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Sample records for dural puncture headache

  1. Puerperal seizures associated with post dural puncture headache.

    PubMed

    Rice, I; Mountfield, J; Radhakrishnan, D; Nelson-Piercy, C

    2003-04-01

    We present a case of tonic-clonic seizure occurring on day four post partum and associated with severe post dural puncture headache. The possible underlying aetiologies of this and two other cases we have managed and the difficulty distinguishing such seizures from eclampsia are discussed.

  2. Relief of postural post dural puncture headache by an epidural blood patch 12 months after dural puncture.

    PubMed

    Klepstad, P

    1999-10-01

    A 20-year-old previously healthy male presented at the pain clinic with chronic headache of about one year duration. Clinical examination revealed no pathological manifestations. During the consultation the patient was drinking Coca-Cola. On direct questioning he told that drinking Coca-Cola gave partial relief from the headache, and that the headache started after he had received two spinal anaesthetics for treatment of a lower leg fracture. Postural post dural puncture headache was now suspected and an epidural blood patch performed. Despite an interval of nearly 12 months since the dural punctures, a single epidural blood patch completely relieved the headache. This case history demonstrates that an epidural blood patch should be tried if a chronic post dural puncture headache is suspected.

  3. Management of accidental dural puncture and post-dural puncture headache after labour: a Nordic survey.

    PubMed

    Darvish, B; Gupta, A; Alahuhta, S; Dahl, V; Helbo-Hansen, S; Thorsteinsson, A; Irestedt, L; Dahlgren, G

    2011-01-01

    a major risk with epidural analgesia is accidental dural puncture (ADP), which may result in post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). This survey was conducted to explore the incidence of ADP, the policy for management of PDPH and the educational practices in epidural analgesia during labour in the Nordic countries. a postal questionnaire was sent to the anaesthesiologist responsible for Obstetric anaesthesia service in all maternity units (n=153) with questions relating to the year 2008. the overall response rate was 93%. About 32% (22-47%) of parturients received epidural analgesia for labour. There were databases for registering obstetric epidural complications in 13% of Danish, 24% of Norwegian and Swedish, 43% of Finnish and 100% of hospitals in Iceland. The estimated incidence of ADP was 1% (n approximately 900). Epidural blood patch (EBP) was performed in 86% (n≈780) of the parturients. The most common time interval from diagnosis to performing EBP was 24-48 h. The success rate for EBP was >75% in 67% (62-79%) of hospitals. The use of diagnostic CT/MRI before the first or the second EBP was exceptional. No major complication was reported. Teaching of epidurals was commonest (86%) in the non-obstetric population and 53% hospitals desired a formal training programme in obstetric analgesia. we found the incidence of ADP to be approximately 1%. EBP was the commonest method used for its management, and the success rate was high in most hospitals. Formal training in epidural analgesia was absent in most countries and trainees first performed it in the non-obstetric population. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  4. Drug therapy for treating post-dural puncture headache.

    PubMed

    Basurto Ona, Xavier; Osorio, Dimelza; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier

    2015-07-15

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 8, 2011, on 'Drug therapy for treating post-dural puncture headache'.Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is the most common complication of lumbar puncture, an invasive procedure frequently performed in the emergency room. Numerous pharmaceutical drugs have been proposed to treat PDPH but there are still some uncertainties about their clinical effectiveness. To assess the effectiveness and safety of drugs for treating PDPH in adults and children. The searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE and MEDLINE in Process (from 1950 to 29 July 2014), EMBASE (from 1980 to 29 July 2014) and CINAHL (from 1982 to July 2014). There were no language restrictions. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effectiveness of any pharmacological drug used for treating PDPH. Outcome measures considered for this review were: PDPH persistence of any severity at follow-up (primary outcome), daily activity limited by headache, conservative supplementary therapeutic option offered, epidural blood patch performed, change in pain severity scores, improvements in pain severity scores, number of days participants stay in hospital, any possible adverse events and missing data. Review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes. We calculated a 95% confidence interval (CI) for each RR and MD. We did not undertake meta-analysis because the included studies assessed different sorts of drugs or different outcomes. We performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. We included 13 small RCTs (479 participants) in this review (at least 274 participants were women, with 118 parturients after a lumbar puncture for regional anaesthesia). In the original version of this Cochrane review, only seven small RCTs

  5. Persistent post-dural-puncture headache treated with epidural infusion of dextran.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, J A

    1994-05-01

    A retrospective review was done on medical records of 13 patients with persistent post-dural-puncture headaches after one or more epidural blood patches. Headache occurred in nine patients with post-laminectomy syndrome after "wet taps" while performing epidural blocks. In two patients post-dural-puncture headache appeared after long term implanted intrathecal catheters were removed. In two other cases headache developed after spinal anesthesia. Treatment included bed rest, intravenous hydration and at least one epidural blood patch; three patients were given 60 milliliters of epidural saline, without success. Eight epidural catheters were inserted through the lumbar access and five through the caudal approach. Initially, a bolus of 20 milliliters of dextran-40 was given followed by an infusion of 3 mL/hr, until 12 hours after the head pain and any other related symptoms subsided. In all patients the headache disappeared within 20 hours after initiating therapy (9.55 mean hours, SD +/- 0.79). In five patients headache ceased in less than five hours. Nausea and photo-phobia subsided earlier. Patients with post-dural-puncture headache resistant to other treatments, including at least one epidural blood patch, were successfully treated by a bolus followed by continuous epidural infusion of dextran-40.

  6. Theophylline versus acetaminophen in the treatment of post-dural puncture headache (PDPH).

    PubMed

    Mahoori, Alireza; Hassani, Ebrahim; Noroozinia, Heydar; Javaheri, Negin; Hatami, Sanaz

    2013-10-01

    Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is the most frequent complication of procedures associated with dural puncture for spinal anesthesia or following accidental dural puncture during epidural anesthesia. Since invasive treatments have known complications, pharmacologic management may be preferable. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of theophylline and Acetaminophen in treatment of PDPH. In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 patients with Class I physical status according to ASA classification system, who suffered from PDPH were enrolled. Patients in Theophylline group were received theophylline tablet 250 mg three times per day, and in the other group acetaminophen 500 mg three times per day was administered. Pain intensity was assessed 2, 6, and 12 hour after drug administration using 0-10 cm Visual Analog Scale. The main VAS values is significantly lower in theophylline group in comparison with the acetaminophen group at 2 (5 +/- 1.57 vs. 5.97 +/- 1.27), 6 (3.43 +/- 1.73 vs. 4.33 +/- 1.49), and 12 (2.67 +/- 2.35 vs. 4.24 +/- 1.97) hours after drug administration (p < 0.05). No adverse effects were reported. Theophylline is a safe and effective treatment for PDPH. It may be tried in PDPH patients before using any invasive technique. Further investigations studying other Methylxanthines are recommended as well.

  7. Post Dural Puncture Headache in Fibromyalgia after Cesarean Section: A Comparative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Khalid M; Osman, Ayman M; Shaaban, Omar M; El-Hammady, Dina H

    2016-07-01

    Patients of chronic pain syndromes like fibromyalgia (FMS) when subjected to spinal anesthesia are theoretically more liable to post dural puncture headache (PDPH) as they have enhanced central nervous system sensitization and decreased descending inhibition. The current study aims to verify the incidence and chronicity of PDPH in FMS patients. Case control study. In a comparative control study, 70 fibromyalgia patients were scheduled for an elective cesarean delivery fibromyalgia group or Group 1. Group 2 included 70 women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery who had no history of chronic pain and is used as a control group. Both groups were compared regarding the incidence of development of PDPH in the first postoperative 48 hours and the persistence of PDPH for 7 days or more. Women's Health Hospital, Assiut University, antenatal Clinic. The fibromyalgia group reported more PDPH (18 patients, 25.7%) as compared to the control group (10 patients, 14.3%), P < 0.01. PDPH persisted for 7 or more days in 8 patients in the fibromyalgia group (11.4%) while, it persisted in 2.86% of the control patients. PDPH continued for more than 3 months in 2 patients in the fibromyalgia group (2.86%). Difficulty in calculating the dose of analgesics as patients with fibromyalgia may use other analgesics due to musculoskeletal pain. Dural puncture increases the incidence of PDPH in fibromyalgia patients in comparison with normal controls without increasing other postoperative side effects.

  8. Needle gauge and tip designs for preventing post-dural puncture headache (PDPH).

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Muñoz, Luis; Godoy-Casasbuenas, Natalia; Ciapponi, Agustín; Arevalo, Jimmy J; Boogaard, Sabine; Roqué I Figuls, Marta

    2017-04-07

    Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the most common complications of diagnostic and therapeutic lumbar punctures. PDPH is defined as any headache occurring after a lumbar puncture that worsens within 15 minutes of sitting or standing and is relieved within 15 minutes of the patient lying down. Researchers have suggested many types of interventions to help prevent PDPH. It has been suggested that aspects such as needle tip and gauge can be modified to decrease the incidence of PDPH. To assess the effects of needle tip design (traumatic versus atraumatic) and diameter (gauge) on the prevention of PDPH in participants who have undergone dural puncture for diagnostic or therapeutic causes. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and LILACS, as well as trial registries via the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal in September 2016. We adopted the MEDLINE strategy for searching the other databases. The search terms we used were a combination of thesaurus-based and free-text terms for both interventions (lumbar puncture in neurological, anaesthesia or myelography settings) and headache. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in any clinical/research setting where dural puncture had been used in participants of all ages and both genders, which compared different tip designs or diameters for prevention of PDPH DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 70 studies in the review; 66 studies with 17,067 participants were included in the quantitative analysis. An additional 18 studies are awaiting classification and 12 are ongoing. Fifteen of the 18 studies awaiting classification mainly correspond to congress summaries published before 2010, in which the available information does not allow the complete evaluation of all their risks of bias and characteristics. Our main outcome was prevention of PDPH, but we also

  9. [Bilateral greater occipital nerve block for treatment of post-dural puncture headache after caesarean operations].

    PubMed

    Uyar Türkyilmaz, Esra; Eryilmaz, Nuray Camgöz; Güzey, Nihan Aydin; Moraloğlu, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is an important complication of neuroaxial anesthesia and more frequently noted in pregnant women. The pain is described as severe, disturbing and its location is usually fronto-occipital. The conservative treatment of PDPH consists of bed rest, fluid theraphy, analgesics and caffeine. Epidural blood patch is gold standard theraphy but it is an invasive method. The greater occipital nerve (GON) is formed of sensory fibers that originate in the C2 and C3 segments of the spinal cord and it is the main sensory nerve of the occipital region. GON blockage has been used for the treatment of many kinds of headache. The aim of this retrospective study is to present the results of PDPH treated with GON block over 1 year period in our institute. 16 patients who had been diagnosed to have PDPH, and performed GON block after caesarean operations were included in the study. GON blocks were performed as the first treatment directly after diagnose of the PDPH with levobupivacaine and dexamethasone. The mean VAS score of the patients was 8.75 (±0.93) before the block; 3.87 (±1.78) 10min after the block; 1.18 (±2.04) 2h after the block and 2.13 (±1.64) 24h after the block. No adverse effects were observed. Treatment of PDPH with GON block seems to be a minimal invasive, easy and effective method especially after caesarean operations. A GON block may be considered before the application of a blood patch. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral greater occipital nerve block for treatment of post-dural puncture headache after caesarean operations.

    PubMed

    Uyar Türkyilmaz, Esra; Camgöz Eryilmaz, Nuray; Aydin Güzey, Nihan; Moraloğlu, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is an important complication of neuroaxial anesthesia and more frequently noted in pregnant women. The pain is described as severe, disturbing and its location is usually fronto-occipital. The conservative treatment of PDPH consists of bed rest, fluid theraphy, analgesics and caffeine. Epidural blood patch is gold standard theraphy but it is an invasive method. The greater occipital nerve (GON) is formed of sensory fibers that originate in the C2 and C3 segments of the spinal cord and it is the main sensory nerve of the occipital region. GON blockage has been used for the treatment of many kinds of headache. The aim of this retrospective study is to present the results of PDPH treated with GON block over 1 year period in our institute. 16 patients who had been diagnosed to have PDPH, and performed GON block after caesarean operations were included in the study. GON blocks were performed as the first treatment directly after diagnose of the PDPH with levobupivacaine and dexamethasone. The mean VAS score of the patients was 8.75 (±0.93) before the block; 3.87 (±1.78) 10min after the block; 1.18 (±2.04) 2h after the block and 2.13 (±1.64) 24h after the block. No adverse effects were observed. Treatment of PDPH with GON block seems to be a minimal invasive, easy and effective method especially after caesarean operations. A GON block may be considered before the application of a blood patch. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Postdural puncture headache in paediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Burt, N; Dorman, B H; Reeves, S T; Rust, P F; Pinosky, M L; Abboud, M R; Barredo, J C; Laver, J H

    1998-08-01

    Previous studies have not determined the correlation between dural puncture and postural headache in paediatric patients. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the correlation between atypical headache and dural puncture in the paediatric population. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the incidence of typical postdural puncture headache (PDPHA) and atypical headache in paediatric oncology patients following dural puncture. The study population consisted of 66 paediatric patients undergoing 128 consecutive procedures, including 99 lumbar punctures and 29 bone marrow aspirations without concomitant lumbar puncture. Patients were prospectively randomized into four groups: Group I, preteens (< 13 yr) undergoing lumbar puncture, Group II, adolescents (13-21 yr) undergoing lumbar puncture, Group III, preteens undergoing bone marrow aspiration, and Group IV, adolescents undergoing bone marrow aspiration. The presence and description of headache was documented immediately after dural puncture or bone marrow aspiration, and on post-procedure days # 1, 3 and 5 by personnel blinded to the type of procedure. There was an increase in the incidence of headache (9.1%) after lumbar puncture in patients < 21 yr relative to patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration (P < 0.05). No difference was found between the incidence of typical PDPHA after dural puncture in preteens and adolescents. There was also no difference in the incidence of atypical headache after dural puncture or after bone marrow aspiration among preteens and adolescents. Paediatric patients experience an increased incidence of typical postdural puncture headache after dural puncture compared with age-matched patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration only. Atypical headache is relatively common in the paediatric population after dural puncture or bone marrow aspiration.

  12. Postdural puncture headache

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication after inadvertent dural puncture. Risks factors include female sex, young age, pregnancy, vaginal delivery, low body mass index, and being a non-smoker. Needle size, design, and the technique used also affect the risk. Because PDPH can be incapacitating, prompt diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. A diagnostic hallmark of PDPH is a postural headache that worsens with sitting or standing, and improves with lying down. Conservative therapies such as bed rest, hydration, and caffeine are commonly used as prophylaxis and treatment for this condition; however, no substantial evidence supports routine bed rest and aggressive hydration. An epidural blood patch is the most effective treatment option for patients with unsuccessful conservative management. Various other prophylactic and treatment interventions have been suggested. However, due to a lack of conclusive evidence supporting their use, the potential benefits of such interventions should be weighed carefully against the risks. This article reviews the current literature on the diagnosis, risk factors, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of PDPH. PMID:28367283

  13. Prolonged post-dural puncture headache in a patient during treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor: a case report and animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takashi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Kitaoka, Noriko; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of prolonged post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) in a patient with panic disorder. A 41-year-old woman received spinal anesthesia for interstitial cystitis. She noticed headache after surgery but did not report it to her doctor. As her headache worsened, she was readmitted to the hospital and diagnosed with PDPH 1 month after surgery. She had panic disorder, controlled by treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, sertraline. Conservative treatments were performed for 1 week, but her headache persisted. Successful resolution of PDPH was achieved following two epidural blood patch applications. A recent study showed that the duration of PDPH was prolonged with a history of depression. Therefore, we conducted a reverse translational experiment to investigate the effects of sertraline on the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats. Our results demonstrated that a clinically relevant dose of sertraline decreased the production of CSF. Our findings imply that treatment with sertraline may have contributed to the development of prolonged PDPH in this case.

  14. A new approach using high volume blood patch for prevention of post-dural puncture headache following intrathecal catheter pump exchange

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Susanne; Vielhaber, Stefan; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Abdulla, Walied

    2015-01-01

    Background: In an observational study, complications of intrathecal catheter pumps necessitating surgical exchange were analyzed. Also the use of a high-volume prophylactic epidural blood patch (EBP) during surgery for preventing post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) with a follow-up for 1 year is described. Materials and Methods: In 22 patients with refractory chronic pain of cancer/noncancer origin or severe spasticity, who were receiving intrathecal morphine including adjuvants or baclofen for symptom relief, catheter exchange with or without pump was performed. In patients with documented symptoms of PDPH following initial intrathecal catheter implantation, a prophylactic EBP with a high blood volume was used for PDPH prevention during surgery. Catheters were replaced using 40 mL EBP before entering dural space at a speed of 5mL/min into the epidural space. Patients were asked to quantify pain experience and functional ability. Results: From a sample of 72 patients admitted for catheter exchange with or without pump, 22 patients (33%) (12 male, 10 female) had a history of PDPH following initial implantation. Diagnostic and therapeutic measures occurring with malfunction of intrathecal catheter pump systems were described. Twenty-one patients were successfully treated with prophylactic EBP, while one patient could not be properly evaluated because of intracranial bleeding as the underlying disease. Conclusions: A new approach using a high-volume prophylactic EBP for preventing PDPH following catheter exchange is presented. The efficacy and safety of this technique for 1 year follow-up have been evaluated and was found to be safe and potentially effective. PMID:26157652

  15. Finer gauge of cutting but not pencil-point needles correlate with lower incidence of post-dural puncture headache: a meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-Vaca, Andres; Healy, Ryan; Zorrilla-Vaca, Carolina

    2016-10-01

    Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a well-known neurological outcome caused by leakage of cerebrospinal fluid during neuraxial anesthesia. Studies aimed at assessing the efficacy of finer gauged spinal needles to reduce the incidence of PDPH have produced conflicting results. We have therefore examined the effect of the gauge of cutting needles and pencil-point needles, separately, on the incidence of PDPH. The PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases were searched for randomized studies which compared PDPH incidence in a head-to-head analysis of individual needle gauges of similar needle designs (cutting and pencil-point). A meta-regression analysis was performed taking into account various covariates, such as needle gauge and design, mean age of patient population, surgery type, percentage of males and females in study population and year of publication. Of the 22 studies (n = 5631) included in the analysis, 12 (n = 3148) and ten (n = 2483) compared different gauges of cutting needles and pencil-point needles, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, meta-regression analysis was performed for all studies that randomly compared individual needle gauges of similar needle design. Whereas the incidence of PDPH inversely correlated with gauge in cutting needles (β = -1.36 % per gauge, P = 0.037), no relationship was noted in pencil-point needles (β = -0.32 % per gauge, P = 0.114). Female gender was the only covariate that reached a statistically significant correlation with the incidence of PDPH in both models. A significant relationship between needle gauge and subsequent rate of PDPH was noted in cutting needles, but not pencil-point needles.

  16. Puncture technique and postural postdural puncture headache. A randomised, double-blind study comparing transverse and parallel puncture.

    PubMed

    Flaatten, H; Thorsen, T; Askeland, B; Finne, M; Rosland, J; Hansen, T; Rønhovde, K; Wisborg, T

    1998-11-01

    This clinical study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of two different orientations of the bevel during dural puncture on development of postural postdural puncture headache (PPDPH). Two hundred and eighteen patients aged 18 to 50 years scheduled for minor non-obstetric surgery using spinal anaesthesia (SA) were included in this randomised, double-blind study. Dural puncture was performed using a 0.42 mm O.D. (27-g) Quincke spinal needle with the orientation of the bevel parallel or transverse relative to the longitudinal axis of the dural cylinder. All patients were blinded with regard to the puncture technique, and so was the anaesthesiologist performing a telephone interview 5 to 7 days postoperatively. The occurrence and duration of headache, backache and other complaints were recorded. Headache was classified as PPDPH or non-PPDPH, and intensity of the headache was registered using a numerical rating scale (NRS) from 0 to 10. Two hundred and twelve patients with a mean age of 35.3 years completed the study, 106 in each group. The two groups were comparable with regard to mean age, sex, local anaesthetics used and surgical procedure performed. Headache occurred in 44 patients postoperatively. PPDPH was diagnosed in 4/106 patients (3.8%) in the parallel group and 24/106 (22.6%) in the transverse group (P < 0.0002). Postoperative backache occurred in 31 and 20 patients (parallel compared to transverse) (NS). Dural puncture with the bevel of the needle transverse to the longitudinal axis of the dural cylinder gave significantly more cases of PPDPH than puncture with the bevel parallel to this axis even when using a 27-g Quincke needle. When using Quincke bevelled needles care must be taken to assure that the orientation of the bevel is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the dural sac.

  17. Postdural puncture headache and pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Zencirci, Beyazit

    2010-01-01

    Background: Even if carried out under optimal conditions, postdural puncture headache is still a frustrating and unpleasant complication in spinal anesthesia. This syndrome has an estimated incidence from less than 1% to about 5% of patients undergoing spinal anesthesia, even in the highest risk subset, the young, female, and pregnant population. Case presentation: In our two female cases, headaches started following spinal anesthesia on the 11th and 14th hours, respectively. No response was obtained from patients diagnosed with postdural puncture headache with classical treatments such as bed rest, hydration, oral analgesic, and caffeine combination as well as intravenous theophylline application. The treatment of oral pregablin, commonly used for cases that rejected epidural blood patch, caused a significant decrease in headache severity. Later, the two cases whose headaches were completely resolved were discharged from the hospital on the post-operative 7th day. Conclusion: Postdural puncture headache is one of the most common complications of spinal anesthesia. Cerebral spinal fluid leakage into the epidural space has been proposed as the main mechanism responsible for this syndrome. Multiple methods of treatment have been applied with wide-ranging results. We detected that oral pregabalin application caused a significant decrease in the difficult and severe postdural puncture headaches of both our cases who did not respond to conventional treatments. PMID:21197305

  18. Intrathecal Catheterization by Epidural Catheter: Management of Accidental Dural Puncture and Prophylaxis of PDPH.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Ashok; Chakraborty, Swastika; Sinha, Neelam; Agrawal, Rajiv

    2009-02-01

    Accidental or inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anaesthesia results in high incidence of post dural puncture headache (PDPH). Spinal or intrathecal catheter in such a situation, provides a conduit for administration of appropriate local anaesthetic for rapid onset of intraoperative surgical anaesthesia and postoperative pain relief. This procedure prevents PDPH if catheter left in situ for > 24 hrs and also avoids the associated risks with a repeat attempts at epidural analgesia. Primary aim of this study was to observe the effect of spinal catheter on incidence of PDPH, and to assess early and delayed complications of spinal catheterization by epidural catheter. In prospective clinical study 34 patients who had accidental dural puncture during epidural anaesthesia were included. The catheter meant for epidural use was inserted in spinal space and used for spinal anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Catheter was removed between 24-36hrs after surgery. The incidence of accidental dural puncture was 4%(34/846). Two patients 5.88% (2/34) had transient paresthesia during spinal catheter insertion. Post dural puncture headache occurred in 11.76% (4/34) patients. Two patients required epidural blood patch and two patients were managed with conservative treatment. No patient had any serious intraoperative or postoperative side effects. Epidural catheter can be used as spinal catheter to manage accidental dural puncture without serious complications, and it also prevents PDPH.

  19. Postdural puncture headache.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Raul; Copenhaver, David

    2013-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions, analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The causes and presentation of postdural headache is described in response to a query from a patient about this syndrome and its management. The normal clinical course and management using a blood patch are discussed.

  20. Effect of dexamethasone on the incidence of post-dural puncture headache after spinal anesthesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Li, Dong-Liang; Dong, Ping; Zhang, Xi-Yan; Zhang, Li; Yu, Jin-Gui

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) after spinal anesthesia has not been well elucidated. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in patients undergoing a cesarean at the Qilu Hospital, Shandong University. The subjects were randomly divided into a placebo and a dexamethasone group. The incidences of PDPH on the first, second, third and seventh postoperative day were studied, and the severity of PDPH was assessed using a visual analog scale. Studies in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library database were searched and included in the present meta-analysis. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using random-effects models. We included 307 participants in the dexamethasone group and 309 in the placebo group for analysis. The results indicated that prophylactic administration of 8 mg dexamethasone did not have any protective effect against PDPH (31 vs. 18, P = 0.054) and even increased the incidence of PDPH in the first 24 h in parturient patients (25 vs. 11, P = 0.016). Furthermore, the meta-analysis also showed that dexamethasone did not prevent the incidence of PDPH in the postoperative follow-up days (RR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.46-2.38; P = 0.91) and may even have increased the trend in the first 24 h. Prophylactic administration of 8 mg dexamethasone does not have any protective effect against PDPH and may even increase the incidence of PDPH in the first 24 h in patients with spinal anesthesia.

  1. Frovatriptan for the prevention of postdural puncture headache.

    PubMed

    Bussone, G; Tullo, V; d'Onofrio, F; Petretta, V; Curone, M; Frediani, F; Tonini, C; Omboni, S

    2007-07-01

    Efficacy of 5-day treatment with oral frovatriptan 2.5 mg/die for the prophylaxis of post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) was tested in 50 in-patients. A mild headache occurred in 7 (14%) patients for a total of 9 days (p < 0.01 vs. no-PDPH). Most episodes of PDPH occurred in the first days of treatment (only 1 patient had headache at dismissal): 5 patients had only 1 episode, while 2 had headache for 2 consecutive days. No other symptoms were recorded. Occurrence of PDPH in a subgroup of 6 (12%) patients previously submitted to a diagnostic lumbar puncture was also examined: 4 of them reported a PDPH on the previous lumbar puncture in absence of triptans. In only 1 of these 4 patients PDPH recurred under treatment with frovatriptan. In conclusion, our non-randomized open-label study suggests efficacy of oral frovatriptan for PDPH prevention. These results need to be confirmed in a randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

  2. [Unknown intracerebral tumour presenting as brainstem compression following unintentional dural puncture].

    PubMed

    Castro-Castro, J; Figueiredo-González, O; Río-Gómez, A; Carballo-Loureiro, N; Castro-Bouzas, D

    2014-01-01

    A 36-year old primigravid of 41 weeks gestation was admitted to the labour ward. Her past medical history included hyperemesis gravidarum and migraine. An accidental dural puncture occurred during labour epidural analgesia. In the postpartum period she presented with continuous headache, and was treated with oral analgesics, oral caffeine, fluid therapy, and tetracosactide. She refused an epidural blood patch. On the seventh day postpartum, the patient was re-admitted to the Emergency Department with decreased level of consciousness and signs of brainstem compression. Cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a posterior fossa tumour. An emergency craniotomy was performed with complete neurological recovery. This case emphasises the need to consider the differential diagnoses of post-dural puncture headache and to highlight the warning signs in patients who do not respond despite treatment with conventional therapy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. A case of paradoxical presentation of a postural postdural puncture headache after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Bordlee, John W; Beakley, Burton D; Mody, Rayomond; McConville, Anne P; Weed, Jonathan T; McClure, Brian P; Foldes, Peter J; Ma, Jonathan G; Kaye, Alan D; Eskander, Jonathan P

    2017-05-01

    We report a case of paradoxical presentation of a postural postdural puncture headache secondary to dural puncture with a 25-gauge Whitacre needle for combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. This 27-year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with elevated blood pressure and a global headache 9 days after administration of epidural anesthesia for a spontaneous vaginal delivery after an uncomplicated pregnancy. The patient reported that the headache was more intense when lying down and immediately improved when she sat or stood up from a recumbent position. The patient was discharged from emergency department after an improvement following treatment with labetalol, ondansetron, ketorolac, and fluid resuscitation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Responses to dural puncture during institution of combined spinal-epidural analgesia: a comparison of 27 gauge pencil-point and 27 gauge cutting-edge needles.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A A; Ghatge, S; Armendariz, G; Cornelius, D; Wang, S

    2011-03-01

    Pencil-point spinal needles are popular for combined spinal-epidural analgesia because they cause less dural puncture headache than cutting-edge spinal needles. However many parturients move, grimace, vocalise or experience paraesthesia or dysaesthesia during dural puncture when performing 'needle through needle' combined spinal-epidural analgesia. We compared dural puncture responses induced by pencil-point and cutting-edge needles (both 27 gauge). With institutional approval, 115 parturients presenting for elective caesarean section or labour analgesia were audited. After lignocaine infiltration, a Tuohy-type needle was inserted to loss of resistance to saline at a mid-lumbar interspace, and either a 27 gauge cutting-edge or 27 gauge pencil-point needle was inserted 'needle through needle' through the dura. During dural penetration, the occurrence of patient movement, grimacing or vocalisation was noted by a blinded observer, as was the patient's response to the question "Did you feel that?" asked by the anaesthetist. The audit comprised two similar groups of patients (caesarean section, n=30; labour analgesia, n=85). In both groups, grimacing and movement during thecal penetration occurred more frequently with pencil-point needles (P < 0.05 and P < 0.025, respectively). Pooled data analysis revealed that pencil-point and cutting-edge needles induced grimacing and movement in 17 (22%) and 2 (5%), spontaneous vocalisation in 4 (5%) and 1 (3%) and was perceived by 13 (17%) and 3 (8%) parturients (P < 0.025, P=NS, P=NS), respectively. Overall, 34 and 6 objective and subjective patient responses (P < 0.005) occurred when inserting these needles, respectively. Dural puncture by a 27 gauge pencil-point needle inserted 'needle through needle' when instituting combined spinal-epidural analgesia induces more iatrogenic responses than a 27 gauge cutting-edge needle.

  5. Factors Associated With the Onset and Persistence of Post–Lumbar Puncture Headache

    PubMed Central

    Monserrate, Andrés E.; Ryman, Davis C.; Ma, Shengmei; Xiong, Chengjie; Noble, James M.; Ringman, John M.; Morris, John C.; Danek, Adrian; Müller-Sarnowski, Felix; Clifford, David B.; McDade, Eric M.; Brooks, William S.; Darby, David G.; Masters, Colin L.; Weston, Philip S. J.; Farlow, Martin R.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Fagan, Anne M.; Oliver, Angela; Bateman, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE This study assesses factors associated with the most common adverse event following lumbar puncture. OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with the risk, onset, and persistence of post–dural puncture headache (PDPH). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed univariate and multivariable analyses of 338 lumbar punctures in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study using linear mixed models, adjusting for participant-level and family-level random effects. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We directly evaluated associations of 3 post–lumbar puncture outcomes (immediate postprocedural headache, PDPH at 24-hour follow-up, and PDPH receiving a therapeutic blood patch) with participant age and sex, positioning, collection method, needle size, needle insertion site, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume collected. RESULTS The incidence of adverse events included 73 immediate postprocedural headaches (21.6%), 59 PDPHs at 24-hour follow-up (17.5%), and 15 PDPHs receiving a therapeutic blood patch (4.4%). Greater volume of CSF collected was associated with increased risk of immediate postprocedural headache, largely owing to a nonlinear increase in risk on collection of volumes above 30 mL (odds ratio, 3.73 for >30 mL and 0.98 for <17 mL). In contrast, collection of higher volumes showed a protective effect in decreasing rates of PDPH at 24-hour follow-up and rates of PDPH receiving a therapeutic blood patch (odds ratio, 0.35 per 10 mL). Although differences in needle size did not reach statistical significance, no participant in the 24G needle group received a therapeutic blood patch compared to 8 of 253 for the larger 22G needles. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Factors that acutely lower CSF pressure (eg, seated positioning or extracting very high volumes of CSF) may be associated with transient post-lumbar puncture headache, without increasing rates of persistent PDPH or therapeutic blood patch. Collection of up to 30 mL of CSF appears to be

  6. Dangerous Headache: A Case of Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Protein S Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Hari; Deepthi, D Angeline; Singh, Deepak Ningombam; Virupakshappa, Banu; Rahul, R

    2017-01-01

    Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis (DVST) is a sporadic cause of headache. DVST is a recherché complication of maxillary sinus infection. Maxillary sinusitis infection may spread directly to orbit via lamina papyracea and it is expedited by the presence veins of breschet. The authors present a clinical case of dural sinus thrombosis with protein S deficiency and also describe an effective management approach for DVST.

  7. Dangerous Headache: A Case of Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Protein S Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, D Angeline; Singh, Deepak Ningombam; Virupakshappa, Banu; Rahul, R

    2017-01-01

    Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis (DVST) is a sporadic cause of headache. DVST is a recherché complication of maxillary sinus infection. Maxillary sinusitis infection may spread directly to orbit via lamina papyracea and it is expedited by the presence veins of breschet. The authors present a clinical case of dural sinus thrombosis with protein S deficiency and also describe an effective management approach for DVST. PMID:28274079

  8. A randomized trial of dural puncture epidural technique compared with the standard epidural technique for labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Eric; O'Rourke, Nollag; Segal, Scott; Tsen, Lawrence C

    2008-11-01

    We designed this prospective, double-blind, randomized study to examine whether a dural puncture without intrathecal drug administration immediately before epidural drug administration would improve labor analgesia when compared to a traditional epidural technique without prior dural puncture. Eighty nulliparous parturients with cervical dilation less than 5 cm were randomly assigned to receive a standardized epidural technique, with or without a single dural puncture with a 25-gauge (G) Whitacre spinal needle. After successful placement of the needle(s) and the epidural catheter, 12 mL of bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL was administered through the epidural catheter and a patient-controlled epidural infusion of bupivacaine 1.25 mg/mL + fentanyl 2 mug/mL was initiated. The presence of sacral analgesia (S1) and pain scores were compared between groups. In demographically similar groups, parturients with prior dural puncture had more frequent blockade of the S1 dermatome (absolute risk difference [95% confidence interval] 22% [6-39]), more frequent visual analog scale scores <10/100 at 20 min (absolute risk difference 20% [1-38]), and reduced one-sided analgesia (absolute risk difference [95% CI] 17% [2-330]). The highest median sensory level (T10) was no different between groups. Dural puncture with a 25-G spinal needle immediately before the initiation of epidural analgesia improves the sacral spread, onset, and bilateral pain relief produced by analgesic concentrations of bupivacaine with fentanyl in laboring nulliparous patients.

