can efficiently be mined for shared clinical phenotypes observed at multiple clinic sites and used as a springboard for future clinical and basic research studies. ©Oluwaseun Jessica Ajayi, Ebony Jeannae Smith, Teeradache Viangteeravat

  14. Gene Duplication and the Evolution of Hemoglobin Isoform Differentiation in Birds*

    PubMed Central

    Grispo, Michael T.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E.; Storz, Jay F.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bird species co-express two functionally distinct hemoglobin (Hb) isoforms in definitive erythrocytes as follows: HbA (the major adult Hb isoform, with α-chain subunits encoded by the αA-globin gene) and HbD (the minor adult Hb isoform, with α-chain subunits encoded by the αD-globin gene). The αD-globin gene originated via tandem duplication of an embryonic α-like globin gene in the stem lineage of tetrapod vertebrates, which suggests the possibility that functional differentiation between the HbA and HbD isoforms may be attributable to a retained ancestral character state in HbD that harkens back to a primordial, embryonic function. To investigate this possibility, we conducted a combined analysis of protein biochemistry and sequence evolution to characterize the structural and functional basis of Hb isoform differentiation in birds. Functional experiments involving purified HbA and HbD isoforms from 11 different bird species revealed that HbD is characterized by a consistently higher O2 affinity in the presence of allosteric effectors such as organic phosphates and Cl− ions. In the case of both HbA and HbD, analyses of oxygenation properties under the two-state Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric model revealed that the pH dependence of Hb-O2 affinity stems primarily from changes in the O2 association constant of deoxy (T-state)-Hb. Ancestral sequence reconstructions revealed that the amino acid substitutions that distinguish the adult-expressed Hb isoforms are not attributable to the retention of an ancestral (pre-duplication) character state in the αD-globin gene that is shared with the embryonic α-like globin gene. PMID:22962007

  15. Gene duplication and the evolution of hemoglobin isoform differentiation in birds.

    PubMed

    Grispo, Michael T; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Storz, Jay F

    2012-11-02

    The majority of bird species co-express two functionally distinct hemoglobin (Hb) isoforms in definitive erythrocytes as follows: HbA (the major adult Hb isoform, with α-chain subunits encoded by the α(A)-globin gene) and HbD (the minor adult Hb isoform, with α-chain subunits encoded by the α(D)-globin gene). The α(D)-globin gene originated via tandem duplication of an embryonic α-like globin gene in the stem lineage of tetrapod vertebrates, which suggests the possibility that functional differentiation between the HbA and HbD isoforms may be attributable to a retained ancestral character state in HbD that harkens back to a primordial, embryonic function. To investigate this possibility, we conducted a combined analysis of protein biochemistry and sequence evolution to characterize the structural and functional basis of Hb isoform differentiation in birds. Functional experiments involving purified HbA and HbD isoforms from 11 different bird species revealed that HbD is characterized by a consistently higher O(2) affinity in the presence of allosteric effectors such as organic phosphates and Cl(-) ions. In the case of both HbA and HbD, analyses of oxygenation properties under the two-state Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric model revealed that the pH dependence of Hb-O(2) affinity stems primarily from changes in the O(2) association constant of deoxy (T-state)-Hb. Ancestral sequence reconstructions revealed that the amino acid substitutions that distinguish the adult-expressed Hb isoforms are not attributable to the retention of an ancestral (pre-duplication) character state in the α(D)-globin gene that is shared with the embryonic α-like globin gene.

  16. Reciprocal duplication of the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion on chromosome 7q11.23 is associated with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mulle, Jennifer Gladys; Pulver, Ann E; McGrath, John A; Wolyniec, Paula S; Dodd, Anne F; Cutler, David J; Sebat, Jonathan; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Nestadt, Gerald; Conrad, Donald F; Hurles, Matthew; Barnes, Chris P; Ikeda, Masashi; Iwata, Nakao; Levinson, Douglas F; Gejman, Pablo V; Sanders, Alan R; Duan, Jubao; Mitchell, Adele A; Peter, Inga; Sklar, Pamela; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Grozeva, Detelina; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Hultman, Christina M; Kähler, Anna K; Sullivan, Patrick F; Kirov, George; Warren, Stephen T

    2014-03-01

    Several copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated as susceptibility factors for schizophrenia (SZ). Some of these same CNVs also increase risk for autism spectrum disorders, suggesting an etiologic overlap between these conditions. Recently, de novo duplications of a region on chromosome 7q11.23 were associated with autism spectrum disorders. The reciprocal deletion of this region causes Williams-Beuren syndrome. We assayed an Ashkenazi Jewish cohort of 554 SZ cases and 1014 controls for genome-wide CNV. An excess of large rare and de novo CNVs were observed, including a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 7q11.23 identified in two unrelated patients. To test whether this 7q11.23 duplication is also associated with SZ, we obtained data for 14,387 SZ cases and 28,139 controls from seven additional studies with high-resolution genome-wide CNV detection. We performed a meta-analysis, correcting for study population of origin, to assess whether the duplication is associated with SZ. We found duplications at 7q11.23 in 11 of 14,387 SZ cases with only 1 in 28,139 control subjects (unadjusted odds ratio 21.52, 95% confidence interval: 3.13-922.6, p value 5.5 × 10(-5); adjusted odds ratio 10.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-79.62, p value .007). Of three SZ duplication carriers with detailed retrospective data, all showed social anxiety and language delay premorbid to SZ onset, consistent with both human studies and animal models of the 7q11.23 duplication. We have identified a new CNV associated with SZ. Reciprocal duplication of the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion at chromosome 7q11.23 confers an approximately tenfold increase in risk for SZ. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dendritic Arborization and Spine Dynamics Are Abnormal in the Mouse Model of MECP2 Duplication Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Minghui; Ash, Ryan T.; Baker, Steven A.; Suter, Bernhard; Ferguson, Andrew; Park, Jiyoung; Rudy, Jessica; Torsky, Sergey P.; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2013-01-01

    MECP2 duplication syndrome is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by intellectual disability, autism, motor abnormalities, and epilepsy. The disorder is caused by duplications spanning the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2), a protein involved in the modulation of chromatin and gene expression. MeCP2 is thought to play a role in maintaining the structural integrity of neuronal circuits. Loss of MeCP2 function causes Rett syndrome and results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology and decreased pyramidal dendritic arbor complexity and spine density. The consequences of MeCP2 overexpression on dendritic pathophysiology remain unclear. We used in vivo two-photon microscopy to characterize layer 5 pyramidal neuron spine turnover and dendritic arborization as a function of age in transgenic mice expressing the human MECP2 gene at twice the normal levels of MeCP2 (Tg1; Collins et al., 2004). We found that spine density in terminal dendritic branches is initially higher in young Tg1 mice but falls below control levels after postnatal week 12, approximately correlating with the onset of behavioral symptoms. Spontaneous spine turnover rates remain high in older Tg1 animals compared with controls, reflecting the persistence of an immature state. Both spine gain and loss rates are higher, with a net bias in favor of spine elimination. Apical dendritic arbors in both simple- and complex-tufted layer 5 Tg1 pyramidal neurons have more branches of higher order, indicating that MeCP2 overexpression induces dendritic overgrowth. P70S6K was hyperphosphorylated in Tg1 somatosensory cortex, suggesting that elevated mTOR signaling may underlie the observed increase in spine turnover and dendritic growth. PMID:24336718

  18. Prader-Willi-like syndrome in a patient with an Xq23q25 duplication.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, K G; Van Dyke, D L; Feldman, G L

    1998-11-16

    We report on a 24-year old woman with an Xq duplication and findings suggestive of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Her birth weight was at the 3rd centile and her birth length was less than the 3rd centile. She was hypotonic and had a weak cry as an infant. There were no feeding difficulties, although her mother reports that as an infant, she was "small for her age." Excessive weight gain began between 3 and 4 years. The patient's development was delayed and she received special education. She has a history of hiding food. She has a sleep disturbance disorder and inappropriate social behavior. At the age of 24 years her height was below the 5th centile and weight >95th centile. She has physical findings typical of PWS, skin picking, and speech articulation defects. Cytogenetic analysis showed a 46,X,dup(X)(q23q25) karyotype. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies using a chromosome X painting probe demonstrated that the rearrangement was intrachromosomal. The X-chromosome fold scoring technique was used to determine the X inactivation pattern and indicated that some cells expressed the abnormal X chromosome. Results of FISH studies using the SNRPN probe localized to 15q11q13 and DNA studies using the PW71B and SNRPN probes were normal. The duplicated X chromosome, random X inactivation pattern, and the negative molecular studies for PWS indicate that the abnormal X chromosome is the basis of this patient's phenotype. This patient emphasizes the importance of obtaining a karyotype even when a syndrome diagnosable by molecular methods is strongly suspected.

  19. Brief Report: Functional MRI of a Patient with 7q11.23 Duplication Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prontera, Paolo; Serino, Domenico; Caldini, Bernardo; Scarponi, Laura; Merla, Giuseppe; Testa, Giuseppe; Muti, Marco; Napolioni, Valerio; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Piccirilli, Massimo; Donti, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The duplication of the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) region (7q11.23) is a copy number variant associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One of the most intriguing aspects is that the reciprocal microdeletion causes WBS, characterized by hypersociability, marked empathy, and a relative capacity in verbal short-term memory and language.…

  20. Retention of duplicated long-wavelength opsins in mosquito lineages by positive selection and differential expression.

    PubMed

    Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; Zanis, Michael J; Hill, Catherine A

    2017-03-21

    Opsins are light sensitive receptors associated with visual processes. Insects typically possess opsins that are stimulated by ultraviolet, short and long wavelength (LW) radiation. Six putative LW-sensitive opsins predicted in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and eight in the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, suggest gene expansion in the Family Culicidae (mosquitoes) relative to other insects. Here we report the first detailed molecular and evolutionary analyses of LW opsins in three mosquito vectors, with a goal to understanding the molecular basis of opsin-mediated visual processes that could be exploited for mosquito control. Time of divergence estimates suggest that the mosquito LW opsins originated from 18 or 19 duplication events between 166.9/197.5 to 1.07/0.94 million years ago (MY) and that these likely occurred following the predicted divergence of the lineages Anophelinae and Culicinae 145-226 MY. Fitmodel analyses identified nine amino acid residues in the LW opsins that may be under positive selection. Of these, eight amino acids occur in the N and C termini and are shared among all three species, and one residue in TMIII was unique to culicine species. Alignment of 5' non-coding regions revealed potential Conserved Non-coding Sequences (CNS) and transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in seven pairs of LW opsin paralogs. Our analyses suggest opsin gene duplication and residues possibly associated with spectral tuning of LW-sensitive photoreceptors. We explore two mechanisms - positive selection and differential expression mediated by regulatory units in CNS - that may have contributed to the retention of LW opsin genes in Culicinae and Anophelinae. We discuss the evolution of mosquito LW opsins in the context of major Earth events and possible adaptation of mosquitoes to LW-dominated photo environments, and implications for mosquito control strategies based on disrupting vision

  1. Two patients with duplication of 17p11.2: The reciprocal of the Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.; Phelan, M.C.; Rogers, R.C.

    1996-05-17

    J.M. and H.G. are two unrelated male patients with developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis detected a duplication of 17p11.2 in both patients. The extent of the duplicated region was determined using single copy DNA probes: cen-D17S58-D17S29-D17S258-D17S71-D17S445-D17S122-tel. Four of the six markers, D17S29, D17S258, D17S71, and D17S445, were duplicated by dosage analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of H.G., using cosmids for locus D17S29, confirmed the duplication in 17p11.2. Because the deletion that causes the Smith-Magenis syndrome involves the same region of 17p11.2 as the duplication in these patients, the mechanism may be similar to that proposed for the reciprocal deletion/more » duplication event observed in Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A disease (CMT1A). 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  2. Comprehensive review of the duplication 3q syndrome and report of a patient with Currarino syndrome and de novo duplication 3q26.32-q27.2.

    PubMed

    Dworschak, G C; Crétolle, C; Hilger, A; Engels, H; Korsch, E; Reutter, H; Ludwig, M

    2017-05-01

    Partial duplications of the long arm of chromosome 3, dup(3q), are a rare but well-described condition, sharing features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Around two thirds of cases are derived from unbalanced translocations, whereas pure dup(3q) have rarely been reported. Here, we provide an extensive review of the literature on dup(3q). This search revealed several patients with caudal malformations and anomalies, suggesting that caudal malformations or anomalies represent an inherent phenotypic feature of dup(3q). In this context, we report a patient with a pure de novo duplication 3q26.32-q27.2. The patient had the clinical diagnosis of Currarino syndrome (CS) (characterized by the triad of sacral anomalies, anorectal malformations and a presacral mass) and additional features, frequently detected in patients with a dup(3q). Mutations within the MNX1 gene were found to be causative in CS but no MNX1 mutation could be detected in our patient. Our comprehensive search for candidate genes located in the critical region of the duplication 3q syndrome, 3q26.3-q27, revealed a so far neglected phenotypic overlap of dup(3q) and the Pierpont syndrome, associated with a mutation of the TBL1XR1 gene on 3q26.32. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein L37 is encoded by duplicate genes that are differentially expressed.

    PubMed

    Tornow, J; Santangelo, G M

    1994-06-01

    A duplicate copy of the RPL37A gene (encoding ribosomal protein L37) was cloned and sequenced. The coding region of RPL37B is very similar to that of RPL37A, with only one conservative amino-acid difference. However, the intron and flanking sequences of the two genes are extremely dissimilar. Disruption experiments indicate that the two loci are not functionally equivalent: disruption of RPL37B was insignificant, but disruption of RPL37A severely impaired the growth rate of the cell. When both RPL37 loci are disrupted, the cell is unable to grow at all, indicating that rpL37 is an essential protein. The functional disparity between the two RPL37 loci could be explained by differential gene expression. The results of two experiments support this idea: gene fusion of RPL37A to a reporter gene resulted in six-fold higher mRNA levels than was generated by the same reporter gene fused to RPL37B, and a modest increase in gene dosage of RPL37B overcame the lack of a functional RPL37A gene.

  4. Distinguishing response to names in Rett and MECP2 Duplication syndrome: An ERP study of auditory social information processing.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sarika U; Katzenstein, Ashley; Jones, Dorita; Key, Alexandra P

    2017-11-15

    Despite significant advances at the level of basic research, the characterization of higher-level processes in Rett and MECP2 Duplication syndrome remains understudied. In this pilot study, we assessed social-emotional information processing by testing whether children (ages 4-12years) with Rett (n=9) and MECP2 Duplication syndrome (n=7) distinguished their own spoken name from other names. We hypothesized that own and familiar names would elicit more positive parietal P300 responses than unknown names, and that the groups would have different neural responses to these stimuli. The MECP2 Duplication group partially mirrored the parietal responses to own name observed in typically developing participants, and better name discrimination correlated with more adaptive behaviors. Conversely, participants with RTT did not resemble the typical group, and showed greater responses to close other names at frontal/central regions. These results may reflect the different consequences of too much (MECP2 Duplication) vs. too little (RTT) MeCP2 protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptations to Endosymbiosis in a Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Association: Differential Gene Expression and Specific Gene Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Magnone, Virginie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion), which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays) from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones) or aposymbiotic (also called bleached) A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm). A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i) a key vitamin K–dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii) two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii) host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both in the

  6. 4p terminal deletion and 11p subtelomeric duplication detected by genomic microarray in a patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and an atypical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, David A; Carey, John C; Cowley, Brett C; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Mao, Rong; Brothman, Arthur R

    2004-12-01

    We report a de novo cryptic 11p duplication found by genomic microarray with a cytogenetically detected 4p deletion. Terminal 4p deletions cause Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, but the phenotype probably was modified by the paternally derived 11p duplication. This emphasizes the clinical utility of genomic microarray.

  7. A deletion and a duplication in distal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome region. Clinical implications and review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; Nevado, Julián; Santos, Fernando; Heine-Suñer, Damià; Martinez-Glez, Victor; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Palomo, Rebeca; Delicado, Alicia; Pajares, Isidora López; Palomares, María; García-Guereta, Luis; Valverde, Eva; Hawkins, Federico; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals affected with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes present with both phenotypic diversity and variable expressivity. The most frequent clinical features include conotruncal congenital heart defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency, hypocalcemia and a characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. The etiology in most patients is a 3 Mb recurrent deletion in region 22q11.2. However, cases of infrequent deletions and duplications with different sizes and locations have also been reported, generally with a milder, slightly different phenotype for duplications but with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation to date. Methods We present a 7 month-old male patient with surgically corrected ASD and multiple VSDs, and dysmorphic facial features not clearly suggestive of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and a newborn male infant with cleft lip and palate and upslanting palpebral fissures. Karyotype, FISH, MLPA, microsatellite markers segregation studies and SNP genotyping by array-CGH were performed in both patients and parents. Results Karyotype and FISH with probe N25 were normal for both patients. MLPA analysis detected a partial de novo 1.1 Mb deletion in one patient and a novel partial familial 0.4 Mb duplication in the other. Both of these alterations were located at a distal position within the commonly deleted region in 22q11.2. These rearrangements were confirmed and accurately characterized by microsatellite marker segregation studies and SNP array genotyping. Conclusion The phenotypic diversity found for deletions and duplications supports a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in the vicinity of the LCRC-LCRD interval of the 22q11.2 chromosomal region, whereas the high presence of duplications in normal individuals supports their role as polymorphisms. We suggest that any hypothetical correlation between the clinical phenotype and the size and location of these alterations may be masked by other genetic and/or epigenetic modifying factors. PMID

  8. Transducin Duplicates in the Zebrafish Retina and Pineal Complex: Differential Specialisation after the Teleost Tetraploidisation

    PubMed Central

    Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation. PMID:25806532

  9. 11p15 duplication and 13q34 deletion with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and factor VII deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Dorota; Kugaudo, Monika; Tańska, Anna; Wawrzkiewicz-Witkowska, Angelika; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Marzena; Cieślikowska, Agata; Ciara, Elżbieta; Krajewska-Walasek, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Here we report a patient with 11p15.4p15.5 duplication and 13q34 deletion presenting with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and moderate deficiency of factor VII (FVII). The duplication was initially diagnosed on methylation-sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Array comparative genome hybridization confirmed its presence and indicated a 13q34 distal deletion. The patient's clinical symptoms, including developmental delay and facial dysmorphism, were typical of BWS with paternal 11p15 trisomy. Partial 13q monosomy in this patient is associated with moderate deficiency of FVII and may also overlap with a few symptoms of paternal 11p15 trisomy such as developmental delay and some facial features. To our knowledge this is the first report of 11p15.4p15.5 duplication associated with deletion of 13q34 and FVII deficiency. Moreover, this report emphasizes the importance of detailed clinical as well as molecular examinations in patients with BWS features and developmental delay. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Differentiation of lepidoptera scale cells from epidermal stem cells followed by ecdysone-regulated DNA duplication and scale secreting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shenglei; Huang, Wuren; Geng, Lei; Beerntsen, Brenda T; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2017-01-01

    Integuments are the first line to protect insects from physical damage and pathogenic infection. In lepidopteran insects, they undergo distinct morphology changes such as scale formation during metamorphosis. However, we know little about integument development and scale formation during this stage. Here, we use the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as a model and show that stem cells in the integument of each segment, but not intersegmental membrane, divide into two scale precursor cells during the spinning stage. In young pupae, the scale precursor cell divides again. One of the daughter cells becomes a mature scale-secreting cell that undergoes several rounds of DNA duplication and the other daughter cell undergoes apoptosis later on. This scale precursor cell division is crucial to the development and differentiation of scale-secreting cells because scale production can be blocked after treatment with the cell division inhibitor paclitaxel. Subsequently, the growth of scale-secreting cells is under the control of 20-hydroxyecdysone but not juvenile hormone since injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone inhibited scale formation. Further work demonstrated that 20-hydroxyecdysone injection inhibits DNA duplication in scale-secreting cells while the expression of scale-forming gene ASH1 was down-regulated by BR-C Z2. Therefore, this research demonstrates that the scale cells of the silkworm develops through stem cell division prior to pupation and then another wave of cell division differentiates these cells into scale secreting cells soon after entrance into the pupal stage. Additionally, DNA duplication and scale production in the scale-secreting cells were found to be under the regulation of 20-hydroxyecdysone.

  11. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversal and peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., (2004); AJMGA 127: 149-151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject's phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain of function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 22q11.2q13 Duplication Including SOX10 causes Sex-reversal and Peripheral Demyelinating Neuropathy, Central Dysmyelinating Leukodystrophy, Waardenburg Syndrome and Hirschsprung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E.; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., 2004; Ajmga 127: 149–151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject’s phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain-of-function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. PMID:28328136

  13. A case of duplication of 13q32-->qter and deletion of 18p11.32-->pter with mild phenotype: Patau syndrome and duplications of 13q revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Helali, N; Iafolla, A K; Kahler, S G; Qumsiyeh, M B

    1996-01-01

    A mild clinical phenotype is described in a patient with duplication of 13q32-->qter and a small deletion of 18p11.32-->pter. The 8 year old white male presented with psychomotor retardation, tethered cord, soft, fleshy ears, and normal facial features except for thin lips. The karyotype was found to be 46, XY, der(18)t(13;18) (q32;p11.32) pat confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). A review of earlier studies showed that features of trisomy 13 are found in cases of duplication of bands 13q14 to qter. None of the cardinal features of trisomy 13 was seen in this patient. The absence of polydactyly, hernias, urogenital abnormalities, and haemangiomas contrast this condition with both trisomy 13 and duplication of 13q14-22-->qter. Possible explanations for lack of Patau syndrome in this patient could include restriction of the critical region for Patau syndrome to duplication 13q14-->13q32 with variable expression, gene interactions, or interchromosomal effects. Images PMID:8818949

  14. A case of duplication of 13q32-->qter and deletion of 18p11.32-->pter with mild phenotype: Patau syndrome and duplications of 13q revisited.

    PubMed

    Helali, N; Iafolla, A K; Kahler, S G; Qumsiyeh, M B

    1996-07-01

    A mild clinical phenotype is described in a patient with duplication of 13q32-->qter and a small deletion of 18p11.32-->pter. The 8 year old white male presented with psychomotor retardation, tethered cord, soft, fleshy ears, and normal facial features except for thin lips. The karyotype was found to be 46, XY, der(18)t(13;18) (q32;p11.32) pat confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). A review of earlier studies showed that features of trisomy 13 are found in cases of duplication of bands 13q14 to qter. None of the cardinal features of trisomy 13 was seen in this patient. The absence of polydactyly, hernias, urogenital abnormalities, and haemangiomas contrast this condition with both trisomy 13 and duplication of 13q14-22-->qter. Possible explanations for lack of Patau syndrome in this patient could include restriction of the critical region for Patau syndrome to duplication 13q14-->13q32 with variable expression, gene interactions, or interchromosomal effects.

  15. Adaptations to High Salt in a Halophilic Protist: Differential Expression and Gene Acquisitions through Duplications and Gene Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Tommy; Roger, Andrew J.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of halophiles to thrive in extreme hypersaline habitats derives partly from the tight regulation of ion homeostasis, the salt-dependent adjustment of plasma membrane fluidity, and the increased capability to manage oxidative stress. Halophilic bacteria, and archaea have been intensively studied, and substantial research has been conducted on halophilic fungi, and the green alga Dunaliella. By contrast, there have been very few investigations of halophiles that are phagotrophic protists, i.e., protozoa. To gather fundamental knowledge about salt adaptation in these organisms, we studied the transcriptome-level response of Halocafeteria seosinensis (Stramenopiles) grown under contrasting salinities. We provided further evolutionary context to our analysis by identifying genes that underwent recent duplications. Genes that were highly responsive to salinity variations were involved in stress response (e.g., chaperones), ion homeostasis (e.g., Na+/H+ transporter), metabolism and transport of lipids (e.g., sterol biosynthetic genes), carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., glycosidases), and signal transduction pathways (e.g., transcription factors). A significantly high proportion (43%) of duplicated genes were also differentially expressed, accentuating the importance of gene expansion in adaptation by H. seosinensis to high salt environments. Furthermore, we found two genes that were lateral acquisitions from bacteria, and were also highly up-regulated and highly expressed at high salt, suggesting that this evolutionary mechanism could also have facilitated adaptation to high salt. We propose that a transition toward high-salt adaptation in the ancestors of H. seosinensis required the acquisition of new genes via duplication, and some lateral gene transfers (LGTs), as well as the alteration of transcriptional programs, leading to increased stress resistance, proper establishment of ion gradients, and modification of cell structure properties like membrane

  16. The Interstitial Duplication 15q11.2-q13 Syndrome Includes Autism, Mild Facial Anomalies and a Characteristic EEG Signature

    PubMed Central

    Urraca, Nora; Cleary, Julie; Brewer, Victoria; Pivnick, Eniko K; McVicar, Kathryn; Thibert, Ronald L; Schanen, N Carolyn; Esmer, Carmen; Lamport, Dustin; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal copy number variants (CNV) are the most common genetic lesion found in autism. Many autism-associated CNVs are duplications of chromosome 15q. Although most cases of interstitial (int) dup(15) that present clinically are de novo and maternally derived or inherited, both pathogenic and unaffected paternal duplications of 15q have been identified. We performed a phenotype/genotype analysis of individuals with interstitial 15q duplications to broaden our understanding of the 15q syndrome and investigate the contribution of 15q duplication to increased autism risk. All subjects were recruited solely on the basis of interstitial duplication 15q11.2-q13 status. Comparative array genome hybridization was used to determine the duplication size and boundaries while the methylation status of the maternally methylated small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N gene was used to determine the parent of origin of the duplication. We determined the duplication size and parental origin for 14 int dup(15) subjects: 10 maternal and 4 paternal cases. The majority of int dup(15) cases recruited were maternal in origin, most likely due to our finding that maternal duplication was coincident with autism spectrum disorder. The size of the duplication did not correlate with the severity of the phenotype as established by Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale calibrated severity score. We identified phenotypes not comprehensively described before in this cohort including mild facial dysmorphism, sleep problems and an unusual electroencephalogram variant. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the maternally expressed ubiquitin protein ligase E3A gene is primarily responsible for the autism phenotype in int dup(15) since all maternal cases tested presented on the autism spectrum. PMID:23495136

  17. Tandem duplication within a Neurofibromatosis type I (NFI) gene exon in a family with features of Watson syndrome and Noonan syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tassabehji, M.; Strachan, T.; Colley, A.

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), Watson syndrome (WS), and Noonan syndrome (NS) show some overlap in clinical manifestations. In addition, WS has been shown to be linked to markers flanking the NF1 locus and a deletion at the NF1 locus demonstrated in a WS patient. This suggests either that WS and NF1 are allelic or the phenotypes arise from mutations in very closely linked genes. Here the authors provide evidence for the former by demonstrating a mutation in the NF1 gene in a family with features of both WS and NS. The mutation is an almost perfect in-frame tandem duplication ofmore » 42 bases in exon 28 of the NF1 gene. Unlike the mutations previously described in classical NF1, which show a preponderance of null alleles, the mutation in this family would be expected to result in a mutant neurofibromin product. 31 refs., 2 figs.« less

  18. A method for determining haploid and triploid genotypes and their association with vascular phenotypes in Williams syndrome and 7q11.23 duplication syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Michael D; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Yao, Yin; Nash, Tiffany; Dickinson, Dwight; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Mervis, Carolyn B; Berman, Karen F

    2018-04-04

    Williams syndrome ([WS], 7q11.23 hemideletion) and 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (Dup7) show contrasting syndromic symptoms. However, within each group there is considerable interindividual variability in the degree to which these phenotypes are expressed. Though software exists to identify areas of copy number variation (CNV) from commonly-available SNP-chip data, this software does not provide non-diploid genotypes in CNV regions. Here, we describe a method for identifying haploid and triploid genotypes in CNV regions, and then, as a proof-of-concept for applying this information to explain clinical variability, we test for genotype-phenotype associations. Blood samples for 25 individuals with WS and 13 individuals with Dup7 were genotyped with Illumina-HumanOmni5M SNP-chips. PennCNV and in-house code were used to make genotype calls for each SNP in the 7q11.23 locus. We tested for association between the presence of aortic arteriopathy and genotypes of the remaining (haploid in WS) or duplicated (triploid in Dup7) alleles. Haploid calls in the 7q11.23 region were made for 99.0% of SNPs in the WS group, and triploid calls for 98.8% of SNPs in those with Dup7. The G allele of SNP rs2528795 in the ELN gene was associated with aortic stenosis in WS participants (p < 0.0049) while the A allele of the same SNP was associated with aortic dilation in Dup7. Commonly available SNP-chip information can be used to make haploid and triploid calls in individuals with CNVs and then to relate variability in specific genes to variability in syndromic phenotypes, as demonstrated here using aortic arteriopathy. This work sets the stage for similar genotype-phenotype analyses in CNVs where phenotypes may be more complex and/or where there is less information about genetic mechanisms.

  19. Differential diagnosis of common tremor syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bhidayasiri, R

    2005-01-01

    Tremor is one of the most common involuntary movement disorders seen in clinical practice. In addition to the detailed history, the differential diagnosis is mainly clinical based on the distinction at rest, postural and intention, activation condition, frequency, and topographical distribution. The causes of tremor are heterogeneous and it can present alone (for example, essential tremor) or as a part of a neurological syndrome (for example, multiple sclerosis). Essential tremor and the tremor of Parkinson's disease are the most common tremors encountered in clinical practice. This article focuses on a practical approach to these different forms of tremor and how to distinguish them clinically. Evidence supporting various strategies used in the differentiation is then presented, followed by a review of formal guidelines or recommendations when they exist. PMID:16344298

  20. Differentiated thyroid cancer associated with intestinal polyposis syndromes: a review.

    PubMed

    Harb, William J; Sturgis, Erich M

    2009-11-01

    Intestinal polyposis syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Cowden's syndrome, are often associated with extraintestinal manifestations, and while many of these manifestations are benign, malignant extraintestinal manifestations, such as differentiated thyroid cancers, do occur. Although differentiated thyroid cancers (ie, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas) are associated with multiple syndromes, they are most commonly associated with intestinal polyposis syndromes. In the general population, the probability of developing thyroid cancer by age 65 years is only .5%. However, 1% to 2% of patients with FAP develop papillary thyroid carcinoma, the most common extraintestinal malignancy in patients with FAP. Also, up to 10% of patients with Cowden's syndrome will develop follicular thyroid carcinoma. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of FAP, Cowden's syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, to discuss in detail the associations between intestinal polyposis syndromes and differentiated thyroid cancers, and to provide suggestions for screening and managing these diseases. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009.

  1. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-02-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice.

  2. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE PAGES

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm –2 s –1 ( 200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light ( 200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm –2 s –1 ( 1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm –2 s –1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  3. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. Results For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m−2 s−1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m−2 s−1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m−2 s−1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown. Conclusion Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to

  4. Familial 4.3 Mb duplication of 21q22 sheds new light on the Down syndrome critical region

    PubMed Central

    Ronan, Anne; Fagan, Kerry; Christie, Louise; Conroy, Jeffrey; Nowak, Norma J; Turner, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    A 4.3 Mb duplication of chromosome 21 bands q22.13–q22.2 was diagnosed by interphase fluorescent in‐situ hybridisation (FISH) in a 31‐week gestational age baby with cystic hygroma and hydrops; the duplication was later found in the mother and in her 8‐year‐old daughter by the same method and confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). All had the facial gestalt of Down syndrome (DS). This is the smallest accurately defined duplication of chromosome 21 reported with a DS phenotype. The duplication encompasses the gene DYRK1 but not DSCR1 or DSCAM, all of which have previously been implicated in the causation of DS. Previous karyotype analysis and telomere screening of the mother, and karyotype analysis and metaphase FISH of a chorionic villus sample, had all failed to reveal the duplication. The findings in this family add to the identification and delineation of a “critical region” for the DS phenotype on chromosome 21. Cryptic chromosomal abnormalities can be missed on a routine karyotype for investigation of abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings, lending support to the use of aCGH analysis in this setting. PMID:17237124

  5. Intrachromosomal 3p insertion as a cause of reciprocal pure interstitial deletion and duplication in two siblings: further delineation of the emerging proximal 3p deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lloveras, Elisabet; Vendrell, Teresa; Fernández, Asunción; Castells, Neus; Cueto, Ana; del Campo, Miguel; Hernando, Cristina; Villa, Olaya; Plaja, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Very few cases of constitutional interstitial deletions of the proximal short arm of chromosome 3 have been reported; however, the proximal 3p deletion is emerging as a clinically recognizable syndrome. We present an intrachromosomal insertion of 3p12.3p14.1 in a phenotypic normal man (46,XY,ins(3)(p25p12.3p14.1)) which is responsible for the unbalanced karyotype in 2 affected offspring, one with a 3p12.3p14.1 interstitial deletion and the other with a reciprocal duplication. The exceptionality of these 2 reciprocal recombinants contributes to a better definition of the proximal 3p deletion syndrome and its duplication counterpart.

  6. Evaluation of a patient with classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to a 9q34 duplication affecting COL5A1.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Ohashi, Ikuko; Naruto, Takuya; Ida, Kazumi; Enomoto, Yumi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Jun-Ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2018-03-09

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scarring, and joint hypermobility. The condition typically results from mutations in COL5A1 or COL5A2 leading to the functional haploinsufficiency. Here, we report of a 24-year-old male with mild intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and a phenotype consistent with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type. A copy number variant-calling algorithm from panel sequencing data identified the deletions exons 2-11 and duplications of exons 12-67 within COL5A1. Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed a 94 kb deletion at 9q34.3 involving exons 2-11 of COL5A1, and a 3.4 Mb duplication at 9q34.3 involving exons 12-67 of COL5A1. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  7. Differential diagnostic of the burnout syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Korczak, Dieter; Huber, Beate; Kister, Christine

    2010-01-01

    it can have also negative effects on significant others (for example patients). There is no evidence for stigmatization of persons with burnout. Discussion The evidence of the majority of the studies is predominantly low. Most of the studies are descriptive and explorative. Self-assessment tools are mainly used, overall the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Objective data like medical parameters, health status, sick notes or judgements by third persons are extremely seldomly included in the studies. The sample construction is coincidental in the majority of cases, response rates are often low. Almost no longitudinal studies are available. There are insufficient results on the stability and the duration of related symptoms. The ambiguity of the burnout diagnosis is regularly neglected in the studies. Conclusions The authors conclude, that (1) further research, particularly high-quality studies are needed, to broaden the understanding of the burnout syndrome. Equally (2) a definition of the burnout syndrome has to be found which goes beyond the published understanding of burnout and is based on common scientific consent. Furthermore, there is a need (3) for finding a standardized, international accepted and valid procedure for the differentiated diagnostics of burnout and for (4) developing a third party assessment tool for the diagnosis of burnout. Finally, (5) the economic effects and implication of burnout diagnostics on the economy, the health insurances and the patients have to be analysed. PMID:21289882

  8. Prevalence and Spectrum of Large Deletions or Duplications in the Major Long QT Syndrome-Susceptibility Genes and Implications for Long QT Syndrome Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Tester, David J.; Benton, Amber J.; Train, Laura; Deal, Barbara; Baudhuin, Linnea M.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac channelopathy associated with syncope, seizures, and sudden death. Approximately 75% of LQTS is due to mutations in genes encoding for three cardiac ion channel alpha-subunits (LQT1-3). However, traditional mutational analyses have limited detection capabilities for atypical mutations such as large gene rearrangements. Here, we set out to determine the prevalence and spectrum of large deletions/duplications in the major LQTS-susceptibility genes among unrelated patients who were mutation-negative following point mutation analysis of LQT1-12-susceptibility genes. Forty-two unrelated clinically strong LQTS patients were analyzed using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a quantitative fluorescent technique for detecting multiple exon deletions and duplications. The SALSA-MLPA LQTS Kit from MRC-Holland was used to analyze the three major LQTS-associated genes: KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A and the two minor genes: KCNE1 and KCNE2. Overall, 2 gene rearrangements were found in 2/42 (4.8%, CI, 1.7–11%) unrelated patients. A deletion of KCNQ1 exon 3 was identified in a 10 year-old Caucasian boy with a QTc of 660 milliseconds (ms), a personal history of exercise-induced syncope, and a family history of syncope. A deletion of KCNQ1 exon 7 was identified in a 17 year-old Caucasian girl with a QTc of 480 ms, a personal history of exercise-induced syncope, and a family history of sudden cardiac death. In conclusion, since nearly 5% of patients with genetically elusive LQTS had large genomic rearrangements involving the canonical LQTS-susceptibility genes, reflex genetic testing to investigate genomic rearrangements may be of clinical value. PMID:20920651

  9. Prevalence and spectrum of large deletions or duplications in the major long QT syndrome-susceptibility genes and implications for long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Tester, David J; Benton, Amber J; Train, Laura; Deal, Barbara; Baudhuin, Linnea M; Ackerman, Michael J

    2010-10-15

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac channelopathy associated with syncope, seizures, and sudden death. Approximately 75% of LQTS is due to mutations in genes encoding for 3 cardiac ion channel α-subunits (LQT1 to LQT3). However, traditional mutational analyses have limited detection capabilities for atypical mutations such as large gene rearrangements. We set out to determine the prevalence and spectrum of large deletions/duplications in the major LQTS-susceptibility genes in unrelated patients who were mutation negative after point mutation analysis of LQT1- to LQT12-susceptibility genes. Forty-two unrelated, clinically strong LQTS patients were analyzed using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, a quantitative fluorescent technique for detecting multiple exon deletions and duplications. The SALSA multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification LQTS kit from MRC-Holland was used to analyze the 3 major LQTS-associated genes, KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A, and the 2 minor genes, KCNE1 and KCNE2. Overall, 2 gene rearrangements were found in 2 of 42 unrelated patients (4.8%, confidence interval 1.7 to 11). A deletion of KCNQ1 exon 3 was identified in a 10-year-old Caucasian boy with a corrected QT duration of 660 ms, a personal history of exercise-induced syncope, and a family history of syncope. A deletion of KCNQ1 exon 7 was identified in a 17-year-old Caucasian girl with a corrected QT duration of 480 ms, a personal history of exercise-induced syncope, and a family history of sudden cardiac death. In conclusion, because nearly 5% of patients with genetically elusive LQTS had large genomic rearrangements involving the canonical LQTS-susceptibility genes, reflex genetic testing to investigate genomic rearrangements may be of clinical value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal detection of a de novo terminal inverted duplication 4p in a fetus with the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Beaujard, M-P; Jouannic, J-M; Bessières, B; Borie, C; Martin-Luis, I; Fallet-Bianco, C; Portnoï, M-F

    2005-06-01

    To present the prenatal diagnosis of a de novo terminal inversion duplication of the short arm of chromosome 4 and a review of the literature. An amniocentesis for chromosome analysis was performed at 33 weeks' gestation because ultrasound examination showed a female fetus with multiple abnormalities consisting of severe intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, a cleft lip and renal hypoplasia. Cytogenetic analysis and FISH studies of the cultured amniocytes revealed a de novo terminal inversion duplication of the short arm of chromosome 4 characterized by a duplication of 4p14-p16.1 chromosome region concomitant with a terminal deletion 4p16.1-pter. The karyotype was thus: 46,XX, inv dup del (4)(:p14-->p16.1::p16.1-->qter). The parents opted to terminate the pregnancy. Fetopathological examination showed dysmorphic features and abnormalities consistent with a Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) diagnosis, clinical manifestations of partial 4p trisomy being mild. Although relatively rare, inverted duplications have been reported repeatedly in an increasing number of chromosomes. Only two previous cases with de novo inv dup del (4p) and one with tandem dup 4p have been reported, all of them associated with a 4pter deletion. We report the first case diagnosed prenatally. Breakpoints are variable, resulting in different abnormal phenotype. In our case, clinical manifestations resulted in a WHS phenotype.

  11. Duplicate editorial on duplicate publication.

    PubMed

    Corson, Stephen L; Decherney, Alan H

    2005-04-01

    The authors define and discuss the various forms taken by duplicate publications, and provide suggested remedies to help authors, editors, reviewers, and readers avoid this form of internal plagiarism.

  12. A novel unstable duplication upstream of HAS2 predisposes to a breed-defining skin phenotype and a periodic fever syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei dogs.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mia; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Truvé, Katarina; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Puppo, Francesca; Mauceli, Evan; Quilez, Javier; Tonomura, Noriko; Zanna, Giordana; Docampo, Maria José; Bassols, Anna; Avery, Anne C; Karlsson, Elinor K; Thomas, Anne; Kastner, Daniel L; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Webster, Matthew T; Sanchez, Armand; Hedhammar, Ake; Remmers, Elaine F; Andersson, Leif; Ferrer, Lluis; Tintle, Linda; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA) signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (p(raw) = 2.3 × 10⁻⁶, p(genome) = 0.01). Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2) gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p < 0.0001). When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.

  13. A Novel Unstable Duplication Upstream of HAS2 Predisposes to a Breed-Defining Skin Phenotype and a Periodic Fever Syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Mia; Mauceli, Evan; Quilez, Javier; Tonomura, Noriko; Zanna, Giordana; Docampo, Maria José; Bassols, Anna; Avery, Anne C.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Thomas, Anne; Kastner, Daniel L.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Webster, Matthew T.; Sanchez, Armand; Hedhammar, Åke; Remmers, Elaine F.; Andersson, Leif; Ferrer, Lluis; Tintle, Linda; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA) signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (praw = 2.3×10−6, pgenome = 0.01). Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2) gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p<0.0001). When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation. PMID:21437276

  14. Restriction of the Patau syndrome to duplication of 13q22{yields}q.32 and possible role of interphase nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Helali, A.N.; Jafolla, A.K.; Oumsiych, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    A 10-year-old white male presented with mild microcephaly, slight growth and psychomotor retardation, soft fleshy ears, and normal facial features except for thin lips. No other significant anomalies were reported except for tethered cord discovered at age 8 years. The karyotype was found to be 46,XY,der(18)t(13;18)(q32;p11.32)pat. The mild phenotype appears to be primarily due to the duplication of 13q32{yields}qter. None of the cardinal features of trisomy 13 are found in cases of duplication of bands 13q22 to qter. This case shows that Patau syndrome phenotype does not originate by duplication of 13q32{yields}qter and may thus be restricted to 13q22 tomore » 13q32. The variability in phenotypes points to an alternative explanation to the classical one of additive and interactive gene effects. This model involves effects of changes in chromosome position in the interphase nucleus on gene expression.« less

  15. Copy number variation at the 7q11.23 segmental duplications is a susceptibility factor for the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion

    PubMed Central

    Cuscó, Ivon; Corominas, Roser; Bayés, Mònica; Flores, Raquel; Rivera-Brugués, Núria; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.

    2008-01-01

    Large copy number variants (CNVs) have been recently found as structural polymorphisms of the human genome of still unknown biological significance. CNVs are significantly enriched in regions with segmental duplications or low-copy repeats (LCRs). Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a heterozygous deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23 mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between large flanking LCRs and facilitated by a structural variant of the region, a ∼2-Mb paracentric inversion present in 20%–25% of WBS-transmitting progenitors. We now report that eight out of 180 (4.44%) WBS-transmitting progenitors are carriers of a CNV, displaying a chromosome with large deletion of LCRs. The prevalence of this CNV among control individuals and non-transmitting progenitors is much lower (1%, n = 600), thus indicating that it is a predisposing factor for the WBS deletion (odds ratio 4.6-fold, P = 0.002). LCR duplications were found in 2.22% of WBS-transmitting progenitors but also in 1.16% of controls, which implies a non–statistically significant increase in WBS-transmitting progenitors. We have characterized the organization and breakpoints of these CNVs, encompassing ∼100–300 kb of genomic DNA and containing several pseudogenes but no functional genes. Additional structural variants of the region have also been defined, all generated by NAHR between different blocks of segmental duplications. Our data further illustrate the highly dynamic structure of regions rich in segmental duplications, such as the WBS locus, and indicate that large CNVs can act as susceptibility alleles for disease-associated genomic rearrangements in the progeny. PMID:18292220

  16. Autopolyploidy genome duplication preserves other ancient genome duplications in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kris A; Davidson, William S

    2017-01-01

    Salmonids (e.g. Atlantic salmon, Pacific salmon, and trouts) have a long legacy of genome duplication. In addition to three ancient genome duplications that all teleosts are thought to share, salmonids have had one additional genome duplication. We explored a methodology for untangling these duplications from each other to better understand them in Atlantic salmon. In this methodology, homeologous regions (paralogous/duplicated genomic regions originating from a whole genome duplication) from the most recent genome duplication were assumed to have duplicated genes at greater density and have greater sequence similarity. This assumption was used to differentiate duplicated gene pairs in Atlantic salmon that are either from the most recent genome duplication or from earlier duplications. From a comparison with multiple vertebrate species, it is clear that Atlantic salmon have retained more duplicated genes from ancient genome duplications than other vertebrates--often at higher density in the genome and containing fewer synonymous mutations. It may be that polysomic inheritance is the mechanism responsible for maintaining ancient gene duplicates in salmonids. Polysomic inheritance (when multiple chromosomes pair during meiosis) is thought to be relatively common in salmonids compared to other vertebrate species. These findings illuminate how genome duplications may not only increase the number of duplicated genes, but may also be involved in the maintenance of them from previous genome duplications as well.

  17. Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome is caused by a 40-kb upstream duplication that leads to increased and ectopic expression of the BMP antagonist GREM1.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Emma; Leedham, Simon; Lewis, Annabelle; Segditsas, Stefania; Becker, Martin; Cuadrado, Pedro Rodenas; Davis, Hayley; Kaur, Kulvinder; Heinimann, Karl; Howarth, Kimberley; East, James; Taylor, Jenny; Thomas, Huw; Tomlinson, Ian

    2012-05-06

    Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) is characterized by apparent autosomal dominant inheritance of multiple types of colorectal polyp, with colorectal carcinoma occurring in a high proportion of affected individuals. Here, we use genetic mapping, copy-number analysis, exclusion of mutations by high-throughput sequencing, gene expression analysis and functional assays to show that HMPS is caused by a duplication spanning the 3' end of the SCG5 gene and a region upstream of the GREM1 locus. This unusual mutation is associated with increased allele-specific GREM1 expression. Whereas GREM1 is expressed in intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts in controls, GREM1 is predominantly expressed in the epithelium of the large bowel in individuals with HMPS. The HMPS duplication contains predicted enhancer elements; some of these interact with the GREM1 promoter and can drive gene expression in vitro. Increased GREM1 expression is predicted to cause reduced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway activity, a mechanism that also underlies tumorigenesis in juvenile polyposis of the large bowel.

  18. Differentiating Familial Neuropathies from Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bordini, Brett J; Monrad, Priya

    2017-02-01

    Differentiating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from inherited neuropathies and other acquired peripheral neuropathies requires understanding the atypical presentations of GBS and its variant forms, as well as historical and physical features suggestive of inherited neuropathies. GBS is typically characterized by the acute onset of ascending flaccid paralysis, areflexia, and dysesthesia secondary to peripheral nerve fiber demyelination. The disorder usually arises following a benign gastrointestinal or respiratory illness, is monophasic, reaches a nadir with several weeks, and responds to immunomodulatory therapy. Inherited neuropathies with onset before adulthood, whose presentation may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome, are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Further delineation of the 15q13 microdeletion and duplication syndromes: a clinical spectrum varying from non-pathogenic to a severe outcome.

    PubMed

    van Bon, B W M; Mefford, H C; Menten, B; Koolen, D A; Sharp, A J; Nillesen, W M; Innis, J W; de Ravel, T J L; Mercer, C L; Fichera, M; Stewart, H; Connell, L E; Ounap, K; Lachlan, K; Castle, B; Van der Aa, N; van Ravenswaaij, C; Nobrega, M A; Serra-Juhé, C; Simonic, I; de Leeuw, N; Pfundt, R; Bongers, E M; Baker, C; Finnemore, P; Huang, S; Maloney, V K; Crolla, J A; van Kalmthout, M; Elia, M; Vandeweyer, G; Fryns, J P; Janssens, S; Foulds, N; Reitano, S; Smith, K; Parkel, S; Loeys, B; Woods, C G; Oostra, A; Speleman, F; Pereira, A C; Kurg, A; Willatt, L; Knight, S J L; Vermeesch, J R; Romano, C; Barber, J C; Mortier, G; Pérez-Jurado, L A; Kooy, F; Brunner, H G; Eichler, E E; Kleefstra, T; de Vries, B B A

    2009-08-01

    Recurrent 15q13.3 microdeletions were recently identified with identical proximal (BP4) and distal (BP5) breakpoints and associated with mild to moderate mental retardation and epilepsy. To assess further the clinical implications of this novel 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome, 18 new probands with a deletion were molecularly and clinically characterised. In addition, we evaluated the characteristics of a family with a more proximal deletion between BP3 and BP4. Finally, four patients with a duplication in the BP3-BP4-BP5 region were included in this study to ascertain the clinical significance of duplications in this region. The 15q13.3 microdeletion in our series was associated with a highly variable intra- and inter-familial phenotype. At least 11 of the 18 deletions identified were inherited. Moreover, 7 of 10 siblings from four different families also had this deletion: one had a mild developmental delay, four had only learning problems during childhood, but functioned well in daily life as adults, whereas the other two had no learning problems at all. In contrast to previous findings, seizures were not a common feature in our series (only 2 of 17 living probands). Three patients with deletions had cardiac defects and deletion of the KLF13 gene, located in the critical region, may contribute to these abnormalities. The limited data from the single family with the more proximal BP3-BP4 deletion suggest this deletion may have little clinical significance. Patients with duplications of the BP3-BP4-BP5 region did not share a recognisable phenotype, but psychiatric disease was noted in 2 of 4 patients. Overall, our findings broaden the phenotypic spectrum associated with 15q13.3 deletions and suggest that, in some individuals, deletion of 15q13.3 is not sufficient to cause disease. The existence of microdeletion syndromes, associated with an unpredictable and variable phenotypic outcome, will pose the clinician with diagnostic difficulties and challenge the commonly

  20. Differential diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Claps, Alessia; Dahdah, Lamia; Brindisi, Giulia; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Martelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To assess all the possible differential diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), both in acute and chronic presentation, reviewing the data reported in published studies. Recent findings There is an increase of reported cases of FPIES in recent years. As the disease presents with nonspecific symptoms, it can be misunderstood in many ways. The differential diagnosis includes, in acute presentations, the following: sepsis, other infectious diseases, acute gastrointestinal episodes, surgical emergencies, food allergies. In its chronic forms, FPIES may mimic malabsorption syndromes, metabolic disorders, primary immunodeficiencies, neurological conditions, coagulation defects, and other types of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Summary A thorough clinical evaluation, including symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings, is necessary to lead the clinicians toward the diagnosis of FPIES. The major reason for delayed diagnosis appears to be the lack of knowledge of the disease. PMID:24739227

  1. [DIFFERENTIATED TACTICS OF VIDEOTHORACOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS OF THE PLEURAL EXUDATE SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, V E; Kalabukha, I A; Mayetnyi, E M

    2016-04-01

    Differentiated tactics of diagnostic videothoracoscopy (VTHS) in a pleural exudate syndrome, which ought to be treated with hydrothorax elimination and artificial pneumothorax creation, was proposed. Further roentgenological investigation permits to create a plan for the operation conduction and a certain anesthesia application. Criteria for the operation planning and the anesthesiological support choice were elaborated. Results of VTHS conduction in 261 patients in Department of Thoracic Surgery were analyzed. The differentiated tactics for the VTHS performance application have had saved the patients from the unnecessary endotracheal narcosis conduction, and reduced a pharmacological load on a patient, as well as a rate of contraindications for the operation usage and the stationary treatment duration.

  2. A new case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with an 11p15 duplication of paternal origin [46,XY,-21,+der(21), t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)pat].

    PubMed

    Krajewska-Walasek, M; Gutkowska, A; Mospinek-Krasnopolska, M; Chrzanowska, K

    1996-01-01

    We present a new case of 11p15 duplication (trisomy 11p15) in a boy (46,XY,-21,+der(21), t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)] suffering from Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), whose phenotypically normal father carries a balanced translocation between chromosomes 11 and 21[46,XY, t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)]. The paternal grandmother has the same balanced translocation and is also clinically normal. BWS was suspected when the boy was 6 months old because of gigantism, macroglossia, visceromegaly, ear lobe creases and abdominal distention. Apart from the characteristic BWS phenotype, the boy has other features which are almost exclusively observed in 11p trisomy (high forehead with frontal upsweep of hair, wide central nose bridge, slightly beaked nose, chubby cheeks and severe mental retardation). So far, at least eight cases of 11p15 duplication have been described as patients with BWS. In six of these, the duplication was due to inheritance of a translocated or rearranged paternal chromosome. This was also the case in our patient. In the two other previously published cases, the 11p15 duplications were de novo, but in one of these, DNA analysis has subsequently shown that the duplication was of paternal origin. We discuss our observations in relation to the above-mentioned previous cases of 11p15 duplication and the possible role of genomic imprinting in the etiology of BWS.

  3. Differential diagnosis and management of Behçet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Nicola L; Haskard, Dorian O

    2013-02-01

    Behçet syndrome (also known as Behçet disease) is a rare condition that is associated with considerable morbidity. Cases of Behçet syndrome have been reported worldwide, but the highest prevalence occurs in countries that border the ancient Silk Route, such as Turkey and Iran. Although oral ulceration, genital ulceration and eye disease are the classic triad of manifestations, the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and central nervous systems can also be affected. The syndrome is chronic and relapsing with some patients having benign episodes whereas others have more serious complications, including blindness or the rupture of a pulmonary arterial aneurysm. Diagnosing Behçet syndrome, particularly outside of endemic regions, often incurs a considerable delay owing to the rarity of this condition. Furthermore, a paucity exists of data from randomized controlled trials on the optimal therapeutic approaches to use in patients, as well as a lack of informative laboratory surrogate markers to monitor disease progression. This Review discusses the issues surrounding the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Behçet syndrome and presents the current approaches to managing patients with this complex group of disorders.

  4. Diagnosis of a terminal deletion of 4p with duplication of Xp22.31 in a patient with findings of Opitz G/BBB syndrome and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    So, Joyce; Müller, Ines; Kunath, Melanie; Herrmann, Susanne; Ullmann, Reinhard; Schweiger, Susann

    2008-01-01

    Opitz G/BBB syndrome (OS) is a congenital midline malformation syndrome characterized by hypertelorism, hypospadias, cleft lip/palate, laryngotracheoesophageal abnormalities, imperforate anus, developmental delay and cardiac defects. The X-linked form is caused by mutations in the MID1 gene, while no gene has yet been identified for the autosomal dominant form. Here, we report on a 15-year-old boy who was referred for MID1 mutation analysis with findings typical of OS, including apparent hypertelorism, hypospadias, a history of feeding difficulties, dysphagia secondary to esophageal arteria lusoria, growth retardation and developmental delay. No MID1 mutation was found, but subsequent sub-megabase resolution array CGH unexpectedly documented a 2.34 Mb terminal 4p deletion, suggesting a diagnosis of WHS, and a duplication in Xp22.31. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving terminal chromosome 4p deletions, in particular 4p16.3. WHS is characterized by typical facial appearance ("Greek helmet facies"), mental retardation, congenital hypotonia, and growth retardation. While the severity of developmental delay in this patient supports the diagnosis of WHS rather than OS, this case illustrates the striking similarities of clinical findings in seemingly unrelated syndromes, suggesting common or interacting pathways at the molecular and pathogenetic level. This is the first report of arteria lusoria (esophageal vascular ring) in a patient with WHS. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. [Overview and prospect of syndrome differentiation of hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    This article is to overview the literature of syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine on hypertension. According to the theory of disease in combination with syndrome, we concluded syndrome types of hypertension in four aspects, including national standards, industry standards, teaching standards and personal experience. Meanwhile, in order to provide new methods and approaches for normalized research, we integrated modern testing methods and statistical methods to analyze syndrome differentiation for the treatment of hypertension.

  6. Inherited Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication in a boy with recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia: Clinical, chromosomal and aCGH characterization.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália D; Valadares, Eugênia R; da Costa, Silvia S; Arantes, Rodrigo R; de Oliveira, Luiz Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M; Svartman, Marta

    2016-09-01

    We report on a 16-year-old boy with a maternally inherited ~ 18.3 Mb Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication delimited by aCGH. As previously described in patients with similar duplications, his clinical features included intellectual disability, developmental delay, speech delay, generalized hypotonia, infantile feeding difficulties, self-injurious behavior, short stature and endocrine problems. As additional findings, he presented recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia. His mother was phenotypically normal and had completely skewed inactivation of the duplicated X chromosome, as most female carriers of such duplications. Five previously reported patients with partial Xq duplications presented duplication breakpoints similar to those of our patient. One of them, a fetus with multiple congenital abnormalities, had the same cytogenetic duplication breakpoint. Three of the reported patients shared many features with our proband but the other had some clinical features of the Prader-Willi syndrome. It was suggested that ATRX overexpression could be involved in the major clinical features of patients with partial Xq duplications. We propose that this gene could also be involved with the obesity of the patient with the Prader-Willi-like phenotype. Additionally, we suggest that the PCDH11X gene could be a candidate for our patient's recurrent seizures. In males, the Xq13-q21 duplication should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome, as previously suggested, and neuromuscular diseases, particularly mitochondriopathies.