  9. Meningeal norepinephrine produces headache behaviors in rats via actions both on dural afferents and fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaomei; Yan, Jin; Tillu, Dipti; Asiedu, Marina; Weinstein, Nicole; Melemedjian, Ohannes; Price, Theodore; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Background Stress is commonly reported to contribute to migraine although mechanisms by which this may occur are not fully known. The purpose of these studies was to examine whether norepinephrine (NE), the primary sympathetic efferent transmitter, acts on processes in the meninges that may contribute to the pain of migraine. Methods NE was applied to rat dura using a behavioral model of headache. Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglia retrogradely labeled from the dura mater and of rat dural fibroblasts were prepared. Patch-clamp electrophysiology, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to examine the effects of NE. Conditioned media from NE-treated fibroblast cultures was applied to the dura using the behavioral headache model. Results Dural injection both of NE and media from NE-stimulated fibroblasts caused cutaneous facial and hindpaw allodynia in awake rats. NE application to cultured dural afferents increased action potential firing in response to current injections. Application of NE to dural fibroblasts increased phosphorylation of ERK and caused the release of interleukin- 6 (IL-6). Conclusions These data demonstrate that NE can contribute to pro-nociceptive signaling from the meninges via actions on dural afferents and dural fibroblasts. Together, these actions of NE may contribute to the headache phase of migraine. PMID:25601915

  10. Activation of TRPA1 on dural afferents: a potential mechanism of headache pain.

    PubMed

    Edelmayer, Rebecca M; Le, Larry N; Yan, Jin; Wei, Xiaomei; Nassini, Romina; Materazzi, Serena; Preti, Delia; Appendino, Giovanni; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Dodick, David W; Vanderah, Todd W; Porreca, Frank; Dussor, Gregory

    2012-09-01

    Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) on meningeal nerve endings has been suggested to contribute to environmental irritant-induced headache, but this channel may also contribute to other forms of headache, such as migraine. The preclinical studies described here examined functional expression of TRPA1 on dural afferents and investigated whether activation of TRPA1 contributes to headache-like behaviors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in vitro with 2 TRPA1 agonists, mustard oil (MO), and the environmental irritant umbellulone (UMB) on dural-projecting trigeminal ganglion neurons. Application of MO and UMB to dural afferents produced TRPA1-like currents in approximately 42% and 38% of cells, respectively. By means of an established in vivo behavioral model of migraine-related allodynia, dural application of MO and UMB produced robust time-related tactile facial and hind paw allodynia that was attenuated by pretreatment with the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. Additionally, MO or UMB were applied to the dura, and exploratory activity was monitored for 30min with an automated open-field activity chamber. Dural MO and UMB decreased the number of vertical rearing episodes and the time spent rearing in comparison to vehicle-treated animals. This change in activity was prevented in rats pretreated with HC-030031 as well as sumatriptan, a clinically effective antimigraine agent. These data indicate that TRPA1 is expressed on a substantial fraction of dural afferents, and activation of meningeal TRPA1 produces behaviors consistent with those observed in patients during migraine attacks. Further, they suggest that activation of meningeal TRPA1 via endogenous or exogenous mechanisms can lead to afferent signaling and headache.

  11. Do the gaps in the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine translate into dural punctures? An analysis of 4,396 fluoroscopic interlaminar epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Malla, Yogesh; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2015-01-01

    a gap in the caudal third of the ligamentum flavum was more frequent than in the middle or cephalic portion of the ligamentum flavum. Among the 4,396 epidural injections performed at C7-T1, C6-C7, and C5-C6, 1,227 were performed at C7-T1; 1,835 were performed at C6-C7; and 1,334 were performed at C5-C6. Dural punctures were observed in 1.8% (24 procedures) at the C5-C6 level entry; 0.87% (16 procedures) at the C6-C7 level entry; and 1.71% (21 procedures) at the C7-T1 level. There was no significant difference among the entry levels. No complications or spinal cord damage or postdural puncture headache were observed. The limitations of this report include that it is an assessment by only 2 well experienced physicians, even though it included a relatively large number of patients. This study illustrates that dural puncture is equally prevalent, though very rare, irrespective of the needle entry level into the epidural space, with an overall dural puncture rate of 1.4%, with 1.8% at the C5-C6 level, 0.87% at the C6-C7 level, and 1.71% at the C7-T1 level. Based on the present literature, it appears that performing the procedure by inserting the needle into the cephalic portion of the intervertebral space rather than the caudal portion may be safer.

  12. Surgical "Fat Patch" improves secondary intracranial hypotension orthostatic headache associated with lumbosacral dural ectasia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Elena, Beretta; Andrea, Franzini; Roberto, Cordella; Vittoria, Nazzi; Grazia, Valentini Laura; Angelo, Franzini

    2017-08-30

    Secondary intracranial hypotension is a clinical syndrome associated with the reduction of the cerebrospinal fluid volume and dural continuity violation. The main symptoms are orthostatic headache associated with nausea, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness and tinnitus. The treatment is usually non-specific. The authors describe the case of a 37-years-old woman who developed secondary intracranial hypotension caused by lumbosacral iatrogenic dural ectasia following de-tethering surgery. An orthostatic headache was the mainstay of her clinical picture and it was confirmed by intracranial pressure monitoring. Conservative treatment including spinal blood patch improved symptoms for a limited amount of time (less than 1 month). Altered compliance of the dural spinal sac was suspected. Therefore thecal sac remodeling by placing autologous fat at the level of the dural ectasia was performed improving the symptoms for 2 years. Volumetric reduction of the epidural space may be considered as a valuable therapeutic option in case of intracranial hypotension that is unresponsive to medical treatments and spinal blood patch, and when an altered compliance of the dural sac is hypothesized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intravenous theophylline rapidly decreases post-lumbar puncture headaches.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Ufuk; Ünal-Artık, H Aybüke; İnan, Leven E; Yoldaş, Tahir

    2016-09-01

    When managing therapy for the post-lumbar puncture headaches (PLPHs), an efficacious, fast-acting, practical and safe method is preferred. Invasive methods have known complications and oral medications might be problematic when nausea and vomiting occurs with severe headaches. The aim of this study was to highlight the brief initial time for a remarkable decrease of PLPH pain levels after the administration of IV theophylline infusion. We observed that IV theophylline infusion has a rapid and marked effect on decreasing pain in PLPHs. At 30 min of theophylline infusion, mean VAS levels were decreased by 47.1 % and at 60 min of infusion, the decrease of pain was 61.9 %. We conclude that IV theophylline infusion is a rapidly effective, noninvasive, practical and low-cost way to treat PLPHs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight both the efficacy and the speed of the effect of pain relief in PLPHs.

  14. Incidence of Inadvertent Dural Puncture During CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Interlaminar Epidural Corticosteroid Injections in the Cervical Spine: An Analysis of 974 Cases.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, T J; Parivash, S N; Gray, L; Kranz, P G

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the rate of inadvertent dural puncture during CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injection. In addition, in a subanalysis, we aim to assess the rate of inadvertent dural puncture superior to C5-C6 occurring during interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injection using CT fluoroscopy guidance because such injections are not performed using conventional fluoroscopy. Images obtained from consecutive CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections conducted from November 2009 to November 2015 were reviewed. The following information was recorded: the presence of inadvertent dural puncture, the level of the cervical interlaminar space, approach laterality (left or right), anteroposterior spinal canal diameter, and the presence of a trainee. Two-tailed Fisher exact tests were used for assessment of categoric variables, and t tests were used for continuous variables. A total of 974 cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections were identified in 728 patients. Inadvertent dural punctures were identified in association with 1.4% (14/974) of these injections; all punctures were recognized during the procedure. Needle placements were performed at every cervical level (C1-C2 through C7-T1). The highest rate of dural puncture (2.8%) occurred at C5-C6. No dural punctures occurred superior to C5-C6 (16.6% of cases). The complication rate was 0.4%. Only greater anteroposterior spinal canal diameter was associated with increased dural puncture rates (p = 0.049). CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections were performed at all levels throughout the cervical spine. A very low complication rate and a minimal rate of inadvertent dural puncture were noted, similar to previously reported rates for conventional fluoroscopy-guided injections limited to the lower cervical spine only.

  15. [Accidental Dural Puncture and Post-dural Puncture Headache in the Obstetric Population: Eight Years of Experience].

    PubMed

    Antunes, Maria Vaz; Moreira, Adriano; Sampaio, Catarina; Faria, Aida

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: A punção acidental da dura é uma importante complicação da anestesia regional e a cefaleia pós-punção continua a ser causa de morbilidade na população obstétrica. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi calcular a incidência de punção acidental e cefaleia pós-punção no nosso Centro Hospitalar e avaliar a sua abordagem entre os anestesiologistas obstétricos. Material e Métodos: Realizámos uma auditoria retrospetiva, entre janeiro de 2007 e dezembro de 2014. Revimos as folhas de registo das doentes em que ocorreu punção inadvertida da dura ou cefaleia pós-punção. Excluímos as doentes submetidas a bloqueio subaracnoideu. Utilizámos o SPSS 22.0 no tratamento estatístico dos dados. Resultados: Obtivémos 18 497 bloqueios neuro-axiais e 58 punções acidentais da dura (0,3%). Após punção detetada, em 71,4% o cateter epidural foi re-posicionado e 21,4% tiveram cateteres intra-tecais. Quarenta e cinco (77,6%) desenvolveram cefaleia e a instituição de medidas profiláticas ocorreu em 76,1%. O tratamento conservador foi efetuado em todas as doentes. O blood patch epidural foi realizado em 32,8% com um sucesso de 84,2%. Discussão: A incidência de cefaleia pós-punção não está relacionada com o tipo de parto ou a inserção do cateter intra-tecal. A re-colocação do cateter epidural mantém-se a abordagem de eleição após punção. A instituição de medidas profiláticas é uma prática comum, apesar do baixo grau de eficácia. Realizámos blood patch epidural após falência do tratamento conservador. Conclusão: A incidência de punção inadvertida e cefaleia pós-punção foi semelhante à da literatura. Apesar de ser uma complicação comum, existe falta de consenso na sua abordagem.

  16. Efficacy of the epidural blood patch for the treatment of post lumbar puncture headache BLOPP: A randomised, observer-blind, controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN 71598245

    PubMed Central

    Oedit, R; van Kooten, F; Bakker, SLM; Dippel, DWJ

    2005-01-01

    Background Post dural punction headache (PDPH) occurs in 10% to 40% of the patients who had a lumbar puncture. Its symptoms can be severe and incapacitating. The epidural blood patch is widely accepted as the treatment of choice for postdural puncture headache. Uncontrolled studies report rapid recovery after patching in 90% to 100% of treated patients. However, sufficient evidence from randomised, controlled clinical trials is lacking. Methods BLOPP (blood patch for post dural puncture headache) is a randomised, single centre, observer-blind clinical trial. Patients with PDPH for at least 24 hours and at most 7 days after lumbar puncture will be randomised to treatment with an epidural blood patch (EDBP) or to conventional treatment, i.e. 24 hours bed rest and ample fluid intake. PDPH 24 hours after treatment, classified on a 4-point scale (no, mild, moderate, severe) is the primary outcome. The secondary outcome is the presence of PDPH 7 days after treatment. We estimated that a sample size of 2 × 20 patients would provide us with a power of 80% to detect a relative reduction in number of patients with persisting PDPH after 24 hours of 50% at the usual significance level α = 5%, taking into account that in approximately 10% of the patients the PDPH will have resolved spontaneously after one day. Discussion The EDBP is accepted as the treatment of choice for PDPH although randomised, controlled data is scarce. Our randomised, observer-blind clinical trial enables us to compare the efficacy of two clinically practiced methods of PDPH treatment; EDBP versus conventional treatment, as they are applied in clinical practise. PMID:15998467

  17. Orgasmic dural tear: an unusual delayed presentation of postural headache following lumbar discectomy.

    PubMed

    Dannawi, Zaher; Lennon, Shirley Evelyn; Zaidan, Ammar; Khazim, Rabi

    2014-11-28

    A 28-year-old woman presented with a severe unremitting frontal postural headache associated with photophobia. This started immediately after standing following reaching orgasm during sexual intercourse. Fifty-two days previously, the patient underwent bilateral L4-L5 decompression laminotomies and a left L4-L5 discectomy for excision of a large herniated intervertebral disc. Subarachnoid haemorrhage was excluded with a CT scan. Brain and lumbar MRI showed enhancement of the pachymeninges and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak into the deep soft tissue planes. Conservative treatment for 5 days failed to alleviate the patient's symptoms. An exploration and repair of a dural tear was performed. Subsequently, the headache subsided but the patient developed a low-grade infection requiring 12 weeks of antibiotics. Six months later the patient was asymptomatic. This is the first case report of a delayed presentation of a dural tear occurring during sexual intercourse following lumbar surgery. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Epidural analgesia complicated by dural ectasia in the Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Chelsea; Hofkamp, Michael P.; Noonan, Patrick T.; McAllister, Russell K.; Pilkinton, Kimberly A.; Diao, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Patients with the Marfan syndrome are considered to be high risk during pregnancy and warrant a complete multidisciplinary evaluation. One goal is to minimize hemodynamic fluctuations during labor since hypertensive episodes may result in aortic dissection or rupture. Although they may prevent these complications, neuraxial techniques may be complicated by dural ectasia. The case of a parturient with the Marfan syndrome and mild dural ectasia is presented. During attempted labor epidural placement, unintentional dural puncture occurred. A spinal catheter was used for adequate labor analgesia, and a resultant postdural puncture headache was alleviated by an epidural blood patch under fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:27695168

  19. A Rare Case of Transverse Sinus Venous Thrombosis Simulating Postdural Puncture Headache After Cervical Epidural Injection.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, Maged; Jusino, Eduardo; Tolba, Reda; Samuel, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a feared complication related to epidural steroid injections. We report a unique case in which all subjective and objective findings indicated the diagnosis of PDPH. However, the patient failed appropriate conservative and interventional management. Therapeutic failure prompted further investigation to establish the correct diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare, difficult to diagnose, but potentially lethal disorder with nonspecific and variable clinical presentations, including headache and focal neurological deficits. Performing magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venogram should be considered early, especially in patients who fail to respond to standard interventions for PDPH.

  20. Transcutaneous Puncture of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein for Embolization of Dural Carotid-Ophthalmic Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Hsien; Tsai, I-Chen; Huang, Hou-Chi; Lin, Chun-Han; Hung, Hao-Chun; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chi-Chang Chen, Clayton

    2008-01-01

    Summary Carotid-ophthalmic fistula is a rare disease, which can be treated by transvenous endovascular embolization. Here, we report a unique case with draining vein thrombosed, making a transvenous approach impossible. An old but valuable technique, direct transcutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, was used to save the patient's right eye. The old technique, direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, retains its irreplaceable usefulness in this special situation. Thus, interventional neuroradiologists should equip themselves with this essential technique. PMID:20557794

  1. Acupuncture for the Management of Postdural Puncture Headache: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alexandra; Acquah, Joseph; Reddy, Sanjay; Chao, Maria T

    2016-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a recognized complication of neuraxial anesthesia. This case report documents 1 patient who developed PDPH following epidural anesthesia for postoperative pain control. The patient declined conventional treatments, including an epidural blood patch and intravenous caffeine. This report documents successful use of adjunct acupuncture for the management of PDPH. Additional research on acupuncture as a potential adjunctive therapy for PDPH is needed, particularly for patients who are reluctant to receive more invasive treatments.

  2. Responses of dural mast cells in concussive and blast models of mild traumatic brain injury in mice: Potential implications for post-traumatic headache.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dan; Edut, Shahaf; Baraz-Goldstein, Renana; Rubovitch, Vardit; Defrin, Ruth; Bree, Dara; Gariepy, Helaine; Zhao, Jun; Pick, Chaim G

    2016-09-01

    Chronic post-traumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Inflammatory degranulation of dural mast cells (MCs) is thought to promote headache, and may play a role in PTH. Whether mTBI is associated with persistent degranulation of dural MCs is yet to be determined. Histochemistry was used to evaluate time course changes in dural MC density and degranulation level in concussive head trauma and blast mouse models of mTBI. The effects of sumatriptan and the MC stabilizer cromolyn sodium on concussion-evoked dural MC degranulation were also investigated. Concussive head injury evoked persistent MC degranulation for at least 30 days. Blast trauma gave rise to a delayed MC degranulation response commencing at seven days that also persisted for at least 30 days. Neither sumatriptan nor cromolyn treatment reduced concussion-evoked persistent MC degranulation. mTBI evoked by closed head injury or blast exposure is associated with persistent dural MC degranulation. Such a response in mTBI patients may contribute to PTH. Amelioration of PTH by sumatriptan may not involve inhibition of dural MC degranulation. If persistent dural MC degranulation contributes to PTH, then cromolyn treatment may not be effective. © International Headache Society 2015.

  3. Oral multidose caffeine-paracetamol combination is not effective for the prophylaxis of postdural puncture headache.

    PubMed

    Esmaoglu, Aliye; Akpinar, Hatice; Uğur, Fatih

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different doses of oral caffeine-paracetamol combinations in postdural puncture headache (PDPH) prophylaxis. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study. University hospital. A total of 210 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing lower extremity surgery. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups. One hour before the spinal anesthesia, the first group (n = 70) received placebo, the second group (n = 70) received 500-mg paracetamol + 75-mg caffeine, and the third group (n = 70) received 500-mg paracetamol + 125-mg caffeine orally. The same doses were repeated every 6 hours for 3 days. Patients were then interviewed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 to inquire about any PDPH. The interviewer was unaware of the PDPH prophylaxis group members. Patients who were discharged early were interviewed by telephone. Postdural puncture headache occurred in 11 patients (15.7%) in group 1, 10 patients (% 14.28) in group 2, and 10 patients (% 14.28) in group 3. The differences between the groups were insignificant (P > .05). The complications due to spinal anesthesia were similar in the 3 groups. Side effects of caffeine such as lack of sleep, tachycardia, and hypertension were not observed in groups 2 or 3. Prophylactic administration of paracetamol-caffeine combinations at the stated doses does not prevent PDPH.

  4. Assessment of risk factors for postdural puncture headache in women undergoing cesarean delivery in Jordan: a retrospective analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Khraise, Wail N; Allouh, Mohammed Z; El-Radaideh, Khaled M; Said, Raed S; Al-Rusan, Anas M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the most recognized complications after spinal anesthesia in women undergoing cesarean delivery. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of PDPH and its associated risk factors in women undergoing cesarean delivery in Jordan. Patients and methods This study included all women who underwent cesarean delivery at King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan during 2015. Patient characteristics including age, weight, occurrence of PDPH, needle type, repeated puncture attempt, history of spinal anesthesia and PDPH, presence of tension headache, preeclampsia, migraine, sinusitis, and caffeine withdrawal were collated from hospital records. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the association of these characteristics with PDPH. Results The study cohort consisted of 680 women. Among these, only 43 (6.3%) had developed PDPH. The only factors that showed significant association (P<0.01) with PDPH were repeated puncture attempt and presence of tension headache. The repeated puncture attempt increased the risk of PDPH 2.55-fold, while presence of tension headache increased the risk 4.60-fold. Furthermore, the use of the traumatic 27 G Spinostar needle increased the risk of repeated puncture attempt 28.45-fold (P<0.01) compared with the use of the pencil-point 25 G Whitacre needle. Conclusion The major risk factors associated with the incidence of PDPH in women undergoing cesarean delivery in Jordan are repeated puncture attempt and presence of tension headache. The use of the pencil-point 25 G Whitacre needle is recommended since this was associated with a substantially reduced risk of repeated spinal puncture than the traumatic 27 G Spinostar needle. PMID:28360535

  5. Dural afferents express acid-sensing ion channels: a role for decreased meningeal pH in migraine headache.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Edelmayer, Rebecca M; Wei, Xiaomei; De Felice, Milena; Porreca, Frank; Dussor, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Migraine headache is one of the most common neurological disorders. The pathological conditions that directly initiate afferent pain signaling are poorly understood. In trigeminal neurons retrogradely labeled from the cranial meninges, we have recorded pH-evoked currents using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Approximately 80% of dural-afferent neurons responded to a pH 6.0 application with a rapidly activating and rapidly desensitizing ASIC-like current that often exceeded 20nA in amplitude. Inward currents were observed in response to a wide range of pH values and 30% of the neurons exhibited inward currents at pH 7.1. These currents led to action potentials in 53%, 30% and 7% of the dural afferents at pH 6.8, 6.9 and 7.0, respectively. Small decreases in extracellular pH were also able to generate sustained window currents and sustained membrane depolarizations. Amiloride, a non-specific blocker of ASIC channels, inhibited the peak currents evoked upon application of decreased pH while no inhibition was observed upon application of TRPV1 antagonists. The desensitization time constant of pH 6.0-evoked currents in the majority of dural afferents was less than 500ms which is consistent with that reported for ASIC3 homomeric or heteromeric channels. Finally, application of pH 5.0 synthetic-interstitial fluid to the dura produced significant decreases in facial and hind-paw withdrawal threshold, an effect blocked by amiloride but not TRPV1 antagonists, suggesting that ASIC activation produces migraine-related behavior in vivo. These data provide a cellular mechanism by which decreased pH in the meninges following ischemic or inflammatory events directly excites afferent pain-sensing neurons potentially contributing to migraine headache.

  6. Embolization of a Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula with Onyx via Direct Puncture of the Cavernous Sinus through the Superior Orbital Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Amiridze, N.; Zoarski, G.; Darwish, R.; Obuchowski, A.; Soloveychic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Treatment of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) may be challenging. We describe a patient who had presented with progressive ocular symptoms due to CSDAVF requiring urgent interventional therapy. Initial attempts to embolize the fistula utilizing a transvenous approach through the inferior petrosal sinus failed because of difficult anatomy. Successful occlusion of the fistula was subsequently achieved with injection of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx (EV3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA, USA), via direct percutaneous puncture of the cavernous sinus through the superior orbital fissure. A brief period of asystole during the initial injection of Onyx may be the result of the trigeminocardiac reflex. PMID:20465896

  7. Acute headache and subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective review of CT and lumbar puncture findings.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, J; McLaggan, S; Gibson, R

    2005-11-01

    Assess and correlate the clinical presentation, cranial CT and lumbar puncture (LP) findings in patients presenting with acute headache, clinically suspicious of subarachnoid haemorrhage, from the Accident and Emergency (A/E) department of a main teaching hospital. We retrospectively reviewed over a 1-year period all patients referred for cranial CT from the A/E department, with clinically suspected non-traumatic SAH. Patients with a negative CT, with a diagnosis of SAH on LP, had their initial CT examination reassessed in a double blind review. 116 consecutive patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups post CT results: diagnostic of SAH (19), abnormal without evidence of SAH (16) and normal (81). The clinical management of the latter group was analysed with particular emphasis on the performance and results of lumbar puncture (LP). 81 patients, clinically suspicious of SAH in our study had a normal cranial CT and were eligible for LP 49% had an LP, which was positive in 15% and contributed 24% to the total number diagnosed with SAH. LP was not performed in 51% of eligible patients. This study reviews the varying clinical presentations of SAH and the difficulty in clinically diagnosing SAH where headache is the only symptom. We review the wide differential diagnosis on cranial CT and on discharge of patients presenting with symptoms clinically suspicious of SAH. In addition this study identfies a high proportion of patients without detailed clinical notes and discharged without a diagnosis. The study reaffirms that a significant proportion of patients are diagnosed on LP and stress the importance of performing a LP in all cases with clinically suspected SAH with a negative CT This latter point requires highlighting in the medical literature as over half of eligible patients did not have a LP performed despite this being accepted diagnostic protocol.

  8. Comparison of cutting and pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia regarding postdural puncture headache

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Liu, Yang; Song, WenYe; Kan, ShunLi; Liu, FeiFei; Zhang, Di; Ning, GuangZhi; Feng, ShiQing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH), mainly resulting from the loss of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), is a well-known iatrogenic complication of spinal anesthesia and diagnostic lumbar puncture. Spinal needles have been modified to minimize complications. Modifiable risk factors of PDPH mainly included needle size and needle shape. However, whether the incidence of PDPH is significantly different between cutting-point and pencil-point needles was controversial. Then we did a meta-analysis to assess the incidence of PDPH of cutting spinal needle and pencil-point spinal needle. Methods: We included all randomly designed trials, assessing the clinical outcomes in patients given elective spinal anesthesia or diagnostic lumbar puncture with either cutting or pencil-point spinal needle as eligible studies. All selected studies and the risk of bias of them were assessed by 2 investigators. Clinical outcomes including success rates, frequency of PDPH, reported severe PDPH, and the use of epidural blood patch (EBP) were recorded as primary results. Results were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous variables. Rev Man software (version 5.3) was used to analyze all appropriate data. Results: Twenty-five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our study. The analysis result revealed that pencil-point spinal needle would result in lower rate of PDPH (RR 2.50; 95% CI [1.96, 3.19]; P < 0.00001) and severe PDPH (RR 3.27; 95% CI [2.15, 4.96]; P < 0.00001). Furthermore, EBP was less used in pencil-point spine needle group (RR 3.69; 95% CI [1.96, 6.95]; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Current evidences suggest that pencil-point spinal needle was significantly superior compared with cutting spinal needle regarding the frequency of PDPH, PDPH severity, and the use of EBP. In view of this, we recommend the use of pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia and lumbar puncture. PMID:28383416

  9. Is there a difference in postdural puncture headache after continuous spinal anesthesia with 28G microcatheters compared with punctures with 22G Quincke or Sprotte spinal needles?

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Eberhard Albert; Althaus, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the question was raised and answered whether the rate of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) after continuous spinal anesthesia with a 28G microcatheter varies using a Quincke or a Sprotte needle. The medical records of all patients with allogenic joint replacement of the knee or hip or arthroscopic surgery of the knee joint undergoing continuous spinal anesthesia with a 22G Quincke (n=1,212) or 22G Sprotte needle (n=377) and a 28G microcatheter during the past 6 years were reviewed. We obtained the approval of the ethical committee. The rates of PDPH were statistically not different between both groups: 1.5% of patients developed PDPH after dura puncture with a Quincke needle and 2.1% with a Sprotte needle in women and men. PMID:25419159

  10. Effect of venous dexamethasone, oral caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of postdural puncture headache after spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Masoudifar, Mehrdad; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Adib, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a relatively common complication after regional anesthesia, especially in younger people, bothersome to patients and needs prophylaxis to prevent this complication. This study was conducted aiming to determine the preventive effect of dexamethasone plus caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of PDPH after spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 90 candidates for the lower extremities orthopedic elective operation were divided into two groups of 45 individuals each. Intervention group received the compound of 500 mg acetaminophen +65 mg oral caffeine +8 mg venous dexamethasone an hour before spinal blocking, and the control group received placebo tablets + a dexamethasone equivalent volume of venous normal saline. The level of postoperative headache at the time of entrance to recovery and discharge, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively were measured based on Visual Analog Scale criterion in the two groups and then compared with each other. Results: During the study, 24 patients in the control group and 17 patients in the intervention group were afflicted with headache; however, with no significant difference (P = 0.14). Total frequency of headache incidence was 35 times in the control group and 27 times in the intervention group (P = 0.32). Conclusions: Though the taking of acetaminophen + caffeine + dexamethasone is associated with a decrease in headache intensity and duration and decrease in PDPH incidence, compared with placebo, however, no essentially and statistically significant effect was produced. PMID:27169097

  11. Sub-dural hematoma following spinal anesthesia treated with epidural blood patch and burr-hole evacuation: a case report.

    PubMed

    K, Krishnakumar; Chatterjee, Nilay; Shrivastava, Adesh; Davis, Josemine; N, Suresh Nair

    2013-02-01

    The appearance of a subdural hematoma (SDH) following spinal anesthesia is a serious and rare complication which mandates prompt diagnosis, although the treatment modalities are not well codified. Patients with post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) non-responsive to conservative measures and/or those patients with a change of the character of the headache should be considered seriously. In symptomatic patients, evacuation of SDH is essential but epidural blood patch should be strongly considered as it can prevent reappearance of SDH by sealing the dural defect.

  12. The analgesic and antiemetic efficacy of gabapentin or ergotamine/caffeine for the treatment of postdural puncture headache.

    PubMed

    Erol, D D

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the analgesic and antiemetic efficacy of gabapentin or ergotamine/caffeine (Cafergot), in addition to conservative treatment consisting of bed rest and adequate fluid intake, for the treatment of postdural puncture headache (PDPH). In this randomized, prospective, controlled study, gabapentin or Cafergot was administered to 42 adult patients suffering from PDPH. Patients were asked to record the severity of their headache and the number of vomiting episodes on a visual analogue scale (VAS) on days 1, 2, 3 and 4. The pain scale consisted of a 10 cm horizontal line marked from 0 (denoting no pain) to 10 (denoting worst possible imaginable pain) Emesis was scored as 0 = no emetic symptoms, 1 = nausea or 2 = vomiting. Demographic and anesthetic variables were similar between the groups. Gabapentin group had less pain, nausea and vomiting compared to the Cafergot group. No patients withdrew, gabapentin and Cafergot were well tolerated, and adverse events (somnolence, dizziness, tremor, and ataxia) did not occur. Gabapentin significantly reduced pain, nausea and vomiting compared to Cafergot in patients with PDPH. Lastly, we hypothesize that the gabaergic action of gabapentin, perhaps combined with other mechanisms, such as calcium channel blockade, may be responsible for its remarkable effects on PDPH.

  13. Comparison of cutting and pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia regarding postdural puncture headache: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Liu, Yang; Song, WenYe; Kan, ShunLi; Liu, FeiFei; Zhang, Di; Ning, GuangZhi; Feng, ShiQing

    2017-04-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH), mainly resulting from the loss of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), is a well-known iatrogenic complication of spinal anesthesia and diagnostic lumbar puncture. Spinal needles have been modified to minimize complications. Modifiable risk factors of PDPH mainly included needle size and needle shape. However, whether the incidence of PDPH is significantly different between cutting-point and pencil-point needles was controversial. Then we did a meta-analysis to assess the incidence of PDPH of cutting spinal needle and pencil-point spinal needle. We included all randomly designed trials, assessing the clinical outcomes in patients given elective spinal anesthesia or diagnostic lumbar puncture with either cutting or pencil-point spinal needle as eligible studies. All selected studies and the risk of bias of them were assessed by 2 investigators. Clinical outcomes including success rates, frequency of PDPH, reported severe PDPH, and the use of epidural blood patch (EBP) were recorded as primary results. Results were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous variables. Rev Man software (version 5.3) was used to analyze all appropriate data. Twenty-five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our study. The analysis result revealed that pencil-point spinal needle would result in lower rate of PDPH (RR 2.50; 95% CI [1.96, 3.19]; P < 0.00001) and severe PDPH (RR 3.27; 95% CI [2.15, 4.96]; P < 0.00001). Furthermore, EBP was less used in pencil-point spine needle group (RR 3.69; 95% CI [1.96, 6.95]; P < 0.0001). Current evidences suggest that pencil-point spinal needle was significantly superior compared with cutting spinal needle regarding the frequency of PDPH, PDPH severity, and the use of EBP. In view of this, we recommend the use of pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia and lumbar puncture.

  14. Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2012;30:43. Headache hygiene tips. American Headache Society Committee for Headache Education. http://www.achenet.org/resources/trigger_avoidance_information /. Accessed March 8, 2016. Flu symptoms & severity. Centers ...

  15. Dural Puncture Epidural Technique Improves Labor Analgesia Quality With Fewer Side Effects Compared With Epidural and Combined Spinal Epidural Techniques: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chau, Anthony; Bibbo, Carolina; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Elterman, Kelly G; Cappiello, Eric C; Robinson, Julian N; Tsen, Lawrence C

    2017-02-01

    The dural puncture epidural (DPE) technique is a modification of the combined spinal epidural (CSE) technique, where a dural perforation is created from a spinal needle but intrathecal medication administration is withheld. The DPE technique has been shown to improve caudal spread of analgesia compared with epidural (EPL) technique without the side effects observed with the CSE technique. We hypothesized that the onset of labor analgesia would follow this order: CSE > DPE > EPL techniques. A total of 120 parturients in early labor were randomly assigned to EPL, DPE, or CSE groups. Initial dosing for EPL and DPE consisted of epidural 20 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine plus fentanyl 2 μg/mL over 5 minutes, and for CSE, intrathecal 0.25% bupivacaine 1.7 mg and fentanyl 17 μg. Upon block completion, a blinded coinvestigator assessed the outcomes. Two blinded obstetricians retrospectively interpreted uterine contractions and fetal heart rate tracings 1 hour before and after the neuraxial technique. The primary outcome was time to numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) ≤ 1 analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard model. Secondary outcomes included block quality, maternal adverse effects, uterine contraction patterns, and fetal outcomes analyzed by using the χ test with Yates continuity correction. There was no significant difference in the time to NPRS ≤ 1 between DPE and EPL (hazard ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-2.4, P = .21). DPE achieved NPRS ≤ 1 significantly slower than CSE (hazard ratio 0.36; 95% CI 0.22-0.59, P = .0001). The median times (interquartile range) to NPRS ≤ 1 were 2 (0.5-6) minutes for CSE, 11 (4-120) minutes for DPE, and 18 (10-120) minutes for EPL. Compared with EPL, DPE had significantly greater incidence of bilateral S2 blockade at 10 minutes (risk ratio [RR] 2.13; 95% CI 1.39-3.28; P < .001), 20 minutes (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.26-2.03; P < .001), and 30 minutes (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01-1.30; P < .034), a lower

  16. Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not caused by another medical condition. Migraine, cluster, and tension-type headache are the more familiar ... are not caused by another medical condition. Migraine, cluster, and tension-type headache are the more familiar ...

  17. Dura-arachnoid lesions produced by 22 gauge Quincke spinal needles during a lumbar puncture

    PubMed Central

    Reina, M; Lopez, A; Badorrey, V; De Andres, J A; Martin, S

    2004-01-01

    Aims: The dural and arachnoid hole caused by lumbar puncture needles is a determining factor in triggering headaches. The aim of this study is to assess the dimensions and morphological features of the dura mater and arachnoids when they are punctured by a 22 gauge Quincke needle having its bevel either in the parallel or in the transverse position. Methods: Fifty punctures were made with 22 gauge Quincke needles in the dural sac of four fresh cadavers using an "in vitro" model especially designed for this purpose. The punctures were performed by needles with bevels parallel or perpendicular to the spinal axis and studied under scanning electron microscopy. Results: Thirty five of the 50 punctures done by Quincke needles (19 in the external surface and 16 in the internal) were used for evaluation. When the needle was inserted with its bevel parallel to the axis of the dural sac (17 of 35), the size of the dura-arachnoid lesion was 0.032 mm2 in the epidural surface and 0.037 mm2 in the subarachnoid surface of the dural sac. When the needle's bevel was perpendicular to the axis (18 of 35) the measurement of the lesion size was 0.042 mm2 for the external surface and 0.033 mm2 for the internal. There were no statistical significant differences between these results. Conclusions: It is believed that the reported lower frequency of postdural puncture headache when the needle is inserted parallel to the cord axis should be explained by some other factors besides the size of the dura-arachnoid injury. PMID:15146008

  18. Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... you work too much, don't get enough sleep, miss meals, or use alcohol. Other common types of headaches include migraines, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches. Most people can feel much better by making lifestyle changes, learning ways to relax and taking pain relievers. Not all ...

  19. [Transvenous Embolization by Direct Puncture of the Superior Sagittal Sinus Using Indocyanine Green(ICG)Videoangiography for Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Jo; Kono, Kenichi; Umesaki, Arisa; Kashimura, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Terada, Tomoaki

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistula at the left transverse sinus and sigmoid sinus(TS-dAVF), which was treated with transvenous embolization(TVE)by direct puncture of the superior sagittal sinus(SSS)under indocyanine green(ICG)fluoroscopic guidance. A 71-year-old woman presented with pulsatile tinnitus and progressive dementia. A left TS-dAVF with retrograde SSS and cortical venous reflux(Cognard type IIb)was demonstrated on cerebral angiography. The left internal jugular vein and distal portion of the right transverse sinus were occluded. We considered that TVE via the femoral vein would be difficult for complete cure. We performed trepanation of the frontal portion of the SSS. The SSS was directly punctured with an 18-G needle under ICG fluoroscopic guidance. We inserted a 4-Fr sheath into the SSS. A microcatheter was navigated into the affected sinus. Coils were placed through the microcatheter. The dAVF was completely diminished. No complications occurred. The patient's pulsatile tinnitus disappeared and dementia improved. Transvenous approach with direct puncture of the SSS under ICG fluoroscopic guidance was a useful approach for the treatment of dAVF when other approaches were difficult.

  20. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and cerebrovascular constriction syndrome in the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches].

    PubMed

    Ruiz López, N; Cano Hernández, B; Balbás Álvarez, S

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum headache can be due to many causes. In a patient with previous epidural analgesia, the headache can be attributed to post-dural puncture headache, even if the symptoms are not typical of this clinical entity. We report a case of a post-partum with accidental dural tap during the insertion of an epidural catheter for labour analgesia, and who referred to headaches in the third post-partum day. Initially, a post-dural puncture headache was suspected, but the subsequent onset of seizures and visual impairment meant that the diagnosis had to be reconsidered. In this case report, the clinical and pathophysiological features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, as well as the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches are described. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Dural ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Gupta, Veena; Kumar, Abhishake; Kumar, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Dural ectasia is one of the likely causes of incomplete or failed spinal anaesthesia. Its association with diseases like Marfans syndrome, neurofibromatosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, vertebral fracture, postopertative adhesions, trauma etc., is often overlooked as a reason for inadequate spinal anaesthesia. Greater than normal volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the lumber theca in dural ectasia is postulated to restrict the spread of intrathecally injected Local anaesthetic. Here, we report a case of failed spinal anaesthesia but successful epidural anaesthesia in later setting in a patient with dural ectasia. PMID:24963189

  2. Floating dural sac sign is a sensitive magnetic resonance imaging finding of spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Hatazawa, Jun; Sato, Shinya; Kanoto, Masafumi; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa

    2013-01-01

    We would like to propose floating dural sac sign, which is observed as a hyperintense band or rim around the spinal dural sac on axial T2-weighted images, as a sensitive sign to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. One hundred patients with orthostatic headache were prospectively registered in 11 hospitals. These patients were examined by brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n = 89), radioisotope cisternography (n = 89), MR myelography (n = 86), axial T2-weighted imaging of the spine (n = 70), and computed tomography myelography (n = 2). In this study, we separately evaluated the imaging findings of intracranial hypotension and spinal CSF leakage. Among 100 patients, 16 patients were diagnosed as having spinal CSF leaks. Of 70 patients examined with axial T2-weighted imaging, 14 patients were diagnosed with spinal CSF leaks, and floating dural sac sign was observed in 17 patients, 13 patients with spinal CSF leaks and 4 without CSF leaks (sensitivity 92.9%, specificity 92.9%). Of 86 patients examined by MR myelography, extradural fluid was observed in only 3 patients (sensitivity 21.4%, specificity 100%). The floating dural sac sign was a sensitive sign that can be used to identify CSF leakage. Spinal axial T2-weighted imaging might be a good screening method for spinal CSF leakage that can help to avoid the need for lumbar puncture.

  3. Effect of Position During Spinal Anesthesia on Postdural Puncture Headache After Cesarean Section: A Prospective, Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Maryam; Tarbiat, Masoud; Ebadian, Mohammad Reza; Hajian, Puran

    2016-01-01

    Background The most common method of anesthesia for cesarean section is spinal anesthesia, and postdural puncture headache (PDPH) remains a major complication of this procedure. Nowadays, PDPH is a major cause of morbidity in parturients after spinal anesthesia. This headache is the third most popular reason for claims against anesthesiologists in obstetrics. The position after spinal anesthesia has been evaluated as a contributory factor in the occurrence of PDPH, but the position before spinal anesthesia has not yet been evaluated. Objectives This study was designed to compare the incidence of PDPH following spinal anesthesia in the sitting position and in the left lateral decubitus position in parturients who underwent elective caesarian section. Patients and Methods After institutional approval, 100 parturients who had been scheduled for elective caesarian section with spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Following patient preparation for the neuraxial blockade, spinal anesthesia was randomly performed in the sitting or in the left lateral decubitus position. Patients were interviewed for PDPH on either postoperative day one, two, or three. The incidence and intensity of PDPH were evaluated and compared using a numeric rating scale (NRS-11). Results A total of 94 patients were included in the data analysis. The overall incidence of PDPH was 12.7%. In the sitting group, ten patients (20.8%) had PDPH, compared with two patients (4.3%) in the lateral group (P = 0.017). Conclusions Spinal anesthesia in the sitting position is more associated with significant PHDH than that in the left lateral decubitus position for patients undergoing elective caesarian section. PMID:27843773

  4. Treatment of Refractory Postdural Puncture Headache after Intrathecal Drug Delivery System Implantation with Epidural Blood Patch Procedures: A 20-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Moeschler, Susan M.; Qu, Wenchun; Hanley, Eugerie; Neuman, Stephanie A.; Eldrige, Jason S.; Hoelzer, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    A recent publication reported the incidence of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) in conjunction with intrathecal drug delivery system (IDDS) implantation to be nearly 23 percent. Many patients responded to conservative measures but a percentage needed invasive treatment with an epidural blood patch (EBP). There is limited data to describe the technical details, success rates, and complications associated with EBP in this population. This study aims to provide a retrospective report of EBP for patients suffering from PDPH related to IDDS implantation. A chart review established a cohort of patients that required EBP in relation to a PDPH after IDDS implantation. This cohort was evaluated for demographic data as well as details of the EBP including technical procedural data, success rates, and complications. All patients received a trial of conservative therapy. Standard sterile technique and skin preparation were utilized with no infectious complications. The EBP was placed below the level of the IDDS catheter in 94% of procedures. Fluoroscopy was utilized in each case. The mean EBP volume was 18.6 cc and median time of EBP was day 7 after implant. There were no complications associated with EBP. EBP appears to be an effective intervention in this subset of PDPH patients. PMID:27597897

  5. Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

  6. Spinal Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord and, in the lower spine, the lumbar and sacral nerve roots. During a spinal tap, a sample of ... injected into your spinal canal to numb the nerves in the lower half of your ... also known as post-lumbar puncture headaches — resolve on their own with no ...

  7. Two young women with chronic daily headache and cognitive impairment: why we need to ask about headache in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Beams, Jennifer L; Rozen, Todd D

    2013-01-01

    Headache, which has a variety of causes, is a common and disabling complaint following childbirth. An important aetiology not to be missed is headache from epidural spinal anaesthesia, known as postdural puncture headache (PDPH), which has been reported in upwards of 85% of pregnant women and is a manifestation of intracranial hypotension from leakage of cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid through a dural tear. The common presenting symptom of PDPH is head pain occurring when a patient is in an upright position that resolves with recumbency. Other neurological issues associated with intracranial hypotension can include cranial nerve palsies, encephalopathy and Parkinsonism. We present two cases of persistent PDPH after pregnancy with secondary cognitive impairment. A review of the clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings and treatment for PDPH will be presented. Better recognition of this disorder by obstetricians, physicians and anaesthetics will help to reduce the considerable morbidity this syndrome can produce in young mothers. PMID:27757163

  8. Two young women with chronic daily headache and cognitive impairment: why we need to ask about headache in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Beams, Jennifer L; Rozen, Todd D

    2013-06-01

    Headache, which has a variety of causes, is a common and disabling complaint following childbirth. An important aetiology not to be missed is headache from epidural spinal anaesthesia, known as postdural puncture headache (PDPH), which has been reported in upwards of 85% of pregnant women and is a manifestation of intracranial hypotension from leakage of cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid through a dural tear. The common presenting symptom of PDPH is head pain occurring when a patient is in an upright position that resolves with recumbency. Other neurological issues associated with intracranial hypotension can include cranial nerve palsies, encephalopathy and Parkinsonism. We present two cases of persistent PDPH after pregnancy with secondary cognitive impairment. A review of the clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings and treatment for PDPH will be presented. Better recognition of this disorder by obstetricians, physicians and anaesthetics will help to reduce the considerable morbidity this syndrome can produce in young mothers.

  9. [Dural sinus thrombosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Pontalti, João Luis; Teles, Alisson Roberto

    2006-06-01

    We report the case of a 24 year-old pregnant woman, seen at the neurology service by presenting agitation, hallucinations, mental confusion, headache, vision loss, aphasia and seizures. The neuroradiologic exam was compatible with thrombosis in dural sinus and cortical veins. Treatment with abciximab was accomplished and the mechanical lysis of the thrombus was made obtaining restoration of cerebral vein flow. After the procedure, she presented frontal hematoma which was withdrawn surgically. We discuss this infrequent pathology in clinical picture, pathogenesis, image exams and therapeutics.

  10. Influence of sex, estrous cycle and estrogen on intracranial dural mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Boes, Tanner; Levy, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Background The frequency of migraine headaches is higher in women than in men and in susceptible women attacks are related to changes in ovarian hormone levels. Intracranial mast cells (MCs) are likely to play a role in migraine headache genesis, and changes in the dural MC population might influence headache susceptibility. The present study thus tested the hypothesis that sex and ovarian hormones influence the density and phenotypic makeup of dural MCs. Methods Histochemistry combined with quantitative analyses was employed to investigate sex differences, estrous cycle and ovarian hormone influences on dural MCs density, phenotype and degranulation level in males and females rats. Results Our data show that in female rats, dural MC density fluctuates during the estrous cycle and is overall higher than in males. In ovariectomized rats, estradiol, but not progesterone, promoted an increase in dural MCs density. This effect was abolished by a splenectomy, suggesting estrogen-related recruitment of MCs from the spleen. Finally, our data suggest that the phenotypic make up of dural MCs, which represents the level of cellular maturity, is also governed by changes in estrogen levels. Conclusions Given the potential role of dural MCs in triggering headache, our data suggest that estrogen-related modulation of dural MC density and phenotypic makeup could play a role in mediating the higher frequency and severity of headaches, such as migraine, in women. PMID:22833613

  11. Mechanism of brain tumor headache.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lynne P

    2014-04-01

    Headaches occur commonly in all patients, including those who have brain tumors. Using the search terms "headache and brain tumors," "intracranial neoplasms and headache," "facial pain and brain tumors," "brain neoplasms/pathology," and "headache/etiology," we reviewed the literature from the past 78 years on the proposed mechanisms of brain tumor headache, beginning with the work of Penfield. Most of what we know about the mechanisms of brain tumor associated headache come from neurosurgical observations from intra-operative dural and blood vessel stimulation as well as intra-operative observations and anecdotal information about resolution of headache symptoms with various tumor-directed therapies. There is an increasing overlap between the primary and secondary headaches and they may actually share a similar biological mechanism. While there can be some criticism that the experimental work with dural and arterial stimulation produced head pain and not actual headache, when considered with the clinical observations about headache type, coupled with improvement after treatment of the primary tumor, we believe that traction on these structures, coupled with increased intracranial pressure, is clearly part of the genesis of brain tumor headache and may also involve peripheral sensitization with neurogenic inflammation as well as a component of central sensitization through trigeminovascular afferents on the meninges and cranial vessels. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  12. Congenital osteolytic dural fibrosarcoma presenting as a scalp swelling.

    PubMed

    Brohi, Shams Raza; Dilber, Muzamil

    2012-08-01

    An extremely rare case of congenital dural fibrosarcoma is reported in a 2 months old child who presented with scalp swelling since birth. CT scan revealed an osteolytic lesion compressing the underlying atrophic brain. Tumour was completely excised and duroplasty was done with a patch graft. Postoperative CSF leak was managed with aspirations and lumbar puncture.

  13. The Wiley Spinal Catheter-Over-Needle System for Continuous Spinal Anesthesia: A Case Series of 5 Cesarean Deliveries Complicated by Paresthesias and Headaches.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Christine P; Carvalho, Brendan; Riley, Edward T

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal catheter devices using a catheter-over-needle design and softer flexible material have been introduced to clinical practice with the aim of reducing some of the complications such as postdural puncture headaches and paresthesias seen with previous versions of intrathecal catheters. We present a case series of 5 cesarean deliveries using the Wiley Spinal intrathecal system (Epimed, Johnstown, New York), which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The intrathecal catheter system consists of a flexible 23-gauge intrathecal cannula over a 27-gauge pencil-point spinal needle. The placement of the intrathecal catheter was successful in all 5 cases; however, paresthesias in 3 cases and postdural puncture headaches in 2 cases complicated the placement and use of the device. Although the unique catheter-over-needle design facilitates the use of smaller-gauge spinal needles for dural puncture and larger-gauge catheters for medication administration, this case series using the Wiley Spinal suggests that paresthesias and postdural puncture headaches may still limit its widespread utilization. Future studies are needed to determine the true incidence of complications and to determine the role of continuous spinal anesthesia in the obstetric population.

  14. Giant arachnoid granulation mimicking dural sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Ercan; Atalay, Basak; Baysal, Begumhan; Senturk, Senem; Aslan, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Arachnoid granulations (AG) are composed of dense, collagenous connective tissue that includes clusters of arachnoid cells. They tend to invaginate into the dural sinuses, through which cerebrospinal fluid enters the venous system. AG are most commonly seen at the junction between the middle and lateral thirds of the transverse sinuses near the entry sites of the superficial veins. Presently described is the case of a 21-year-old female who presented at the clinic with recurrent headaches. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a 3.5-cm lesion, which extended from confluens sinuum through the superior sagittal sinus. The lesion had created a scallop-shaped area of erosion in the neighboring occipital bone. To exclude sinus thrombosis, MR venography was performed, which displayed a maintained venous flow around the lesion. Headaches were treated symptomatically with medical therapy. Giant AG can be misdiagnosed as dural sinus thrombosis. MR imaging combined with MR venography is the most useful diagnostic tool to differentiate giant AG from dural sinus thrombosis. PMID:28971178

  15. Giant arachnoid granulation mimicking dural sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Ercan; Atalay, Basak; Baysal, Begumhan; Senturk, Senem; Aslan, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Arachnoid granulations (AG) are composed of dense, collagenous connective tissue that includes clusters of arachnoid cells. They tend to invaginate into the dural sinuses, through which cerebrospinal fluid enters the venous system. AG are most commonly seen at the junction between the middle and lateral thirds of the transverse sinuses near the entry sites of the superficial veins. Presently described is the case of a 21-year-old female who presented at the clinic with recurrent headaches. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a 3.5-cm lesion, which extended from confluens sinuum through the superior sagittal sinus. The lesion had created a scallop-shaped area of erosion in the neighboring occipital bone. To exclude sinus thrombosis, MR venography was performed, which displayed a maintained venous flow around the lesion. Headaches were treated symptomatically with medical therapy. Giant AG can be misdiagnosed as dural sinus thrombosis. MR imaging combined with MR venography is the most useful diagnostic tool to differentiate giant AG from dural sinus thrombosis.

  16. Do pencil-point spinal needles decrease the incidence of postdural puncture headache in reality? A comparative study between pencil-point 25G Whitacre and cutting-beveled 25G Quincke spinal needles in 320 obstetric patients

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Anirban; Acharya, Amita; Pal, Nidhi Dawar; Dawn, Satrajit; Biswas, Jhuma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a distressing complication of the subarachnoid block. The previous studies conducted, including the recent ones, do not conclusively prove that pencil-point spinal needles decrease the incidence of PDPH. In this study, we have tried to find out whether a pencil-point Whitacre needle is a better alternative than the classic cutting beveled, commonly used, Quincke spinal needle, in patients at risk of PDPH. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty obstetric patients, 20-36 years of age, ASA I and II, posted for Cesarean section under subarachnoid block, were randomly assigned into two groups W and Q, where 25G Whitacre and 25G Quincke spinal needles were used, respectively. The primary objective of the study was to find out the difference in incidence of PDPH, if any, between the two groups, by using the t test and Chi square test. Results: The incidence of PDPH was 5% in group W and 28.12% in group Q, and the difference in incidence was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: The pencil-point 25G Whitacre spinal needle causes less incidence of PDPH compared to the classic 25G Quincke needle, and is recommended for use in patients at risk of PDPH. PMID:25885381

  17. Cluster headache

    MedlinePlus

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  18. Evolutionary History of Multiple Dural Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Burbano, Braulio; Correa Diaz, Edgar Patricio; Jácome Sánchez, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are abnormal communications between arteries and veins or dural venous sinuses, which sit between the sheets of the dura. They represent 10% to 15% of intracranial vascular malformations. Clinical manifestations and prognosis depend on the pattern of venous drainage and location. The clinical presentation of DAVF may be mistaken for vascular or nonvascular brain pathologies. For that reason, within the differential diagnosis come a wide range of conditions, such as secondary headaches, encephalopathies, dementias including those with rapid progression, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory processes, or tumors typically at the orbital level or in the cavernous sinus. Diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion because of the multiplicity of symptoms and presentations, making this pathology an entity that provides a major challenge for clinicians, yet early and multidisciplinary treatment of high-grade fistulas improve the possibility of avoiding poor or unfavorable outcomes for the patient. PMID:28203571

  19. Effects of Voluntary Locomotion and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide on the Dynamics of Single Dural Vessels in Awake Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The dura mater is a vascularized membrane surrounding the brain and is heavily innervated by sensory nerves. Our knowledge of the dural vasculature has been limited to pathological conditions, such as headaches, but little is known about the dural blood flow regulation during behavior. To better understand the dynamics of dural vessels during behavior, we used two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) to measure the diameter changes of single dural and pial vessels in the awake mouse during voluntary locomotion. Surprisingly, we found that voluntary locomotion drove the constriction of dural vessels, and the dynamics of these constrictions could be captured with a linear convolution model. Dural vessel constrictions did not mirror the large increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) during locomotion, indicating that dural vessel constriction was not caused passively by compression. To study how behaviorally driven dynamics of dural vessels might be altered in pathological states, we injected the vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which induces headache in humans. CGRP dilated dural, but not pial, vessels and significantly reduced spontaneous locomotion but did not block locomotion-induced constrictions in dural vessels. Sumatriptan, a drug commonly used to treat headaches, blocked the vascular and behavioral the effects of CGRP. These findings suggest that, in the awake animal, the diameters of dural vessels are regulated dynamically during behavior and during drug-induced pathological states. SIGNIFICANT STATEMENT The vasculature of the dura has been implicated in the pathophysiology of headaches, but how individual dural vessels respond during behavior, both under normal conditions and after treatment with the headache-inducing peptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is poorly understood. To address these issues, we imaged individual dural vessels in awake mice and found that dural vessels constricted during voluntary locomotion, and

  20. Cough Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a dull, aching pain for hours Secondary cough headaches Secondary cough headaches often have symptoms similar ... cause of primary cough headaches is unknown. Secondary cough headaches Secondary cough headaches may be caused by: ...

  1. Rebound Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... headache/detail_headache.htm. Accessed Oct. 6, 2014. Garza I, et al. Medication overuse headache: Treatment and ... www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 6, 2014. Garza I, et al. Medication overuse headache: Etiology, clinical ...

  2. Exercise Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ... exercise dilates blood vessels inside the skull. Secondary exercise headaches Secondary exercise headaches are caused by an ...

  3. Intracranial dural based chondroma.

    PubMed

    Reinshagen, Clemens; Redjal, Navid; Sajed, Dipti P; Nahed, Brian V; Walcott, Brian P

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial chondromas are benign, slow-growing, cartilaginous tumors, which comprise only about 0.2% of all intracranial tumors. The majority of these lesions occur at the base of the skull, where they are thought to arise from residual embryonic chondrogenic cells along the basal synchondrosis. Very rarely, they may also originate from the convexity dura, falx cerebri, or the brain parenchyma. We present a patient with a dural based chondroma to highlight the technical considerations of surgical resection. The recent literature on intracranial chondromas regarding incidence, pathophysiologic origin, clinical symptoms, imaging, histopathology and prognosis is reviewed.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Mouse Dural Afferent Neurons Expressing TRPM8, VGLUT3, and NF200.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lynn; Chang, Michelle Jaehee; Zhang, Zhiyu; Dhaka, Ajay; Guo, Zhaohua; Cao, Yu-Qing

    2017-09-19

    To quantify the abundance of dural afferent neurons expressing transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8), vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), and neurofilament 200 (NF200) in adult mice. With the increasing use of mice as a model system to study headache mechanisms, it is important to understand the composition of dural afferent neurons in mice. In a previous study, we have measured the abundance of mouse dural afferent neurons that express neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide as well as two TRP channels TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively. Here, we conducted quantitative analysis of three other dural afferent subpopulations in adult mice. We used the fluorescent tracer Fluoro-Gold to retrogradely label dural afferent neurons in adult mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in discrete subpopulations of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Mechanoreceptors with myelinated fibers were identified by NF200 immunoreactivity. We also conducted Ca(2+) -imaging experiments to test the overlap between TRPM8 and VGLUT3 expression in mouse primary afferent neurons (PANs). The abundance of TRPM8-expressing neurons in dural afferent neurons was significantly lower than that in total TG neurons. The percentages of dural afferent neurons expressing VGLUT3 and NF200 were comparable to those of total TG neurons, respectively. TRPM8 agonist menthol evoked Ca(2+) influx in less than 7% VGLUT3-expressing PANs in adult mice. TG neurons expressing TRPM8, VGLUT3, and NF200 all innervate adult mouse dura. TRPM8 and VGLUT3 are expressed in distinct subpopulations of PANs in adult mice. These results provide an anatomical basis to investigate headache mechanisms in mouse models. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  5. Delayed postoperative dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with progressive dementia.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Tetsuhiro

    2015-12-09

    A 64-year-old woman underwent right suboccipital craniotomy to treat spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhoea. Although the CSF leak was cured, the patient developed pulsatile tinnitus, ambulatory disturbance and progressive dementia. Four years after the surgery, she presented with generalised seizure. Cerebral angiography showed a dural arteriovenous fistula at the right transverse-sigmoid sinus, which was associated with sinus occlusion, retrograde blood flow in the sinus and diffuse intracranial cortical venous reflux. A combination of endovascular transarterial embolisation and transvenous embolisation with direct sinus puncture was performed. After the procedure, the patient's mental status and cognitive function improved significantly.

  6. [Headache Treatment].

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans Christoph; Holle-Lee, Dagny; Nägel, Steffen; Gaul, Charly

    2017-03-01

    A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes.

  7. Cluster headache associated with acute maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Cluster headache is a primary headache by definition not caused by any known underlying structural pathology. However, symptomatic cases have been described, for example tumours, particularly pituitary adenomas, malformations, and infections/inflammations. The evaluation of cluster headache is an issue unresolved. I present a case of a 24-year-old patient who presented with a 4-week history of side-locked attacks of pain located in the left orbit. He satisfied the revised International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for cluster headache. His medical and family histories were unremarkable. There was no history of headache. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made. The patient responded to symptomatic treatment. Low-dose computer tomography scan after 2 weeks displayed a left-sided acute maxillary sinusitis. The headache attacks resolved completely after treatment with antibiotics and sinus puncture. Although I cannot exclude an unintentional comorbidity, in my opinion, the co-occurrence of an acute maxillary sinusitis with unilateral headache, in a hitherto headache-free man, points toward the fact that in this case the cluster headache was caused or triggered by the sinusitis. The headache attacks resolved completely after the treatment and the patient also remained headache free at the follow-up. The response of the headache to sumatriptan and other typical cluster headache medications does not exclude a secondary form. Symptomatic cluster headaches responsive to this therapy have been described. Associated cranial lesions such as infections have been reported in cluster headache patients and the attacks may be clinically indistinguishable from the primary form. Neuroimaging, preferably contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging including sinuses should always be considered in patients with cluster headache despite normal neurological examination. Acute maxillary sinusitis can present as cluster headache.

  8. Tension headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp, temples, or the bottom of the neck. Exams and Tests If your headache is mild to ... 30. Read More Alcohol use and safe drinking Caffeine in the diet Chronic Fatigue Headache Sinusitis Stuffy ...

  9. pH-evoked dural afferent signaling is mediated by ASIC3 and is sensitized by mast cell mediators.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Wei, Xiaomei; Bischoff, Christina; Edelmayer, Rebecca M; Dussor, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    Prior studies have shown that decreased meningeal pH activates dural afferents via opening of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), suggesting one pathophysiological mechanism for the generation of headaches. The studies described here further examined the ASIC subtype mediating pH-induced dural-afferent activation and examined whether sensitization influences pH responses. Given the potential importance of meningeal mast cells to headache, the goal of this study was to evaluate dural afferent responses to pH following sensitization with mast cell mediators. Cutaneous allodynia was measured in rats following stimulation of the dura with decreased pH alone or in combination with mast cell mediators. Trigeminal ganglion neurons retrogradely labeled from the dura were stained with an ASIC3 antibody using immunohistochemistry. Current and action potentials evoked by changes in pH alone or in combination with mast cell mediators were measured in retrogradely labeled dural afferents using patch-clamp electrophysiology. pH-sensitive dural afferents generated currents in response to the ASIC3 activator 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ), approximately 80% of these neurons express ASIC3 protein, and pH-evoked behavioral responses were inhibited by the ASIC3 blocker APETx2. Following exposure to mast cell mediators, dural afferents exhibited increased pH-evoked excitability, and cutaneous allodynia was observed at higher pH than with pH stimuli alone. These data indicate that the predominant ASIC subtype responding to decreased meningeal pH is ASIC3. Additionally, they demonstrate that in the presence of inflammation, dural afferents respond to even smaller decreases in pH providing further support for the ability of small pH changes within the meninges to initiate afferent input leading to headache. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  10. Subarachnoid catheter placement after wet tap for analgesia in labor: influence on the risk of headache in obstetric patients.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Sabry; Demian, Yousef; Narouze, Samer N; Tetzlaff, John E

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) after epidural wet tap for obstetric patients may be as high as 75%. We have studied how subsequent placement of a subarachnoid catheter immediately after confirmation of a wet tap, and leaving the catheter in place for 24 hours affects the incidence of PDPH. Over a 5-year interval, 115 consecutive patients who had unintentional dural puncture were divided into 3 groups by consecutive assignment. Group A had an epidural catheter placed at another interspace. Group B had a subarachnoid catheter placed for labor analgesia that was removed immediately after delivery. Group C had a subarachnoid catheter that was left in place for 24 hours after delivery. Data were collected retrospectively. The incidence of PDPH and blood patch was compared between groups. The overall incidence of PDPH was 46.9% and need for blood patch 36.5%, significantly less in both subarachnoid catheter groups, 31% in B and 3% in group C, compared with group A (PDPH 81%) (P <.001). Subarachnoid catheter placement after wet tap in obstetric patients reduces the PDPH rate and does so to a greater extent if left in place for 24 hours after delivery.

  11. Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Andrew D

    2015-08-01

    Headache is one of the most common health concerns in children and adolescents, yet remains underrecognized as a disease. A variety of factors, including the unique aspects of childhood headaches, contribute to this underrecognition. Improving recognition of childhood and adolescent headaches and using a standardized approach for their evaluation is expected to lead to the appropriate diagnosis and subsequent additional evaluation and management to improve the overall outcome in children and adolescents with headaches. Building on limited studies in children and adolescents and translating adult studies to children can assist in designing a multidisciplinary treatment plan. This review focuses on some of the unique aspects of evaluating children and adolescents with headaches; the impact of these headaches on school, home, and family function; determination of disability and influence of comorbid conditions; and development of a treatment plan that incorporates acute, preventive, and biobehavioral management tools.

  12. Huygens' headache.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) was a Dutch mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He became well-known as inventor of the pendulum clock and described light as a wave phenomenon. He became Fellow of the Royal Society (London) and member of the Académie des Sciences (Paris). From the correspondence with family members and famous scientists, we learn that he suffered from frequent headaches. To study Huygens' 22-volume Oeuvres Complètes (1888-1950) to find letters in which his headaches are mentioned and translate pertinent sections into English. Although a posthumous diagnosis of Huygens' headaches is somewhat hazardous, the recurrent episodes with incapacitating headache and family history over two generations are suggestive for migraine. It becomes clear that it impeded his writing, reading, and research. From the letters we get an impression of the impact of the headache upon his life and the treatments that were applied in the 17th century. © International Headache Society 2015.

  13. Hypnic headache.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Mark; Holle, Dagny

    2010-09-01

    Hypnic headache is a rare primary headache disorder that is characterized by exclusively sleep-related headache attacks in patients usually beyond 50 years of age. Only 174 cases have been reported in the literature so far. Owing to its low prevalence, clinical features and therapeutic options, as well as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, are widely unknown or being controversially discussed. The association of hypnic headache with rapid-eye movement sleep was strongly contradicted in recent articles, while an association with hypothalamic dysfunction is thought to be one important pathophysiological mechanism. Common acute, as well as prophylactic, treatment is caffeine intake, either in the form of a cup of coffee or a caffeine tablet. Lithium, indomethacin and melatonin were promoted as potent medical treatments, while almost every other drug commonly used to treat headache or other pain syndromes was reported to be effective in single case reports on hypnic headache.

  14. Pediatric Headaches.

    PubMed

    Slover, Robin; Kent, Sheryl

    2015-08-01

    Pediatric headaches are common, and many may never require intervention by a health care provider. However, migraines can become more difficult to treat, especially if they become chronic daily headaches. Pediatric headache is a subjective and unique experience that requires attention to both psychological and physiologic components in diagnosis and treatment. A biopsychosocial, multidisciplinary approach, including both medication management and psychological treatment, is considered essential for effective management.

  15. Cuts and puncture wounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... severely, call your local emergency number such as 911. Minor cuts and puncture wounds can be treated ... arrives. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call 911 or your local emergency number if: The bleeding ...

  16. Thunderclap headache

    PubMed Central

    Dodick, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim is to review the background underlying the debate related to the alternative nomenclatures for and the most appropriate diagnostic evaluation of patients with thunderclap headache. The clinical profile and differential diagnosis of thunderclap headache is described, and a nosological framework and diagnostic approach to this group of patients is proposed. PMID:11784817

  17. Post-lumbar puncture arachnoiditis. The need for directed questioning.

    PubMed

    Etchepare, Fabien; Roche, Bruno; Rozenberg, Sylvie; Dion, Elisabeth; Bourgeois, Pierre; Fautrel, Bruno

    2005-03-01

    The inflammation of the arachnoid mater may produce a fibrinous exudate around the roots that causes them to adhere to the dural sheath. We report the case of a man aged 23 years who suffered from acute inflammatory truncated sciatica. The diagnosis of adhesive arachnoiditis was made in front of clinical arguments associated to typical signs on Myelo CT Scan and MRI. The only explanation ever found was a traumatic lumbar puncture at the age of 6 years for suspected meningitis. Sequelae of arachnoiditis are difficult to diagnosis. When MRI or myelography suggests it as a possibility, precise directed questioning is necessary to seek a history, albeit distant, of spinal or meningeal events.