  7. Startling Mosaicism of the Y-Chromosome and Tandem Duplication of the SRY and DAZ Genes in Patients with Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Premi, Sanjay; Srivastava, Jyoti; Panneer, Ganesan; Ali, Sher

    2008-01-01

    Presence of the human Y-chromosome in females with Turner Syndrome (TS) enhances the risk of development of gonadoblastoma besides causing several other phenotypic abnormalities. In the present study, we have analyzed the Y chromosome in 15 clinically diagnosed Turner Syndrome (TS) patients and detected high level of mosaicisms ranging from 45,XO:46,XY = 100:0% in 4; 45,XO:46,XY:46XX = 4:94:2 in 8; and 45,XO:46,XY:46XX = 50:30:20 cells in 3 TS patients, unlike previous reports showing 5–8% cells with Y- material. Also, no ring, marker or di-centric Y was observed in any of the cases. Of the two TS patients having intact Y chromosome in >85% cells, one was exceptionally tall. Both the patients were positive for SRY, DAZ, CDY1, DBY, UTY and AZFa, b and c specific STSs. Real Time PCR and FISH demonstrated tandem duplication/multiplication of the SRY and DAZ genes. At sequence level, the SRY was normal in 8 TS patients while the remaining 7 showed either absence of this gene or known and novel mutations within and outside of the HMG box. SNV/SFV analysis showed normal four copies of the DAZ genes in these 8 patients. All the TS patients showed aplastic uterus with no ovaries and no symptom of gonadoblastoma. Present study demonstrates new types of polymorphisms indicating that no two TS patients have identical genotype-phenotype. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of more number of samples is warranted to uncover consensus on the loci affected, to be able to use them as potential diagnostic markers. PMID:19030103

  8. Mirror-symmetric duplicated chromosome 21q with minor proximal deletion, and with neocentromere in a child without the classical Down syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Barbi, G; Kennerknecht, I; Wöhr, G; Avramopoulos, D; Karadima, G; Petersen, M B

    2000-03-13

    We report on a mentally retarded child with multiple minor anomalies and an unusually rearranged chromosome 21. This der(21) chromosome has a deletion of 21p and of proximal 21q, whereas the main portion of 21q is duplicated leading to a mirror-symmetric appearance with the mirror axis at the breakpoint. The centromere is only characterized by a secondary constriction (with a centromeric index of a G chromosome) at an unexpected distal position, but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with either chromosome specific or with all human centromeres alpha satellite DNA shows no cross hybridization. Thus, the marker chromosome represents a further example of an "analphoid marker with neocentromere." Molecular analysis using polymorphic markers on chromosome 21 verified a very small monosomic segment of the proximal long arm of chromosome 21, and additionally trisomy of the remaining distal segment. Although trisomic for almost the entire 21q arm, our patient shows no classical Down syndrome phenotype, but only a few minor anomalies found in trisomy 21 and in monosomy of proximal 21q, respectively. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Differential accumulation of retroelements and diversification of NB-LRR disease resistance genes in duplicated regions following polyploidy in the ancestor of soybean.

    PubMed

    Innes, Roger W; Ameline-Torregrosa, Carine; Ashfield, Tom; Cannon, Ethalinda; Cannon, Steven B; Chacko, Ben; Chen, Nicolas W G; Couloux, Arnaud; Dalwani, Anita; Denny, Roxanne; Deshpande, Shweta; Egan, Ashley N; Glover, Natasha; Hans, Christian S; Howell, Stacy; Ilut, Dan; Jackson, Scott; Lai, Hongshing; Mammadov, Jafar; Del Campo, Sara Martin; Metcalf, Michelle; Nguyen, Ashley; O'Bleness, Majesta; Pfeil, Bernard E; Podicheti, Ram; Ratnaparkhe, Milind B; Samain, Sylvie; Sanders, Iryna; Ségurens, Béatrice; Sévignac, Mireille; Sherman-Broyles, Sue; Thareau, Vincent; Tucker, Dominic M; Walling, Jason; Wawrzynski, Adam; Yi, Jing; Doyle, Jeff J; Geffroy, Valérie; Roe, Bruce A; Maroof, M A Saghai; Young, Nevin D

    2008-12-01

    The genomes of most, if not all, flowering plants have undergone whole genome duplication events during their evolution. The impact of such polyploidy events is poorly understood, as is the fate of most duplicated genes. We sequenced an approximately 1 million-bp region in soybean (Glycine max) centered on the Rpg1-b disease resistance gene and compared this region with a region duplicated 10 to 14 million years ago. These two regions were also compared with homologous regions in several related legume species (a second soybean genotype, Glycine tomentella, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Medicago truncatula), which enabled us to determine how each of the duplicated regions (homoeologues) in soybean has changed following polyploidy. The biggest change was in retroelement content, with homoeologue 2 having expanded to 3-fold the size of homoeologue 1. Despite this accumulation of retroelements, over 77% of the duplicated low-copy genes have been retained in the same order and appear to be functional. This finding contrasts with recent analyses of the maize (Zea mays) genome, in which only about one-third of duplicated genes appear to have been retained over a similar time period. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that the homoeologue 2 region is located very near a centromere. Thus, pericentromeric localization, per se, does not result in a high rate of gene inactivation, despite greatly accelerated retrotransposon accumulation. In contrast to low-copy genes, nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat disease resistance gene clusters have undergone dramatic species/homoeologue-specific duplications and losses, with some evidence for partitioning of subfamilies between homoeologues.

  10. [Differential diagnosis of Dandy-Walker syndrome different presentations].

    PubMed

    Tobías-González, Pablo; Gil Mira, Mar; Valero de Bernabé, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2012-08-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome is a set of abnormalities of the posterior fossa including three modalities: classic Dandy-Walker malformation, Dandy-Walker variant and mega-cisterna magna. Our objective is clarify the differential diagnosis among these entities. Descriptive and retrospective study of Dandy-Walker cases diagnosed at our Department during the last five years plus a review of the related Medical literature. Three cases of Dandy-Walker modalities are reported: one case of classic Dandy-Walker malformation, one case of Dandy-Walker variant, and one case of false Dandy-Walker. In the first two cases the patients underwent legal abortion, whereas in the last one a healthy male newborn was delivered in the week 38 of gestation. Malformations in the posterior fossa, including Dandy-Walker syndrome, are still a challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Technical developments in imaging, such as in three-dimensional sonography and magnetic resonance, allow higher resolution and multiplanar images for an easier diagnose. There is a high rate of false positive, particularly before the 18th week of gestation. It is advisable not to establish a final diagnose before that week.

  11. Differentiation Therapy With Decitabine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-25

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Thrombocytopenia

  12. [On establishing comparative reference system for syndrome classification study from the thinking characteristics of syndrome differentiation dependent therapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-yang; Ni, Li-qiang

    2006-05-01

    To create a comparative referential system for syndrome classification study by viewing from the thinking characteristics of TCM on syndrome differentiation dependent therapy (SDDT), through analyzing the thinking process of SDDT, and the basic features of disease, syndrome and prescription, combining the basic principles of modern evidence-based medicine and feasibility of establishing integrative disease-syndrome animal model. The practice of creating a comparative referential system based on clinical efficacy of prescription was discussed around syndrome pathogenesis and its relationship with disease and prescription, which was one of the important scientific problems in TCM syndrome study. The authors hold that, it may be one of the available approaches for the present study on integration of disease with syndrome by way of insisting on the thinking pathway of stressing the characteristics of TCM and intermerging with modern scientific design; on taking the efficacy of prescription as the comparative reference system to accumulate and improve unceasingly according to the TCM method of syndrome diagnosis inferred from effect of prescription with reverse thought (i.e., to differentiate syndrome from the effect of prescription), and thus build up the syndrome diagnostic standard on the solid clinical and scientific base.

  13. The investigation and differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Kockler, Hanna; Schilbach, Leonhard; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-11-08

    As a result of the increased public interest in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), certain core manifestations of ASD--impaired social interaction and communication, bizarre interests--are now commonly recognized as being typical of autism, not only in children, but in adults as well. More often than before, general practitioners, neurologists, and psychiatrists find themselves being asked whether a patient is suffering from previously unrecognized Asperger syndrome (AS). The prevalence of ASD is estimated at 1%, and the ratio of diagnosed to undiagnosed cases at about 3:2. Little is known about the diagnostic evaluation of AS in adulthood. We selectively searched the Medline database for pertinent literature, paying special attention to diagnostic manuals and to the guideline of the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Centrally important aspects of the diagnosis of AS include an assessment of the patient's ability to assume the emotional perspectives of others, non-verbal modes of expression, repetitive behavior patterns, and childhood social behavioral history. The autism quotient (AQ) is now established as a simple but nonspecific screening test. Up to 70% of all affected adults have comorbid disturbances, most often depression and anxiety disorders. The differential diagnosis includes personality disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The diagnostic assessment should proceed in stepwise fashion, starting from simple screening in primary care and then moving on to evaluation of the suspected diagnosis by a mental health care specialist, followed by extensive further investigation in an outpatient clinic specifically devoted to patients with autism spectrum disorders. The diagnostic assessment of autism in adults requires knowledge of the core and accompanying manifestations of autism and of their differential diagnoses. More research is needed for the

  14. Case Report: Whole exome sequencing helps in accurate molecular diagnosis in siblings with a rare co-occurrence of paternally inherited 22q12 duplication and autosomal recessive non-syndromic ichthyosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aayush; Sharma, Yugal; Deo, Kirti; Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen; Jayarajan, Rijith; Dixit, Vishal; Verma, Ankit; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Lamellar ichthyosis (LI), considered an autosomal recessive monogenic genodermatosis, has an incidence of approximately 1 in 250,000. Usually associated with mutations in the transglutaminase gene ( TGM1), mutations in six other genes have, less frequently, been shown to be causative. Two siblings, born in a collodion membrane, presented with fish like scales all over the body. Karyotyping revealed duplication of the chromosome arm on 22q12+ in the father and two siblings. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous p.Gly218Ser variation in TGM1; a variation reported earlier in an isolated Finnish population in association with autosomal recessive non-syndromic ichthyosis. This concurrence of a potentially benign 22q12+ duplication and LI, both rare individually, is reported here likely for the first time. PMID:26594337

  15. Parental Origin of Interstitial Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 in Schizophrenia and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Isles, Anthony R.; Ingason, Andrés; Lowther, Chelsea; Gawlick, Micha; Stöber, Gerald; Potter, Harry; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Pizzo, Lucilla; Ozaki, Norio; Kushima, Itaru; Ikeda, Masashi; Iwata, Nakao; Levinson, Douglas F.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Sanders, Alan R.; Duan, Jubao; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Costain, Gregory; Degenhardt, Franziska; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Hreidarsson, Stefan J.; Saemundsen, Evald; Ahn, Joo Wook; Ogilvie, Caroline; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Owen, Michael J.; Bassett, Anne; Kirov, George

    2016-01-01

    Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 overlapping the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region have been associated with developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Due to presence of imprinted genes within the region, the parental origin of these duplications may be key to the pathogenicity. Duplications of maternal origin are associated with disease, whereas the pathogenicity of paternal ones is unclear. To clarify the role of maternal and paternal duplications, we conducted the largest and most detailed study to date of parental origin of 15q11.2-q13.3 interstitial duplications in DD, ASD and SZ cohorts. We show, for the first time, that paternal duplications lead to an increased risk of developing DD/ASD/multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), but do not appear to increase risk for SZ. The importance of the epigenetic status of 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications was further underlined by analysis of a number of families, in which the duplication was paternally derived in the mother, who was unaffected, whereas her offspring, who inherited a maternally derived duplication, suffered from psychotic illness. Interestingly, the most consistent clinical characteristics of SZ patients with 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications were learning or developmental problems, found in 76% of carriers. Despite their lower pathogenicity, paternal duplications are less frequent in the general population with a general population prevalence of 0.0033% compared to 0.0069% for maternal duplications. This may be due to lower fecundity of male carriers and differential survival of embryos, something echoed in the findings that both types of duplications are de novo in just over 50% of cases. Isodicentric chromosome 15 (idic15) or interstitial triplications were not observed in SZ patients or in controls. Overall, this study refines the distinct roles of maternal and paternal interstitial duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3, underlining the critical importance of maternally

  16. Parental Origin of Interstitial Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 in Schizophrenia and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Isles, Anthony R; Ingason, Andrés; Lowther, Chelsea; Walters, James; Gawlick, Micha; Stöber, Gerald; Rees, Elliott; Martin, Joanna; Little, Rosie B; Potter, Harry; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Pizzo, Lucilla; Ozaki, Norio; Aleksic, Branko; Kushima, Itaru; Ikeda, Masashi; Iwata, Nakao; Levinson, Douglas F; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Sanders, Alan R; Duan, Jubao; Willis, Joseph; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Costain, Gregory; Werge, Thomas M; Degenhardt, Franziska; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Hreidarsson, Stefan J; Saemundsen, Evald; Ahn, Joo Wook; Ogilvie, Caroline; Girirajan, Santhosh D; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Bassett, Anne; Kirov, George

    2016-05-01

    Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 overlapping the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region have been associated with developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Due to presence of imprinted genes within the region, the parental origin of these duplications may be key to the pathogenicity. Duplications of maternal origin are associated with disease, whereas the pathogenicity of paternal ones is unclear. To clarify the role of maternal and paternal duplications, we conducted the largest and most detailed study to date of parental origin of 15q11.2-q13.3 interstitial duplications in DD, ASD and SZ cohorts. We show, for the first time, that paternal duplications lead to an increased risk of developing DD/ASD/multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), but do not appear to increase risk for SZ. The importance of the epigenetic status of 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications was further underlined by analysis of a number of families, in which the duplication was paternally derived in the mother, who was unaffected, whereas her offspring, who inherited a maternally derived duplication, suffered from psychotic illness. Interestingly, the most consistent clinical characteristics of SZ patients with 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications were learning or developmental problems, found in 76% of carriers. Despite their lower pathogenicity, paternal duplications are less frequent in the general population with a general population prevalence of 0.0033% compared to 0.0069% for maternal duplications. This may be due to lower fecundity of male carriers and differential survival of embryos, something echoed in the findings that both types of duplications are de novo in just over 50% of cases. Isodicentric chromosome 15 (idic15) or interstitial triplications were not observed in SZ patients or in controls. Overall, this study refines the distinct roles of maternal and paternal interstitial duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3, underlining the critical importance of maternally

  17. Association of an α-globin gene cluster duplication and heterozygous β-thalassemia in a patient with a severe thalassemia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Liu, Sha; Zhang, Yong-Ling; Wan, Jun-Hui; Li, Ru; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new case of a β-thalassemia (β-thal) heterozygote with the mutation IVS-II-654 (C>T) presenting with a transfusion-dependent phenotype. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses of the α-globin gene cluster revealed a full duplication of the α-globin genes including the upstream regulatory element. The duplicated allele and the normal allele in trans resulted in a total of six active α-globin genes. The severe clinical phenotype seemed to be related to the considerable excess of the α- and β-globin deficit caused by the presence of the β-thal. α-Globin cluster duplication should be considered in patients heterozygous for β-thal who show a more severe phenotype than β-thal trait.

  18. Duplication in DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masami; Kari, Lila; Kincaid, Zachary; Seki, Shinnosuke

    The duplication and repeat-deletion operations are the basis of a formal language theoretic model of errors that can occur during DNA replication. During DNA replication, subsequences of a strand of DNA may be copied several times (resulting in duplications) or skipped (resulting in repeat-deletions). As formal language operations, iterated duplication and repeat-deletion of words and languages have been well studied in the literature. However, little is known about single-step duplications and repeat-deletions. In this paper, we investigate several properties of these operations, including closure properties of language families in the Chomsky hierarchy and equations involving these operations. We also make progress toward a characterization of regular languages that are generated by duplicating a regular language.

  19. [Differential diagnosis of polyarthritis pain syndrome of the locomotor apparatus].

    PubMed

    Menninger, H

    1998-02-28

    Widespread pain syndromes of the musculoskeletal system present to general practitioners, internists, neurologists and orthopedic surgeons every day. The syndromes may result both from organic diseases (inflammatory joint diseases, rheumatic manifestations of organ diseases) as well as dysfunctional syndromes, the latter including mainly biomechanically induced syndromes and fibromyalgia. The approach is predominantly clinically oriented and requires laboratory means or technical procedures only in a limited extend. The duration of history, the recognition of synovitis and of myofascial trigger points or of integumental tender points allow in most patients to achieve appropriate diagnostic criteria.

  20. Differential diagnosis of Bartter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome, and pseudo-Bartter/Gitelman syndrome based on clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Matsunoshita, Natsuki; Nozu, Kandai; Shono, Akemi; Nozu, Yoshimi; Fu, Xue Jun; Morisada, Naoya; Kamiyoshi, Naohiro; Ohtsubo, Hiromi; Ninchoji, Takeshi; Minamikawa, Shogo; Yamamura, Tomohiko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Shima, Yuko; Kaito, Hiroshi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-02-01

    Phenotypic overlap exists among type III Bartter syndrome (BS), Gitelman syndrome (GS), and pseudo-BS/GS (p-BS/GS), which are clinically difficult to distinguish. We aimed to clarify the differences between these diseases, allowing accurate diagnosis based on their clinical features. A total of 163 patients with genetically defined type III BS (n = 30), GS (n = 90), and p-BS/GS (n = 43) were included. Age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum and urine electrolyte concentrations were determined. Patients with p-BS/GS were significantly older at diagnosis than those with type III BS and GS. Patients with p-BS/GS included a significantly higher percentage of women and had a lower body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate than did patients with GS. Although hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria were predominant biochemical findings in patients with GS, 17 and 23% of patients with type III BS and p-BS/GS, respectively, also showed these abnormalities. Of patients with type III BS, GS, and p-BS/GS, 40, 12, and 63%, respectively, presented with chronic kidney disease. This study clarified the clinical differences between BS, GS, and p-BS/GS for the first time, which will help clinicians establish differential diagnoses for these three conditions.

  1. Differentiating fasciculoventricular pathway from Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome by electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tsugutoshi; Nakamura, Yoshihide; Yoshida, Shuichiro; Yoshida, Yoko; Shintaku, Haruo

    2014-04-01

    In school-based cardiovascular screening programs in Japan, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is diagnosed based on the presence of an electrocardiographic (ECG) delta wave without differentiation from the fasciculoventricular pathway (FVP), although the risk of sudden death is associated only with the former. The purpose of this study was to differentiate FVP patients among children diagnosed with WPW syndrome by ECG. Children who were diagnosed with WPW syndrome through school screening between April 2006 and March 2008 and had QRS width ≤120 ms were included. Patients with asthma and/or coronary heart disease were excluded. FVP and WPW syndrome were differentiated based on ECG responses to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) injection. Age, PR interval, QRS width, and Rosenbaum classification were compared among patients. Thirty patients (median age 12.7 years, range 6.5-15.7 years) participated in the study. FVP was diagnosed in 23 patients (76.7%), and WPW syndrome in 7 (23.3%). In Rosenbaum type A patients, all six patients had WPW syndrome, whereas FVP was diagnosed in 23 of 24 and WPW syndrome was diagnosed in 1 of 24 of type B patients. Age, PR interval, and QRS width were not significantly different between the two conditions. ATP stress test was reliable in differentiating FVP from WPW syndrome. Although FVP is considered rare, the results of our study indicate that many WPW syndrome patients with QRS width ≤120 ms may actually have FVP. Patients categorized as type B are more likely to have FVP, whereas type A patients are most likely to have WPW syndrome. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society Published by Heart Rhythm Society All rights reserved.

  2. Lack of cilia and differentiation defects in the liver of human foetuses with the Meckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clotman, Frédéric; Libbrecht, Louis; Killingsworth, Murray C; Loo, Christine C K; Roskams, Tania; Lemaigre, Frédéric P

    2008-03-01

    Meckel syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by a combination of renal cysts, anomalies of the central nervous system, polydactyly and ductal plate malformations (DPM), which are hepatic anomalies consisting of excessive and abnormal foetal biliary structures. Among the genomic loci associated with Meckel syndrome, mutations in four genes were recently identified. These genes code for proteins associated with primary cilia and are possibly involved in cell differentiation. The aim of the present work was to investigate the formation of the primary cilia and the differentiation of the hepatic cells in foetuses with Meckel syndrome. Sections of livers from human foetuses with Meckel syndrome were analysed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The primary cilia of the biliary cells were absent in some Meckel foetuses, but were present in others. In addition, defects in hepatic differentiation were observed in Meckel livers, as evidenced by the presence of hybrid cells co-expressing hepatocytic and biliary markers. Defects in cilia formation occur in some Meckel livers, and most cases show DPM associated with abnormal hepatic cell differentiation. Because differentiation precedes the formation of the cilia during liver development, we propose that defective differentiation may constitute the initial defect in the liver of Meckel syndrome foetuses.

  3. Typewriting: Toward Duplicating Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsborn, Karen J.

    1977-01-01

    A description of two projects (secretarial handbook and memo pad and personalized stationery) for use in teaching the duplication process that will capture the interests of students in an advanced typewriting class. (HD)

  4. Difficulties in differentiating thin basement membrane disease from Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Żurawski, Jakub; Burchardt, Paweł; Seget, Monika; Moczko, Jerzy; Woźniak, Aldona; Grochowalski, Marcin; Salwa-Żurawska, Wiesława

    We examined a group of 83 patients (57 children and 26 adults) with thin basement membrane disease and 17 patients with Alport syndrome. We compared the clinical data and, above all, the morphological patterns of both disease entities, with particular focus on not very advanced changes which might lead to a misdiagnosis due to the non-detection of the early stages of Alport syndrome.

  5. [Lemierre's syndrome as differential diagnosis of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Reinholdt Jensen, Jacob; Weinreich, Ulla Møller

    2012-05-28

    Lemierre's syndrome is a disseminated infection which is usually caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. An oropharyngeal infection progresses to a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and later metastatic infections throughout the body occur. We present a clinical case in which a patient, initially presenting with symptoms characteristic of pulmonary cancer, turned out to have a rare variant of Lemierre's syndrome caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  6. Distal trisomy 10q syndrome, report of a patient with duplicated q24.31 – qter, autism spectrum disorder and unusual features

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sarraj, Yasser; Al-Khair, Hakam Abu; Taha, Rowaida Ziad; Khattab, Namat; El Sayed, Zakaria H; Elhusein, Bushra; El-Shanti, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report on a patient with distal trisomy 10q syndrome presenting with a few previously undescribed physical features, as well as, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We recommend that patients with distal trisomy 10q syndrome should have a behavioral evaluation for ASD for the early institution of therapy. PMID:25614812

  7. [ZHANG Tangfa's characteristics of acupuncture academic ideology and clinical treatment of syndrome differentiation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-10-01

    Through collecting and sorting of works, literature and medical cases regarding professor ZHANG Tangfa, it is found that his acupuncture academic ideology and clinical treatment of syndrome differentiation can be summarized as: tracing the source and paying attention to basic theory, especially the meridian theory and conception vessel and governor vessel; focusing on acupuncture manipulation and emphasizing acupuncture basic skills; highly valuing treating spirit, acquiring and maintaining needling sensation; underlining "three differentiations" that is consisted of syndrome differentiation, disease differentiation and meridian differentiation to guide the clinical prescriptions of acupoints; exploring and ingenious use of scalp acupuncture; being concerned on research of difficult and complicated diseases; advocating comparative studies to optimize the clinical treatment plan; proposing the combination of Chinese and western medicine, including diagnosis, treatment and basic theory, to improve the clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture.

  8. Expanding the mutational spectrum in Johanson-Blizzard syndrome: identification of whole exon deletions and duplications in the UBR1 gene by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis.

    PubMed

    Sukalo, Maja; Schäflein, Eva; Schanze, Ina; Everman, David B; Rezaei, Nima; Argente, Jesús; Lorda-Sanchez, Isabel; Deshpande, Charu; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kleger, Alexander; Zenker, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS, MIM #243800) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, nasal wing hypoplasia, hypodontia, and other abnormalities. JBS is caused by mutations of the UBR1 gene (MIM *605981), encoding a ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway. Molecular findings in a total of 65 unrelated patients with a clinical diagnosis of JBS who were previously screened for UBR1 mutations by Sanger sequencing were reviewed and cases lacking a disease-causing UBR1 mutation on either one or both alleles were included in this study. In order to discover mutations that are not detectable by Sanger sequencing, we designed a probe set for multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of the UBR1 gene and analyzed the copy number status of all 47 UBR1 exons. Our previous studies using Sanger sequencing could detect mutations in 93.1% of 130 disease-associated UBR1 alleles. Six patients with a highly suggestive clinical diagnosis of JBS and unsolved genotype were included in this study. MLPA analysis detected six alleles harboring exon deletions/duplications, thereby raising the mutation detection rate in the entire cohort to 97.7% (127/130 alleles). We conclude that single or multi-exon deletions or duplications account for a substantial proportion of JBS-associated UBR1 mutations. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Unique Theory of Mind Differentiation in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Michele; Lucariello, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if ToM abilities of children with autism and Asperger syndrome differentiate into Intrapersonal ToM and Social ToM. A battery of Social and Intrapersonal ToM tasks was administered to 39 children with autism and 34 children with Asperger syndrome. For both groups of children, ToM differentiated and Intrapersonal ToM was stronger than Social ToM. This asymmetry was greater for children with autism, whose Social ToM was especially weak. These results support a differentiated, as opposed to integrated, ToM. Moreover, the findings provide a more thorough understanding of the cognitive abilities associated with autism and Asperger syndrome. PMID:22934174

  10. [Evaluation on methodological problems in reports concerning quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Cang; Wu, Qiu-Ying; Xiang, Cheng-Bin; Zhou, Yi; Guo, Ling-Xiang; Zhao, Neng-Jiang; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of reports published in recent 10 years in China about quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation for diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to explore the methodological problems in these reports and find possible solutions. The main medical literature databases in China were searched. Thirty-one articles were included and evaluated by the principles of clinical epidemiology. There were many mistakes and deficiencies in these articles, such as clinical trial designs, diagnosis criteria for DM, standards of syndrome differentiation of DM, case inclusive and exclusive criteria, sample size and estimation, data comparability and statistical methods. It is necessary and important to improve the quality of reports concerning quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation of DM in light of the principles of clinical epidemiology.

  11. Esophageal duplication and congenital esophageal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Trappey, A Francois; Hirose, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal duplication and congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) may represent diseases with common embryologic etiologies, namely, faulty tracheoesophageal separation and differentiation. Here, we will re-enforce definitions for these diseases as well as review their embryology, diagnosis, and treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Application of Bayes Probability Model in Differentiation of Yin and Yang Jaundice Syndromes in Neonates].

    PubMed

    Mu, Chun-sun; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Chun-yan; Li, Yang-ning

    2015-09-01

    To study the application of Bayes probability model in differentiating yin and yang jaundice syndromes in neonates. Totally 107 jaundice neonates who admitted to hospital within 10 days after birth were assigned to two groups according to syndrome differentiation, 68 in the yang jaundice syndrome group and 39 in the yin jaundice syndrome group. Data collected for neonates were factors related to jaundice before, during and after birth. Blood routines, liver and renal functions, and myocardial enzymes were tested on the admission day or the next day. Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis were used to screen factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation. Finally, Bayes probability model for yin and yang jaundice syndromes was established and assessed. Factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation screened by Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis included mothers' age, mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational age, asphyxia, or ABO hemolytic diseases, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD), platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR), serum direct bilirubin (DBIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholinesterase (CHE). Bayes discriminating analysis was performed by SPSS to obtain Bayes discriminant function coefficient. Bayes discriminant function was established according to discriminant function coefficients. Yang jaundice syndrome: y1= -21. 701 +2. 589 x mother's age + 1. 037 x GDM-17. 175 x asphyxia + 13. 876 x gestational age + 6. 303 x ABO hemolytic disease + 2.116 x RDW-SD + 0. 831 x DBIL + 0. 012 x ALP + 1. 697 x LCR + 0. 001 x CHE; Yin jaundice syndrome: y2= -33. 511 + 2.991 x mother's age + 3.960 x GDM-12. 877 x asphyxia + 11. 848 x gestational age + 1. 820 x ABO hemolytic disease +2. 231 x RDW-SD +0. 999 x DBIL +0. 023 x ALP +1. 916 x LCR +0. 002 x CHE. Bayes discriminant function was hypothesis tested and got Wilks' λ =0. 393 (P =0. 000). So Bayes

  13. Differential Regulation of PAI-1 in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Carla; Korva, Miša; Papa, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vaheri, Antti; Martinez, Valeria P; Strandin, Tomas

    2018-02-01

    We analyzed the levels of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in acute hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The levels of tPA commonly increased in both diseases, whereas PAI-1 correlated with disease severity in HCPS but not in HFRS.

  14. The centriole duplication cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fırat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Stearns, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and are important for many critical cellular and developmental processes from cell polarization to cell division. At the core of the centrosome are centrioles, which recruit pericentriolar material to form the centrosome and act as basal bodies to nucleate formation of cilia and flagella. Defects in centriole structure, function and number are associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, brain diseases and ciliopathies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how new centrioles are assembled and how centriole number is controlled. We propose a general model for centriole duplication control in which cooperative binding of duplication factors defines a centriole ‘origin of duplication’ that initiates duplication, and passage through mitosis effects changes that license the centriole for a new round of duplication in the next cell cycle. We also focus on variations on the general theme in which many centrioles are created in a single cell cycle, including the specialized structures associated with these variations, the deuterosome in animal cells and the blepharoplast in lower plant cells. PMID:25047614

  15. A Duplicate Construction Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent

    This experiment was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction experiment" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item…

  16. Duplication Is Ubiquitous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how Phil Davis, Life Sciences Bibliographer at Cornell University, found duplicate articles in Emerald/MCB University Press journals. According to Davis, he has found hundreds of examples of the same article published in more than one journal in at least 73 Emerald/MCB journals over 30 years. This article gives the details…

  17. Perspectives on Program Duplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about program duplication in higher education are often reminiscent of Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart's now famous remark about pornography: "I know it when I see it." The problem with that reaction is that, at least on its surface, this response seems intuitive and emotional, to say nothing of subjective and personal. The…

  18. Eagle's syndrome-A non-perceived differential diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Thoenissen, P; Bittermann, G; Schmelzeisen, R; Oshima, T; Fretwurst, T

    2015-01-01

    This article unveils a case of the classic styloid syndrome and states that panoramic imaging and ultrasound can be an alternative to computed tomography. In addition, the endoscope-assisted extraoral approach using CT-based navigation is useful. Eagle's Syndrome is an aggregate of symptoms described by Eagle in 1937. He described different forms: the classic styloid syndrome consisting of elongation of the styloid process which causes pain. Second, the stylo-carotid-artery syndrome which is responsible for transient ischemic attack or stroke. Using the example of a 66 years old male patient suffering from long term pain, we explain our diagnostic and surgical approach. After dissecting the styloid process of the right side using an extraoral approach, the pain ceased and the patient could be discharged without any recurrence of the pain up to this point. Eagle's syndrome, with its similar symptoms, is rather difficult to differentiate from temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), but can be easily excluded from possible differential diagnoses of TMD using panoramic radiographs and ultrasound. Making use of low cost and easily accessible diagnostic workup techniques can reveal this particular cause for chronic pain restricting quality of life. Thereby differentiation from the TMD symptomatic complex is possible. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  20. The Use of Differentiated Mathematical Strategies with Secondary Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riera, Karla Rene

    2013-01-01

    Though the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires secondary students with Asperger's syndrome (AS) to take high-stakes mathematical tests, many students with AS exhibit weaknesses in mathematical and executive functioning skills. The purpose of this mixed-methods case study was to explore the use of differentiated mathematical strategies with…

  1. Utility of Shear Wave Elastography for Differentiating Biliary Atresia From Infantile Hepatitis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoman; Qian, Linxue; Jia, Liqun; Bellah, Richard; Wang, Ning; Xin, Yue; Liu, Qinglin

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential utility of shear wave elastography (SWE) for diagnosis of biliary atresia and for differentiating biliary atresia from infantile hepatitis syndrome by measuring liver stiffness. Thirty-eight patients with biliary atresia and 17 patients with infantile hepatitis syndrome were included, along with 31 healthy control infants. The 3 groups underwent SWE. The hepatic tissue of each patient with biliary atresia had been surgically biopsied. Statistical analyses for mean values of the 3 groups were performed. Optimum cutoff values using SWE for differentiation between the biliary atresia and control groups were calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The mean SWE values ± SD for the 3 groups were as follows: biliary atresia group, 20.46 ± 10.19 kPa; infantile hepatitis syndrome group, 6.29 ± 0.99 kPa; and control group, 6.41 ± 1.08 kPa. The mean SWE value for the biliary atresia group was higher than the values for the control and infantile hepatitis syndrome groups (P < .01). The mean SWE values between the control and infantile hepatitis syndrome groups were not statistically different. The ROC analysis showed a cutoff value of 8.68 kPa for differentiation between the biliary atresia and control groups. The area under the ROC curve was 0.997, with sensitivity of 97.4%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 96.9%. Correlation analysis suggested a positive correlation between SWE values and age for patients with biliary atresia, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.463 (P < .05). The significant increase in liver SWE values in neonates and infants with biliary atresia supports their application for differentiating biliary atresia from infantile hepatitis syndrome.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: isodicentric chromosome 15 syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition duplication/inversion 15q11 idic(15) inv dup(15) inverted duplication ... syndrome March of Dimes: Chromosomal Conditions Orphanet: Duplication/inversion 15q11 Unique Rare Chromosome Disorder Support Group: Idic( ...

  3. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Carlos; Arriaga, Monica; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Moran, Segundo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese PCOS patients. Levels of sexual hormone binding globulin are decreased, and levels of free androgens are increased in obese PCOS patients. Weight loss treatment is important for overweight or obese PCOS patients, but not necessary for normal weight PCOS patients, who only need to avoid increasing their body weight. Obesity decreases or delays several infertility treatments. The differences in the hormonal and metabolic profile, as well as the different focus and response to treatment between obese and non obese PCOS patients suggest that obesity has to be considered as a characteristic for classification of PCOS phenotypes. PMID:22829818

  4. SAPHO syndrome in the differential diagnosis of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Berenguer Francés, Miguel Ángel; Lafaurie Acevedo, Alejandro; Tormo Ferrero, Vicente; Cardenal Macia, Rafael; Andreu Martínez, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    SAPHO syndrome was proposed in the late 80s in order to group different osteoarticular manifestations with specific radiological findings such as the hyperostosis of the front part of the chest wall. Prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are unknown, while diagnosis is made both clinically and by the specific gammagraphic image of «bull horn» in the sternoclavicular joint. The following case of a 64-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast pT1N0Mx is reported. When studying the extent of the disease, a gammagraphic image of diffuse blast injury in the sterna manubrium was evidenced, which allowed the suspicion of Paget's disease or metastatic injury. Study was completed with a chest CT in which manubrium sclerosis was evidenced, suggesting metástasis. Res ults of the studies pointed out SAPHO syndrome as the most likely diagnostic option. The low tumor stage of the patient prompted the idea of possible alternative diagnoses. A deeper knowledge of this clinical condition may be crucial to avoid mistakes when classifying a subject in more advanced tumor stages, and consequently, to prevent the use of more aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. Metacarpophalangeal pattern profile analysis: useful diagnostic tool for differentiating between dyschondrosteosis, Turner syndrome, and hypochondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Laurencikas, E; Sävendahl, L; Jorulf, H

    2006-06-01

    To assess the value of the metacarpophalangeal pattern profile (MCPP) analysis as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between patients with dyschondrosteosis, Turner syndrome, and hypochondroplasia. Radiographic and clinical data from 135 patients between 1 and 51 years of age were collected and analyzed. The study included 25 patients with hypochondroplasia (HCP), 39 with dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and 71 with Turner syndrome (TS). Hand pattern profiles were calculated and compared with those of 110 normal individuals. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and multivariate discriminant analysis were used for pattern profile analysis. Pattern variability index, a measure of dysmorphogenesis, was calculated for LWD, TS, HCP, and normal controls. Our results demonstrate that patients with LWD, TS, or HCP have distinct pattern profiles that are significantly different from each other and from those of normal controls. Discriminant analysis yielded correct classification of normal versus abnormal individuals in 84% of cases. Classification of the patients into LWD, TS, and HCP groups was successful in 75%. The correct classification rate was higher (85%) when differentiating two pathological groups at a time. Pattern variability index was not helpful for differential diagnosis of LWD, TS, and HCP. Patients with LWD, TS, or HCP have distinct MCPPs and can be successfully differentiated from each other using advanced MCPP analysis. Discriminant analysis is to be preferred over Pearson correlation coefficient because it is a more sensitive and specific technique. MCPP analysis is a helpful tool for differentiating between syndromes with similar clinical and radiological abnormalities.

  6. Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus).

    PubMed

    Turpin, I M; Furnas, D W; Amlie, R N

    1981-02-01

    No congenital malformation in infants is more profound than anterior craniofacial duplication. The precise term for this rare anomaly is diprosopus, referring to a fetus with a single trunk, normal limbs, and varying degrees of facial duplication. A search of the world literature produced only 16 cases of diprosopus since 1864. Despite the rarity of this anomaly, three such infants were born in the Southern California area during the past year, making this the largest reported series to date. The three infants were born with two distinctly formed faces. Each had four separate eyes, two mouths, two noses, and two ears with a primitive ear or sinus tract at the plane of fusion. In addition, multiple congenital aberrations existed which involved a variety of internal organs. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood, but environmental stress early in embryologic development has been suggested as a possible factor. The apparent mechanism is a slowing of pregastrulation oxidation with resultant focal developmental arrests.

  7. Neuronal overexpression of Ube3a isoform 2 causes behavioral impairments and neuroanatomical pathology relevant to 15q11.2-q13.3 duplication syndrome.

    PubMed

    Copping, Nycole A; Christian, Sarah G B; Ritter, Dylan J; Islam, M Saharul; Buscher, Nathalie; Zolkowska, Dorota; Pride, Michael C; Berg, Elizabeth L; LaSalle, Janine M; Ellegood, Jacob; Lerch, Jason P; Reiter, Lawrence T; Silverman, Jill L; Dindot, Scott V

    2017-10-15

    Maternally derived copy number gains of human chromosome 15q11.2-q13.3 (Dup15q syndrome or Dup15q) cause intellectual disability, epilepsy, developmental delay, hypotonia, speech impairments, and minor dysmorphic features. Dup15q syndrome is one of the most common and penetrant chromosomal abnormalities observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although ∼40 genes are located in the 15q11.2-q13.3 region, overexpression of the ubiquitin-protein E3A ligase (UBE3A) gene is thought to be the predominant molecular cause of the phenotypes observed in Dup15q syndrome. The UBE3A gene demonstrates maternal-specific expression in neurons and loss of maternal UBE3A causes Angelman syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder with some overlapping neurological features to Dup15q. To directly test the hypothesis that overexpression of UBE3A is an important underlying molecular cause of neurodevelopmental dysfunction, we developed and characterized a mouse overexpressing Ube3a isoform 2 in excitatory neurons. Ube3a isoform 2 is conserved between mouse and human and known to play key roles in neuronal function. Transgenic mice overexpressing Ube3a isoform 2 in excitatory forebrain neurons exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviors, learning impairments, and reduced seizure thresholds. However, these transgenic mice displayed normal social approach, social interactions, and repetitive motor stereotypies that are relevant to ASD. Reduced forebrain, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and cortical volume were also observed. Altogether, these findings show neuronal overexpression of Ube3a isoform 2 causes phenotypes translatable to neurodevelopmental disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Centrioles: duplicating precariously.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Laurence

    2007-09-04

    To assemble a mitotic spindle and accurately segregate chromosomes to progeny, a cell needs to precisely regulate its centrosome number, a feat largely accomplished through the tight control of centriole duplication. Recent work showing that the overexpression of centriolar proteins can lead to the formation of multiple centrioles in the absence of pre-existing centrioles challenges the idea that it is a self-replicating organelle.

  9. Embryonic duplications in sheep.

    PubMed

    Dennis, S M

    1975-02-01

    Twenty-seven embryonic duplications were examined during a 3-year investigation into the causes of perinatal lamb mortality. Twenty of the 27 were anomalous twins with 19 being conjoined (diplopagus 9 and heteropagus 10). The various duplications were: haloacardius acephalus 1, diprosopus 2, dicephalus 2, dipypus 3, diprosopus dipygus 1, syncephalus dipygus 1, pygopagus parasiticus 1, heteropagus dipygus 3, melodidymus 6, polyury 4, penile duplication 2, and bilateral otognathia 1. Four lambs were living and the time of death of the others was: parturient 8, and post-parturient 15. Average dry weight of the lambs was 3.35 kg (range 1.59 to 5.45 kg). Breed distribution was: Merino 77.8%, Crossbred 14.8%, Dorset Horn 3.7%, and Corriedale 3.7%. The caudal region was involved in 10 of the conjoined twins (52.6%), anterior region in 7 (36.9%), and both anterior and caudal regions in 2 (10.5%). Associated defects were present in 70.4% of the 27 lambs, the most common being atresia ani.

  10. Disruption of rcsB by a duplicated sequence in a curli-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 results in differential gene expression in relation to biofilm formation, stress responses and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Bayles, D O; Alt, D P; Looft, T; Brunelle, B W; Stasko, J A

    2017-03-08

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strain 86-24, linked to a 1986 disease outbreak, displays curli- and biofilm-negative phenotypes that are correlated with the lack of Congo red (CR) binding and formation of white colonies (CR - ) on a CR-containing medium. However, on a CR medium this strain produces red isolates (CR + ) capable of producing curli fimbriae and biofilms. To identify genes controlling differential expression of curli fimbriae and biofilm formation, the RNA-Seq profile of a CR + isolate was compared to the CR - parental isolate. Of the 242 genes expressed differentially in the CR + isolate, 201 genes encoded proteins of known functions while the remaining 41 encoded hypothetical proteins. Among the genes with known functions, 149 were down- and 52 were up-regulated. Some of the upregulated genes were linked to biofilm formation through biosynthesis of curli fimbriae and flagella. The genes encoding transcriptional regulators, such as CsgD, QseB, YkgK, YdeH, Bdm, CspD, BssR and FlhDC, which modulate biofilm formation, were significantly altered in their expression. Several genes of the envelope stress (cpxP), heat shock (rpoH, htpX, degP), oxidative stress (ahpC, katE), nutrient limitation stress (phoB-phoR and pst) response pathways, and amino acid metabolism were downregulated in the CR + isolate. Many genes mediating acid resistance and colanic acid biosynthesis, which influence biofilm formation directly or indirectly, were also down-regulated. Comparative genomics of CR + and CR - isolates revealed the presence of a short duplicated sequence in the rcsB gene of the CR + isolate. The alignment of the amino acid sequences of RcsB of the two isolates showed truncation of RcsB in the CR + isolate at the insertion site of the duplicated sequence. Complementation of CR + isolate with rcsB of the CR - parent restored parental phenotypes to the CR + isolate. The results of this study indicate that RcsB is a global regulator affecting bacterial survival in

  11. [Elements of a clinical differential diagnosis between Asperger syndrome and the schizoid/paranoid personality].

    PubMed

    Mottron, Laurent; Soulières, Isabelle; Ménard, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome may, when exposed to hostility (e.g. bullying at school or at work), develop hostile ideas against their social environment, sometimes leading to aggression. These ideas and acts may be confounded with those arising from a persecutory state in schizoid or schizotypal personality, or even schizophrenia. These entities can be confounded with Asperger syndrome due to their permanent nature, and the presence of atypical social and emotional behaviours. This paper proposes cognitive (Wechsler profile), developmental (course of hostile behaviours), discursive (qualitative features of discourse reporting hostile thoughts), which may contribute to differential diagnosis in the presence of hostile thoughts and behaviours. Consequences for case management are also reported.

  12. Functional requirements driving the gene duplication in 12 Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yan; Jia, Yanxiao; Gao, Yang; Tian, Dacheng; Yang, Sihai; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-15

    Gene duplication supplies the raw materials for novel gene functions and many gene families arisen from duplication experience adaptive evolution. Most studies of young duplicates have focused on mammals, especially humans, whereas reports describing their genome-wide evolutionary patterns across the closely related Drosophila species are rare. The sequenced 12 Drosophila genomes provide the opportunity to address this issue. In our study, 3,647 young duplicate gene families were identified across the 12 Drosophila species and three types of expansions, species-specific, lineage-specific and complex expansions, were detected in these gene families. Our data showed that the species-specific young duplicate genes predominated (86.6%) over the other two types. Interestingly, many independent species-specific expansions in the same gene family have been observed in many species, even including 11 or 12 Drosophila species. Our data also showed that the functional bias observed in these young duplicate genes was mainly related to responses to environmental stimuli and biotic stresses. This study reveals the evolutionary patterns of young duplicates across 12 Drosophila species on a genomic scale. Our results suggest that convergent evolution acts on young duplicate genes after the species differentiation and adaptive evolution may play an important role in duplicate genes for adaption to ecological factors and environmental changes in Drosophila.

  13. [New insights in the differential diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Schwalenberg, T; Neuhaus, J; Horn, L-C; Alexander, H; Zimmermann, G; Ho Thi, P; Mallock, T; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2010-03-01

    The diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is challenging, since pathogenetic mechanisms and the definition of clinical relevant parameters are still under lively discussion. The criteria recently proposed by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC) define a collective of patients based on the cardinal symptom of bladder pain which is heterogeneous, and therefore cannot receive standardised consistent therapy. Thus an extended diagnosis based on molecular markers seems to be indicated to render individual pharmacotherapy possible, and to contribute to elucidation of BPS/IC pathogenesis. For this purpose we feel the vital need for taking a bladder biopsy. The diagnosis of BPS/IC should rely on 3 "columns": (1) clinical diagnostics; (2) histopathology; (3) molecular diagnostics/protein expression. Since a significant contribution of the 3 functional units of the bladder to the pathophysiology is most evident, the examinations should ideally include urothelium, lamina propria, and detrusor musculature. Generation of receptor profiles of the detrusor muscle represents a first attempt to define a diagnostic tool for the individualisation of BPS/IC pharmacotherapy. Other factors, e.g., beta-hCG expression in the urothelium, need further evaluation. Extended BPS/IC diagnostics could be realistically integrated into routine patient care within a clinic/laboratory network. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  14. [MELAS syndrome as a differential diagnosis of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactacidosis and stroke-like episode (MELAS) syndrome is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with a clinical onset between the first and third decade. The clinical hallmark is the stroke-like-episode, which mimicks ischemic stroke but is usually transient and non-disabling in nature. The morphological equivalent on MRI is a T2-hyperintensity, predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital region, not confined to a vascular territory, which is also hyperintense on diffusion weighted imaging and on apparent diffusion coefficient sequences (vasogenic edema, stroke-like lesion). Additional features include seizures, cognitive decline, psychosis, lactic acidosis, migraine, visual impairment, hearing loss, short stature, diabetes, or myopathy. Muscle biopsy typically shows ragged-red fibers, COX-negative fibers, SDH hyperreactivity, and abnormally shaped mitochondria with paracristalline inclusions. The diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of a biochemical respiratory chain defect or one of the disease-causing mutations, of which 80 % affect the mitochondrial tRNALeu gene.

  15. Craniofacial Duplication: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Suryawanshi, Pradeep; Deshpande, Mandar; Verma, Nitin; Mahendrakar, Vivek; Mahendrakar, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    A craniofacial duplication or diprosopus is an unusual variant of conjoined twinning. The reported incidence is one in 180,000-15 million births and 35 cases have been reported till date. The phenotype is wide, with the partial duplication of a few facial structures to complete dicephalus. A complete duplication is associated with a high incidence of anomalies in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system and the respiratory system, whereas no major anomalies are found in the infants with a partial duplication. A term baby with the features of a craniofacial duplication has been described, with the proposed theories on embryogenesis and a brief review of the literature. PMID:24179933

  16. Craniofacial duplication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Pradeep; Deshpande, Mandar; Verma, Nitin; Mahendrakar, Vivek; Mahendrakar, Sandhya

    2013-09-01

    A craniofacial duplication or diprosopus is an unusual variant of conjoined twinning. The reported incidence is one in 180,000-15 million births and 35 cases have been reported till date. The phenotype is wide, with the partial duplication of a few facial structures to complete dicephalus. A complete duplication is associated with a high incidence of anomalies in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system and the respiratory system, whereas no major anomalies are found in the infants with a partial duplication. A term baby with the features of a craniofacial duplication has been described, with the proposed theories on embryogenesis and a brief review of the literature.

  17. Waardenburg syndrome: clinical differentiation between types I and II.

    PubMed

    Pardono, Eliete; van Bever, Yolande; van den Ende, Jenneke; Havrenne, Poti C; Iughetti, Paula; Maestrelli, Sylvia R P; Costa F, Orozimbo; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Frota-Pessoa, Oswaldo; Otto, Paulo A

    2003-03-15

    Here we present the results of a study performed on 59 patients affected by Waardenburg syndrome (WS), 30 with the I variant, 21 having the type II, and 8 of them being isolated cases without telecanthus. These patients belong to 37 families; the main contributions and conclusions are based on the detailed study of 25 of these families, examined using standard procedures. All patients were examined as to the presence of eight cardinal signs important for the diagnosis of the condition; from each patient, from many of his/her normal relatives, and from a control sample of 300 normal individuals stratified by age and sex, 23 different craniofacial measurements were obtained. We also estimated, using our own data as well those collected from the literature, the frequencies of the cardinal signs, based on a total sample of 461 affected individuals with WSI and 121 with WSII. In order to originate discriminant functions to separate individuals affected by one of the two variants, both metric (from craniofacial measurements) as well as categoric data (based on the frequencies of the cardinal signs or symptoms) were used. Discriminant analysis based on the frequency of the eight cardinal signs can improve the separation of WSI patients without telecanthus from those presenting the variant II. We present also a Table with the conditional probabilities favoring the diagnosis of WSI for suspect subjects without telecanthus and any combination of the other seven signs/symptoms. The discriminant function based on the four ocular measurements (inner and outer intercanthal, interpupillary, and inferior lacrymal distances), on the other side, perfectly classifies patients affected by one of the variants of WS, the same taking place when the average values of the W index of all affected individuals per family are used. The discriminant function based solely in the individual W index values of patients correctly classifies 93% of WSII subjects, but only 60% of the patients with the

  18. Targeted High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolomics differentiates metabolic syndrome from obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fanyi; Xu, Mengyang; Bruno, Richard S; Ballard, Kevin D; Zhu, Jiangjiang

    2017-04-01

    Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Identification of novel biomarkers are needed to distinguish metabolic syndrome from equally obese individuals in order to direct them to early interventions that reduce their risk of developing further health problems. We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to evaluate the associations between metabolite profiles and established metabolic syndrome criteria (i.e. elevated waist circumference, hypertension, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in plasma samples from obese men ( n = 29; BMI = 35.5 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 ) and women ( n = 40; 34.9 ± 6.7 kg/m 2 ), of which 26 met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (17 men and 9 women). Compared to obese individuals without metabolic syndrome, univariate statistical analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that a specific group of metabolites from multiple metabolic pathways (i.e. purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, and tryptophan metabolism) were associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves generated based on the PLS-DA models showed excellent areas under the curve (0.85 and 0.96, for metabolites only model and enhanced metabolites model, respectively), high specificities (0.86 and 0.93), and good sensitivities (0.71 and 0.91). Moreover, principal component analysis revealed that metabolic profiles can be used to further differentiate metabolic syndrome with 3 versus 4-5 metabolic syndrome criteria. Collectively, these findings support targeted metabolomics approaches to distinguish metabolic syndrome from obesity alone, and to stratify metabolic syndrome status based on the number of criteria met. Impact statement We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to

  19. Characterization of the interferon genes in homozygous rainbow trout reveals two novel genes, alternate splicing and differential regulation of duplicated genes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, M.K.; Laing, K.J.; Woodson, J.C.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Hansen, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The genes encoding the type I and type II interferons (IFNs) have previously been identified in rainbow trout and their proteins partially characterized. These previous studies reported a single type II IFN (rtIFN-??) and three rainbow trout type I IFN genes that are classified into either group I (rtIFN1, rtIFN2) or group II (rtIFN3). In this present study, we report the identification of a novel IFN-?? gene (rtIFN-??2) and a novel type I group II IFN (rtIFN4) in homozygous rainbow trout and predict that additional IFN genes or pseudogenes exist in the rainbow trout genome. Additionally, we provide evidence that short and long forms of rtIFN1 are actively and differentially transcribed in homozygous trout, and likely arose due to alternate splicing of the first exon. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were developed to systematically profile all of the rainbow trout IFN transcripts, with high specificity at an individual gene level, in na??ve fish and after stimulation with virus or viral-related molecules. Cloned PCR products were used to ensure the specificity of the qRT-PCR assays and as absolute standards to assess transcript abundance of each gene. All IFN genes were modulated in response to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a DNA vaccine based on the IHNV glycoprotein, and poly I:C. The most inducible of the type I IFN genes, by all stimuli tested, were rtIFN3 and the short transcript form of rtIFN1. Gene expression of rtIFN-??1 and rtIFN-??2 was highly up-regulated by IHNV infection and DNA vaccination but rtIFN-??2 was induced to a greater magnitude. The specificity of the qRT-PCR assays reported here will be useful for future studies aimed at identifying which cells produce IFNs at early time points after infection. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefanie J; Behar, Ayla; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2018-03-01

    Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas. We demonstrate how to perform a context-sensitive differential diagnosis to distinguish between specific interests as well as related behaviors and unusual thought content as well as perceptive abnormalities, between paranoid ideas and biased interpretations of the behaviors of others typical for autism, and between disorganized symptoms and autistic unusual communication and social behavior. The resulting dual diagnoses in our case-study formed the basis for a complex differential indication, which considered both the increased stress vulnerability associated with an increased risk for the development of psychosis as well as the rigid thinking style associated with autism. Our case-report shows that such a precise differential indication can lead to stabilization over the long-term, even in patients with dual diagnoses.

  1. Laparoscopic resection of adult colon duplication causing intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Kyo, Kennoki; Azuma, Masaki; Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiyama, Motohiro; Shimamura, Takahiro; Maema, Atsushi; Shirakawa, Motoaki; Nakamura, Toshio; Koda, Kenji; Yokoyama, Hidetaro

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal duplications are uncommon congenital malformations that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Most cases are recognized before the age of 2 years, and those encountered in adults are rare. We describe here a case of ascending colon duplication in a 20-year-old male that caused intussusception and was treated laparoscopically. Although computed tomography revealed a cystic mass filled with stool-like material, the preoperative diagnosis was a submucosal tumor of the ascending colon. We performed a laparoscopic right colectomy, and the postoperative pathological diagnosis was duplication of the ascending colon, both cystic and tubular components. We conclude that gastrointestinal duplications, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all abdominal and submucosal cystic lesions and that laparoscopy is a preferred approach for the surgical treatment of gastrointestinal duplications. PMID:26900303

  2. Reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation: another sebaceous neoplasm associated with Muir-Torre syndrome?

    PubMed

    Shon, Wonwoo; Wolz, Michael M; Newman, Catherine C; Bridges, Alina G

    2014-11-01

    Reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation (RASD) represents a rare benign cutaneous epithelial neoplasm with sebaceous differentiation. There has been much speculation about the relationship between RASD and Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). We report a 53 year-old man who presented with RASD in addition to a prior history of sebaceous adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells in the RASD and sebaceous adenomas showed a significantly reduced MSH6 protein expression, whereas there was no loss of MLH1, MSH2 and PMS2. This benign neoplasm, which can be mistaken for various other cutaneous lesions with sebaceous differentiation, deserves wider recognition for its possible association with MTS. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  3. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  4. Patterns and severity of vascular amyloid in Alzheimer's disease associated with duplications and missense mutations in APP gene, Down syndrome and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mann, David M A; Davidson, Yvonne S; Robinson, Andrew C; Allen, Nancy; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Richardson, Anna; Jones, Matthew; Snowden, Julie S; Pendleton, Neil; Potier, Marie-Claude; Laquerrière, Annie; Prasher, Vee; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Strydom, Andre

    2018-05-16

    In this study, we have compared the severity of amyloid plaque formation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and the subtype pattern of CAA pathology itself, between APP genetic causes of AD (APPdup, APP mutations), older individuals with Down syndrome (DS) showing the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and individuals with sporadic (early and late onset) AD (sEOAD and sLOAD, respectively). The aim of this was to elucidate important group differences and to provide mechanistic insights related to clinical and neuropathological phenotypes. Since lipid and cholesterol metabolism is implicated in AD as well as vascular disease, we additionally aimed to explore the role of APOE genotype in CAA severity and subtypes. Plaque formation was greater in DS and missense APP mutations than in APPdup, sEOAD and sLOAD cases. Conversely, CAA was more severe in APPdup and missense APP mutations, and in DS, compared to sEOAD and sLOAD. When stratified by CAA subtype from 1 to 4, there were no differences in plaque scores between the groups, though in patients with APPdup, APP mutations and sEOAD, types 2 and 3 CAA were more common than type 1. Conversely, in DS, sLOAD and controls, type 1 CAA was more common than types 2 and 3. APOE ε4 allele frequency was greater in sEOAD and sLOAD compared to APPdup, missense APP mutations, DS and controls, and varied between each of the CAA phenotypes with APOE ε4 homozygosity being more commonly associated with type 3 CAA than types 1 and 2 CAA in sLOAD and sEOAD. The differing patterns in CAA within individuals of each group could be a reflection of variations in the efficiency of perivascular drainage, this being less effective in types 2 and 3 CAA leading to a greater burden of CAA in parenchymal arteries and capillaries. Alternatively, as suggested by immunostaining using carboxy-terminal specific antibodies, it may relate to the relative tissue burdens of the two major forms of Aβ, with higher levels of Aβ 40 promoting a more

  5. A Korean boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development caused by SOX9 duplication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyung Min; Ko, Jung Min; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2014-06-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD), also known as 46,XX male syndrome, is a rare form of DSD and clinical phenotype shows complete sex reversal from female to male. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene can be identified in most 46,XX testicular DSD patients; however, approximately 20% of patients with 46,XX testicular DSD are SRY-negative. The SRY-box 9 (SOX9) gene has several important functions during testis development and differentiation in males, and overexpression of SOX9 leads to the male development of 46,XX gonads in the absence of SRY. In addition, SOX9 duplication has been found to be a rare cause of 46,XX testicular DSD in humans. Here, we report a 4.2-year-old SRY-negative 46,XX boy with complete sex reversal caused by SOX9 duplication for the first time in Korea. He showed normal external and internal male genitalia except for small testes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses failed to detect the presence of SRY, and SOX9 intragenic mutation was not identified by direct sequencing analysis. Therefore, we performed real-time PCR analyses with specific primer pairs, and duplication of the SOX9 gene was revealed. Although SRY-negative 46,XX testicular DSD is a rare condition, an effort to make an accurate diagnosis is important for the provision of proper genetic counseling and for guiding patients in their long-term management.