  18. Technique for Performing Lumbar Puncture in Microgravity Using Portable Radiography.

    PubMed

    Lerner, David J; Parmet, Allen J; Don, Steven; Shimony, Joshua S; Goyal, Manu S

    2016-08-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure Syndrome (VIIP) has caused symptomatology during and after long duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Only indirect measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP), such as ultrasound, have been performed on ISS. Discussion and interest has happened at NASA about performing lumbar puncture (LP) in microgravity. Only the "blind" palpation approach and the ultrasound-assisted approach have been discussed. This article, as proof of concept, discusses the possibility of portable radiography to assist lumbar punctures in microgravity. An anthropomorphic radiological phantom of an adult lumbar spine was made containing a fluid-filled space in the spinal canal with a latex membrane which simulated the dural sac and cerebrospinal fluid. A portable direct-digital radiography system with wireless transmitting image receptor and screen was used to perform image-guided lumbar puncture. Using the same equipment and technique, this procedure was then performed on a cadaver for final proof of concept. Technical success was achieved in all approaches on the first try without needle redirection. There was no difference between the cadaver model and the phantom model in terms of difficulty in reaching the fluid space or visually confirming needle location. Portable radiography via proof of concept has the potential to guide lumbar puncture while minimizing volume and mass of equipment. This could be ideal for assisting in performing lumbar puncture in microgravity, as this is the standard of care on Earth for difficult or failed "blind" lumbar punctures. Lerner DJ, Parmet AJ, Don S, Shimony JS, Goyal MS. Technique for performing lumbar puncture in microgravity using portable radiography. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):745-747.

  19. Traumatic dural tears: CT diagnosis using metrizamide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.E.; Hasso, A.N.; Thompson, J.R.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.; Vu, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    Computed tomography of the spine using intrathecal metrizamide was performed on six patients with spinal trauma. Dural tears with contrast material escaping outside the subarachnoid space were documented in five cases. The characteristics of dural tears are demonstrable by metrizamide and computed tomography, either in conjunction with myelography or as a separate procedure. Neurological deficits following spinal trauma may be aggravated by dural tears with entrapment of the spinal nerve roots.

  20. Cluster Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... migraine, are likely to pace or sit and rock back and forth. Some migraine-like symptoms — including ... blood vessel (aneurysm). Additionally, if you have a history of headaches, see your doctor if the pattern ...

  1. Transarterial venous sinus occlusion of dural arteriovenous fistulas using ONYX.

    PubMed

    Torok, Collin M; Nogueira, Raul G; Yoo, Albert J; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Hirsch, Joshua A; Stapleton, Christopher J; Patel, Aman B; Rabinov, James D

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case series of transarterial venous sinus occlusion for dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. From 2006 to 2012, 11 patients with DAVF of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses were treated with transarterial closure of the affected venous sinus using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (ONYX). The consecutive retrospective cohort included six female and five male patients with an age range of 30-79. Patients presented with stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, seizure, headache, focal neurologic deficit or cognitive change. Lesions were categorized as Cognard II a + b (n = 5) or Cognard II b (n = 6). Four of this latter group consisted of isolated sinus segments. Selection criteria for dural sinus occlusion included direct multi-hole fistulas involving a broad surface in length or circumference of the sinus wall. External carotid artery (ECA) branches were directly embolized when considered safe. High-risk arterial supply from ICA, PICA, AICA or ECA cranial nerve branches were closed via retrograde approach during sinus occlusion. DAVF closure was accomplished in all 11 patients with a total of 17 embolization procedures using ONYX. High-risk arterial collaterals were closed via artery-artery or artery-sinus-artery embolization. The vein of Labbe was spared in the four cases with initial antegrade flow. No neurologic complications occurred, and DAVF closures were durable on three-month angiography. Transarterial closure of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Allergies and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ... Sign up for NHF Updates . CAQ in Headache Medicine In 2015, NHF will be offering a Certificate ...

  3. National Headache Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ... Sign up for NHF Updates . CAQ in Headache Medicine In 2015, NHF will be offering a Certificate ...

  4. Multiple dural-based hemangiopericytomas

    PubMed Central

    Stroberg, Edana; Uhrbrock, David H.; Harris, Frank; Mutyala, Subhakar; DiPatre, Pier Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 57-year-old man who underwent resection of a dural-based hemangiopericytoma (HPC) in the left frontoparietal region. The patient was treated with radiation therapy and remained symptom-free for 10 years. At 67 years of age, he presented with a mass in the left frontal region near the same area as the first tumor, in addition to a separate smaller mass in the right middle cranial fossa. Resection of the larger left frontal mass revealed an HPC. Follow-up imaging 9 months later showed a significant increase in size of the right middle cranial fossa mass. This third mass was resected, and histological examination also demonstrated an HPC. PMID:27034566

  5. Postdural Puncture Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis in a Juvenile Case of Clinically Isolated Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Miriam; Haberlandt, Edda; Baumann, Matthias; Entenmann, Andreas; Wagner, Michaela; Rostasy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background. The causes of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are manifold as is its clinical presentation. Case. We report the case of a CVT following lumbar puncture and intravenous glucocorticosteroid therapy in a female adolescent with a clinically isolated syndrome and risk factors for thrombosis. Conclusion. In adolescent patients with acute inflammatory disease undergoing lumbar puncture followed by intravenous high-dose glucocorticosteroid therapy, one should be aware of the elevated risk for thrombosis. A persistent headache with change in the headache pattern and loss of a postural component might be a sign for CVT, requiring emergency imaging of the brain. PMID:26558127

  6. Postdural Puncture Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis in a Juvenile Case of Clinically Isolated Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Michel, Miriam; Haberlandt, Edda; Baumann, Matthias; Entenmann, Andreas; Wagner, Michaela; Rostasy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background. The causes of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are manifold as is its clinical presentation. Case. We report the case of a CVT following lumbar puncture and intravenous glucocorticosteroid therapy in a female adolescent with a clinically isolated syndrome and risk factors for thrombosis. Conclusion. In adolescent patients with acute inflammatory disease undergoing lumbar puncture followed by intravenous high-dose glucocorticosteroid therapy, one should be aware of the elevated risk for thrombosis. A persistent headache with change in the headache pattern and loss of a postural component might be a sign for CVT, requiring emergency imaging of the brain.

  7. Pediatric headache.

    PubMed

    Winner, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Headaches occur frequently in the pediatric population and have a significant impact on both the patient and their family. Migraine, the most common headache disorder for which patients see a physician, still remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Recent studies have revealed the increasing incidence of migraine and chronic migraine in the pediatric population. Limitations of the present diagnostic criteria for migraine are presented, and the proposed modifications to these criteria may assist you with early recognition and ultimate treatment. New acute and preventive migraine treatment data demonstrating statistically significant benefit for the primary endpoints will be reviewed in detail. The clinically relevant impact of migraine on the pediatric patient documented by the use of the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory will be discussed. A comprehensive management approach blending the most current acute, preventive, and biobehavioral treatments will be reviewed. Further research, with novel study designs, in pediatric headaches is needed to help reveal additional pathophysiological mechanisms, improve diagnostic criteria, and advance optimal treatment. Prospective studies are needed to fully evaluate the efficacy of preventive management in this population and to establish whether early intervention might slow this disease progression.

  8. Recurrent unilateral headache associated with SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Jun; Ouma, Shinji; Fukae, Jiro; Tsuboi, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was admitted with recurrent episodes of right frontal headache. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive thickening and enhancement of the right frontal dura, muscle and fascia, as well as abnormal signal intensity and enhancement of bone marrow at the lesions. Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis osteomyelitis (SAPHO) syndrome was diagnosed based on the patient's 8-year history of treatment of palmoplantar pustulosis and abnormal accumulations in the right temporal, sternum, and left medial clavicula on bone scintigraphy. SAPHO syndrome may be associated with skull lesions, which can contribute to the onset of repeated headache or dural thickening, thus these symptoms should be recognized as manifestations of this syndrome.

  9. Managing tension headaches at home

    MedlinePlus

    Tension-type headache - self-care; Muscle contraction headache - self-care; Headache - benign - self-care; Headache - tension- self-care; Chronic headaches - tension - self-care; Rebound headaches - ...

  10. Puncture wounds of the foot.

    PubMed

    Haverstock, Brent D

    2012-04-01

    Puncture wounds often appear benign but can cause significant pedal morbidity. Podiatric physicians who treat such wounds should educate local emergency room, urgent care center, and primary care physicians as to the potential complications associated with puncture wounds. Timely referral, recognition of the potential complications, and appropriate treatment ensure that the wound does not advance beyond a puncture wound. If complications have developed, aggressive treatment is required to eradicate the infection and prevent pedal amputation.

  11. Puncture wounds of the foot.

    PubMed

    Racz, Roger S; Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Puncture wounds are common injuries of the foot. Although most puncture wounds are benign, devastating complications are possible without adequate treatment. These injuries can occur in all age groups and in various circumstances. Early diagnosis and appropriate medical and surgical management is paramount in achieving successful outcomes.

  12. [Puncture of the brachiocephalic vein].

    PubMed

    Schlarb, K

    1986-09-01

    A specific central vein catheter for puncture of the brachiocephalic vein has been developed which is provided with a valve by which air-embolism and unwanted bleeding from the catheter are eliminated. Typical and often serious complications, which can develop on insertion of central vein catheter, can nearly be totally avoided by the puncture technique described.

  13. Embryological Consideration of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    The topographical distribution of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was analyzed based on the embryological anatomy of the dural membrane. Sixty-six consecutive cases of intracranial and spinal DAVFs were analyzed based on the angiography, and each shunt point was identified according to the embryological bony structures. The area of dural membranes was categorized into three different groups: a ventral group located on the endochondral bone (VE group), a dorsal group located on the membranous bone (DM group) and a falcotentorial group (FT group) located in the falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, and diaphragm sellae. The FT group was designated when the dural membrane was formed only with the dura propria (meningeal layer of the dura mater) and not from the endosteal dura. Cavernous sinus, sigmoid sinus, and anterior condylar confluence was categorized to VE group, which had a female predominance, more benign clinical presentations, and a lower rate of cortical and spinal venous reflux. Transverse sinus, confluence, and superior sagittal sinus belonged to the DM group. Olfactory groove, falx, tent of the cerebellum, and nerve sleeve of spinal cord were categorized to the FT group, which presented later in life and which had a male predominance, more aggressive clinical presentations, and significant cortical and spinal venous reflux. The DAVFs was associated with the layers of the dural membrane characterized by the two different embryological bony structures. The FT group was formed only with the dura propria as an independent risk factor for aggressive clinical course and hemorrhage of DAVFs. PMID:27250699

  14. Headaches During War: Analysis of Presentation, Treatment, and Factors Associated with Outcome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    associated with trauma such as post-concussion (18.7%), occipital neuralgia (23.1%), and cervicogenic headache (29.7%) had the lowest RTD rates, whereas...concussion (18.7%), occipital neuralgia (23.1%), and cervicogenic headache (29.7%) had the lowest RTD rates, whereas tension headache (49.6%) was associated...migraine, cluster, post-traumatic, cervicogenic, occipi- tal neuralgia , cluster, and other (e.g. brain tumour, pro- longed postdural puncture, substance

  15. Cluster headache

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Elizabeth; Ducros, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes) of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye). It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name) in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke) and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms) has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments) and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments). Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the hypothalamus and

  16. New daily persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alok

    2012-08-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  17. Dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath

    PubMed Central

    Kacem, Hanane Hadj; Hammani, Lehcen; Ajana, Ali; Nassar, Itimad

    2014-01-01

    Optic nerve dural ectasia is a rare cause of optic nerve sheath enlargement due to the accumulation of CSF around the optic nerve with no associated pathology. It diagnosed by MRI studies and can follow benign or sometimes an unfavorable course. We describe the case of a 24-day-old female referred for a visual blurring, which we diagnosed as a dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath by MRI and confirmed in surgical intervention. We present this case report to illustrate the classic imaging features of the disease. PMID:25374645

  18. Tinnitus and Headache

    PubMed Central

    Langguth, Berthold; Hund, Verena; Busch, Volker; Jürgens, Tim P.; Lainez, Jose-Miguel; Landgrebe, Michael; Schecklmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tinnitus and headache are frequent disorders. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the occurrence of headache among tinnitus patients is purely coincidental or whether tinnitus and headache are pathophysiologically linked. We investigated a large sample of patients with tinnitus and headache to estimate prevalence rates of different headache forms, to determine the relationship between tinnitus laterality and headache laterality, and to explore the relationship between tinnitus and headache over time. Method. Patients who presented at a tertiary referral center because of tinnitus and reported comorbid headache were asked to complete validated questionnaires to determine the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache and to assess tinnitus severity. In addition, several questions about the relationship between headache and tinnitus were asked. Results. Datasets of 193 patients with tinnitus and headache were analysed. 44.6% suffered from migraine, 13% from tension-type headache, and 5.7% from both. Headache laterality was significantly related to tinnitus laterality and in the majority of patients fluctuations in symptom severity of tinnitus and headache were interrelated. Conclusion. These findings suggest a significant relationship between tinnitus and headache laterality and symptom interaction over time and argue against a purely coincidental cooccurrence of tinnitus and headache. Both disorders may be linked by common pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:26583133

  19. [Cluster headache differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Guégan-Massardier, Evelyne; Laubier, Cécile

    2015-11-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by disabling stereotyped headache. Early diagnosis allows appropriate treatment, unfortunately diagnostic errors are frequent. The main differential diagnoses are other primary or essential headaches. Migraine, more frequent and whose diagnosis is carried by excess, trigeminal neuralgia or other trigemino-autonomic cephalgia. Vascular or tumoral underlying condition can mimic cluster headache, neck and brain imaging is recommended, ideally MRI.

  20. Sleep-related headaches.

    PubMed

    Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

    2012-11-01

    Irrespective of diagnosis, chronic daily, morning, or "awakening" headache patterns are soft signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea headache may emerge de novo or may present as an exacerbation of cluster, migraine, tension-type, or other headache. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in chronic migraine and tension-type headache, and increases risk for depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep loss, oversleeping, schedule shift) is an acute headache trigger for migraine and tension-type headache. Snoring and sleep disturbance are independent risk factors for progression from episodic to chronic headache.

  1. Haemorrhage associated with silastic dural substitute.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, D; Taylor, W; Hayward, R

    1994-01-01

    Three cases of haemorrhage after the use of a silastic dural substitute are presented. In all cases the implant was removed and further haemorrhage has not occurred. Published work is reviewed and the implications for the continued use of silastic are discussed. Images PMID:8201348

  2. Other primary headaches

    PubMed Central

    Bahra, Anish

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Other Primary Headaches’ include eight recognised benign headache disorders. Primary stabbing headache is a generally benign disorder which often co-exists with other primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. Primary cough headache is headache precipitated by valsalva; secondary cough has been reported particularly in association with posterior fossa pathology. Primary exertional headache can occur with sudden or gradual onset during, or immediately after, exercise. Similarly headache associated with sexual activity can occur with gradual evolution or sudden onset. Secondary headache is more likely with both exertional and sexual headache of sudden onset. Sudden onset headache, with maximum intensity reached within a minute, is termed thunderclap headache. A benign form of thunderclap headache exists. However, isolated primary and secondary thunderclap headache cannot be clinically differentiated. Therefore all headache of thunderclap onset should be investigated. The primary forms of the aforementioned paroxysmal headaches appear to be Indomethacin sensitive disorders. Hypnic headache is a rare disorder which is termed ‘alarm clock headache’, exclusively waking patients from sleep. The disorder can be Indomethacin responsive, but can also respond to Lithium and caffeine. New daily persistent headache is a rare and often intractable headache which starts one day and persists daily thereafter for at least 3 months. The clinical syndrome more often has migrainous features or is otherwise has a chronic tension-type headache phenotype. Management is that of the clinical syndrome. Hemicrania continua straddles the disorders of migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and is not dealt with in this review. PMID:23024566

  3. Primary headache disorders.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Rafael; Eliav, Eli

    2013-07-01

    Primary headache disorders include migraine, tension-type headaches, and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs). "Primary" refers to a lack of clear underlying causative pathology, trauma, or systemic disease. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing; hemicrania continua, although classified separately by the International Headache Society, shares many features of both migraine and the TACs. This article describes the features and treatment of these disorders.

  4. A review article on the diagnosis and treatment of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas and dural tears occurring during spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spinal surgery, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas attributed to deliberate dural opening (e.g., for tumors, shunts, marsupialization of cysts) or inadvertent/traumatic dural tears (DTs) need to be readily recognized, and appropriately treated. Methods: During spinal surgery, the dura may be deliberately opened to resect intradural lesions/tumors, to perform shunts, or to open/marsupialize cysts. DTs, however, may inadvertently occur during primary, but are seen more frequently during revision spinal surgery often attributed to epidural scarring. Other etiologies of CSF fistulas/DTs include; epidural steroid injections, and resection of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL). Whatever the etiology of CSF fistulas or DTs, they must be diagnosed utilizing radioisotope cisternography (RIC), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed axial tomography (CT) studies, and expeditiously repaired. Results: DTs should be repaired utilizing interrupted 7-0 Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore and Associates Inc., Elkton, MD, USA) sutures, as the suture itself is larger than the needle; the larger suture occludes the dural puncture site. Closure may also include muscle patch grafts, dural patches/substitutes (bovine pericardium), microfibrillar collagen (Duragen: Integra Life Sciences Holdings Corporation, Plainsboro, NJ), and fibrin glues or dural sealants (Tisseel: Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA). Only rarely are lumbar drains and wound-peritoneal and/or lumboperitoneal shunts warranted. Conclusion: DTs or CSF fistulas attributed to primary/secondary spinal surgery, trauma, epidural injections, OPLL, OYL, and other factors, require timely diagnosis (MRI/CT/Cisternography), and appropriate reconstruction. PMID:24163783

  5. Transarterial Embolization of a Cervical Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S.A.; Lassig, J.P.; Nicol, E.; Thompson, B.G.; Gemmete, J.J.; Gandhi, D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of a 75-year-old man who presented with acute onset of headache and subarachnoid hemorrhage and initial cerebral angiography was deemed "negative". In retrospect, a faint contrast collection was present adjacent to the right vertebral artery at the C1 level suspicious for a small dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF). Follow-up angiography with selective microcatheter injections of the right vertebral artery and C1 radicular artery confirmed a complex dAVF with characteristically specific venous drainage patterns associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage presentation. Subsequently, the cervical dAVF was treated with superselective glue embolization resulting in complete occlusion. Cervical dAVFs are extremely rare vascular causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both diagnostic angiography and endovascular treatment of these lesions can be challenging, especially in an emergent setting, requiring selective evaluation of bilateral vertebral arteries and careful attention to their cervical segments. Although only a single prior case of a cervical dAVF presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage has been successfully treated with embolization, modern selective transarterial techniques may allow easier detection and treatment of subtle pathologic arteriovenous connections. PMID:20569588

  6. Traumatic-event headaches

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Background Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized. Methods Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded. Results The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind. Conclusions This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after head or whiplash traumas implies

  7. Superior Sagittal Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Treated by Stent Placement for an Occluded Sinus and Transarterial Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, N.; Toyota, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Wakayama, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) involving the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) successfully treated with stent placement for an occluded sinus and transarterial embolization. A 61-year-old man who had been treated with anticoagulation for a known SSS thrombosis presented with a sudden onset of headache. CT scan revealed an intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebral angiography revealed DAVFs involving the SSS which had severe venous congestion and sinus occlusion. We treated this case with a staged endovascular approach which consisted of stent placement for the occluded sinus and transarterial intravenous embolization resulting in complete eradication of DAVFs. Recanalization of an occluded sinus by stent placement can reduce venous congestion and transarterial intravenous embolization can obliterate dural arteriovenous shunts. This staged strategy is feasible and should be considered a first option of treatment, especially for DAVFs which presented with intracranial hemorrhage and aggressive venous hypertension. PMID:22958774

  8. Coincidental vascular anomalies at the foramen magnum: dural arteriovenous fistula and high flow aneurysm on perimedullary fistula.

    PubMed

    Gilard, V; Curey, S; Tollard, E; Proust, F

    2013-12-01

    We report the case of a 59-year-old woman admitted for a sudden headache due to a subarachnoid haemorrhage. On CT scan, the clots predominated into the posterior fossa without high-density in the sylvian or interhemispheric fissures. The vertebral angiography revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula at the foramen magnum associated to an aneurysm of the cervical anterior spinal artery. Due to the high rebleeding risk of a dural shunt, we proposed curative treatment using microsurgical interruption of the intradural draining vein. On the postoperative angiography at 15-day follow-up, the 2 malformations were corrected and the outcome at 6 months was excellent. Based on the literature, we assess this exceptional association and suggest its possible management.

  9. Hijab (headscarf) headache.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Huma N; Solomon, Glen D

    2015-03-01

    Hijab (headscarf) headache is well known among wearers and is a common topic of discussion. It has never previously been reported in the medical literature. Five women described bilateral headache either prompted by or worsened by donning the hijab, or headscarf. The headache always resolved soon after removal of the headscarf. Hijab headache may also be alleviated by minimal modifications in style while allowing women to maintain their moral conviction. It likely represents an extracranial etiology of headache, and recognition may prevent unnecessary evaluation and suffering in hijab wearers. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  10. Drug therapy in headache.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache.

  11. Headaches and Migraines: Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... headache, toxic headache, occurs during fevers from disease. Cluster: Cluster headaches cause repeated, intense bouts of pain lasting ... the brain, as shown here: migraine (blue arrow) cluster headache (red arrows) tension type (yellow arrow) Click ...

  12. Ponytail headache: a pure extracranial headache.

    PubMed

    Blau, J N

    2004-05-01

    Fifty of 93 females experienced headache from wearing a ponytail. Pain was experienced only at the site of the hair tie in 10 subjects, extending in others, forwards to the vertex (n = 5) or forehead (n = 7), laterally to the parietal region (n = 8) or temples (n = 3), downwards to the neck (n = 5), or to other areas (n = 12). Loosening the hair relieved pain immediately in 4 subjects, within half an hour in 32, and within an hour in 5 subjects; the remaining 9 subjects were uncertain of pain duration. This headache was preventable by wearing the ponytail more loosely tied. Ponytail headache, well known to females, is not described in the medical literature because the remedy is obvious, therefore those affected do not seek medical advice. This seemingly common headache provides an example of a pure extracranial headache arising from pericranial muscle fascia and tendon traction. Males almost certainly have similar experiences, but were not questioned in this study. Distinguishing intracranial from extracranial headache is essential in diagnosis and treatment. Further research on ponytail and other extracranial headaches could shed light on the mechanism of tension-type headache.

  13. Headaches (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... car or carpet drinking or eating too much caffeine (in energy drinks , soda, coffee, tea, and chocolate) ... it Common to Get Migraines Before Your Period? Caffeine Headaches Migraine Headaches Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  14. Headache Sufferers' Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... wine to be a headache trigger often find chocolate to also trigger headaches). Caffeine and Similar Compounds ... guide for caffeine content of common sources. Because chocolate (except white chocolate) contains caffeine and other chemicals ...

  15. Chronic Daily Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing frequent headaches include: Female sex Anxiety Depression Sleep disturbances Obesity Snoring Overuse of caffeine Overuse of headache ... re also more likely to have depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and other psychological and physical problems. You're ...

  16. Headaches (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu or common cold strep throat sinus infections Lyme disease Most headaches aren't signs that something more ... TOPIC First Aid: Headaches Medications: Using Them Safely Lyme Disease Oooh, Your Aching Head! Why Do I Have ...

  17. Dural arteriovenous fistula as a treatable dementia

    PubMed Central

    Enofe, Ikponmwosa; Thacker, Ike

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a chronic loss of neurocognitive function that is progressive and irreversible. Although rare, dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) could present with a rapid decline in neurocognitive function with or without Parkinson-like symptoms. DAVFs represent a potentially treatable and reversible cause of dementia. Here, we report the case of an elderly woman diagnosed with a DAVF after presenting with new-onset seizures, deteriorating neurocognitive function, and Parkinson-like symptoms. PMID:28405088

  18. Endovascular Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Oh, Hyuk-Jin; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) remains a challenge. However, after introduction of Onyx, transarterial approach is the preferred treatment option in many centers. We report our experience of dAVFs embolization with special emphasis on transarterial approach. Methods Seventeen embolization procedures were performed in 13 patients with dAVFs between Jan 2009 and Oct 2014. Clinical symptoms, location and type of fistulas, embolization methods, complications, radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated using charts and PACS images. Results All 13 patients had symptomatic lesions. The locations of fistulas were transverse-sigmoid sinus in 6, middle fossa dura in 4, cavernous sinus in 2, and superior sagittal sinus in 1 patient. Cognard types were as follows : I in 4, IIa in 2, IIa+IIb in 5, and IV in 2. Embolization procedures were performed ≥2 times in 3 patients. Nine patients were treated with transarterial Onyx embolization alone. One of these required direct surgical puncture of middle meningeal artery. Complete obliteration of fistulas was achieved in 11/13 (85%) patients. There were no complications except for 1 case of Onyx migration in cavernous dAVF. Modified Rankin scale score at post-operative 3 months were 0 in 11, and 3 in 2 patients. Conclusion Transarterial Onyx embolization can be a first line therapeutic option in patients with dAVFs. However, transvenous approach should be tried first in cavernous sinus dAVF because of the risk of intracranial migration of liquid embolic materials. Furthermore, combined surgical endovascular approach can be considered as a useful option in inaccessible route. PMID:26885282

  19. Risk factors for postoperative CSF leakage after elective craniotomy and the efficacy of fleece-bound tissue sealing against dural suturing alone: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Gregor; von Felten, Stefanie; Sailer, Martin H; Schulz, Marianne; Mariani, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid leakage is an immanent risk of cranial surgery with dural opening. Recognizing the risk factors for this complication and improving the technique of dural closure may reduce the associated morbidity and its surgical burden. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether the addition of TachoSil on top of the dural suture reduces postoperative CSF leakage compared with dural suturing alone and to assess the frequency and risk factors for dural leakage and potentially related complications after elective craniotomy. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-center trial in patients undergoing elective craniotomy with dural opening. They compared their standard dural closure by running suture alone (with the use of a dural patch if needed) to the same closure with the addition of TachoSil on top of the suture. The primary end point was the incidence of CSF leakage, defined as CSF collection or any open CSF fistula within 30 days. Secondary end points were the incidence of infection, surgical revision, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) or intermediate care (IMC) unit. The site of craniotomy, a history of diabetes mellitus, a diagnosis of meningioma, the intraoperative need of a suturable dural substitute, and blood parameters were assessed as potential risk factors for CSF leakage. The authors enrolled 241 patients, of whom 229 were included in the analysis. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage, mostly self-limiting subgaleal collections, occurred in 13.5% of patients. Invasive treatment was performed in 8 patients (3.5%) (subgaleal puncture in 6, lumbar drainage in 1, and surgical revision in 1 patient). Diabetes mellitus, a higher preoperative level of C-reactive protein (CRP), and the intraoperative need for a dural patch were positively associated with the occurrence of the primary end point (p = 0.014, 0.01, and 0.049, respectively). Cerebrospinal fluid leakage (9.7% vs 17.2%, OR 0.53 [95% CI 0

  20. [Pathophysiology of cluster headache].

    PubMed

    Donnet, Anne

    2015-11-01

    The aetiology of cluster headache is partially unknown. Three areas are involved in the pathogenesis of cluster headache: the trigeminal nociceptive pathways, the autonomic system and the hypothalamus. The cluster headache attack involves activation of the trigeminal autonomic reflex. A dysfunction located in posterior hypothalamic gray matter is probably pivotal in the process. There is a probable association between smoke exposure, a possible genetic predisposition and the development of cluster headache.

  1. Headache management: pharmacological approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Alex J; Sturrock, Aaron; Davies, Brendan; Matharu, Manjit

    2015-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common conditions presenting to the neurology clinic, yet a significant proportion of these patients are unsatisfied by their clinic experience. Headache can be extremely disabling; effective treatment is not only essential for patients but is rewarding for the physician. In this first of two parts review of headache, we provide an overview of headache management, emerging therapeutic strategies and an accessible interpretation of clinical guidelines to assist the busy neurologist. PMID:26141299

  2. Endovascular treatment of sphenoid wing dural arteriovenous fistula with pure cortical venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Miyake, Kosuke; Kunieda, Takenobu; Murao, Kenichi

    2014-07-01

    Curative endovascular treatment of sphenoid wing dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) with pure cortical venous drainage is challenging because of its rarity, lack of accessible dural sinus for transvenous embolization (TVE), and proximity of skull base vital regions. Direct surgery to disconnect venous reflux has been favored. We report the curative endovascular treatment of two sphenoid wing dAVFs with pure cortical venous drainage. One patient revealed complete obliteration of dAVF by a single session of transarterial embolization (TAE). As part of strategic TAE for this complex dAVF, we used a novel approach to create a complete flow-arrest condition in which coils and an occlusion balloon were combined. A liquid agent was then injected across the pathological fistula and into the parent venous apparatus, thereby occluding the lesion. The other patient was treated with percutaneous TVE after TAE was unsuccessful. With a specific strategy and appropriate devices, the microcatheter was successfully introduced through sigmoid sinus, transverse sinus, superior sagittal sinus, and refluxing cortical vein by puncture of the jugular vein. Coils were deployed at the venous side of the fistula, resulting in successful obliteration of the dAVF. Sphenoid wing dAVF with pure cortical venous drainage could be curable by endovascular treatment with proper strategy and instruments when anatomical condition permits.

  3. Ice Cream Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Ice cream headaches By Mayo Clinic Staff Ice cream headaches are brief, stabbing headaches that can happen when you eat, drink or inhale something cold. Digging into an ice cream cone is a common trigger, but eating or ...

  4. Craniomandibular disorders and headaches.

    PubMed

    Kemper, J T; Okeson, J P

    1983-05-01

    Three hundred patients were questioned regarding frequency of headache pain. One hundred forty-one patients were seeking treatment at the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry TMJ Clinic for CMD. A comparison group of 159 was selected from persons being screened for routine dental needs. The following findings regarding incidence and frequency of headache pain were observed: 1. The incidence of headache pain was twice as high in the CMD group than in the comparison group (p less than .001). 2. Of the persons in each group reporting the occurrence of headaches, the frequency of headaches in the CMD group was significantly higher (44%) than in the comparison group (p less than .001). Thirty-three patients with headache pain were treated for a 4-week period with occlusal splint therapy. Patients were questioned regarding the number of headaches per week they had before and after occlusal splint therapy. The following results were observed: 1. Twenty-one (63.6%) patients showed a decrease in the frequency of their headaches. 2. Ten (30.3%) patients showed complete remission of headaches. 3. No patient showed an increase in the frequency of headaches. 4. As a group the average number of headaches per week before treatment was 5.06; after occlusal splint therapy the average number of headaches per week was 2.15 (p less than .001).

  5. Teaching Neuroimages: a pediatric patient with headache and neck stiffness.

    PubMed

    Moeck, Adam R; Pergami, Paola

    2013-09-24

    A 14-year-old right-handed boy presented with sudden onset of severe headache and neck stiffness. Physical examination showed arm asymmetry with smaller size and muscle bulk (present since childhood) and increased deep tendon reflexes on the right, but normal strength. Brain CT and lumbar puncture ruled out subarachnoid hemorrhage or infection. MRI and angiography (figure) identified an unruptured type III spinal arteriovenous malformation at the C3-C4 level, supplied by the right vertebral artery.(1) Subtle physical examination findings can indicate underlying pathology and should not be overlooked in the proper context. Vascular studies should be considered for severe headache with negative initial workup.(2.)

  6. Predictors and incidence of orthostatic headache associated with lumbar drain placement following endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Liang, Buqing; Shetty, Sathwik R; Omay, Sacit Bulent; Almeida, Joao Paulo; Ni, Shilei; Chen, Yu-Ning; Ruiz-Treviño, Armando S; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2017-08-01

    Orthostatic headache (OH) is a potential complication of lumbar drainage (LD) usage. The incidence and risk factors for OH with the use of lumbar drainage during endoscopic endonasal procedures have not been documented. To investigate the incidence of post-procedure OHs associated with placement of LD in patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal procedures. We prospectively noted the placement of LDs in a consecutive series of endoscopic endonasal skull base surgeries. Charts were retrospectively reviewed, and patients were divided into two groups: those with OH and those without. The patient demographics, drain durations, imaging findings of intracranial hypotension, pathologies and need for a blood patch were compared between the two groups. Two hundred forty-nine patients were included in the study. Seven patients (2.8%) suffered post-dural puncture OH, which was mild to moderate and disappeared 2-8 days (median 3 days) after treatment. Blood patches were used in four patients. Significant predisposing factors were age (33.0 vs. 53.5, P = 0.014) and a strong trend for female gender (85.7% vs. 47.9%, P = 0.062). BMI and drain duration were not significant. Postoperative intracranial hypotension was diagnosed radiographically in 43% of OH patients and in 5.4% of those without OH (P = 0.003). Four (1.6%) patients required treatment with an epidural blood patch. OH associated with intracranial hypotension in patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal procedures with LDs is an infrequent complication seen more commonly in young female patients. Radiographic signs of intracranial hypotension are a specific but not sensitive test for OH.

  7. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  8. [Tension-type headaches].

    PubMed

    Trkanjec, Zlatko; Aleksić-Shihabi, Anka

    2008-05-01

    Tension-type headache is one of the most common and most significant primary headaches. Tension-type headache is a very heterogeneous disorder. It can be divided into episodic and chronic tension-type headache. The pain is a dull, pressing, tightening, typically band-like sensation. The pain is of non-pulsating quality, the location is bilateral, and there is no nausea, vomiting, phonophobia or photophobia. There are no prodromal symptoms or aura. The pain is mild to moderate and it does not aggravate with routine physical activities. Some patients have increased tenderness of pericranial muscles. Psychological factors are common in tension-type headache. Nitric oxide has an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic tension-type headache. Probably it promotes central sensitization and therefore increases nociception. In differential diagnosis of tension type-headache, all structural and metabolic diseases causing headache have to be ruled out, as well as all other primary headaches. All comorbid and coexistent states should also be considered. In the treatment of tension-type headache, pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods are employed. Analgesics, myorelaxants, anxiolytics and antidepressants are most commonly used, as well as physical therapy, massage, acupuncture, behavioral therapy and psychotherapy. Recently, the applications of botulinum toxin and acupuncture have been described in the treatment and prophylaxis of tension-type headache.

  9. Yom Kippur headache.

    PubMed

    Mosek, A; Korczyn, A D

    1995-11-01

    Fasting is frequently mentioned by patients and in textbooks as a trigger for headache. In this study, we attempted to define the role of fasting as a possible precipitator of headache. Headache history was documented in 370 hospital employees (60% female) before and immediately after a 25-hour fast for the 1993 Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). The population included 211 who fasted; 39% of fasters developed headache, compared with only 7% of nonfasters (p < 0.000001). Headache was usually of a nonpulsating quality, mild to moderate in intensity, and bilateral and frontal in location. Subjects with a history of headache were more likely to develop fasting-induced headache than were those without such history (66% versus 29%, p < 0.000002). The number of headache sufferers increased in direct relation to the duration of the fast. Caffeine and nicotine withdrawal and oversleeping did not appear to have an influence on headache development. We conclude that fasting is a strong headache precipitator, especially among chronic headache sufferers. It is usually nonpulsating and nonlateralized.

  10. Spontaneous trigeminal allodynia in rats: a model of primary headache.

    PubMed

    Oshinsky, Michael L; Sanghvi, Menka M; Maxwell, Christina R; Gonzalez, Dorian; Spangenberg, Rebecca J; Cooper, Marnie; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2012-10-01

    Animal models are essential for studying the pathophysiology of headache disorders and as a screening tool for new therapies. Most animal models modify a normal animal in an attempt to mimic migraine symptoms. They require manipulation to activate the trigeminal nerve or dural nociceptors. At best, they are models of secondary headache. No existing model can address the fundamental question: How is a primary headache spontaneously initiated? In the process of obtaining baseline periorbital von Frey thresholds in a wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat, we discovered a rat with spontaneous episodic trigeminal allodynia (manifested by episodically changing periorbital pain threshold). Subsequent mating showed that the trait is inherited. Animals with spontaneous trigeminal allodynia allow us to study the pathophysiology of primary recurrent headache disorders. To validate this as a model for migraine, we tested the effects of clinically proven acute and preventive migraine treatments on spontaneous changes in rat periorbital sensitivity. Sumatriptan, ketorolac, and dihydroergotamine temporarily reversed the low periorbital pain thresholds. Thirty days of chronic valproic acid treatment prevented spontaneous changes in trigeminal allodynia. After discontinuation, the rats returned to their baseline of spontaneous episodic threshold changes. We also tested the effects of known chemical human migraine triggers. On days when the rats did not have allodynia and showed normal periorbital von Frey thresholds, glycerol trinitrate and calcitonin gene related peptide induced significant decreases in the periorbital pain threshold. This model can be used as a predictive model for drug development and for studies of putative biomarkers for headache diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Convexity dural cavernous haemangioma mimicking meningioma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Liu, Jian-Ping; You, Chao; Mao, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Dural cavernous haemangiomas are rare, and they do not display a classical ring of haemosiderin on MRI as parenchymal cavernous haemangiomas. Sometimes, they are misinterpreted as meningiomas with a dural tail sign. In this short report, a 37-year-old woman was diagnosed with a convexity cavernous haemangioma, and the tumour was totally resected.

  12. Effects of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on rat dural artery diameter in an intravital microscopy model

    PubMed Central

    Chan, KY; Gupta, S; de Vries, R; Danser, AHJ; Villalón, CM; Muñoz-Islas, E; Maassen Van Den Brink, A

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: During migraine, trigeminal nerves may release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), inducing cranial vasodilatation and central nociception; hence, trigeminal inhibition or blockade of craniovascular CGRP receptors may prevent this vasodilatation and abort migraine headache. Several preclinical studies have shown that glutamate receptor antagonists affect the pathophysiology of migraine. This study investigated whether antagonists of NMDA (ketamine and MK801), AMPA (GYKI52466) and kainate (LY466195) glutamate receptors affected dural vasodilatation induced by α-CGRP, capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation in rats, using intravital microscopy. Experimental approach: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and the overlying bone was thinned to visualize the dural artery. Then, vasodilator responses to exogenous (i.v. α-CGRP) and endogenous (released by i.v. capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation) CGRP were elicited in the absence or presence of the above antagonists. Key results: α-CGRP, capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation increased dural artery diameter. Ketamine and MK801 inhibited the vasodilator responses to capsaicin and electrical stimulation, while only ketamine attenuated those to α-CGRP. In contrast, GYKI52466 only attenuated the vasodilatation to exogenous α-CGRP, while LY466195 did not affect the vasodilator responses to endogenous or exogenous CGRP. Conclusions and implications: Although GYKI52466 has not been tested clinically, our data suggest that it would not inhibit migraine via vascular mechanisms. Similarly, the antimigraine efficacy of LY466195 seems unrelated to vascular CGRP-mediated pathways and/or receptors. In contrast, the cranial vascular effects of ketamine and MK801 may represent a therapeutic mechanism, although the same mechanism might contribute, peripherally, to cardiovascular side effects. PMID:20590623

  13. Headache - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tension-type headache - what to ask your doctor; Cluster headache - what to ask your doctor ... a tension-type headache ? A migraine headache ? A cluster headache ? What medical problems can cause headaches? What ...

  14. Developmental outcomes for neonatal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Hartman, Tyler K; Barbaresi, William; Raffel, Corey; Colby, Christopher E

    2009-02-01

    Large dural arteriovenous malformations (DAVMs) accompanied by cardiac failure usually carry a poor prognosis with a high risk of morbidity and death. The authors report on the case of a male neonate with a massive DAVM who presented at birth with macrocephaly and high-output cardiac failure. The child initially underwent treatment with surgical clipping of the large main feeding artery. Hydrocephalus, thought to be due to venous hypertension, developed when the boy was 8 months old. The condition resolved after interventional embolization treatment. The patient did not require placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. At 21 months of age, the child had near normal development without any focal neurological deficits.

  15. Improvement of depression after treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula: a case report and a review.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Minoru; Sugiu, Kenji; Tokunaga, Koji; Sakamoto, Chihoko; Fujiwara, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    Patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in the transverse-sigmoid sinus suffer from several symptoms: bruit, headache, visual impairment, and so on. But depression is rare in patients with DAVF. The authors reported a rare case presenting the improvement of depression after the treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus. A 46-year-old male had suffered from depression and was treated with antidepressants at a local hospital for four years. The patient was temporarily laid off due to his depression. Afterwards, he had Gerstmann's syndrome and came to our hospital. A DAVF in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus was demonstrated on the angiogram. The DAVF was successfully treated with endovascular surgery, coil embolization of the isolated diseased sinus through the mastoid emissary vein which was a draining vein from the fistula. After this treatment, his depression as well as Gerstmann's syndrome was improved and the quantity of the antidepressants decreased. The patient returned to work without any antidepressant two years after the treatment. DAVFs might be one of the causes of depression. It may be necessary to evaluate cerebral vessels in patients suffering from depression by using MRA or 3D-CTA even if there are not any abnormal findings on plain CT scans.

  16. Improvement of Depression after Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Case Report and a Review

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Minoru; Sugiu, Kenji; Tokunaga, Koji; Sakamoto, Chihoko; Fujiwara, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    Patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in the transverse-sigmoid sinus suffer from several symptoms: bruit, headache, visual impairment, and so on. But depression is rare in patients with DAVF. The authors reported a rare case presenting the improvement of depression after the treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus. A 46-year-old male had suffered from depression and was treated with antidepressants at a local hospital for four years. The patient was temporarily laid off due to his depression. Afterwards, he had Gerstmann's syndrome and came to our hospital. A DAVF in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus was demonstrated on the angiogram. The DAVF was successfully treated with endovascular surgery, coil embolization of the isolated diseased sinus through the mastoid emissary vein which was a draining vein from the fistula. After this treatment, his depression as well as Gerstmann's syndrome was improved and the quantity of the antidepressants decreased. The patient returned to work without any antidepressant two years after the treatment. DAVFs might be one of the causes of depression. It may be necessary to evaluate cerebral vessels in patients suffering from depression by using MRA or 3D-CTA even if there are not any abnormal findings on plain CT scans. PMID:23243544

  17. Dural ectasia in a child with Larsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jain, Viral V; Anadio, Jennifer M; Chan, Gilbert; Sturm, Peter F; Crawford, Alvin H

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of an incidental finding of dural ectasia in a child diagnosed with Larsen syndrome. Larsen syndrome is a rare inherited disorder of connective tissue characterized by facial dysmorphism, congenital joint dislocations of the hips, knees and elbows, and deformities of the hands and feet. Dural ectasia is as an abnormal expansion of the dural sac surrounding the spinal cord and may result in spinal morphologic changes, instability, and spontaneous dislocation. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of dural ectasia in Larsen syndrome has not previously been reported. A 6-year-old boy diagnosed with Larsen syndrome presented with an upper thoracic curve measuring 74 degrees, a right thoracic curve measuring 65 degrees, and significant cervicothoracic kyphosis with 50% anterior subluxation of C6 on C7 and C7 on T1. Advanced imaging studies showed dural ectasia (evidenced by spinal canal and dural sac expansion), thinning of pedicles and lamina, and C4 and C6 pars defects with cervical foramen enlargement. The patient received growing rod instrumentation (attached to cervical spine fixation) by a combined anterior/posterior surgical approach using intraoperative halo. Complications included intraoperative medial breach (fully resolved), wound dehiscence, 2 instances of bilateral broken rods, and a broken cervical rod. Following 7 lengthening procedures, the patient underwent definitive fusion. Surgeons should be aware of the potential for dural ectasia in patients with Larsen syndrome. Its presence will cause difficulties in the surgical intervention for spinal deformity. Multiple factors must be considered, and surgical approach and technique will require modification to avoid complications. Although dural ectasia confounds surgical intervention in these patients, surgery still appears to outweigh the risks associated with delayed intervention. The presence of dural ectasia should not preclude surgical decompression and stabilization. This report

  18. [Iatrogenic dural lesions in lumbar neural decompressive surgery].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik; Amtoft, Ole; Andersen, Mikkel; Bøge-Rasmussen, Torben; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard; Jensen, Lars Emil; Jespersen, Stig; Kruse, Anders; Thomsen, Karsten

    2010-03-01

    Iatrogenic dural tear with cerebrospinal fluid leakage is a known complication of lumbar surgery of the columna. In the literature, the incidence is 3-16%. The study was a retrospective, consecutive review of electronic patient records after spinal surgery at the Private Hospital Hamlet. The study covers cases from the 10-month period from September 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008. Data was collected after this period and consists of surgeon-documented dural tears. At the time of surgery, the surgeon was unaware that there would be a subsequent registration. A total of 634 patients had lumbar neural decompressive surgery - 479 patients were treated for spinal stenosis and 155 for prolapsed disc. The incidence of dural tear was 3.9% (25 dural tears in 634 operations). The risk of a dural tear after secondary surgery was 7.9% versus 3.3% for primary (p = 0.02) and the mean age was 65.9 years for patients with dural tear compared with 58.1 years for patients without (p = 0.00). The difference in the mean duration of surgery was significant being 72 minutes in the group suffering a dural tear compared with 56 minutes (p = 0.03) among the remaining patients, and in the former group length of stay was increased by 1.1 day (p = 0.00). The incidence of iatrogenic dural tear was 3.9%. The incidence of dural tear was doubled in secondary surgery. The duration of surgery increased by 16 minutes and the patients with dural tear were also hospitalized one day longer.

  19. Tobacco, Nicotine, and Headache.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2015-01-01

    Migraineurs variably attribute the cause of their headache to tobacco exposure, whereas tobacco is often stated to cause headache-related disability worldwide. Given tobacco's physiological and emotional addictiveness and migraine's substantial economic impact, improved functionality can be difficult for those with migraine exposed to tobacco products. Environmental tobacco exposure in indoor spaces and workplaces is associated with exacerbation of headache. Avoidance of headache triggers is included in most comprehensive migraine treatment programs, yet tobacco awareness, avoidance, or coping is rarely emphasized as part of that regimen. The aims of this study were to examine the various types of tobacco products to which headache sufferers are exposed and the known basic mechanisms by which tobacco (nicotine) exposure promotes headache pain, and to review the extensive literature on tobacco related to headache with a detailed descriptive narrative providing the basis for conclusions regarding association of noncluster headache-related tobacco exposure. Tobacco-related recommendations are offered. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched without yearly restriction through the date of submission (May 2015), using the MeSH terms "tobacco," "tobacco products," "smoking," "tobacco use," "headache," and "headache disorders." The selection of articles was not limited to English studies or to humans. Articles were excluded when "headache" and "tobacco" were not both mentioned with data provided. Case series were included. Bibliographies of all articles were screened for additional relevant articles. Although migraineurs worldwide report tobacco smoke among triggers, it is rarely among the highest in frequency, and biases abound with predominantly noncontrolled retrospective data. Prospective population-based diary data are extremely limited, and no controlled trials exist to confirm a cause and effect for headache of any type. Although some studies are

  20. Post-traumatic headache: facts and doubts.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Rita; Bivona, Umberto; Catani, Sheila; D'Ippolito, Mariagrazia; Buzzi, M Gabriella

    2009-06-01

    The International Classification of Headache Disorders does not separate the moderate from severe/very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), since they are all defined by Glasgow coma scale (GCS) < 13. The distinction between the severe and very severe TBI (GCS < 8) should be made upon coma duration that in the latter may be longer than 15 days up to months in the case of vegetative state. Post-traumatic amnesia duration may double the coma duration itself. Therefore, the 3-month parameter proposed to define the occurrence or resolution of post-traumatic headache (PTH) appears inadequate. Following TBI, neuropathic pain, central pain, thalamic pain, combined pain are all possible and they call for proper pharmacological approaches. One more reason for having difficulties in obtaining information about headache in the early phase after regaining consciousness is the presence of concomitant medications that may affect pain perception. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops days or weeks after stress and tends to improve or disappear within 3 months after exposure; interestingly, this spontaneous timing resembles that of PTH. In our experience the number of TBI patients with PTH at 1-year follow-up is lower in those with longer coma duration and more severe TBI. Cognitive functioning evaluated after at least 12 months from TBI, showed mild or no impairment in these patients with severe TBI and PTH, whereas they have psychopathological changes, namely anxiety and depression. The majority of patients with PTH after severe/very severe TBI had skull fractures or dural lacerations and paroxystic EEG abnormalities. The combination of psychological changes (depression and anxiety) and organic features (skull fractures, dural lacerations, epileptic EEG abnormalities) in PTH may be inversely correlated with the severity of TBI, with prevalence of psychological disturbances in mild TBI and of organic lesions in severe TBI. On the other hand, only in severe TBI patients

  1. Focal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presenting with progressive cognitive impairment including amnesia and alexia.

    PubMed

    Hasumi, Takashi; Fukushima, Takeshi; Haisa, Toshihiko; Yonemitsu, Tsutomu; Waragai, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman with a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presented with progressive cognitive impairment including amnesia and alexia. Neuroradiological studies showed a relatively confined DAVF lesion in the left temporal lobe. The patient did not have a history of trauma and did not complain of headache or tinnitus. Amnesia and alexia dramatically improved upon treatment of the DAVF, and this was associated with attenuation of an abnormal MRI signal in the left temporal lobe. The results suggest that gradually impaired cerebral circulation due to focal venous hypertensive encephalopathy localized to the left temporal lobe and resulting from a DAVF could be involved in slowly progressive amnesia and alexia. The case also shows that an intracranial DAVF may present as a variety of neurological symptoms, depending on its localization, size and clinical stage.

  2. [Headache: Otorhinolaryngological aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, O

    2016-01-01

    Headache is the main symptom in a wide variety of diseases of which ear, nose and throat (ENT) entities are only a small fraction but are not reflected in the number of patients. Comprehensive knowledge of the clinical signs of the most common primary headaches, e. g. migraine, is therefore essential for the ENT specialist because the few patients with secondary headache from ENT-related causes must be identified. Reasons for confusing primary headache with e. g. sinusitis are mostly symptoms mediated by the trigeminal nerve, such as nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea because branches of the trigeminal nerve also innervate the meninges. The ENT-specific origin of headaches is characterized by clinical findings of physical organ disease; therefore, from an ENT perspective imaging should be part of the diagnostic procedure as normal imaging findings are indicative of primary headache, which would not normally be treated by an ENT specialist.

  3. Heredity, genes, and headache.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Nancy R; Schuyler, Erica A

    2006-11-01

    It is well recognized that headache, and especially migraine, runs in families. Recent studies into the heritability of primary headache subtypes, migraine, cluster and tension headache, and conditions in which headache is a prominent feature, such as the mitochondrial disease, mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes, and the arteriopathy, cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarctions and leukoencephalopathy, are improving our understanding of the genetic contribution to headache. Studies of the rare familial hemiplegic migraine are leading to advances in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of the more common migraine types. Current knowledge of hereditary and genetic features of headache subtypes is reviewed and the implications for understanding the pathophysiology of migraine are discussed.

  4. Pediatric Headache: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Raquel; DiSabella, Marc T

    2017-03-01

    Headache represents the most common neurologic disorder in the general population including children and is increasingly being recognized as a major source of morbidity in youth related to missed school days and activities. In this article, we take a holistic approach to the child presenting with headache with a focus on the detailed headache history, physical and neurologic examinations, and diagnostic evaluation of these patients. Clinical presentations and classification schema of multiple primary and secondary headache types in children are discussed using the International Headache Criteria (IHCD-3) as a guide, and a summary provided of the various treatment modalities employed for pediatric headache including lifestyle modifications, behavioral techniques, and abortive and preventive medications. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Migraine, headaches, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Gil-Gouveia, Raquel; Silva, Claudia; Maruta, Carolina; Oliveira, Antonio Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    The possible effects of migraine on executive abilities remain controversial; hence, we studied inter-ictal cognitive performance of individuals with migraine and non migraine headaches (NMH) compared with headache free controls. In a cross-sectional observational study, taking place in primary care, adults aged 50 or above were evaluated by a neurobehavioral battery including several executive measures. Present history of headache was sought, and migraine was diagnosed by the ID-Migraine questionnaire. The effect of headache type on cognitive measures was analyzed with multiple regression with adjustment by diagnosis, age, gender, education, and depressive symptoms. Among 478 participants, 23.2% reported current headache, of whom 50 were NMH, and 61 were migraine headaches. No group differences were found in the majority of cognitive measures. Compared with controls, migraine subjects performed worse on a test of attention, while NMH participants presented more intrusions and worse discriminability in memory recognition plus a lower performance on semantic memory tests. The presence of headaches in late adulthood was related to a worse performance on few measures of executive functioning, suggesting that cognitive impact is not specific to migraine but might be associated to headache. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  6. Headaches and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Freedom, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Headaches and sleep disorders are associated in a complex manner. Both the disorders are common in the general population, but the relationship between the two is more than coincidental. Sleep disorders can exacerbate headache sand the converse is also true. Treatment of sleep disorders can have a positive impact on the treatment of headaches. Screening for sleep disorders should be considered in all patients with headaches. This can be accomplished with brief screening tools. Those who screen positively can be further evaluated or referred to asleep specialist.

  7. [Brain tumor and headache.].

    PubMed

    Kiss, I; Franz, M; Kilian, M

    1994-09-01

    The possible association of brain tumour with headache was investigated in 100 patients seen for brain surgery. Preoperatively, 43 patients suffered from headache. These patients were thoroughly questioned about the nature of their pain. Investigation included the McGill Pain Questionnaire. In only 11 of the patients was headache the primary symptom of a brain tumour. Pain intensity was found to be lower in patients with brain tumour then in those with extracranial tumours or headache of other origins. Female subjects, patients under 50 years of age and those with elevated intracranial pressure experienced more intensive pain. Diurnal variation in pain intensity was observed in 60% of patients with headache. There was no evidence, however, of an association with elevated intracranial pressure. Our investigations yielded new information concerning the epidemology of headache accompanying brain tumours. Headache is not an early cardinal symptom of brain tumours, as was generally believed earlier. With the help of the McGill Pain Questionnaire a fine quantitative and qualitative characterization of headache of different origins could be made. The connection between tumour localization and pain lateralization, as well as the possible mechanisms of intracranial pain projection was extensively analysed. The interpretations of the results are at best hypotheses and they do not help determine why more than half of the patients with brain tumour did not experience headache.

  8. Dural venous sinus stenting for medically and surgically refractory idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Satti, Sudhakar R; Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Spiotta, Alejandro; Chaudry, M Imran

    2017-04-01

    Background Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome defined by elevated intracranial hypertension without radiographic evidence of a mass lesion in the brain. Dural venous sinus stenosis has been increasingly recognized as a treatable cause, and dural venous sinus stenting (DVSS) is increasingly performed. Methods A 5 year single-center retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing DVSS for medically refractory IIH. Results There were 43 patients with a mean imaging follow-up of 6.5 months and a mean clinical follow-up period of 13.5 months. DVSS was performed as the first procedure for medically refractory IIH in 81.4% of patients, whereas 18.6% of patients included had previously had a surgical procedure (ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt or optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF)). Headache was present in all patients and after DVSS improved or remained stable in 69.2% and 30.8%, respectively. Visual acuity changes and visual field changes were present in 88.4% and 37.2% of patients, respectively. Visual field improved or remained unchanged in 92%, but worsened in 8% after stenting. There was a stent patency rate of 81.8%, with an 18.2% re-stenosis rate. Of the 43 procedures performed, there was a 100% technical success rate with zero major or minor complications. Conclusion Based on this single-center retrospective analysis, DVSS can be performed with high technical success and low complication rates. A majority of patients presented primarily with headache, and these patients had excellent symptom relief with DVSS alone. Patients presenting with visual symptoms had lower success rates, and this population, if stented, should be carefully followed for progression of symptoms.

  9. BAER suppression during posterior fossa dural opening

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Christopher B.; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Jiang, Yi Dan; Yao, Tom; Zhang, Yi Ping; Sun, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative monitoring with brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) provides an early warning signal of potential neurological injury and may avert tissue damage to the auditory pathway or brainstem. Unexplained loss of the BAER signal in the operating room may present a dilemma to the neurosurgeon. Methods: This paper documents two patients who displayed a unique mechanism of suppression of the BAER apparent within minutes following dural opening for resection of a posterior fossa meningioma. Results: In two patients with anterior cerebellopontine angle and clival meningiomas, there was a significant deterioration of the BAER soon after durotomy but prior to cerebellar retraction and tumor removal. Intracranial structures in the posterior fossa lying between the tumor and dural opening were shifted posteriorly after durotomy. Conclusion: We hypothesized that the cochlear nerve and vessels entering the acoustic meatus were compressed or stretched when subjected to tissue shift. This movement caused cochlear nerve dysfunction that resulted in BAER suppression. BAER was partially restored after the tumor was decompressed, dura repaired, and bone replaced. BAER was not suppressed following durotomy for removal of a meningioma lying posterior to the cochlear complex. Insight into the mechanisms of durotomy-induced BAER inhibition would allay the neurosurgeon's anxiety during the operation. PMID:25883849

  10. Cutting performance orthogonal test of single plane puncture biopsy needle based on puncture force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingqiang; Zhang, Qinhe; Liu, Guowei

    2017-04-01

    Needle biopsy is a method to extract the cells from the patient's body with a needle for tissue pathological examination. Many factors affect the cutting process of soft tissue, including the geometry of the biopsy needle, the mechanical properties of the soft tissue, the parameters of the puncture process and the interaction between them. This paper conducted orthogonal experiment of main cutting parameters based on single plane puncture biopsy needle, and obtained the cutting force curve of single plane puncture biopsy needle by studying the influence of the inclination angle, diameter and velocity of the single plane puncture biopsy needle on the puncture force of the biopsy needle. Stage analysis of the cutting process of biopsy needle puncture was made to determine the main influencing factors of puncture force during the cutting process, which provides a certain theoretical support for the design of new type of puncture biopsy needle and the operation of puncture biopsy.

  11. [Validity of graphic headache diary for children having primary headaches].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mitsue; Fujiwara, Junko

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether the graphic headache diary is useful for diagnosing headache types in children, especially suffering from chronic daily headaches. Our study involved 109 children who completed the diaries for more than 3 weeks. The headache diary was a modified version of that used in the study by Sakai et al. Of 109, 84 had migraine, 15 had tension-type headache and 10 had both tension-type headache and migraine from the questionnaire and the first interview. The diary disclosed that 20 children, initially diagnosed as having migraine, had co-existing chronic tension-type headache with a variety of psychosocial problems. The graphic headache diary seems to be helpful for headache diagnosis and awareness of stress in children who suffered from strong and persistent headaches. Our study suggested that the graphic headache diary is useful not only for diagnosing headache types in children but also for finding out problems in school and/or family.

  12. Allodynia in Cluster Headache.

    PubMed

    Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Louter, Mark A; Teernstra, Onno Pm; van Zwet, Erik W; Huygen, Frank Jpm; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M

    2017-03-04

    Cutaneous allodynia is an established marker for central sensitization in migraine. There is debate whether cutaneous allodynia may also occur in cluster headache, another episodic headache disorder. Here we examined the presence and severity of allodynia in a large well-defined nation-wide population of people with cluster headache.Using validated questionnaires we assessed, cross-sectionally, ictal allodynia and comorbid depression and migraine in the nation-wide "Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis" (LUCA) study. Participants with cluster headache were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Multivariate regression models were used, with correction for demographic factors and cluster headache subtype (chronic vs. episodic; recent attacks < 1 month vs. no recent attacks).In total 606/798 (75.9%) participants with cluster headache responded of whom 218/606 (36%) had allodynia during attacks. Female gender (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.28-3.29), low age at onset (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96- 0.99), lifetime depression (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.06-2.50), comorbid migraine (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.02-3.79), and having recent attacks (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.13-2.86), but not duration of attacks and chronic cluster headache, were independent risk factors for allodynia.The high prevalence of cutaneous allodynia with similar risk factors for allodynia as found for migraine suggests that central sensitization, like in migraine, also occurs in cluster headache. In clinical practice, awareness that people with cluster headache may suffer from allodynia can in the future be an important feature in treatment options.

  13. Management of headache patients.

    PubMed

    Sances, Grazia; Catarci, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Headache is a very common complaint, in both primary care and in specialist settings. Headache patients account for around 20% of all outpatients seen in neurological practices and their management, particularly when they present with intractable headache, or are suspected of having secondary headaches, can be a challenge for the clinician. All the guidelines agree that the diagnosis of headache is merely clinical and that testing is not recommended if the individual is not significantly more likely than anyone else in the general population to have a significant abnormality. A full history of the temporal profile of the headache should be gathered first: when it first started, the circumstances of its onset, whether it has remained the same over time, and, if not, in what way it has changed. The patient should be questioned carefully about the specific characteristics of the attacks (frequency, duration, severity of the pain, efficacy of the treatments). It is also necessary to establish whether there is a history of other diseases and to investigate gynecological and psychological history, and family history. History alone allows a diagnosis of probable primary headache. Signs of a possible secondary headache must be carefully sought in all patients, even in apparently clear-cut cases. The guidelines recommend careful investigation of new headaches or those whose features have recently changed in order to exclude secondary headache. Once a secondary headache has been reasonably ruled out, it can help the patient to investigate possible comorbid pathologies and suggest appropriate lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Case studies of uncommon headaches.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randolph W

    2006-05-01

    The following interesting and uncommon headache disorders are presented through case studies: exploding head syndrome, hypnic headache, neck-tongue syndrome, "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome, nummular headache, red ear syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome, and cardiac cephalalgia.

  15. Persistent headache in a postpartum patient: the investigation and management

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is the most common complication of obstetric regional anaesthesia and the most likely cause of headache in a woman who underwent epidural anaesthesia during delivery. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon cause of postpartum headache. Anaesthesia in obstetrics may lead to long-lasting intracranial hypotension resulting in CVST. CVST is a serious pathology with high mortality if misdiagnosed, but its correct and rapid diagnosis offers the opportunity for early treatment. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important modality in the diagnosis of both CVST and intracranial hypotension. The latter condition may be treated either by an epidural blood patch or bed rest and hydration. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman who developed CVST and multiple venous infarcts after an attempted epidural procedure during delivery. She was treated conservatively with bed rest, hydration and low-molecular-weight heparin and the patient recovered completely. PMID:23813512

  16. Headache, drugs and sleep.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Alexander D; Leschziner, Guy D; Peatfield, Richard C

    2014-09-01

    Headache and sleep mechanisms share multiple levels of physiological interaction. Pharmacological treatment of headache syndromes may be associated with a broad range of sleep disturbances, either as a direct result of the pharmacology of the drug used, or by unmasking physiological alterations in sleep propensity seen as part of the headache symptom complex. This review summarises known sleep and circadian effects of various drugs commonly used in the management of headache disorders, with particular attention paid to abnormal sleep function emerging as a result of treatment. Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane database using search terms and strings relating to generic drug names of commonly used compounds in the treatment of headache and their effect on sleep in humans with review of additional pre-clinical evidence where theoretically appropriate. Medications used to treat headache disorders may have a considerable impact on sleep physiology. However, greater attention is needed to characterise the direction of the changes of these effects on sleep, particularly to avoid exacerbating detrimental sleep complaints, but also to potentially capitalise on homeostatically useful properties of sleep which may reduce the individual burden of headache disorders on patients. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Tension type headache

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-01-01

    Tension type headaches are common in clinical practice. Earlier known by various names, the diagnosis has had psychological connotations. Recent evidence has helped clarify the neurobiological basis and the disorder is increasingly considered more in the preview of neurologists. The classification, clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment of tension type headache are discussed in this paper. PMID:23024570

  18. Involvement of nitric oxide in the modulation of dural arterial blood flow in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Messlinger, K; Suzuki, A; Pawlak, M; Zehnter, A; Schmidt, R F

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of migraine pain and other headaches that are linked to vascular disorders. Several lines of evidence indicate that the meningeal vascularization is crucially involved in the generation of these headaches. In an experimental model in the rat a dominating role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in causing neurogenic vasodilatation and increased blood flow has been shown. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of NO in this model with regard to the meningeal blood flow.The blood flow in and around the medial meningeal artery (dural arterial flow) was recorded in the exposed parietal dura mater encephali of barbiturate anaesthetized rats using laser Doppler flowmetry. Local electrical stimulation of the dura mater (pulses of 0.5 ms delivered at 7.5–17.5 V and 5 or 10 Hz for 30 s) caused temporary increases in dural arterial flow for about 1 min that reached peaks of 1.6–2.6 times the basal flow. The effects of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors on the basal flow and the electrically evoked increases in flow were examined.Systemic (i.v.) administration of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) at cumulative doses of 10 and 50 mg kg−1 lowered the basal flow to 87 and 72%, respectively, of the control and reduced the evoked increases in blood flow to 82 and 44% on an average. Both these effects could partly be reversed by 300 mg kg−1 L-arginine. The systemic arterial pressure was increased by L-NAME at both doses. Injection of the stereoisomer D-NAME at same doses did not change basal flow and evoked increases in flow.Topical application of L-NAME (10−4–10−2 M) was effective only at the highest concentration, which caused lowering of the basal blood flow to 78% of the control; the evoked increases in flow were not changed. Topical application of 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT), a specific inhibitor of the inducible NOS, at

  19. Dural Tuberculoma Mimicking Meningioma: A Clinicoradiologic Review of Dural En-Plaque Lesions.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Patra, Devi Prasad; Gupta, Kirti; Sodhi, Harsimrat Bir

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis has long been a major health concern in developing countries and now has troubled developed world as well, owing to increase in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and immigration. Central nervous system tuberculosis accounts for approximately 1% of cases of tuberculosis. The pathologic presentation is varied, with intraparenchymal tuberculomas and pachymeningitis being the most common. Being a great mimicker, it simulates numerous diseases radiologically, and this is best realized when atypical forms are encountered. Here an atypical case of dural en-plaque tuberculoma is presented with comprehensive review of dural en-plaque lesions with their differentiating features. A 20-year-old man presented with features of increased intracranial pressure. On imaging, there was an enhancing dural-based lesion in the left frontoparietal region. In view of herniation syndrome, urgent surgical decompression of the lesion was performed. Histopathology showed features of tuberculosis. The patient is now asymptomatic with antitubercular therapy without any residual lesion at 6 months of follow-up. Tuberculoma en-plaque is an unusual entity characterized by a plaque-like meningitic process without exudation. It is easily confused with meningiomas as can other dural-based lesions comprising benign to malignant neoplastic, infectious, and granulomatous lesions. A preoperative diagnosis is imperative to differentiate it at least from neoplastic lesions, which are usually curable with surgical intervention in contrast to tuberculosis, which needs only optimal chemotherapy in most of the cases. Knowledge of differentiating imaging features, in corroboration with clinical history and high index of suspicion, helps in a proper preoperative diagnosis and optimal patient treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Headache in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    John, Seby; Hajj-Ali, Rula A

    2014-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous inflammatory disorders characterized by systemic or localized inflammation, leading to ischemia and tissue destruction. These include disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases, systemic vasculitides, and central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis (primary or secondary). Headache is a very common manifestation of CNS involvement of these diseases. Although headache characteristics can be unspecific and often non-diagnostic, it is important to recognize because headache can be the first manifestation of CNS involvement. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary not only to treat the headache, but also to help prevent serious neurological sequelae that frequently accompany autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss headache associated with autoimmune diseases along with important mimics.