  6. [Clinical application of moving cupping therapy based on skin reaction observation and syndrome differentiation].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Bo; Chen, Ze-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic evidence on clinical diseases and theoretic basis of moving cupping therapy were ex- plored in the paper. By the observation of the local reaction, such as skin appearance and color, the affected location, duration of sickness and nature of disease were judged. Different moving cupping methods were selected for different disorders. It was discovered that the property of syndromes should be recognized by the palpation on skin and muscle in the moving cupping therapy so that the pathogenesis and treating principle could be carefully determined. The moving cupping therapy is the important component of body surface therapy. Skin reaction observation and syndrome differentiation is the essential guidance of the moving cupping therapy.

  7. Serum Cytokine Profiles Differentiating Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F; Levis, Silvana; Morzunov, Sergey P; Martynova, Ekaterina V; Anokhin, Vladimir A; Gusev, Oleg A; St Jeor, Stephen C; Lombardi, Vincent C; Rizvanov, Albert A

    2017-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is an acute zoonosis that clinically manifests in two primary forms, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HFRS is endemic in Europe and Russia, where the mild form of the disease is prevalent in the Tatarstan region. HPS is endemic in Argentina, as well as other countries of North and South American. HFRS and HPS are usually acquired via the upper respiratory tract by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosol. Although the pathogenesis of HFRS and HPS remains largely unknown, postmortem tissue studies have identified endothelial cells as the primary target of infection. Importantly, cell damage due to virus replication, or subsequent tissue repair, has not been documented. Since no single factor has been identified that explains the complexity of HFRS or HPS pathogenesis, it has been suggested that a cytokine storm may play a crucial role in the manifestation of both diseases. In order to identify potential serological markers that distinguish HFRS and HPS, serum samples collected during early and late phases of the disease were analyzed for 48 analytes using multiplex magnetic bead-based assays. Overall, serum cytokine profiles associated with HPS revealed a more pro-inflammatory milieu as compared to HFRS. Furthermore, HPS was strictly characterized by the upregulation of cytokine levels, in contrast to HFRS where cases were distinguished by a dichotomy in serum cytokine levels. The severe form of hantavirus zoonosis, HPS, was characterized by the upregulation of a higher number of cytokines than HFRS (40 vs 21). In general, our analysis indicates that, although HPS and HFRS share many characteristic features, there are distinct cytokine profiles for these diseases. These profiles suggest a strong activation of an innate immune and inflammatory responses are associated with HPS, relative to HFRS, as well as a robust activation of Th1-type immune responses. Finally, the results of our analysis

  8. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and cerebrovascular constriction syndrome in the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches].

    PubMed

    Ruiz López, N; Cano Hernández, B; Balbás Álvarez, S

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum headache can be due to many causes. In a patient with previous epidural analgesia, the headache can be attributed to post-dural puncture headache, even if the symptoms are not typical of this clinical entity. We report a case of a post-partum with accidental dural tap during the insertion of an epidural catheter for labour analgesia, and who referred to headaches in the third post-partum day. Initially, a post-dural puncture headache was suspected, but the subsequent onset of seizures and visual impairment meant that the diagnosis had to be reconsidered. In this case report, the clinical and pathophysiological features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, as well as the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches are described. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Delusion of fetal duplication in a Capgras patient.

    PubMed

    Silva, J A; Leong, G B; Longhitano, M; Botello, T E

    1991-02-01

    A case of Capgras syndrome in a pregnant patient is described. In addition to perceiving living family members as impostors, she believed that there was a double or twin of her fetus. She conceptualized her "twins" differently than the way she viewed doubles of family members. Her fetus may represent the youngest "person" to have been duplicated. The relationship of Capgras syndrome to misidentification phenomena is discussed.

  10. Pyloric duplications: review and case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S; Abrams, R S; Carbaugh, R A

    1995-12-01

    Gastric duplications are unusual congenital anomalies that often require surgical treatment. Pyloric duplications are particularly rare; few are reported in the English literature. This article reviews the literature on pyloric duplications and describes a pyloric duplication associated with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a 5-week-old child and a duplication that recurred 7 years later.

  11. Hypergastrinemia and a duodenal ulcer caused by gastric duplication.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideaki; Masumoto, Kouji; Sasaki, Takato; Sakamoto, Naoya; Gotoh, Chikashi; Urita, Yasuhisa; Shinkai, Toko; Takayasu, Hajime; Nakano, Noriyuki; Noguchi, Masayuki; Kudo, Toyoichiro

    2016-12-01

    Hypergastrinemia and the resultant peptic ulcer related to an enteric duplication has been quite rarely reported in the literature. We herein report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with hypergastrinemia and a duodenal ulcer at 2 years of age. She had been followed up with a proton pump inhibitor, which resulted in resolution of the ulcer; however, unexplained hypergastrinemia had continued. A cystic lesion at the antrum was discovered at 4 years of age, which we suspected to be a gastric duplication. After we resected the lesion, the hypergastrinemia resolved without recurrence of the duodenal ulcer. The histology was compatible with a gastric duplication, and the lumen was lined with antral mucosa that strongly stained positive for gastrin. We presumed that the antral mucosa inside the duplication in our case had no hydrogen ion feedback inhibition of gastrin release from gastrin cells and increased release of gastrin from the mucosa inside the duplication led to the duodenal ulcer. Only two cases have been reported in the literature that had hypergastrinemia related to enteric duplication. Gastric duplication should be included in the differential diagnosis of sustained hypergastrinemia in children.

  12. Gene duplication and the evolution of phenotypic diversity in insect societies.

    PubMed

    Chau, Linh M; Goodisman, Michael A D

    2017-12-01

    Gene duplication is an important evolutionary process thought to facilitate the evolution of phenotypic diversity. We investigated if gene duplication was associated with the evolution of phenotypic differences in a highly social insect, the honeybee Apis mellifera. We hypothesized that the genetic redundancy provided by gene duplication could promote the evolution of social and sexual phenotypes associated with advanced societies. We found a positive correlation between sociality and rate of gene duplications across the Apoidea, indicating that gene duplication may be associated with sociality. We also discovered that genes showing biased expression between A. mellifera alternative phenotypes tended to be found more frequently than expected among duplicated genes than singletons. Moreover, duplicated genes had higher levels of caste-, sex-, behavior-, and tissue-biased expression compared to singletons, as expected if gene duplication facilitated phenotypic differentiation. We also found that duplicated genes were maintained in the A. mellifera genome through the processes of conservation, neofunctionalization, and specialization, but not subfunctionalization. Overall, we conclude that gene duplication may have facilitated the evolution of social and sexual phenotypes, as well as tissue differentiation. Thus this study further supports the idea that gene duplication allows species to evolve an increased range of phenotypic diversity. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Evaluation of Hematological Parameters in the Differentiation of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Other Headache Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Goktekin, Mehmet C; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2018-06-01

    In this research, the aim was to compare hematological data for the differentiation of subarachnoid hemorrhage, migraine attack, and other headache syndromes during consultation in emergency service. In this research, which was designed as retrospective case control study, hematological parameters (WBC, HgB, HCT, PLT, lymphocyte and neutrophile counts and neutrophile/lymphocyte rates) of the patients consulting to emergency service with SAH and migraine and other consulting patients complaining mainly from headache and having normal cranial CT were analysed. Sixty migraine attack patients (F/M:47/13), 57 SAH patients (F/M:30/27), and 53 patients except migraine having normal brain CT (F/M:36/17) who were consulted to emergency service with headache complaint were included in our research. WBC, Hct, HgB, MCV, PLT, MPV, LY, Neu counts, and NY/LY rates were found to differentiate between SAH and migraine. WBC, PLT, MPV, LY, and Neu rates were found to differentiate between SAH and HS patients. Only Hct, HgB, MCV, and NY/LY rates were found to differ meaningfully between SAH and migraine patients but these rates were not found to have meaningful difference between SAH and HS patients. In addition, an increase in WBC counts and NY/LY rates and decrease in MPV counts in ROC analysis were found to be more specific for SAH. WBC, HgB, HCT, PLT, lymphocyte and Neu counts, and NY/LY rates can indicate distinguishing SAH and migraine. WBC, HgB, HCT, PLT, lymphocyte and Neu counts can indicate to the clinician a differentiation of SAH and other headache syndromes.

  14. Study on TCM Syndrome Differentiation of Primary Liver Cancer Based on the Analysis of Latent Structural Model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhan; Qi, Xiuzhong; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Lang, Qingbo; Lu, Jianying; Ma, Changping; Liu, Long; Yue, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the most common malignant tumors because of its high incidence and high mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an active role in the treatment of PLC. As the most important part in the TCM system, syndrome differentiation based on the clinical manifestations from traditional four diagnostic methods has met great challenges and questions with the lack of statistical validation support. In this study, we provided evidences for TCM syndrome differentiation of PLC using the method of analysis of latent structural model from clinic data, thus providing basis for establishing TCM syndrome criteria. And also we obtain the common syndromes of PLC as well as their typical clinical manifestations, respectively.

  15. Clinical Implications of Cardiac-MIBG SPECT in the Differentiation of Parkinsonian Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Bang, Oh Young; Joo, In Soo; Huh, Kyoon

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose 123I cardiac meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine, has been used to estimate myocardial sympathetic nerve function. We investigate whether cardiac-MIBG SPECT is clinically applicable in the differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) from parkinsonian syndromes. Methods Cardiac-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 27 controls, in 40 patients with PD and in 52 patients with other parkinsonian syndromes comprising 23 with multiple system atrophy (MSA), 26 with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP), and 3 with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). The heart to mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratio was calculated for each subjects. Patients who either had medical conditions that confused the MIBG SPECT results or who took medications that interfere with MIBG accumulation were excluded from the study. Results Both early and delayed H/M ratios were in patients with PD significantly lower than in controls (early, 1.34±0.15 vs 1.79±0.19; delayed, 1.29±0.15 vs 2.06±0.29, p<0.001). In patients with PD, both early and delayed H/M ratios were significantly lower than those in patients with MSA (early, 1.68±0.23; delayed, 1.80±0.34, p<0.001), DIP (early, 1.83±0.24; delayed, 2.07±0.4, p<0.001), or CBD (early, 1.85±0.01; delayed, 1.99±0.19, p<0.001). Two patients with DIP, who were within the range of patients with PD, showed clinically similar courses of PD. Conclusions This study demonstrates that cardiac-MIBG is a clinically powerful tools to differentiate PD from other parkinsonian syndromes. PMID:20396485

  16. Early Differentiation of Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome and Toxic Shock Syndrome in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Jui; Cheng, Ming-Chou; Lo, Mao-Hung; Chien, Shao-Ju

    2015-11-01

    Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) can present as shock and fever with skin rash, but the management of these 2 groups of patients is different. This report proposes to help clinicians earlier distinguish these 2 diseases and expedite institution of appropriate therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with the diagnosis of KDSS or TSS from January 2000 through December 2010. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were collected for analysis of differences between them. Seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria of KDSS and 16 had a confirmed diagnosis of TSS. The mean age of the KDSS group was significantly younger than that of the TSS group (36.8 ± 41.1 vs. 113.3 ± 55.6 months, P < 0.001). Significantly lower hemoglobulin and age-adjusted hemoglobulin concentrations were noted in the KDSS group [Hb, age-adjusted Z score, -1.88 (range, -3.9 to 3.9) vs. 0.89 (range, -6.4 to 10.8), P = 0.006]. The median platelet count of the KDSS group was nearly twice that of the TSS group [312 × 10³ per μL (range, 116-518) vs. 184.5 × 10³ per μL (range: 31-629), P = 0.021]. Echocardiographic abnormalities, such as valvulitis (mitral or tricuspid regurgitation) and coronary artery lesions, were significantly more common in the KDSS group (P = 0.022). Echocardiography, anemia and thrombocytosis are useful early differentiating features between KDSS and TSS patients.

  17. Differentiating Alström from Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) using systematic ciliopathy genes sequencing.

    PubMed

    Aliferis, K; Hellé, S; Gyapay, G; Duchatelet, S; Stoetzel, C; Mandel, J L; Dollfus, H

    2012-03-01

    Early onset retinal degeneration associated with obesity can present a diagnostic challenge in paediatric ophthalmology practice. Clinical overlap between Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Alström syndrome has been described, although the two entities are genetically distinct. To date, 16 genes are known to be associated with BBS (BBS1-16) and only one gene has been identified for Alström syndrome (ALMS1). In collaboration with the French National Center for Sequencing (CNS, Evry), all coding exons and flanking introns were sequenced for 27 ciliopathy genes (BBS1-12, MGC1203, TTC21b, AHI1, NPHP2-8 (NPHP6=BBS14), MKS1(BBS13), MKS3, C2ORF86, SDCCAG8, ALMS1) in 96 patients referred with a clinical diagnosis of BBS. ALMS1 gene analysis included sequencing of all coding exons. BBS known gene mutations were found in 44 patients (36 with two mutations and 8 heterozygous). ALMS1 mutations were found in four cases. The rate of ALMS1 mutations among patients suspected of having BBS was 4.2%. Clinically, all four patients presented early-onset severe retinal degeneration with congenital nystagmus associated with obesity. The difficult early differential diagnosis between the two syndromes is outlined. One mutation had already been reported (c.11310delAGAG/p.R3770fsX) and three were novel (c.2293C > T/p.Q765X, c.6823insA/p.R2275fsX, c.9046delA/p.N3016fsX). Ciliopathy genes sequencing can be very helpful in providing a timely diagnosis in this group of patients, hence appropriate genetic counselling for families and adequate medical follow-up for affected children.

  18. The evolution of duplicate gene expression in mammalian organs

    PubMed Central

    Guschanski, Katerina; Warnefors, Maria; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplications generate genomic raw material that allows the emergence of novel functions, likely facilitating adaptive evolutionary innovations. However, global assessments of the functional and evolutionary relevance of duplicate genes in mammals were until recently limited by the lack of appropriate comparative data. Here, we report a large-scale study of the expression evolution of DNA-based functional gene duplicates in three major mammalian lineages (placental mammals, marsupials, egg-laying monotremes) and birds, on the basis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from nine species and eight organs. We observe dynamic changes in tissue expression preference of paralogs with different duplication ages, suggesting differential contribution of paralogs to specific organ functions during vertebrate evolution. Specifically, we show that paralogs that emerged in the common ancestor of bony vertebrates are enriched for genes with brain-specific expression and provide evidence for differential forces underlying the preferential emergence of young testis- and liver-specific expressed genes. Further analyses uncovered that the overall spatial expression profiles of gene families tend to be conserved, with several exceptions of pronounced tissue specificity shifts among lineage-specific gene family expansions. Finally, we trace new lineage-specific genes that may have contributed to the specific biology of mammalian organs, including the little-studied placenta. Overall, our study provides novel and taxonomically broad evidence for the differential contribution of duplicate genes to tissue-specific transcriptomes and for their importance for the phenotypic evolution of vertebrates. PMID:28743766

  19. Cost-effectiveness and accuracy of the tests used in the differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puig, J; Wägner, A; Caballero, A; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J; Webb, S M

    1999-01-01

    Establish the minimal biochemical and radiological examinations necessary and their cost-effectiveness to accurately diagnose the etiology of Cushing's syndrome (CS). In 71 patients with CS followed between 1982 and 1997 biochemical studies (basal ACTH, 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test-HDST-, metyrapone stimulation test-MST-, or inferior petrosal sinus catheterization-IPSC-) and radiological investigations (abdominal CT scan, pituitary CT scan or MRI) were performed. Once pathology confirmed the diagnosis (48 pituitary Cushing's disease-CD, 17 adrenal neoplasms, 2 bilateral macronodular hyperplasia-BMH-, and 4 ectopic ACTH syndrome-ES-), the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the different studies was calculated to establish the most accurate and cost-effective diagnostic protocol. In ACTH-independent CS (ACTH < or = 9 pg/ml; normal 9 to 54) a unilateral tumor was identified on abdominal CT scanning in 17, and BMH in 1; the other BMH had detectable ACTH (43.2 pg/ml). In ACTH-dependent CS, ACTH was > 9 pg/ml and IPSC (performed in 22) correctly identified 20 patients with CD and differentiated them from 2 with an ES (100% specificity and sensitivity). Pituitary MRI or CT did not disclose an adenoma in 41.7% of patients with CD, and was reported to exhibit a microadenoma in 2 of the 4 patients with ES. HDST and MST were of no additional use in the differentiation between CD and ES. Once CS is diagnosed low ACTH and an abdominal CT scan correctly identified all patients of adrenal origin. In ACTH-dependent CS IPSC was the best predictive test to differentiate CD from ES. BMH may behave as ACTH-dependent or independent. The other biochemical and radiological studies performed are not cost-effective and may even be misleading, and should not be routinely performed.

  20. Genome-wide site-specific differential methylation in the blood of individuals with Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Emily S.; Qiu, Weiliang; Morrow, Jarrett; Beaty, Terri H.; Hetmanski, Jacqueline; Make, Barry J.; Lomas, David A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; DeMeo, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (47 XXY) is a common sex-chromosome aneuploidy with an estimated prevalence of 1 in every 660 male births. Investigations into the associations between DNA methylation and the highly variable clinical manifestations of KS have largely focused on the supernumerary X chromosome; systematic investigations of the epigenome have been limited. We obtained genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K platform in 5 KS (47 XXY), 102 male (46 XY), and 113 female (46 XX) control subjects participating in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Gene Study. Empirical Bayes-mediated models were used to test for differential methylation by KS status. CpG sites with a false-discovery rate <0.05 from the first-generation HumanMethylation27K platform were further examined in an independent replication cohort of 2 KS subjects, 590 male, and 495 female controls drawn from the International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN). Differential methylation at sites throughout the genome were identified, including 86 CpG sites that were differentially methylated in KS subjects relative to both male and female controls. CpG sites annotated to the HEN1 methyltransferase homolog 1 (HENMT1), calcyclin-binding protein (CACYBP), and GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) genes were among the “KS-specific” loci that were replicated in ICGN. We therefore conclude that site-specific differential methylation exists throughout the genome in KS. The functional impact and clinical relevance of these differentially methylated loci should be explored in future studies. PMID:25988574

  1. Blink reflex recovery cycle to differentiate Progressive Supranuclear Palsy from Cortico-basal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, Giorgia; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Mostile, Giovanni; Luca, Antonina; Raciti, Loredana; Dibilio, Valeria; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore; Zappia, Mario

    2018-05-13

    Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Cortico-basal syndrome (CBS) may share similar clinical findings and peculiar tests to distinguish between the two disorders could be useful. We evaluated Blink Reflex (BR) and R2 Blink Reflex Recovery Cycle (R2BRRC), determining diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of R2BRRC in differentiating PSP from CBS patients. This was a prospective data collection study investigating BR and R2BRRC at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 750 ms in 12 PSP patients, 8 CBS patients, and 10 controls. Patients with PSP have earlier recruitment of R2BRRC as compared to patients with CBS (ISI 100: p=0.002; ISI 150: p<0.001; ISI 200: p<0.001; ISI 300: p=0.02) and controls (ISI 100: p<0.001; ISI 150: p<0.001; ISI 200: p<0.001; ISI 300: p=0.004). The presence of an early recovery of the R2 differentiated PSP from CBS with specificity and sensitivity of 87.5% and 91.7% respectively. R2BRRC curve might be considered a useful tool in differentiating PSP from CBS patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of the duplicated intracellular lipid-binding protein genes of teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Ananda B; Parmar, Manoj B; Wright, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    Increasing organismal complexity during the evolution of life has been attributed to the duplication of genes and entire genomes. More recently, theoretical models have been proposed that postulate the fate of duplicated genes, among them the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model. In the DDC model, the common fate of a duplicated gene is lost from the genome owing to nonfunctionalization. Duplicated genes are retained in the genome either by subfunctionalization, where the functions of the ancestral gene are sub-divided between the sister duplicate genes, or by neofunctionalization, where one of the duplicate genes acquires a new function. Both processes occur either by loss or gain of regulatory elements in the promoters of duplicated genes. Here, we review the genomic organization, evolution, and transcriptional regulation of the multigene family of intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) genes from teleost fishes. Teleost fishes possess many copies of iLBP genes owing to a whole genome duplication (WGD) early in the teleost fish radiation. Moreover, the retention of duplicated iLBP genes is substantially higher than the retention of all other genes duplicated in the teleost genome. The fatty acid-binding protein genes, a subfamily of the iLBP multigene family in zebrafish, are differentially regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms, which may account for the retention of iLBP genes in the zebrafish genome by the process of subfunctionalization of cis-acting regulatory elements in iLBP gene promoters.

  3. Limited Diagnostic Utility of Plasma Adrenocorticotropic Hormone for Differentiation between Adrenal Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, I Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Ahn, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level has been recommended as the first diagnostic test for differentiating between ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and ACTH-dependent CS. When plasma ACTH values are inconclusive, a differential diagnosis of CS can be made based upon measurement of the serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level and results of the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDST). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of plasma ACTH to differentiate adrenal CS from Cushing' disease (CD) and compare it with that of the HDST results and serum DHEA-S level. We performed a retrospective, multicenter study from January 2000 to May 2012 involving 92 patients with endogenous CS. The levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) after the HDST, and serum DHEA-S were measured. Fifty-seven patients had adrenal CS and 35 patients had CD. The area under the curve of plasma ACTH, serum DHEA-S, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 0.954, 0.841, 0.950, and 0.997, respectively (all P<0.001). The cut-off values for plasma ACTH, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 5.3 pmol/L, 33.3%, and 61.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma ACTH measurement were 84.2% and 94.3%, those of serum cortisol were 95.8% and 90.6%, and those of UFC after the HDST were 97.9% and 96.7%, respectively. Significant overlap in plasma ACTH levels was seen between patients with adrenal CS and those with CD. The HDST may be useful in differentiating between these forms of the disease, especially when the plasma ACTH level alone is not conclusive.

  4. Global differential expression of genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region in normal human brain

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Julio Cesar; Fajardo, Dianora; Peña, Angela; Sánchez, Adalberto; Domínguez, Martha C; Satizábal, José María

    2014-01-01

    Background: The information of gene expression obtained from databases, have made possible the extraction and analysis of data related with several molecular processes involving not only in brain homeostasis but its disruption in some neuropathologies; principally in Down syndrome and the Alzheimer disease. Objective: To correlate the levels of transcription of 19 genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) with their expression in several substructures of normal human brain. Methods: There were obtained expression profiles of 19 DSCR genes in 42 brain substructures, from gene expression values available at the database of the human brain of the Brain Atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences", (http://human.brain-map.org/). The co-expression patterns of DSCR genes in brain were calculated by using multivariate statistical methods. Results: Highest levels of gene expression were registered at caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and putamen among central areas of cerebral cortex. Increased expression levels of RCAN1 that encode by a protein involved in signal transduction process of the CNS were recorded for PCP4 that participates in the binding to calmodulin and TTC3; a protein that is associated with differentiation of neurons. That previously identified brain structures play a crucial role in the learning process, in different class of memory and in motor skills. Conclusion: The precise regulation of DSCR gene expression is crucial to maintain the brain homeostasis, especially in those areas with high levels of gene expression associated with a remarkable process of learning and cognition. PMID:25767303

  5. Differential effects of childhood trauma subtypes on fatigue and physical functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Venter, Maud; Illegems, Jela; Van Royen, Rita; Moorkens, Greta; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2017-10-01

    There is wide consensus that childhood trauma plays an important role in the aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The current study examines the differential effects of childhood trauma subtypes on fatigue and physical functioning in individuals suffering from CFS. Participants were 155 well-documented adult, predominantly female CFS patients receiving treatment at the outpatient treatment centre for CFS of the Antwerp University Hospital in Belgium. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with outcomes of the total score of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) measuring fatigue and the scores on the physical functioning subscale of the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 Health Status Survey (SF-36) as the dependent variables, and the scores on the five subscales of the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC) as the independent variables. The patients' fatigue (β=1.38; p=0.025) and physical functioning scores (β=-1.79; p=0.034) were significantly predicted by childhood sexual harassment. There were no significant effects of emotional neglect, emotional abuse, bodily threat, or sexual abuse during childhood. Of the childhood trauma subtypes investigated, sexual harassment emerged as the most important predictor of fatigue and poor physical functioning in the CFS patients assessed. These findings have to be taken into account in further clinical research and in the assessment and treatment of individuals coping with chronic fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential DNA methylation patterns of polycystic ovarian syndrome in whole blood of Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei; Ren, Anran; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne; Skov, Vibe; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben; Tan, Qihua

    2017-03-28

    As a universally common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, the polycystic ovarian syndrome is characterized by composite clinical phenotypes reflecting the contributions of reproductive impact of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying symptoms resulting from interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome and identified a substantial number of genomic sites differentially methylated in the whole blood of PCOS patients and healthy controls (52 sites, false discovery rate < 0.05 and corresponding p value < 5.68e-06), highly consistently replicating biological pathways extensively implicated in immunity and immunity-related inflammatory disorders (false discovery rate < 0.05) that were reportedly regulated in the DNA methylome from ovarian tissue under PCOS condition. Most importantly, our genome-wide profiling focusing on PCOS patients revealed a large number of DNA methylation sites and their enriched functional pathways significantly associated with diverse clinical features (levels of prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and menstrual cycle) that could serve as novel molecular basis of the clinical heterogeneity observed in PCOS women.

  7. TGM5 mutations impact epidermal differentiation in acral peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pigors, Manuela; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Cobzaru, Cristina; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Suárez, Jose; Faletra, Flavio; Aho, Heikki; Mäkelä, Leeni; Kern, Johannes S; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Has, Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by acral blistering and peeling of the outermost layers of the epidermis. It is caused by mutations in the gene for transglutaminase 5, TGM5. Here, we report on clinical and molecular findings in 11 patients and extend the TGM5 mutation database by four, to our knowledge, previously unreported mutations: p.M1T, p.L41P, p.L214CfsX15, and p.S604IfsX9. The recurrent mutation p.G113C was found in 9 patients, but also in 3 of 100 control individuals in a heterozygous state, indicating that APSS might be more widespread than hitherto expected. Using quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrate that expression and distribution of several epidermal differentiation markers and corneodesmosin (CDSN) is altered in APSS keratinocytes and skin. Although the expression of transglutaminases 1 and 3 was not changed, we found an upregulation of keratin 1, keratin 10, involucrin, loricrin, and CDSN, probably as compensatory mechanisms for stabilization of the epidermal barrier. Our results give insights into the consequences of TGM5 mutations on terminal epidermal differentiation.

  8. Dorsal dimelia in patau syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fattah, A; Pickford, M A

    2007-10-01

    We present a case of a child with Patau syndrome that exhibits features consistent with congenital palmar nail syndrome. The literature is reviewed and evidence presented to demonstrate that this is a defect in the dorso-ventral patterning of the limb and thus a form of dorsal dimelia. In order to differentiate this from other instances of ectopic nail tissue we suggest congenital palmar nail syndrome should be more specifically defined as duplicated nails, absent flexion creases, non-glabrous skin on the palmar surface, reduced movement at the interphalangeal joints and hypoplastic terminal phalanges.

  9. Pathogenic role of mtDNA duplications in mitochondrial diseases associated with mtDNA deletions.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Francesca; Rana, Michele; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Modoni, Anna; D'Amico, Adele; Papacci, Manuela; Tonali, Pietro; Servidei, Serenella; Silvestri, Gabriella

    2003-04-30

    We estimated the frequency of multiple mtDNA rearrangements by Southern blot in 32 patients affected by mitochondrial disorders associated with single deletions in order to assess genotype-phenotype correlations and elucidate the pathogenic significance of mtDNA duplications. Muscle in situ hybridization studies were performed in patients showing mtDNA duplications at Southern blot. We found multiple rearrangements in 12/32 (37.5%) patients; in particular, mtDNA duplications were detected in 4/4 Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), in 1 Pearson's syndrome, in 1/3 encephalomyopathies with progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), and in 2/23 PEO. In situ studies documented an exclusive accumulation of deleted mtDNAs in cytochrome c oxidase negative fibers of patients with mtDNA duplications. The presence of mtDNA duplications significantly correlated with onset of symptoms before age 15 and occurrence of clinical multisystem involvement. Analysis of biochemical data documented a predominant reduction of complex III in patients without duplications compared to patients with mtDNA duplications. Our data indicate that multiple mtDNA rearrangements are detectable in a considerable proportion of patients with single deletions and that mtDNA duplications do not cause any oxidative impairment. They more likely play a pathogenic role in the determination of clinical expression of mitochondrial diseases associated with single mtDNA deletions, possibly generating deleted mtDNAs in embryonic tissues by homologous recombination. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. ALTERNATIVES TO DUPLICATE DIET METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duplicate Diet (DD) methodology has been used to collect information about the dietary exposure component in the context of total exposure studies. DD methods have been used to characterize the dietary exposure component in the NHEXAS pilot studies. NERL desired to evaluate it...

  11. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles ofmore » vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.« less

  12. Chest sonography: a useful tool to differentiate acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema from acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Copetti, Roberto; Soldati, Gino; Copetti, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background Differential diagnosis between acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE) and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) may often be difficult. We evaluated the ability of chest sonography in the identification of characteristic pleuropulmonary signs useful in the diagnosis of ALI/ARDS and APE. Methods Chest sonography was performed on admission to the intensive care unit in 58 consecutive patients affected by ALI/ARDS or by acute pulmonary edema (APE). Results Ultrasound examination was focalised on finding in the two groups the presence of: 1) alveolar-interstitial syndrome (AIS) 2) pleural lines abnormalities 3) absence or reduction of "gliding" sign 4) "spared areas" 5) consolidations 6) pleural effusion 7) "lung pulse". AIS was found in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 100% of patients with APE (p = ns). Pleural line abnormalities were observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 25% of patients with APE (p < 0.0001). Absence or reduction of the 'gliding sign' was observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 0% of patients with APE. 'Spared areas' were observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 0% of patients with APE (p < 0.0001). Consolidations were present in 83.3% of patients with ALI/ARDS in 0% of patients with APE (p < 0.0001). A pleural effusion was present in 66.6% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 95% of patients with APE (p < 0.004). 'Lung pulse' was observed in 50% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 0% of patients with APE (p < 0.0001). All signs, except the presence of AIS, presented a statistically significant difference in presentation between the two syndromes resulting specific for the ultrasonographic characterization of ALI/ARDS. Conclusion Pleuroparenchimal patterns in ALI/ARDS do find a characterization through ultrasonographic lung scan. In the critically ill the ultrasound demonstration of a dyshomogeneous AIS with spared areas, pleural line modifications and lung consolidations is

  13. Ancient and Recent Duplications Support Functional Diversity of Daphnia Opsins.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Christopher S; Greenwold, Matthew J; Dudycha, Jeffry L

    2017-01-01

    Daphnia pulex has the largest known family of opsins, genes critical for photoreception and vision in animals. This diversity may be functionally redundant, arising from recent processes, or ancient duplications may have been preserved due to distinct functions and independent contributions to fitness. We analyzed opsins in D. pulex and its distant congener Daphnia magna. We identified 48 opsins in the D. pulex genome and 32 in D. magna. We inferred the complement of opsins in the last common ancestor of all Daphnia and evaluated the history of opsin duplication and loss. We further analyzed sequence variation to assess possible functional diversification among Daphnia opsins. Much of the opsin expansion occurred before the D. pulex-D. magna split more than 145 Mya, and both Daphnia lineages preserved most ancient opsins. More recent expansion occurred in pteropsins and long-wavelength visual opsins in both species, particularly D. pulex. Recent duplications were not random: the same ancestral genes duplicated independently in each modern species. Most ancient and some recent duplications involved differentiation at residues known to influence spectral tuning of visual opsins. Arthropsins show evidence of gene conversion between tandemly arrayed paralogs in functionally important domains. Intron-exon gene structure was generally conserved within clades inferred from sequences, although pteropsins showed substantial intron size variation. Overall, our analyses support the hypotheses that diverse opsins are maintained due to diverse functional roles in photoreception and vision, that functional diversification is both ancient and recent, and that multiple evolutionary processes have influenced different types of opsins.

  14. Facial duplication: case, review, and embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Barr, M

    1982-04-01

    The craniofacial anatomy of an infant with facial duplication is described. There were four eyes, two noses, two maxillae, and one mandible. Anterior to the single pituitary the brain was duplicated and there was bilateral arhinencephaly. Portions of the brain were extruded into a large frontal encephalocele. Cases of symmetrical facial duplication reported in the literature range from two complete faces on a single head (diprosopus) to simple nasal duplication. The variety of patterns of duplication suggests that the doubling of facial components arises in several different ways: Forking of the notochord, duplication of the prosencephalon, duplication of the olfactory placodes, and duplication of maxillary and/or mandibular growth centers around the margins of the stomatodeal plate. Among reported cases, the female:male ratio is 2:1.

  15. Mycobacterium fortuitum Infection following Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Differentiation from Classically Described Red Breast Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cicilioni, Orlando J; Foles, Van Brandon; Sieger, Barry; Musselman, Kelly

    2013-10-01

    Red breast syndrome (RBS) has been described as an erythema that may be associated with 2-stage prosthetic reconstructive breast surgery using biologic mesh. RBS is differentiated from infectious cellulitis through absence of fever and laboratory abnormalities and usually has a self-limiting course. There have been no clinical reports on etiology, risk factors, or management of RBS. This report describes patient data that raise the need to rule out mycobacterial infection when RBS is being considered as a diagnosis. We present 6 cases of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection occurring after prosthetic breast reconstruction performed with a human-derived acellular dermal matrix, including the timing and course of erythema, laboratory results, treatments used, and long-term outcomes. We also describe the differential diagnoses of RBS in the context of these cases, including emergence of acid-fast bacilli and diagnostic and treatment considerations. Exact two-tailed 95% confidence intervals based on the F-distribution are provided with estimates of the incidence rates of infection. The 6 cases presented here do not fit the typical description of RBS and were caused by mycobacterium infection. Statistical evaluation of the estimated incidence rate of M. fortuitum infection in a patient thought to have RBS, which occurred 100% of the time in this series, revealed a 95% confidence interval of 54.1-100%. When presented with possible RBS, surgeons must rule out cellulitis, culture for acid-fast bacilli such as mycobacterium species, and then determine the best course of treatment. Patient counseling regarding potential household sources of infection is warranted to minimize postoperative infection risk.

  16. Proteomic Profiling for Identification of Novel Biomarkers Differentially Expressed in Human Ovaries from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Zhang, Jiangyu; Deng, Qingshan; Li, Jieming; Li, Zhengfen; Xiao, Yao; Hu, Shuiwang; Li, Tiantian; Tan, Qiuxiao; Li, Xiaofang; Luo, Bingshu; Mo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify differential protein expression pattern associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Twenty women were recruited for the study, ten with PCOS as a test group and ten without PCOS as a control group. Differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis and mass spectroscopy were employed to identify proteins that were differentially expressed between the PCOS and normal ovaries. The differentially expressed proteins were further validated by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results DIGE analysis revealed eighteen differentially expressed proteins in the PCOS ovaries of which thirteen were upregulated, and five downregulated. WB and IHC confirmed the differential expression of membrane-associated progesterone receptor component 1 (PGRMC1), retinol-binding protein 1 (RBP1), heat shock protein 90B1, calmodulin 1, annexin A6, and tropomyosin 2. Also, WB analysis revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher expression of PGRMC1 and RBP1 in PCOS ovaries as compared to the normal ovaries. The differential expression of the proteins was also validated by IHC. Conclusions The present study identified novel differentially expressed proteins in the ovarian tissues of women with PCOS that can serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of PCOS using molecular interventions. PMID:27846214

  17. Proteomic Profiling for Identification of Novel Biomarkers Differentially Expressed in Human Ovaries from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Zhang, Jiangyu; Deng, Qingshan; Li, Jieming; Li, Zhengfen; Xiao, Yao; Hu, Shuiwang; Li, Tiantian; Tan, Qiuxiao; Li, Xiaofang; Luo, Bingshu; Mo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To identify differential protein expression pattern associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty women were recruited for the study, ten with PCOS as a test group and ten without PCOS as a control group. Differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis and mass spectroscopy were employed to identify proteins that were differentially expressed between the PCOS and normal ovaries. The differentially expressed proteins were further validated by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). DIGE analysis revealed eighteen differentially expressed proteins in the PCOS ovaries of which thirteen were upregulated, and five downregulated. WB and IHC confirmed the differential expression of membrane-associated progesterone receptor component 1 (PGRMC1), retinol-binding protein 1 (RBP1), heat shock protein 90B1, calmodulin 1, annexin A6, and tropomyosin 2. Also, WB analysis revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher expression of PGRMC1 and RBP1 in PCOS ovaries as compared to the normal ovaries. The differential expression of the proteins was also validated by IHC. The present study identified novel differentially expressed proteins in the ovarian tissues of women with PCOS that can serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of PCOS using molecular interventions.

  18. New Aspects in the Differential Diagnosis and Therapy of Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Alexander, Henry; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is presently based on mainly clinical symptoms. BPS/IC can be considered as a worst-case scenario of bladder overactivity of unknown origin, including bladder pain. Usually, patients are partially or completely resistant to anticholinergic therapy, and therapeutical options are especially restricted in case of BPS/IC. Therefore, early detection of patients prone to develop BPS/IC symptoms is essential for successful therapy. We propose extended diagnostics including molecular markers. Differential diagnosis should be based on three diagnostical “columns”: (i) clinical diagnostics, (ii) histopathology, and (iii) molecular diagnostics. Analysis of molecular alterations of receptor expression in detrusor smooth muscle cells and urothelial integrity is necessary to develop patient-tailored therapeutical concepts. Although more research is needed to elucidate the pathomechanisms involved, extended BPS/IC diagnostics could already be integrated into routine patient care, allowing evidence-based pharmacotherapy of patients with idiopathic bladder overactivity and BPS/IC. PMID:22028706

  19. New aspects in the differential diagnosis and therapy of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Alexander, Henry; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is presently based on mainly clinical symptoms. BPS/IC can be considered as a worst-case scenario of bladder overactivity of unknown origin, including bladder pain. Usually, patients are partially or completely resistant to anticholinergic therapy, and therapeutical options are especially restricted in case of BPS/IC. Therefore, early detection of patients prone to develop BPS/IC symptoms is essential for successful therapy. We propose extended diagnostics including molecular markers. Differential diagnosis should be based on three diagnostical "columns": (i) clinical diagnostics, (ii) histopathology, and (iii) molecular diagnostics. Analysis of molecular alterations of receptor expression in detrusor smooth muscle cells and urothelial integrity is necessary to develop patient-tailored therapeutical concepts. Although more research is needed to elucidate the pathomechanisms involved, extended BPS/IC diagnostics could already be integrated into routine patient care, allowing evidence-based pharmacotherapy of patients with idiopathic bladder overactivity and BPS/IC.

  20. Evolution of Gene Duplication in Plants.

    PubMed

    Panchy, Nicholas; Lehti-Shiu, Melissa; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2016-08-01

    Ancient duplication events and a high rate of retention of extant pairs of duplicate genes have contributed to an abundance of duplicate genes in plant genomes. These duplicates have contributed to the evolution of novel functions, such as the production of floral structures, induction of disease resistance, and adaptation to stress. Additionally, recent whole-genome duplications that have occurred in the lineages of several domesticated crop species, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and soybean (Glycine max), have contributed to important agronomic traits, such as grain quality, fruit shape, and flowering time. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and impacts of gene duplication will be important to future studies of plants in general and of agronomically important crops in particular. In this review, we survey the current knowledge about gene duplication, including gene duplication mechanisms, the potential fates of duplicate genes, models explaining duplicate gene retention, the properties that distinguish duplicate from singleton genes, and the evolutionary impact of gene duplication. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. The early stages of duplicate gene evolution

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard C.; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Gene duplications are one of the primary driving forces in the evolution of genomes and genetic systems. Gene duplicates account for 8–20% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes, and the rates of gene duplication are estimated at between 0.2% and 2% per gene per million years. Duplicate genes are believed to be a major mechanism for the establishment of new gene functions and the generation of evolutionary novelty, yet very little is known about the early stages of the evolution of duplicated gene pairs. It is unclear, for example, to what extent selection, rather than neutral genetic drift, drives the fixation and early evolution of duplicate loci. Analysis of recently duplicated genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome reveals significantly reduced species-wide levels of nucleotide polymorphisms in the progenitor and/or duplicate gene copies, suggesting that selective sweeps accompany the initial stages of the evolution of these duplicated gene pairs. Our results support recent theoretical work that indicates that fates of duplicate gene pairs may be determined in the initial phases of duplicate gene evolution and that positive selection plays a prominent role in the evolutionary dynamics of the very early histories of duplicate nuclear genes. PMID:14671323

  2. Differential diagnosis and diagnostic flow chart of joint hypermobility syndrome/ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type compared to other heritable connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Marina; Dordoni, Chiara; Chiarelli, Nicola; Ritelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is an evolving and protean disorder mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility and without a defined molecular basis. JHS/EDS-HT also presents with other connective tissue features affecting a variety of structures and organs, such as skin, eye, bone, and internal organs. However, most of these signs are present in variable combinations and severity in many other heritable connective tissue disorders. Accordingly, JHS/EDS-HT is an "exclusion" diagnosis which needs the absence of any consistent feature indicative of other partially overlapping connective tissue disorders. While both Villefranche and Brighton criteria include such an exclusion as a mandatory item, a systematic approach for reaching a stringent clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT is still lacking. The absence of a consensus on the diagnostic approach to JHS/EDS-HT concerning its clinical boundaries with similar conditions contribute to limit our actual understanding of the pathologic and molecular bases of this disorder. In this review, we revise the differential diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT with those heritable connective tissue disorders which show a significant overlap with the former and mostly include EDS classic, vascular and kyphoscoliotic types, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and lateral meningocele syndrome. A diagnostic flow chart is also offered with the attempt to support the less experienced clinician in stringently recognizing JHS/EDS-HT and stimulate the debate in the scientific community for both management and research purposes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Insight into podocyte differentiation from the study of human genetic disease: nail-patella syndrome and transcriptional regulation in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Morello, Roy; Lee, Brendan

    2002-05-01

    In recent years, our understanding of the molecular basis of kidney development has benefited from the study of rare genetic diseases affecting renal function. This has especially been the case with the differentiation of the highly specialized podocyte in the pathogenesis of human disorders and mouse phenotypes affecting the renal filtration barrier. This filtration barrier represents the end product of a complex series of signaling events that produce a tripartite structure consisting of interdigitating podocyte foot processes with intervening slit diaphragms, the glomerular basement membrane, and the fenestrated endothelial cell. Dysregulation of unique cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins in genetic forms of nephrotic syndrome has shown how specific structural proteins contribute to podocyte function and differentiation. However, much less is known about the transcriptional determinants that both specify and maintain this differentiated cell. Our studies of a skeletal malformation syndrome, nail-patella syndrome, have shown how the LIM homeodomain transcription factor, Lmx1b, contributes to transcriptional regulation of glomerular basement membrane collagen expression by podocytes. Moreover, they raise intriguing questions about more global transcriptional regulation of podocyte morphogenesis.

  4. Usher syndrome clinical types I and II: could ocular symptoms and signs differentiate between the two types?

    PubMed

    Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Rubin, Benjamin I; Caruso, Rafael C; Reed, George F; Pikus, Anita; Hejtmancik, James F; Iwata, Fumino; Redman, Joy B; Kaiser-Kupfer, Muriel I

    2002-04-01

    Usher syndrome types I and II are clinical syndromes with substantial genetic and clinical heterogeneity. We undertook the current study in order to identify ocular symptoms and signs that could differentiate between the two types. Sixty-seven patients with Usher syndrome were evaluated. Based on audiologic and vestibular findings, patients were classified as either Usher type I or II. The severity of the ocular signs and symptoms present in each type were compared. Visual acuity, visual field area, electroretinographic amplitude, incidence of cataract and macular lesions were not significantly different between Usher types I and II. However, the ages when night blindness was perceived and retinitis pigmentosa was diagnosed differed significantly between the two types. There seems to be some overlap between types I and II of Usher syndrome in regard to the ophthalmologic findings. However, night blindness appears earlier in Usher type I (although the difference in age of appearance appears to be less dramatic than previously assumed). Molecular elucidation of Usher syndrome may serve as a key to understanding these differences and, perhaps, provide a better tool for use in clinical diagnosis, prognosis and genetic counseling.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Copeptin in the Differential Diagnosis of the Polyuria-polydipsia Syndrome: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Timper, Katharina; Fenske, Wiebke; Kühn, Felix; Frech, Nica; Arici, Birsen; Rutishauser, Jonas; Kopp, Peter; Allolio, Bruno; Stettler, Christoph; Müller, Beat; Katan, Mira; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2015-06-01

    The polyuria-polydipsia syndrome comprises primary polydipsia (PP) and central and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI). Correctly discriminating these entities is mandatory, given that inadequate treatment causes serious complications. The diagnostic "gold standard" is the water deprivation test with assessment of arginine vasopressin (AVP) activity. However, test interpretation and AVP measurement are challenging. The objective was to evaluate the accuracy of copeptin, a stable peptide stoichiometrically cosecreted with AVP, in the differential diagnosis of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. This was a prospective multicenter observational cohort study from four Swiss or German tertiary referral centers of adults >18 years old with the history of polyuria and polydipsia. A standardized combined water deprivation/3% saline infusion test was performed and terminated when serum sodium exceeded 147 mmol/L. Circulating copeptin and AVP levels were measured regularly throughout the test. Final diagnosis was based on the water deprivation/saline infusion test results, clinical information, and the treatment response. Fifty-five patients were enrolled (11 with complete central DI, 16 with partial central DI, 18 with PP, and 10 with nephrogenic DI). Without prior thirsting, a single baseline copeptin level >21.4 pmol/L differentiated nephrogenic DI from other etiologies with a 100% sensitivity and specificity, rendering a water deprivation testing unnecessary in such cases. A stimulated copeptin >4.9 pmol/L (at sodium levels >147 mmol/L) differentiated between patients with PP and patients with partial central DI with a 94.0% specificity and a 94.4% sensitivity. A stimulated AVP >1.8 pg/mL differentiated between the same categories with a 93.0% specificity and a 83.0% sensitivity. This study was limited by incorporation bias from including AVP levels as a diagnostic criterion. Copeptin is a promising new tool in the differential diagnosis of the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome

  6. Chromosome I duplications in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, K.S.; Rose, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized 76 duplications of chromosome I in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. The region studied is the 20 map unit left half of the chromosome. Sixty-two duplications were induced with gamma radiation and 14 arose spontaneously. The latter class was apparently the result of spontaneous breaks within the parental duplication. The majority of duplications behave as if they are free. Three duplications are attached to identifiable sequences from other chromosomes. The duplication breakpoints have been mapped by complementation analysis relative to genes on chromosome I. Nineteen duplication breakpoints and seven deficiency breakpoints divide the left halfmore » of the chromosome into 24 regions. We have studied the relationship between duplication size and segregational stability. While size is an important determinant of mitotic stability, it is not the only one. We observed clear exceptions to a size-stability correlation. In addition to size, duplication stability may be influenced by specific sequences or chromosome structure. The majority of the duplications were stable enough to be powerful tools for gene mapping. Therefore the duplications described here will be useful in the genetic characterization of chromosome I and the techniques we have developed can be adapted to other regions of the genome.« less

  7. Detecting long tandem duplications in genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Audemard, Eric; Schiex, Thomas; Faraut, Thomas

    2012-05-08

    Detecting duplication segments within completely sequenced genomes provides valuable information to address genome evolution and in particular the important question of the emergence of novel functions. The usual approach to gene duplication detection, based on all-pairs protein gene comparisons, provides only a restricted view of duplication. In this paper, we introduce ReD Tandem, a software using a flow based chaining algorithm targeted at detecting tandem duplication arrays of moderate to longer length regions, with possibly locally weak similarities, directly at the DNA level. On the A. thaliana genome, using a reference set of tandem duplicated genes built using TAIR,(a) we show that ReD Tandem is able to predict a large fraction of recently duplicated genes (dS  <  1) and that it is also able to predict tandem duplications involving non coding elements such as pseudo-genes or RNA genes. ReD Tandem allows to identify large tandem duplications without any annotation, leading to agnostic identification of tandem duplications. This approach nicely complements the usual protein gene based which ignores duplications involving non coding regions. It is however inherently restricted to relatively recent duplications. By recovering otherwise ignored events, ReD Tandem gives a more comprehensive view of existing evolutionary processes and may also allow to improve existing annotations.

  8. Circulating Plasma microRNAs can differentiate Human Sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    PubMed

    Caserta, Stefano; Kern, Florian; Cohen, Jonathan; Drage, Stephen; Newbury, Sarah F; Llewelyn, Martin J

    2016-06-20

    Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood. We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. Critically ill patients with severe (n = 21) or non-severe (n = 8) intra-abdominal sepsis; severe (n = 23) or non-severe (n = 21) non-infective SIRS; or no SIRS (n = 16) were studied. Next-generation sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to measure plasma microRNAs. Detectable blood miRNAs (n = 116) were generally up-regulated in SIRS compared to no-SIRS patients. Levels of these 'circulating inflammation-related microRNAs' (CIR-miRNAs) were 2.64 (IQR: 2.10-3.29) and 1.52 (IQR: 1.15-1.92) fold higher for non-infective SIRS and sepsis respectively (p < 0.0001), hence CIR-miRNAs appeared less abundant in sepsis than in SIRS. Six CIR-miRNAs (miR-30d-5p, miR-30a-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-191-5p) provided good-to-excellent discrimination of severe sepsis from severe SIRS (0.742-0.917 AUC of ROC curves). CIR-miRNA levels inversely correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and others). Thus, among critically ill patients, sepsis and non-infective SIRS are associated with substantial, differential changes in CIR-miRNAs. CIR-miRNAs may be regulators of inflammation and warrant thorough evaluation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  9. Diurnal Plasma Cortisol Measurements Utility in Differentiating Various Etiologies of Endogenous Cushing Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, A; Lodish, M B; Papadakis, G Z; Lyssikatos, C; Belyavskaya, E; Stratakis, C A

    2016-09-01

    Cortisol diurnal variation may be abnormal among patients with endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS). The study objective was to compare the plasma cortisol AM/PM ratios between different etiologies of CS. This is a retrospective cohort study, conducted at a clinical research center. Adult patients with CS that underwent adrenalectomy or trans-sphenoidal surgery (n=105) were divided to those with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of Cushing disease (n=21) and those with primary adrenal CS, including unilateral adrenal adenoma (n=28), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n=45), and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n=11). Diurnal plasma cortisol measurements were obtained at 11:30 PM and midnight and at 7:30 and 8:00 AM. The ratios between the mean morning levels and mean late-night levels were calculated. Mean plasma cortisol AM/PM ratio was lower among CD patients compared to those with primary adrenal CS (1.4±0.6 vs. 2.3±1.5, p<0.001, respectively). An AM/PM cortisol ratio≥2.0 among patients with unsuppressed ACTH (>15 pg/ml) excludes CD with a 85.0% specificity and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.9%. Among patients with primary adrenal CS, an AM/PM cortisol≥1.2 had specificity and NPV of 100% for ruling out a diagnosis of PPNAD. Plasma cortisol AM/PM ratios are lower among patients with CD compared with primary adrenal CS, and may aid in the differential diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Copeptin role in polyuria-polydipsia syndrome differential diagnosis and reference range in paediatric age.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Gerdi; Tessaris, Daniele; Einaudi, Silvia; Matarazzo, Patrizia; De Sanctis, Luisa

    2018-06-01

    Plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) analysis can help in the differential diagnosis of the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome (PPS), even if such investigation is hampered by technical difficulties, conversely to its surrogate copeptin. This study aims to enlarge the existing data on normal copeptin levels in childhood, to evaluate the correlation between copeptin, serum sodium and plasma and urine osmolality, and to assess the utility of the copeptin analysis in the diagnostic work-up of PPS in the paediatric age. Plasma copeptin levels were evaluated in 53 children without AVP disorders (control population), in 12 hypopituitaric children and in 15 patients with PPS after water deprivation test (WDT). Mean basal copeptin levels were 5.2 ± 1.56 (range 2.4-8.6 pmol/L) in the control population, 2.61 ± 0.49 pmol/L in the hypopituitaric children with complete diabetes insipidus (CDI) (P = .04) and 6.21 ± 1.17 pmol/L in the hypopituitaric patients without DI (P = .02). After WDT, among 15 naïve polyuric/polydipsic children, copeptin values greater than 20 pmol/L allowed to identify nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), concentrations below 2.2 pmol/L complete central DI (CCDI) and between 5 and 20 pmol/L primary polydipsia (PP). Copeptin cut-off level of 3.5 pmol/L distinguished CDI from PP, with a sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 83.3%, respectively. Copeptin evaluation holds promises as a diagnostic tool in paediatric PPS; its interpretation might be useful to promptly distinguish NDI, even avoiding the WDT need. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Murine Denys-Drash syndrome: evidence of podocyte de-differentiation and systemic mediation of glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Patek, Charles E; Fleming, Stewart; Miles, Colin G; Bellamy, Christopher O; Ladomery, Michael; Spraggon, Lee; Mullins, John; Hastie, Nicholas D; Hooper, Martin L

    2003-09-15

    Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS) is caused by dominant mutations of the Wilms' tumour suppressor gene, WT1, and characterized by a nephropathy involving diffuse mesangial sclerosis, male pseudohermaphroditism and/or Wilms' tumourigenesis. Previously, we reported that heterozygosity for the Wt1tmT396 mutation induces DDS in heterozygous and chimeric (Wt1tmT396/+<-->+/+) mice. In the present study, the fate of Wt1 mutant cells in chimeric kidneys was assessed by in situ marker analysis, and immunocytochemistry was used to re-examine the claim that glomerulosclerosis (GS) is caused by loss of WT1 and persistent Pax-2 expression by podocytes. Wt1 mutant cells colonized glomeruli efficiently, including podocytes, but some sclerotic glomeruli contained no detectable Wt1 mutant cells. The development of GS was preceded by widespread loss of ZO-1 signal in podocytes (even in kidneys where <5% of glomeruli contained Wt1 mutant podocytes), increased intra-renal renin expression, and de novo podocyte TGF-beta1 expression, but not podocyte Pax-2 expression or loss of WT1, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin-4 or nephrin expression. However, podocytes in partially sclerotic glomeruli that still expressed WT1 at high levels showed reduced vimentin expression, cell cycle re-entry, and re-expressed desmin, cytokeratin and Pax-2. The results suggest that: (i) GS is not due to loss of WT1 expression by podocytes; (ii) podocyte Pax-2 expression reflects re-expression rather than persistent expression, and is the consequence of GS; (iii) GS is mediated systemically and the mechanism involves activation of the renin-angiotensin system; and (iv) podocytes undergo typical maturational changes but subsequently de-differentiate and revert to an immature phenotype during disease progression.

  12. Gene Duplication and Evolutionary Innovations in Hemoglobin-Oxygen Transport

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During vertebrate evolution, duplicated hemoglobin (Hb) genes diverged with respect to functional properties as well as the developmental timing of expression. For example, the subfamilies of genes that encode the different subunit chains of Hb are ontogenetically regulated such that functionally distinct Hb isoforms are expressed during different developmental stages. In some vertebrate taxa, functional differentiation between co-expressed Hb isoforms may also contribute to physiologically important divisions of labor. PMID:27053736

  13. Genotype-phenotype characterization in 13 individuals with chromosome Xp11.22 duplications.

    PubMed

    Grams, Sarah E; Argiropoulos, Bob; Lines, Matthew; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Mcgowan-Jordan, Jean; Geraghty, Michael T; Tsang, Marilyn; Eswara, Marthand; Tezcan, Kamer; Adams, Kelly L; Linck, Leesa; Himes, Patricia; Kostiner, Dana; Zand, Dina J; Stalker, Heather; Driscoll, Daniel J; Huang, Taosheng; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Li, Xu; Chen, Emily

    2016-04-01

    We report 13 new individuals with duplications in Xp11.22-p11.23. The index family has one male and two female members in three generations with mild-severe intellectual disability (ID), speech delay, dysmorphic features, early puberty, constipation, and/or hand and foot abnormalities. Affected individuals were found to have two small duplications in Xp11.22 at nucleotide position (hg19) 50,112,063-50,456,458 bp (distal) and 53,160,114-53,713,154 bp (proximal). Collectively, these two regions include 14 RefSeq genes, prompting collection of a larger cohort of patients, in an attempt to delineate critical genes associated with the observed phenotype. In total, we have collected data on nine individuals with duplications overlapping the distal duplication region containing SHROOM4 and DGKK and eight individuals overlapping the proximal region including HUWE1. Duplications of HUWE1 have been previously associated with non-syndromic ID. Our data, with previously published reports, suggest that duplications involving SHROOM4 and DGKK may represent a new syndromic X-linked ID critical region associated with mild to severe ID, speech delay +/- dysarthria, attention deficit disorder, precocious puberty, constipation, and motor delay. We frequently observed foot abnormalities, 5th finger clinodactyly, tapering fingers, constipation, and exercise intolerance in patients with duplications of these two genes. Regarding duplications including the proximal region, our observations agree with previous studies, which have found associations with intellectual disability. In addition, expressive language delay, failure to thrive, motor delay, and 5th finger clinodactyly were also frequently observed in patients with the proximal duplication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Delusional misidentifications and duplications: right brain lesions, left brain delusions.

    PubMed

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2009-01-06

    When the delusional misidentification syndromes reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras syndromes result from neurologic disease, lesions are usually bifrontal and/or right hemispheric. The related disorders of confabulation and anosognosis share overlapping mechanisms and anatomic pathology. A dual mechanism is postulated for the delusional misidentification syndromes: negative effects from right hemisphere and frontal lobe dysfunction as well as positive effects from release (i.e., overactivity) of preserved left hemisphere areas. Negative effects of right hemisphere injury impair self-monitoring, ego boundaries, and attaching emotional valence and familiarity to stimuli. The unchecked left hemisphere unleashes a creative narrator from the monitoring of self, memory, and reality by the frontal and right hemisphere areas, leading to excessive and false explanations. Further, the left hemisphere's cognitive style of categorization, often into dual categories, leads it to invent a duplicate or impostor to resolve conflicting information. Delusions result from right hemisphere lesions. But it is the left hemisphere that is deluded.

  15. Detection of Turner syndrome using X-chromosome inactivation specific differentially methylated CpG sites: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Guo, Xiaohong; Tian, Tian; Wang, Teng; Li, Qiaoli; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yun; Xing, Qinghe; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2017-05-01

    Early diagnosis of Turner syndrome (TS) may improve preventive measures and treatment. X-chromosome inactivation specific differentially methylated CpG sites (XIDMSs) that are high methylated in inactive X chromosomes (Xi) and unmethylated in active X chromosomes (Xa) may be potential makers for TS detection. The candidate XIDMSs were screened from 9 male and 12 female DNA samples with normal karyotypes using the Illumina 450k array and validated by bisulfite sequencing PCR and pyrosequencing assay. X chromosome dosage was calculated according to the methylation level of multiple XIDMSs. Overall, 108 candidate XIDMSs were screened by the 450k array. Validations indicated that XIDMSs gathered and formed the X-chromosome inactivation specific differentially methylated regions (XIDMRs). Using 3 XIDMRs at SAT1, UXT and UTP14A loci, 36 TS, 22 normal female and 6 male samples were analyzed. Methylation levels of the 20 XIDMSs in the XIDMRs could distinguish between TS and normal female DNA samples, the X chromosome dosage was consistent with karyotyping data. Analyzing samples of 2 triple X syndrome and 3 Klinefelter syndrome patients suggested that this method could be used to detect X chromosome aneuploids other than TS. XIDMSs are widely spread along the X chromosome and might be effective markers for detection of TS and other X chromosome aneuploids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Depressive Features in Down's Syndrome: A Case Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    A 21-year-old man with Down's syndrome who exhibited unexplained depressive symptoms and intermittent features of a Parkinson-like syndrome was treated with amitriptyline for 18 months. Gradual improvements eventually saw almost complete recovery of his former personality. Discussion of undiagnosed but treatable depression among Down's syndrome…

  17. Differential Impact of the "FMR1" Gene on Visual Processing in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Cary S.; Boutet, Isabelle; Cornish, Kim; Zangenehpour, Shahin; Mullen, Kathy T.; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Kaloustian, Vazken M. Der; Andermann, Eva; Chaudhuri, Avi

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of heritable mental retardation, affecting (~ around) 1 in 4000 males. The syndrome arises from expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the 5'-untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 ("FMR1") gene, leading to methylation of the promoter sequence and lack of the fragile X mental…

  18. [Pain syndromes in tick-borne neuroborreliosis. Clinical aspects and differential diagnosis.].

    PubMed

    Kohler, J; Thoden, U

    1987-09-01

    Tick-borne borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) is a common and complex disorder affecting the skin, the joints and the nervous system. It progresses through different clinical stages. The clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis has expanded since the introduction and widespread application of specific serological tests. We have investigated 41 patients with Bannwarth's meningopolyneuritis (MPN) as the classical form of neuroborreliosis, in a prospective (26 patients) and a retrospective (15 patients) study. When questioned, 19/41 patients reported a tick bite and only 15/41, erythema migrans as the characteristic early skin lesion. In 34/41 patients typical MPN characterized by painful radiculoneuritis and/or cranial neuritis, especially facial palsy, were seen. Among these, 3 had a complicated form with a progressive remitting relapsing course or focal central nervous system involvement (hemiparesis, cerebellar syndrome); 2 had mild meningitis and facial nerve palsy bilaterally without radicular pain; and in 5 radicular pain was the only symptom. MPN associated with Lyme arthritis was observed only once. In 2 patients in the retrospective study (no antibiotics in the acute stage) we saw a chronic spinal cord disorder with spastic paresis several years after uncomplicated MPN, accompanied in 1 of them by acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA), the typical late-onset borrelia-induced dermatosis. In the acute stage of the disease 40/41 patients had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) syndrome compatible with MPN (mononuclear pleocytosis, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, elevated IgG and/or oligoclonal bands). IgG antibody titers against borrelia antigen were elevated in all patients in the serum and in 21/30 also in the CSF. In all patients pain was an early and prominent symptom; the first symptoms are usually felt in the region of the tick bite or the erythema, initially as diffuse myalgia, arthralgia or pain in the connective tissue. In the further course the migrating

  19. Characterization of distinct classes of differential gene expression in osteoblast cultures from non-syndromic craniosynostosis bone.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Peña, Monica L; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hyzy, Sharon; Arafat, Dalia; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D; Williams, Joseph; Gibson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more skull sutures, occurs in approximately 1 in 2500 infants, with the majority of cases non-syndromic and of unknown etiology. Two common reasons proposed for premature suture fusion are abnormal compression forces on the skull and rare genetic abnormalities. Our goal was to evaluate whether different sub-classes of disease can be identified based on total gene expression profiles. RNA-Seq data were obtained from 31 human osteoblast cultures derived from bone biopsy samples collected between 2009 and 2011, representing 23 craniosynostosis fusions and 8 normal cranial bones or long bones. No differentiation between regions of the skull was detected, but variance component analysis of gene expression patterns nevertheless supports transcriptome-based classification of craniosynostosis. Cluster analysis showed 4 distinct groups of samples; 1 predominantly normal and 3 craniosynostosis subtypes. Similar constellations of sub-types were also observed upon re-analysis of a similar dataset of 199 calvarial osteoblast cultures. Annotation of gene function of differentially expressed transcripts strongly implicates physiological differences with respect to cell cycle and cell death, stromal cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and ribosomal activity. Based on these results, we propose non-syndromic craniosynostosis cases can be classified by differences in their gene expression patterns and that these may provide targets for future clinical intervention.

  20. Characterization of Distinct Classes of Differential Gene Expression in Osteoblast Cultures from Non-Syndromic Craniosynostosis Bone

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Peña, Monica L.; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hyzy, Sharon; Arafat, Dalia; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.; Williams, Joseph; Gibson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more skull sutures, occurs in approximately 1 in 2500 infants, with the majority of cases non-syndromic and of unknown etiology. Two common reasons proposed for premature suture fusion are abnormal compression forces on the skull and rare genetic abnormalities. Our goal was to evaluate whether different sub-classes of disease can be identified based on total gene expression profiles. RNA-Seq data were obtained from 31 human osteoblast cultures derived from bone biopsy samples collected between 2009 and 2011, representing 23 craniosynostosis fusions and 8 normal cranial bones or long bones. No differentiation between regions of the skull was detected, but variance component analysis of gene expression patterns nevertheless supports transcriptome-based classification of craniosynostosis. Cluster analysis showed 4 distinct groups of samples; 1 predominantly normal and 3 craniosynostosis subtypes. Similar constellations of sub-types were also observed upon re-analysis of a similar dataset of 199 calvarial osteoblast cultures. Annotation of gene function of differentially expressed transcripts strongly implicates physiological differences with respect to cell cycle and cell death, stromal cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and ribosomal activity. Based on these results, we propose non-syndromic craniosynostosis cases can be classified by differences in their gene expression patterns and that these may provide targets for future clinical intervention. PMID:25184005

  1. Gene duplication, tissue-specific gene expression and sexual conflict in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Narechania, Apurva; Johns, Philip M.; Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication provides an essential source of novel genetic material to facilitate rapid morphological evolution. Traits involved in reproduction and sexual dimorphism represent some of the fastest evolving traits in nature, and gene duplication is intricately involved in the origin and evolution of these traits. Here, we review genomic research on stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) that has been used to examine the extent of gene duplication and its role in the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism. Stalk-eyed flies are remarkable because of the elongation of the head into long stalks, with the eyes and antenna laterally displaced at the ends of these stalks. Many species are strongly sexually dimorphic for eyespan, and these flies have become a model system for studying sexual selection. Using both expressed sequence tag and next-generation sequencing, we have established an extensive database of gene expression in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc, the adult head and testes. Duplicated genes exhibit narrower expression patterns than non-duplicated genes, and the testes, in particular, provide an abundant source of gene duplication. Within somatic tissue, duplicated genes are more likely to be differentially expressed between the sexes, suggesting gene duplication may provide a mechanism for resolving sexual conflict. PMID:22777023

  2. Gene duplication, tissue-specific gene expression and sexual conflict in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard H; Narechania, Apurva; Johns, Philip M; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2012-08-19

    Gene duplication provides an essential source of novel genetic material to facilitate rapid morphological evolution. Traits involved in reproduction and sexual dimorphism represent some of the fastest evolving traits in nature, and gene duplication is intricately involved in the origin and evolution of these traits. Here, we review genomic research on stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) that has been used to examine the extent of gene duplication and its role in the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism. Stalk-eyed flies are remarkable because of the elongation of the head into long stalks, with the eyes and antenna laterally displaced at the ends of these stalks. Many species are strongly sexually dimorphic for eyespan, and these flies have become a model system for studying sexual selection. Using both expressed sequence tag and next-generation sequencing, we have established an extensive database of gene expression in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc, the adult head and testes. Duplicated genes exhibit narrower expression patterns than non-duplicated genes, and the testes, in particular, provide an abundant source of gene duplication. Within somatic tissue, duplicated genes are more likely to be differentially expressed between the sexes, suggesting gene duplication may provide a mechanism for resolving sexual conflict.

  3. Evolution of vertebrate central nervous system is accompanied by novel expression changes of duplicate genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Ding, Yun; Zhang, Zuming; Wang, Wen; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Ueno, Naoto; Mao, Bingyu

    2011-12-20

    The evolution of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most striking changes during the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates. As a major source of genetic novelties, gene duplication might play an important role in the functional innovation of vertebrate CNS. In this study, we focused on a group of CNS-biased genes that duplicated during early vertebrate evolution. We investigated the tempo-spatial expression patterns of 33 duplicate gene families and their orthologs during the embryonic development of the vertebrate Xenopus laevis and the cephalochordate Brachiostoma belcheri. Almost all the identified duplicate genes are differentially expressed in the CNS in Xenopus embryos, and more than 50% and 30% duplicate genes are expressed in the telencephalon and mid-hindbrain boundary, respectively, which are mostly considered as two innovations in the vertebrate CNS. Interestingly, more than 50% of the amphioxus orthologs do not show apparent expression in the CNS in amphioxus embryos as detected by in situ hybridization, indicating that some of the vertebrate CNS-biased duplicate genes might arise from non-CNS genes in invertebrates. Our data accentuate the functional contribution of gene duplication in the CNS evolution of vertebrate and uncover an invertebrate non-CNS history for some vertebrate CNS-biased duplicate genes. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Second-line tests in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Mattia; Trementino, Laura; Zilio, Marialuisa; Ceccato, Filippo; Albiger, Nora; Daniele, Andrea; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Mardari, Rodica; Rolma, Giuseppe; Boscaro, Marco; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Scaroni, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Diagnosing Cushing's syndrome (CS) can be a challenge, especially in ACTH-dependent CS, when it comes to detecting the origin of ACTH secretion. Retrospective data were collected on 170 patients with ACTH-dependent CS (149 CD, 21 EAS) referring to two endocrinology units, focusing on three non-invasive tests: dexamethasone 8 mg overnight challenge (HDDST); corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) assay and the desmopressin (DDAVP) test. Patients with EAS were slightly older and had higher ACTH, serum and urinary cortisol levels than patients with CD (p < 0.01). CD patients had a stronger ACTH and cortisol response after CRH injection (p < 0.0001), and a more pronounced reduction in cortisol levels after HDDST (p < 0.0001). A threshold percentage ACTH increase after CRH stimulation of 72.4 % was able to identify CD with a sensitivity (SE) of 76 % (95 % CI 68-83) and a specificity (SP) of 100 % (95 % CI 83-100). As for HDDST, a cortisol suppression >52.7 % below the basal level suggested a pituitary origin with a SE of 88 % (95 % CI 81-93) and a SP of 90 % (95 % CI 68-99). There were no cases of EAS with positive responses to both these tests. Increases in ACTH and cortisol levels after the DDAVP test were also higher in CD than in EAS (p < 0.01), though the SE and SP were lower. Patients with CD showed a stronger response to HDDST and CRH, and the adopted cut-offs showed a good SE and SP in discriminating them from patients with EAS. Concordant tests indicated CD when positive, whereas no response to either test was highly suggestive of EAS. The DDAVP test was of limited utility in the diagnostic phase. In conclusion, the choice of tests may play an important part in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent CS.

  5. Eating Alone is Differentially Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Kyoo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Shin, Dayeon

    2018-05-18

    Few studies have examined overall patterns of eating alone in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean populations. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between patterns of eating alone and the risk of MetS in Korean adults. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for 2013⁻2015 were used, with 8988 Korean adult participants, including 3624 men and 5364 women, aged 18 to 64 years. Patterns of eating alone were categorized into eight groups based on the total frequency of eating alone on a daily basis in the past one year: (1) three times for breakfast, lunch, and dinner; (2) twice for breakfast and dinner; (3) twice for lunch and dinner; (4) twice for breakfast and lunch; (5) once for breakfast only; (6) once for lunch only; (7) once for dinner only; and (8) never eating alone. The presence of MetS has been defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between patterns of eating alone versus the risk of MetS after controlling for age, income, occupation, number of family members, generation types, marital status, smoking status, and physical activity. The prevalence of MetS was the highest in men and women aged 40⁻64 who had breakfast, lunch, and dinner alone (50.1% and 36.8%, respectively). Men who had dinner alone or lunch and dinner alone compared with those who eat with others had a significantly higher risk of MetS, with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of 1.51, and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.06⁻2.16; and an AOR of 1.54, with a 95% CI of 1.05⁻2.25, respectively. Women who had breakfast alone compared with those who ate with others had a significantly lower risk of MetS (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53⁻0.94). In conclusion, patterns of eating alone are differentially associated with the risk of MetS in a

  6. Eating Alone is Differentially Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Kyoo; Kim, Hyun-jin; Chung, Hae-Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have examined overall patterns of eating alone in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean populations. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between patterns of eating alone and the risk of MetS in Korean adults. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for 2013–2015 were used, with 8988 Korean adult participants, including 3624 men and 5364 women, aged 18 to 64 years. Patterns of eating alone were categorized into eight groups based on the total frequency of eating alone on a daily basis in the past one year: (1) three times for breakfast, lunch, and dinner; (2) twice for breakfast and dinner; (3) twice for lunch and dinner; (4) twice for breakfast and lunch; (5) once for breakfast only; (6) once for lunch only; (7) once for dinner only; and (8) never eating alone. The presence of MetS has been defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between patterns of eating alone versus the risk of MetS after controlling for age, income, occupation, number of family members, generation types, marital status, smoking status, and physical activity. The prevalence of MetS was the highest in men and women aged 40–64 who had breakfast, lunch, and dinner alone (50.1% and 36.8%, respectively). Men who had dinner alone or lunch and dinner alone compared with those who eat with others had a significantly higher risk of MetS, with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of 1.51, and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.06–2.16; and an AOR of 1.54, with a 95% CI of 1.05–2.25, respectively. Women who had breakfast alone compared with those who ate with others had a significantly lower risk of MetS (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.94). In conclusion, patterns of eating alone are differentially associated with the risk of MetS in a

  7. Differential Expression of microRNAs in the Ovaries from Letrozole-Induced Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Li, Chunjin; Xu, Ying; Xu, Duo; Li, Hongjiao; Gao, Liwei; Chen, Shuxiong; Fu, Lulu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yongzheng; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Jingshun; Ming, Hao; Zheng, Lianwen

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disorder. To understand the pathogenesis of PCOS, we established rat models of PCOS induced by letrozole and employed deep sequencing to screen the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in PCOS rats and control rats. We observed vaginal smear and detected ovarian pathological alteration and hormone level changes in PCOS rats. Deep sequencing showed that a total of 129 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the ovaries from letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control, including 49 miRNAs upregulated and 80 miRNAs downregulated. Furthermore, the differential expression of miR-201-5p, miR-34b-5p, miR-141-3p, and miR-200a-3p were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these four miRNAs were predicted to target a large set of genes with different functions. Pathway analysis supported that the miRNAs regulate oocyte meiosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling, Rap1 signaling, and Notch signaling. These data indicate that miRNAs are differentially expressed in rat PCOS model and the differentially expressed miRNA are involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of PCOS. Our findings will help identify miRNAs as novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for PCOS.

  8. Impaired detection and differentiation of briefly presented facial emotions in adults with high-functioning autism and asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frank, R; Schulze, L; Hellweg, R; Koehne, S; Roepke, S

    2018-05-01

    Although deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions are considered a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterization of abnormalities in the differentiation of emotional expressions (e.g., sad vs. angry) has been rather inconsistent, especially in adults without intellectual impairments who may compensate for their deficits. In addition, previous research neglected the ability to detect emotional expressions (e.g., angry vs. neutral). The present study used a backward masking paradigm to investigate, a) the detection of emotional expressions, and b) the differentiation of emotional expressions in adults diagnosed with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (n = 23) compared to neurotypical controls (n = 25). Compensatory strategies were prevented by shortening the stimulus presentation time (33, 67, and 100 ms). In general, participants with ASD were significantly less accurate in detecting and differentiating emotional expressions compared to the control group. In the emotion differentiation task, individuals with ASD profited significantly less from an increase in presentation time. These results reinforce theoretical models that individuals with ASD have deficits in emotion recognition under time constraints. Furthermore, first evidence was provided that emotion detection and emotion differentiation are impaired in ASD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Approach to Differential Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Emmi, Giacomo; Silvestri, Elena; Squatrito, Danilo; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Pengo, Vittorio; Prisco, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a systemic, acquired, immune-mediated disorder characterized by episodes of venous, arterial, or microcirculation thrombosis and/or pregnancy abnormalities, associated with the persistent presence of autoantibodies, confirmed at least in two occasions 12 weeks apart, directed to molecular complexes consisting of phospholipids and proteins. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome should always be considered as a potential diagnosis especially for young patients presenting with a history of thrombotic events, in particular when they occur without any obvious external trigger or any inherited thrombophilic mutation (even if 2006 criteria do not exclude antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in patients with other inherited or acquired prothrombotic conditions), or for women with recurrent pregnancy losses or later fetal deaths. Many other disorders are able to mimic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, so a broad range of alternative diagnoses should be investigated and ruled out during clinical workup. PMID:25374937

  10. Histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of cutaneous cysts in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: clues for differentiation of nonsyndromic cysts.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Mariantonieta; Ständer, Sonja; Metze, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome presents with multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and cutaneous cysts, among other manifestations. The cutaneous cysts have been described as both epidermoid cysts and keratocysts but were not further characterized. Light microscopic examinations were made on 23 cutaneous cysts in 4 patients associated with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome located on extremities, face, trunk, palms, and soles and compared with nonsyndromic vellus hair cysts, steatocystomas, and hybrid cysts. Twenty-one of the syndromic cysts revealed alternating infundibular-like and steatocystoma-like squamous epitheliums in varying proportions. The cysts were lined by both smooth and corrugated squamous epithelium. The horny layer was composed by alternating areas of thin, lamellate, and compact eosinophilic keratin. Only 2 cases showed an exclusive steatocystoma-like type of epithelium very similar to odontogenic keratocysts. Sebaceous glands and follicular structures were absent. There were no differences between palmar and plantar cysts and other anatomic locations. The ultrastructural findings in syndromatic cysts confirmed variable expression of keratohyalin granules. Only 3 of 6 cases of nonsyndromic hybrid cysts showed overlapping features with syndromic cysts. Immunohistochemical profiling of keratin, involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin, and BCL-2 expression in syndromatic cysts showed exclusive positivity of K19 and continuous staining for BCL-2. In summary, 2 types of cutaneous cysts are characteristic of Goltz-Gorlin, irrelevant of their anatomic location, namely steatocystoma-like and more frequently hybrid-like. The diagnosis of syndromic hybrid-like cysts should be considered whenever infundibular and steatocystoma differentiation alternate and overlap. Altogether, these findings in epithelial cysts may raise the suspicion of Goltz-Gorlin as an underlying cause.

  11. MLL duplication in a pediatric patient with B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mater, David Van; Goodman, Barbara K; Wang, Endi; Gaca, Ana M; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2012-04-01

    Lymphoblastic lymphoma is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma seen in children. Approximately, 90% of lymphoblastic lymphomas arise from T cells, with the remaining 10% being B-cell-lineage derived. Although T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma most frequently occurs in the anterior mediastinum (thymus), B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) predominates in extranodal sites such as skin and bone. Here, we describe a pediatric B-LBL patient who presented with extensive abdominal involvement and whose lymphoma cells displayed segmental duplication of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene. MLL duplication/amplification has been described primarily in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with no published reports of discrete MLL duplication/amplification events in B-LBL. The MLL gene duplication noted in this case may represent a novel mechanism for tumorigenesis in B-LBL.

  12. Review article: the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and management of rumination syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tack, J; Blondeau, K; Boecxstaens, V; Rommel, N

    2011-04-01

    Rumination syndrome, characterised by the effortless, often repetitive, regurgitation of recently ingested food into the mouth, was originally described in children and in the developmentally disabled. It is now well-recognised that rumination syndrome occurs in patients of all ages and cognitive abilities. To review a scholarly review on our current understanding of the rumination syndrome. The review was conducted on the basis of a medline search to identify relevant publications pertaining to the pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis and management of rumination syndrome. The Rome III consensus established diagnostic criteria for rumination syndrome in adults, children and infants. A typical history can be highly suggestive but oesophageal (high resolution) manometry/impedance with ingestion of a meal may help to distinguish rumination syndrome from other belching/regurgitation disorders. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood, but involves a rise in intra-gastric pressure, generated by a voluntary, but often unintentional, contraction of the abdominal wall musculature, at a time of low pressure in the lower oesophageal sphincter, causing retrograde movement of gastric contents into the oesophagus. To date, controlled trials in the treatment rumination syndrome are lacking. The mainstay of treatment for rumination syndrome is explanation and behavioural treatment which consists of habit reversal techniques that compete with the urge to regurgitate. Chewing gum, prokinetics, baclofen and even antireflux surgery have been proposed as adjunctive therapies, but high quality studies are generally lacking. Rumination is an under-recognised condition with incompletely understood pathophysiology. Behavioural therapy seems effective, but controlled treatment trials are lacking. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Clinical epidemiology survey of the traditional Chinese medicine etiology and syndrome differentiation of coronary artery disease: study protocol of a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan; Wang, Xian-liang; Hou, Ya-zhu; Lu, Yi-zhu; Soh, Shan Bin; Zhang, Bo-li

    2012-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD), a common disease with high incidence and mortality rate, has seriously threatened the health and life of the public. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has an important role in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Through clinical epidemiological survey, a deeper understanding of TCM etiology and syndrome characteristics in CAD would further improve clinical efficacy in the treatment of this disease. The preliminary clinical questionnaire for TCM etiology and syndrome differentiation in CAD was designed after literature reviews and analysis. Through a series of clinical pre-surveys, expert consultation and demonstration, the formal TCM clinical epidemiology questionnaire on the etiology and syndrome differentiation in CAD was finalized, after which, the study protocol, inclusive and exclusive criteria and related quality control measures were prepared. The multiregional clinical epidemiological survey with more than 5000 participants with CAD will be carried out in 41 TCM hospitals of China for investigating the TCM etiology and syndrome differentiation of CAD. Multiregion large sample size clinical epidemiology survey on TCM etiology and syndrome differentiation in CAD will provide further evidence in preventing CAD and improving the standardization process of syndrome research. This study protocol was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on November 27, 2011 in both Chinese and English editions and the registration number is ChiCTR-ECS-11001728.

  14. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Mitochondrial Dysfunction in an Imprinting Center Deletion Mouse Model of Prader–Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Puya G.; Su, Hailing; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Fan, Weiwei; Coskun, Pinar E.; Nalbandian, Angèle; Knoblach, Susan; Resnick, James L.; Hoffman, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal chromosome 15q11–15q13 and clinically characterized by neonatal hypotonia, short stature, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, hyperphagia, morbid obesity, and diabetes. Previous clinical studies suggest that a defect in energy metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of PWS. We focused our attention on the genes associated with energy metabolism and found that there were 95 and 66 mitochondrial genes differentially expressed in PWS muscle and brain, respectively. Assessment of enzyme activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes in the brain, heart, liver, and muscle were assessed. We found the enzyme activities of the cardiac mitochondrial complexes II‫III were up‐regulated in the PWS imprinting center deletion mice compared to the wild‐type littermates. These studies suggest that differential gene expression, especially of the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the pathophysiology of PWS. PMID:24127921

  15. Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique 4 questions) questionnaire for differential diagnosis of pain syndromes associated to a neuropathic or somatic component

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Concepcion; Galvez, Rafael; Huelbes, Silvia; Insausti, Joaquin; Bouhassira, Didier; Diaz, Silvia; Rejas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Background This study assesses the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of DN4 questionnaire as a tool for differential diagnosis of pain syndromes associated to a neuropathic (NP) or somatic component (non-neuropathic pain, NNP). Methods A study was conducted consisting of two phases: cultural adaptation into the Spanish language by means of conceptual equivalence, including forward and backward translations in duplicate and cognitive debriefing, and testing of psychometric properties in patients with NP (peripheral, central and mixed) and NNP. The analysis of psychometric properties included reliability (internal consistency, inter-rater agreement and test-retest reliability) and validity (ROC curve analysis, agreement with the reference diagnosis and determination of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in different subsamples according to type of NP). Results A sample of 164 subjects (99 women, 60.4%; age: 60.4 ± 16.0 years), 94 (57.3%) with NP (36 with peripheral, 32 with central, and 26 with mixed pain) and 70 with NNP was enrolled. The questionnaire was reliable [Cronbach's alpha coefficient: 0.71, inter-rater agreement coefficient: 0.80 (0.71–0.89), and test-retest intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.95 (0.92–0.97)] and valid for a cut-off value ≥ 4 points, which was the best value to discriminate between NP and NNP subjects. Discussion This study, representing the first validation of the DN4 questionnaire into another language different than the original, not only supported its high discriminatory value for identification of neuropathic pain, but also provided supplemental psychometric validation (i.e. test-retest reliability, influence of educational level and pain intensity) and showed its validity in mixed pain syndromes. PMID:18053212

  16. 40 CFR 710.35 - Duplicative reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duplicative reporting. 710.35 Section 710.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS 2002 Inventory Update Reporting § 710.35 Duplicative reporting...

  17. Duplicated genes evolve independently in allopolyploid cotton.

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Cronn; Randall L. Small; Jonathan F. Wendel

    1999-01-01

    Of the many processes that generate gene duplications, polyploidy is unique in that entire genomes are duplicated. This process has been important in the evolution of many eukaryotic groups, and it occurs with high frequency in plants. Recent evidence suggests that polyploidization may be accompanied by rapid genomic changes, but the evolutionary fate of discrete loci...

  18. Integrated transcriptome analysis of human iPS cells derived from a fragile X syndrome patient during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Chen, Xiaolong; Feng, Yun; Zeng, Qiao; Jiang, Cizhong; Zhu, Xianmin; Fan, Guoping; Xue, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients carry the expansion of over 200 CGG repeats at the promoter of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), leading to decreased or absent expression of its encoded fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). However, the global transcriptional alteration by FMRP deficiency has not been well characterized at single nucleotide resolution, i.e., RNA-seq. Here, we performed in-vitro neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were derived from fibroblasts of a FXS patient (FXS-iPSC). We then performed RNA-seq and examined the transcriptional misregulation at each intermediate stage during in-vitro differentiation of FXS-iPSC into neurons. After thoroughly analyzing the transcriptomic data and integrating them with those from other platforms, we found up-regulation of many genes encoding TFs for neuronal differentiation (WNT1, BMP4, POU3F4, TFAP2C, and PAX3), down-regulation of potassium channels (KCNA1, KCNC3, KCNG2, KCNIP4, KCNJ3, KCNK9, and KCNT1) and altered temporal regulation of SHANK1 and NNAT in FXS-iPSC derived neurons, indicating impaired neuronal differentiation and function in FXS patients. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the FMRP deficiency in FXS patients has significant impact on the gene expression patterns during development, which will help to discover potential targeting candidates for the cure of FXS symptoms.

  19. Genomic profiling of Sézary Syndrome identifies alterations of key T-cell signaling and differentiation genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linghua; Ni, Xiao; Covington, Kyle R.; Yang, Betty Y.; Shiu, Jessica; Zhang, Xiang; Xi, Liu; Meng, Qingchang; Langridge, Timothy; Drummond, Jennifer; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wheeler, David A.; Duvic, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Sézary Syndrome is a rare leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma defined as erythroderma, adenopathy, and circulating atypical T-lymphocytes. It is rarely curable with poor prognosis. Here we present a multi-platform genomic analysis of 37 Sézary Syndrome patients that implicates dysregulation of the cell cycle checkpoint and T-cell signaling. Frequent somatic alterations were identified in TP53, CARD11, CCR4, PLCG1, CDKN2A, ARID1A, RPS6KA1, and ZEB1. Activating CCR4 and CARD11 mutations were detected in nearly a third of patients. ZEB1, a transcription repressor essential for T-cell differentiation, was deleted in over half of patients. IL32 and IL2RG were over-expressed in nearly all cases. Analysis of T-cell receptor Vβ and Vα expression revealed ongoing rearrangement of the receptors after the expansion of a malignant clone in one third of subjects. Our results demonstrate profound disruption of key signaling pathways in Sézary Syndrome and suggest potential targets for novel therapies. PMID:26551670

  20. HNPCC (Lynch Syndrome): Differential Diagnosis, Molecular Genetics and Management - a Review

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    HNPCC (Lynch syndrome) is the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), wherein it accounts for between 2-7 percent of the total CRC burden. When considering the large number of extracolonic cancers integral to the syndrome, namely carcinoma of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, hepatobiliary system, pancreas, small bowel, brain tumors, and upper uroepithelial tract, these estimates of its frequency are likely to be conservative. The diagnosis is based upon its natural history in concert with a comprehensive cancer family history inclusive of all anatomic sites. In order for surveillance and management to be effective and, indeed, lifesaving, among these high-risk patients, the linchpin to cancer control would be the physician, who must be knowledgeable about hereditary cancer syndromes, their molecular and medical genetics, genetic counseling, and, most importantly, the natural history of the disorders, so that the entirety of this knowledge can be melded to highly-targeted management.

  1. [Guillain-Barré syndrome as differential diagnosis of intervertebral disk-induced nerve root compression].

    PubMed

    Perlick, L; Möller, G; Wallny, T; Schmitt, O

    1999-01-01

    Diagnosis of Guillian-Barré Syndrome usually is not difficult, but diagnostic failure occurs for the variable initial presentation. Diagnosis is based on physical examination showing loss of motor strength in more than one limb and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Ventilatory assistance, pharmacologic maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis, corticosteroids, IgG and plasma exchange are the dominant therapeutic measures. This article reports on a case of a 59-year old surgeon suffering from degenerative disc disease in the lumbar spine. The patient developed a severe course of the Guillian-Barré Syndrome with persisting motor weakness of the legs. If the primary problem at presentation is limb and back pain the pathology appears to be in the musculoskeletal rather than in neurological system. The awareness of this presentation of Guillian-Barré-Syndrome will eliminate delay in diagnosis.

  2. [Tubulointerstitial nephritis with uveitis (TINU) syndrome. A relatively rare rheumatological differential diagnosis with unexplained uveitis].

    PubMed

    Häusler, U; Guminski, B; Helmchen, U; Kisters, K; Heinz, C; Braun, J

    2013-05-01

    The tubulo-interstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome, first described in 1975, is a rare disease most probably of autoimmune origin that is characterized by unilateral or bilateral uveitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Most patients are adolescents and it is sometimes associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as spondyloarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and hyperthyroidosis. This article reports the case of a 43-year-old female patient who presented with refractory recurrent bilateral uveitis despite therapy with high doses of corticosteroids in combination with cyclosporin. When the patient was referred to this hospital for rheumatological examination after almost 1 year of therapy, mild renal insufficiency and proteinuria were found. The kidney biopsy revealed interstitial nephritis, partly crescent-shaped and partly chronic. A diagnosis of TINU syndrome was made and treatment with adalimumab in combination with methotrexate was started. The favorable clinical outcome indicated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TINU syndrome.

  3. Electrocardiography cannot reliably differentiate transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome from anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Motiei, Arashk; Syed, Imran S; Kara, Tomas; Prasad, Abhiram; Lennon, Ryan J; Murphy, Joseph G; Hammill, Stephen C; Rihal, Charanjit S; Wright, R Scott

    2007-01-01

    The presentation and electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics of transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome (TLVABS) can be similar to that of anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We tested the hypothesis that the ECG on presentation could reliably differentiate these syndromes. Between January 1, 2002 and July 31, 2004, we identified 18 consecutive patients with TLVABS who were matched with 36 subjects presenting with acute anterior STEMI due to atherothrombotic left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. All patients with TLVABS were women (mean age, 72.0 +/- 13.1 years). The heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, and corrected QT interval were similar between groups. Distribution of ST elevation was similar, but patients with anterior STEMI exhibited greater ST elevation. Regressive partitioning analysis indicated that the combination of ST elevation in lead V2 of less than 1.75 mm and ST-segment elevation in lead V3 of less than 2.5 mm was a suggestive predictor of TLVABS (sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 94%). Conditional logistic regression indicated that the formula: (3 x ST-elevation lead V2) + (ST-elevation V3) + (2 x ST-elevation V5) allowed possible discrimination between TLVABS and anterior STEMI with an optimal cutoff level of less than 11.5 mm for TLVABS (sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 72%). Patients with TLVABS were less likely to have concurrent ST-segment depression (6% vs 44%; P = .003). Women presenting with TLVABS have similar ECG findings to patients with anterior infarct but with less-prominent ST-segment elevation in the anterior precordial ECG leads. These ECG findings are relatively subtle and do not have sufficient predictive value to allow reliable emergency differentiation of these syndromes.

  4. Duplication 16p13.3 and the CREBBP gene: confirmation of the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Demeer, Bénédicte; Andrieux, Joris; Receveur, Aline; Morin, Gilles; Petit, Florence; Julia, Sophie; Plessis, Ghislaine; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Delobel, Bruno; Firth, Helen V; Thuresson, Ann C; Lanco Dosen, Sandrine; Sjörs, Kerstin; Le Caignec, Cedric; Devriendt, Koenraad; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of molecular karyotyping technologies into the diagnostic work-up of patients with congenital disorders permitted the identification and delineation of novel microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. Interstitial 16p13.3 duplication, encompassing the CREBBP gene, which is mutated or deleted in the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, have been proposed to cause a recognisable syndrome with variable intellectual disability, normal growth, mild facial dysmorphism, mild anomalies of the extremities, and occasional findings such as developmental defects of the heart, genitalia, palate or the eyes. We here report the phenotypic and genotypic delineation of 9 patients carrying a submicroscopic 16p13.3 duplication, including the smallest 16p13.3 duplication reported so far. Careful clinical assessment confirms the distinctive clinical phenotype and also defines frequent associated features : marked speech problems, frequent ocular region involvement with upslanting of the eyes, narrow palpebral fissures, ptosis and strabismus, frequent proximal implantation of thumbs, cleft palate/bifid uvula and inguinal hernia. It also confirms that CREBBP is the critical gene involved in the duplication 16p13.3 syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Copeptin in the differential diagnosis of the polydipsia-polyuria syndrome--revisiting the direct and indirect water deprivation tests.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Wiebke; Quinkler, Marcus; Lorenz, Daniela; Zopf, Kathrin; Haagen, Ulrike; Papassotiriou, Jana; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Fassnacht, Martin; Störk, Stefan; Allolio, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    The water deprivation test (WDT) with direct or indirect measurement of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the method of choice for the differential diagnosis of the polydipsia-polyuria syndrome. In theory, direct measurement of AVP is highly attractive but is hampered by technical difficulties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of copeptin, a surrogate of AVP secretion, in the diagnostic work-up of the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome and to compare its performance with the current diagnostic standard. In two tertiary referral centers, 20 healthy subjects and 50 patients with polydipsia-polyuria syndrome underwent WDT with measurements of both plasma AVP and copeptin levels. The reference diagnosis was based on clinical information and treatment response. Twenty-two patients (44%) were diagnosed with primary polydipsia, 17 (34%) with partial central diabetes insipidus (DI), nine (18%) with complete central DI, and two (4%) with nephrogenic DI. The indirect WDT led to a correct diagnosis in 35 of 50 patients (70%). The direct WDT with AVP or copeptin measurement correctly diagnosed 23 patients (46%) or 36 patients (72%), respectively. Baseline copeptin values greater than 20 pmol/liter identified patients with nephrogenic DI, and concentrations below 2.6 pmol/liter indicated complete central DI. The ratio between Δ copeptin (0800 to 1600 h) and serum sodium concentration at 1600 h yielded optimal diagnostic accuracy, allowing us to also discern partial central DI from primary polydipsia (sensitivity 86%, and specificity 100%). Copeptin holds promise as a diagnostic tool in the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome, improving significantly the diagnostic accuracy of the direct WDT.

  6. Cecum duplication in a 14-year-old female. Case report.

    PubMed

    Galván-Montaño, Alfonso; Guzmán-Martínez, Sonia; Lorenzana-Sandoval, Cuauhtémoc; Recinos-Carrera, Elio

    2011-01-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are a group of rare malformations occurring in about 1/5,000 live births. These may be either spherical or tubular and may communicate with the intestinal tract. Duplications of the cecum are very uncommon. A 14-year-old female was admitted to the emergency department with a 1-day history of abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and abdominal distension. Abdominal examination revealed distension and tenderness around the umbilicus. Plain abdominal radiography showed dilated colon. The patient underwent surgical management with diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Laparotomy revealed spherical duplication from the cecum. Hemicolectomy was done and alimentary continuity was restored by end-to-end anastomosis. Pathological report was a spherical communicated duplication from the cecum (22 × 32 cm). Duplication of the cecum is extremely rare and is seen in 0.4% of duplications of the alimentary tract. The majority of cases (85%) are diagnosed before age 2 years. It is rare at 14 years of age. Diagnosis is difficult and volvulus, intussusception or appendicitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Ultrasonography and tomography are the imaging studies of choice. Plain abdominal x-ray is not specific. Resection of the duplication with restoration of alimentary continuity is the treatment of choice.

  7. Melorheostosis of the humerus: a rare differential diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Vos, J; Mulliez, A; De Loore, G

    2010-04-01

    Melorheostosis is an uncommon and rare linear hyperostosis, which can be complicated by soft tissue changes. We present a case of this disorder in the humerus, clinically referred because of carpal tunnel syndrome. Although treatment is usually conservative, in this case, a neurolysis and resection of the sclerotic bone were done with good clinical result. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Choroidal abnormalities in café-au-lait syndromes: a new differential diagnostic tool?

    PubMed

    Cassiman, C; Casteels, I; Jacob, J; Plasschaert, E; Brems, H; Dubron, K; Keer, K V; Legius, E

    2017-04-01

    The best known café-au-lait syndrome is neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Legius syndrome (LS) is another, rarer syndrome with café-au-lait macules (CALMs). In young patients their clinical picture is often indistinguishable. We investigated the presence of choroidal abnormalities in syndromes with CALMs as a candidate tool for a more efficient diagnosis. Thirty-four patients with NF1 (14 with a truncating mutation, 14 with a non-truncating mutation and 6 with unknown mutation) and 11 patients with LS. All patients underwent an ophthalmological examination. Infrared images were performed. Choroidal nodules were diagnosed in 65% of the NF1 group. About 71% of NF1 patients with a truncating mutation and 50% of patients with a non-truncating mutation were found to have nodules. Choroidal nodules were seen in 18% of the LS patients, never more than one nodule/eye was detected in this group. Choroidal nodules are more abundantly present in NF1 genotypes with truncating mutations. In contrast, the number of choroidal nodules in LS is comparable with their presence in healthy individuals. Especially at an early age, when the clinical picture is incomplete, the detection of choroidal nodules is of diagnostic value, and helps in an appropriate genetic counselling and follow-up. These results support the suggestion to include choroidal nodules to the diagnostic criteria for NF1. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Differential calcium sensitivity in NaV 1.5 mixed syndrome mutants.

    PubMed

    Abdelsayed, Mena; Baruteau, Alban-Elouen; Gibbs, Karen; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D; Probst, Vincent; Ruben, Peter C

    2017-09-15

    SCN5a mutations may express gain-of-function (Long QT Syndrome-3), loss-of-function (Brugada Syndrome 1) or both (mixed syndromes), depending on the mutation and environmental triggers. One such trigger may be an increase in cytosolic calcium, accompanying exercise. Many mixed syndromes mutants, including ∆KPQ, E1784K, 1795insD and Q1909R, are found in calcium-sensitive regions. Elevated cytosolic calcium attenuates gain-of-function properties in ∆KPQ, 1795insD and Q1909R, but not in E1784K. By contrast, elevated cytosolic calcium further exacerbates gain-of-function in E1784K by destabilizing slow inactivation. Action potential modelling, using a modified O'Hara Rudy model, suggests that elevated heart rate rescues action potential duration in ∆KPQ, 1795insD and Q1909R, but not in E1784K. Action potential simulations suggest that E1784K carriers have an increased intracellular sodium-to-calcium ratio under bradycardia and tachycardia conditions. Elevated cytosolic calcium, which is common during high heart rates, ameliorates or exacerbates the mixed syndrome phenotype depending on the genetic signature. Inherited arrhythmias may arise from mutations in the gene for SCN5a, which encodes the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Na V 1.5. Mutants in Na V 1.5 result in Brugada Syndrome (BrS1), Long-QT Syndrome (LQT3) or mixed syndromes (an overlap of BrS1/LQT3). Exercise is a potential arrhythmogenic trigger in mixed syndromes. We aimed to determine the effects of elevated cytosolic calcium, which is common during exercise, in mixed syndrome Na V 1.5 mutants. We used whole-cell patch clamp to assess the biophysical properties of Na V 1.5 wild-type (WT), ∆KPQ, E1784K, 1795insD and Q1909R mutants in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transiently transfected with the Na V 1.5 α subunit (WT or mutants), β1 subunit and enhanced green fluorescent protein. Voltage-dependence and kinetics were measured at cytosolic calcium levels of approximately 0, 500 and 2500

  10. Duplicate document detection in DocBrowse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalana, Vikram; Bruce, Andrew G.; Nguyen, Thien

    1998-04-01

    Duplicate documents are frequently found in large databases of digital documents, such as those found in digital libraries or in the government declassification effort. Efficient duplicate document detection is important not only to allow querying for similar documents, but also to filter out redundant information in large document databases. We have designed three different algorithm to identify duplicate documents. The first algorithm is based on features extracted from the textual content of a document, the second algorithm is based on wavelet features extracted from the document image itself, and the third algorithm is a combination of the first two. These algorithms are integrated within the DocBrowse system for information retrieval from document images which is currently under development at MathSoft. DocBrowse supports duplicate document detection by allowing (1) automatic filtering to hide duplicate documents, and (2) ad hoc querying for similar or duplicate documents. We have tested the duplicate document detection algorithms on 171 documents and found that text-based method has an average 11-point precision of 97.7 percent while the image-based method has an average 11- point precision of 98.9 percent. However, in general, the text-based method performs better when the document contains enough high-quality machine printed text while the image- based method performs better when the document contains little or no quality machine readable text.

  11. Evolution of Gene Duplication in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ancient duplication events and a high rate of retention of extant pairs of duplicate genes have contributed to an abundance of duplicate genes in plant genomes. These duplicates have contributed to the evolution of novel functions, such as the production of floral structures, induction of disease resistance, and adaptation to stress. Additionally, recent whole-genome duplications that have occurred in the lineages of several domesticated crop species, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and soybean (Glycine max), have contributed to important agronomic traits, such as grain quality, fruit shape, and flowering time. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and impacts of gene duplication will be important to future studies of plants in general and of agronomically important crops in particular. In this review, we survey the current knowledge about gene duplication, including gene duplication mechanisms, the potential fates of duplicate genes, models explaining duplicate gene retention, the properties that distinguish duplicate from singleton genes, and the evolutionary impact of gene duplication. PMID:27288366

  12. Duplicate Record Elimination in Large Data Files.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIJED CSTR -445 NL LmEE~hhE - I1.0 . 111112----5 1.~4 __112 ___IL25_ 1.4 111111.6 EI24 COMPUTER SCIENCES DEPARTMENT oUniversity of Wisconsin...we propose a combinatorial model for the use in the analysis of algorithms for duplicate elimination. We contend that this model can serve as a...duplicates in a multiset of records, knowing the size of the multiset and the number of distinct records in it. 3. Algorithms for Duplicate Elimination

  13. ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.

    1995-01-01

    An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.

  14. Computerized analysis and duplication of mandibular motion.

    PubMed

    Knap, F J; Abler, J H; Richardson, B L

    1975-05-01

    A new digital system has been devised to analyze and duplicate jaw motion. The arrangement of the electronic system offers a range of versatility which includes graphic as well as numerical data analysis. The duplicator linkage is identical to the sensor linkage which, together with an accurate model transfer system, results in an encouraging level of accuracy in jaw-motion duplication. The data collected from normal subjects should offer some new knowledge in the normal motions of the mandible as well as establish a reference for comparison with abnormal masticatory function.

  15. Regulation of the mouse Treacher Collins syndrome homolog (Tcof1) promoter through differential repression of constitutive expression.

    PubMed

    Shows, Kathryn H; Shiang, Rita

    2008-11-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal-dominant mandibulofacial dysostosis caused by haploinsufficiency of the TCOF1 gene product treacle. Mouse Tcof1 protein is approximately 61% identical and 71% similar to treacle, and heterozygous knockout of Tcof1 causes craniofacial malformation. Tcof1 expression is high in developing neural crest, but much lower in other tissues. To investigate this dual regulation, highly conserved regions upstream of TCOF1 homologs were tested through deletion and mutation reporter assays, and conserved predicted transcription factor binding sites were assessed through chromatin binding studies. Assays were performed in mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma cells and in HEK293 cells to determine differential activation in cell types at different stages of differentiation. Binding of Cebpb, Zfp161, and Sp1 transcription factors was specific to the Tcof1 regulatory region in P19 cells. The Zfp161 binding site demonstrated P19 cell-specific repression, while the Sp1/Sp3 candidate site demonstrated HEK293 cell-specific activation. Moreover, presence of c-myb and Zfp161 transcripts was specific to P19 cells. A minimal promoter fragment from -253 to +43 bp directs constitutive expression in both cell types, and dual regulation of Tcof1 appears to be through differential repression of this minimal promoter. The CpG island at the transcription start site remains unmethylated in P19 cells, 11.5 dpc mouse embryonic tissue, and adult mouse ear, which supports constitutive activation of the Tcof1 promoter.

  16. Regulation of the Mouse Treacher Collins Syndrome Homolog (Tcof1) Promoter Through Differential Repression of Constitutive Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shiang, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal-dominant mandibulofacial dysostosis caused by haploinsufficiency of the TCOF1 gene product treacle. Mouse Tcof1 protein is approximately 61% identical and 71% similar to treacle, and heterozygous knockout of Tcof1 causes craniofacial malformation. Tcof1 expression is high in developing neural crest, but much lower in other tissues. To investigate this dual regulation, highly conserved regions upstream of TCOF1 homologs were tested through deletion and mutation reporter assays, and conserved predicted transcription factor binding sites were assessed through chromatin binding studies. Assays were performed in mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma cells and in HEK293 cells to determine differential activation in cell types at different stages of differentiation. Binding of Cebpb, Zfp161, and Sp1 transcription factors was specific to the Tcof1 regulatory region in P19 cells. The Zfp161 binding site demonstrated P19 cell–specific repression, while the Sp1/Sp3 candidate site demonstrated HEK293 cell–specific activation. Moreover, presence of c-myb and Zfp161 transcripts was specific to P19 cells. A minimal promoter fragment from −253 to +43 bp directs constitutive expression in both cell types, and dual regulation of Tcof1 appears to be through differential repression of this minimal promoter. The CpG island at the transcription start site remains unmethylated in P19 cells, 11.5 dpc mouse embryonic tissue, and adult mouse ear, which supports constitutive activation of the Tcof1 promoter. PMID:18771418

  17. Evaluation of usefulness of myeloperoxidase index (MPXI) for differential diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yong Sung; Yoon, Jeong Min; Jung, Woo Jin; Kim, Yong Won; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Kyoung Chul; Kim, Hyun; Hwang, Sung Oh; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2015-04-01

    The myeloperoxidase index (MPXI) is elevated in infection. We ascertained whether MPXI might be useful in differentiation of sepsis versus non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in emergency department (ED). After exclusion of patients with an age of <18 years, trauma, haematological disease and on anticancer chemotherapy, 444 consecutive cases with SIRS (sepsis: 224, 50.3%; and non-infectious SIRS: 220, 49.7%) diagnosed and treated at the ED of The Wonju Severance Christian Hospital from May 2012 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Median MPXI was higher in sepsis versus non-infectious SIRS (0.1 (IQR: -3.1 to 2.5) vs -1.2 (-4.1 to 1.6), respectively, p=0.020). Median white cell count, neutrophil percentage, C reactive protein level and δ neutrophil index were also higher. However, MPXI resulted as not statistically useful for differential diagnostic parameter in analysis. MPXI is higher in sepsis than in non-infectious SIRS. However, there is currently no evidence that the MPXI adds any additional benefit to differentiate sepsis from non-infectious SIRS in the ED. Therefore, further study will be needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Buffering of crucial functions by paleologous duplicated genes may contribute cyclicality to angiosperm genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brad A; Bowers, John E; Feltus, Frank A; Paterson, Andrew H

    2006-02-21

    Genome duplication followed by massive gene loss has permanently shaped the genomes of many higher eukaryotes, particularly angiosperms. It has long been believed that a primary advantage of genome duplication is the opportunity for the evolution of genes with new functions by modification of duplicated genes. If so, then patterns of genetic diversity among strains within taxa might reveal footprints of selection that are consistent with this advantage. Contrary to classical predictions that duplicated genes may be relatively free to acquire unique functionality, we find among both Arabidopsis ecotypes and Oryza subspecies that SNPs encode less radical amino acid changes in genes for which there exists a duplicated copy at a "paleologous" locus than in "singleton" genes. Preferential retention of duplicated genes encoding long complex proteins and their unexpectedly slow divergence (perhaps because of homogenization) suggest that a primary advantage of retaining duplicated paleologs may be the buffering of crucial functions. Functional buffering and functional divergence may represent extremes in the spectrum of duplicated gene fates. Functional buffering may be especially important during "genomic turmoil" immediately after genome duplication but continues to act approximately 60 million years later, and its gradual deterioration may contribute cyclicality to genome duplication in some lineages.

  19. Buffering of crucial functions by paleologous duplicated genes may contribute cyclicality to angiosperm genome duplication

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Brad A.; Bowers, John E.; Feltus, Frank A.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2006-01-01

    Genome duplication followed by massive gene loss has permanently shaped the genomes of many higher eukaryotes, particularly angiosperms. It has long been believed that a primary advantage of genome duplication is the opportunity for the evolution of genes with new functions by modification of duplicated genes. If so, then patterns of genetic diversity among strains within taxa might reveal footprints of selection that are consistent with this advantage. Contrary to classical predictions that duplicated genes may be relatively free to acquire unique functionality, we find among both Arabidopsis ecotypes and Oryza subspecies that SNPs encode less radical amino acid changes in genes for which there exists a duplicated copy at a “paleologous” locus than in “singleton” genes. Preferential retention of duplicated genes encoding long complex proteins and their unexpectedly slow divergence (perhaps because of homogenization) suggest that a primary advantage of retaining duplicated paleologs may be the buffering of crucial functions. Functional buffering and functional divergence may represent extremes in the spectrum of duplicated gene fates. Functional buffering may be especially important during “genomic turmoil” immediately after genome duplication but continues to act ≈60 million years later, and its gradual deterioration may contribute cyclicality to genome duplication in some lineages. PMID:16467140

  20. [Observation of curative effect of herpes zoster treated with acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping].

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua

    2011-10-01

    To compare the differences of curative effects of herpes zoster treated with acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping and simple pricking and cupping. Eighty-six cases were randomly divided into an observation group (43 cases) and a control group (43 cases). In observation group, acupoints selection based on syndrome differentiation i.e. Quchi (LI 11), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc. were selected and pricking and cupping at affected parts were applied, and the cases were classified into damp heat in liver and gallbladder, damp retention and spleen deficiency, and qi deficiency and blood stasis. In control group, all the cases were simplely treated with pricking and cupping at affected parts. The treatment was given once a day, and seven days were made one session. The curative effect was evaluated after 2 courses, and the follow-up was carried on after 1 month. The cured and markedly effective rate was 93.0% (40/43) in observation group, superior to that of 67.4% (29/43) in control group (P < 0.01). Postherpetic neuralgia: there was 2.3% (1/43) in observation group, inferior to that of 14.0% (6/43) in control group. Comparison in 3 types: the cured and markedly effective rate of damp heat in liver and gallbladder: 94.7% (18/19) in observation group, and 85.7% (18/21) in control group, showing no significant difference between groups (P > 0.05). The cured and markedly effective rate of damp retention and spleen deficiency: 93.8% (15/16) in observation group, superior to that of 60.0% (9/15) in control group (P < 0. 05). The cured and markedly effective rate of qi deficiency and blood stasis: 87.5% (7/8) in observation group, superior to that of 28.6% (2/7) in control group (P < 0.05). For herpes zoster, acupoints selection based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping therapy is high pertinent and effective, the postherpetic neuralgia can be reduced significantly and the curative effect is

  1. 5p13 microduplication syndrome: a new case and better clinical definition of the syndrome.

    PubMed

    Novara, Francesca; Alfei, Enrico; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Beri, Silvana; Achille, Valentina; Sciacca, Francesca L; Giorda, Roberto; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Ciccone, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome (OMIM #613174), a contiguous gene syndrome involving duplication of several genes on chromosome 5p13 including NIPBL (OMIM 608667), has been described in rare patients with developmental delay and learning disability, behavioral problems and peculiar facial dysmorphisms. 5p13 duplications described so far present with variable sizes, from 0.25 to 13.6 Mb, and contain a variable number of genes. Here we report another patient with 5p13 duplication syndrome including NIPBL gene only. Proband's phenotype overlapped that reported in patients with 5p13 microduplication syndrome and especially that of subjects with smaller duplications. Moreover, we better define genotype-phenotype relationship associated with this duplication and confirmed that NIPBL was likely the major dosage sensitive gene for the 5p13 microduplication phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Multidetector row computed tomography and ultrasound characteristics of caudal vena cava duplication in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giovanna; Diana, Alessia; Cipone, Mario; Drigo, Michele; Caldin, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Caudal vena cava duplication has been rarely reported in small animals. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe characteristics of duplicated caudal vena cava in a large group of dogs. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound databases from two hospitals were searched for canine reports having the diagnosis "double caudal vena cava." One observer reviewed CT images for 71 dogs and two observers reviewed ultrasound images for 21 dogs. In all CT cases, the duplication comprised two vessels that were bilaterally symmetrical and approximately the same calibre (similar to Type I complete duplication in humans). In all ultrasound cases, the duplicated caudal vena cava appeared as a distinct vessel running on the left side of the abdominal segment of the descending aorta and extending from the left common iliac vein to the left renal vein. The prevalence of caudal vena cava duplication was 0.46% for canine ultrasound studies and 2.08% for canine CT studies performed at these hospitals. Median body weight for affected dogs was significantly lower than that of unaffected dogs (P < 0.0001). Breeds with increased risk for duplicated caudal vena cava were Yorkshire Terrier (odds ratio [OR] = 6.41), Poodle (OR = 7.46), West Highland White Terrier (OR = 6.33), and Maltese (OR = 3.87). Presence of a duplicated caudal vena cava was significantly associated with presence of extrahepatic portosystemic shunt(s) (P < 0.004). While uncommon in dogs, caudal vena cava duplication should be differentiated from other vascular anomalies when planning surgeries and for avoiding misdiagnoses. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Genetic testing in heritable cardiac arrhythmia syndromes: differentiating pathogenic mutations from background genetic noise.