  1. [Treatment of cluster headache].

    PubMed

    Fabre, N

    2005-07-01

    Remarkable therapeutic improvements have come forward recently for trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias. Attack treatment in cluster headache is based on sumatriptan and oxygen. Non-vasoconstrictive treatments are opening a new post-triptan era but are not yet applicable. Prophylactic treatment of cluster headache is based on verapamil and lithium. The efficacy of anti-epileptic drugs in cluster headache remains to be demonstrated. Surgical treatment aimed at the parasympathetic pathways and at the trigeminal nerve demonstrates a high rate of recurrence and adverse events and questions about the relevance of a "peripheral" target in cluster headache. The efficacy of continuous hypothalamic stimulation in patients with intractable headache constitutes a breakthrough, but must be demonstrated at a larger scale and the benefice/risk ratio must be carefully evaluated. Indomethacin still remains the gold standard in paroxysmal hemicrania treatment. Until recently SUNCT was considered an intractable condition. However there are some reports of complete relief with lamotrigine, topiramate and gabapentin.

  2. Aerosol can puncture device test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-10-01

    This test report documents the evaluation of an aerosol can puncture device to replace a system currently identified for use in the WRAP-1 facility. The new system is based upon a commercially available puncture device, as recommended by WHC Fire Protection. With modifications found necessary through the testing program, the Aerosol Can Puncture Device was found able to puncture and drain aerosol cans without incident. Modifications include the addition of a secondary collection bottle and the modification of the can puncture needle. In the course of testing, a variety of absorbents were tested to determine their performance in immobilizing drained fluids. The visibility of the puncture with Non-Destructive Examination techniques were also reviewed.

  3. Headache yesterday in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache. PMID:24884765

  4. First impressions about Adherus, a new dural sealant.

    PubMed

    Zoia, Cesare; Bongetta, Daniele; Lombardi, Francesco; Custodi, Viola Marta; Pugliese, Raffaelino; Gaetani, Paolo

    2015-12-18

    The aim of the study is to report our first impressions about Adherus, a novel dural sealant, used in neurosurgical endoscopic transnasal procedures. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and surgical records of the first 11 patients with intraoperative high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak treated with the aid of Adherus at our center between February and October 2014. The healing at the level of the dural plasty was monitored and evaluated radiologically and with regular endoscopic inspections. With a median follow-up of 210 days, no postoperative CSF leak or surgical site infections were found in any of the cases. Based on our preliminary experience, this new dural sealant seems to provide an effective aid in dural plasty during endoscopic transphenoidal procedures.

  5. Dural arteriovenous malformation: a rare cause of epilepsy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Caksen, H; Unal, O; Tombul, T; Cesur, Y; Abuhandan, M

    2001-09-01

    A 3 year and 6 month old girl with epilepsy associated with dural arteriovenous malformation (DAVM), diagnosed on the MRI, is presented to emphasise the importance of DAVM in the aetiology of childhood epilepsy.

  6. Physical therapy for headaches.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María L

    2015-12-09

    Headache is the medical problem most commonly observed by neurologists. Non-pharmacological treatments are commonly demanded by individuals with headaches, but their evidence of effectiveness is conflicting. The current review provides an updated discussion on what is supported by current scientific evidence about physical therapies for tension-type headache (TTH), migraine, and cervicogenic headache (CeH), and which gaps there still may be in our understanding of the interventions. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Collaboration Trials Register, PEDro, and SCOPUS were searched from their inception through March 2015. Several physical therapies including spinal joint manipulation/mobilization, soft tissue interventions, therapeutic exercises and needling therapies are proposed to be effective for the management of headaches. Current evidence has shown that the effectiveness of these interventions will depend on proper clinical reasoning since not all interventions are equally effective for all headache pain conditions. For instance, evidence of physical therapy in migraine is more controversial than in TTH, since migraine pathogenesis involves activation of sub-cortical structures and the trigemino-vascular system, whereas pathogenesis of TTH is more associated with musculoskeletal disorders, e.g. muscle pain. It seems that multimodal approaches including different interventions are more effective for patients with TTH, migraine and CeH. © International Headache Society 2015.

  7. Anne Frank's headache.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, R F; Kowacs, P A

    2007-11-01

    There are a significant number of famous people who suffered from frequent headaches during their lifetime while also exerting an influence of some kind on politics or the course of history. One such person was Anneliese Marie Frank, the German-born Jewish teenager better known as Anne Frank, who was forced into hiding during World War II. When she turned 13, she received a diary as a present, named it 'Kitty' and started to record her experiences and feelings. She kept the diary during her period in hiding, describing her daily life, including the feeling of isolation, her fear of being discovered, her admiration for her father and her opinion about women's role in society, as well as the discovery of her own sexuality. She sometimes reported a headache that disturbed her tremendously. The 'bad' to 'terrifying' and 'pounding' headache attacks, which were accompanied by vomiting and during which she felt like screaming to be left alone, matched the International Headache Society criteria for probable migraine, whereas the 'more frequent headaches' described by Anne's father are more likely to have been tension-type headaches than headaches secondary to ocular or other disorders.

  8. Rethinking headache chronification.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Penzien, Donald B; Lipton, Richard B; Houle, Timothy T

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this series is to examine several threats to the interpretation of headache chronification studies that arise from methodological issues. The study of headache chronification has extensively used longitudinal designs with 2 or more measurement occasions. Unfortunately, application of these designs, when combined with the common practice of extreme score selection as well as the extant challenges in measuring headache frequency rates (eg, unreliability, regression to the mean), induces substantive threats to accurate interpretation of findings. Partitioning the amount of observed variance in rates of chronification and remission attributable to regression artifacts is a critical yet previously overlooked step to learning more about headache as a potentially progressive disease. In this series on rethinking headache chronification, we provide an overview of methodological issues in this area (this paper), highlight the influence of rounding error on estimates of headache frequency (second paper), examine the influence of random error and regression artifacts on estimates of chronification and remission (third paper), and consider future directions for this line of research (fourth paper). © 2013 American Headache Society.

  9. Unusual headache syndromes.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Luiz P

    2013-01-01

    Some headache syndromes have few cases reported in the literature. Their clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, and treatment may have not been completely defined. They may not actually be uncommon but rather under-recognized and/or underreported. A literature review of unusual headache syndromes, searching PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, was performed. After deciding which disorders to study, relevant publications in scientific journals, including original articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, and letters or correspondences to the editors were searched. This paper reviewed the clinical characteristics, the pathogenesis, the diagnosis, and the treatment of five interesting and unusual headache syndromes: exploding head syndrome, red ear syndrome, neck-tongue syndrome, nummular headache, and cardiac cephalgia. Recognizing some unusual headaches, either primary or secondary, may be a challenge for many non-headache specialist physicians. It is important to study them because the correct diagnosis may result in specific treatments that may improve the quality of life of these patients, and this can even be life saving. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  10. Headache diaries and calendars.

    PubMed

    Torelli, Paola; Jensen, Rigmor

    2010-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common types of pain and, in the absence of biological markers, headache diagnosis depends only on information obtained from clinical interviews and physical and neurological examinations. Headache diaries make it possible to record prospectively the characteristics of every attack and the use of headache calendars is indicated for evaluating the time pattern of headache, identifying aggravating factors, and evaluating the efficacy of preventive treatment. This may reduce the recall bias and increase accuracy in the description. The use of diagnostic headache diaries does have some limitations because the patient's general acceptance is still limited and some subjects are not able to fill in a diary. In this chapter, we consider diaries and calendars specially designed for migraine and, in particular, aim to: (1) determine what instruments are available in clinical practice for diagnosis and follow-up of treatments; and (2) describe the tools that have been developed for research and their main applications in the headache field. In addition, we include information on diaries available online and proposals for future areas of research.

  11. Wind instruments and headaches.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Galarza, Marcelo; Pérez-Espejo, Miguel-Angel; López-Guerrero, Antonio L; Felipe-Murcia, Matías

    2013-03-01

    The authors illustrate the cases of two children with headaches, one diagnosed with Chiari type 1 malformation and the other with hydrocephalus, who played wind instruments. Both patients manifested that their headaches worsened with the efforts made during playing their musical instruments. We briefly comment on the probable role played by this activity on the patients' intracranial pressure and hypothesize that the headaches might be influenced by increases in their intracranial pressure related to Valsalva maneuvers. We had serious doubts on if we should advise our young patients about giving up playing their music instruments.

  12. The genetic landscape of dural marginal zone lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Karthik A.; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Iwamoto, Fabio; Jain, Preti; Chen, Jinli; Cascione, Luciano; Nahum, Odelia; Levy, Brynn; Xie, Yi; Khattar, Pallavi; Hoehn, Daniela; Bertoni, Francesco; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Alobeid, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    The dura is a rare site of involvement by marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and the biology of dural MZL is not well understood. We performed genome-wide DNA copy number and targeted mutational analysis of 14 dural MZL to determine the genetic landscape of this entity. Monoallelic and biallelic inactivation of TNFAIP3 by mutation (n=5) or loss (n=1) was observed in 6/9 (67%) dural MZL exhibiting plasmacytic differentiation, including 3 IgG4+ cases. In contrast, activating NOTCH2 mutations were detected in 4/5 (80%) dural MZL displaying variable monocytoid morphology. Inactivating TBL1XR1 mutations were identified in all NOTCH2 mutated cases. Recurrent mutations in KLHL6 (n=2) and MLL2 (n=2) were also detected. Gains at 6p25.3 (n=2) and losses at 1p36.32 (n=3) were common chromosomal imbalances, with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of these loci observed in a subset of cases. Translocations involving the IGH or MALT1 genes were not identified. Our results indicate genetic similarities between dural MZL and other MZL subtypes. However, recurrent and mutually exclusive genetic alterations of TNFAIP3 and NOTCH2 appear to be associated with distinct disease phenotypes in dural MZL. PMID:27248180

  13. Primary and secondary stabbing headache.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S; Evans, Randolph W

    2015-04-01

    Eight out of the 33 cases of primary stabbing headache seen in a general neurology clinic (40% have headache as their chief complaint) in the last 3.5 years are presented. The epidemiology, association with other primary headache disorders, secondary associations, testing, and treatment of primary stabbing headache are reviewed.

  14. Headaches in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDH may be caused by an infection, minor head injury or taking pain medications — even nonprescription pain medications — ... Bumps and bruises can cause headaches. Although most head injuries are minor, seek prompt medical attention if your ...

  15. [Treatment of tension headache].

    PubMed

    Schoenen, J

    2000-01-01

    The scientific basis of tension- type headache suffers from the lack of precise pathophysiological knowledge and the heterogenecity of this disorder. Treatment of acute tension-type headache episodes is more effective with an NSAIDs (ibuprofen 400-800mg, naproxen 550-825mg, ketoprofen 50-75mg) than with aspirin or paracetamol. Caffein containing preparations of NSAIDs are slightly superior, but should not be taken frequently to avoid headache chronification. For chronic tension-type headache, relaxation therapies with EMG biofeedback and tricyclics have about the same efficacy rate of 40-50p.100. Physical therapy and acupuncture are in general less effective. There is thus clearly a need for better strategies, e.g. combination of available therapies and novel approaches.

  16. Headaches - danger signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... TJ, Robertson CE, Smith JH. Headache and other craniofacial pain. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  17. Headaches in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... headache diary so that possible triggers (certain foods, sleep disturbances, or environments) can be discovered. If no obvious ... which worsen with prolonged reading. At home eye exercises, sometimes with the help of computer software, can ...

  18. American Headache Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEWS VIEW ALL NEWS FIRST ANNUAL “MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American ... RT @mrobbinsmd : A7 See the recent @amfmigraine #MigraineMoment film competition & stories like @brainstorm83 to understand the gravity & ...

  19. Headache and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Sang Kun

    2017-01-01

    Headache, especially migraine, has long been associated with epilepsy, based on the common clinical features of these disorders. Both migraine and epilepsy have a genetic predisposition and share common pathophysiological mechanisms including an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory factors that result in spells of altered brain function and autonomic symptoms. There are well-documented reports on the headache as a sole manifestation of epileptic seizure and headache is commonly associated with as preictal, ictal, and postictal symptoms in epilepsy patients. In addition, migraine and epilepsy are frequently described as highly comorbid conditions and several antiepileptic drugs are used for the patients with migraine as well as epilepsy. In the present review, we briefly discuss the connection between headache and epilepsy in various aspects, including classification, clinical features, epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment. PMID:28775949

  20. Noninvasive treatments for headache.

    PubMed

    Biondi, David M

    2005-05-01

    Primary headache disorders are often accompanied by neck pain or other symptoms referable to neck muscles. Therefore, physical therapy and other physical treatments are commonly prescribed for headache management. A medical literature review was completed in order to gather information regarding the efficacy of selected physical modalities in the treatment of primary and cervicogenic headache disorders. After analyzing the collected data, expert opinions were developed regarding the utility and efficacy of selected physical modalities in the management of primary and cervicogenic headaches. Based on this review, the following four expert opinions are presented: physical therapy is more effective than massage therapy or acupuncture for the treatment of tension-type headache and appears to be most beneficial for patients with a high frequency of headache attacks. Physical therapy is most effective for the treatment of migraine when combined with other treatments such as thermal biofeedback, relaxation training and exercise. Chiropractic manipulation demonstrated a trend towards benefit in the treatment of tension-type headache, but evidence is weak. Chiropractic manipulation is probably more effective in the treatment of tension-type headache than it is in the treatment of migraine. In general, strong evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of these treatments in reducing headache frequency, intensity, duration and disability in many commonly encountered clinical situations. Many of the published case series and controlled studies are of low quality. Physical treatments are unlikely to pose a significant risk, with the exception of high velocity chiropractic manipulation of the neck. Consideration must be given to financial costs and lost treatment opportunity by prescribing potentially ineffective treatment. In the absence of clear evidence regarding their role in treatment, physicians and patients are advised to make cautious and individualized judgments about

  1. Epidural insertion simulator of higher insertion resistance & drop rate after puncture.

    PubMed

    Naemura, K; Sakai, A; Hayashi, T; Saito, H

    2008-01-01

    Accidents such as dural puncture remain one of the problems of epidural anesthesia, and unskilled doctors can repeat such accidents. The purpose of the current research was to provide a new simulator for epidural insertion training. No reference data regarding the resistance force used when inserting a needle into patients have been reported. A comparative study was conducted to aid in the development of a new simulator. Pork loin (n=5) were employed as a substitute for patients. Thickness was set at 2 cm so as to improve the reproducibility. The authors took the conventional simulator apart, and picked a block as an analogue of muscle and ligamentum flavum. A new simulator was made of a melamine foam resin block and a latex rubber sheet. An epidural needle fixed on a motorized stage was inserted at the speed of 2 mm per second. The reaction force was measured while the needle was inserted into each specimen. Waveform of the pork loin exhibited two slopes of different inclines up to peaks and then falls after puncture. The conventional simulator showed a simple increase up to peak and a slow fall after puncture. In contrast, the new simulator showed two slopes up to peak and then a sudden fall after puncture. The insertion resistances were 2.5 N/s for the porcine, 0.8 N/s for the conventional and 2.1 N/s for the new simulator. The drop rates were 5 N/s for the porcine, 0.6 N/s for the conventional and 24 N/s for the new simulator. The higher insertion resistance and drop rate for the new simulator than the conventional simulator will be suitable for epidural insertion training.

  2. Hypnic headache: an update.

    PubMed

    De Simone, R; Marano, E; Ranieri, A; Bonavita, V

    2006-05-01

    Hypnic headache (HH) is a rare sleep-associated primary headache disorder, usually affecting aged people, first described by Raskin in 1988. The headache attacks, single or multiple in one night, occur exclusively during sleep and tend to present at a consistent time each night, sometimes during a dream. Compared to the original description, newly reported cases have expanded the clinical spectrum of the disorder to include unilateral forms (about 40%, half of which are side-locked), forms with a longer duration (up to 3 h) and cases with onset in juvenile/adult age. The male predominance found in Raskin's series has not been confirmed by subsequent observations. To date the reported F/M ratio is 1.7/1. Pain is of severe intensity in less then one-third of cases and mild-moderate in about two-thirds. The location of pain is fronto-temporal in over 40% of cases; headache is throbbing in 38% of cases, dull in 57% and stabbing in less than 5%. Nausea is reported in 19% of cases; photophobia, phonophobia or both are present in 6.8%. Mild autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis) may rarely be present. In 2004, HH was included in Group 4 of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II (Other primary headaches). Sufficient evidence, mainly from polysomnographic studies, indicates that HH is a primary rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-related headache disorder of chronobiological origin. Lithium, melatonin, indomethacin and caffeine at bedtime are among the most effective therapeutic options. The pathophysiology of HH is still unclear. Available data allow speculation that, in predisposed subjects, an age-related impairment of suprachiasmatic nucleus could cyclically activate a disnociceptive mechanism leading to both a sudden awakening and headache. The mechanism may be precipitated by neurophysiologic events such as the strong reduction of firing occurring in the dorsal raphe nucleus during a REM sleep phase.

  3. Postlumbar puncture arachnoiditis mimicking epidural abscess

    PubMed Central

    Gürbüz, Mehmet Sabri; Erdoğan, Barıs; Yüksel, Mehmet Onur; Somay, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar spinal arachnoiditis occurring after diagnostic lumbar puncture is a very rare condition. Arachnoiditis may also present with fever and elevated infection markers and may mimic epidural abscess, which is one of the well known infectious complications of lumbar puncture. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with lumbar spinal arachnoiditis occurring after diagnostic lumbar puncture who was operated on under a misdiagnosis of epidural abscess. In the intraoperative and postoperative microbiological and histopathological examination, no epidural abscess was detected. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient with postlumbar puncture arachnoiditis operated on under a misdiagnosis of epidural abscess reported in the literature. The authors suggest that arachnoiditis may mimic epidural abscess due to its clinical and radiological features and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of complications of lumbar puncture. PMID:24197809

  4. Rethinking Headache Chronification

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Penzien, Donald B.; Lipton, Richard B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this series is to examine several threats to the interpretation of headache chronification studies that arise from methodological issues. The study of headache chronification has extensively used longitudinal designs with two or more measurement occasions. Unfortunately, application of these designs when combined with the common practice of extreme score selection as well as the extant challenges in measuring headache frequency rates (eg, unreliability, regression to the mean), induces substantive threats to accurate interpretation of findings. Partitioning the amount of observed variance in rates of chronification and remission attributable to regression artifacts is a critical yet previously overlooked step to learning more about headache as a potentially progressive disease. In this series on rethinking headache chronification, we provide an overview of methodological issues in this area (this paper), highlight the influence of rounding error on estimates of headache frequency (second paper), examine the influence of random error and regression artifacts on estimates of chronification and remission (third paper), and consider future directions for this line of research (fourth paper). PMID:23721237

  5. Tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S

    1999-01-01

    Tension-type headaches, the most prevalent form of headache, are differentiated as being either episodic or chronic. The episodic form is a physiologic response to stress, anxiety, depression, emotional conflicts, fatigue, or repressed hostility. Treatment focuses on the use of over-the-counter or prescribed simple analgesics for pain relief. Successful treatment of the chronic form depends on recognition of depression or persistent anxiety states. Primary care physicians can effectively manage most of these patients with nonhabituating anxiolytic or antidepressant medications; however, referrals for psychotherapy may be required in some cases. When tension-type headaches occur in children and adolescents, the physician must explore the patient's family and social relationships as well as school performance. In addition to nonhabituating drug therapies, family counseling and biofeedback may be helpful. In coexisting migraine and tension-type headaches, nonhabituating analgesics may be used for the relief of acute pain; the use of ergotamine and triptans should be restricted to relief of the hard or sick headache. Tricyclic antidepressants or monoamine oxidase inhibitors are the gold standards for prophylaxis, although the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be indicated in less severe cases. Several forms of biofeedback have also proved effective. Nonetheless, some patients with this form of headache may require psychiatric treatment for severe depression.

  6. Team players against headache: multidisciplinary treatment of primary headaches and medication overuse headache.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Charly; Visscher, Corine M; Bhola, Rhia; Sorbi, Marjolijn J; Galli, Federica; Rasmussen, Annette V; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-10-01

    Multidisciplinary approaches are gaining acceptance in headache treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data about the efficacy of various strategies and their combinations offered by physiotherapists, physicians, psychologists and headache nurses. Therefore, an international platform for more intense collaboration between these professions and between headache centers is needed. Our aims were to establish closer collaboration and an interchange of knowledge between headache care providers and different disciplines. A scientific session focusing on multidisciplinary headache management was organised at The European Headache and Migraine Trust International Congress (EHMTIC) 2010 in Nice. A summary of the contributions and the discussion is presented. It was concluded that effective multidisciplinary headache treatment can reduce headache frequency and burden of disease, as well as the risk for medication overuse headache. The significant value of physiotherapy, education in headache schools, and implementation of strategies of cognitive behavioural therapy was highlighted and the way paved for future studies and international collaboration.

  7. [Recent new information on epidemiology of headache].

    PubMed

    Kavuk, I; Katsarava, Z; Stang, A; Agelink, M W; Diener, H C

    2004-04-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of headache disorders for the most frequent primary headache-syndromes: migraine, tension-type headache and trigemino-autonomic headache syndromes. In the last years scientific data about headache disorders have increased. New studies investigated not only the prevalence of headaches, but also economic costs of this disorder. Epidemiologic headache research also investigates the quality of life.

  8. Absence of jolt accentuation of headache cannot accurately rule out meningitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Tamune, Hidetaka; Takeya, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Wakako; Tagashira, Yasuaki; Kuki, Takaie; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Meningitis is a common emergency disease. Signs and symptoms easily observed at the bedside are needed because early recognition of the possibility of meningitis is necessary for the decision to perform lumbar puncture. Jolt accentuation of headache has been reported to be the most sensitive diagnostic test; however, limited articles have reproduced its sensitivity. This is a single-center retrospective medical record review between 2007 and 2012. We diagnosed meningitis based on the criterion standard that cerebrospinal fluid total cells is more than 5/mm(3), in accordance with previous studies. All diagnostic and management decisions including Kernig sign, nuchal rigidity, and jolt accentuation of headache were at the physician's discretion. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of well-known signs and symptoms of meningitis and, especially, compared the efficacy of jolt accentuation of headache with previous studies. We investigated 531 adult patients who were suspected of meningitis and had lumbar puncture performed. Of these patients, 139 had meningitis. Background characteristics and vital signs were not clinically different between the 2 groups, although classic tetralogy of bacterial meningitis (fever, nuchal rigidity, mental disturbance, and headache) was worth investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of jolt accentuation of headache were 63.9% (95% confidence interval, 51.9%-76.0%) and 43.2% (34.7%-51.6%), respectively. The absence of jolt accentuation of headache test cannot, on its own, accurately rule out meningitis in adults. Further studies are warranted to reproduce this result and to discover better bedside diagnostic tests. © 2013.

  9. Spontaneous Trigeminal Allodynia in Rats: A Model of Primary Headache

    PubMed Central

    Oshinsky, Michael L.; Sanghvi, Menka M.; Maxwell, Christina R.; Gonzalez, Dorian; Spangenberg, Rebecca J.; Cooper, Marnie; Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are essential for studying the pathophysiology of headache disorders and as a screening tool for new therapies. Most animal models modify a normal animal in an attempt to mimic migraine symptoms. They require manipulation to activate the trigeminal nerve or dural nociceptors. At best, they are models of secondary headache. No existing model can address the fundamental question: How is a primary headache spontaneously initiated? In the process of obtaining baseline periorbital von Frey thresholds in a wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat, we discovered a rat with spontaneous episodic trigeminal allodynia (manifested by episodically changing periorbital pain threshold). Subsequent mating showed that the trait is inherited. Animals with spontaneous trigeminal allodynia allow us to study the pathophysiology of primary recurrent headache disorders. To validate this as a model for migraine, we tested the effects of clinically proven acute and preventive migraine treatments on spontaneous changes in rat periorbital sensitivity. Sumatriptan, ketorolac, and dihydroergotamine temporarily reversed the low periorbital pain thresholds. Thirty days of chronic valproic acid treatment prevented spontaneous changes in trigeminal allodynia. After discontinuation, the rats returned to their baseline of spontaneous episodic threshold changes. We also tested the effects of known chemical human migraine triggers. On days when the rats did not have allodynia and showed normal periorbital von Frey thresholds, glycerol trinitrate and calcitonin gene related peptide induced significant decreases in the periorbital pain threshold. This model can be used as a predictive model for drug development and for studies of putative biomarkers for headache diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22963523

  10. Surgical management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Chibbaro, Salvatore; Gory, Benjamin; Marsella, Marco; Tigan, Leonardo; Herbrecht, Anne; Orabi, Mikael; Bresson, Damien; Baumann, Fabian; Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre; George, Bernard; Kehrli, Pierre; Houdart, Emmanuel; Manisor, Monica; Pop, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas are the most common type of spinal arteriovenous malformations. Treatment options consist of microsurgical exclusion and/or endovascular embolization. We retrospectively identified all patients who benefited from surgical treatment at our tertiary center between January 2001 and December 2008. Clinical and imaging data were collected from patient files, including pre- and post-operative formal neurological examination, complete spine MRI and spinal digital subtraction angiography. Of our 30 patients, 25 were men and five were women with a median age of 62 years (range 24-76). The average delay between symptom onset and clinical diagnosis was 27 months (range 1-90). Complete cure of the fistula was obtained in all patients in a single surgical session with no procedural complications and no surgical morbidity. After a mean follow-up period of 32 months (range 14-128), 25 patients (83%) had improved, four were stable and one worsened. Despite recent advances in endovascular techniques and materials, there is a subgroup of patients for which surgery remains the best treatment option. Careful patient selection, a multidisciplinary approach and standardized surgical techniques can lead to excellent results with virtually no complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New daily-persistent headache versus tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S; Crystal, Sara C

    2010-12-01

    New daily-persistent headache (NDPH) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) are two forms of primary chronic daily headache of long duration that often are similar in their headache manifestations. NDPH distinguishes itself from CTTH and the other forms of chronic daily headache by its continuous head pain from onset. However, despite formalized criteria that specify NDPH must resemble the acute onset of a headache identical to that of CTTH, NDPH commonly has migraine features. Here, we review the available literature on NDPH and compare its clinical features, epidemiology, prognosis, inciting factors, and treatment to CTTH.

  12. Dural arteriovenous fistulas as a cause of intracranial hypertension due to impairment of cranial venous outflow

    PubMed Central

    Cognard, C.; Casasco, A.; Toevi, M.; Houdart, E.; Chiras, J.; Merland, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—A retrospective study was carried out on 13 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) who presented with isolated or associated signs of intracranial hypertension.
METHODS—Nine patients presented with symptoms of intracranial hypertension at the time of diagnosis. Ocular fundoscopy available in 12 patients showed bilateral papilloedema in eight and optic disk atrophy in four. Clinical evolution was particularly noticeable in five patients because of chronic (two patients) or acute (after lumbar shunting or puncture: three patients, one death) tonsillar herniation.
RESULTS—Two patients had a type I fistula (drainage into a sinus, with a normal antegrade flow direction). The remaining 11 had type II fistulas (drainage into a sinus, with abnormal retrograde venous drainage into sinuses or cortical veins). Stenosis or thrombosis of the sinus(es) distal to the fistula was present in five patients. The cerebral venous drainage was abnormal in all patients.
CONCLUSION—Type II (and some type I) DAVFs may present as isolated intracranial hypertension mimicking benign intracranial hypertension. Normal cerebral angiography should be added as a fifth criterion of benign intracranial hypertension. The cerebral venous drainage pattern must be carefully studied by contralateral carotid and vertebral artery injections to correctly evaluate the impairment of the cerebral venous outflow. Lumbar CSF diversion (puncture or shunting) may induce acute tonsillar herniation and should be avoided absolutely. DAVF may induce intracranial hypertension, which has a poor long term prognosis and may lead to an important loss of visual acuity and chronic tonsillar herniation. Consequently, patients with intracranial hypertension must be treated, even agressively, to obliterate the fistula or at least to reduce the arterial flow and to restore a normal cerebral venous drainage. The endovascular treatment may associate arterial or transvenous

  13. Advanced interventions for headache.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Stewart J

    2012-05-01

    Many headache patients present when medications fail, are inadequate, are contraindicated, or are not tolerated. These are patients with severe disability. Most have daily headaches, including chronic migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, or other primary headaches. This brief review addresses, in broad strokes, some thoughts about alternatives beyond the usual daily oral preventive therapies. Do not proceed to more invasive or elaborate approaches until the big 3 are done: diagnosis is established, onabotulinumtoxinA administered when appropriate, that is, if the patient has chronic migraine, and wean is accomplished if the patient has medication overuse headache. Large numbers of patients are helped without the need for more arcane and unproven treatments by following these initial approaches. Simple nerve blocks can be useful in the initial steps, but more invasive blocks and stimulators are not recommended until the big 3 are completed. Wean of overused medications must be absolute and may require an intravenous bridge over several days, either in an infusion unit or inpatient in a medical model. Wean should be accompanied by establishing onabotulinumtoxinA or daily prevention from the beginning. Consider referral to a structured multidisciplinary headache program. This is for patients who require an interdisciplinary approach and may be day-hospital or inpatient. Invasive blocks and stimulators may be appropriate, and the latter are currently being studied in controlled studies. The most promise, with the best balance of efficacy vs adverse event prospects, may be occipital nerve stimulators or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulators.

  14. Headache in children.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Vincenzo; Galli, Federica; Termine, Cristiano

    2010-01-01

    Headache is an extremely frequent symptom in childhood and adolescence, and a common reason for neurological consultation. The prevalence of primary headaches (about 85% in tertiary centers) ranges from 10% to 20% in schoolchildren, and increases with increasing age. No sex difference is apparent until age 11. Female preponderance begins about age 12; during adolescence the female-to-male ratio is about 2:1. A child is not a "little adult" and many developmental and individual factors affect headaches, pertaining to the clinical expression, diagnosis, and therapy of the primary headache. According to this view, several points have to be clarified, beginning by considering the child as a whole as regards his or her development, taking into account neurobiological and psychological maturational processes, familial, social, and environmental factors, and avoiding an adult-focused approach to the disease. It is necessary to find key points in the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of headache in childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Repair of spinal dural defects with vicryl (polyglactin 910) mesh.

    PubMed

    Keller, J T; Weil, S M; Ongkiko, C M; Tew, J M; Mayfield, F H; Dunsker, S B

    1989-06-01

    This study examined and compared the effectiveness of woven vicryl (polyglactin 910) mesh and lyophilized cadaver dura (Lyodura) for the repair of spinal dural defects. A woven vicryl mesh was used to repair spinal dural defects in 16 mongrel dogs. As an internal control, all animals had a separate dural incision that was closed with 9-0 vicryl suture. Animals were killed, and results were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. The repair of dural defects was achieved in all animals, and there were no cases of pseudo-meningocele formation, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or postoperative infection. The vicryl mesh served as a latticework for formation of a neodural membrane. Inflammatory or reactive response to vicryl mesh was minimal, and no adhesion to underlying neural structures was noted. The neodural membrane formed in the animals in which lyophilized dura was employed was usually thicker than those in which vicryl mesh was used and was associated with thick arachnoid-neural adhesions in two of eight animals. We believe vicryl mesh is a suitable dural substitute and offers promise for use in clinical situations.

  16. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.

    PubMed

    Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

    2013-06-19

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats.

  17. Aretaeus on migraine and headache.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P J; van de Wiel, T W

    2001-12-01

    Aretaeus of Cappadocia's classification of headache has been referred to for many centuries. Several Latin translations and an English translation (1856) of his books have been published in the past. We translated the pertinent texts on headache from the Greek text as published by Hude in 1958. In this paper, we present an annotated translation preceded by an outline of contemporary knowledge of headache from Celsus' De Medicina. Although symptomatic headache was most probably involved in the types of headache identified by Aretaeus and the making of retrospective diagnoses is hazardous, the terms heterocrania and cephalea may be compared with what today we would call migraine and tension type headache respectively.