    PubMed

    Giudicessi, John R; Ackerman, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the basic principles governing rare variant interpretation in the heritable cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, focusing on recent advances that have led to disease-specific approaches to the interpretation of positive genetic testing results. Elucidation of the genetic substrates underlying heritable cardiac arrhythmia syndromes has unearthed new arrhythmogenic mechanisms and given rise to a number of clinically meaningful genotype-phenotype correlations. As such, genetic testing for these disorders now carries important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Recent large-scale systematic studies designed to explore the background genetic 'noise' rate associated with these genetic tests have provided important insights and enhanced how positive genetic testing results are interpreted for these potentially lethal, yet highly treatable, cardiovascular disorders. Clinically available genetic tests for heritable cardiac arrhythmia syndromes allow the identification of potentially at-risk family members and contribute to the risk-stratification and selection of therapeutic interventions in affected individuals. The systematic evaluation of the 'signal-to-noise' ratio associated with these genetic tests has proven critical and essential to assessing the probability that a given variant represents a rare pathogenic mutation or an equally rare, yet innocuous, genetic bystander.

  4. Differential effects of FGFR2 mutations on syndactyly and cleft palate in Apert syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Slaney, S.F.; Oldridge, M.; Wilkie, A.O.M.

    1996-05-01

    Apert syndrome is a distinctive human malformation characterized by craniosynostosis and severe syndactyly of the hands and feet. It is caused by specific missense substitutions involving adjacent amino acids (Ser252Trp or Pro253Arg) in the linker between the second and third extracellular immunoglobulin domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). We have developed a simple PCR assay for these mutations in genomic DNA, based on the creation of novel SfiI and BstUI restriction sites. Analysis of DNA from 70 unrelated patients with Apert syndrome showed that 45 had the Ser252Trp mutation and 25 had the Pro253Arg mutation. Phenotypic differences betweenmore » these two groups of patients were investigated. Significant differences were found for severity of syndactyly and presence of cleft palate. The syndactyly was more severe with the Pro253Arg mutation, for both the hands and the feet. In contrast, cleft palate was significantly more common in the Ser252Trp patients. No convincing differences were found in the prevalence of other malformations associated with Apert syndrome. We conclude that, although the phenotype attributable to the two mutations is very similar, there are subtle differences. The opposite trends for severity of syndactyly and cleft palate in relation to the two mutations may relate to the varying patterns of temporal and tissue-specific expression of different fibroblast growth factors, the ligands for FGFR2. 54 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  5. NASA printing, duplicating, and copying management handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook provides information and procedures for the implementation of NASA policy and applicable laws and regulations relating to printing, duplicating, and copying. The topics addressed include a description of relevant laws and regulations, authorizations required, and responsible entities for NASA printing, duplicating, and copying. The policy of NASA is to ensure understanding and application of authority and responsibility on printing matters. Where necessary, the handbook clarifies the intent of basic laws and regulations applicable to NASA.

  6. Gallbladder Duplication: Evaluation, Treatment, and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    2009; revised 16 December 2009; accepted 16 December 2009h o th 0 d Key words: Duplicate gallbladder; Hepatobiliary embryology ; Multiple gallbladders...anatomic variations [5]. These three types vary depending upon the embryologic development and occur in the same manner as duplicated gallbladders. Given... embryology and adds a third group that occurs when there is a combination of types 1 and 2 anatomy. The triple combined group occurs from a split in

  7. Differential expression of IGFBPs in Laron syndrome-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines: Potential correlation with reduced cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Somri, Lina; Sarfstein, Rive; Lapkina-Gendler, Lena; Nagaraj, Karthik; Laron, Zvi; Bach, Leon A; Werner, Haim

    2018-04-01

    Laron syndrome (LS), or primary growth hormone (GH) insensitivity, is a growth disorder that results from mutation of the GH-receptor (GHR) gene leading to congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that LS patients are protected from cancer development. Genome-wide profiling identified genes and signaling pathways that are differentially represented in LS patients, and that may contribute to cancer protection. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hypothesis that IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) are differentially expressed in LS, most probably as a result of low circulating levels of IGF-1. Furthermore, we postulated that IGFBPs might be differentially regulated by oxidative stress in this condition and, therefore, may contribute to cancer evasion. Our results show that IGFBP-3, which is predominantly protective, was highly expressed in LS-derived lymphoblastoid cells in comparison to control cells from the same ethnic group. On the other hand, levels of IGFBP-2, -4, -5, and -6 were diminished in LS patients, as demonstrated by RQ-PCR, Western immunoblots and confocal immunofluorescence. In addition, our data provide evidence for a pattern of IGFBP response to H 2 O 2 treatment that might be associated with distinct expression of apoptosis markers (BCL2, pro-caspase-9, pro-caspase-3) in LS. In summary, differential expression of specific IGFBPs in LS might be correlated with cellular mechanisms underlying cancer protection and, probably, additional phenotypes due to congenital IGF-1 deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 responses dictate differentiation of neural progenitors to NMDA-responsive cells in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Achuta, Venkat Swaroop; Grym, Heli; Putkonen, Noora; Louhivuori, Verna; Kärkkäinen, Virve; Koistinaho, Jari; Roybon, Laurent; Castrén, Maija L

    2017-04-01

    Disrupted metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) signaling is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, found in fragile X syndrome (FXS). Here we report that intracellular calcium responses to the group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) are augmented, and calcium-dependent mGluR5-mediated mechanisms alter the differentiation of neural progenitors in neurospheres derived from human induced pluripotent FXS stem cells and the brains of mouse model of FXS. Treatment with the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) prevents an abnormal clustering of DHPG-responsive cells that are responsive to activation of ionotropic receptors in mouse FXS neurospheres. MPEP also corrects morphological defects of differentiated cells and enhanced migration of neuron-like cells in mouse FXS neurospheres. Unlike in mouse neurospheres, MPEP increases the differentiation of DHPG-responsive radial glial cells as well as the subpopulation of cells responsive to both DHPG and activation of ionotropic receptors in human neurospheres. However, MPEP normalizes the FXS-specific increase in the differentiation of cells responsive only to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) present in human neurospheres. Exposure to MPEP prevents the accumulation of intermediate basal progenitors in embryonic FXS mouse brain suggesting that rescue effects of GluR5 antagonist are progenitor type-dependent and species-specific differences of basal progenitors may modify effects of MPEP on the cortical development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 419-437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. De novo direct duplication of chromosome segment 22q11.2-q13.1

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Atsuko; Lin, Ming S.

    Lindsay et al. [1995] reported a case of de novo duplication of the segment 22q11-q12. Molecular cytogenetics studies showed that the segment includes the regions responsible for the {open_quotes}cat eye,{close_quotes} DiGeorge, and velo-cardio-facial syndrome, and extends distal to the breakpoint cluster region. The phenotype was milder than that of complete trisomy 22 and der(22)t(11;22) (q23;q11) syndrome and was similar in type and severity to that of {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES). They suggested that trisomy of gene(s) responsible for the CES might have a predominant phenotypic effect over other genes present in the region duplicated in their patient. 3 refs., 2more » figs.« less

  10. Hyperplastic thymus with increased angiogenesis is correlated with elevated serum thyroglobulin level in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with TENIS syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangjian; Gao, Rui; Wang, Yuanbo; Liu, Yan; Li, Juan; Jia, Xi; Liang, Yiqian; Yang, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association between angiogenetic activity of hyperplastic thymus and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with thyroglobulin (Tg)-elevated Negative Iodine Scintigraphy (TENIS) Syndrome. Methods A cohort of 30 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablation and had TENIS syndrome received integrin αvβ3 targeted imaging with 99mTc-HYNIC-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2 (99mTc-3PRGD2). The correlation of angiogenetic activity of the thymus and the serum Tg levels was evaluated in patients with enlarged thymus. Results Enlarged thymus was detected in 9 out of the 30 TENIS patients and all hyperplastic thymus showed an increased accumulation of the tracer (median tumor/background ratio: 2.8). Five of them had only mediastinal uptake and surgical removal of the mediastinal mass in one provided histopathologic evidence of thymic tissue. The other four were not assigned further treatment and were free of disease in the follow-up, though their stimulated Tg levels consistently increased. Four out of the 9 patients showed 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake outside the mediastinum were assigned surgery followed by radioiodine treatment. Their stimulated Tg levels decreased after iodine ablation, but not drop back to normal. A significant linear correlation was observed between serum Tg levels and the degree of angiogenesis in the hyperplastic thymus. Conclusions The angiogenetic activity in hyperplastic thymus was related with the consistently elevated serum Tg levels in TENIS syndrome patients. Based on the existing literature and current data, we propose further intervention for patients with RGD uptake outside thymus, while close follow-up for patients with only mediastinal uptake. PMID:29423055

  11. Clinical and molecular characterization of duplications encompassing the human SHOX gene reveal a variable effect on stature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N Simon; Harvey, John F; Bunyan, David J; Rankin, Julia; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Bruno, Damien L; Tan, Tiong Y; Tomkins, Susan; Hastings, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Deletions of the SHOX gene are well documented and cause disproportionate short stature and variable skeletal abnormalities. In contrast interstitial SHOX duplications limited to PAR1 appear to be very rare and the clinical significance of the only case report in the literature is unclear. Mapping of this duplication has now shown that it includes the entire SHOX gene but little flanking sequence and so will not encompass any of the long-range enhancers required for SHOX transcription. We now describe the clinical and molecular characterization of three additional cases. The duplications all included the SHOX coding sequence but varied in the amount of flanking sequence involved. The probands were ascertained for a variety of reasons: hypotonia and features of Asperger syndrome, Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and a family history of cleft palate. However, the presence of a duplication did not correlate with any of these features or with evidence of skeletal abnormality. Remarkably, the proband with LWD had inherited both a SHOX deletion and a duplication. The effect of the duplications on stature was variable: height appeared to be elevated in some carriers, particularly in those with the largest duplications, but was still within the normal range. SHOX duplications are likely to be under ascertained and more cases need to be identified and characterized in detail in order to accurately determine their phenotypic consequences.

  12. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits. PMID:26554045

  13. Bilateral symmetrical adrenal hypermetabolism on FDG PET/CT due to Cushing syndrome in well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aktas, G E; Soyluoglu Demir, S; Sarikaya, A

    2016-01-01

    The (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan has been suggested for whole-body imaging to identify ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumours, but there are some challenges involved. The case of a patient is presented, who was admitted with the pre-diagnosis of ectopic ACTH syndrome. On the CT, a nodular lesion was detected in the medial segment of the right lung. The FDG uptake of the lesion seemed to be increased visually, but was not pathological quantitatively (SUVmax: 1.8) on the PET/CT. There was also diffuse increased uptake (SUVmax: 14.2) in the enlarged adrenal glands. The lesion was reported as a possible malignant lesion with low FDG affinity, such as a low grade neuroendocrine tumour, while the diffuse enlarged adrenal glands with high uptake were interpreted as diffusely hyperplasic, due to Cushing's syndrome. The patient was treated with a surgical wedge resection. The histopathological diagnosis confirmed that the tumour was a grade 1 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  14. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD) occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4), a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish), Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes), the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD) and the DNA binding domain (DBD). Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be connected to the well

  15. Review of the Lynch syndrome: history, molecular genetics, screening, differential diagnosis, and medicolegal ramifications

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, HT; Lynch, PM; Lanspa, SJ; Snyder, CL; Lynch, JF; Boland, CR

    2010-01-01

    More than one million patients will manifest colorectal cancer (CRC) this year of which, conservatively, approximately 3% (~30,700 cases) will have Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common hereditary CRC predisposing syndrome. Each case belongs to a family with clinical needs that require genetic counseling, DNA testing for mismatch repair genes (most frequently MLH1 or MSH2) and screening for CRC. Colonoscopy is mandated, given CRC’s proximal occurrence (70–80% proximal to the splenic flexure). Due to its early age of onset (average 45 years of age), colonoscopy needs to start by age 25, and because of its accelerated carcinogenesis, it should be repeated every 1 to 2 years through age 40 and then annually thereafter. Should CRC occur, subtotal colectomy may be necessary, given the marked frequency of synchronous and metachronous CRC. Because 40–60% of female patients will manifest endometrial cancer, tailored management is essential. Additional extracolonic cancers include ovary, stomach, small bowel, pancreas, hepatobiliary tract, upper uroepithelial tract, brain (Turcot variant) and sebaceous adenomas/carcinomas (Muir-Torre variant). LS explains only 10–25% of familial CRC. PMID:19659756

  16. Differential gene expression reveals mitochondrial dysfunction in an imprinting center deletion mouse model of Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Puya G; Su, Hailing; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Fan, Weiwei; Coskun, Pinar E; Nalbandian, Angèle; Knoblach, Susan; Resnick, James L; Hoffman, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C; Kimonis, Virginia E

    2013-10-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal chromosome 15q11-15q13 and clinically characterized by neonatal hypotonia, short stature, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, hyperphagia, morbid obesity, and diabetes. Previous clinical studies suggest that a defect in energy metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of PWS. We focused our attention on the genes associated with energy metabolism and found that there were 95 and 66 mitochondrial genes differentially expressed in PWS muscle and brain, respectively. Assessment of enzyme activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes in the brain, heart, liver, and muscle were assessed. We found the enzyme activities of the cardiac mitochondrial complexes II+‫III were up-regulated in the PWS imprinting center deletion mice compared to the wild-type littermates. These studies suggest that differential gene expression, especially of the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the pathophysiology of PWS. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, P K; Prasad, P V S; Shradda; Viswanathan, P

    2005-01-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  18. Three neuropeptide Y receptor genes in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, support en bloc duplications in early vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Salaneck, Erik; Ardell, David H; Larson, Earl T; Larhammar, Dan

    2003-08-01

    It has been debated whether the increase in gene number during early vertebrate evolution was due to multiple independent gene duplications or synchronous duplications of many genes. We describe here the cloning of three neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor genes belonging to the Y1 subfamily in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, a cartilaginous fish. The three genes are orthologs of the mammalian subtypes Y1, Y4, and Y6, which are located in paralogous gene regions on different chromosomes in mammals. Thus, these genes arose by duplications of a chromosome region before the radiation of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Estimates of duplication times from linearized trees together with evidence from other gene families supports two rounds of chromosome duplications or tetraploidizations early in vertebrate evolution. The anatomical distribution of mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase PCR and was found to differ from mammals, suggesting differential functional diversification of the new gene copies during the radiation of the vertebrate classes.

  19. Duplication of SOX9 associated with 46,XX ovotesticular disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Berenice; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Benítez-Granados, Jesús; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Villegas-Ruiz, Vanessa; Calzada-León, Raúl; Soderlund, Daniela; Canto, Patricia

    2018-04-04

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ten unrelated SRY-negative individuals with this sex differentiation disorder presented a double dose of SOX9 as the cause of their disease. Ten unrelated SRY-negative 46,XX ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (DSD) subjects were molecularly studied. Multiplex-ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR) for SOX9 were performed. The MLPA analysis demonstrated that one patient presented a heterozygous duplication of the entire SOX9 coding region (above 1.3 value of peak ratio), as well as at least a ~ 483 kb upstream duplication. Moreover, no duplication of other SOX9 probes was observed corresponding to the region between -1007 and -1500 kb upstream. A qRT-PCR analysis showed a duplication of at least -581 kb upstream and ~1.63 kb of the coding region that encompasses exon 3. The limits of the duplication were mapped approximately from ~71539762 to 72122741 of Chr17. No molecular abnormalities were found in the remaining nine patients. This study is thought to be the first report regarding a duplication of SOX9 that is associated with the presence of 46,XX ovotesticular DSD, encompassing at least -581 kb upstream, and the almost entire coding region of the gene. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization and differentiation of autoimmune versus viral liver involvement in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose-María; Parés, Albert; Forns, Xavier; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Nardi, Norma; Vazquez, Pilar; Vélez, Desirée; Arias, Isabel; Bové, Albert; Plaza, Joan; Rodés, Juan; Font, Josep

    2006-08-01

    To analyze the prevalence and clinical significance of liver involvement in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), focusing on the characterization and differentiation of autoimmune versus chronic viral liver disease. We investigated liver involvement (clinical signs, analytical data, chronic viral infections, and autoantibodies) in 475 consecutive patients with SS. All patients fulfilled 4 or more of the 1993 European Community Study Group criteria for SS. Liver involvement was detected in 129 (27%) patients. After ruling out chronic illnesses or use of hepatotoxic drugs, the main etiologies were chronic viral liver disease in 64 (13%) cases [chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 63 and HBV infection in one] and autoimmune liver diseases in 24 (5%; primary biliary cirrhosis in 16 patients and type-1 autoimmune hepatitis in 8). The analytical liver profile was not useful in differentiating between viral and autoimmune liver disease. In contrast, patients with SS and autoimmune liver disease presented higher mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.044), circulating gammaglobulins (p = 0.007), and a higher prevalence of antinuclear antibodies (p < 0.001), antimitochondrial antibodies (p < 0.001), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (p = 0.026), anti-Ro/SSA (p < 0.001), and anti-La/SSB (p = 0.01), while patients with chronic viral liver disease had a higher frequency of cryoglobulinemia (p < 0.001) and hypocomplementemia (p < 0.001). Chronic viral liver disease (associated overwhelmingly with HCV) was the main cause of liver involvement in our patients with SS, with a prevalence of 13%, nearly 3-fold greater than that observed for autoimmune liver involvement. The immunological pattern played a key role in the differentiation of viral (predominance of cryoglobulins and low complement levels) and autoimmune (higher frequency of autoantibodies) liver involvement.

  1. Noonan syndrome-causing SHP2 mutants impair ERK-dependent chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone growth.

    PubMed

    Tajan, Mylène; Pernin-Grandjean, Julie; Beton, Nicolas; Gennero, Isabelle; Capilla, Florence; Neel, Benjamin G; Araki, Toshiyuki; Valet, Philippe; Tauber, Maithé; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Yart, Armelle; Edouard, Thomas

    2018-04-12

    Growth retardation is a constant feature of Noonan syndrome (NS) but its physiopathology remains poorly understood. We previously reported that hyperactive NS-causing SHP2 mutants impair the systemic production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) through hyperactivation of the RAS/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signalling pathway. Besides endocrine defects, a direct effect of these mutants on growth plate has not been explored, although recent studies have revealed an important physiological role for SHP2 in endochondral bone growth. We demonstrated that growth plate length was reduced in NS mice, mostly due to a shortening of the hypertrophic zone and to a lesser extent of the proliferating zone. These histological features were correlated with decreased expression of early chondrocyte differentiation markers, and with reduced alkaline phosphatase staining and activity, in NS murine primary chondrocytes. Although IGF1 treatment improved growth of NS mice, it did not fully reverse growth plate abnormalities, notably the decreased hypertrophic zone. In contrast, we documented a role of RAS/ERK hyperactivation at the growth plate level since 1) NS-causing SHP2 mutants enhance RAS/ERK activation in chondrocytes in vivo (NS mice) and in vitro (ATDC5 cells) and 2) inhibition of RAS/ERK hyperactivation by U0126 treatment alleviated growth plate abnormalities and enhanced chondrocyte differentiation. Similar effects were obtained by chronic treatment of NS mice with statins.In conclusion, we demonstrated that hyperactive NS-causing SHP2 mutants impair chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone growth through a local hyperactivation of the RAS/ERK signalling pathway, and that statin treatment may be a possible therapeutic approach in NS.

  2. A biomarker panel and psychological morbidity differentiates the irritable bowel syndrome from health and provides novel pathophysiological leads.

    PubMed

    Jones, M P; Chey, W D; Singh, S; Gong, H; Shringarpure, R; Hoe, N; Chuang, E; Talley, N J

    2014-02-01

    The development of a reliable biomarker for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains one of the major aims of research in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and is complicated by the absence of a perfect reference standard. Previous efforts based on genetic and immune markers have showed promise, but have not been robust. To evaluate an extensive panel of gene expression and serology markers combined with psychological measures in differentiating IBS from health and between subtypes of IBS. Of subjects eligible for analysis (N = 244), 168 met criteria for IBS (60 IBS-C, 57 IBS-D and 51 mixed), while 76 were free of any FGID. A total of 34 markers were selected based on pathways implicated in pathophysiology of IBS or whole human genome screening. Psychological measures were recorded that covered anxiety, depression and somatisation. Models differentiating disease and health were based on unconditional logistic regression and performance assessed through area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. The performance of a combination of 34 markers was good in differentiating IBS from health (AUC = 0.81) and was improved considerably with the addition of four psychological markers (combined AUC = 0.93). Of the 34 markers considered, discrimination was derived largely from a small subset. Good discrimination was also obtained between IBS subtypes with the best being observed for IBS-C vs. IBS-D (AUC = 0.92); however, psychological variables provided almost no incremental discrimination subtypes over biological markers (combined AUC = 0.94). A combination of gene expression and serological markers in combination with psychological measures shows exciting progress towards a diagnostic test for IBS compared with healthy subjects, and to discriminate IBS-C from IBS-D. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Defects along the T(H)17 differentiation pathway underlie genetically distinct forms of the hyper IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Khatib, Shadi; Keles, Sevgi; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Reisli, Ismail; Artac, Hasibe; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Cokugras, Haluk; Somer, Ayper; Kutukculer, Necil; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ikinciogullari, Aydan; Yegin, Olcay; Yüksek, Mutlu; Genel, Ferah; Kucukosmanoglu, Ercan; Baki, Ali; Bahceciler, Nerin N; Rambhatla, Anupama; Nickerson, Derek W; McGhee, Sean; Barlan, Isil B; Chatila, Talal

    2009-08-01

    The hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is characterized by abscesses, eczema, recurrent infections, skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities, elevated serum IgE, and diminished inflammatory responses. It exists as autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms that manifest common and distinguishing clinical features. A majority of those with autosomal-dominant HIES have heterozygous mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and impaired T(H)17 differentiation. To elucidate mechanisms underlying different forms of HIES. A cohort of 25 Turkish children diagnosed with HIES were examined for STAT3 mutations by DNA sequencing. Activation of STAT3 by IL-6 and IL-21 and STAT1 by IFN-alpha was assessed by intracellular staining with anti-phospho (p)STAT3 and -pSTAT1 antibodies. T(H)17 and T(H)1 cell differentiation was assessed by measuring the production of IL-17 and IFN-gamma, respectively. Six subjects had STAT3 mutations affecting the DNA binding, Src homology 2, and transactivation domains, including 3 novel ones. Mutation-positive but not mutation-negative subjects with HIES exhibited reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 in response to cytokine stimulation, whereas pSTAT1 activation was unaffected. Both patient groups exhibited impaired T(H)17 responses, but whereas STAT3 mutations abrogated early steps in T(H)17 differentiation, the defects in patients with HIES with normal STAT3 affected more distal steps. In this cohort of Turkish children with HIES, a majority had normal STAT3, implicating other targets in disease pathogenesis. Impaired T(H)17 responses were evident irrespective of the STAT3 mutation status, indicating that different genetic forms of HIES share a common functional outcome.

  4. Differential Contributions of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Manifestations to Psychological Symptoms.

    PubMed

    McCook, Judy G; Bailey, Beth A; Williams, Stacey L; Anand, Sheeba; Reame, Nancy E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of previously identified Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) manifestations (infertility, hirsutism, obesity, menstrual problems) to multiple psychological symptoms. Participants were 126 female endocrinology patient volunteers diagnosed with PCOS who completed a cross-sectional study of PCOS manifestations and psychological symptoms. Participants had significantly elevated scores on nine subscales of psychological symptoms. Menstrual problems were significantly associated with all symptom subscales as well as the global indicator, while hirsutism and obesity were significantly related to five or more subscales. After controlling for demographic factors, menstrual problems were the strongest predictor of psychological symptoms. Findings suggest features of excess body hair, obesity, and menstrual abnormalities carry unique risks for adverse psychologic symptoms, but menstrual problems may be the most salient of these features and deserve particular attention as a marker for psychological risk among women with PCOS.

  5. Peeling skin syndrome: genetic defects in late terminal differentiation of the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Paul E

    2011-03-01

    In this issue, Israeli and colleagues confirm that homozygous mutations in corneodesmosin (CDSN) cause type B peeling skin syndrome (PSS), an autosomal recessive skin disorder. The deletion mutation described resulted in a frameshift, producing a downstream premature stop codon and early truncation of the protein. The recently described CDSN nonsense mutation in another PSS family also resulted in protein truncation and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Type B generalized PSS can now be clearly distinguished from acral PSS, caused by mutations in transglutaminase 5. This directly affects cornified envelope cross-linking rather than corneodesmosome adherence. These observations provide new insight into the molecular defects underlying two closely related forms of PSS.

  6. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p < 0.05). Despite the larger-sized skin-prick test results, the subjects with allergic rhinitis and PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  7. Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome: A Review of Current Literature, Clinical Approach, and 23-Patient Case Series.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Kimberly; Newsom, Cassandra; Morris, Mary Ann; Powell, Craig; Evans, Patricia; Golla, Sailaja

    2018-03-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a rare, genetic disorder caused by a molecular variant of TCF4 which is involved in embryologic neuronal differentiation. PTHS is characterized by syndromic facies, psychomotor delay, and intellectual disability. Other associated features include early-onset myopia, seizures, constipation, and hyperventilation-apneic spells. Many also meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Here the authors present a series of 23 PTHS patients with molecularly confirmed TCF4 variants and describe 3 unique individuals. The first carries a small deletion but does not exhibit the typical facial features nor the typical pattern of developmental delay. The second exhibits typical facial features, but has attained more advanced motor and verbal skills than other reported cases to date. The third displays typical features of PTHS, however inherited a large chromosomal duplication involving TCF4 from his unaffected father with somatic mosaicism. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first chromosomal duplication case reported to date.

  8. Do Children Think that Duplicating the Body also Duplicates the Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Bruce; Gjersoe, Nathalia L.; Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers use hypothetical duplication scenarios to explore intuitions about personal identity. Here we examined 5- to 6-year-olds' intuitions about the physical properties and memories of a live hamster that is apparently duplicated by a machine. In Study 1, children thought that more of the original's physical properties than episodic…

  9. A conserved segmental duplication within ELA.

    PubMed

    Brinkmeyer-Langford, C L; Murphy, W J; Childers, C P; Skow, L C

    2010-12-01

    The assembled genomic sequence of the horse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (equine lymphocyte antigen, ELA) is very similar to the homologous human HLA, with the notable exception of a large segmental duplication at the boundary of ELA class I and class III that is absent in HLA. The segmental duplication consists of a ∼ 710 kb region of at least 11 repeated blocks: 10 blocks each contain an MHC class I-like sequence and the helicase domain portion of a BAT1-like sequence, and the remaining unit contains the full-length BAT1 gene. Similar genomic features were found in other Perissodactyls, indicating an ancient origin, which is consistent with phylogenetic analyses. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of mRNA from peripheral white blood cells of healthy and chronically or acutely infected horses detected transcription from predicted open reading frames in several of the duplicated blocks. This duplication is not present in the sequenced MHCs of most other mammals, although a similar feature at the same relative position is present in the feline MHC (FLA). Striking sequence conservation throughout Perissodactyl evolution is consistent with a functional role for at least some of the genes included within this segmental duplication. © 2010 The Authors, Journal compilation © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Case report of individual with cutaneous immunodeficiency and novel 1p36 duplication.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Soler, David C; Curtis, Christine; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Crusted or Norwegian scabies is an infectious skin dermatopathology usually associated with an underlying immunodeficiency condition. It is caused when the mite Sarcoptes scabiei infects the skin, and the immune system is unable to control its spread, leading to a massive hyperinfestation with a simultaneous inflammatory and hyperkeratotic reaction. This is the first report of a novel 1p36 duplication associated with a recurrent infection of crusted scabies. We describe a 34-year-old patient with a cutaneous immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent crusted scabies infestation, diffuse tinea, and recurrent staphylococcal cellulitis, who we suspected had an undiagnosed syndrome. The patient also suffered from mental retardation, renal failure, and premature senescence. A cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a 9.34 Mb duplication within the short (p) arm of chromosome 1, precisely from 1p36.11 to 1p36.21, with an adjacent 193 kb copy gain entirely within 1p36.11. In addition, chromosome 4 had a 906 kb gain in 4p16.1 and chromosome 9 had a 81 kb copy gain in 9p24.3. Over 100 genes localized within these duplicated regions. Gene expression array revealed 82 genes whose expression changed >1.5-fold compared to a healthy age-matched skin control, but among them only the lipolytic enzyme arylacetamide deacetylase-like 3 was found within the duplicated 1p36 region of chromosome 1. Although genetic duplications in the 1p36 region have been previously described, our report describes a novel duplicative variant within the 1p36 region. The patient did not have a past history of immunosuppression but was afflicted by a recurrent case of crusted scabies, raising the possibility that the recurrent infection was associated with the 1p36 genetic duplication. To our knowledge, the specific duplicated sequence between 1p36.11 and p36.21 found in our patient has never been previously reported. We reviewed and compared the clinical, genotyping, and gene

  11. Case report of individual with cutaneous immunodeficiency and novel 1p36 duplication

    PubMed Central

    Hatter, Alyn D; Soler, David C; Curtis, Christine; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Crusted or Norwegian scabies is an infectious skin dermatopathology usually associated with an underlying immunodeficiency condition. It is caused when the mite Sarcoptes scabiei infects the skin, and the immune system is unable to control its spread, leading to a massive hyperinfestation with a simultaneous inflammatory and hyperkeratotic reaction. This is the first report of a novel 1p36 duplication associated with a recurrent infection of crusted scabies. Case report We describe a 34-year-old patient with a cutaneous immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent crusted scabies infestation, diffuse tinea, and recurrent staphylococcal cellulitis, who we suspected had an undiagnosed syndrome. The patient also suffered from mental retardation, renal failure, and premature senescence. A cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a 9.34 Mb duplication within the short (p) arm of chromosome 1, precisely from 1p36.11 to 1p36.21, with an adjacent 193 kb copy gain entirely within 1p36.11. In addition, chromosome 4 had a 906 kb gain in 4p16.1 and chromosome 9 had a 81 kb copy gain in 9p24.3. Over 100 genes localized within these duplicated regions. Gene expression array revealed 82 genes whose expression changed >1.5-fold compared to a healthy age-matched skin control, but among them only the lipolytic enzyme arylacetamide deacetylase-like 3 was found within the duplicated 1p36 region of chromosome 1. Discussion Although genetic duplications in the 1p36 region have been previously described, our report describes a novel duplicative variant within the 1p36 region. The patient did not have a past history of immunosuppression but was afflicted by a recurrent case of crusted scabies, raising the possibility that the recurrent infection was associated with the 1p36 genetic duplication. Conclusion To our knowledge, the specific duplicated sequence between 1p36.11 and p36.21 found in our patient has never been previously reported. We reviewed and

  12. Dose-sensitivity, conserved non-coding sequences, and duplicate gene retention through multiple tetraploidies in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Schnable, James C; Pedersen, Brent S; Subramaniam, Sabarinath; Freeling, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome duplications, or tetraploidies, are an important source of increased gene content. Following whole genome duplication, duplicate copies of many genes are lost from the genome. This loss of genes is biased both in the classes of genes deleted and the subgenome from which they are lost. Many or all classes are genes preferentially retained as duplicate copies are engaged in dose sensitive protein-protein interactions, such that deletion of any one duplicate upsets the status quo of subunit concentrations, and presumably lowers fitness as a result. Transcription factors are also preferentially retained following every whole genome duplications studied. This has been explained as a consequence of protein-protein interactions, just as for other highly retained classes of genes. We show that the quantity of conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) associated with genes predicts the likelihood of their retention as duplicate pairs following whole genome duplication. As many CNSs likely represent binding sites for transcriptional regulators, we propose that the likelihood of gene retention following tetraploidy may also be influenced by dose-sensitive protein-DNA interactions between the regulatory regions of CNS-rich genes - nicknamed bigfoot genes - and the proteins that bind to them. Using grass genomes, we show that differential loss of CNSs from one member of a pair following the pre-grass tetraploidy reduces its chance of retention in the subsequent maize lineage tetraploidy.

  13. Dose–Sensitivity, Conserved Non-Coding Sequences, and Duplicate Gene Retention Through Multiple Tetraploidies in the Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Schnable, James C.; Pedersen, Brent S.; Subramaniam, Sabarinath; Freeling, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome duplications, or tetraploidies, are an important source of increased gene content. Following whole genome duplication, duplicate copies of many genes are lost from the genome. This loss of genes is biased both in the classes of genes deleted and the subgenome from which they are lost. Many or all classes are genes preferentially retained as duplicate copies are engaged in dose sensitive protein–protein interactions, such that deletion of any one duplicate upsets the status quo of subunit concentrations, and presumably lowers fitness as a result. Transcription factors are also preferentially retained following every whole genome duplications studied. This has been explained as a consequence of protein–protein interactions, just as for other highly retained classes of genes. We show that the quantity of conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) associated with genes predicts the likelihood of their retention as duplicate pairs following whole genome duplication. As many CNSs likely represent binding sites for transcriptional regulators, we propose that the likelihood of gene retention following tetraploidy may also be influenced by dose–sensitive protein–DNA interactions between the regulatory regions of CNS-rich genes – nicknamed bigfoot genes – and the proteins that bind to them. Using grass genomes, we show that differential loss of CNSs from one member of a pair following the pre-grass tetraploidy reduces its chance of retention in the subsequent maize lineage tetraploidy. PMID:22645525

  14. [Intestinal volvulus due to yeyunal duplication].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Iglesias, P; Carazo Palacios, M E; Lluna González, J; Ibáñez Pradas, V; Rodríguez Caraballo, L

    2014-10-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are congenital malformations. The ileum is the most commonly affected organ. A lot of duplications are incidentally diagnosed but most of patients present a combination of pain or complications such as obstructive symptoms, intestinal intussusception, perforation or volvulus. We report the case of a 6-years-old girl, with intermittent abdominal pain and vomits for two months long. Laboratory work was completely normal and in the radiology analysis (abdominal sonography and magnetic resonance) a cystic image with intestinal volvulus was observed. The patient underwent laparotomy, Ladd's procedure was done and the cyst was resected. In conclusion, if a patient is admitted with abdominal pain and obstructive symptoms, it is important to consider duplication of the alimentary tract as a possible diagnosis.

  15. Report of a new syndrome: focus on differential diagnosis and review of Ellis-van Creveld, Curry-Hall, acrofacial dysostosis, and orofacial digital syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Setty, Suhas; Sivakumar, A; Pai, Keerthilatha M

    2007-05-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) and Curry-Hall (CH) syndromes are rare syndromes that occur due to mutations of genes mapped to the chromosome 4p16 region. Hence, they both have few features that are common. The dental literature describing the oral manifestations and etiology of both syndromes is scarce. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who appeared with features that are common to both syndromes, as well as with other features such as reduced cranial base flexure and toes of equal length with skeletal changes that have not been mentioned or described in earlier reports. The patient possibly represents a new syndromic entity that has not been reported until now. Further, we present a review of various other similar syndromes, such as various types of orofacial digital (OFD) syndrome and acrofacial dysostosis.

  16. Differential Prognostic Impact on Mortality of Myocardial Infarction Compared With Bleeding Severity in Contemporary Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Caneiro-Queija, Berenice; Abu-Assi, Emad; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Manzano-Fernández, Sergio; Flores Blanco, Pedro; López-Cuenca, Ángel; Cobas-Paz, Rafael; Gómez-Molina, Miriam; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Manuel; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco; Valdés-Chávarri, Mariano; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2018-04-12

    The impact on mortality of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with the specific degree of bleeding severity occurring after discharge in acute coronary syndrome is poorly characterized. Defining this relationship may help to achieve a favorable therapeutic risk-benefit balance. Using Cox-based shared frailty models, we assessed the relationship between mortality and postdischarge MI and bleeding severity-graded according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC)-in 4229 acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing in-hospital coronary arteriography between January 2012 and December 2015. Both MI (HR, 5.8; 95%CI, 3.7-9.8) and bleeding (HR, 5.1; 95%CI, 3.6-7.7) were associated with mortality. Myocardial infarction had a stronger impact on mortality than BARC type 2 and 3a bleedings: (RRr, 3.8 and 1.9; P < .05), respectively, but was equivalent to BARC type 3b (RRr, 0.9; P = .88). Mortality risk after MI was significantly lower than after BARC type 3c bleeding (RRr, 0.25; P < .001). Mortality was higher after an MI in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) at the time of the event (HR, 2.9; 95%CI, 1.8-4.5) than in those off-DAPT (HR, 1.5; 95%CI, 0.7-3.4). In contrast, mortality was lower after a bleeding event in patients on-DAPT (HR, 1.6; 95%CI, 1.1-2.6) than in those off-DAPT (HR, 3.2; 95%CI, 1.7-5.8). The differential effect on mortality of a postdischarge MI vs bleeding largely depends on bleeding severity. The DAPT status at the time of MI or bleeding is a modifier of subsequent mortality risk. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Appendicitis, Somatosensory Disturbances ("Head Zones"), and the Differential Diagnosis of Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES).

    PubMed

    Roumen, Rudi M H; Vening, Wouter; Wouda, Rosanne; Scheltinga, Marc M

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a neuropathic abdominal wall pain syndrome typically characterized by locally altered skin sensations. On the other hand, visceral disease may also be associated with similar painful and altered skin sensations ("Head zones"). Aim of the study was to determine if patients with acute appendicitis demonstrated somatosensory disturbances in the corresponding right lower quadrant Head zone. The presence of somatosensory disturbances such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, altered cool perception, or positive pinch test was determined in 100 patients before and after an appendectomy. Potential associations between altered skin sensations and various items including age, sex, history, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count, and type of appendicopathy (normal, inflamed, necrotic, or perforated) were assessed. A total of 39 patients demonstrated at least one right lower abdominal quadrant skin somatosensory disturbance before the laparoscopic appendectomy. However, locoregional skin sensation normalized in all but 2 patients 2 weeks postoperatively. No differences were found concerning patient characteristics or type of appendicopathy between populations with or without altered lower abdominal skin sensations. A substantial portion of patients with acute appendicitis demonstrate right lower abdominal somatosensory disturbances that are similar as observed in acute ACNES. Both may be different sides of the same coin and are possibly expressions of segmental phenomena as described by Head. McBurney's point, a landmark area of maximum pain in acute appendicitis, is possibly a trigger point within a Head zone. Differentiating acute appendicitis from acute ACNES is extremely difficult, but imaging and observation may aid in the diagnostic process.

  18. Duplication methods for replacement of broken orthoses.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, R L; Gastwirth, B W; O'Connor, K J; Bloom, J

    1988-04-01

    The methods presented for replacement of broken orthoses have proved very effective (Fig. 9). In more than 5 years of employing such duplication techniques, we have found patient satisfaction in the product to be commensurate with that for their originally prescribed devices. The techniques presented are not the only methods by which orthoses can be duplicated. We recognize that the clinician should refabricate the same orthosis only when the cause of breakage has been determined to be material fatigue or stress. Should the patient's weight, foot structure, or activities have changed, new orthoses should be fabricated with those factors in mind.

  19. The differential effects of Autism and Down's syndrome on sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Stokes, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Although sexuality plays a major role in the socialization of people, few studies have examined the sexual behaviors of individuals with developmental disabilities. Because of this, we decided to investigate sexuality in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (Ds) and to compare them with typically developing adolescents, by surveying their parents. Specifically, it was hypothesized that young people with ASD would display lower levels over five domains: social behavior, privacy, sex education, sexual behavior, and parental concerns, than peers with Ds and typically developing young people. In addition, we sought to verify developmental trends in five domains with age for each group. Overall, 269 parents participated; 94 parents of typically developing adolescents, 93 parents of adolescents diagnosed with Ds, and 82 parents of adolescents diagnosed with ASD. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Behavior Scale developed by Stokes and Kaur [] that assesses parents' reports of their child's: social behavior, privacy awareness, sex education, sexual behavior and parental concerns about the child's behaviors. It was found that three groups were significantly different on all five domains, adolescents with ASD reportedly displaying lower levels than other groups. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in knowledge of privacy and parental concerns with age for adolescents with ASD and a decline in sex education for adolescents with Ds. The results obtained emphasize the need to train adolescents with developmental disability, and especially for adolescents with ASD through sex education programs. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Experimental study of the embryogenesis of gastrointestinal duplication and enteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Emura, Takaki; Hashizume, Kohei; Asashima, Makoto

    2003-05-01

    The theory of gastrointestinal duplication and enteric cyst embryogenesis was verified by examining the developmental process of this experimentally induced anomaly. In Cynopus pyrrhogaster (amphibian) embryos (stage 18), the dorsal midline structures (including the neural plate and notochord) were split regionally to induce partial separation of the notochord and gut anlage endoderm herniation between the split elements of the notochord. Following this procedure, the embryonic development was traced morphologically and histologically. Control embryos were cultured without the procedure. Following the incubation and breeding period, gastrointestinal duplication and enteric cysts were observed with vertebral anomaly, spina bifida, split cord malformation and subcutaneous manifestations in the mature animals. The combination of anomalies that was observed in these experimental animals is consistent with that found in "split notochord syndrome." No abnormal morphology or histology was observed in the control group. The embryogenetic theory of gastrointestinal duplication and enteric cysts was thus verified by simulating the partial separation of the notochord, which induced split notochord syndrome in laboratory animals. The results indicate that gastrointestinal duplication and enteric cysts may arise through a process of herniation of the gut anlage endoderm between split elements of the notochord.

  1. The use of whole saliva in the differential diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sreebny, L M; Zhu, W X

    1996-04-01

    Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic, multisystem, autoimmune disorder. It is characterized by (1) generalized exocrine gland dysfunction, (2) serologic abnormalities, and (3) organ-system changes. Oral changes are a prominent feature of this disease. Among these are xerostomia and hypofunction of the salivary glands. Given the intimate relationship between SS and the salivary glands, it is reasonable to postulate that whole saliva (WS) contains the stigmata associated with the presence of this disease. But few studies have been conducted on this secretion. Indeed, WS has largely been neglected and ignored by physicians, dentists, and scientists. Objections to its use have included the fact that it is "impure", that it does not adequately represent what is present in the salivary glands, that no standards have been established for its rate of flow, and that findings based on it lack specificity. Yet, it is this secretion which coats and protects the hard and soft oral tissues, enables us to prepare our food for digestion, and assists our speech. This review will demonstrate that there is a uniqueness and constancy to whole saliva and that it may be used to diagnose the presence of SS. "Screening tests", which include several simple-to-perform sialometric, chemical, and microbiologic procedures, may be conducted in doctors' offices to establish the "profile" of an SS patient. Electrophoretic studies may be used to study the nature of the salivary proteins, and an immunologic test, which is performed on WS and utilizes Western Blot Autoantibody Strips (ImmunoVision, Springdale, AR), may be used to establish the definitive diagnosis of SS.

  2. Risk factors differentiating mild/moderate from severe meconium aspiration syndrome in meconium-stained neonates

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woneui; Jeong, Heejeong; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Jung-Sun; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the risk factors associated with mild/moderate meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) with those associated with severe in meconium-stained term neonates. Methods Consecutive singleton term neonates (n=671) with meconium staining at birth from all deliveries (n=14,666) in our institution from January 2006 to December 2012 were included. Both maternal and neonatal variables were examined. Among the study population, for women who underwent the trial of labor (n=644), variables associated with labor were also examined. These variables were compared between the mild/moderate MAS group, the severe MAS group, and the MAS-absent group. Results MAS developed in 10.6% (71/671) of neonates with meconium staining at birth. Among the neonates with MAS, 81.7% had mild MAS, 5.6% had moderate MAS, and 12.7% had severe MAS. The presence of minimal variability was significantly increased in both the mild/moderate and the severe MAS groups. The frequencies of nulliparity, fetal tachycardia, and intrapartum fever were significantly increased in the mild/moderate MAS group, but not in the severe MAS group. While a longer duration of the second stage of labor was significantly associated with mild/moderate MAS, severe MAS was associated with a shorter duration of the second stage. Notably, low mean cord pH (7.165 [6.850-7.375]) was significantly associated with mild/moderate MAS, but not with severe MAS (7.220 [7.021-7.407]) compared with the absence of MAS (7.268 [7.265-7.271]). Conclusion Our data suggest the development of severe MAS is not simply a linear extension of the same risk factors driving mild/moderate MAS. PMID:25629015

  3. "Liking" and "wanting" linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): hypothesizing differential responsivity in brain reward circuitry.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: "liking,"learning," and "wanting" [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or "wanting" hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily selfadministered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the "high" that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions.

  4. Alagille Syndrome Candidates for Liver Transplantation: Differentiation from End-Stage Biliary Atresia Using Preoperative CT.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sook Min; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Yoo, So-Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Kang, Ben; Choe, Yon Ho; Cho, Haeyon; Kim, Jung Sun

    2016-01-01

    To compare preoperative CT findings before liver transplantation between patients with Alagille syndrome (AGS) and those with end-stage biliary atresia (BA). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Eleven children with AGS (median age, 19.0 ± 13.0 months; male to female ratio, 3:8) and 109 children with end-stage BA (median age, 17.9 ± 25.8 months; male to female ratio, 37:72) who underwent abdomen CT as candidates for liver transplant were included. CT images were reviewed focusing on hepatic parenchymal changes, vascular changes, presence of focal lesions, and signs of portal hypertension. Hepatic parenchymal changes were present in 27% (3/11) of AGS patients and 100% (109/109) of end-stage BA patients (P < .001). The hepatic artery diameter was significantly smaller (1.9 mm versus 3.6 mm, P = 008), whereas portal vein diameter was larger (6.8 mm versus 5.0 mm, P < .001) in patients with AGS compared with patients with end-stage BA. No focal lesion was seen in patients with AGS, whereas 44% (48/109) of patients with end-stage BA had intrahepatic biliary cysts (39%, 43/109) and hepatic tumors (8%, 9/109) (P = .008). Splenomegaly was commonly seen in both groups (P = .082), and ascites (9% [1/11] versus 50% [54/109], P = .010) and gastroesophageal varix (0% [0/11] versus 80% [87/109], P < .001) were less common in patients with AGS than in patients with end-stage BA. Fibrotic or cirrhotic changes of the liver, presence of focal lesions, and relevant portal hypertension were less common in patients with AGS than in patients with end-stage BA.

  5. Duplicate origin of the posterior communicating artery diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Akira; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2013-10-01

    Extremely rarely, a posterior communicating artery (PCoA) of "duplicate origin" occurs when two branches of the PCoA arise separately from the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and quickly fuse to form an arterial ring. Three such cases previously reported were described as "fenestration." We report the case of this rare variation diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography and discuss the differentiation of PCoA of duplicate origin from PCoA fenestration, supraclinoid ICA fenestration, and hyperplastic anterior choroidal artery.

  6. 40 CFR 710.55 - Duplicative reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duplicative reporting. 710.55 Section 710.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS Inventory Update Reporting for 2006 and Beyond § 710.55...

  7. 20 CFR 410.705 - Duplicate claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duplicate claims. 410.705 Section 410.705 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung...

  8. Differential effects of PER2 phosphorylation: molecular basis for the human familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS).

    PubMed

    Vanselow, Katja; Vanselow, Jens T; Westermark, Pål O; Reischl, Silke; Maier, Bert; Korte, Thomas; Herrmann, Andreas; Herzel, Hanspeter; Schlosser, Andreas; Kramer, Achim

    2006-10-01

    PERIOD (PER) proteins are central components within the mammalian circadian oscillator, and are believed to form a negative feedback complex that inhibits their own transcription at a particular circadian phase. Phosphorylation of PER proteins regulates their stability as well as their subcellular localization. In a systematic screen, we have identified 21 phosphorylated residues of mPER2 including Ser 659, which is mutated in patients suffering from familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS). When expressing FASPS-mutated mPER2 in oscillating fibroblasts, we can phenocopy the short period and advanced phase of FASPS patients' behavior. We show that phosphorylation at Ser 659 results in nuclear retention and stabilization of mPER2, whereas phosphorylation at other sites leads to mPER2 degradation. To conceptualize our findings, we use mathematical modeling and predict that differential PER phosphorylation events can result in opposite period phenotypes. Indeed, interference with specific aspects of mPER2 phosphorylation leads to either short or long periods in oscillating fibroblasts. This concept explains not only the FASPS phenotype, but also the effect of the tau mutation in hamster as well as the doubletime mutants (dbtS and dbtL ) in Drosophila.

  9. Follicular localization of growth differentiation factor 8 and its receptors in normal and polycystic ovary syndrome ovaries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-Ting; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Hu, Xiao-Ling; Leung, Peter C K; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2018-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and its etiology has not been characterized. Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that plays a critical role in the regulation of ovarian functions. However, the expression pattern of GDF8 in the human ovary is not yet clear. This study examined the cellular distribution of GDF8 and its putative cellular receptors (ACVR2A, ACVR2B, and ALK5) in a series of normal (n = 34) and PCOS ovaries (n = 14). The immunostaining of GDF8, ACVR2A, ACVR2B, and ALK5 was detected in the oocytes regardless of the developmental stage. All these proteins were localized in antral follicles in normal and PCOS ovaries, and the expression of these proteins increased with increasing follicle diameter. A significantly higher expression of GDF8 was detected in the granulosa cells than in the matched theca cells (TCs). These proteins were also localized in the luteal cells of the corpus luteum. Granulosa cells and TCs of large antral follicles in PCOS ovaries display a higher expression of these proteins. The higher expression levels of GDF8 and its functional receptors (ACVR2A, ACVR2B, and ALK5) in antral follicles of PCOS ovaries than those in normal ovaries suggest the possible involvement of dysregulated GDF8 in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  10. Validity of the Upper Limb Neurodynamic Test 1 for the diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The role of structural differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Gracia, Elena; Tricás-Moreno, José Miguel; Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo; Malo-Urriés, Miguel; Haddad-Garay, María; Estébanez-de-Miguel, Elena; Hidalgo-García, César; Krauss, John R

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have analysed the use of the Upper Limb Neurodynamic Test 1 (ULNT1) for diagnosing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) obtaining weak diagnostic accuracy, which could be related to the lack of consensus in the selected diagnostic criteria of ULNT1. To determine the concurrent validity of ULNT1 in comparison to Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS) for the diagnosis of CTS, considering the structural differentiation (SD) as an essential part of the diagnosis. Prospective diagnostic test study. Individuals with suspected CTS referred for NCS were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Each participant was tested with NCS and ULNT1. ULNT1 result was considered positive when the patient's clinical symptoms were reproduced during the test and symptoms changed during contralateral neck side bending (SD). 58 Participants (17 men, 44 women) with suspected CTS and a total of 95 limbs were examined using the NCS and ULNT1. Sensitivity of the ULNT1 was 57.9%, specificity was 84.2%, and the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.67 and 0.50 respectively. Results obtained in the study may indicate the ability of the ULNT1 to generate small shifts from pre-test to post-test probability. However, imprecision in the CIs limits interpretation from the data. 1b. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Does Differential Visual Exploration Contribute to Visual Memory Impairments in 22Q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostelmann, M.; Glaser, B.; Zaharia, A.; Eliez, S.; Schneider, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome characterised by a unique cognitive profile. Individuals with the syndrome present several non-verbal deficits, including visual memory impairments and atypical exploration of visual information. In this study, we seek to understand how visual attention may…

  12. Tissue transglutaminase contributes to the all-trans-retinoic acid-induced differentiation syndrome phenotype in the NB4 model of acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Csomós, Krisztián; Német, István; Fésüs, László; Balajthy, Zoltán

    2010-11-11

    Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) results in terminal differentiation of leukemic cells toward neutrophil granulocytes. Administration of ATRA leads to massive changes in gene expression, including down-regulation of cell proliferation-related genes and induction of genes involved in immune function. One of the most induced genes in APL NB4 cells is transglutaminase 2 (TG2). RNA interference-mediated stable silencing of TG2 in NB4 cells (TG2-KD NB4) coupled with whole genome microarray analysis revealed that TG2 is involved in the expression of a large number of ATRA-regulated genes. The affected genes participate in granulocyte functions, and their silencing lead to reduced adhesive, migratory, and phagocytic capacity of neutrophils and less superoxide production. The expression of genes related to cell-cycle control also changed, suggesting that TG2 regulates myeloid cell differentiation. CC chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL22, CCL24, and cytokines IL1B and IL8 involved in the development of differentiation syndrome are expressed at significantly lower level in TG2-KD NB4 than in wild-type NB4 cells upon ATRA treatment. Based on our results, we propose that reduced expression of TG2 in differentiating APL cells may suppress effector functions of neutrophil granulocytes and attenuate the ATRA-induced inflammatory phenotype of differentiation syndrome.

  13. De novo tandem duplication of chromosome segement 22q11-q12: Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Shaffer, L.G.; Carrozzo, R.

    We report on a case of duplication of the segment 22q11-q12 due to a de novo duplication. Molecular cytogenetics studies demonstrated this to be a tandem duplication, flanked proximally by the marker D22Z4, a centromeric alpha satellite DNA repeat, and distally by D22S260, an anonymous DNA marker proximal to the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint. The segment includes the regions responsible for the {open_quotes}cat-eye{close_quotes}, Di George, and velo-cardio-facial syndromes and extends distal to the breakpoint cluster region (BCR). The clinical picture is dominated by the cardiac defects and includes findings reminiscent of {open_quotes}cat-eye{close_quotes} syndrome. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that the proximalmore » 22q region contains dosage-sensitive genes involved in development. 20 refs., 3 figs.« less

  14. [Analysis of syndrome discipline of generalized anxiety disorder using data mining techniques].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-sheng; Sun, Wen-jun; Qu, Miao; Guo, Dong-fang

    2012-09-01

    To study the use of data mining techniques in analyzing the syndrome discipline of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). From August 1, 2009 to July 31, 2010, 705 patients with GAD in 10 hospitals of Beijing were investigated over one year. Data mining techniques, such as Bayes net and cluster analysis, were used to analyze the syndrome discipline of GAD. A total of 61 symptoms of GAD were screened out. By using Bayes net, nine syndromes of GAD were abstracted based on the symptoms. Eight syndromes were abstracted by cluster analysis. After screening for duplicate syndromes and combining the experts' experience and traditional Chinese medicine theory, six syndromes of GAD were defined. These included depressed liver qi transforming into fire, phlegm-heat harassing the heart, liver depression and spleen deficiency, heart-kidney non-interaction, dual deficiency of the heart and spleen, and kidney deficiency and liver yang hyperactivity. Based on the results, the draft of Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder was developed. Data mining techniques such as Bayes net and cluster analysis have certain future potential for establishing syndrome models and analyzing syndrome discipline, thus they are suitable for the research of syndrome differentiation.

  15. Reliable Multi-Label Learning via Conformal Predictor and Random Forest for Syndrome Differentiation of Chronic Fatigue in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huazhen; Liu, Xin; Lv, Bing; Yang, Fan; Hong, Yanzhu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic Fatigue (CF) still remains unclear about its etiology, pathophysiology, nomenclature and diagnostic criteria in the medical community. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adopts a unique diagnostic method, namely ‘bian zheng lun zhi’ or syndrome differentiation, to diagnose the CF with a set of syndrome factors, which can be regarded as the Multi-Label Learning (MLL) problem in the machine learning literature. To obtain an effective and reliable diagnostic tool, we use Conformal Predictor (CP), Random Forest (RF) and Problem Transformation method (PT) for the syndrome differentiation of CF. Methods and Materials In this work, using PT method, CP-RF is extended to handle MLL problem. CP-RF applies RF to measure the confidence level (p-value) of each label being the true label, and then selects multiple labels whose p-values are larger than the pre-defined significance level as the region prediction. In this paper, we compare the proposed CP-RF with typical CP-NBC(Naïve Bayes Classifier), CP-KNN(K-Nearest Neighbors) and ML-KNN on CF dataset, which consists of 736 cases. Specifically, 95 symptoms are used to identify CF, and four syndrome factors are employed in the syndrome differentiation, including ‘spleen deficiency’, ‘heart deficiency’, ‘liver stagnation’ and ‘qi deficiency’. The Results CP-RF demonstrates an outstanding performance beyond CP-NBC, CP-KNN and ML-KNN under the general metrics of subset accuracy, hamming loss, one-error, coverage, ranking loss and average precision. Furthermore, the performance of CP-RF remains steady at the large scale of confidence levels from 80% to 100%, which indicates its robustness to the threshold determination. In addition, the confidence evaluation provided by CP is valid and well-calibrated. Conclusion CP-RF not only offers outstanding performance but also provides valid confidence evaluation for the CF syndrome differentiation. It would be well applicable to TCM practitioners and

  16. Genetics Home Reference: 7q11.23 duplication syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with this condition have low-average to average intelligence. Intellectual disability or borderline intellectual ability occur in ... Rarely, people with this disorder have above-average intelligence. Behavioral problems associated with this condition include anxiety ...

  17. Chromosomal duplications in bacteria, fruit flies, and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lupski, J.R.; Weinstock, G.M.; Roth, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Tandem duplication of chromosomal segments has been recognized as a frequent mutational mechanism in several genetic model systems. In bacteria, fruit flies, and humans, duplications form by similar molecular mechanisms and appear to be important in genome evolution. 80 refs.

  18. Differential expression of immune factor between patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and the healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Xiao, Guang'an; Xu, Jian; Qin, Shengfei; Luo, Yuhua; Chen, Guanghua; Lai, H Henry; Zhou, Tie

    2018-03-01

    Immune mechanisms have been hypothesized to contribute to the development of CP/CPPS. In this study, we investigated the differential expression of immune factors between patients with CP/CPPS and healthy volunteers. This study was registered in Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. Healthy volunteers and patients with CP/CPPS were enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria for patients were below: (1) aged 18-45 years old; (2) prostatitis-related syndrome longer than 3 months; (3) normal routine urine culture and negative bacterial culture in prostatic fluid. Patients were further classified into two groups: types IIIA and IIIB CP/CPPS according to the results of EPS routine test. Serum immune markers include IgA, IgM, IgG, CD4 + and CD8 + . There are total 23 CP/CPPS patients, including 12 type IIIB and 11 type IIIA. Relatively, there are 26 healthy volunteers. The serum levels of IgG were higher in CP/CPPS patients compared to healthy volunteers (1141.2 ± 204.3 vs 1031.9 ± 173.7 mg/L, p = 0.045), while the serum levels of CD8 + were lower in CP/CPPS patients compared to healthy volunteers (492.8 ± 185.6 vs 640.0 ± 246.8 cells/μL, p = 0.021). Furthermore, serum levels of IgG were higher in patients with IIIA CP/CPPS compared to those with IIIB (1244.3 ± 151.6 vs 1054.3 ± 209.3 mg/L, p = 0.023). Differential levels of IgG and CD8 + between CPPS patients and healthy volunteers suggest a contributing role of immune mechanisms to the development of CP/CPPS; and IgG may play an important role in inflammatory CPPS. Clinical Study registration number ACTRN12613000792729.

  19. Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dariano, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.

  20. Performance of the 4-mg intravenous dexamethasone suppression test in differentiating Cushing disease from pseudo-Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nouvel, Migueline; Rabilloud, Muriel; Raverot, Véronique; Subtil, Fabien; Vouillarmet, Julien; Thivolet, Charles; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Pugeat, Michel; Raverot, Gérald

    2016-02-01

    Discriminating Cushing disease (CD) from pseudo-Cushing syndrome (PCS) is a challenging task that may be overcome with the 4-mg intravenous (IV) dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Assess the performance of the 4-mg IV DST in the differential diagnosis between CD and PCS in well-characterized patients. Retrospective comparative study of subjects seen in a tertiary care unit (November 2008 to July 2011). Thirty-six patients with PCS and 32 patients with CD underwent 4-mg IV dexamethasone infusions from 11 am to 3 pm. Areas Under ROC Curves (AUCs) were estimated and compared for ACTH and cortisol measured at 4 pm the same day (day 1) and 8 am the next day (day 2). The ROC curve of the marker with the highest AUC was used to determine the threshold with the highest specificity for 100% sensitivity. The AUC of ACTH at 8 am on day 2 was estimated at 98.4% (95% CI: [92.1-100]), which is significantly greater than that of ACTH at 4 pm on day 1 (P=0.04) and that of cortisol at 8 am on day 2 (P=0.05). For ACTH at 8 am on day 2, the threshold with the highest specificity for 100% sensitivity was estimated at 14.8 ng/L. At this threshold, the sensitivity was estimated at 100% [89-100] and the specificity at 83.3% [67-94]. The 4-mg IV DST is an easy and accurate tool in distinguishing CD from PCS. It deserves thus a better place in establishing the diagnosis of CD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring syndrome differentiation using non-negative matrix factorization and cluster analysis in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Younghee; Jung, Wonmo; Kim, Hyunho; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Kim, Min-Hee; Noh, Jiseong; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Choi, Inhwa

    2017-08-01

    Syndrome differentiation (SD) results in a diagnostic conclusion based on a cluster of concurrent symptoms and signs, including pulse form and tongue color. In Korea, there is a strong interest in the standardization of Traditional Medicine (TM). In order to standardize TM treatment, standardization of SD should be given priority. The aim of this study was to explore the SD, or symptom clusters, of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) using non-negative factorization methods and k-means clustering analysis. We screened 80 patients and enrolled 73 eligible patients. One TM dermatologist evaluated the symptoms/signs using an existing clinical dataset from patients with AD. This dataset was designed to collect 15 dermatologic and 18 systemic symptoms/signs associated with AD. Non-negative matrix factorization was used to decompose the original data into a matrix with three features and a weight matrix. The point of intersection of the three coordinates from each patient was placed in three-dimensional space. With five clusters, the silhouette score reached 0.484, and this was the best silhouette score obtained from two to nine clusters. Patients were clustered according to the varying severity of concurrent symptoms/signs. Through the distribution of the null hypothesis generated by 10,000 permutation tests, we found significant cluster-specific symptoms/signs from the confidence intervals in the upper and lower 2.5% of the distribution. Patients in each cluster showed differences in symptoms/signs and severity. In a clinical situation, SD and treatment are based on the practitioners' observations and clinical experience. SD, identified through informatics, can contribute to development of standardized, objective, and consistent SD for each disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Xq26.1-26.3 duplication including MOSPD1 and GPC3 identified in boy with short stature and double outlet right ventricle.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yukiko; Minami, Takaomi; Sato, Tomoyuki; Yokomizo, Akiko; Matsumoto, Auimi; Goto, Masahide; Jinbo, Eriko; Yamamgata, Takanori

    2017-09-01

    Xq25q26 duplication syndrome has been reported in individuals with clinical features such as short stature, intellectual disability, syndromic facial appearance, small hands and feet, and genital abnormalities. The symptoms are related to critical chromosome regions including Xq26.1-26.3. In this particular syndrome, no patient with congenital heart disease was previously reported. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy with typical symptoms of Xq25q26 duplication syndrome and double outlet right ventricle (DORV) with pulmonary atresia (PA). He had the common duplicated region of Xq25q26 duplication syndrome extending to the distal region including the MOSPD1 locus. MOSPD1 regulates transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) 2,3 and may be responsible for cardiac development including DORV. In the patient's lymphocytes, mRNA expression of TGFβ2 was lower than control, and might cause DORV as it does in TGFβ2-deficient mice. Therefore, MOSPD1 is a possible candidate gene for DORV, probably in combination with GPC3. Further studies of the combined functions of MOSPD1 and GPC3 are needed, and identification of additional patients with MOSPD1 and GPC3 duplication should be pursued. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparing genomes with rearrangements and segmental duplications.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mingfu; Moret, Bernard M E

    2015-06-15

    Large-scale evolutionary events such as genomic rearrange.ments and segmental duplications form an important part of the evolution of genomes and are widely studied from both biological and computational perspectives. A basic computational problem is to infer these events in the evolutionary history for given modern genomes, a task for which many algorithms have been proposed under various constraints. Algorithms that can handle both rearrangements and content-modifying events such as duplications and losses remain few and limited in their applicability. We study the comparison of two genomes under a model including general rearrangements (through double-cut-and-join) and segmental duplications. We formulate the comparison as an optimization problem and describe an exact algorithm to solve it by using an integer linear program. We also devise a sufficient condition and an efficient algorithm to identify optimal substructures, which can simplify the problem while preserving optimality. Using the optimal substructures with the integer linear program (ILP) formulation yields a practical and exact algorithm to solve the problem. We then apply our algorithm to assign in-paralogs and orthologs (a necessary step in handling duplications) and compare its performance with that of the state-of-the-art method MSOAR, using both simulations and real data. On simulated datasets, our method outperforms MSOAR by a significant margin, and on five well-annotated species, MSOAR achieves high accuracy, yet our method performs slightly better on each of the 10 pairwise comparisons. http://lcbb.epfl.ch/softwares/coser. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to...

  5. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to...

  6. Identifying duplicate content using statistically improbable phrases

    PubMed Central

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; George, Angela C.; Long, Tara C.; Skinner, Michael A.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Garner, Harold R.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Document similarity metrics such as PubMed's ‘Find related articles’ feature, which have been primarily used to identify studies with similar topics, can now also be used to detect duplicated or potentially plagiarized papers within literature reference databases. However, the CPU-intensive nature of document comparison has limited MEDLINE text similarity studies to the comparison of abstracts, which constitute only a small fraction of a publication's total text. Extending searches to include text archived by online search engines would drastically increase comparison ability. For large-scale studies, submitting short phrases encased in direct quotes to search engines for exact matches would be optimal for both individual queries and programmatic interfaces. We have derived a method of analyzing statistically improbable phrases (SIPs) for assistance in identifying duplicate content. Results: When applied to MEDLINE citations, this method substantially improves upon previous algorithms in the detection of duplication citations, yielding a precision and recall of 78.9% (versus 50.3% for eTBLAST) and 99.6% (versus 99.8% for eTBLAST), respectively. Availability: Similar citations identified by this work are freely accessible in the Déjà vu database, under the SIP discovery method category at http://dejavu.vbi.vt.edu/dejavu/ Contact: merrami@collin.edu PMID:20472545

  7. Recurrent acute pancreatitis secondary to a duodenal duplication cyst in an adult. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Liatsos, Christos; Kolios, Michail; Gourgiotis, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities that are most commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, the lesion can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. An extremely rare case of a previously healthy adult patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis, who was diagnosed with a duodenal duplication cyst is presented. At laparotomy, a duplication cyst measuring 4.8 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm was found adjacent to the ampulla of Vater. A partial cyst excision and marsupialization into the duodenal lumen was performed. The patient is healthy and asymptomatic four years after surgery. The present case illustrates the necessity of considering a duodenal duplication cyst in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatitis in previously healthy adults. PMID:19893770

  8. Recurrent acute pancreatitis secondary to a duodenal duplication cyst in an adult. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Liatsos, Christos; Kolios, Michail; Gourgiotis, Stavros

    2009-11-01

    Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities that are most commonly diagnosed in infancy and childhood. However, in rare cases, the lesion can remain asymptomatic until adulthood. An extremely rare case of a previously healthy adult patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis, who was diagnosed with a duodenal duplication cyst is presented. At laparotomy, a duplication cyst measuring 4.8 cm x 4 cm x 4 cm was found adjacent to the ampulla of Vater. A partial cyst excision and marsupialization into the duodenal lumen was performed. The patient is healthy and asymptomatic four years after surgery. The present case illustrates the necessity of considering a duodenal duplication cyst in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatitis in previously healthy adults.

  9. A report of two cases of Al-Awadi Raas-Rothschild syndrome (AARRS) supporting that "apparent" Phocomelia differentiates AARRS from Schinzel Phocomelia syndrome (SPS).

    PubMed

    AlQattan, Mohammad M; AlAbdulkareem, Ibrahim; Ballow, Mariam; Al Balwi, Mohammed

    2013-09-15

    Although there is a long list of syndromes with phocomelia, there are only two syndromes in which there is concurrent pelvic dysplasia and phocomelia: Al-Awadi-Raas-Rothschild syndrome (AARRS) and Schinzel phocomelia syndrome (SPS). Currently, there is a diagnostic confusion between the two syndromes and both have the same MIM entry (MIM 276820). We believe that the two syndromes are different entities and we also believe that the limb defect in SPS is a "true" phocomelia while the limb defect in AARRS is an "apparent" phocomelia. "Apparent" phocomelia describes the most severe form of ulnar ray deficiency in which there is absent ulna with radio-humeral synostosis. "Apparent" phocomelia is diagnosed radiologically by three radiological features: the apparently single bone occupying the arm/forearm appears relatively long, the area of radio-humeral synostosis will have thicker cortex with or without slight angulation, and the lower end of the bone resembles the lower end of a radius and not a humerus. In this paper, we present two new cases of AARRS from two different Saudi Arabian tribes: one case with R292C mutation of WNT7A with bilateral "apparent" phocomelia and a second case with a novel c.814G>T mutation of the WNT7A gene (resulting in wnt7a protein truncation at position 272) with unilateral "apparent" phocomelia. We reviewed previously reported cases of AARRS and SPS to further delineate the differences between these two syndromes. We make the argument that these two syndromes are two different entities and hence require two different MIM entries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential effects of saturated fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome: a matched case-control and meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Sin; Chen, Pei-Chun; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ju; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lee, Yuan-Teh; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the association between plasma saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of metabolic syndrome among ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan who attended a health check-up center. A case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control participants (mean age, 54.9 ± 10.7 y; 36% females) were recruited. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Gas chromatography was used to measure the distribution of fatty acids in plasma (% of total fatty acids). Even-chain SFAs, including 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0, were associated with metabolic syndrome; the adjusted odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] per standard deviation [SD] difference was 3.32, [1.98-5.59]; however, very-long-chain SFAs, including 20:0, 21:0, 22:0, 23:0, and 24:0, were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome. The adjusted OR [95% CI] per SD difference was 0.67 [0.58-0.78]. The area under the receiver operative characteristic curve increased from 0.814 in the basic model to 0.815 (p = 0.54, compared with the basic model), 0.818 (p < 0.0001), and 0.820 (p < 0.0001) after adding odd-chain, even-chain, and very-long chain SFAs. A meta-analysis based on 12 studies showed that the summarized OR for type 2 diabetes mellitus was 1.16 [0.96-1.41] for the top versus bottom SFAs. Different carbon numbers of SFAs have been shown to have differential effects on the status of metabolic syndrome, implying that SFAs are not homogenous for the effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bilateral striatal necrosis caused by ADAR mutations in two siblings with dystonia and freckles-like skin changes that should be differentiated from Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Mierzewska, Hanna; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Ciara, Elżbieta; Trubicka, Joanna; Pronicki, Maciej; Rokicki, Dariusz; Rydzanicz, Małgorzata; Płoski, Rafał; Pronicka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic molecular variants in the ADAR gene are a known cause of rare diseases, autosomal recessive Aicardi- Goutières syndrome type 6, severe infantile encephalopathy with intracranial calcifications and dominant dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria, demonstrated mainly in Asian adults. Recently, they have been also found in patients with nonsyndromic bilateral striatal necrosis accompanied by skin changes of the freckles-like type. Here, we present Polish siblings with acute onset and slowly progressive extrapyramidal syndrome with preserved intellectual abilities and basal ganglia changes found in MRI. A Leigh syndrome was considered for a long time as the most frequent cause of such lesions in children. Finally, two molecular variants in non-mitochondria-related ADAR gene c.3202+1G>A (p.?) and c.577C>G (p.Pro193Ala) were revealed by whole exome sequencing. We suggest that bilateral striatal necrosis should be always differentiated from LS to prevent the diagnosis delay. The striatal involvement accompanied by the presence of freckles-like skin changes should direct differential diagnosis to the ADAR gene mutations screening.

  12. Tubular duplication of the oesophagus presenting with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Saha, A K; Kundu, A K

    2014-06-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital malformations, with the ileum being the most commonly affected site, followed by the oesophagus. Among oesophageal duplications, cystic duplication is the most common and the tubular variety, the rarest. Herein, we report a rare case of tubular oesophageal duplication, complicated by adenosquamous carcinoma at the lower end of the oesophagus, in a 32-year-old man who presented with progressive dysphagia. Although proton pump inhibitors may relieve dysphagia, oesophagectomy and gastric interpositioning should be the first-line treatment for patients with tubular oesophageal duplication, in order to reduce the risk of malignant transformation at the lower end of the oesophagus.

  13. A Cross-Syndrome Study of the Differential Effects of Sleep on Declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays an active role in memory consolidation. Because children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) experience significant problems with sleep and also with learning, we predicted that sleep-dependent memory consolidation would be impaired in these children when compared to typically developing (TD) children. This is the first…

  14. Somatic mosaicism of an intragenic FANCB duplication in both fibroblast and peripheral blood cells observed in a Fanconi anemia patient leads to milder phenotype.

    PubMed

    Asur, Rajalakshmi S; Kimble, Danielle C; Lach, Francis P; Jung, Moonjung; Donovan, Frank X; Kamat, Aparna; Noonan, Raymond J; Thomas, James W; Park, Morgan; Chines, Peter; Vlachos, Adrianna; Auerbach, Arleen D; Smogorzewska, Agata; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C

    2018-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to cancer. Patients harboring X-linked FANCB pathogenic variants usually present with severe congenital malformations resembling VACTERL syndrome with hydrocephalus. We employed the diepoxybutane (DEB) test for FA diagnosis, arrayCGH for detection of duplication, targeted capture and next-gen sequencing for defining the duplication breakpoint, PacBio sequencing of full-length FANCB aberrant transcript, FANCD2 ubiquitination and foci formation assays for the evaluation of FANCB protein function by viral transduction of FANCB-null cells with lentiviral FANCB WT and mutant expression constructs, and droplet digital PCR for quantitation of the duplication in the genomic DNA and cDNA. We describe here an FA-B patient with a mild phenotype. The DEB diagnostic test for FA revealed somatic mosaicism. We identified a 9154 bp intragenic duplication in FANCB, covering the first coding exon 3 and the flanking regions. A four bp homology (GTAG) present at both ends of the breakpoint is consistent with microhomology-mediated duplication mechanism. The duplicated allele gives rise to an aberrant transcript containing exon 3 duplication, predicted to introduce a stop codon in FANCB protein (p.A319*). Duplication levels in the peripheral blood DNA declined from 93% to 7.9% in the span of eleven years. Moreover, the patient fibroblasts have shown 8% of wild-type (WT) allele and his carrier mother showed higher than expected levels of WT allele (79% vs. 50%) in peripheral blood, suggesting that the duplication was highly unstable. Unlike sequence point variants, intragenic duplications are difficult to precisely define, accurately quantify, and may be very unstable, challenging the proper diagnosis. The reversion of genomic duplication to the WT allele results in somatic mosaicism and may explain the relatively milder phenotype displayed by the FA

  15. Telotristat ethyl: proof of principle and the first oral agent in the management of well-differentiated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor and carcinoid syndrome diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Masab, Muhammad; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2017-12-01

    Metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are associated with carcinoid syndrome that is typically characterized by diarrhea, cutaneous flushing and bronchospasm. Treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSA) improves the symptom burden but a significant proportion of patients stop responding to SSA therapy eventually. Novel agents with the potential to effectively control the symptoms are urgently needed. This article reviews an in-depth analysis of the phase I-III clinical trials determining the clinical rationale for the use of tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, telotristat ethyl in patients with well-differentiated metastatic NETs and uncontrolled carcinoid syndrome. Telotristat ethyl has already been approved for the treatment of inadequately controlled carcinoid syndrome symptoms in metastatic NET patients on SSA therapy. Results from multiple phase I-III clinical studies of telotristat ethyl therapy have reported a significant decrease in the daily bowel movement frequency, increase in quality of life and the subsequent decrease in annual health costs related to carcinoid syndrome symptoms in NET patients. The associated decrease in urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA) provides evidence that telotristat ethyl effectively decreases serotonin production, and therefore, offers a rationale to investigate this agent to mitigate serotonin-mediated complications in this patient population, especially cardiac valvular disease or mesenteric fibrosis.

  16. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Differentiation of pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) from physiologic/non-neoplastic hypercortisolism (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Findling, James W; Raff, Hershel

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) usually implies the presence of a pathologic condition caused by either an ACTH-secreting neoplasm or autonomous cortisol secretion from a benign or malignant adrenal neoplasm. However, sustained or intermittent hypercortisolism may also accompany many medical disorders that stimulate physiologic/non-neoplastic activation of the HPA axis (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome); these two entities may share indistinguishable clinical and biochemical features. A thorough history and physical examination is often the best (and sometimes only) way to exclude pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism. The presence of alcoholism, renal failure, poorly controlled diabetes and severe neuropsychiatric disorders should always raise suspicion that the presence of hypercortisolism may be related to physiologic/non-neoplastic Cushing's syndrome. As late-night salivary cortisol and low-dose dexamethasone suppression have good sensitivity and negative predictive value, normal studies exclude Cushing's syndrome of any form. However, these tests have imperfect specificity and additional testing over time with clinical follow-up is often needed. When there is persistent diagnostic uncertainty, secondary tests such as the DDAVP stimulation test and the dexamethasone-CRH test may provide evidence for the presence or absence of an ACTH-secreting tumor. This review will define and characterize the numerous causes of physiologic/non-neoplastic hypercortisolism and provide a rational clinical and biochemical approach to distinguish it from pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism (true Cushing's syndrome). © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Altered neuronal network and rescue in a human MECP2 duplication model

    PubMed Central

    Nageshappa, Savitha; Carromeu, Cassiano; Trujillo, Cleber A.; Mesci, Pinar; Espuny-Camacho, Ira; Pasciuto, Emanuela; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Verfaillie, Catherine; Raitano, Susanna; Kumar, Anujith; Carvalho, Claudia M.B.; Bagni, Claudia; Ramocki, Melissa B.; Araujo, Bruno H. S.; Torres, Laila B.; Lupski, James R.; Van Esch, Hilde; Muotri, Alysson R.

    2015-01-01

    Increased dosage of MeCP2 results in a dramatic neurodevelopmental phenotype with onset at birth. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from patients with the MECP2 duplication syndrome (MECP2dup), carrying different duplication sizes, to study the impact of increased MeCP2 dosage in human neurons. We show that cortical neurons derived from these different MECP2dup iPSC lines have increase synaptogenesis and dendritic complexity. Additionally, using multi-electrodes arrays, we show that neuronal network synchronization was altered in MECP2dup-derived neurons. Given MeCP2 function at the epigenetic level, we tested if these alterations were reversible using a library of compounds with defined activity on epigenetic pathways. One histone deacetylase inhibitor, NCH-51, was validated as a potential clinical candidate. Interestingly, this compound has never been considered before as a therapeutic alternative for neurological disorders. Our model recapitulates early stages of the human MECP2 duplication syndrome and represents a promising cellular tool to facilitate therapeutic drug screening for severe neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26347316

  18. The circadian clock of teleost fish: a comparative analysis reveals distinct fates for duplicated genes.

    PubMed

    Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Arroyo, José Ignacio; Opazo, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a central oscillator that coordinates endogenous rhythms. Members of six gene families underlie the metabolic machinery of this system. Although this machinery appears to correspond to a highly conserved genetic system in metazoans, it has been recognized that vertebrates possess a more diverse gene inventory than that of non-vertebrates. This difference could have originated in the two successive rounds of whole-genome duplications that took place in the common ancestor of the group. Teleost fish underwent an extra event of whole-genome duplication, which is thought to have provided an abundance of raw genetic material for the biological innovations that facilitated the radiation of the group. In this study, we assessed the relative contributions of whole-genome duplication and small-scale gene duplication to generate the repertoire of genes associated with the circadian clock of teleost fish. To achieve this goal, we annotated genes from six gene families associated with the circadian clock in eight teleost fish species, and we reconstructed their evolutionary history by inferring phylogenetic relationships. Our comparative analysis indicated that teleost species possess a variable repertoire of genes related to the circadian clock gene families and that the actual diversity of these genes has been shaped by a variety of phenomena, such as the complete deletion of ohnologs, the differential retention of genes, and lineage-specific gene duplications. From a functional perspective, the subfunctionalization of two ohnolog genes (PER1a and PER1b) in zebrafish highlights the power of whole-genome duplications to generate biological diversity.

  19. A Review of Donnai-Barrow and Facio-oculo-acoustico-renal (DB/FOAR) Syndrome: Clinical Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pober, Barbara R.; Longoni, Mauro; Noonan, Kristin M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the gene LRP2 have recently been identified as the cause of Donnai-Barrow and Facio-oculo-acoustico-renal (DB/FOAR) syndrome. More than two dozen cases, the first reported more than 30 years ago by Holmes, have been published. Summarizing available information, we highlight the cardinal features of the disorder found in ≥90% of published cases. These features include: agenesis of the corpus callosum, developmental delay, enlarged anterior fontanelle, high myopia, hypertelorism, proteinuria, and sensorineural hearing loss. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and omphalocele are reported in only half of the patients. There is no evidence for genotype-phenotype correlation, though the sample size is too small to preclude this with certainty. Although several conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis are highlighted, the diagnosis of DB/FOAR syndrome should not be difficult to establish as its constellation of findings is strikingly characteristic. PMID:19089858

  20. B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia and cystinuria in a patient with duplication 22q11.21 detected by chromosomal microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Vivian Y; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Baldwin, Erin E; Woo, Kathy; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A; Fu, Cecilia; Gomperts, Brigitte N

    2011-03-01

    Duplication 22q11.2 syndrome is the result of a microduplication of the same chromosomal region that is deleted in DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes. We describe a patient with dysmorphic features who was diagnosed with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and developed cystinuria and pancreatitis during treatment. Duplication 22q11.2 has not been previously described in association with hematologic abnormalities. Chromosomal microarray technology was used to diagnose duplication 22q11.2 syndrome. In this era of advanced genomics, this technology has become an important method for helping to determine the molecular basis of diseases, best treatments and ultimately patient outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Differential DNA methylation at birth associated with mental disorder in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Starnawska, A; Hansen, C S; Sparsø, T; Mazin, W; Olsen, L; Bertalan, M; Buil, A; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J; Bækvad-Hansen, M; Hougaard, D M; Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, C B; Nyegaard, M; Werge, T; Weinsheimer, S

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of comorbid mental disorders including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, as well as intellectual disability. Although most 22q11.2 deletion carriers have the long 3-Mb form of the hemizygous deletion, there remains a large variation in the development and progression of psychiatric disorders, which suggests that alternative factors contribute to the pathogenesis. In this study we investigated whether neonatal DNA methylation signatures in individuals with the 22q11.2 deletion associate with mental disorder later in life. DNA methylation was measured genome-wide from neonatal dried blood spots in a cohort of 164 individuals with 22q11.2DS, including 48 individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Among several CpG sites with P-value<10−6, we identified cg23546855 (P-value=2.15 × 10−7) mapping to STK32C to be associated with a later psychiatric diagnosis. Pathway analysis of the top findings resulted in the identification of several Gene Ontology pathways to be significantly enriched (P-value<0.05 after Benjamini–Hochberg correction); among them are the following: neurogenesis, neuron development, neuron projection development, astrocyte development, axonogenesis and axon guidance. In addition, we identified differentially methylated CpG sites in LRP2BP (P-value=5.37 × 10−8) to be associated with intellectual disability (F70–79), in TOP1 (P-value=1.86 × 10−7) with behavioral disorders (F90–98), in NOSIP (P-value=5.12 × 10−8) with disorders of psychological development (F80–89) and in SEMA4B (P-value=4.02 × 10−7) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20–29). In conclusion, our study suggests an association of DNA methylation differences at birth with development of mental disorder later in life in 22q11.2DS individuals. PMID:28850114

  2. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiles of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells to explore the occurrence mechanisms of differentiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Fei; Cao, Fenglin; Li, Haitao; Wang, Ping; Xu, Mengyuan; Song, Peng; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Shuye; Li, Jinmei; Han, Xueying; Zhao, Yanhong; Su, Yanhua; Li, Yinghua; Fan, Shengjin; Li, Limin; Zhou, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of therapy-induced differentiation syndrome (DS) in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) remains unclear. In this study, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of peripheral blood APL cells from patients complicated with vs. without DS were integratively analyzed to explore the mechanisms underlying arsenic trioxide treatment-associated DS. By integrating the differentially expressed data with the data of differentially expressed microRNAs and their computationally predicted target genes, as well as the data of transcription factors and differentially expressed target microRNAs obtained from a literature search, a DS-related genetic regulatory network was constructed. Then using an EAGLE algorithm in clusterViz, the network was subdivided into 10 modules. Using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database the modules were annotated functionally, and three functionally active modules were recognized. The further in-depth analyses on the annotated functions of the three modules and the expression and roles of the related genes revealed that proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and infiltration capability of APL cells might play important roles in the DS pathogenesis. The results could improve our understanding of DS pathogenesis from a more overall perspective, and could provide new clues for future research. PMID:27634874

  3. Molecular evolution and patterns of duplication in the SEP/AGL6-like lineage of the Zingiberales: a proposed mechanism for floral diversification.

    PubMed

    Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M R; Morioka, Kelsie; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Specht, Chelsea D

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of floral forms in the plant order Zingiberales has evolved through alterations in floral organ morphology. One striking alteration is the shift from fertile, filamentous stamens to sterile, laminar (petaloid) organs in the stamen whorls, attributed to specific pollination syndromes. Here, we examine the role of the SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, known to be important in regulatory networks underlying floral development and organ identity, in the evolution of development of the diverse floral organs phenotypes in the Zingiberales. Phylogenetic analyses show that the SEP-like genes have undergone several duplication events giving rise to multiple copies. Selection tests on the SEP-like genes indicate that the two copies of SEP3 have mostly evolved under balancing selection, probably due to strong functional restrictions as a result of their critical role in floral organ specification. In contrast, the two LOFSEP copies have undergone differential positive selection, indicating neofunctionalization. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gene expression from RNA-seq data, and in situ hybridization analyses show that the recovered genes have differential expression patterns across the various whorls and organ types found in the Zingiberales. Our data also suggest that AGL6, sister to the SEP-like genes, may play an important role in stamen morphology in the Zingiberales. Thus, the SEP-like genes are likely to be involved in some of the unique morphogenetic patterns of floral organ development found among this diverse order of tropical monocots. This work contributes to a growing body of knowledge focused on understanding the role of gene duplications and the evolution of entire gene networks in the evolution of flower development.

  4. Duplication and expression of CYC2-like genes in the origin and maintenance of corolla zygomorphy in Lamiales.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jinshun; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Duplication, retention, and expression of CYCLOIDEA2 (CYC2)-like genes are thought to affect evolution of corolla symmetry. However, exactly what and how changes in CYC2-like genes correlate with the origin of corolla zygomorphy are poorly understood. We inferred and calibrated a densely sampled phylogeny of CYC2-like genes across the Lamiales and examined their expression in early diverging (EDL) and higher core clades (HCL). CYC2-like genes duplicated extensively in Lamiales, at least six times in core Lamiales (CL) around the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, and seven more in EDL relatively more recently. Nested duplications and losses of CYC2-like paralogs are pervasive but may not correlate with transitions in corolla symmetry. We found evidence for dN/dS (ω) variation following gene duplications. CYC2-like paralogs in HCL show differential expression with higher expression in adaxial petals. Asymmetric expression but not recurrent duplication of CYC2-like genes correlates with the origin of corolla zygomorphy. Changes in both cis-regulatory and coding domains of CYC2-like genes are probably crucial for the evolution of corolla zygomorphy. Multiple selection regimes appear likely to play important roles in gene retention. The parallel duplications of CYC2-like genes are after the initial diversification of bumble bees and Euglossine bees. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Comparing the effects of differential reinforcement of other behavior and response-cost contingencies on tics in youth with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Matthew R; Brandt, Bryan C; Ricketts, Emily J; Espil, Flint M; Woods, Douglas W

    2012-01-01

    Tics are rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations that arise from neurobiological dysfunction and are influenced by environmental factors. Although persons with tic disorders often experience aversive social reactions in response to tics, little is known about the behavioral effects of such consequences. Along several dimensions, the present study compared the effects of two treatments on tics: response cost (RC) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). Four children with Tourette syndrome were exposed to free-to-tic baseline, DRO, RC, and quasibaseline rebound evaluation conditions using an alternating treatments design. Both DRO and RC produced substantial decreases in tics from baseline levels. No differential effects of DRO and RC contingencies were seen on self-reported stress or in the strength of the reflexive motivating operation (i.e., premonitory urge) believed to trigger tics, and neither condition produced tic-rebound effects. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  6. COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF OTHER BEHAVIOR AND RESPONSE-COST CONTINGENCIES ON TICS IN YOUTH WITH TOURETTE SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Matthew R; Brandt, Bryan C; Ricketts, Emily J; Espil, Flint M; Woods, Douglas W

    2012-01-01

    Tics are rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations that arise from neurobiological dysfunction and are influenced by environmental factors. Although persons with tic disorders often experience aversive social reactions in response to tics, little is known about the behavioral effects of such consequences. Along several dimensions, the present study compared the effects of two treatments on tics: response cost (RC) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). Four children with Tourette syndrome were exposed to free-to-tic baseline, DRO, RC, and quasibaseline rebound evaluation conditions using an alternating treatments design. Both DRO and RC produced substantial decreases in tics from baseline levels. No differential effects of DRO and RC contingencies were seen on self-reported stress or in the strength of the reflexive motivating operation (i.e., premonitory urge) believed to trigger tics, and neither condition produced tic-rebound effects. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22844135

  7. Divergence of Gene Body DNA Methylation and Evolution of Plant Duplicate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that gene body DNA methylation is associated with gene expression. However, whether and how deviation of gene body DNA methylation between duplicate genes can influence their divergence remains largely unexplored. Here, we aim to elucidate the potential role of gene body DNA methylation in the fate of duplicate genes. We identified paralogous gene pairs from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) genomes and reprocessed their single-base resolution methylome data. We show that methylation in paralogous genes nonlinearly correlates with several gene properties including exon number/gene length, expression level and mutation rate. Further, we demonstrated that divergence of methylation level and pattern in paralogs indeed positively correlate with their sequence and expression divergences. This result held even after controlling for other confounding factors known to influence the divergence of paralogs. We observed that methylation level divergence might be more relevant to the expression divergence of paralogs than methylation pattern divergence. Finally, we explored the mechanisms that might give rise to the divergence of gene body methylation in paralogs. We found that exonic methylation divergence more closely correlates with expression divergence than intronic methylation divergence. We show that genomic environments (e.g., flanked by transposable elements and repetitive sequences) of paralogs generated by various duplication mechanisms are associated with the methylation divergence of paralogs. Overall, our results suggest that the changes in gene body DNA methylation could provide another avenue for duplicate genes to develop differential expression patterns and undergo different evolutionary fates in plant genomes. PMID:25310342

  8. The Down syndrome-related protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates p27Kip1 and Cyclin D1 and induces cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Soppa, Ulf; Schumacher, Julian; Florencio Ortiz, Victoria; Pasqualon, Tobias; Tejedor, Francisco J; Becker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental question in neurobiology is how the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors is maintained to ensure that the proper number of brain neurons is generated. Substantial evidence implicates DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) as a candidate gene responsible for altered neuronal development and brain abnormalities in Down syndrome. Recent findings support the hypothesis that DYRK1A is involved in cell cycle control. Nonetheless, how DYRK1A contributes to neuronal cell cycle regulation and thereby affects neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms by which DYRK1A affects cell cycle regulation and neuronal differentiation in a human cell model, mouse neurons, and mouse brain. Dependent on its kinase activity and correlated with the dosage of overexpression, DYRK1A blocked proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells within 24 h and arrested the cells in G1 phase. Sustained overexpression of DYRK1A induced G0 cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DYRK1A modulated protein stability of cell cycle-regulatory proteins. DYRK1A reduced cellular Cyclin D1 levels by phosphorylation on Thr286, which is known to induce proteasomal degradation. In addition, DYRK1A phosphorylated p27Kip1 on Ser10, resulting in protein stabilization. Inhibition of DYRK1A kinase activity reduced p27Kip1 Ser10 phosphorylation in cultured hippocampal neurons and in embryonic mouse brain. In aggregate, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which overexpression of DYRK1A may promote premature neuronal differentiation and contribute to altered brain development in Down syndrome. PMID:24806449

  9. Analysis of LMNB1 Duplications in Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy Provides Insights into Duplication Mechanisms and Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Giorgio, Elisa; Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Kropp, Laura; Chakka, Anish Baswanth; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Gregorio, Eleonora Di; Lacerenza, Daniela; Vaula, Giovanna; Talarico, Flavia; Mandich, Paola; Toro, Camilo; Pierre, Eleonore Eymard; Labauge, Pierre; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Vairo, Filippo Pinto; Miguel, Diego; Stubbolo, Danielle; Marques, Lourenco Charles; Gahl, William; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Melberg, Atle; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Cohen, Oren S; Pjontek, Rastislav; Grau, Armin; Klopstock, Thomas; Fogel, Brent; Meijer, Inge; Rouleau, Guy; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre L; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi; Vanderver, Adeline; Dahl, Niklas; Hobson, Grace; Brusco, Alfredo; Brussino, Alessandro; Padiath, Quasar Saleem

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is an adult onset demyelinating disorder that is caused by duplications of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene. However, as only a few cases have been analyzed in detail, the mechanisms underlying LMNB1 duplications are unclear. We report the detailed molecular analysis of the largest collection of ADLD families studied, to date. We have identified the minimal duplicated region necessary for the disease, defined all the duplication junctions at the nucleotide level and identified the first inverted LMNB1 duplication. We have demonstrated that the duplications are not recurrent; patients with identical duplications share the same haplotype, likely inherited from a common founder and that the duplications originated from intrachromosomal events. The duplication junction sequences indicated that nonhomologous end joining or replication-based mechanisms such fork stalling and template switching or microhomology-mediated break induced repair are likely to be involved. LMNB1 expression was increased in patients’ fibroblasts both at mRNA and protein levels and the three LMNB1 alleles in ADLD patients show equal expression, suggesting that regulatory regions are maintained within the rearranged segment. These results have allowed us to elucidate duplication mechanisms and provide insights into allele-specific LMNB1 expression levels. PMID:23649844

  10. Differential expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) on peripheral blood leucocytes from individuals with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Barrena, M J; Echaniz, P; Garcia-Serrano, C; Zubillaga, P; Cuadrado, E

    1992-01-01

    We analysed the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen LFA-1 on the cell surface of peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes from 20 children with Down's syndrome. No differences in LFA-1 expression was found within monocytes or granulocytes from either normal or Down's syndrome children; however, a clear-cut difference was observed on lymphoid cells. Both normal and Down's syndrome lymphocytes displayed a bimodal pattern of LFA-1 staining by flow cytometry, with a predominance of cells with low expression in normal population, and an increased proportion of lymphocytes with high level of LFA-1 expression in Down's syndrome children. This difference correlates well with the abnormal proportion of T cell subsets and inversion of CD4/CD8 observed in a majority of our cases, and therefore, it could merely reflect the increase of certain T cell subsets normally expressing higher number of LFA-1 molecules. Taken together, our results do not support an abnormally increased expression of leucocytes integrins in trisomy 21 cells, and raise some doubt about the suggested role of the abnormal cellular expression of LFA-1 in the pathogensis of secondary immunodeficiency associated to Down's syndrome. PMID:1348667

  11. A novel HRM assay for differentiating classical strains and highly pathogenic strains of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junying; Bingga, Gali; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Chunhong; Shen, Haiyan; Guo, Pengju; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    Differentiation of classical strains and highly pathogenic strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is crucial for effective vaccination programs and epidemiological studies. We used nested PCR and high resolution melting curve analysis with unlabeled probe to distinguish between the classical and the highly pathogenic strains of this virus. Two sets of primers and a 20 bp unlabeled probe were designed from the NSP3 gene. The unlabeled probe included two mutations specific for the classical and highly pathogenic strains of the virus. An additional primer set from the NSP2 gene of the highly pathogenic vaccine strain JXA1-R was used to detect its exclusive single nucleotide polymorphism. We tested 107 clinical samples, 21 clinical samples were positive for PRRSV (consistent with conventional PCR assay), among them four were positive for the classical strain with the remainder 17 for the highly pathogenic strain. Around 10 °C difference between probe melting temperatures showed the high discriminatory power of this method. Among highly pathogenic positive samples, three samples were determined as positive for JXA1-R vaccine-related strain with a 95% genotype confidence percentage. All these genotyping results using the high resolution melting curve assay were confirmed with DNA sequencing. This unlabeled probe method provides an alternative means to differentiate the classical strains from the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains rapidly and accurately. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A study of the quality of duplicated radiographs.

    PubMed

    Erales, F A; Manson-Hing, L R

    1979-01-01

    The resolution, contrast, and clinical appearance of radiographs and duplicate radiographs made with two types of duplicating film were compared. Duplicating conditions evaluated were type and shape of light, light-film distance, type of exposure surface, and developer temperature. Major observations were as follows: both Kodak and DuPont films produced clinically acceptable duplicates; Kodak film was faster; DuPont film responded better in incandescent photoflood light than Kodak film; clear glass with appropriate light-film distance was the best exposure surface.

  13. The Centrosome and Its Duplication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jingyan; Hagan, Iain M.; Glover, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The centrosome was discovered in the late 19th century when mitosis was first described. Long recognized as a key organelle of the spindle pole, its core component, the centriole, was realized more than 50 or so years later also to comprise the basal body of the cilium. Here, we chart the more recent acquisition of a molecular understanding of centrosome structure and function. The strategies for gaining such knowledge were quickly developed in the yeasts to decipher the structure and function of their distinctive spindle pole bodies. Only within the past decade have studies with model eukaryotes and cultured cells brought a similar degree of sophistication to our understanding of the centrosome duplication cycle and the multiple roles of this organelle and its component parts in cell division and signaling. Now as we begin to understand these functions in the context of development, the way is being opened up for studies of the roles of centrosomes in human disease. PMID:25646378

  14. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John; Riedel, Adric; Winters, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is primarily focused on targets where precise astrophysical information is sorely lacking: white dwarfs, red dwarfs, and subdwarfs. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Riedel's and Winters' theses.

  15. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John; Riedel, Adric; Winters, Jennifer

    2009-08-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is primarily focused on targets where precise astrophysical information is sorely lacking: white dwarfs, red dwarfs, and subdwarfs. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Riedel's and Winters' theses.

  16. Duplication of 7p: Further delineation of the phenotype and restriction of the critical region to the distal part of the short arm

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, O.; Berry, S.A.; King, R.A.

    We report on a patient with duplication of 7p15{r_arrow}pter and review of the literature. Patients with partial duplication of the distal 7p, including only the distal segment 7p15{r_arrow}pter, have a syndrome comparable to that of patients with a larger or complete duplication of 7p. This suggests that the critical region for the dup(7p) phenotype is restricted to 7p15{r_arrow}pter. The complete clinical phenotype of dup (7)(p15{r_arrow}pter) includes mental retardation, skull anomalies, large anterior fontanel, cardiovascular defects, joint dislocation and contraction, and gastrointestinal and genital defects. Recognition of the clinical spectrum in patients with a smaller duplication 7p, and the assignment ofmore » this critical region, should prove valuable for accurate counseling, prediction of outcome, and further gene mapping. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  17. Severe Expressive-Language Delay Related to Duplication of the Williams–Beuren Locus

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, Martin J.; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Young, Edwin J.; Seo, Eul-Ju; del Campo, Miguel; Bamforth, Stephen; Peregrine, Ella; Loo, Wayne; Lilley, Margaret; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; Morris, Colleen A.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Osborne, Lucy R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) locus, at 7q11.23, is prone to recurrent chromosomal rearrangements, including the microdeletion that causes WBS, a multisystem condition with characteristic cardiovascular, cognitive, and behavioral features. It is hypothesized that reciprocal duplications of the WBS interval should also occur, and here we present such a case description. The most striking phenotype was a severe delay in expressive speech, in contrast to the normal articulation and fluent expressive language observed in persons with WBS. Our results suggest that specific genes at 7q11.23 are exquisitely sensitive to dosage alterations that can influence human language and visuospatial capabilities. PMID:16236740

  18. Differential Relationships of Anxiety and Autism Symptoms on Social Skills in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisinger, Debra L.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    Social skills are critical for academic, social, and psychological success of children with both typical and atypical development. Boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are at high risk for social skill impairments, given intellectual impairments and secondary conditions. The present study examines the impact of adaptive behavior, autism symptoms,…

  19. Brief Report: Impaired Differentiation of Vegetative/Affective and Intentional Nonverbal Vocalizations in a Subject with Asperger Syndrome (AS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Riedel, Andreas; Ackermann, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The Asperger syndrome (AS) includes impaired recognition of other people's mental states. Since language-based diagnostic procedures may be confounded by cognitive-linguistic compensation strategies, nonverbal test materials were created, including human affective and vegetative sounds. Depending on video context, each sound could be interpreted…

  20. Persons with Quebec platelet disorder have a tandem duplication of PLAU, the urokinase plasminogen activator gene.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Andrew D; Rommens, Johanna M; Bharaj, Bhupinder; Blavignac, Jessica; Wong, Isidro; Diamandis, Maria; Waye, John S; Rivard, Georges E; Hayward, Catherine P M

    2010-02-11

    Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) is an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder linked to a region on chromosome 10 that includes PLAU, the urokinase plasminogen activator gene. QPD increases urokinase plasminogen activator mRNA levels, particularly during megakaryocyte differentiation, without altering expression of flanking genes. Because PLAU sequence changes were excluded as the cause of this bleeding disorder, we investigated whether the QPD mutation involved PLAU copy number variation. All 38 subjects with QPD had a direct tandem duplication of a 78-kb genomic segment that includes PLAU. This mutation was specific to QPD as it was not present in any unaffected family members (n = 114), unrelated French Canadians (n = 221), or other persons tested (n = 90). This new information on the genetic mutation will facilitate diagnostic testing for QPD and studies of its pathogenesis and prevalence. QPD is the first bleeding disorder to be associated with a gene duplication event and a PLAU mutation.

  1. Hypospadiac Duplication of Anterior Urethra-a Rare Congenital Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Bhawana; Gupta, Suresh; Goyal, Parag

    2017-02-01

    Duplication of the urethra is a complex and rarely seen congenital anomaly with three anatomic variants: epispadiac (dorsal), hypospadiac (ventral), and Y-type. We report here a case of hypospadiac duplication of anterior urethra with dorsal blind ending urethra in a 9-year-old boy who presented with complaint of passing urine from the ventral aspect of penis.

  2. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or other...

  3. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or other...

  4. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or other...

  5. Supervised Learning for Detection of Duplicates in Genomic Sequence Databases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingyu; Zobel, Justin; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Verspoor, Karin

    2016-01-01

    First identified as an issue in 1996, duplication in biological databases introduces redundancy and even leads to inconsistency when contradictory information appears. The amount of data makes purely manual de-duplication impractical, and existing automatic systems cannot detect duplicates as precisely as can experts. Supervised learning has the potential to address such problems by building automatic systems that learn from expert curation to detect duplicates precisely and efficiently. While machine learning is a mature approach in other duplicate detection contexts, it has seen only preliminary application in genomic sequence databases. We developed and evaluated a supervised duplicate detection method based on an expert curated dataset of duplicates, containing over one million pairs across five organisms derived from genomic sequence databases. We selected 22 features to represent distinct attributes of the database records, and developed a binary model and a multi-class model. Both models achieve promising performance; under cross-validation, the binary model had over 90% accuracy in each of the five organisms, while the multi-class model maintains high accuracy and is more robust in generalisation. We performed an ablation study to quantify the impact of different sequence record features, finding that features derived from meta-data, sequence identity, and alignment quality impact performance most strongly. The study demonstrates machine learning can be an effective additional tool for de-duplication of genomic sequence databases. All Data are available as described in the supplementary material.

  6. 29 CFR 1912.4 - Avoidance of duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of duplication. 1912.4 Section 1912.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.4 Avoidance of duplication. No...

  7. 29 CFR 1912.4 - Avoidance of duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Avoidance of duplication. 1912.4 Section 1912.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.4 Avoidance of duplication. No...

  8. Testing of duplicate rinse aliquots for presence of Salmonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Testing of chicken carcass rinses for Salmonella prevalence is often performed in duplicate because of the potential importance of the results, but anecdotal reports indicate that duplicate samples often disagree. This might be due to normal variation in microbiological methods or to the testing of...

  9. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or other...

  10. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or other...

  11. Hexon based PCRs combined with restriction enzyme analysis for rapid detection and differentiation of fowl adenoviruses and egg drop syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Raue, R; Hess, M

    1998-08-01

    Three different polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), two of them combined with restriction enzyme analysis (REA), were developed for detection and differentiation of all 12 fowl adenovirus (FAV) serotypes and the egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus. For primer construction FAV1, FAV10 and EDS virus hexon proteins were aligned and conserved and variable regions were determined. Two primer sets (H1/H2 and H3/H4) for single use were constructed which hybridize in three conserved regions of hexon genes. Each primer pair amplifies approximately half of the hexon gene including two loop regions. An amplification product was detected with both primer sets using purified DNA from all FAV1-12 reference strains. Viral EDS DNA was negative using the H1/H2 or H3/H4 primer pair. HaeII digestion of the H1/H2 amplification products differentiates between all viruses except FAV4 and FAV5. In comparison, much more clustering among genomic closely related FAV serotypes was seen after HpaII digestion of the H3/H4 PCR products. Oligonucleotides H5/H6 located in the variable regions of EDS virus hexon gene do not detect any of the FAV serotypes. The PCRs and REA described are suitable to detect all avian adenoviruses infecting chickens, to distinguish all 12 FAV reference strains and to differentiate FAVs from the EDS virus.

  12. Are duplicated genes responsible for anthracnose resistance in common bean?

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa Carvalho; Nalin, Rafael Storto; Ramalho, Magno Antonio Patto; de Souza, Elaine Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    The race 65 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, etiologic agent of anthracnose in common bean, is distributed worldwide, having great importance in breeding programs for anthracnose resistance. Several resistance alleles have been identified promoting resistance to this race. However, the variability that has been detected within race has made it difficult to obtain cultivars with durable resistance, because cultivars may have different reactions to each strain of race 65. Thus, this work aimed at studying the resistance inheritance of common bean lines to different strains of C. lindemuthianum, race 65. We used six C. lindemuthianum strains previously characterized as belonging to the race 65 through the international set of differential cultivars of anthracnose and nine commercial cultivars, adapted to the Brazilian growing conditions and with potential ability to discriminate the variability within this race. To obtain information on the resistance inheritance related to nine commercial cultivars to six strains of race 65, these cultivars were crossed two by two in all possible combinations, resulting in 36 hybrids. Segregation in the F2 generations revealed that the resistance to each strain is conditioned by two independent genes with the same function, suggesting that they are duplicated genes, where the dominant allele promotes resistance. These results indicate that the specificity between host resistance genes and pathogen avirulence genes is not limited to races, it also occurs within strains of the same race. Further research may be carried out in order to establish if the alleles identified in these cultivars are different from those described in the literature.

  13. Are duplicated genes responsible for anthracnose resistance in common bean?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The race 65 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, etiologic agent of anthracnose in common bean, is distributed worldwide, having great importance in breeding programs for anthracnose resistance. Several resistance alleles have been identified promoting resistance to this race. However, the variability that has been detected within race has made it difficult to obtain cultivars with durable resistance, because cultivars may have different reactions to each strain of race 65. Thus, this work aimed at studying the resistance inheritance of common bean lines to different strains of C. lindemuthianum, race 65. We used six C. lindemuthianum strains previously characterized as belonging to the race 65 through the international set of differential cultivars of anthracnose and nine commercial cultivars, adapted to the Brazilian growing conditions and with potential ability to discriminate the variability within this race. To obtain information on the resistance inheritance related to nine commercial cultivars to six strains of race 65, these cultivars were crossed two by two in all possible combinations, resulting in 36 hybrids. Segregation in the F2 generations revealed that the resistance to each strain is conditioned by two independent genes with the same function, suggesting that they are duplicated genes, where the dominant allele promotes resistance. These results indicate that the specificity between host resistance genes and pathogen avirulence genes is not limited to races, it also occurs within strains of the same race. Further research may be carried out in order to establish if the alleles identified in these cultivars are different from those described in the literature. PMID:28296933

  14. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Exercise training dose differentially alters muscle and heart capillary density and metabolic functions in an obese rat with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; da Conceição, Fabiana Gomes; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibirica, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Regular exercise is recommended as a non-pharmacological approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. However, the impact of different combinations of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise on metabolic syndrome and microvascular density has not been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide evidence on the impact of aerobic exercise dose on metabolic and microvascular alterations in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet. We found that the exercise frequency and duration were the main factors affecting anthropometric and metabolic parameters and microvascular density in the skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was related only to microvascular density in the heart. We evaluated the effect of the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a standard commercial diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or eight different exercise groups that varied according to the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, the body composition, aerobic capacity, haemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated. All the exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate and normalized fasting glucose. The minimal amount of exercise (90 min per week) produced little effect on metabolic syndrome parameters. A moderate amount of exercise (150 min per week) was required to reduce body weight and improve capillary density. However, only the high amount of exercise (300 min per week) significantly reduced the amount of body fat depots. The three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of exercise

  16. Identification of three duplicated Spin genes in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Mei, Jie; Sun, Min; Hong, Yun-Han; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2005-05-09

    Gene and genomic duplications are very important and frequent events in fish evolution, and the divergence of duplicated genes in sequences and functions is a focus of research on gene evolution. Here, we report the identification and characterization of three duplicated Spindlin (Spin) genes from medaka (Oryzias latipes): OlSpinA, OlSpinB, and OlSpinC. Molecular cloning, genomic DNA Blast analysis and phylogenetic relationship analysis demonstrated that the three duplicated OlSpin genes should belong to gene duplication. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed significant expression differences of the three OlSpins among different tissues and during embryogenesis in medaka, and suggested that sequence and functional divergence might have occurred in evolution among them.

  17. Atlantic salmon populations reveal adaptive divergence of immune related genes - a duplicated genome under selection.

    PubMed

    Kjærner-Semb, Erik; Ayllon, Fernando; Furmanek, Tomasz; Wennevik, Vidar; Dahle, Geir; Niemelä, Eero; Ozerov, Mikhail; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Kevin A; Rubin, Carl J; Wargelius, Anna; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-08-11

    Populations of Atlantic salmon display highly significant genetic differences with unresolved molecular basis. These differences may result from separate postglacial colonization patterns, diversifying natural selection and adaptation, or a combination. Adaptation could be influenced or even facilitated by the recent whole genome duplication in the salmonid lineage which resulted in a partly tetraploid species with duplicated genes and regions. In order to elucidate the genes and genomic regions underlying the genetic differences, we conducted a genome wide association study using whole genome resequencing data from eight populations from Northern and Southern Norway. From a total of ~4.5 million sequencing-derived SNPs, more than 10 % showed significant differentiation between populations from these two regions and ten selective sweeps on chromosomes 5, 10, 11, 13-15, 21, 24 and 25 were identified. These comprised 59 genes, of which 15 had one or more differentiated missense mutation. Our analysis showed that most sweeps have paralogous regions in the partially tetraploid genome, each lacking the high number of significant SNPs found in the sweeps. The most significant sweep was found on Chr 25 and carried several missense mutations in the antiviral mx genes, suggesting that these populations have experienced differing viral pressures. Interestingly the second most significant sweep, found on Chr 5, contains two genes involved in the NF-KB pathway (nkap and nkrf), which is also a known pathogen target that controls a large number of processes in animals. Our results show that natural selection acting on immune related genes has contributed to genetic divergence between salmon populations in Norway. The differences between populations may have been facilitated by the plasticity of the salmon genome. The observed signatures of selection in duplicated genomic regions suggest that the recently duplicated genome has provided raw material for evolutionary adaptation.

  18. Studies of malformation syndromes in man XXXX: multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome or variant familial developmental pattern; differential diagnosis and description of the McDonough syndrome (with XXY son from XY/XXY father).

    PubMed

    Neuhäuser, G; Opitz, J M

    1975-11-13

    The McDonough syndrome is a "new" MCA/MR syndrome which was found in 3 children (1 girl, 2 boys) of non-consanguineous parents. The affected children were mentally retarded (IQ 47--67) and had congenital heart defect, sternal deformity, kyphosis and craniofacila anomalies (anteverted auricles, upward slanted palpebral fissures, squint); cryptorchidism was present in the 2 boys. In addition a possible VFDP is postulated as the explanation for similar features in affected and unaffected siblings and parents. However, the McDonough syndrome may be an autosomal recessive trait with minor manifestations in heterozygotes. The klinefelter syndrome in one affected boy and a 46,XY/47,XXY chromosome constitution in the father was a coincidental finding.

  19. β2-microglobulin gene duplication in cetartiodactyla remains intact only in pigs and possibly confers selective advantage to the species.

    PubMed

    Le, Thong Minh; Le, Quy Van Chanh; Truong, Dung Minh; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Choi, Min-Kyeung; Cho, Hyesun; Chung, Hak-Jae; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Do, Jeong-Tae; Song, Hyuk; Park, Chankyu

    2017-01-01

    Several β2-microglobulin (B2M) -bound protein complexes undertake key roles in various immune system pathways, including the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) protein, non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and well-known MHC class I molecules. Therefore, the duplication of B2M may lead to an increase in the biological competence of organisms to the environment. Based on the pig genome assembly SSC10.2, a segmental duplication of ~45.5 kb, encoding the entire B2M protein, was identified in pig chromosome 1. Through experimental validation, we confirmed the functional duplication of the B2M gene with a completely identical coding sequence between two copies in pigs. Considering the importance of B2M in the immune system, we performed the phylogenetic analysis of B2M duplication in ten mammalian species, confirming the presence of B2M duplication in cetartioldactyls, like cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and whales, but non-cetartiodactyl species, like mice, cats, dogs, horses, and humans. The density of long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) at the edges of duplicated blocks (39 to 66%) was found to be 2 to 3-fold higher than the average (20.12%) of the pig genome, suggesting its role in the duplication event. The B2M mRNA expression level in pigs was 12.71 and 7.57 times (2-ΔΔCt values) higher than humans and mice, respectively. However, we were unable to experimentally demonstrate the difference in the level of B2M protein because species specific anti-B2M antibodies are not available. We reported, for the first time, the functional duplication of the B2M gene in animals. The identification of partially remaining duplicated B2M sequences in the genomes of only cetartiodactyls indicates that the event was lineage specific. B2M duplication could be beneficial to the immune system of pigs by increasing the availability of MHC class I light chain protein, B2M, to complex with the proteins encoded by the relatively large

  20. A Case of Duplicated Right Vertebral Artery.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Mayuko; Watanabe, Koichi; Tabira, Yoko; Iwanaga, Joe; Matsuuchi, Wakako; Yoshida, Daichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2018-04-27

    We encountered a case of duplicated right vertebral artery during an anatomical dissection course for medical students in 2015. Two vertebral arteries were found in the right neck of a 91-year-old female cadaver. The proximal leg of the arteries arose from the area between the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery that diverged from the brachiocephalic artery. The distal leg arose from the right subclavian artery as expected. The proximal leg entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra and the distal leg entered the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The two right vertebral arteries joined to form one artery just after the origin of the right vertebral artery of the brachiocephalic artery entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra. This artery then traveled up in the transverse foramina and became the basilar artery, joining with the left vertebral artery. We discuss the embryological origin of this case and review previously reported cases.