  18. Neurostimulation for Primary Headache Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schwedt, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurostimulation has emerged as a potential treatment option for patients with chronic, disabling, intractable primary headache disorders. Although safety and efficacy data are limited in quantity, there is accumulating experience with the use of peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable occipital neuralgia, cluster headache, migraine, and less common headache disorders. Deep brain stimulation has been used to treat intractable chronic cluster headache and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing. This article discusses the theorized mechanisms of action of these novel treatment modalities and summarizes current knowledge regarding safety and efficacy of neurostimulation for the treatment of headache. PMID:19268032

  19. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the cerebellopontine cistern: intraoperative Onyx embolization via direct needle puncture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Morcos, Jacques; Elhammady, Mohamed; Pao, Christine L; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis occupying the cerebellopontine and cerebellomedullary cisterns, and describe an alternative strategy for embolizing hypervascular intracranial tumors. A middle aged patient with a distant history of RCC presented with headaches, nausea, and vomiting, and was found to have an enhancing mass in the left cerebellopontine and cerebellopontine cisterns. The initial surgical resection was aborted due to excessive bleeding. After an unsuccessful attempt at intra-arterial embolization, the patient returned to the operating room and the tumor was devascularized by direct needle puncture Onyx embolization under biplane fluoroscopy. The devascularized tumor was then successfully dissected from the brainstem and adherent lower cranial nerves. In properly selected cases, open surgical direct needle puncture embolization of intracranial vascular tumors under biplane fluoroscopy is a viable alternative devascularization method. PMID:24347447

  20. Nummular headache update.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Montojo, Teresa; Alvarez, Mónica

    2012-04-01

    Nummular headache is characterized by head pain exclusively felt in a rounded or elliptical area, typically 1 to 6 cm in diameter. The pain remains confined to the same symptomatic area, which does not change in shape or size with time. The symptomatic area may be localized in any part of the head but mostly in the parietal region. Rarely, the disorder may be multifocal, each symptomatic area keeping all the characteristics of nummular headache. The pain is generally mild or moderate, commonly described as oppressive or stabbing, and lasting minutes, hours, or days, with a remitting or unremitting pattern. Superimposed on the baseline pain, there may be spontaneous or triggered exacerbations. During and between symptomatic periods, the affected area may show variable combinations of hypoesthesia, dysesthesia, paresthesia, tenderness, and trophic changes. Nummular headache emerges as a primary disorder with a clear-cut clinical picture developed in a unique topography.

  1. Pediatric Posttraumatic Headache.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Joanne; Hung, Ryan; Blume, Heidi K

    2016-02-01

    Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury are common injuries in pediatrics, and posttraumatic headache is the most common complaint following them. Although most children and teens recover from a simple, isolated concussion without incidents within 1-2 weeks, some develop symptoms that can last for months. It is important to manage both acute and persistent posttraumatic headaches appropriately to speed recovery, minimize disability, and maximize function. In this article, we review the definitions, epidemiology, and current recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of acute and persistent posttraumatic headaches. Although this is still a developing field and there is much that we still need to learn about concussion and the best strategies to prevent and treat these injuries and their sequelae, we hope that this review will help providers to understand the current evidence and treatment recommendations to improve care for children with concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Headache and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, P R; Carpay, J A; Terwindt, G M; Sander, J W; Thijs, R J; Haan, J; Visser, G H

    2013-08-01

    Headache and epilepsy often co-occur. Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past few years reinforce the notion of a bi-directional association between migraine and epilepsy. Data on an association between headache (in general) and epilepsy, however, are less clear. Peri-ictal headache often presents with migraine-like symptoms and can be severe. A correct diagnosis and management are paramount. It was demonstrated that cortical hyperexcitability may underlie both epilepsy and migraine. A recent study linked spreading depolarisation, the supposed underlying pathophysiological mechanism of migraine with aura, to epilepsy. Although this study was carried out in patients who had suffered a subarachnoid haemorrhage, the finding may shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms common to epilepsy and migraine.

  3. Dural repair using porcine ADM: two cases and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Skovsted Yde, Simon; Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Gudmundsdottir, Gudrun; Bazys, Mindaugas; Heje, Martin; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine

    2017-01-01

    The use of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) for dural repair is very scantily described in the literature. We report two cases of dural repair using porcine ADM and a literature review. ADM and especially Strattice(TM) pliable may be a useful alternative to other dural substitutes. Further evaluation would be favorable.

  4. Dural repair using porcine ADM: two cases and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Skovsted Yde, Simon; Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Gudmundsdottir, Gudrun; Bazys, Mindaugas; Heje, Martin; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) for dural repair is very scantily described in the literature. We report two cases of dural repair using porcine ADM and a literature review. ADM and especially StratticeTM pliable may be a useful alternative to other dural substitutes. Further evaluation would be favorable. PMID:28164146

  5. Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment while waiting for the results of the culture. Risks A lumbar puncture is considered a safe procedure with minimal risks. Most of the time, there are no complications. In some instances, a ...

  6. [Biofeedback for headaches].

    PubMed

    Kropp, P; Niederberger, U

    2010-06-01

    Biofeedback is a direct feedback of a physiological function. The aim of biofeedback is to change the physiological function into a required direction. To manage this, the physiological function has to be fed back visually or acoustically and it has to be perceived consciously. Biofeedback as a therapeutic practice derives from behavioural therapy and can be used in the context of behavioural interventions. Biofeedback has proved to be successful in non-medical treatment of pain. According to more recent meta-analyses biofeedback reveals high evidence in the treatment of migraine or tension-type headache. In these headaches biofeedback procedures are considered highly effective.

  7. [Lateralization phenomena and headache].

    PubMed

    Nattero, G; Savi, L

    1984-09-08

    Ipsilateral carotid and vertebral vasomotor phenomena are marked components of a unilateral cluster headache crisis. Investigation of lateralisation at the height of a crisis has shown that Doppler findings supplement Heick's observation of the reversible opening of both intra and extracranial arteriovenous shunts. This observation is in line with personal thermographic evidence and that of Lance indicating local hypothermia, and with Wolff's demonstration of dilatation and congestion associated with the superficial temporal artery. Personal dynamographic findings now point to a local extra-intracranial artery pressure gradient as the cause of the peripheral component of lateralisation in cluster headache.

  8. Influence of needle diameter on spinal anaesthesia puncture failures for caesarean section: A prospective, randomised, experimental study.

    PubMed

    Fama', Fausto; Linard, Cecile; Bierlaire, Damien; Gioffre'-Florio, Maria; Fusciardi, Jacques; Laffon, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Spinal anaesthesia represents the technique of choice for elective caesarean section. The purpose of this study was to compare the puncture failure rates with 25, 26 or 27 gauge (G) pencil-point, Whitacre type (with introducer) needles during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Prospective, randomised, experimental study in healthy subjects. We recruited 330 adults, consecutively scheduled parturients, randomised into three groups. The subarachnoid puncture procedure was standardised. The flexibility of the three needle types was assessed in vitro, and a force was applied using a dynamometer. The occurrence of postdural puncture headache was also evaluated. The number of spinal puncture failures was significantly higher in the 27G group, than in the 25G (P=0.006) group and the 26G (P<0.001) group, but did not differ between the 25G and 26G groups (P=0.606). Ten postdural puncture headaches were observed without significant differences among the groups. This prospective study showed that puncture failures occur less frequently with the use of 25G or 26G pencil-point needles as compared to 27G needles, probably due to the higher flexibility of the latter. This characteristic was demonstrated in vitro, in a reproducible model. This experiment suggests that a 26G pencil-point needle is the optimal gauge for performing spinal anaesthesia for scheduled caesarean sections. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  10. Biocompatible bacterial cellulose membrane in dural defect repair of rat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Frederico de Melo Tavares de; Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; Andrade-da-Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira; Silva, Jaiurte Gomes Martins da; Campos Júnior, Olávio; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Duraplasty is necessary in nearly 30% of all neurological surgeries. Different tissues and materials have been evaluated in dura mater repair or as dural substitutes in neurosurgery. The aim was to evaluate the biocompatibility of the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes, produced from sugarcane molasses, for dural defect repair in rats. Forty adults males Wistar rats divided into two groups: a control (ePTFE) and an experimental (BC). Bilateral frontoparietal craniectomy was performed, and a dural defect was created. The arachnoid underlying defect was disrupted with a narrow hook. The animals were observed for 120 days. There were no cases of infection, cerebrospinal fluid fistulae, delayed hemorrhages, behavior disturbances, seizures and palsies. The BC membrane showed to have suitable biocompatibility properties, was not induced immune reaction, nor chronic inflammatory response and absence of neurotoxicity signals.

  11. Diagnostic investigations. Part 1. Lumbar puncture.

    PubMed

    Blows, William

    This article, the first in a three-part series on clinical investigations, discusses the technique and uses of lumbar puncture. This diagnostic procedure involves making a puncture into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord, to remove an excess of fluid; to obtain fluid for examination and analysis, or to inject medication. The article includes an explanation of the relevant anatomy and the composition and role of cerebrospinal fluid, a detailed description of the procedure and the interpretation of results.

  12. Ventral Dural Injury After Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, JaeChil; Kim, Jin-Sung; Jo, Hyunjin

    2017-02-01

    Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) through the oblique corridor between the aorta and anterior border of psoas muscle is favored among spinal surgeons who employ minimally invasive techniques. We report a case of ventral dural tear after OLIF that was associated with the inaccurate trajectory direction of endplate preparation. This is the first report to our knowledge of ventral dural tear associated with OLIF. A 72-year-old woman presented with right leg pain and numbness. X-rays showed degenerative spondylolisthesis and loss of disc height at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed right-sided paracentral disc herniation at the L3-L4 level and foraminal disc herniation at L4-L5. The initial surgical plan was OLIF of L3-L4 and L4-L5 after percutaneous screw fixation without laminectomy. With the patient in the lateral position, discectomy and endplate preparation were done successfully at the L3-L4 level, and the same procedure was done at the L4-L5 level for OLIF. A sharp Cobbs elevator for endplate preparation triggered a ventral dural defect at the L4-L5 level. We changed the patient's position to attempt dural repair. The ventral dural defect could not be repaired because it was too large. After the herniated rootlets were repositioned, TachoComb was patched over the defect site. Postoperatively, the patient has no definite neurologic deficits. When a surgeon performs OLIF, ventral dural injury should be avoided during the procedure of endplate preparation and contralateral annular release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Progressive versus Nonprogressive Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Characteristics and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hetts, S W; Tsai, T; Cooke, D L; Amans, M R; Settecase, F; Moftakhar, P; Dowd, C F; Higashida, R T; Lawton, M T; Halbach, V V

    2015-10-01

    A minority of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas progress with time. We sought to determine features that predict progression and define outcomes of patients with progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas. We performed a retrospective imaging and clinical record review of patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula evaluated at our hospital. Of 579 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas, 545 had 1 fistula (mean age, 45 ± 23 years) and 34 (5.9%) had enlarging, de novo, multiple, or recurrent fistulas (mean age, 53 ± 20 years; P = .11). Among these 34 patients, 19 had progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas with de novo fistulas or fistula enlargement with time (mean age, 36 ± 25 years; progressive group) and 15 had multiple or recurrent but nonprogressive fistulas (mean age, 57 ± 13 years; P = .0059, nonprogressive group). Whereas all 6 children had fistula progression, only 13/28 adults (P = .020) progressed. Angioarchitectural correlates to chronically elevated intracranial venous pressures, including venous sinus dilation (41% versus 7%, P = .045) and pseudophlebitic cortical venous pattern (P = .048), were more common in patients with progressive disease than in those without progression. Patients with progressive disease received more treatments than those without progression (median, 5 versus 3; P = .0068), but as a group, they did not demonstrate worse clinical outcomes (median mRS, 1 and 1; P = .39). However, 3 young patients died from intracranial venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage related to progression of their fistulas despite extensive endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatments. Few patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas follow an aggressive, progressive clinical course despite treatment. Younger age at initial presentation and angioarchitectural correlates to venous hypertension may help identify these patients prospectively. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Probing the puncture for black hole simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. David

    2009-10-15

    With the puncture method for black hole simulations, the second infinity of a wormhole geometry is compactified to a single 'puncture point' on the computational grid. The region surrounding the puncture quickly evolves to a trumpet geometry. The computational grid covers only a portion of the trumpet throat. It ends at a boundary whose location depends on resolution. This raises the possibility that perturbations in the trumpet geometry could propagate down the trumpet throat, reflect from the puncture boundary, and return to the black hole exterior with a resolution-dependent time delay. Such pathological behavior is not observed. This is explained by the observation that some perturbative modes propagate in the conformal geometry, others propagate in the physical geometry. The puncture boundary exists only in the physical geometry. The modes that propagate in the physical geometry are always directed away from the computational domain at the puncture boundary. The finite difference stencils ensure that these modes are advected through the boundary with no coupling to the modes that propagate in the conformal geometry. These results are supported by numerical experiments with a code that evolves spherically symmetric gravitational fields with standard Cartesian finite difference stencils. The code uses the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of Einstein's equations with 1+log slicing and gamma-driver shift conditions.

  15. The patient with daily headaches.

    PubMed

    Maizels, Morris

    2004-12-15

    The term "chronic daily headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory daily headache. A pathologic underlying cause should be considered in patients with recent-onset daily headache, a change from a previous headache pattern, or associated neurologic or systemic symptoms. Treatment of CDH focuses on reduction of headache triggers and use of preventive medication, most commonly anti-depressants, antiepileptic drugs, and beta blockers. Medication overuse must be treated with discontinuation of symptomatic medicines, a transitional therapy, and long-term prophylaxis. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with CDH and should be identified and treated. Although the condition is challenging, appropriate treatment of patients with CDH can bring about significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life.

  16. Pediatric Posttraumatic Headache: A Review.

    PubMed

    Choe, Meeryo C; Blume, Heidi K

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries are common in pediatrics, and headaches are the most common complaint following mild head trauma. Although moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries occur less frequently, headaches can complicate recovery. There is currently an intense spotlight on concussion and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of children seeking care for headache after mild traumatic brain injury or concussion. Understanding the natural history of, and recognition of factors that are associated with posttraumatic headache will help providers and families to limit disability and may prompt earlier intervention to address disabling headaches. While there are few studies on the treatment of posttraumatic headache, proper evaluation and management of posttraumatic headaches is essential to prevent further injury and to promote recovery. In this article, we will review the current definitions and epidemiology of pediatric posttraumatic headache and discuss current recommendations for the evaluation and management of this syndrome in children and adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Primary varicella infection presenting with headache and elevated intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Oded; Shefer-Averbuch, Noa; Garty, Ben Zion

    2015-05-01

    Primary varicella infection may be associated with neurologic complications, such as cerebritis and meningoencephalitis. Several cases of varicella infection with elevated intracranial pressure have been reported. We describe a 13-year-old immunocompetent girl who presented with a clinical picture of headaches and elevated intracranial pressure as the only manifestation of primary varicella zoster infection. The working diagnosis at first was pseudotumor cerebri based on complaints of headache of 2 weeks' duration, in addition to vomiting and papilledema, without fever or skin eruption. On lumbar puncture, opening pressure was 420 mmH2O, but mild pleocytosis and mildly elevated protein level ruled out the diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri. Our patient had no history of previous varicella infection, and she did not receive the varicella zoster vaccine. Serology tests, done on admission and repeated 2 months later, suggested primary varicella infection. The literature on varicella infection associated with pseudotumor cerebri or elevated intracranial pressure is reviewed.

  18. Effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on number and activation of dural mast cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, E; Dagistan, Y; Kotan, B; Cetinkaya, A

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on the number and degranulation states of dural mast cells in rats. Rats were fed ad libitum with normal tap water or tap water with extract of N. sativa seed, Ramaria condensata, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius piperatus, and Tricholoma terreum for 3 days. Mast cells in dura mater were counted and evaluated in terms of granulation and degranulation states. Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent, and T. terreum significantly increased the percent of degranulated mast cells in dura mater, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Moreover, T. terreum causes a significant increase in the total number of mast cells (p < 0.05). N. sativa significantly inhibited mast cell degranulation induced by both the compound 48/80 and T. terreum (p < 0.05), and significantly decreased the mast cell numbers increased by T. terreum (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that T. terreum following ingestion can contribute to headaches like migraine via dural mast cell degranulation and N. sativa may be able to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects by stabilizing dural mast cells. However, investigation is needed to determine the ingredients of N. sativa that may be responsible for these beneficial effects.

  19. Dural tear post mastoidectomy repaired with Dura Gen.

    PubMed

    Wong, C Y; Khairi, M D M; Mohamed, S A; Irfan, M

    2010-12-01

    Dural exposure may occur during the course of thinning the tegmen tympani and tegmen mastoideum in mastoid procedure. If large area of dura is exposed or lacerated, cerebrospinal fluid and brain herniation may enter the mastoid cavity. We report a case of a patient with injured dura mater and tegmen mastoideum during mastoidectomy for chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma managed by using DuraGen. The dura mater and tegmen defect healed totally showing the success of the procedure. A collagen matrix like DuraGen is an option for repairing dural tear in mastoid region.

  20. Cluster headache and arachnoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Bengt; Persson, Staffan

    2013-12-01

    Cluster headache is a primary headache by definition not caused by any known underlying structural pathology. However, symptomatic cases have been described, e.g. tumours, particularly pituitary adenomas, malformations, and infections/inflammations. The evaluation of cluster headache is an issue unresolved. We present a case of a 43-year-old patient who presented with a 2-month history of side-locked attacks of pain located in the left orbit. He satisfied the revised International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for cluster headache. His medical and family histories were unremarkable. There was no history of headache. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made. The patient responded to symptomatic treatment. Computer tomography and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after 1 month displayed a supra- and intrasellar arachnoid cyst with mass effect on adjacent structures. After operation, the headache attacks resolved completely. Although we cannot exclude an unintentional comorbidity, in our opinion, the co-occurrence of an arachnoid cyst with mass effect with unilateral headache, in a hitherto headache-free man, points toward the fact that in this case the CH was caused or triggered by the AC. The headache attacks resolved completely after the operation and the patient also remained headache free at the follow-up. The response of the headache to sumatriptan and other typical CH medications does not exclude a secondary form. Symptomatic CHs responsive to this therapy have been described. Associated cranial lesions such as tumours have been reported in CH patients and the attacks may be clinically indistinguishable from the primary form. Neuroimaging, preferably contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging should always be considered in patients with cluster headache despite normal neurological examination. Late-onset cluster headache represents a condition that requires careful evaluation. Supra- and intrasellar arachnoid cyst can present as cluster

  1. Uncommon headache syndromes in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Marco A; Albuquerque, Regina C A P; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2011-08-01

    Headache is one of the most common symptoms in children and adolescents, and headache syndromes are an important reason for medical consulting. According to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, there are 196 possible headache diagnoses, of which 113 have been described in pediatric population. Herein, we focus on unusual pediatric headache syndromes. We group them as headaches with migraine features, short-duration headaches with autonomic features, short-duration headaches without autonomic features, and potentially ominous forms of headaches. Although rare as single entities, providers focusing on pediatric headaches certainly will face some of these headaches and need to be comfortable on the diagnostic approach.

  2. Primary stabbing headache.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Sjaastad, Ottar

    2010-01-01

    Primary stabbing headache is characterized by transient, cephalic ultrashort stabs of pain. It is a frequent complaint with a prevalence of 35.2%, a female preponderance, and a mean age of onset of 28 years (Vågå study). Attacks are generally characterized by moderate to severe, jabbing or stabbing pain, lasting from a fraction of a second to 3s. Attack frequency is generally low, with one or a few attacks per day. The paroxysms generally occur spontaneously, during daytime. Most patients exhibit a sporadic pattern, with an erratic, unpredictable alternation between symptomatic and non-symptomatic periods. Paroxysms are almost invariably unilateral. Temporal and fronto-ocular areas are most frequently affected. Attacks tend to move from one area to another, in either the same or the opposite hemicranium. Jabs may be accompanied by a shock-like feeling and even by head movement - "jolts" -or vocalization. On rare occasions, conjunctival hemorrhage and monocular vision loss have been described as associated features. Primary stabbing headache may concur, synchronously or independently, with other primary headaches. In contrast to what is the case in adults, in childhood it is not usually associated with other headaches. Treatment is rarely necessary. Indomethacin, 75-150 mg daily, may seem to be of some avail. Celecoxib, nifedipine, melatonin, and gabapentin have been reported to be effective in isolated cases and small series of patients. The drug studies need corroboration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cluster headaches simulating parasomnias.

    PubMed

    Isik, Ugur; D'Cruz, O 'Neill F

    2002-09-01

    Nocturnal episodes of agitated arousal in otherwise healthy young children are often related to nonrapid eye movement parasomnias (night terrors). However, in patients with acute onset or increased frequency of parasomnias, organic causes of discomfort must be excluded. We report four young children whose parasomnias were caused by nocturnal cluster headaches and who responded to indomethacin dramatically.

  4. Contraception and headache.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, E Anne

    2013-02-01

    Most women have used at least 1 method of contraception during their reproductive years, with the majority favoring combined oral contraceptives. Women are often concerned about the safety of their method of choice and also ask about likely effects on their pre-existing headache or migraine and restrictions on using their headache medication. While there should be no restriction to the use of combined hormonal contraceptives by women with migraine without aura, the balance of risks vs benefits for women with aura are debatable. Migraine with aura, but not migraine without aura, is associated with a twofold increased risk of ischemic stroke, although the absolute risk is very low in healthy, nonsmoking women. Although ethinylestradiol has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, the risk is dose-dependent. Low-dose pills currently used are considerably safer than pills containing higher doses of ethinylestradiol but they are not risk-free. This review examines the evidence available regarding the effect that different methods of contraception have on headache and migraine and identifies strategies available to minimize risk and to manage specific triggers such as estrogen "withdrawal" headache and migraine associated with combined hormonal contraceptives. The independent risks of ischemic stroke associated with migraine and with hormonal contraceptives are reviewed, and guidelines for use of contraception by women with migraine are discussed in light of the current evidence.

  5. Laceration of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery by suboccipital puncture of the cisterna magna: case report.

    PubMed

    Portela, Luiz Antonio Pezzi; Souza, Valéria; Pahl, Félix Hendrick; Cardoso, Alberto Cappel; Vellutini, Eduardo de Arnaldo Silva; Mutarelli, Eduardo Genaro; Machado, Luis dos Ramos; Livramento, José Antonio

    2004-09-01

    We report the case of a 27 year old man who presented to the emergency room of a hospital with headache, vomiting and an episode of loss of conciousness. A cranial CT scan was normal and the patient discharged. Ten hours later he came to the emergency room of our hospital with the same complaints. A technically difficult cisternal puncture in an anxious patient who moved during the needle introduction was done. The CSF sample showed 1600 intact red blood cells without other alterations. His headache worsened and after 6 hours he became drowsy, numb and exhibited decerebration signs. A new CT scan showed diffuse subarachnoid and intraventricular blood. An emergency angiogram demonstrated laceration of a left posterior-inferior cerebellar artery in its retrobulbar loop with a pseudoaneurysm. He was successfully treated by surgical clipping without injury. Sixteen days later he was discharged with a normal neurological exam.

  6. Biological effects of cobalt-chromium nanoparticles and ions on dural fibroblasts and dural epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Behl, Bharat; Papageorgiou, Iraklis; Brown, Christopher; Hall, Richard; Tipper, Joanne L; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2013-05-01

    The introduction of metal-on-metal total disc replacements motivated studies to evaluate the effects of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) nanoparticles on cells of the dura mater. Porcine fibroblasts and epithelial cells isolated from the dura mater were cultured with clinically-relevant CoCr nanoparticles and the ions, generated by the particles over 24 h, at doses up to 121 μm(3)per cell. Cell viability and production of proinflammatory cytokines was assessed over 4 days. The capacity of the particles to induce oxidative stress in the cells was evaluated at 24 h. The CoCr particles and their ions significantly reduced the viability of the dural epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner but not the fibroblasts. Both cell types secreted IL-8 in response to particle exposure at doses of 60.5 μm(3) (epithelial cells) and 121 μm(3) (fibroblasts, epithelial cells) per cell. No significant release of IL-6 was observed in both cell types at any dose. Reactive oxygen species were induced in both cell types at 50 μm(3) per cell after 24 h exposure. The data suggested novel differences in the resistance of the dural epithelial cells and fibroblasts to CoCr nanoparticle/ion toxicity and demonstrated the inflammatory potential of the particles. The data contributes to a greater understanding of the potential biological consequences of the use of metal-on-metal total disc prostheses.

  7. Headache currents commentary.

    PubMed

    Peatfield, Richard

    2012-04-01

    What Happens to the Old Headache Medicines? Rapoport AM, MD. Old headache medicines never die; they either fade away or come back in disguise. The disguise is often a new route of administration, which may work better, faster, more completely, with fewer adverse events, and/or have certain other advantages. The clinical aspects of 3 of the oldest headache medicines (ergotamine tartrate, dihydroergotamine, and methysergide) will be discussed here. Sumatriptan will then be discussed as the prototype of the newest category of acute care therapy (triptans) for migraine. It will be compared with the older medications, and the new forms being developed will be briefly discussed. Diclofenac potassium for oral solution will be mentioned as the newest drug approved for migraine by the Food and Drug Administration and a possible alternative to triptans in patients with frequent headaches or those with contraindications to vasoconstrictors. Dihydroergotamine, Ergotamine, Methysergide and Sumatriptan - Basic Science in Relation to Migraine Treatment. Dahlöf C, Maassen Van Den Brink A. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor family mediates the effects of several drugs highly effective in migraine primarily by activating 5-HT(1B) , 5-HT(1D) , and 5-HT(1F) receptors. Ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and methysergide, as well as the "triptan" sumatriptan, are all agonists for these receptors. The receptor profile and degree of selectivity of these 4 drugs differ, which is reflected by their side effects that limit their use in the acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine. The acute antimigraine efficacy of these remedies is very much dependent on the formulation used where, in general, parenteral formulations are more effective in relieving the symptoms of a migraine attack. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  8. Reliability of the 'pop' sign as an indicator of dural puncture during obstetric spinal anaesthesia: a prospective observational clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kathirgamanathan, A; Hawkins, N

    2007-08-01

    Anaesthetists rely upon a loss of resistance and flow of cerebrospinal fluid to indicate when a spinal needle has breached the dura. The loss of resistance is not always felt, with the danger that the needle may be advanced into neurological tissue. One hundred women undergoing elective caesarean section were recruited and spinal anaesthesia, using a 27-G Whitacre needle, was performed using an incremental advancement technique. After each advancement of the needle, and before removing the stylet, it was recorded whether the anaesthetist had perceived any sign that the dura had been breached, and then whether cerebrospinal fluid had been obtained. Six patients were not included in the study due to technical difficulties. In 27 of 94 patients (29%) there was no clear tactile sign that the dura had been breached when cerebrospinal fluid was obtained. This study demonstrates that loss of resistance is not always felt when a 27-G spinal needle breaches the dura in the pregnant woman.

  9. Headache with autonomic features in a child: cluster headache or contact-point headache?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Devendra; Choudhury, Krishna Kant; Gupta, Alok

    2008-03-01

    Headache and facial pain due to diseases of the nose and sinuses are not uncommon in children. However, nasal contact-point associated with headache is relatively uncommon and has unclear etiological significance. We herein report a child having headache with autonomic features and contact-point in the nose, and discuss the difficulties in diagnostic categorization.

  10. Primary sex headache in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    Primary headache associated with sexual activity is a rare headache disorder that has only been reported twice previously in adolescents. Although it can mimic life-threatening causes of thunderclap-onset headache, primary sex headache is benign, self-limited, and highly responsive to indomethacin. Given the sensitive nature of sexual development in adolescents, it is important that pediatric providers know when to ask about this symptom and how to proceed with diagnostics and therapy when it arises. We report 2 new adolescent cases and review the semiology, epidemiology, and treatment of primary sex headache.

  11. Headache and sleep in children.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Benedetta; Panunzi, Sara; Bruni, Oliviero; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2013-06-01

    Several scientific studies report a close relationship between sleep and headache: sleep changes may reflect the onset and increase of both duration and frequency of headache attacks. Variations in sleep architecture, together with a poor sleep hygiene in children, may indeed be responsible for the onset of headache and its development into a chronic disease. For a correct clinical management of children with headache, it is therefore fundamental to investigate their sleep habits, architecture and potential disturbances, in order to develop adequate therapeutic plans for both sleep and headache.

  12. Is the combination of negative computed tomography result and negative lumbar puncture result sufficient to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Perry, Jeffrey J; Spacek, Alena; Forbes, Melissa; Wells, George A; Mortensen, Melodie; Symington, Cheryl; Fortin, Nicole; Stiell, Ian G

    2008-06-01

    Current clinical practice assumes a negative computed tomography (CT) head scan result and a negative lumbar puncture result together are adequate to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients with acute headache. Our objective is to determine the sensitivity of a negative CT result combined with a negative lumbar puncture result to exclude subarachnoid hemorrhage. This prospective cohort study was conducted at 2 tertiary care emergency departments (EDs) during 3 years. We enrolled all patients who were older than 15 years, had a nontraumatic acute headache and normal neurologic examination result, and who had a CT head scan and a lumbar puncture if the CT result was negative (ie, no blood in the subarachnoid space). Patients were followed up with a structured telephone questionnaire 6 to 36 months after their ED visit and electronic hospital records review to ensure no missed subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of the strategy of CT and then lumbar puncture for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Five hundred ninety-two patients were enrolled, including 61 with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The mean patient age was 43.6 years, with 59.1% female patients. All cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage were identified on initial CT or lumbar puncture. One patient without subarachnoid hemorrhage was subsequently diagnosed with cerebral aneurysm, requiring surgery. The strategy classified patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of 100% (95% CI 94% to 100%), 67% (95% CI 63% to 71%), 3.03 (95% CI 2.69 to 3.53), and 0. For diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage or aneurysm, these were 98% (95% CI 91% to 100%), 67% (95% CI 63% to 71%), 2.98 (95% CI 2.63 to 3.38), and 0.02 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.17), respectively. To our knowledge, this is the largest prospective study evaluating the accuracy of a strategy of CT and lumbar puncture to rule out

  13. 18-year-old woman with a dural mass.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Hilary; Wilkinson, C Corbett; Kleinschmidt-Demasters, B K

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a dural-based chondroma in the right frontal extra-axial region. Chondromas are benign cartilaginous tumors which are uncommon intracranially. Their diagnosis should be predicated on the exclusion of a chondrosarcoma and clinical studies should be performed to rule out any underlying tumor predisposition syndromes.

  14. Dural adhesion to porous cranioplastic implant: A potential safety concern.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Christina M; Sorour, Mohammad; Schmidt, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Patient-specific implants are used for cranioplastic skull reconstruction when large bone flaps must be replaced or where there are complex or critical contours, especially near the face. These implants have a low complication rate, with poor fit and postoperative infection being the most common complications. We report here a potentially serious hazard that may arise from the use of porous implants. A 45-year-old woman sustained severe head trauma in a motor vehicle accident that required urgent surgical intervention. Because of progressive resorption of her native bone flap, she underwent replacement of her native flap with a hard tissue replacement/patient-matched implant cranioplasty. Eight years later, she sustained a traumatic laceration over her vertex that necessitated removal of her cranioplastic implant because of persistent local infection. Intraoperatively, the dural flap was ingrowing and firmly adherent to the inside surface of the porous cranioplasty. After several failed attempts to remove the whole implant piecemeal, we attempted to dissect the dural flap from the brain surface to remove it together with the cranioplastic implant but exposure of the extensive cortical adhesions between the brain surface and the dural flap was compromised by the hard overlying cranioplastic implant. Despite our meticulous attempts to cut off these cortical adhesions, a perisylvian blood vessel was avulsed, resulting in intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In this case, dural adhesion and ingrowth to the underside of the cranioplasty implant led to disastrous bleeding when the implant needed to be removed years after initial implantation.

  15. Temporomandibular disorders in headache patients

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Christiane-Espinola-Bandeira; Oliveira, José-Luiz-Góes; Jesus, Alan-Chester-Feitosa; Maia, Mila-Leite-de Moraes; de Santana, Jonielly-Costa-Vasconcelos; Andrade, Loren-Suyane-Oliveira; Siqueira Quintans, Jullyana-de Souza; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo-José; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the frequency of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its seve-rity in individuals with headache. Study Design: 60 adults divided into three groups of 20 individuals: chronic daily headache (CDH), episodic headache (EH) and a control group without headache (WH). Headache diagnosis was performed according to the criteria of International Headache Society and the signs and symptoms of TMD were achieved by using a clinical exam and an anamnestic questionnaire. The severity of TMD was defined by the temporomandibular index (TMI). Results: The TMD signs and symptoms were always more frequent in individuals with headache, especially report of pain in TMJ area (CDH, n=16; EH, n=12; WH, n=6), pain to palpation on masseter (CDH, n=19; EH, n=16; WH, n=11) which are significantly more frequent in episodic and chronic daily headache. The mean values of temporomandibular and articular index (CDH patients) and muscular index (CDH and EH patients) were statistically higher than in patients of the control group, notably the articular (CDH=0.38; EH=0.25;WH=0.19) and muscular (CDH=0.46; EH=0.51; WH=0.26) indices. Conclusions: These findings allow us to speculate that masticatory and TMJ pain are more common in headache subjects. Besides, it seems that the TMD is more severe in headache patients. Key words:Temporomandibular dysfunction, headache disorders. PMID:22926473

  16. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    T Noghani, Majid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Fazljoo, Sayed Mohammad Baqer; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which originate from the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal disorders that are reported to be associated with primary headaches include dyspepsia, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), constipation, functional abdominal pain, inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD), celiac disease, and helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. Some studies have demonstrated remission or improvement of headache following the treatment of the accompanying gastrointestinal disorders. Hypotheses explaining this association are considered to be central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain, serotonin pathways, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, systemic vasculopathy, and food allergy. Traditional Persian physicians, namely Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna) and Râzi (Rhazes) believed in a type of headache originating from disorders of the stomach and named it as an individual entity, the "Participatory Headache of Gastric Origin". We suggest providing a unique diagnostic entity for headaches coexisting with any gastrointestinal abnormality that are improved or cured along with the treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:27800536

  17. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    T Noghani, Majid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Fazljoo, Sayed Mohammad Baqer; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2016-11-01

    There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which originate from the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal disorders that are reported to be associated with primary headaches include dyspepsia, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), constipation, functional abdominal pain, inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD), celiac disease, and helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. Some studies have demonstrated remission or improvement of headache following the treatment of the accompanying gastrointestinal disorders. Hypotheses explaining this association are considered to be central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain, serotonin pathways, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, systemic vasculopathy, and food allergy. Traditional Persian physicians, namely Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna) and Râzi (Rhazes) believed in a type of headache originating from disorders of the stomach and named it as an individual entity, the "Participatory Headache of Gastric Origin". We suggest providing a unique diagnostic entity for headaches coexisting with any gastrointestinal abnormality that are improved or cured along with the treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder.