  1. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hatkopf, William I.; Raghavan, Deepak

    2008-02-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is an effort to address both their positive and negative aspects, through speckle interferometric observations, targeting ~1200 systems where useful information can be obtained with only a single additional observation. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Raghavan's Ph.D. thesis, which is a comprehensive survey aimed at determining the multiplicity fraction among solar-type stars.

  2. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Raghavan, Deepak

    2007-08-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is an effort to address both their positive and negative aspects, through speckle interferometric observations, targeting ~1200 systems where useful information can be obtained with only a single additional observation. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Raghavan's Ph.D. thesis, which is a comprehensive survey aimed at determining the multiplicity fraction among solar-type stars.

  3. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  4. Robust Duplication with Comparison Methods in Microcontrollers

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather Marie; Baker, Zachary Kent; Fairbanks, Thomas D.

    Commercial microprocessors could be useful computational platforms in space systems, as long as the risk is bound. Many spacecraft are computationally constrained because all of the computation is done on a single radiation-hardened microprocessor. It is possible that a commercial microprocessor could be used for configuration, monitoring and background tasks that are not mission critical. Most commercial microprocessors are affected by radiation, including single-event effects (SEEs) that could be destructive to the component or corrupt the data. Part screening can help designers avoid components with destructive failure modes, and mitigation can suppress data corruption. We have been experimenting with amore » method for masking radiation-induced faults through the software executing on the microprocessor. While triple-modular redundancy (TMR) techniques are very effective at masking faults in software, the increased amount of execution time to complete the computation is not desirable. Here in this article we present a technique for combining duplication with compare (DWC) with TMR that decreases observable errors by as much as 145 times with only a 2.35 time decrease in performance.« less

  5. Robust Duplication with Comparison Methods in Microcontrollers

    DOE PAGES

    Quinn, Heather Marie; Baker, Zachary Kent; Fairbanks, Thomas D.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Commercial microprocessors could be useful computational platforms in space systems, as long as the risk is bound. Many spacecraft are computationally constrained because all of the computation is done on a single radiation-hardened microprocessor. It is possible that a commercial microprocessor could be used for configuration, monitoring and background tasks that are not mission critical. Most commercial microprocessors are affected by radiation, including single-event effects (SEEs) that could be destructive to the component or corrupt the data. Part screening can help designers avoid components with destructive failure modes, and mitigation can suppress data corruption. We have been experimenting with amore » method for masking radiation-induced faults through the software executing on the microprocessor. While triple-modular redundancy (TMR) techniques are very effective at masking faults in software, the increased amount of execution time to complete the computation is not desirable. Here in this article we present a technique for combining duplication with compare (DWC) with TMR that decreases observable errors by as much as 145 times with only a 2.35 time decrease in performance.« less

  6. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome-Coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in elderly patients and parameters for their differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tochino, Yoshihiro; Asai, Kazuhisa; Shuto, Taichi; Hirata, Kazuto

    2017-03-01

    Japan is an aging society, and the number of elderly patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is consequently increasing, with an estimated incidence of approximately 5 million. In 2014, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was defined by a joint project of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) committee and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) committee. The main aims of this consensus-based document are to assist clinicians, especially those in primary care or nonpulmonary specialties. In this article, we discussed parameters to differentiate asthma and COPD in elderly patients and showed prevalence, clinical features and treatment of ACOS on the basis of the guidelines of GINA and GOLD. Furthermore, we showed also referral for specialized investigations.

  7. Generalized epilepsy syndromes and callosal thickness: Differential effects between patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and those with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulou, Stavroula; Kurth, Florian; Luders, Eileen; Savic, Ivanka

    2017-01-01

    The definition of two well-studied genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes (GGE) - juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone (GTCS) - suggests the absence of structural cerebral abnormalities. Nevertheless, there are various reports of such abnormalities (especially in JME), where effects mainly occur within thalamus and mesial prefrontal regions. This raises the question of whether JME is particularly linked to midline structure abnormalities, which may also involve the corpus callosum. We studied callosal morphology in a well-matched sample of 22 JME patients, 15 GTCS patients, and 42 controls (CTL) for all of whom we obtained T1-weighted data on a 3T MRI scanner. More specifically, we measured callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points across the callosal surface, and subsequently compared the three groups (JME, GTCS, and CTL) against each other. Significant differences between JME patients and controls were observed within the callosal genu, anterior midbody, and isthmus, with thinner regions in JME patients. There were no significant differences between GTCS patients and controls, and also not between JME patients and GTCS patients. The present outcomes point to callosal abnormalities in JME patients suggesting an impairment of interhemisperic communication between prefrontal, motor, parietal and temporal cortices. These findings further support the notion that structural aberrations are present and differentiated across GGE syndromes, with significant callosal deviations from normality in JME. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Koolen-de Vries syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Koolen-de Vries syndrome , has undergone an inversion . An inversion involves two breaks in a chromosome; the resulting ... lineage have no health problems related to the inversion. However, genetic material can be lost or duplicated ...

  9. Expression patterns of DLK1 and INSL3 identify stages of Leydig cell differentiation during normal development and in testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lottrup, G; Nielsen, J E; Maroun, L L; Møller, L M A; Yassin, M; Leffers, H; Skakkebæk, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-08-01

    What is the differentiation stage of human testicular interstitial cells, in particular Leydig cells (LC), within micronodules found in patients with infertility, testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome? The Leydig- and peritubular-cell populations in testes with dysgenesis contain an increased proportion of undifferentiated cells when compared with control samples, as demonstrated by increased delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) and decreased insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) expression. Normal LC function is essential for male development and reproduction. Signs of LC failure, including LC micronodules, are often observed in patients with reproductive disorders. In this retrospective study, a panel of markers and factors linked to the differentiation of LCs was investigated in 33 fetal and prepubertal human specimens and in 58 adult testis samples from patients with testicular germ cell tumours, including precursor carcinoma in situ (CIS), infertility or Klinefelter syndrome. The expression patterns of DLK1, INSL3, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor 2 (COUP-TFII), cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) were investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The percentage of positive LCs was estimated and correlated to total LC numbers and serum levels of reproductive hormones. DLK1, INSL3 and COUP-TFII expression changed during normal development and was linked to different stages of LC differentiation: DLK1 was expressed in all fetal LCs, but only in spindle-shaped progenitor cells and in a small subset of polygonal LCs in the normal adult testis; INSL3 was expressed in a subset of fetal LCs, but in the majority of adult LCs; and COUP-TFII was expressed in peritubular and mesenchymal stroma cells at all ages, in fetal LCs early in gestation and in a subset of adult LCs. CYP11A1 was expressed in the majority of LCs regardless of age and pathology and was the best general LC marker

  10. Differential Effects of Nebivolol and Metoprolol on Insulin Sensitivity and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor in the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Katie; Byrne, Loretta M.; DeMatteo, Anthony; Brown, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Early generation β-blockers lower blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular morality in coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure, but worsen glucose homeostasis and fibrinolytic balance. Nebivolol is a third-generation β-blocker which increases the bioavailability of nitric oxide. We compared the effect of nebivolol (5mg/d) and the β1-selective antagonist metoprolol (100mg/d) on glucose homeostasis and markers of fibrinolysis in 46 subjects with metabolic syndrome. Subjects underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test after 3-week washout and placebo treatment, and following randomized treatment with study drug. After 12-week treatment, nebivolol and metoprolol equivalently decreased systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Neither drug affected beta cell function, disposition index, or acute insulin response to glucose. Metoprolol significantly decreased the insulin sensitivity index. In contrast, nebivolol did not affect insulin sensitivity, and the decrease in sensitivity was significantly greater following metoprolol than nebivolol (-1.5±2.5 × 10-4 × min-1 per mU/L versus 0.04±2.19 × 10-4 × min-1 per mU/L after nebivolol, P=0.03). Circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor also increased following treatment with metoprolol (from 9.8±6.8 to 12.3±7.8 ng/mL), but not nebivolol (from 10.8±7.8 to 10.5±6.2 ng/mL, P=0.05 versus metoprolol). Metoprolol, but not nebivolol, increased F2-isoprostane concentrations. In summary, treatment with metoprolol decreased insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative stress and the antifibrinolytic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1in patients with metabolic syndrome, whereas nebivolol lacked detrimental metabolic effects. Large clinical trials are needed to compare effects of nebivolol and the β1 receptor antagonist metoprolol on clinical outcomes in patients with hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22353614

  11. Differential expression of the phthalate syndrome in male Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats after in utero DEHP exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone and insulin-like three hormones resulting in malformations of androgen- and insulin-like three-dependent tissues. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that gubernacular lesions would...

  12. Partial duplication of head--a rare congenital anomaly.

    PubMed

    Hemachandran, Manikkapurath; Radotra, Bishan Dass

    2004-10-01

    Duplication of notochord results in rare congenital anomalies like double headed monsters, with or without trunk/limb duplication, depending upon the extent of notochordal abnormality. Here we describe the morphological abnormalities in a case of partial duplication of cranial structures with fusion of the two. Autopsy findings suggest that the bifurcation of the neural tube took place around 4th to 6th week of gestation. There are only few reports in English literature describing the autopsy findings of such an anomaly, which is termed as Diprosopus triophthalmus in the modern literature.

  13. Methods, apparatus and system for selective duplication of subtasks

    DOEpatents

    Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Cher, Chen-Yong; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2016-03-29

    A method for selective duplication of subtasks in a high-performance computing system includes: monitoring a health status of one or more nodes in a high-performance computing system, where one or more subtasks of a parallel task execute on the one or more nodes; identifying one or more nodes as having a likelihood of failure which exceeds a first prescribed threshold; selectively duplicating the one or more subtasks that execute on the one or more nodes having a likelihood of failure which exceeds the first prescribed threshold; and notifying a messaging library that one or more subtasks were duplicated.

  14. Neonatal intestinal obstruction secondary to a small bowel duplication cyst

    PubMed Central

    Puralingegowda, Anil Kumar; Mohanty, Pankaj Kumar; Razak, Abdul; Nagesh N, Karthik; Chandrayya, Ramachandra

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old neonate developed abdominal distension and vomiting which subsided after conservative management. However, there was a recurrence of symptoms for which a lower gastrointestinal tract contrast study was performed. The infant had a filling defect in the area of the transverse colon. A CT scan was performed, showing a duplication cyst arising from the small bowel and indenting the transverse colon. Resection of the duplication cyst and end-to-end anastomosis of the bowel was performed. The duplication cyst was of tubular type, and a sealed perforation was noted in the cyst wall. PMID:25006055

  15. Brain stimulation over Broca’s area differentially modulates naming skills in neurotypical adults and individuals with Asperger’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Shirley; Agosta, Sara; Oberman, Lindsay; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we tested the hypothesis that, in subjects with Asperger’s syndrome (ASP), the dynamics of language-related regions might be abnormal, so that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over Broca’s area leads to differential behavioral effects as seen in neurotypical controls. We conducted a five-stimulation-site, double-blind, multiple crossover, pseudo-randomized, sham-controlled study in 10 individuals with ASP and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Object naming was assessed before and after low-frequency rTMS of the left pars opercularis, left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis and right pars triangularis, and sham stimulation, as guided stereotaxically by each individual’s brain magnetic resonance imaging. In ASP participants, naming improved after rTMS of the left pars triangularis as compared with sham stimulation, whereas rTMS of the adjacent left opercularis lengthened naming latency. In healthy subjects, stimulation of parts of Broca’s area did not lead to significant changes in naming skills, consistent with published data. Overall, these findings support our hypothesis of abnormal language neural network dynamics in individuals with ASP. From a methodological point of view, this work illustrates the use of rTMS to study the dynamics of brain–behavior relations by revealing the differential behavioral impact of non-invasive brain stimulation in a neuropsychiatric disorder. PMID:21676037

  16. SLC52A3, A Brown–Vialetto–van Laere syndrome candidate gene is essential for mouse development, but dispensable for motor neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Intoh, Atsushi; Suzuki, Naoki; Koszka, Kathryn; Eggan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is essential for cellular reduction-oxidation reactions, but is not readily synthesized by mammalian cells. It has been proposed that riboflavin absorption occurs through solute carrier family 52 members (SLC52) A1, A2 and A3. These transporters are also candidate genes for the childhood onset-neural degenerative syndrome Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere (BVVL). Although riboflavin is an essential nutrient, why mutations in its transporters result in a neural cell-specific disorder remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Slc52a3 is the mouse ortholog of SLC52A3 and show that Slc52a3 deficiency results in early embryonic lethality. Loss of mutant embryos was associated with both defects in placental formation and increased rates of apoptosis in embryonic cells. In contrast, Slc52a3 −/− embryonic stem cell lines could be readily established and differentiated into motor neurons, suggesting that this transporter is dispensable for neural differentiation and short-term maintenance. Consistent with this finding, examination of Slc52a3 gene products in adult tissues revealed expression in the testis and intestine but little or none in the brain and spinal cord. Our results suggest that BVVL patients with SCL52A3 mutations may be good candidates for riboflavin replacement therapy and suggests that either the mutations these individuals carry are hypomorphic, or that in these cases alternative transporters act during human embryogenesis to allow full-term development. PMID:26976849

  17. Functional characterization of duplicated Suppressor of Overexpression of Constans 1-like genes in petunia.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jill C; Jorgensen, Stacy A; Jha, Suryatapa G

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is strictly controlled by a combination of internal and external signals that match seed set with favorable environmental conditions. In the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), many of the genes underlying development and evolution of flowering have been discovered. However, much remains unknown about how conserved the flowering gene networks are in plants with different growth habits, gene duplication histories, and distributions. Here we functionally characterize three homologs of the flowering gene Suppressor Of Overexpression of Constans 1 (SOC1) in the short-lived perennial Petunia hybrida (petunia, Solanaceae). Similar to A. thaliana soc1 mutants, co-silencing of duplicated petunia SOC1-like genes results in late flowering. This phenotype is most severe when all three SOC1-like genes are silenced. Furthermore, expression levels of the SOC1-like genes Unshaven (UNS) and Floral Binding Protein 21 (FBP21), but not FBP28, are positively correlated with developmental age. In contrast to A. thaliana, petunia SOC1-like gene expression did not increase with longer photoperiods, and FBP28 transcripts were actually more abundant under short days. Despite evidence of functional redundancy, differential spatio-temporal expression data suggest that SOC1-like genes might fine-tune petunia flowering in response to photoperiod and developmental stage. This likely resulted from modification of SOC1-like gene regulatory elements following recent duplication, and is a possible mechanism to ensure flowering under both inductive and non-inductive photoperiods.

  18. Functional Characterization of Duplicated SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1-Like Genes in Petunia

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jill C.; Jorgensen, Stacy A.; Jha, Suryatapa G.

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is strictly controlled by a combination of internal and external signals that match seed set with favorable environmental conditions. In the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), many of the genes underlying development and evolution of flowering have been discovered. However, much remains unknown about how conserved the flowering gene networks are in plants with different growth habits, gene duplication histories, and distributions. Here we functionally characterize three homologs of the flowering gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in the short-lived perennial Petunia hybrida (petunia, Solanaceae). Similar to A. thaliana soc1 mutants, co-silencing of duplicated petunia SOC1-like genes results in late flowering. This phenotype is most severe when all three SOC1-like genes are silenced. Furthermore, expression levels of the SOC1-like genes UNSHAVEN (UNS) and FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN 21 (FBP21), but not FBP28, are positively correlated with developmental age. In contrast to A. thaliana, petunia SOC1-like gene expression did not increase with longer photoperiods, and FBP28 transcripts were actually more abundant under short days. Despite evidence of functional redundancy, differential spatio-temporal expression data suggest that SOC1-like genes might fine-tune petunia flowering in response to photoperiod and developmental stage. This likely resulted from modification of SOC1-like gene regulatory elements following recent duplication, and is a possible mechanism to ensure flowering under both inductive and non-inductive photoperiods. PMID:24787903

  19. Duplication and concerted evolution in a master sex determiner under balancing selection.

    PubMed

    Privman, Eyal; Wurm, Yannick; Keller, Laurent

    2013-05-07

    The transformer (tra) gene is a key regulator in the signalling hierarchy controlling all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila and other insects. Here, we show that six of the seven sequenced ants have two copies of tra. Surprisingly, the two paralogues are always more similar within species than among species. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that this pattern is owing to the ongoing concerted evolution after an ancestral duplication rather than independent duplications in each of the six species. In particular, there was strong support for inter-locus recombination between the paralogues of the ant Atta cephalotes. In the five species where the location of paralogues is known, they are adjacent to each other in four cases and separated by only few genes in the fifth case. Because there have been extensive genomic rearrangements in these lineages, this suggests selection acting to conserve their synteny. In three species, we also find a signature of positive selection in one of the paralogues. In three bee species where information is available, the tra gene is also duplicated, the copies are adjacent and in at least one species there was recombination between paralogues. These results suggest that concerted evolution plays an adaptive role in the evolution of this gene family.

  20. A duplicated PLP gene causing Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease detected by comparative multiplex PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Kawanishi, C.

    1996-07-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked dysmyelinating disorder caused by abnormalities in the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene, which is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelin formation. Although linkage analysis has shown the homogeneity at the PLP locus in patients with PMD, exonic mutations in the PLP gene have been identified in only 10% - 25% of all cases, which suggests the presence of other genetic aberrations, including gene duplication. In this study, we examined five families with PMD not carrying exonic mutations in PLP gene, using comparative multiplex PCR (CM-PCR) as a semiquantitative assay of gene dosage. PLP genemore » duplications were identified in four families by CM-PCR and confirmed in three families by densitometric RFLP analysis. Because a homologous myelin protein gene, PMP22, is duplicated in the majority of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A, PLP gene overdosage may be an important genetic abnormality in PMD and affect myelin formation. 38 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  1. Development and Initial Validation of the Macrophage Activation Syndrome/Primary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Score, a Diagnostic Tool that Differentiates Primary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis from Macrophage Activation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Francesca; Bovis, Francesca; Davì, Sergio; Insalaco, Antonella; Lehmberg, Kai; Shenoi, Susan; Weitzman, Sheila; Espada, Graciela; Gao, Yi-Jin; Anton, Jordi; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Sanner, Helga; Merino, Rosa; Astigarraga, Itziar; Alessio, Maria; Jeng, Michael; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav; Nichols, Kim E; Huasong, Zeng; Li, Caifeng; Micalizzi, Concetta; Ruperto, Nicolino; Martini, Alberto; Cron, Randy Q; Ravelli, Angelo; Horne, AnnaCarin

    2017-10-01

    To develop and validate a diagnostic score that assists in discriminating primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (pHLH) from macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) related to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic features of 362 patients with MAS and 258 patients with pHLH were collected in a multinational collaborative study. Eighty percent of the population was assessed to develop the score and the remaining 20% constituted the validation sample. Variables that entered the best fitted model of logistic regression were assigned a score, based on their statistical weight. The MAS/HLH (MH) score was made up with the individual scores of selected variables. The cutoff in the MH score that discriminated pHLH from MAS best was calculated by means of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Score performance was examined in both developmental and validation samples. Six variables composed the MH score: age at onset, neutrophil count, fibrinogen, splenomegaly, platelet count, and hemoglobin. The MH score ranged from 0 to 123, and its median value was 97 (1st-3rd quartile 75-123) and 12 (1st-3rd quartile 11-34) in pHLH and MAS, respectively. The probability of a diagnosis of pHLH ranged from <1% for a score of <11 to >99% for a score of  ≥123. A cutoff value of ≥60 revealed the best performance in discriminating pHLH from MAS. The MH score is a powerful tool that may aid practitioners to identify patients who are more likely to have pHLH and, thus, could be prioritized for functional and genetic testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Rare Variant of Wallenberg’s Syndrome: Opalski syndrome

    PubMed Central

    KK, Parathan; P, Chitrambalam; Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; N, Deepthi

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Medullary Syndrome (LMS) is a well-documented vascular syndrome of the posterior circulation territory. This syndrome is easily localised because of characteristic presentation, unique territory of blood supply and very small area of involvement. We present a case of Wallenberg’s syndrome which did not have all the classical components of the syndrome, like Horner’s syndrome. Opalski syndrome is a rare variant of Wallenberg syndrome, where lateral medullary syndrome is associated with ipsilateral hemiparesis. This case report highlights how differential involvement of the lateral part of medulla can result in varied presentation. PMID:25177595

  3. Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations disrupt an Orc1 CDK inhibitory domain and cause centrosome reduplication.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2012-08-15

    Like DNA replication, centrosomes are licensed to duplicate once per cell division cycle to ensure genetic stability. In addition to regulating DNA replication, the Orc1 subunit of the human origin recognition complex controls centriole and centrosome copy number. Here we report that Orc1 harbors a PACT centrosome-targeting domain and a separate domain that differentially inhibits the protein kinase activities of Cyclin E-CDK2 and Cyclin A-CDK2. A cyclin-binding motif (Cy motif) is required for Orc1 to bind Cyclin A and inhibit Cyclin A-CDK2 kinase activity but has no effect on Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase activity. In contrast, Orc1 inhibition of Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase activity occurs by a different mechanism that is affected by Orc1 mutations identified in Meier-Gorlin syndrome patients. The cyclin/CDK2 kinase inhibitory domain of Orc1, when tethered to the PACT domain, localizes to centrosomes and blocks centrosome reduplication. Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations that disrupt Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase inhibition also allow centrosome reduplication. Thus, Orc1 contains distinct domains that control centrosome copy number and DNA replication. We suggest that the Orc1 mutations present in some Meier-Gorlin syndrome patients contribute to the pronounced microcephaly and dwarfism observed in these individuals by altering centrosome duplication in addition to DNA replication defects.

  4. Molecular analyses of unrelated Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease patients suggest a high frequency of the CMT1A duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, C.A.; Davis, S.N.; Heju, Z.

    1993-10-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. One form of CMT, CMT type 1A, is characterized by uniformly decreased nerve conduction velocities, usually shows autosomal dominant inheritance, and is associated with a large submicroscopic duplication of the p11.2-p12 region of chromosome 17. A cohort of 75 unrelated patients diagnosed clinically with CMT and evaluated by electrophysiological methods were analyzed molecularly for the presence of the CMT1A DNA duplication. Three methodologies were used to assess the duplication: Measurement of dosage differences between RFLP alleles, analysis of polymorphic (GT)[sub n] repeats, and detection of a junction fragment by pulsed-fieldmore » gel electrophoresis. The CMT1A duplication was found in 68% of the 63 unrelated CMT patients with electrophysiological studies consistent with CMT type 1 (CMT1). The CMT1A duplication was detected as a de novo event in two CMT1 families. Twelve CMT patients who did not have decreased nerve conduction velocities consistent with a diagnosis of CMT type 2 (CMT2) were found not to have the CMT1A duplication. The most informative molecular method was the detection of the CMT1A duplication-specific junction fragment. Given the high frequency of the CMT1A duplication in CMT patients and the high frequency of new mutations, the authors conclude that a molecular test for the CMT1A DNA duplication is very useful in the differential diagnosis of patients with peripheral neuropathies. 61 refs., 4 figs.« less

  5. A cross-syndrome study of the differential effects of sleep on declarative memory consolidation in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2017-03-01

    Sleep plays an active role in memory consolidation. Because children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) experience significant problems with sleep and also with learning, we predicted that sleep-dependent memory consolidation would be impaired in these children when compared to typically developing (TD) children. This is the first study to provide a cross-syndrome comparison of sleep-dependent learning in school-aged children. Children with DS (n = 20) and WS (n = 22) and TD children (n = 33) were trained on the novel Animal Names task where they were taught pseudo-words as the personal names of ten farm and domestic animals, e.g. Basco the cat, with the aid of animal picture flashcards. They were retested following counterbalanced retention intervals of wake and sleep. Overall, TD children remembered significantly more words than both the DS and WS groups. In addition, their performance improved following night-time sleep, whereas performance over the wake retention interval remained stable, indicating an active role of sleep for memory consolidation. Task performance of children with DS did not significantly change following wake or sleep periods. However, children with DS who were initially trained in the morning continued to improve on the task at the following retests, so that performance on the final test was greater for children who had initially trained in the morning than those who trained in the evening. Children with WS improved on the task between training and the first retest, regardless of whether sleep or wake occurred during the retention interval. This suggests time-dependent rather than sleep-dependent learning in children with WS, or tiredness at the end of the first session and better performance once refreshed at the start of the second session, irrespective of the time of day. Contrary to expectations, sleep-dependent learning was not related to baseline level of performance. The findings have significant implications for

  6. The level of bone marrow WT1 message is a useful marker to differentiate myelodysplastic syndromes with low blast percentage from cytopenia due to other reasons.

    PubMed

    Baba, Maki; Hata, Tomoko; Tsushima, Hideki; Mori, Sayaka; Sasaki, Daisuke; Turuta, Kazuto; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Ando, Koji; Sawayama, Yasushi; Imanishi, Daisuke; Taguchi, Jun; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Tomonaga, Masao; Kamihira, Shimeru; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that transform to acute leukemia. Distinguishing MDS from other cytopenias is sometimes difficult even for trained hematologists. WT1, the gene mutated in Wilms' tumor, was found expressed in acute myeloid leukemia and MDS. The amount of WT1 in peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) is low in low-risk MDS subtypes, and is high in high-risk MDS subtypes. However, the role of WT1 in the differential diagnosis between MDS and other diseases showing cytopenia has not been fully addressed. The present study evaluated whether WT1 expression level can assist in the differential diagnosis of MDS from other cytopenias. The amount of WT1 message was evaluated among 56 MDS patients and 47 patients with cytopenia for various other reasons (cytopenia VR) at the Nagasaki University Hospital. The level of WT1 was significantly related to the percentage of blasts in BM among MDS cases, and the type of French-American-British classification of MDS; refractory anemia (RA) cases showed significantly lower WT1 level than patients with RA with excess blasts. WT1 level was significantly related to the prognostic risk categories of MDS by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS. Although the blast percentage in the BM of RA and cytopenia VR were both less than 5%, there was a significant difference in the level of WT1 between MDS and cytopenia VR. WT1 might be a good marker to differentiate low blast percentage MDS and cytopenia VR.

  7. Toward Personalized Medicine: Using Cardiomyocytes Differentiated From Urine-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells to Recapitulate Electrophysiological Characteristics of Type 2 Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jouni, Mariam; Si-Tayeb, Karim; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Latypova, Xenia; Champon, Benoite; Caillaud, Amandine; Rungoat, Anais; Charpentier, Flavien; Loussouarn, Gildas; Baró, Isabelle; Zibara, Kazem; Lemarchand, Patricia; Gaborit, Nathalie

    2015-09-01

    Human genetically inherited cardiac diseases have been studied mainly in heterologous systems or animal models, independent of patients' genetic backgrounds. Because sources of human cardiomyocytes (CMs) are extremely limited, the use of urine samples to generate induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs would be a noninvasive method to identify cardiac dysfunctions that lead to pathologies within patients' specific genetic backgrounds. The objective was to validate the use of CMs differentiated from urine-derived human induced pluripotent stem (UhiPS) cells as a new cellular model for studying patients' specific arrhythmia mechanisms. Cells obtained from urine samples of a patient with long QT syndrome who harbored the HERG A561P gene mutation and his asymptomatic noncarrier mother were reprogrammed using the episomal-based method. UhiPS cells were then differentiated into CMs using the matrix sandwich method.UhiPS-CMs showed proper expression of atrial and ventricular myofilament proteins and ion channels. They were electrically functional, with nodal-, atrial- and ventricular-like action potentials recorded using high-throughput optical and patch-clamp techniques. Comparison of HERG expression from the patient's UhiPS-CMs to the mother's UhiPS-CMs showed that the mutation led to a trafficking defect that resulted in reduced delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr). This phenotype gave rise to action potential prolongation and arrhythmias. UhiPS cells from patients carrying ion channel mutations can be used as novel tools to differentiate functional CMs that recapitulate cardiac arrhythmia phenotypes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Differential gene expression in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome patients with and without insulin resistance: identification of susceptibility gene sets through network analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Surleen; Archer, Kellie J; Devi, M Gouri; Kriplani, Alka; Strauss, Jerome F; Singh, Rita

    2012-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, genetically complex, endocrine disorder of uncertain etiology in women. Our aim was to compare the gene expression profiles in stimulated granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance vs. matched controls. This study included 12 normal ovulatory women (controls), 12 women with PCOS without evidence for insulin resistance (PCOS non-IR), and 16 women with insulin resistance (PCOS-IR) undergoing in vitro fertilization. Granulosa cell gene expression profiling was accomplished using Affymetrix Human Genome-U133 arrays. Differentially expressed genes were classified according to gene ontology using ingenuity pathway analysis tools. Microarray results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. A total of 211 genes were differentially expressed in PCOS non-IR and PCOS-IR granulosa cells (fold change≥1.5; P≤0.001) vs. matched controls. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation genes were significantly increased in PCOS-IR patients. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed higher expression of NCF2 (2.13-fold), TCF7L2 (1.92-fold), and SERPINA1 (5.35-fold). Increased expression of inflammation genes ITGAX (3.68-fold) and TAB2 (1.86-fold) was confirmed in PCOS non-IR. Different cardiometabolic disease genes were differentially expressed in the two groups. Decreased expression of CAV1 (-3.58-fold) in PCOS non-IR and SPARC (-1.88-fold) in PCOS-IR was confirmed. Differential expression of genes involved in TGF-β signaling (IGF2R, increased; and HAS2, decreased), and oxidative stress (TXNIP, increased) was confirmed in both groups. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes linked to diabetes mellitus, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and infertility in the granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance. Because these dysregulated genes are also involved in oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and insulin signaling, we hypothesize that these

  9. A Simulation Model for Purchasing Duplicate Copies in a Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, W. Y.; Walter, T. P.

    1974-01-01

    A method of estimating the number of duplicate copies of books needed based on a computer simulation which takes into account number of copies available, number of loans, total underlying demand, satisfaction level, percentage time on shelf. (LS)

  10. Obstetric significance of fetal craniofacial duplication. A case report.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; Pinto, M M; Heller, C I; Norooz, H

    1985-01-01

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twins. Whenever fetal hydrocephalus is diagnosed, a careful search for other anomalies, such as diprosopus, is mandatory. The obstetric management depends upon the time of the diagnosis.

  11. p53 protects against genome instability following centriole duplication failure

    PubMed Central

    Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Uetake, Yumi; Clutario, Kevin M.; Daggubati, Vikas; Snyder, Michael; Sluder, Greenfield

    2015-01-01

    Centriole function has been difficult to study because of a lack of specific tools that allow persistent and reversible centriole depletion. Here we combined gene targeting with an auxin-inducible degradation system to achieve rapid, titratable, and reversible control of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4), a master regulator of centriole biogenesis. Depletion of Plk4 led to a failure of centriole duplication that produced an irreversible cell cycle arrest within a few divisions. This arrest was not a result of a prolonged mitosis, chromosome segregation errors, or cytokinesis failure. Depleting p53 allowed cells that fail centriole duplication to proliferate indefinitely. Washout of auxin and restoration of endogenous Plk4 levels in cells that lack centrioles led to the penetrant formation of de novo centrioles that gained the ability to organize microtubules and duplicate. In summary, we uncover a p53-dependent surveillance mechanism that protects against genome instability by preventing cell growth after centriole duplication failure. PMID:26150389

  12. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  13. 7 CFR 701.211 - Prohibition on duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... funding under EFRP for land on which FSA determines that the participant has or will receive funding for... covers the same or similar expenses so as to create duplicate payments, or, have the effect of creating...

  14. 7 CFR 701.111 - Prohibition on duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eligible to receive funding under the ECP for land on which the participant has or will receive funding... same or similar expenses so as to create duplicate payments, or, in effect, a higher rate of cost share...

  15. 7 CFR 701.211 - Prohibition on duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... funding under EFRP for land on which FSA determines that the participant has or will receive funding for... covers the same or similar expenses so as to create duplicate payments, or, have the effect of creating...

  16. 7 CFR 701.111 - Prohibition on duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eligible to receive funding under the ECP for land on which the participant has or will receive funding... same or similar expenses so as to create duplicate payments, or, in effect, a higher rate of cost share...

  17. 30. Duplicate view of the south end of the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Duplicate view of the south end of the west wall with light illuminating the dirt floor and showing the condition of the brick masonry, with scale - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  18. 21. Duplicate view of the Tshaped chimney stack on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Duplicate view of the T-shaped chimney stack on the Kiskiack's north side, with the field supervisor and naval official in view - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  19. Genetics Home Reference: 16p11.2 duplication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marshall CR, Scherer SW. Phenotypic spectrum associated with de novo and inherited deletions and duplications at 16p11. ... ND, Thorleifsson G, Belfiore M, Bouquillon S, Campion D, de Leeuw N, de Vries BB, Esko T, Fernandez ...

  20. Perspective view of the Swiss Chalet to duplicate that seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Swiss Chalet to duplicate that seen in MD-1109-O-22; view looking from approximately the same vantage point - National Park Seminary, Swiss Chalet, 2802 Woodstock Avenue, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  1. Duplicate of the historic view showing the exterior of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Duplicate of the historic view showing the exterior of the library from approximately the same vantage point as MD-1109-Q-16 - National Park Seminary, Miller Library, 2801 Woodstock Avenue, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  2. Duplicate view to show interior of the gymnasium from approximately ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Duplicate view to show interior of the gymnasium from approximately the same vantage point as in MD-1109-S-12 - National Park Seminary, Gymnasium, North of Linden Lane, south of Aloha House, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  3. Duplicate of the historic view showing the interior, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Duplicate of the historic view showing the interior, looking from approximately the same vantage point as MD-1109-Q-18 - National Park Seminary, Miller Library, 2801 Woodstock Avenue, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. Duplicate laboratory test reduction using a clinical decision support tool.

    PubMed

    Procop, Gary W; Yerian, Lisa M; Wyllie, Robert; Harrison, A Marc; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice

    2014-05-01

    Duplicate laboratory tests that are unwarranted increase unnecessary phlebotomy, which contributes to iatrogenic anemia, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased health care costs. We employed a clinical decision support tool (CDST) to block unnecessary duplicate test orders during the computerized physician order entry (CPOE) process. We assessed laboratory cost savings after 2 years and searched for untoward patient events associated with this intervention. This CDST blocked 11,790 unnecessary duplicate test orders in these 2 years, which resulted in a cost savings of $183,586. There were no untoward effects reported associated with this intervention. The movement to CPOE affords real-time interaction between the laboratory and the physician through CDSTs that signal duplicate orders. These interactions save health care dollars and should also increase patient satisfaction and well-being.

  5. Sorting by Cuts, Joins, and Whole Chromosome Duplications.

    PubMed

    Zeira, Ron; Shamir, Ron

    2017-02-01

    Genome rearrangement problems have been extensively studied due to their importance in biology. Most studied models assumed a single copy per gene. However, in reality, duplicated genes are common, most notably in cancer. In this study, we make a step toward handling duplicated genes by considering a model that allows the atomic operations of cut, join, and whole chromosome duplication. Given two linear genomes, [Formula: see text] with one copy per gene and [Formula: see text] with two copies per gene, we give a linear time algorithm for computing a shortest sequence of operations transforming [Formula: see text] into [Formula: see text] such that all intermediate genomes are linear. We also show that computing an optimal sequence with fewest duplications is NP-hard.

  6. 44 CFR 206.191 - Duplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disaster relief agencies establish and follow policies and procedures to prevent and remedy duplication... disaster relief agencies and organizations provide assistance. The specific sequence, in accordance with..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Other Individual Assistance...

  7. 44 CFR 206.191 - Duplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disaster relief agencies establish and follow policies and procedures to prevent and remedy duplication... disaster relief agencies and organizations provide assistance. The specific sequence, in accordance with..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Other Individual Assistance...

  8. 44 CFR 206.191 - Duplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disaster relief agencies establish and follow policies and procedures to prevent and remedy duplication... disaster relief agencies and organizations provide assistance. The specific sequence, in accordance with..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Other Individual Assistance...

  9. 44 CFR 206.191 - Duplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disaster relief agencies establish and follow policies and procedures to prevent and remedy duplication... disaster relief agencies and organizations provide assistance. The specific sequence, in accordance with..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Other Individual Assistance...

  10. Diverse Cis-Regulatory Mechanisms Contribute to Expression Evolution of Tandem Gene Duplicates

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin-Gonzalez, Luís; Santos, Marília A; Tempesta, Camille; Sucena, Élio; Roch, Fernando; Tanaka, Kohtaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pairs of duplicated genes generally display a combination of conserved expression patterns inherited from their unduplicated ancestor and newly acquired domains. However, how the cis-regulatory architecture of duplicated loci evolves to produce these expression patterns is poorly understood. We have directly examined the gene-regulatory evolution of two tandem duplicates, the Drosophila Ly6 genes CG9336 and CG9338, which arose at the base of the drosophilids between 40 and 60 Ma. Comparing the expression patterns of the two paralogs in four Drosophila species with that of the unduplicated ortholog in the tephritid Ceratitis capitata, we show that they diverged from each other as well as from the unduplicated ortholog. Moreover, the expression divergence appears to have occurred close to the duplication event and also more recently in a lineage-specific manner. The comparison of the tissue-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) controlling the paralog expression in the four Drosophila species indicates that diverse cis-regulatory mechanisms, including the novel tissue-specific enhancers, differential inactivation, and enhancer sharing, contributed to the expression evolution. Our analysis also reveals a surprisingly variable cis-regulatory architecture, in which the CRMs driving conserved expression domains change in number, location, and specificity. Altogether, this study provides a detailed historical account that uncovers a highly dynamic picture of how the paralog expression patterns and their underlying cis-regulatory landscape evolve. We argue that our findings will encourage studying cis-regulatory evolution at the whole-locus level to understand how interactions between enhancers and other regulatory levels shape the evolution of gene expression. PMID:28961967

  11. A pseudoleukemic blood differentiation in a 13-year-old child: an extraordinary presentation of Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mutsaers, E R; Witteveen, R; van den Bosch-Ruis, W; Kuijpers, T W; van Houten, M A; van den Berg, J M

    2013-03-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare systemic vasculitis of the small- and medium-size vessels. It is mostly seen in elderly patients presenting as de novo asthma, eosinophilia, and vasculitic organ involvement. In childhood, CSS is extremely rare. The course of pediatric CSS is usually severe and often lethal. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl with a short history of asthma, marked eosinophilia, and multiorgan involvement. The extremely high level of blood eosinophilic granulocytes (51.6 × 10(9)/L) prompted a workup for eosinophilic leukemia before the diagnosis CSS could be made. Subsequently, the disease was successfully treated. This case report shows a classical case of childhood CSS, remarkable because of the presence of extreme hypereosinophilia. It underlines the importance of CSS as a life-threatening cause of hypereosinophilia in children.

  12. Differential Relationships of Anxiety and Autism Symptoms on Social Skills in Young Boys With Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Debra L; Roberts, Jane E

    2017-09-01

    Social skills are critical for academic, social, and psychological success of children with both typical and atypical development. Boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are at high risk for social skill impairments, given intellectual impairments and secondary conditions. The present study examines the impact of adaptive behavior, autism symptoms, and anxiety symptoms to social skills at the composite and subdomain level in boys with FXS across age. This cross-sectional study included boys with FXS (3-14 years) contrasted to age-matched typical control boys. Results revealed that social skills are generally within developmental expectations, with adaptive behavior as the primary predictor. Anxiety and autism symptoms emerged as additive risk factors, particularly in the areas of responsibility and self-control.

  13. Differential Efficacy of Ketamine in the Acute versus Chronic Stages of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tajerian, Maral; Leu, David; Yang, Phillip; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade S; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, disabling and often chronic condition, where many patients transition from an acute phase with prominent peripheral neurogenic inflammation to a chronic phase with evident central nervous system (CNS) changes. Ketamine is a centrally-acting agent believed to work through blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is being increasingly used for the treatment of refractory CRPS, although the basis for the drug’s effects and efficacy at different stages of the syndrome remain unclear. Methods We used a mouse model of CRPS (n=8–12/group) involving tibia fracture/cast immobilization to test the efficacy of ketamine (2 mg/kg/day; 7 days) or vehicle infusion during acute (3weeks [3w] post-fracture) and chronic (7w post-fracture) stages. Results Acute phase fracture mice displayed elevated limb temperature, edema and nociceptive sensitization that were not reduced by ketamine. Fracture mice treated with ketamine during the chronic phase showed reduced nociceptive sensitization that persisted beyond completion of the infusion. During this chronic phase, ketamine also reduced latent nociceptive sensitization and improved motor function at 18 weeks post-fracture. No side effects of the infusions were identified. These behavioral changes were associated with altered spinal astrocyte activation and expression of pain-related proteins including NMDA receptor 2b (NR2b), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii (CaMK2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF). Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate that ketamine is efficacious in the chronic, but not acute stages of CRPS, suggesting that the centrally-acting drug is relatively ineffective in early CRPS when peripheral mechanisms are more critical for supporting nociceptive sensitization. PMID:26492479

  14. Prevention of data duplication for high throughput sequencing repositories

    PubMed Central

    Gabdank, Idan; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Hilton, Jason A; Davis, Carrie A; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K; Narayanan, Aditi; Onate, Kathrina C; Graham, Keenan; Miyasato, Stuart R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Strattan, J Seth; Jolanki, Otto; Tanaka, Forrest Y; Hitz, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Prevention of unintended duplication is one of the ongoing challenges many databases have to address. Working with high-throughput sequencing data, the complexity of that challenge increases with the complexity of the definition of a duplicate. In a computational data model, a data object represents a real entity like a reagent or a biosample. This representation is similar to how a card represents a book in a paper library catalog. Duplicated data objects not only waste storage, they can mislead users into assuming the model represents more than the single entity. Even if it is clear that two objects represent a single entity, data duplication opens the door to potential inconsistencies between the objects since the content of the duplicated objects can be updated independently, allowing divergence of the metadata associated with the objects. Analogously to a situation in which a catalog in a paper library would contain by mistake two cards for a single copy of a book. If these cards are listing simultaneously two different individuals as current book borrowers, it would be difficult to determine which borrower (out of the two listed) actually has the book. Unfortunately, in a large database with multiple submitters, unintended duplication is to be expected. In this article, we present three principal guidelines the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Portal follows in order to prevent unintended duplication of both actual files and data objects: definition of identifiable data objects (I), object uniqueness validation (II) and de-duplication mechanism (III). In addition to explaining our modus operandi, we elaborate on the methods used for identification of sequencing data files. Comparison of the approach taken by the ENCODE Portal vs other widely used biological data repositories is provided. Database URL: https://www.encodeproject.org/ PMID:29688363

  15. A Challenge for Cochlear Implantation: Duplicated Internal Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    Binnetoğlu, Adem; Bağlam, Tekin; Sarı, Murat; Gündoğdu, Yavuz; Batman, Çağlar

    2016-08-01

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an uncommon, congenital malformation that can be associated with sensorineural hearing loss owing to aplasia/hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Only 14 such cases have been reported to date. We report the case of a 13-month-old girl with bilateral, congenital, sensorineural hearing loss caused by narrow, duplicated internal auditory canals and discuss the challenges encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  16. ACCIDENTAL DUPLICATION: MR Imaging Findings in Children with Spasmus Nutans.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Meredith; Peragallo, Jason; Kralik, Stephen F; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Soares, Bruno P

    2017-06-03

    The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.03.001. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Rare de novo Interstitial Duplication at 4p15.2 in a Boy with Severe Congenital Heart Defects, Limb Anomalies, Hypogonadism, and Global Developmental Delay.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liyang; Xie, Yingjun; Shen, Yiping; Yin, Qibin; Yuan, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    Proximal 4p deletion syndrome is a relatively rare genetic condition characterized by dysmorphic facial features, limb anomalies, minor congenital heart defects, hypogonadism, cafe-au-lait spots, developmental delay, tall and thin habitus, and intellectual disability. At present, over 20 cases of this syndrome have been published. However, duplication of the same region in proximal 4p has never been reported. Here, we describe a 2-year-5-month-old boy with severe congenital heart defects, limb anomalies, hypogonadism, distinctive facial features, pre- and postnatal developmental delay, and mild cognitive impairments. A de novo 4.5-Mb interstitial duplication at 4p15.2p15.1 was detected by chromosomal microarray analysis. Next-generation sequencing was employed and confirmed the duplication, but revealed no additional pathogenic variants. Several candidate genes in this interval responsible for the complex clinical phenotype were identified, such as RBPJ, STIM2, CCKAR, and LGI2. The results suggest a novel contiguous gene duplication syndrome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Identification of approximately duplicate material records in ERP systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Wei; Wu, Feng; Chu, Lap-Keung; Sculli, Domenic

    2017-03-01

    The quality of master data is crucial for the accurate functioning of the various modules of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. This study addresses specific data problems arising from the generation of approximately duplicate material records in ERP databases. Such problems are mainly due to the firm's lack of unique and global identifiers for the material records, and to the arbitrary assignment of alternative names for the same material by various users. Traditional duplicate detection methods are ineffective in identifying such approximately duplicate material records because these methods typically rely on string comparisons of each field. To address this problem, a machine learning-based framework is developed to recognise semantic similarity between strings and to further identify and reunify approximately duplicate material records - a process referred to as de-duplication in this article. First, the keywords of the material records are extracted to form vectors of discriminating words. Second, a machine learning method using a probabilistic neural network is applied to determine the semantic similarity between these material records. The approach was evaluated using data from a real case study. The test results indicate that the proposed method outperforms traditional algorithms in identifying approximately duplicate material records.

  19. Maintenance and Loss of Duplicated Genes by Dosage Subfunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have contributed to gene-repertoire enrichment in many eukaryotic lineages. However, most duplicated genes are eventually lost and it is still unclear why some duplicated genes are evolutionary successful whereas others quickly turn to pseudogenes. Here, we show that dosage constraints are major factors opposing post-WGD gene loss in several Paramecium species that share a common ancestral WGD. We propose a model where a majority of WGD-derived duplicates preserve their ancestral function and are retained to produce enough of the proteins performing this same ancestral function. Under this model, the expression level of individual duplicated genes can evolve neutrally as long as they maintain a roughly constant summed expression, and this allows random genetic drift toward uneven contributions of the two copies to total expression. Our analysis suggests that once a high level of imbalance is reached, which can require substantial lengths of time, the copy with the lowest expression level contributes a small enough fraction of the total expression that selection no longer opposes its loss. Extension of our analysis to yeast species sharing a common ancestral WGD yields similar results, suggesting that duplicated-gene retention for dosage constraints followed by divergence in expression level and eventual deterministic gene loss might be a universal feature of post-WGD evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A yeast gene essential for regulation of spindle pole duplication.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, P; Yip, C; Goetsch, L; Byers, B

    1988-01-01

    In eucaryotic cells, duplication of spindle poles must be coordinated with other cell cycle functions. We report here the identification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a temperature-sensitive lethal mutation, esp1, that deregulates spindle pole duplication. Mutant cells transferred to the nonpermissive temperature became unable to continue DNA synthesis and cell division but displayed repeated duplication of their spindle pole bodies. Although entry into this state after transient challenge by the nonpermissive temperature was largely lethal, rare survivors were recovered and found to have become increased in ploidy. If the mutant cells were held in G0 or G1 during exposure to the elevated temperature, they remained viable and maintained normal numbers of spindle poles. These results suggest dual regulation of spindle pole duplication, including a mechanism that promotes duplication as cells enter the division cycle and a negative regulatory mechanism, controlled by ESP1, that limits duplication to a single occurrence in each cell division cycle. Tetrad analysis has revealed that ESP1 resides at a previously undescribed locus on the right arm of chromosome VII. Images PMID:3072479

  1. Duplicate retention in signalling proteins and constraints from network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Soyer, O S; Creevey, C J

    2010-11-01

    Duplications are a major driving force behind evolution. Most duplicates are believed to fix through genetic drift, but it is not clear whether this process affects all duplications equally or whether there are certain gene families that are expected to show neutral expansions under certain circumstances. Here, we analyse the neutrality of duplications in different functional classes of signalling proteins based on their effects on response dynamics. We find that duplications involving intermediary proteins in a signalling network are neutral more often than those involving receptors. Although the fraction of neutral duplications in all functional classes increase with decreasing population size and selective pressure on dynamics, this effect is most pronounced for receptors, indicating a possible expansion of receptors in species with small population size. In line with such an expectation, we found a statistically significant increase in the number of receptors as a fraction of genome size in eukaryotes compared with prokaryotes. Although not confirmative, these results indicate that neutral processes can be a significant factor in shaping signalling networks and affect proteins from different functional classes differently. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Levels of duplicate gene expression in armoured catfishes.

    PubMed

    Dunham, R A; Philipp, D P; Whitt, G S

    1980-01-01

    Species of armoured catfishes differ significantly in their cellular DNA content and chromosome number. Starch gel electrophoresis of isozymes was used to determine whether each of 16 enzyme loci was expressed in a single or duplicate state. The percent of enzyme loci exhibiting duplicate locus expression in Corydoras aeneus, Corydoras julii, Corydoras melanistius, and Corydoras myersi was 37.5 percent, 18.75 percent, 12.5 percent, and 6.25 percent, respectively. The percentage of loci expressed in duplicate is higher in the species with higher haploid DNA contents, which are 4.4 pg, 3.0 pg, and 2.3 pg, respectively. These differences in DNA contents are also associated with differences in chromosome number. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increases in DNA contents and enzyme loci occur both by tetraploidization and by regional gene duplication and that these increases are then followed by a partial loss of DNA and a reduction in the number of the duplicate isozyme loci expressed. Such analyses provide insight into the mechanisms of genome amplification and reduction as well as insights into the fats of duplicate genes.

  3. Profiling of gene duplication patterns of sequenced teleost genomes: evidence for rapid lineage-specific genome expansion mediated by recent tandem duplications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lewis, Joshua; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-06-15

    Gene duplication has had a major impact on genome evolution. Localized (or tandem) duplication resulting from unequal crossing over and whole genome duplication are believed to be the two dominant mechanisms contributing to vertebrate genome evolution. While much scrutiny has been directed toward discerning patterns indicative of whole-genome duplication events in teleost species, less attention has been paid to the continuous nature of gene duplications and their impact on the size, gene content, functional diversity, and overall architecture of teleost genomes. Here, using a Markov clustering algorithm directed approach we catalogue and analyze patterns of gene duplication in the four model teleost species with chromosomal coordinates: zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and Tetraodon. Our analyses based on set size, duplication type, synonymous substitution rate (Ks), and gene ontology emphasize shared and lineage-specific patterns of genome evolution via gene duplication. Most strikingly, our analyses highlight the extraordinary duplication and retention rate of recent duplicates in zebrafish and their likely role in the structural and functional expansion of the zebrafish genome. We find that the zebrafish genome is remarkable in its large number of duplicated genes, small duplicate set size, biased Ks distribution toward minimal mutational divergence, and proportion of tandem and intra-chromosomal duplicates when compared with the other teleost model genomes. The observed gene duplication patterns have played significant roles in shaping the architecture of teleost genomes and appear to have contributed to the recent functional diversification and divergence of important physiological processes in zebrafish. We have analyzed gene duplication patterns and duplication types among the available teleost genomes and found that a large number of genes were tandemly and intrachromosomally duplicated, suggesting their origin of independent and continuous duplication

  4. A patient with de-novo partial deletion of Xp (p11.4-pter) and partial duplication of 22q (q11.2-qter).

    PubMed

    Armour, Christine M; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Lawrence, Sarah E; Bouchard, Amélie; Basik, Mark; Allanson, Judith E

    2008-01-01

    We report on a girl with partial deletion of Xp and partial duplication of 22q. Family studies demonstrate that both the patient's mother and her nonidentical twin sister carry the corresponding balanced translocation; 46,X,t(X;22)(p11.4;q11.2). This girl has developmental delay, microcephaly, mild dysmorphisms and hearing loss but otherwise shows few of the features described in individuals with duplications of the long arm of chromosome 22. She does manifest characteristics, such as short stature and biochemical evidence of ovarian failure, which are seen in partial or complete Xp deletions and Turner's syndrome.

  5. Differentiation of functional constipation and constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome based on Rome III criteria: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Koloski, N A; Jones, M; Young, M; Talley, N J

    2015-05-01

    While the Rome III classification recognises functional constipation (FC) and constipation predominant IBS (IBS-C) as distinct disorders, recent evidence has suggested that these disorders are difficult to separate in clinical practice. To identify whether clinical and lifestyle factors differentiate Rome III-defined IBS-C from FC based on gastrointestinal symptoms and lifestyle characteristics. 3260 people randomly selected from the Australian population returned a postal survey. FC and IBS-C were defined according to Rome III. The first model used logistic regression to differentiate IBS-C from FC based on lifestyle, quality-of-life and psychological characteristics. The second approach was data-driven employing latent class analysis (LCA) to identify naturally occurring clusters in the data considering all symptoms involved in the Rome III criteria for IBS-C and FC. We found n = 206 (6.5%; 95% CI 5.7-7.4%) people met strict Rome III FC whereas n = 109 (3.5%; 95% CI 2.8-4.1%) met strict Rome III IBS-C. The case-control approach indicated that FC patients reported an older age at onset of constipation, were less likely to exercise, had higher mental QoL and less health care seeking than IBS-C. LCA yielded one latent class that was predominantly (75%) FC, while the other class was approximately half IBS-C and half FC. The FC-dominated latent class had clearly lower levels of symptoms used to classify IBS (pain-related symptoms) and was more likely to be male (P = 0.046) but was otherwise similar in distribution of lifestyle factors to the mixed class. The latent class analysis approach suggests a differentiation based more on symptom severity rather than the Rome III view. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Etiology of initially unexplained confusion of excitability in deadly nightshade poisoning with suicidal intent. Symptoms, differential diagnosis, toxicology and physostigmine therapy of anticholinergic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Heindl, S; Binder, C; Desel, H; Matthies, U; Lojewski, I; Bandelow, B; Kahl, G F; Chemnitius, J M

    2000-11-10

    After a walk in a wood a 55-year-old teacher was admitted to the emergency unit of a university hospital because of somnolence and excitability. Her rectal temperature was 37.8 degrees C, she had sinus tachycardia (rate of 130/min) but no other significant findings. With the exception of C-reactive protein (10 mg/dl), MCV (101 fl), MCH (34 pg) and arterial blood gases (pH 7.483, pCO2 35.5 mmHg, base excess 5.1 mmp/l) laboratory tests were within normal limits. Qualitative screening of serum for benzodiazepines, barbiturates and antidepressives was negative. Neurological examination, including lumbar puncture and cranial computed tomography were noncontributory. 10 hours after admission the patient developed signs of an anticholinergic syndrome with mydriasis, dry mouth, tachycardia, hot skin and an atonic bladder. Physostigmine 2 mg completely reversed the neurological and mental symptoms. After gas chromatography, mass-spectrometry of a urine sample showed an atropine molecular fragment with a molecular weight of 271. At intervals of 3 to 5 hours the recurrence of confusion and excitability required 4 further i.v. injection of physostigmine. The patient subsequently became accessible to psychiatric examination and reported that during the walk she had swallowed 8-10 berries of deadly nightshade with suicidal intent. In case of excitability and confusion as well as somnolence or coma of uncertain aetiology an anticholinergic syndrome caused by ingestion of atropine-containing plants or psychoactive drugs (phenothiazines, butyrophenones, tri- or tetracyclic antidepressants) should be included in the differential diagnosis. If there are suggestive clinical findings (tachycardia, somnolence, coma or threatened respiratory arrest, physostigmine should be given if there are no contraindications.

  7. Whole blood gene expression in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: an exploratory cross-sectional study suggesting altered B cell differentiation and survival.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chinh Bkrong; Alsøe, Lene; Lindvall, Jessica M; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Winger, Anette; Kaarbø, Mari; Nilsen, Hilde; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2017-05-11

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition affecting adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but immune alterations might be an important component. This study compared whole blood gene expression in adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between gene expression and neuroendocrine markers, immune markers and clinical markers within the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18 years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project. A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring 3 months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Whole blood samples were subjected to RNA sequencing. Immune markers were blood leukocyte counts, plasma cytokines, serum C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins. Neuroendocrine markers encompassed plasma and urine levels of catecholamines and cortisol, as well as heart rate variability indices. Clinical markers consisted of questionnaire scores for symptoms of post-exertional malaise, inflammation, fatigue, depression and trait anxiety, as well as activity recordings. A total of 29 CFS patients and 18 healthy controls were included. We identified 176 genes as differentially expressed in patients compared to controls, adjusting for age and gender factors. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested impairment of B cell differentiation and survival, as well as enhancement of innate antiviral responses and inflammation in the CFS group. A pattern of co-expression could be identified, and this pattern, as well as single gene transcripts, was significantly associated with indices of autonomic nervous activity, plasma cortisol, and blood monocyte and eosinophil counts. Also, an association with symptoms of post-exertional malaise was demonstrated. Adolescent CFS is

  8. Multifocal electroretinogram contributes to differentiation of various clinical pictures within a family with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Praidou, A; Hagan, R; Nayak, H; Chandna, A

    2014-09-01

    To demonstrate the use of the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in addition to the full-field electroretinogram (ERG) in defining varying clinical pictures in children within a family with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). All members from a family generation underwent a detailed history and examination before proceeding to a detailed ERG in accordance with the International Society of Clinical Electrophysiology for Vision protocol and a rapid, low-resolution mfERG. Of the sibling pair, the 13-year-old boy showed reduced vision and atypical maculopathy and the 10-year-old sister showed normal vision and atrophic maculopathy. Parents had normal ocular examination. The male sibling had reduced rod and cone full-field ERG responses with a relatively spared central response from the mfERG suggesting central macular sparing. In contrast, for the female sibling, the ERG was normal for the cone pathway although reduced for rod pathway, with mfERG showing central involvement. The mother had rod responses at the lower end of normal range, a normal cone pathway, and a normal mfERG. The father showed a normal ERG and mfERG. The mfERG is a useful adjunct to full-field ERG in the paediatric population and in family studies.

  9. Bile acid malabsorption: an under-investigated differential diagnosis in patients presenting with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome type symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Matthew; Evans, Kate E; Leeds, John S; Hopper, Andy D; Harris, Andrew; Sanders, David S

    2011-07-01

    Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) has been reported as a possible cause of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) type symptoms. We aimed to determine how commonly patients with D-IBS type symptoms had a diagnosis of BAM as demonstrated by a positive SeHCAT (75 Selenium-homocholic acid taurine) test (retention <10% at seven days). A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patient's records for all patients who underwent a SeHCAT test between 2001 and 2009 in a tertiary hospital (Group A). Concurrently, a cohort of patients with Rome II D-IBS type symptoms was examined to determine the potential utility of SeHCAT test (Group B). In Group A 39.2% (n = 107/273) of patients had a positive SeHCAT result. The median time from first hospital visit to SeHCAT result was 30 weeks. Predictive factors for BAM: terminal ileal Crohn's disease (p < 0.01), terminal ileal resection (p < 0.01), and previous cholecystectomy (p < 0.01). 33.6% of patients who had a positive SeHCAT also had Rome II D-IBS. In Group B the D-IBS control cohort only 1.9% of patients had undergone a SeHCAT scan (p < 0.001 compared to Group A). BAM is common and should be considered earlier when investigating unselected patients with D-IBS type symptoms.

  10. Differential methylation is associated with non-syndromic cleft lip and palate and contributes to penetrance effects.

    PubMed

    Alvizi, Lucas; Ke, Xiayi; Brito, Luciano Abreu; Seselgyte, Rimante; Moore, Gudrun E; Stanier, Philip; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2017-05-26

    Non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) is a common congenital malformation with a multifactorial model of inheritance. Although several at-risk alleles have been identified, they do not completely explain the high heritability. We postulate that epigenetic factors as DNA methylation might contribute to this missing heritability. Using a Methylome-wide association study in a Brazilian cohort (67 NSCLP, 59 controls), we found 578 methylation variable positions (MVPs) that were significantly associated with NSCLP. MVPs were enriched in regulatory and active regions of the genome and in pathways already implicated in craniofacial development. In an independent UK cohort (171 NSCLP, 177 controls), we replicated 4 out of 11 tested MVPs. We demonstrated a significant positive correlation between blood and lip tissue DNA methylation, indicating blood as a suitable tissue for NSCLP methylation studies. Next, we quantified CDH1 promoter methylation levels in CDH1 mutation-positive families, including penetrants, non-penetrants or non-carriers for NSCLP. We found methylation levels to be significantly higher in the penetrant individuals. Taken together, our results demonstrated the association of methylation at specific genomic locations as contributing factors to both non-familial and familial NSCLP and altered DNA methylation may be a second hit contributing to penetrance.

  11. [Medico-legal investigation of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): differential diagnosis between natural and unnatural death].

    PubMed

    Ventura, F; Portunato, F; Celesti, R

    2010-04-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden dead of every infant or small child (usually within the first year of life). It is an unexpected event, according to the anamnesis of the subject, and the necroscopic examination of the event does not allow to demonstrate with success the proper cause of death. The careful forensic medical appraisal of the death scene and the clinician and anamnestic data, together with the anatomoistopatologic findings, are essential elements to make a correct diagnosis and discriminate between natural and violent causes of death, even if with remarkable interpretative difficulties. Only in rare cases (with variable statistical data), in spite of the scrupulous application of the surveying protocol, it is not possible to define the exact cause of the death. In these cases, generally characterized by an unspecific anossic anatomopathologic picture, the accepted diagnosis of death is exactly that of SIDS, reasoning by elimination. The study of the phenomenon must be based on a multidisciplinary approach, in which the legal surgeon's cooperation with other specialists, such as the anatomopathologist and the pediatrician, plays an important role.

  12. “Liking” and “Wanting” Linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Hypothesizing Differential Responsivity in Brain Reward Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: “liking,” “learning,” and “wanting” [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or “wanting” hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily self-administered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens, and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the “high” that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions. PMID:22236117

  13. Bottom-up proteomics suggests an association between differential expression of mitochondrial proteins and chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ciregia, F; Kollipara, L; Giusti, L; Zahedi, R P; Giacomelli, C; Mazzoni, M R; Giannaccini, G; Scarpellini, P; Urbani, A; Sickmann, A; Lucacchini, A; Bazzichi, L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by unexplained fatigue not improved by rest. An area of investigation is the likely connection of CFS with defective mitochondrial function. In a previous work, we investigated the proteomic salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Following this work, we analyzed mitochondrial proteins in the same couple of twins. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS) was used to study the mitochondria extracted from platelets of the twins. Subsequently, we selected three proteins that were validated using western blot analysis in a big cohort of subjects (n=45 CFS; n=45 healthy), using whole saliva (WS). The selected proteins were as follows: aconitate hydratase (ACON), ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and malate dehydrogenase (MDHM). Results for ATPB and ACON confirmed their upregulation in CFS. However, the MDHM alteration was not confirmed. Thereafter, seeing the great variability of clinical features of CFS patients, we decided to analyze the expression of our proteins after splitting patients according to clinical parameters. For each marker, the values were actually higher in the group of patients who had clinical features similar to the ill twin. In conclusion, these results suggest that our potential markers could be one of the criteria to be taken into account for helping in diagnosis. Furthermore, the identification of biomarkers present in particular subgroups of CFS patients may help in shedding light upon the complex entity of CFS. Moreover, it could help in developing tailored treatments. PMID:27676445

  14. Differentiation between polycystic ovary syndrome and polycystic ovarian morphology by means of an anti-Müllerian hormone cutoff value.

    PubMed

    Song, Do Kyeong; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2017-07-01

    Although increased serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level has been suggested to be a surrogate marker of polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM), its association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is controversial, and its diagnostic value has not been determined. We aimed to observe the relationship between the AMH level and PCOS phenotypes and to determine the optimal cutoff value of AMH for the diagnosis of PCOS in young Korean women. We recruited 207 women with PCOS (120 with PCOM and 87 without PCOM) and 220 regular cycling women with normoandrogenemia (100 with PCOM and 120 without PCOM). Subjects underwent testing at a single outpatient visit. Serum AMH level was measured. Women with PCOS had higher serum AMH levels than did regular cycling women with normoandrogenemia ( p < 0.05). Women with PCOM had higher serum AMH levels than women without PCOM, regardless of PCOS status ( p < 0.05). The optimal AMH cutoff value for the diagnosis of PCOS was 10.0 ng/mL (71% sensitivity, 93% specificity). Serum AMH was an independent determinant of total testosterone after adjustment for age, body mass index, and the number of menses/year (β = 0.31, p < 0.01). An association between AMH and hyperandrogenism was only observed in women with PCOS, and it was independent of the presence of PCOM. The serum AMH level can be useful for the diagnosis of PCOS at any age less than 40 years, and the optimal cutoff value for the diagnosis of PCOS identified in this study of young Korean women was 10.0 ng/mL.

  15. Are there differential symptom profiles that improve in response to different pharmacological treatments of premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder?

    PubMed

    Halbreich, Uriel; O'Brien, P M Shaughn; Eriksson, Elias; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Yonkers, Kimberly A; Freeman, Ellen W

    2006-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the accepted treatments for premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) have similar overall efficacy. While these treatments are more effective than placebo, response rates associated with them are far from satisfactory (<60%), such that, irrespective of treatment modality, there remain a significant number of women who are unresponsive to current conventional pharmacological therapy. The available data on response rates of specific types of premenstrual symptoms to, or symptom profiles that are most amenable to, each treatment modality are limited and not well defined because most studies were not designed to assess specific symptom profiles. Those studies that have attempted to evaluate which symptom profiles respond to specific therapies have revealed variations within the individual modalities, as well as between the different modalities. It appears that suppression of ovulation ameliorates a broad range of behavioural as well as physical premenstrual symptoms. SSRIs are most effective for irritability and anxiety symptoms, with lesser efficacy for 'atypical' premenstrual symptoms. GABAergic compounds are most efficacious for anxiety and anxious/depressive symptoms, while dopamine agonists, particularly bromocriptine, are perhaps most efficacious for mastalgia. Overall treatment response rates may improve if treatments are targeted at well-defined subgroups of patients. Re-analysis of available datasets from randomised clinical trials may shed more light on the notion that targeting women with specific premenstrual symptom profiles for specific treatment modalities would improve response rates beyond the current ceiling of approximately 60%. Such information would also improve understanding of the putative pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PMS and PMDD, and may point to a more specific diagnosis of these conditions.

  16. Gene expression factor analysis to differentiate pathways linked to fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and depression in a diverse patient sample

    PubMed Central

    Iacob, Eli; Light, Alan R.; Donaldson, Gary W.; Okifuji, Akiko; Hughen, Ronald W.; White, Andrea T.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if independent candidate genes can be grouped into meaningful biological factors and if these factors are associated with the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FMS) while controlling for co-morbid depression, sex, and age. Methods We included leukocyte mRNA gene expression from a total of 261 individuals including healthy controls (n=61), patients with FMS only (n=15), CFS only (n=33), co-morbid CFS and FMS (n=79), and medication-resistant (n=42) or medication-responsive (n=31) depression. We used Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on 34 candidate genes to determine factor scores and regression analysis to examine if these factors were associated with specific diagnoses. Results EFA resulted in four independent factors with minimal overlap of genes between factors explaining 51% of the variance. We labeled these factors by function as: 1) Purinergic and cellular modulators; 2) Neuronal growth and immune function; 3) Nociception and stress mediators; 4) Energy and mitochondrial function. Regression analysis predicting these biological factors using FMS, CFS, depression severity, age, and sex revealed that greater expression in Factors 1 and 3 was positively associated with CFS and negatively associated with depression severity (QIDS score), but not associated with FMS. Conclusion Expression of candidate genes can be grouped into meaningful clusters, and CFS and depression are associated with the same 2 clusters but in opposite directions when controlling for co-morbid FMS. Given high co-morbid disease and interrelationships between biomarkers, EFA may help determine patient subgroups in this population based on gene expression. PMID:26097208

  17. Differentiation between polycystic ovary syndrome and polycystic ovarian morphology by means of an anti-Müllerian hormone cutoff value

    PubMed Central

    Song, Do Kyeong; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Although increased serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level has been suggested to be a surrogate marker of polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM), its association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is controversial, and its diagnostic value has not been determined. We aimed to observe the relationship between the AMH level and PCOS phenotypes and to determine the optimal cutoff value of AMH for the diagnosis of PCOS in young Korean women. Methods We recruited 207 women with PCOS (120 with PCOM and 87 without PCOM) and 220 regular cycling women with normoandrogenemia (100 with PCOM and 120 without PCOM). Subjects underwent testing at a single outpatient visit. Serum AMH level was measured. Results Women with PCOS had higher serum AMH levels than did regular cycling women with normoandrogenemia (p < 0.05). Women with PCOM had higher serum AMH levels than women without PCOM, regardless of PCOS status (p < 0.05). The optimal AMH cutoff value for the diagnosis of PCOS was 10.0 ng/mL (71% sensitivity, 93% specificity). Serum AMH was an independent determinant of total testosterone after adjustment for age, body mass index, and the number of menses/year (β = 0.31, p < 0.01). An association between AMH and hyperandrogenism was only observed in women with PCOS, and it was independent of the presence of PCOM. Conclusion The serum AMH level can be useful for the diagnosis of PCOS at any age less than 40 years, and the optimal cutoff value for the diagnosis of PCOS identified in this study of young Korean women was 10.0 ng/mL. PMID:27899014

  18. TECHNIQUES OF TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Public Instruction, Topeka.

    PART ONE OF THIS BULLETIN PROVIDES HELP IN THE TWO CRITICAL AREAS OF MASTER TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION. SUPPLEMENTED BY NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS OF EQUIPMENT AND DUPLICATION TECHNIQUES, THE BULLETIN DESCRIBES MASTER PROGRAM DUPLICATION USING LANGUAGE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, A PROFESSIONAL MASS DUPLICATOR, A TAPE RECORDER, A RECORD…

  19. [Anterior rectal duplication in adult patient: a case report].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cabrera, J; Villanueva-Sáenz, E; Bolaños-Badillo, L E

    2009-01-01

    To report a case of rectal duplication in the adult and make a literature review. The intestinal duplications are injuries of congenital origin that can exist from the base of the tongue to the anal verge, being the most frequent site at level of terminal ileum (22%) and at the rectal level in 5% To date approximately exist 80 reports in world-wide Literature generally in the pediatric population being little frequent in the adult age. Its presentation could be tubular or cystic. The recommended treatment is the surgical resection generally in block with coloanal anastomosis. A case review of rectal duplication in the adult and the conducted treatment. The case of a patient appears with diagnose of rectal duplication with tubular type,whose main symptom was constipation and fecal impactation. In the exploration was detect double rectal lumen (anterior and posterior) that it above initiates by of the anorectal ring with fibrous ulcer of fibrinoid aspect of 3 approx cm of length x 1 cm wide, at level of the septum that separates both rectal lumina. The rectal duplication is a rare pathology in the adult nevertheless is due to suspect before the existence of alterations in the mechanics of the defecation, rectal prolapse and rectal bleeding,the election treatment is a protectomy with colonic pouch in "J" and coloanal anastomosis.

  20. Diprosopus (partially duplicated head) associated with anencephaly: a case report.

    PubMed

    al Muti Zaitoun, A; Chang, J; Booker, M

    1999-01-01

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twin. A 16 year old mother with a twin pregnancy delivered one normally formed baby boy and one diprosopus male. The malformed baby was 33 weeks of gestation with a single trunk, normal limbs and various degrees of facial duplication. Of the following structures there were two of each: noses, eyes, ears (and one dimple), mouths, tongues and, with bilateral central cleft lips and cleft palates. This was associated with holoprosencephaly and craniorachischisis. Internal organs showed no duplication. There were multiple congenital anomalies including diaphragmatic hernia, small lungs, two lobes of the right lung, ventricular septal defect, small adrenal gland and small left kidney with short ureter. The body also had a short neck, small chest cavities and kyphosis. X-ray revealed duplication of the vertebral column. The case presented here represents a type II of diprosopia of Rating (1933) and is the least common type reported. We also reviewed 22 recently reported cases of diprosopus. In addition to facial duplication, anencephaly, neural tube defect and cardiac malformations represent the more common congenital abnormalities associated with diprosopus. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood. Factors that play a role in diprosopus are probably similar to those factors (genetic, environmental and abnormal placental circulation) which affect monozoygotic twins as observed in this case report. Early ultrasonography diagnosis of diprosopus permits one to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.

  1. Complexity of Gene Expression Evolution after Duplication: Protein Dosage Rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Rogozin, Igor B.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing debates about functional importance of gene duplications have been recently intensified by a heated discussion of the “ortholog conjecture” (OC). Under the OC, which is central to functional annotation of genomes, orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes at the same level of sequence divergence. However, a recent study challenged the OC by reporting a greater functional similarity, in terms of gene ontology (GO) annotations and expression profiles, among within-species paralogs compared to orthologs. These findings were taken to indicate that functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context of the genes, rather than evolutionary history. Subsequent studies suggested that the OC appears to be generally valid when applied to mammalian evolution but the complete picture of evolution of gene expression also has to incorporate lineage-specific aspects of paralogy. The observed complexity of gene expression evolution after duplication can be explained through selection for gene dosage effect combined with the duplication-degeneration-complementation model. This paper discusses expression divergence of recent duplications occurring before functional divergence of proteins encoded by duplicate genes. PMID:25197576

  2. Two Rounds of Whole Genome Duplication in the Ancestral Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Dehal, Paramvir; Boore, Jeffrey L

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that the relatively large and complex vertebrate genome was created by two ancient, whole genome duplications has been hotly debated, but remains unresolved. We reconstructed the evolutionary relationships of all gene families from the complete gene sets of a tunicate, fish, mouse, and human, and then determined when each gene duplicated relative to the evolutionary tree of the organisms. We confirmed the results of earlier studies that there remains little signal of these events in numbers of duplicated genes, gene tree topology, or the number of genes per multigene family. However, when we plotted the genomic map positions of only the subset of paralogous genes that were duplicated prior to the fish–tetrapod split, their global physical organization provides unmistakable evidence of two distinct genome duplication events early in vertebrate evolution indicated by clear patterns of four-way paralogous regions covering a large part of the human genome. Our results highlight the potential for these large-scale genomic events to have driven the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage. PMID:16128622

  3. Genome duplication and the evolution of conspecific pollen precedence.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Sarah J; Husband, Brian C

    2011-07-07

    Conspecific pollen precedence can be a strong reproductive barrier between polyploid and diploid species, but the role of genome multiplication in the evolution of this barrier has not been investigated. Here, we examine the direct effect of genome duplication on the evolution of pollen siring success in tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium. To separate the effects of genome duplication from selection after duplication, we compared pollen siring success of synthesized tetraploids (neotetraploids) with that of naturally occurring tetraploids by applying 2x, 4x (neo or established) or 2x + 4x pollen to diploid and tetraploid flowers. Seed set increased in diploids and decreased in both types of tetraploids as the proportion of pollen from diploid plants increased. Based on offspring ploidy from mixed-ploidy pollinations, pollen of the maternal ploidy always sired the majority of offspring but was strongest in established tetraploids and weakest in neotetraploids. Pollen from established tetraploids had significantly higher siring rates than neotetraploids when deposited on diploid (4x(est) = 47.2%, 4x(neo) = 27.1%) and on tetraploid recipients (4x(est) = 91.9%, 4x(neo) = 56.0%). Siring success of established tetraploids exceeded that of neotetraploids despite having similar pollen production per anther and pollen diameter. Our results suggest that, while pollen precedence can arise in association with the duplication event, the strength of polyploid siring success evolves after the duplication event.

  4. PGDD: a database of gene and genome duplication in plants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Genome duplication (GD) has permanently shaped the architecture and function of many higher eukaryotic genomes. The angiosperms (flowering plants) are outstanding models in which to elucidate consequences of GD for higher eukaryotes, owing to their propensity for chromosomal duplication or even triplication in a few cases. Duplicated genome structures often require both intra- and inter-genome alignments to unravel their evolutionary history, also providing the means to deduce both obvious and otherwise-cryptic orthology, paralogy and other relationships among genes. The burgeoning sets of angiosperm genome sequences provide the foundation for a host of investigations into the functional and evolutionary consequences of gene and GD. To provide genome alignments from a single resource based on uniform standards that have been validated by empirical studies, we built the Plant Genome Duplication Database (PGDD; freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/), a web service providing synteny information in terms of colinearity between chromosomes. At present, PGDD contains data for 26 plants including bryophytes and chlorophyta, as well as angiosperms with draft genome sequences. In addition to the inclusion of new genomes as they become available, we are preparing new functions to enhance PGDD. PMID:23180799

  5. Drosophila Ana2 is a conserved centriole duplication factor

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Naomi R.; Dobbelaere, Jeroen; Brunk, Kathrin; Franz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, five proteins are required for centriole duplication: SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-5, SAS-6, and SAS-4. Functional orthologues of all but SAS-5 have been found in other species. In Drosophila melanogaster and humans, Sak/Plk4, DSas-6/hSas-6, and DSas-4/CPAP—orthologues of ZYG-1, SAS-6, and SAS-4, respectively—are required for centriole duplication. Strikingly, all three fly proteins can induce the de novo formation of centriole-like structures when overexpressed in unfertilized eggs. Here, we find that of eight candidate duplication factors identified in cultured fly cells, only two, Ana2 and Asterless (Asl), share this ability. Asl is now known to be essential for centriole duplication in flies, but no equivalent protein has been found in worms. We show that Ana2 is the likely functional orthologue of SAS-5 and that it is also related to the vertebrate STIL/SIL protein family that has been linked to microcephaly in humans. We propose that members of the SAS-5/Ana2/STIL family of proteins are key conserved components of the centriole duplication machinery. PMID:20123993

  6. Change in Growth Differentiation Factor 15, but Not C-Reactive Protein, Independently Predicts Major Cardiac Events in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Baldomero, Idaira F.; Bosa-Ojeda, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Among the numerous emerging biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) have received widespread interest, with their potential role as predictors of cardiovascular risk. The concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, however, are influenced, among others, by physiological variations, which are the natural, within-individual variation occurring over time. The aims of our study are: (a) to describe the changes in hsCRP and GDF-15 levels over a period of time and after an episode of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and (b) to examine whether the rate of change in hsCRP and GDF-15 after the acute event is associated with long-term major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE). Two hundred and Fifty five NSTE-ACS patients were included in the study. We measured hsCRP and GDF-15 concentrations, at admission and again 36 months after admission (end of the follow-up period). The present study shows that the change of hsCRP levels, measured after 36 months, does not predict MACE in NSTEACS-patients. However, the level of GDF-15 measured, after 36 months, was a stronger predictor of MACE, in comparison to the acute unstable phase. PMID:24839357

  7. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha is present in human ovaries but may not be differentially expressed in relation to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, Miriam S; Yang, Xing; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Liang, Xiaoyan; Norman, Robert J; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the expression and function of small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA), an androgen receptor (AR) molecular chaperone, in human ovarian tissues. Examine the effect of SGTA on AR subcellular localization in granulosa tumor cells (KGN) and SGTA expression in ovarian tissues. University-based research laboratory. Archived tissues from premenopausal women and granulosa cells from infertile women receiving assisted reproduction. None. AR subcellular localization and SGTA protein or mRNA levels. SGTA and AR proteins were expressed in the cytoplasm of KGN cells and exposure to androgen stimulated AR nuclear localization. SGTA protein knockdown increased AR nuclear localization at low (0-0.1 nmol/L) but not high (1-10 nmol/L) concentrations of androgen hormone. In ovarian tissues, SGTA was localized to the cytoplasm of granulosa cells at all stages of folliculogenesis and in thecal cells of antral follicles. SGTA protein levels were similar when comparing primordial and primary follicles within core biopsies (n = 40) from women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Likewise, SGTA mRNA levels were not significantly different in granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles after hyperstimulation of women with and without PCOS. SGTA is present in human ovaries and has the potential to modulate AR signalling, but it may not be differentially expressed in PCOS. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. New methodologies for measuring Brugada ECG patterns cannot differentiate the ECG pattern of Brugada syndrome from Brugada phenocopy.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Byron H; Garcia-Niebla, Javier; Anselm, Daniel D; Jaidka, Atul; De Luna, Antoni Bayés; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Brugada phenocopies (BrP) are clinical entities characterized by ECG patterns that are identical to true Brugada syndrome (BrS), but are elicited by various clinical circumstances. A recent study demonstrated that the patterns of BrP and BrS are indistinguishable under the naked eye, thereby validating the concept that the patterns are identical. The aim of our study was to determine whether recently developed ECG criteria would allow for discrimination between type-2 BrS ECG pattern and type-2 BrP ECG pattern. Ten ECGs from confirmed BrS (aborted sudden death, transformation into type 1 upon sodium channel blocking test and/or ventricular arrhythmias, positive genetics) cases and 9 ECGs from confirmed BrP were included in the study. Surface 12-lead ECGs were scanned, saved in JPEG format for blind measurement of two values: (i) β-angle; and (ii) the base of the triangle. Cut-off values of ≥58° for the β-angle and ≥4mm for the base of the triangle were used to determine the BrS ECG pattern. Mean values for the β-angle in leads V1 and V2 were 66.7±25.5 and 55.4±28.1 for BrS and 54.1±26.5 and 43.1±16.1 for BrP respectively (p=NS). Mean values for the base of the triangle in V1 and V2 were 7.5±3.9 and 5.7±3.9 for BrS and 5.6±3.2 and 4.7±2.7 for BrP respectively (p=NS). The β-angle had a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 78% (LR+ 2.7, LR- 0.5). The base of the triangle had a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 40% (LR+ 1.4, LR- 0.5). New ECG criteria presented relatively low sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values to discriminate between BrS and BrP ECG patterns, providing further evidence that the two patterns are identical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed PCR method to determine differential genomic DNA methylation in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chango, Abalo; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; Tessier, Frederic; Ferré, Séverine; Do, Sergio; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Nicolas, Jean Pierre; Willequet, Francis

    2006-10-20

    Relative levels of DNA hypermethylation were quantified in DS individuals using a new method based on a combination of methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (MS-AP-PCR) and quantification of DNA fragments with the Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer. Four of the DS individuals had low plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) level (4.3 +/- 0.3 micromol/l) and 4 other had high-tHcy level (14.1 +/- 0.9 micromol/l). Eight healthy control individuals were matched to the DS cases for age, sex, and tHcy levels. We have identified and quantified six hypermethylated fragments. Their sizes ranged from 230-bp to 700-bp. In cases and controls, low-tHcy did not affect methylation level of identified fragments, mean methylation values were 68.0 +/- 39.7% and 52.1 +/- 40.3%, respectively. DNA methylation in DS individuals did not change significantly (59.7+/-34.5%) in response to high-tHcy level in contrast to controls (23.4 +/- 17.7%, P = 0.02). Further, the quantitative MS-AP-PCR using this microfludic system is a useful method for determining differential genomic DNA methylation.

  10. SHOX gene and conserved noncoding element deletions/duplications in Colombian patients with idiopathic short stature.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Gloria Tatiana Vinasco; Jaimes, Giovanna Carola; Barrios, Mauricio Coll; Cespedes, Camila; Velasco, Harvy Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    SHOX gene mutations or haploinsufficiency cause a wide range of phenotypes such as Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), Turner syndrome, and disproportionate short stature (DSS). However, this gene has also been found to be mutated in cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS) with a 3-15% frequency. In this study, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was employed to determine the frequency of SHOX gene mutations and their conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in Colombian patients with ISS. Patients were referred from different centers around the county. From a sample of 62 patients, 8.1% deletions and insertions in the intragenic regions and in the CNE were found. This result is similar to others published in other countries. Moreover, an isolated case of CNE 9 duplication and a new intron 6b deletion in another patient, associated with ISS, are described. This is one of the first studies of a Latin American population in which deletions/duplications of the SHOX gene and its CNE are examined in patients with ISS.

  11. SHOX gene and conserved noncoding element deletions/duplications in Colombian patients with idiopathic short stature

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Gloria Tatiana Vinasco; Jaimes, Giovanna Carola; Barrios, Mauricio Coll; Cespedes, Camila; Velasco, Harvy Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    SHOX gene mutations or haploinsufficiency cause a wide range of phenotypes such as Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), Turner syndrome, and disproportionate short stature (DSS). However, this gene has also been found to be mutated in cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS) with a 3–15% frequency. In this study, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was employed to determine the frequency of SHOX gene mutations and their conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in Colombian patients with ISS. Patients were referred from different centers around the county. From a sample of 62 patients, 8.1% deletions and insertions in the intragenic regions and in the CNE were found. This result is similar to others published in other countries. Moreover, an isolated case of CNE 9 duplication and a new intron 6b deletion in another patient, associated with ISS, are described. This is one of the first studies of a Latin American population in which deletions/duplications of the SHOX gene and its CNE are examined in patients with ISS. PMID:24689071

  12. Growth differentiation factor-15 level predicts major bleeding and cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes: results from the PLATO study.

    PubMed

    Hagström, Emil; James, Stefan K; Bertilsson, Maria; Becker, Richard C; Himmelmann, Anders; Husted, Steen; Katus, Hugo A; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Storey, Robert F; Siegbahn, Agneta; Wallentin, Lars

    2016-04-21

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) predicts death and composite cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the independent associations between GDF-15 levels and major bleeding, the extent of coronary lesions and individual CV events in patients with ACS. Growth differentiation factor-15 was analysed at baseline ( ITALIC! n = 16 876) in patients with ACS randomized to ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATO (PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes) trial. Growth differentiation factor-15 levels were related to extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and to all types of non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related major bleeding, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death during 12-month follow-up. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for established risk factors for CV disease and prognostic biomarkers (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, cystatin C, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and high-sensitive troponin T), 1 SD increase in ln GDF-15 was associated with increased risk of major bleeding with a hazard ratio (HR) 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51) and with a similar increase in risk across different bleeding locations. For the same increase in ln GDF-15, the HR for the composite of CV death, spontaneous MI, and stroke was 1.29 (1.21-1.37), CV death 1.41 (1.30-1.53), all-cause death 1.41 (1.31-1.53), spontaneous MI 1.15 (1.05-1.26), and stroke 1.19 (1.01-1.42). The ITALIC! C-statistic improved for the prediction of CV death and non-CABG-related major bleeding when adding GDF-15 to established risk factors. In patients with ACS, higher levels of GDF-15 are associated with raised risks of all types of major non-CABG-related bleeding, spontaneous MI, and stroke as well as CV and total mortality and seem to improve risk stratification for CV-mortality and major bleeding beyond established risk factors. www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00391872. Published on behalf of the

  13. Deletion and duplication within the p11.2 region of chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, D.J.; McCorquodale, M.; Bereziouk, O.

    1994-09-01

    A 7 1/2-year-old male patient presented with mild mental retardation, speech delay, hyperactivity, behavioral problems, mild facial hypoplasia, short broad hands, digital anomalies, and self-injurious behavior. Chromosomes obtained from peripheral blood cells revealed a deletion of 17p11.2 in about 40% of the metaphases examined, suggesting that the patient had Smith-Magenis Syndrome. A similar pattern of mosaicism in peripheral blood cells, but not in fibroblasts in which all cells displayed the deletion, has been previously reported. Since some cases of Smith-Magenis Syndrome have a deletion that extends into the region associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) Syndrome, we examined interphase cells with amore » CMT1A-specific probe by the method of fluorescence in situ hybridization. The CMT1A region was not deleted, but about 40% of the cells gave signals indicating a duplication of the CMT1A region. The patient has not presented neuropathies associated with CMT at this time. Future tracking of the patient should be informative.« less

  14. The origins and impact of primate segmental duplications.

    PubMed

    Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Girirajan, Santhosh; Eichler, Evan E

    2009-10-01

    Duplicated sequences are substrates for the emergence of new genes and are an important source of genetic instability associated with rare and common diseases. Analyses of primate genomes have shown an increase in the proportion of interspersed segmental duplications (SDs) within the genomes of humans and great apes. This contrasts with other mammalian genomes that seem to have their recently duplicated sequences organized in a tandem configuration. In this review, we focus on the mechanistic origin and impact of this difference with respect to evolution, genetic diversity and primate phenotype. Although many genomes will be sequenced in the future, resolution of this aspect of genomic architecture still requires high quality sequences and detailed analyses.

  15. The Sequence and Analysis of Duplication Rich Human Chromosome 16

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Martin, Joel; Han, Cliff; Gordon, Laurie A.; Terry, Astrid; Prabhakar, Shyam; She, Xinwei; Xie, Gary; Hellsten, Uffe; Man Chan, Yee; Altherr, Michael; Couronne, Olivier; Aerts, Andrea; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Blumer, Heather; Branscomb, Elbert; Brown, Nancy C.; Bruno, William J.; Buckingham, Judith M.; Callen, David F.; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Campbell, Evelyn W.; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chasteen, Leslie A.; Chertkov, Olga; Chi, Han C.; Christensen, Mari; Clark, Lynn M.; Cohn, Judith D.; Denys, Mirian; Detter, John C.; Dickson, Mark; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, Mira; Escobar, Julio; Fawcett, Joseph J.; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstein, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Grady, Deborah L.; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Hildebrand, Carl E.; Huang, Wayne; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Jewett, Phillip E.; Kadner, Kristen; Kimball, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Krawczyk, Marie-Claude; Leyba, Tina; Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Lowry, Steve; Ludeman, Thom; Mark, Graham A.; Mcmurray, Kimberly L.; Meincke, Linda J.; Morgan, Jenna; Moyzis, Robert K.; Mundt, Mark O.; Munk, A. Christine; Nandkeshwar, Richard D.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Ricke, Darryl O.; Robinson, Donna L.; Rodriguez, Alex; Salamov, Asaf; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Scott, Duncan; Shough, Timothy; Stallings, Raymond L.; Stalvey, Malinda; Sutherland, Robert D.; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Torney, David C.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Tsai, Ming; Ulanovsky, Levy E.; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; White, P. Scott; Williams, Albert L.; Wills, Patricia L.; Wu, Jung-Rung; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; DeJong, Pieter; Bruce, David; Doggett, Norman; Deaven, Larry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Richardson, Paul; et al.

    2004-01-01

    We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished human chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9 percent of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein coding genes confirmed by 1,637 aligned transcripts, 19 tRNA genes, 341 pseudogenes and 3 RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobasepairs were identified and result in gene content differences across humans. One of the unique features of chromosome 16 is its high level of segmental duplication, ranked among the highest of the human autosomes. While the segmental duplications are enriched in the relatively gene poor pericentromere of the p-arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events which are likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.

  16. Formation of new chromatin domains determines pathogenicity of genomic duplications.

    PubMed

    Franke, Martin; Ibrahim, Daniel M; Andrey, Guillaume; Schwarzer, Wibke; Heinrich, Verena; Schöpflin, Robert; Kraft, Katerina; Kempfer, Rieke; Jerković, Ivana; Chan, Wing-Lee; Spielmann, Malte; Timmermann, Bernd; Wittler, Lars; Kurth, Ingo; Cambiaso, Paola; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Houge, Gunnar; Lambie, Lindsay; Brancati, Francesco; Pombo, Ana; Vingron, Martin; Spitz, Francois; Mundlos, Stefan

    2016-10-13

    Chromosome conformation capture methods have identified subchromosomal structures of higher-order chromatin interactions called topologically associated domains (TADs) that are separated from each other by boundary regions. By subdividing the genome into discrete regulatory units, TADs restrict the contacts that enhancers establish with their target genes. However, the mechanisms that underlie partitioning of the genome into TADs remain poorly understood. Here we show by chromosome conformation capture (capture Hi-C and 4C-seq methods) that genomic duplications in patient cells and genetically modified mice can result in the formation of new chromatin domains (neo-TADs) and that this process determines their molecular pathology. Duplications of non-coding DNA within the mouse Sox9 TAD (intra-TAD) that cause female to male sex reversal in humans, showed increased contact of the duplicated regions within the TAD, but no change in the overall TAD structure. In contrast, overlapping duplications that extended over the next boundary into the neighbouring TAD (inter-TAD), resulted in the formation of a new chromatin domain (neo-TAD) that was isolated from the rest of the genome. As a consequence of this insulation, inter-TAD duplications had no phenotypic effect. However, incorporation of the next flanking gene, Kcnj2, in the neo-TAD resulted in ectopic contacts of Kcnj2 with the duplicated part of the Sox9 regulatory region, consecutive misexpression of Kcnj2, and a limb malformation phenotype. Our findings provide evidence that TADs are genomic regulatory units with a high degree of internal stability that can be sculptured by structural genomic variations. This process is important for the interpretation of copy number variations, as these variations are routinely detected in diagnostic tests for genetic disease and cancer. This finding also has relevance in an evolutionary setting because copy-number differences are thought to have a crucial role in the evolution of

  17. [The significance of a 4,183 Da peptide of dermcidin protein in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kai, Feng; Lifeng, Liu; Haijing, Song; Xianhua, Liu; Hu, Xia

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the predictive value of 4,183 Da peptide of dermcidin protein in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. A prospective controlled study was conducted. Serum samples were drawn from 161 patients with acute coronary'syndrome [ACS, including 46 patients with unstable angina (UA), 23 with acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and 92 with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction], 111 subjects for routine physical examination, including 45 patients with hypertension history, 42 with coronary heart disease, 22 with diabetes, and 54 patients with non-ACS (including pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, aneurysm, arrhythmia, myocarditis, coronary myocardial bridge, pleurisy, pneumothorax pneumomediastinum, rib fracture, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer, and pancreatitis) to serve as controls. 4 183 Da peptide of dermcidin protein was assessed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) technology, and myeloperoxidase [MPO, determined by point-of-care testing (POCT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively], high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), myoglobin (MYO), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) were quantitated with biochemical analysis. The power of the biomarkers above for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis for ischemic heart disease were judged by comparison of their sensitivity and specificity. (1) It was showed by one-way ANOVA that 4,183 Da peptide was higher in ACS group than that in control group (relative abundance: 22.05 ± 16.97 vs. 15.52 ± 14.09, P = 0.001), but no difference was found between ACS group and non-ACS group (relative abundance: 22.05 ± 16.97 vs. 19.99 ± 17.63, P = 0.416). (2) The specificity and sensitivity of the 4 183 Da polypeptide and MPO for predicting ACS and UA were compared with the receiver operating

  18. Cushing syndrome: update on testing.

    PubMed

    Raff, Hershel

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome) is one of the most enigmatic diseases in clinical medicine. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome depend on proper laboratory evaluation. In this review, an update is provided on selected critical issues in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome: the use of late-night salivary cortisol in initial diagnosis and for postoperative surveillance, and the use of prolactin measurement to improve the performance of inferior petrosal sinus sampling to distinguish Cushing disease from ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome during differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Association of Congenital Urethral Duplication and Double Megalourethra

    PubMed Central

    Uçar, Murat; Karagözlü Akgül, Ahsen; Kılıç, Nizamettin; Balkan, Emin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urethral duplication and megalourethra are rare urethral anomalies. However, the concomitance of urethral duplication and double megalourethra has not been reported previously. Case Report: A newborn was presented with penile swelling during voiding. Physical examination revealed a retractable foreskin and two external meatus of a double urethra. Retrograde urethrography demonstrated two complete megalourethras. Urethro-urethrostomy and urethroplasty were performed when the patient was 10 months old. The patient was followed up for one year without any urinary problems and has good cosmetics and urinary continence. Conclusion: The concomitance of these two rare anomalies and more importantly its surgical treatment makes this case report unique and valuable. PMID:29215339

  20. Xq28 duplication overlapping the int22h-1/int22h-2 region and including RAB39B and CLIC2 in a family with intellectual and developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Erica F; Baldwin, Erin E; Ellingwood, Sara; Smith, Rosemarie; Lamb, Allen N

    2014-07-01

    Duplications involving terminal Xq28 are a known cause of intellectual disability (ID) in males and in females with unfavorable X-inactivation patterns. Within Xq28, functional disomy of MECP2 causes a severe ID syndrome, however the dosage sensitivity of other Xq28 duplicated genes is less certain. Duplications involving the int22h-1/int22h-2 LCR-flanked region in distal Xq28 have recently been linked to a novel ID-associated phenotype. While evidence for the dosage sensitivity of this region is emerging, the phenotypic contribution of individual genes within the int22h-1/int22h-2-flanked region has yet to be determined. We report a familial case of a novel 774 kb Xq28-qter duplication, detected by cytogenomic microarray analysis, that partially overlaps the int22h-1/int22h-2-flanked region. This duplication and a 570 kb Xpter-p22.33 loss within the pseudoautosomal region were identified in three siblings, one female and two males, who presented with developmental delays/intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic features and short stature. Although unconfirmed, these results are suggestive of maternal inheritance of a recombinant X. We compare our clinical findings to patients with int22h-1/int22h-2-mediated duplications and discuss the potential pathogenicity of genes within the duplicated region, including those within the shared region of overlap, RAB39B and CLIC2. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A rare de novo interstitial duplication of 15q15.3q21.2 in a boy with severe short stature, hypogonadism, global developmental delay and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haiming; Meng, Zhe; Zhang, Lina; Luo, Xiangyang; Liu, Liping; Chen, Mengfan; Li, Xinwei; Zhao, Weiwei; Liang, Liyang

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial duplications distal to 15q13 are very rare. Here, we reported a 14-year-old boy with severe short stature, delayed bone age, hypogonadism, global developmental delay and intellectual disability. His had distinctive facial features including macrocephaly, broad forehead, deep-set and widely spaced eyes, broad nose bridge, shallow philtrum and thick lips. A de novo 6.4 Mb interstitial duplication of 15q15.3q21.2 was detected by chromosomal microarray analysis. We compared our patient's clinical phenotypes with those of several individuals with overlapping duplications and several candidate genes responsible for the phenotypes were identified as well. The results suggest a novel contiguous gene duplication syndrome characterized with shared features including short stature, hypogonadism, global developmental delay and other congenital anomalies.

  2. Regulatory divergence of homeologous Atlantic salmon elovl5 genes following the salmonid-specific whole-genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Tocher, Douglas R; Leaver, Michael J

    2016-10-10

    Fatty acyl elongase 5 (elovl5) is a critical enzyme in the vertebrate biosynthetic pathway which produces the physiologically essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) from 18 carbon fatty acids precursors. In contrast to most other vertebrates, Atlantic salmon possess two copies of elovl5 (elovl5a and elovl5b) as a result of a whole-genome duplication (WGD) which occurred at the base of the salmonid lineage. WGDs have had a major influence on vertebrate evolution, providing extra genetic material, enabling neofunctionalization to accelerate adaptation and speciation. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which such duplicated homeologous genes diverge. Here we show that homeologous Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b genes have been asymmetrically colonised by transposon-like elements. Identical locations and identities of insertions are also present in the rainbow trout duplicate elovl5 genes, but not in the nearest extant representative preduplicated teleost, the northern pike. Both elovl5 salmon duplicates possessed conserved regulatory elements that promoted Srebp1- and Srebp2-dependent transcription, and differences in the magnitude of Srebp response between promoters could be attributed to a tandem duplication of SRE and NF-Y cofactor binding sites in elovl5b. Furthermore, an insertion in the promoter region of elovl5a confers responsiveness to Lxr/Rxr transcriptional activation. Our results indicate that most, but not all, transposon mobilisation into elovl5 genes occurred after the split from the common ancestor of pike and salmon, but before more recent salmonid speciations, and that divergence of elovl5 regulatory regions have enabled neofuntionalization by promoting differential expression of these homeologous genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Evolution of Pepsinogen C Genes in Vertebrates: Duplication, Loss and Functional Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Odete; Wilson, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases comprise a large group of enzymes involved in peptide proteolysis. This collection includes prominent enzymes globally categorized as pepsins, which are derived from pepsinogen precursors. Pepsins are involved in gastric digestion, a hallmark of vertebrate physiology. An important member among the pepsinogens is pepsinogen C (Pgc). A particular aspect of Pgc is its apparent single copy status, which contrasts with the numerous gene copies found for example in pepsinogen A (Pga). Although gene sequences with similarity to Pgc have been described in some vertebrate groups, no exhaustive evolutionary framework has been considered so far. Methodology/Principal Findings By combining phylogenetics and genomic analysis, we find an unexpected Pgc diversity in the vertebrate sub-phylum. We were able to reconstruct gene duplication timings relative to the divergence of major vertebrate clades. Before tetrapod divergence, a single Pgc gene tandemly expanded to produce two gene lineages (Pgbc and Pgc2). These have been differentially retained in various classes. Accordingly, we find Pgc2 in sauropsids, amphibians and marsupials, but not in eutherian mammals. Pgbc was retained in amphibians, but duplicated in the ancestor of amniotes giving rise to Pgb and Pgc1. The latter was retained in mammals and probably in reptiles and marsupials but not in birds. Pgb was kept in all of the amniote clade with independent episodes of loss in some mammalian species. Lineage specific expansions of Pgc2 and Pgbc have also occurred in marsupials and amphibians respectively. We find that teleost and tetrapod Pgc genes reside in distinct genomic regions hinting at a possible translocation. Conclusions We conclude that the repertoire of Pgc genes is larger than previously reported, and that tandem duplications have modelled the history of Pgc genes. We hypothesize that gene expansion lead to functional divergence in tetrapods, coincident with the invasion of

  4. Genome Mutational and Transcriptional Hotspots Are Traps for Duplicated Genes and Sources of Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Fares, Mario A; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Toft, Christina

    2017-05-01

    Gene duplication generates new genetic material, which has been shown to lead to major innovations in unicellular and multicellular organisms. A whole-genome duplication occurred in the ancestor of Saccharomyces yeast species but 92% of duplicates returned to single-copy genes shortly after duplication. The persisting duplicated genes in Saccharomyces led to the origin of major metabolic innovations, which have been the source of the unique biotechnological capabilities in the Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. What factors have determined the fate of duplicated genes remains unknown. Here, we report the first demonstration that the local genome mutation and transcription rates determine the fate of duplicates. We show, for the first time, a preferential location of duplicated genes in the mutational and transcriptional hotspots of S. cerevisiae genome. The mechanism of duplication matters, with whole-genome duplicates exhibiting different preservation trends compared to small-scale duplicates. Genome mutational and transcriptional hotspots are rich in duplicates with large repetitive promoter elements. Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows more tolerance to deleterious mutations in duplicates with repetitive promoter elements, which in turn exhibit higher transcriptional plasticity against environmental perturbations. Our data demonstrate that the genome traps duplicates through the accelerated regulatory and functional divergence of their gene copies providing a source of novel adaptations in yeast. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to a State for expenditures for child health assistance under its State child health plan to the... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section 457.626 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  6. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to a State for expenditures for child health assistance under its State child health plan to the... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section 457.626 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to a State for expenditures for child health assistance under its State child health plan to the... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section 457.626 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to a State for expenditures for child health assistance under its State child health plan to the... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section 457.626 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  9. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to a State for expenditures for child health assistance under its State child health plan to the... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section 457.626 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. A Manual for Implementation of ABC Video Duplication Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joseph, Ed.

    The ABC (Appalachian BOCES Consortium) consists of 10 BOCES (Boards of Cooperative Educational Services) which serve the 14 southern counties of New York State designated as Appalachia. Each year since 1974, the ABC has participated in regional video duplication projects, which have yielded a total of nearly 4,000 video titles. The complexity of…

  11. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) Unless a qualifying MA EP is entitled to a maximum payment for a year under the Medicare FFS EHR incentive program, payment for such an individual is only made under the MA EHR incentive program...

  12. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) CMS requires a qualifying MA organization that registers MA EPs for the purpose of participating in the MA EHR Incentive Program to notify each of the MA EPs for which it is claiming an incentive...

  13. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) Unless a qualifying MA EP is entitled to a maximum payment for a year under the Medicare FFS EHR incentive program, payment for such an individual is only made under the MA EHR incentive program...

  14. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) Unless a qualifying MA EP is entitled to a maximum payment for a year under the Medicare FFS EHR incentive program, payment for such an individual is only made under the MA EHR incentive program...

  15. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) CMS requires a qualifying MA organization that registers MA EPs for the purpose of participating in the MA EHR Incentive Program to notify each of the MA EPs for which it is claiming an incentive...

  16. Duplication of lower lip and mandible--a rare diprosopus.

    PubMed

    Suhaili, D N Pengiran; Somasundaram, S; Lau, S H; Ajura, A J; Roslan, A R; Ramli, R

    2011-01-01

    Diprosopus or duplication of the lower lip and mandible is a very rare congenital anomaly. We report this unusual case occurring in a girl who presented to our hospital at the age of 4 months. Surgery and problems related to this anomaly are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 49 CFR 24.3 - No duplication of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No duplication of payments. 24.3 Section 24.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY... law, or insurance proceeds which is determined by the Agency to have the same purpose and effect as...

  18. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most wide...

  19. 24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF AREA 'B' HOLSTON ORDNANCE WORKS.' 1944. #OCMH 4-12.2ASAV3 in Super Explosives Program RDX and Its Composition A, B, & C, Record Group No. 319, National Archives, Washington, D.C. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  20. 7 CFR 701.11 - Prohibition on duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Duplicate payments. Participants are not eligible to receive funding under the ECP for land on which the participant has or will receive funding under: (1) The Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) provided for in 7 CFR..., or, in effect, a higher rate of cost share than is allowed under this part. (b) Refund. Participants...

  1. 48 CFR 1352.231-71 - Duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duplication of effort. 1352.231-71 Section 1352.231-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES... benefit of the Government, and not incidental to any other work, pursuit, research, or purpose of the...

  2. Various origins of the duplicated middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Tutar, Nihal Uslu; Töre, Hüseyin Gürkan; Kirbaş, Ismail; Tarhan, Nefise Cağla; Coşkun, Mehmet

    2008-10-01

    We describe the features of a duplicated middle cerebral artery identified by computed tomographic angiography that originates from a previously undefined origin, ie, from the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery. Recognition of this anomaly is important in patients with a possible aneurysm, which was not present in our patient.

  3. The Evolutionary Fates of a Large Segmental Duplication in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Andrew P.; Holt, J. Matthew; McMullan, Rachel C.; Bell, Timothy A.; Clayshulte, Amelia M.-F.; Didion, John P.; Yadgary, Liran; Thybert, David; Odom, Duncan T.; Flicek, Paul; McMillan, Leonard; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication and loss are major sources of genetic polymorphism in populations, and are important forces shaping the evolution of genome content and organization. We have reconstructed the origin and history of a 127-kbp segmental duplication, R2d, in the house mouse (Mus musculus). R2d contains a single protein-coding gene, Cwc22. De novo assembly of both the ancestral (R2d1) and the derived (R2d2) copies reveals that they have been subject to nonallelic gene conversion events spanning tens of kilobases. R2d2 is also a hotspot for structural variation: its diploid copy number ranges from zero in the mouse reference genome to >80 in wild mice sampled from around the globe. Hemizygosity for high copy-number alleles of R2d2 is associated in cis with meiotic drive; suppression of meiotic crossovers; and copy-number instability, with a mutation rate in excess of 1 per 100 transmissions in some laboratory populations. Our results provide a striking example of allelic diversity generated by duplication and demonstrate the value of de novo assembly in a phylogenetic context for understanding the mutational processes affecting duplicate genes. PMID:27371833

  4. 40 CFR 25.13 - Coordination and non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination and non-duplication. 25.13 Section 25.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAMS UNDER THE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER...

  5. 40 CFR 25.13 - Coordination and non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination and non-duplication. 25.13 Section 25.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAMS UNDER THE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER...

  6. 7 CFR 27.41 - Lost certificate; duplicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.41 Lost certificate; duplicate. Upon the written request of the last holder of a valid cotton class... cotton and without a new Micronaire determination for the cotton. Such new certificate shall bear the...

  7. 7 CFR 27.41 - Lost certificate; duplicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.41 Lost certificate; duplicate. Upon the written request of the last holder of a valid cotton class... cotton and without a new Micronaire determination for the cotton. Such new certificate shall bear the...

  8. 7 CFR 27.41 - Lost certificate; duplicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.41 Lost certificate; duplicate. Upon the written request of the last holder of a valid cotton class... cotton and without a new Micronaire determination for the cotton. Such new certificate shall bear the...

  9. 47 CFR 76.1508 - Network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1508 Network non-duplication. (a) Sections 76.92 through 76.97 shall apply to open video systems in accordance with the provisions contained... unit” shall apply to an open video system or that portion of an open video system that operates or will...

  10. 47 CFR 76.1508 - Network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1508 Network non-duplication. (a) Sections 76.92 through 76.97 shall apply to open video systems in accordance with the provisions contained... unit” shall apply to an open video system or that portion of an open video system that operates or will...

  11. 47 CFR 76.1508 - Network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1508 Network non-duplication. (a) Sections 76.92 through 76.97 shall apply to open video systems in accordance with the provisions contained... unit” shall apply to an open video system or that portion of an open video system that operates or will...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1508 - Network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1508 Network non-duplication. (a) Sections 76.92 through 76.97 shall apply to open video systems in accordance with the provisions contained... unit” shall apply to an open video system or that portion of an open video system that operates or will...

  13. Verification and characterization of chromosome duplication in haploid maize.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Couto, E G; Resende Von Pinho, E V; Von Pinho, R G; Veiga, A D; de Carvalho, M R; de Oliveira Bustamante, F; Nascimento, M S

    2015-06-26

    Doubled haploid technology has been used by various private companies. However, information regarding chromosome duplication methodologies, particularly those concerning techniques used to identify duplication in cells, is limited. Thus, we analyzed and characterized artificially doubled haploids using microsatellites molecular markers, pollen viability, and flow cytometry techniques. Evaluated material was obtained using two different chromosome duplication protocols in maize seeds considered haploids, resulting from the cross between the haploid inducer line KEMS and 4 hybrids (GNS 3225, GNS 3032, GNS 3264, and DKB 393). Fourteen days after duplication, plant samples were collected and assessed by flow cytometry. Further, the plants were transplanted to a field, and samples were collected for DNA analyses using microsatellite markers. The tassels were collected during anthesis for pollen viability analyses. Haploid, diploid, and mixoploid individuals were detected using flow cytometry, demonstrating that this technique was efficient for identifying doubled haploids. The microsatellites markers were also efficient for confirming the ploidies preselected by flow cytometry and for identifying homozygous individuals. Pollen viability showed a significant difference between the evaluated ploidies when the Alexander and propionic-carmin stains were used. The viability rates between the plodies analyzed show potential for fertilization.

  14. Cryptorchidism due to chromosome 5q inversion duplication.

    PubMed

    Dutta, M K; Gundgurthi, A; Garg, M K; Pakhetr, R

    2013-12-01

    We present a 15 year old boy who was born out of a non consanguineous marriage, and presented with bilateral cryptorchidism, mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism with failure of anatomical and biochemical localisation of testes. Karyotype analysis showed 46 XY with inverted duplication on chromosome 5q22-31.

  15. Painful ovulation in a 46,XX SRY −ve adult male with SOX9 duplication

    PubMed Central

    Kean, Anne-Maree; Ewans, Lisa; Ohnesorg, Thomas; Ayers, Katie L; Watson, Geoff; Vasilaras, Arthur; Sinclair, Andrew H; Twigg, Stephen M; Handelsman, David J

    2017-01-01

    46,XX disorders of sexual development (DSDs) occur rarely and result from disruptions of the genetic pathways underlying gonadal development and differentiation. We present a case of a young phenotypic male with 46,XX SRY-negative ovotesticular DSD resulting from a duplication upstream of SOX9 presenting with a painful testicular mass resulting from ovulation into an ovotestis. We present a literature review of ovulation in phenotypic men and discuss the role of SRY and SOX9 in testicular development, including the role of SOX9 upstream enhancer region duplication in female-to-male sex reversal. Learning points: In mammals, the early gonad is bipotent and can differentiate into either a testis or an ovary. SRY is the master switch in testis determination, responsible for differentiation of the bipotent gonad into testis. SRY activates SOX9 gene, SOX9 as a transcription factor is the second major gene involved in male sex determination. SOX9 drives the proliferation of Sertoli cells and activates AMH/MIS repressing the ovary. SOX9 is sufficient to induce testis formation and can substitute for SRY function. Assessing karyotype and then determination of the presence or absence of Mullerian structures are necessary serial investigations in any case of DSD, except for mixed gonadal dysgenesis identified by karyotype alone. Treatment is ideal in a multidisciplinary setting with considerations to genetic (implications to family and reproductive recurrence risk), psychological aspects (sensitive individualized counseling including patient gender identity and preference), endocrinological (hormone replacement), surgical (cosmetic, prophylactic gonadectomy) fertility preservation and reproductive opportunities and metabolic health (cardiovascular and bones). PMID:28620497

  16. Painful ovulation in a 46,XX SRY -ve adult male with SOX9 duplication.

    PubMed

    Shankara Narayana, Nandini; Kean, Anne-Maree; Ewans, Lisa; Ohnesorg, Thomas; Ayers, Katie L; Watson, Geoff; Vasilaras, Arthur; Sinclair, Andrew H; Twigg, Stephen M; Handelsman, David J

    2017-01-01

    46,XX disorders of sexual development (DSDs) occur rarely and result from disruptions of the genetic pathways underlying gonadal development and differentiation. We present a case of a young phenotypic male with 46,XX SRY-negative ovotesticular DSD resulting from a duplication upstream of SOX9 presenting with a painful testicular mass resulting from ovulation into an ovotestis. We present a literature review of ovulation in phenotypic men and discuss the role of SRY and SOX9 in testicular development, including the role of SOX9 upstream enhancer region duplication in female-to-male sex reversal. In mammals, the early gonad is bipotent and can differentiate into either a testis or an ovary. SRY is the master switch in testis determination, responsible for differentiation of the bipotent gonad into testis.SRY activates SOX9 gene, SOX9 as a transcription factor is the second major gene involved in male sex determination. SOX9 drives the proliferation of Sertoli cells and activates AMH/MIS repressing the ovary. SOX9 is sufficient to induce testis formation and can substitute for SRY function.Assessing karyotype and then determination of the presence or absence of Mullerian structures are necessary serial investigations in any case of DSD, except for mixed gonadal dysgenesis identified by karyotype alone.Treatment is ideal in a multidisciplinary setting with considerations to genetic (implications to family and reproductive recurrence risk), psychological aspects (sensitive individualized counseling including patient gender identity and preference), endocrinological (hormone replacement), surgical (cosmetic, prophylactic gonadectomy) fertility preservation and reproductive opportunities and metabolic health (cardiovascular and bones).

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment ba