  18. A Unique Presentation of an Intracranial Abscess Secondary to Retained Projectile after Debridement with Dural Closure

    PubMed Central

    Awuor, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Patients with penetrating head trauma with retained projectiles develop intracranial abscesses as a common complication. The most common presentation is a suddenly worsening headache. The most common pathogen identified is staphylococcus. Outcomes are related to adherence of Matson’s tenets. This case study details the presentation of a 19-year-old patient that presented to the neurological surgery clinic without neurologic deficits. Further questioning revealed complaints of intermittent diffuse headaches with bilateral upper extremity shock-like sensation for two weeks. Eight weeks prior he had undergone right craniotomy, after a gunshot wound, for debridement and watertight dural closure. The patient denied symptoms of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or seizure. The patient presented with a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) which revealed retained projectile fragments without clear evidence of abscess. On physical exam, the patient was without any neurological deficit. Laboratory investigation revealed normal white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and negative blood cultures. Head CT with contrast revealed a large intracerebral abscess adjacent to the thalamus. The patient was taken to the operating room for repeat craniotomy with resection of the abscess and removal of the intracranial projectile fragments. Post-operatively, the patient remained neurology intact. Intraoperative cultures were not significant for the growth of any bacteria. In eight weeks time, the patient returned to his employment and his baseline level of activity. This case underscores the importance of thorough assessment in patients with retained intracranial projectiles as well as the need to routine follow-up. The unique presentation of this patient prompted further investigation which elucidated a lesion which correlated to his symptoms although laboratory assessment was without abnormality. PMID:28690961

  19. A Unique Presentation of an Intracranial Abscess Secondary to Retained Projectile after Debridement with Dural Closure.

    PubMed

    Milton, Jason; Awuor, Victor

    2017-06-09

    Patients with penetrating head trauma with retained projectiles develop intracranial abscesses as a common complication. The most common presentation is a suddenly worsening headache. The most common pathogen identified is staphylococcus. Outcomes are related to adherence of Matson's tenets. This case study details the presentation of a 19-year-old patient that presented to the neurological surgery clinic without neurologic deficits. Further questioning revealed complaints of intermittent diffuse headaches with bilateral upper extremity shock-like sensation for two weeks. Eight weeks prior he had undergone right craniotomy, after a gunshot wound, for debridement and watertight dural closure. The patient denied symptoms of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or seizure. The patient presented with a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) which revealed retained projectile fragments without clear evidence of abscess. On physical exam, the patient was without any neurological deficit. Laboratory investigation revealed normal white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and negative blood cultures. Head CT with contrast revealed a large intracerebral abscess adjacent to the thalamus. The patient was taken to the operating room for repeat craniotomy with resection of the abscess and removal of the intracranial projectile fragments. Post-operatively, the patient remained neurology intact. Intraoperative cultures were not significant for the growth of any bacteria. In eight weeks time, the patient returned to his employment and his baseline level of activity. This case underscores the importance of thorough assessment in patients with retained intracranial projectiles as well as the need to routine follow-up. The unique presentation of this patient prompted further investigation which elucidated a lesion which correlated to his symptoms although laboratory assessment was without abnormality.

  20. Aerosol can puncture device operational test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-05-03

    Puncturing of aerosol cans is performed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1) process as a requirement of the waste disposal acceptance criteria for both transuranic (TRU) waste and low-level waste (LLW). These cans have contained such things as paints, lubricating oils, paint removers, insecticides, and cleaning supplies which were used in radioactive facilities. Due to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Fire Protection concerns of the baseline system`s fire/explosion proof characteristics, a study was undertaken to compare the baseline system`s design to commercially available puncturing devices. While the study found no areas which might indicate a risk of fire or explosion, WHC Fire Protection determined that the puncturing system must have a demonstrated record of safe operation. This could be obtained either by testing the baseline design by an independent laboratory, or by substituting a commercially available device. As a result of these efforts, the commercially available Aerosolv can puncturing device was chosen to replace the baseline design. Two concerns were raised with the system. Premature blinding of the coalescing/carbon filter, due to its proximity to the puncture and draining operation; and overpressurization of the collection bottle due to its small volume and by blinding of the filter assembly. As a result of these concerns, testing was deemed necessary. The objective of this report is to outline test procedures for the Aerosolv.

  1. Posterior clinoidectomy: dural tailoring technique and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry R

    2009-05-01

    The posterior clinoid process, a bony prominence at the superolateral aspect of the dorsum sellae, has a strategic importance in a transcavernous approach to basilar tip aneurysms. To further optimize this microsurgical technique during posterior clinoidectomy, we performed a cadaveric study of this regional anatomy, describe a technique called dural tailoring, and report initial results in the surgical treatment of upper basilar artery (BA) aneurysm. After 10 adult cadaver heads (silicone-injected) were prepared for dissection, a posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring was performed. The dura overlying the upper clivus was coagulated with bipolar electrocoagulation and incised. Stripping dura off the clivus and lateral reflection then exposed the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process and dorsum sellae, thus creating a dural flap. Posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring was then used in seven patients with upper BA aneurysms. Our stepwise modification of the posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring created a flap that afforded protection of the cavernous sinus and oculomotor nerve. During surgery, there were no recorded intraoperative injuries to neurovascular structures. One patient died postoperatively from morbidity related to severe-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Postoperative oculomotor nerve palsy occurred in 3 patients (43%). In all cases, the nerve was anatomically preserved and partial to complete recovery was recorded during the first postoperative year. This technique effectively provided exposure of retrosellar upper basilar aneurysms in seven patients (basilar tip 43% and superior cerebellar artery aneurysms 57%). Outcomes and safety are at least equivalent to or better than basilar aneurysm surgery performed without surgical adjuncts, presumably a less complex subset.

  2. Psychological Aspects of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, R. Bruce

    1964-01-01

    Headache is considered as a non-specific syndrome illustrating the concept of pain as an emotion. Viewed in this way, its meaning looms larger than its site. Pain indicates dis-ease of the patient, sometimes with his body, but more often with his life. No pain is “imaginary”, nor can some pain be assigned to physiological and some to psychological pathways. Such a decision is often merely a judgmental one. Just as the “brain” cannot easily be separated from the “mind”, so to believe that some pain is “physical” and some “emotional” is a distortion. All painful syndromes are mixed and the problem is to decipher the meaning of the pain. Only rarely will headache respond to physical measures alone. PMID:14199822

  3. Photophobia in Primary Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Heather L.; Recober, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background Photophobia is a debilitating feature of many headache disorders. Overview Clinical and preclinical research has identified several potential pathways involved in enhanced light sensitivity. Some of these structures include trigeminal afferents in the eye, second order neurons in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, third order neurons in the posterior thalamus, modulatory neurons in the hypothalamus, and fourth order neurons in the visual and somatosensory cortices. It is unclear to what degree each site plays a role in establishing the different temporal patterns of photophobia across different disorders. Peptides such as calcitonin-gene related peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide may play a role in photophobia at multiple levels of the visual and trigeminal pathways. Conclusion While our understanding of photophobia has greatly improved in the last decade, there are still unanswered questions. These answers will help us develop new therapies to provide relief to patients with primary headache disorders. PMID:25790126

  4. Headaches and sinus disease.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, H J

    2001-10-01

    Modern diagnostic tools like fiberoptic nasal endoscopy and CT imaging of the sinuses are very sensitive in helping clinicians diagnose sinus disease; we may now reevaluate the symptoms and signs most useful in making a clinical diagnosis of rhinosinusitis. Two major systems of classification and diagnostic criteria relating headaches and sinus disease have achieved currency-that of the International Headache Society (IHS) (1988) and the more recent task force recommendations of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) (1997). This report compares and contrasts the different starting points, certain assumptions, and conflicting conclusions of these two classification systems and recommends a cooperative alliance of the IHS and AAO-HNS when these diagnostic criteria are revised.

  5. [Trigeminal autonomic headache, hemicrania continua and hypnic headache. A review of rare primary headache forms].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, J; Bewermeyer, H

    2005-05-13

    Tension-type headache and migraine are the most common types of primary headaches. Apart from these well known diseases, the group of primary headaches includes other relatively rare headache disorders. Some of these seldom syndromes have been described for the first time within the last twenty years and have been newly included in the revised IHS classification from 2004. Their typical symptomatic is less known, but offers an excellent opportunity to diagnose these syndromes. The importance of recognising these disorders is underlined by the fact, that rare primary headaches response often complete and rapid to a specific treatment. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the clinical presentation and treatment of cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hemicrania continua and hypnic headache.

  6. Dialysis Headache: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Sousa Melo, Eduardo; Carrilho Aguiar, Filipe; Sampaio Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease who need dialysis often have poor quality of life. Dialysis headache is a frequent complication of hemodialysis and is often a challenge for nephrologists, neurologists, and headache specialists. This was a narrative review. The prevalence of dialysis headache varies between 27% and 73%. Among the characteristics of this headache are the pulsatile pattern, frontal location, moderate to severe intensity, and onset a few hours after the beginning of dialysis. The headache may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The physiopathology of hemodialysis headache is still not completely understood. Some factors that seem to be associated with it are variations in urea, sodium, magnesium, blood pressure, and weight levels. The hematoencephalic barrier has an important role. Variations in electrolyte and urea levels occur in the systemic circulation during hemodialysis, but the cerebral concentrations of these substances are stable over the first few hours of the procedure. The flow of free water through the hematoencephalic barrier may lead to cerebral edema. Other potential pathophysiological factors include nitric oxide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P. There are recommendations for maintenance of volume and control over electrolytes and blood pressure and avoidance of caffeine for prevention of hemodialysis headache. However, there are no controlled studies of prophylactic or abortive hemodialysis headache treatment. Despite its prevalence, hemodialysis headache has been poorly studied, thus making it difficult to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its genesis. Current clinical management practices are therefore necessarily empiric with minimal to no evidence base. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  7. Higher-dimensional puncture initial data

    SciTech Connect

    Zilhao, Miguel; Ansorg, Marcus; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake, Ulrich; Witek, Helvi

    2011-10-15

    We calculate puncture initial data, corresponding to single and binary black holes with linear momenta, which solve the constraint equations of D-dimensional vacuum gravity. The data are generated by a modification of the pseudospectral code presented in [M. Ansorg, B. Bruegmann, and W. Tichy, Phys. Rev. D 70, 064011 (2004).] and made available as the TwoPunctures thorn inside the Cactus computational toolkit. As examples, we exhibit convergence plots, the violation of the Hamiltonian constraint as well as the initial data for D=4,5,6,7. These initial data are the starting point to perform high-energy collisions of black holes in D dimensions.

  8. PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

  9. Diet and Headache: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent T; Vij, Brinder

    2016-10-01

    The role of diet in the management of the headache patient is a controversial topic in the headache field. To review the evidence supporting the hypothesis that specific foods or ingredients within foods and beverages trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine and to discuss the use of elimination diets in the prevention of headache disorders METHODS: This represents part 1 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders. A PubMed search was performed with the following search terms: "monosodium glutamate," "caffeine," "aspartame," "sucralose," "histamine intolerance syndrome," "tyramine," "alcohol," "chocolate," "nitrites," "IgG elimination diets," and "gluten." Each of these search terms was then cross-referenced with "headache" and "migraine" to identify relevant studies. Only studies that were written in English were included in this review. Caffeine withdrawal and administration of MSG (dissolved in liquid) has the strongest evidence for triggering attacks of headache as evidenced by multiple positive provocation studies. Aspartame has conflicting evidence with two positive and two negative provocation studies. Observational studies provide modest evidence that gluten- and histamine-containing foods as well as alcohol may precipitate headaches in subgroups of patients. Two of three randomized controlled trials reported that an elimination diet of IgG positive foods significantly decreased frequency of headache/migraine during the treatment as compared to baseline time period. Certain foods, beverages, and ingredients within foods may trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine in susceptible individuals. Elimination diets can prevent headaches in subgroups of persons with headache disorders. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  10. [Headache from overuse of medication].

    PubMed

    Meienberg, O

    2006-03-01

    Medication overuse headache (MOH) occurs in about 1% of the general population. A marked increase of its prevalence has to be expected in the future, since more and more adolescents are subject to medication overuse. The revised International Classification of Headache Disorders contains detailed diagnostic criteria for headache due to particular groups of substances. They help recognizing MOH due to ergots, triptans, analgesics and opioids, and to distinguish them from each other MOH almost exclusively occurs in patients with a long history of migraine or chronic tension type headache, which suggests some genetic disposition. The treatment of choice of MOH is withdrawal of the causing drug. Long-term treatment for headache is ineffective during medication overuse. Relapse rate is variable depending on the substance overused, and may be considerable. Therefore, prophylaxis in patients with migraine or chronic tension type headache who do not yet suffer from MOH, is essential.

  11. [Psychosomatic therapies in primary headaches].

    PubMed

    Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro

    2009-09-01

    Many previous studies have reported that primary headaches such as tension-type headache and migraine are influenced by psychosocial factors including stressful life events and daily hassles. In addition, noncompliance and nonadherence with medical regimens represent a major challenge to the treatment of primary headaches including medication-overuse headache. Therefore, non-pharmacological therapies such as relaxation, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and biofeedback have become important and their efficacy has been reported. In the present review, I would like to introduce the importance of psychosocial factors in primary headaches and psychosomatic therapies by reviewing previous studies on the association between psychosocial factors and primary headaches and on the efficacy of non-pharmacological therapies and by showing a representative case.

  12. Caffeine and headache: specific remarks.

    PubMed

    Espinosa Jovel, C A; Sobrino Mejía, F E

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychostimulant worldwide. Excessive caffeine consumption induces a series of both acute and chronic biological and physiological changes that may give rise to cognitive decline, depression, fatigue, insomnia, cardiovascular changes, and headache. Chronic consumption of caffeine promotes a pro-nociceptive state of cortical hyperexcitability that can intensify a primary headache or trigger a headache due to excessive analgesic use. This review offers an in-depth analysis of the physiological mechanisms of caffeine and its relationship with headache. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Vertiginous headache and its management.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Sujana S

    2014-04-01

    Vertiginous headache encompasses patients with dizziness or vertigo as well as headache, even though the symptoms may not occur in an obvious temporal relationship. The type of dizziness experienced by patients is different from the heavy-headedness experienced during rhinogenic headache. Patients may have a personal or family history of typical or atypical migraine. They should be evaluated for possible Meniere syndrome, migraine headaches, and/or eye movement disorders. Management is directed to treatment of the underlying abnormality. Long-term follow-up of these patients is necessary, because further otologic abnormalities may present later.

  14. Medical Comorbidities in Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Howard; Singhi, Samata; Gladstein, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Comorbid conditions frequently occur in pediatric headaches and may significantly affect their management. Comorbidities that have been associated with pediatric headaches include attention-deficit or hyperactivity disorder, autism, developmental disabilities, depression, anxiety, epilepsy, obesity, infantile colic, atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The goal of this article is to review these comorbidities associated with pediatric headache, thereby empowering child neurologists to identify common triggers and tailor management strategies that address headache and its comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurostimulation for chronic cluster headache

    PubMed Central

    Kaube, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of primary headache syndromes, particularly of chronic cluster headache, have received much interest in recent years. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) has yielded favourable clinical results and, despite the limited numbers of published cases, is becoming a routine treatment for refractory chronic cluster headache in specialized centres. Meanwhile, other promising techniques such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS) or sphenopalate ganglion stimulation have emerged. In this article the current state of clinical research for neurostimulation techniques for chronic cluster headache is reviewed. PMID:22590481

  16. [Polypragmasy in chronic tension headache?].

    PubMed

    Aull, S; Maly, J; Mraz, M; Schnider, P; Travniczek, A; Zeiler, K; Wessely, P

    1994-01-01

    The various forms of treatment (drugs as well as non-drug therapy) of patients suffering from tension type headache are presented. Analgesics and non-steroidal antirheumatics are used in the management of episodic tension type headache, as well as acute exacerbation of chronic tension type headache. In view of the presumably multifactorial pathogenesis, a multidimensional therapeutic approach is required in patients with chronic tension type headache. Antidepressive drugs (thymoleptics) are usually prescribed as basic therapy. Additional implementation of non-drug therapeutic measures tailored to individual symptomatology is advisable, such as EMG biofeedback, other relaxation techniques, massage, physiotherapy and--in selected cases--psychotherapy or acupuncture.

  17. Temporomandibular disorders and headaches.

    PubMed

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Bassiur, Jennifer P

    2014-05-01

    Headache and temporomandibular disorders should be treated together but separately. If there is marked limitation of opening, imaging of the joint may be necessary. The treatment should then include education regarding limiting jaw function, appliance therapy, instruction in jaw posture, and stretching exercises, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and relax the muscles. The use of physical therapies, such as spray and stretch and trigger point injections, is helpful if there is myofascial pain. Tricyclic antidepressants and the new-generation antiepileptic drugs are effective in muscle pain conditions. Arthrocentesis and/or arthroscopy may help to restore range of motion.

  18. Imaging diagnosis of dural and direct cavernous carotid fistulae*

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Daniela; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco e; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:25741093

  19. Headache Attributed to Craniocervical Dystonia - A Little Known Headache.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Marcos Eugenio Ramalho; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio

    2017-02-01

    Craniocervical dystonia is a focal or segmental dystonia in its distribution, classically known as spasmodic torticollis when in its pure cervical presentation. Although craniocervical dystonia has been recognized as a possible cause of headache since the publication of the second version of International Classification of Headache Disorders, there are few studies about this entity. This was a narrative review. Craniocervical dystonia was associated with muscle pain in 67-89% of the cases. Headaches of any kind affected approximately 60% of patients with craniocervical dystonia, and were located mainly in the occipital and cervical regions. Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia specifically was rarely found, and it was described in only one patient out of 80 in one study. Treatment with botulinum neurotoxin is considered to be the first-line treatment for focal dystonias, including craniocervical dystonia, and besides reducing clinical severity, impairment, and pain scores among the patients with craniocervical dystonia, there were also descriptions of improvements in headaches attributed to craniocervical dystonia and other headaches associated with this dystonia. Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia has been poorly studied. There is a need for more studies to evaluate its characteristics and treatment. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  20. [Iatrogenic after spinal puncture technique. Prevalence study of headache and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Bauset-Navarro, José Luis; Sánchez-Ortuño, Isabel M; Gómez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Sanz-Monllor, Ainara; Cinesi-Gómez, César; Piñera-Salmerón, Pascual

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo. Establecer la prevalencia existente de cefalea tras practicar una puncion lumbar transdural y los factores de riesgo. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo de cohortes. Se reclutaron pacientes del Servicio de Urgencias, del Servicio de Neurologia y del Hospital de Dia. Se recogio la experiencia del facultativo, el numero de punciones, la variacion de plano, la postura del paciente, el anestesico local, el calibre y bisel de la aguja, los grados de inclinacion, la cantidad de liquido, la sobrecarga de fluidoterapia y la indicacion o no de reposo tras la puncion. Tras 48 horas, se establecio la aparicion o no de cefalea. Resultados. Muestra de 59 pacientes, 31 (52,5%) de ellos hombres. Edad media: 47 años; 32 (54,2%) procedentes de Urgencias, 18 (30,5%) de Neurologia y 9 (15,3%) del Hospital de Dia. Hubo 41 (69,5%) en decubito lateral y 7 (11,9%) en sedestacion. Todos con agujas biseladas, 21 (35,6%) del calibre 20 y 38 (64,4%) del calibre 22. Sin reposo estuvieron 8 (13,56%) pacientes y 18 (33,3%) sin sobrecarga de fluidos. Veintitres (38,98%) con cefalea pospuncion lumbar, 12 (52,2%) mujeres, con una edad media de 38,3 ± 16,4 años. La mediana de intensidad de la cefalea fue de 2,6. El tiempo medio de aparicion fue de siete horas. Sin diferencias para ninguno de los factores estudiados, salvo la tendencia observada de mayor incidencia de cefalea a menor edad. Conclusiones. La cefalea pospuncion lumbar en nuestra serie es elevada, sin diferencias segun el servicio donde se practica o la experiencia. Tampoco influye la cantidad de liquido extraido, la posicion del paciente, la indicacion de reposo o la sobrecarga de fluidos.

  1. Nummular headache: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Pareja, Julia

    2003-05-01

    Nummular headache (coin-shaped cephalgia) has an unusual distinct feature: it is characterized by mild-to-moderate pressure-like pain exclusively felt in a rounded or elliptical area typically 2-6 cm in diameter. Although any region of the head may be affected, the parietal area is the common localization of nummular headache. The pain remains confined to the same symptomatic area which does not change in shape or size with time. The pain is continuous but lancinating exacerbations lasting for several seconds or gradually increasing from 10 mins to 2 h may superimpose the baseline pain. The temporal pattern is either chronic or remitting. Pseudoremissions may be observed when the pain reaches a very low grade or only discomfort (not pain) in the affected area is reported. At times, discomfort may prevail. Either during symptomatic periods or interictally, the affected area may show a variable combination of hypoethesia, dysesthesia, paresthesia or tenderness. Physical and supplementary examinations are normal. Nummular headache emerges as a primary clear-cut clinical picture. The particular topography and signs of sensory dysfunction make it reasonable to vent the idea that nummular headache is an extracranial headache, probably stemming from epicranial tissues such as terminal branches of sensitive nerves. Nummular headache may seem to be the paradigm of epicranias (group of headaches and pericranial neuralgias stemming from epicranial tissues). Nummular headache must be distinguished from head pain secondary to local processes and from tender points of more extensive headaches. Although nummular headache may frequently coexist with other primary headaches, it has an independent course. Treatment is seldom necessary and in most cases simple reassurance is sufficient.

  2. Solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma mimicking a spinal meningioma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng-Jun; Zhan, Ren-Ya; Chen, Man-Tao; Cao, Fei; Zheng, Xiu-Jue

    2014-01-01

    Dural granuloma is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there has no case reported solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma worldwide so far. Here we report our findings in a 49-year-old woman, who presented with 10-year progressive left lower-limb numbness and two weeks of right lower-limb numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a homogeneous enhanced spindle-shaped lesion, 2.9 × 1.5 cm in size, occupying the spinal intradural extramedullary space, at the level of Thoracic (T)-2/3, which mimicked the appearance of spinal meningioma. The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test titer of 1:8, and the venereal diseases research laboratory of cerebral spinal fluid (VDRL-CSF) was reactive, so confirmed neurosyphilis was considered. After formal anti-syphilis treatment, posterior laminectomy surgery was performed, and the lesion was completely separated and extirpated. Final histopathologic diagnosis of the lesion was confirmed as chronic granulomatous inflammation, combined with the neurosyphilis history, spinal dural syphilis granuloma was finally diagnosed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without any further treatment.

  3. Uncorrected amteropia among children hospitalized for headache evaluation: a clinical descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Gad; Stolovitch, Chaim; Moisseiev, Elad; Cohen, Shlomi; Kesler, Anat

    2014-09-29

    Headache is a common complaint in children occasionally requiring hospital admission. The purposes of the present study were to analyze the prevalence of uncorrected ametropia in children with headache admitted to the hospital, and evaluate the importance of refraction assessment as part of their evaluation. A retrospective review of children admitted to the Tel Aviv Medical Center for headache evaluation from December 2008 to March 2013, in whom the only abnormality found was an uncorrected refractive error. During the study period 917 children with headache were hospitalized for evaluation and 16 (1.7%) of them (9 boys, mean age 12 years, range 8-18 years) were found to have an uncorrected ametropia. Average headache duration was 4 months (range, 1 week to 1 year) and mean follow-up was 15 months (range, 1 month to 3 years). Twelve (75%) children had brain imaging and 4 children (25%) had a lumbar puncture before their refractive abnormality was identified. Anisometropia and myopia were the most common refractive errors encountered (n = 10 each), followed by hyperopia (n = 6) and astigmatism (n = 3). Despite having uncorrected refractive errors most children (n = 10) did not complain of any visual difficulty. All children were given proper refractive correction and 14 of them reported complete headache resolution on re-examination one month later. Uncorrected ametropia is a possible cause of headache among hospitalized children. Therefore, complete ophthalmic evaluation, which includes proper refraction assessment, is important as it can identify a treatable headache etiology. Children without visual difficulty should be equally evaluated, as many children with headache and uncorrected amteropia do not have vision complaints.

  4. [Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula draining into spinal cord veins: case report].

    PubMed

    Seda, Lauro Franco; Pieruccetti, Marco Antonio; Freitas, José Maria Modenesi; Listik, Sérgio; Pereira, Clemente Augusto Brito

    2002-09-01

    We present an usual case of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary and spinal cord venous plexus drainage and discuss its etiological, physiopathological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  5. Medicolegal issues in cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Loder, Elizabeth; Loder, John

    2004-04-01

    This paper identifies legal issues of relevance to the diagnosis and treatment of cluster headache, including areas of actual and potential malpractice liability. Legal topics that are relevant to cluster headache can be divided into five categories: diagnostic-related issues, risks inherent in the disease process, prescribing and treatment-related problems, research-related issues, and disability determination.

  6. Headache and oral parafunctional behaviors.

    PubMed

    Glaros, Alan G; Hanson, Anne H; Ryen, Chris C

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that individuals with headaches would show significantly more oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls, be diagnosed with one or more temporomandibular disorders (TMD) significantly more frequently than controls, and would report significantly less pain and other symptoms of headache after participating in a habit reversal treatment to reduce oral parafunctional behaviors, compared to a wait list control. In Phase I, individuals with and without self-reported headaches were examined by a blinded examiner and participated in a week-long experience sampling protocol (ESM) to assess oral parafunctional behaviors, pain, and emotional states. In Phase II, those with headaches were randomly assigned to either a habit reversal treatment or to a wait list control group. In the last, sixth week of the program, participants again completed an ESM protocol. Results showed that headache patients were significantly more likely to report oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls and to receive a Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD diagnosis. Results from Phase II showed general improvement in both groups on pain and parafunctions. Individuals with headaches engage in significantly higher rates and intensities of oral parafunctional behaviors. Treatment of these behaviors using habit reversal techniques appears to have the same effect on pain as waiting.

  7. Pediatric headache: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Howard; Gladstein, Jack

    2012-02-01

    In this review we describe the epidemiology, classification, and approach to the diagnosis and treatment of episodic and chronic migraine in children. We review both traditional and alternative medications, and offer a glimpse into the future of pediatric headache. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  8. Fibromyalgia comorbidity in primary headaches.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, M; Sardaro, M; Serpino, C; Costantini, F; Vecchio, E; Prudenzano, M Pia; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2009-04-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain condition of unknown aetiology characterized by diffuse pain and tenderness at tender points. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and clinical features of FMS in the different forms of primary headaches, in a tertiary headache centre. Primary headache patients (n = 217) were selected and submitted to the Total Tenderness Score, anxiety and depression scales, Migraine Disability Assessment, allodynia questionnaire, Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale. In patients with FMS, the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, the Pain Visual Analog Scale, the Manual Tender Point Survey and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire were employed. FMS was present in 36.4% of patients and prevailed significantly in tension-type headache and in patients with higher headache frequency. Headache frequency, pericranial muscle tenderness, anxiety and sleep inadequacy were especially associated with FMS comorbidity. In the FMS patients, fatigue and pain at tender points were significantly correlated with headache frequency. FMS seems increasingly prevalent with increased headache frequency, for the facilitation of central sensitization phenomena favoured by anxiety and sleep disturbances.

  9. The history of craniotomy for headache treatment.

    PubMed

    Assina, Rachid; Sarris, Christina E; Mammis, Antonios

    2014-04-01

    Both the history of headache and the practice of craniotomy can be traced to antiquity. From ancient times through the present day, numerous civilizations and scholars have performed craniotomy in attempts to treat headache. Today, surgical intervention for headache management is becoming increasingly more common due to improved technology and greater understanding of headache. By tracing the evolution of the understanding of headache alongside the practice of craniotomy, investigators can better evaluate the mechanisms of headache and the therapeutic treatments used today.

  10. High acceptability and low morbidity of diagnostic lumbar puncture in elderly subjects of mixed cognitive status.

    PubMed

    Hindley, N J; Jobst, K A; King, E; Barnetson, L; Smith, A; Haigh, A M

    1995-05-01

    A total of 273 participants (186 with clinical dementia; 87 "normal" controls; mean age 72 years) in a prospective, longitudinal, dementia research study, underwent lumbar puncture (LP), where possible, on an annual basis. Reporting of symptoms after all LP's (n = 541) was 21.6%, the predominant complaints being mild localised back-pain (12.8%) and headache (10.7%). All symptoms were self-limiting. Analysis of headaches after all first LP's (n = 273) revealed an incidence of 14.2% with marked differences between subjects under 60 years of age (33%) and those over 60 years (10.1%), between subjects with "minimal" cerebral atrophy (19.5%) and those with "significant" atrophy (5.6%) and, to a lesser extent, between subjects with no or mild cognitive impairment (20.6%) and those with significant impairment (9.5%). Age under 60 years and lack of significant cerebral atrophy were shown to be independent predictors of headache. Acceptability of LP was high as demonstrated by agreement to a second procedure by 92.2% of eligible subjects. Our results show that LP can be successfully incorporated into research with the elderly.

  11. Recent developments in pediatric headache.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Andrew D

    2010-06-01

    This review will focus on some of the recent findings in pediatric headache including headache characteristics, epidemiology, comorbid associations and treatment updates. Pediatric headache remains a frequent health problem for children and their families, yet there remain many gaps in our knowledge. This review will broadly address some of the recent findings and highlight the gaps in our understanding and treatment of pediatric headache. There will be a focus on pediatric migraine as this has been the best characterized and studied. Our understanding of pediatric headache is improving with increased recognition of the characteristics and associated symptomology. This should further guide the individualized treatment approaches for improved outcome and reduction of progression into adulthood.

  12. Headaches and Risk of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Fu-Huang; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Huang, San-Yuan; Lu, Ru-Band; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Chou, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Wu, Yung-Fu; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2017-03-01

    Primary headaches include migraines, tension-type headaches and other primary headache syndromes. Migraines and tension-type headaches are associated with patient discomfort and other diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association between primary headaches and the risk of developing dementia, and to clarify the association between different types of headaches and dementia. We conducted a nationwide matched cohort population-based study. A total of 3,620 patients with newly diagnosed primary headaches, including migraines and tension-type headaches, between January 1 and December 31, 2000 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, along with 10,860 controls matched for sex and age. After adjusting for confounding factors, Fine and Gray׳s competing risk analysis was used to compare the risk of developing dementia during 10 years of follow-up. Of the study subjects, 170 (4.70 %) developed dementia compared with 433 (3.99%) of the controls. Fine and Gray׳s competing risk analysis revealed that the study subjects were more likely to develop dementia (hazard ratio = 2.057; 95% CI: 1.718-2.462; P < 0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, monthly income, urbanization level, geographic region of residence and comorbidities, the hazard ratio for dementia was 2.048 (95% CI: 1.705-2.461, P < 0.001). Migraines and tension-type headaches were associated with nonvascular dementia but not vascular dementia. The patients with headaches had a 105% increased risk of dementia. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemiplegia and headache: a review of hemiplegia in headache disorders.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J Ivan; Holdridge, Ashley; Rothrock, John F

    2015-01-01

    The most common scenario wherein the practicing neurologist is likely to encounter a patient with headache and hemiplegia will vary depending on his/her specific type of practice. A neurologist providing consultative service to an emergency department is far more likely to see patients with "secondary" headache and hemiplegia in the setting of either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke than hemiplegia as a transient feature of a primary headache disorder. Neurologists subspecializing in headache medicine who practice in a tertiary referral headache clinic are more likely to encounter hemiplegic migraine, but even in that clinical setting hemiplegic migraine is by no means a frequent diagnosis. The acute onset of hemiplegia can be very frightening not only to the patient but also to the medical personnel. Given the abundance of mimicry, practitioners must judiciously ascertain the correct diagnosis as treatment may greatly vary depending on the cause of both headache and hemiplegia. In this review, we will address the most common causes of hemiplegia associated with headache.

  14. Higher-dimensional puncture initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilhão, Miguel; Ansorg, Marcus; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake, Ulrich; Witek, Helvi

    2011-10-01

    We calculate puncture initial data, corresponding to single and binary black holes with linear momenta, which solve the constraint equations of D-dimensional vacuum gravity. The data are generated by a modification of the pseudospectral code presented in [M. Ansorg, B. Bruegmann, and W. Tichy, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 70, 064011 (2004).10.1103/PhysRevD.70.064011] and made available as the TwoPunctures thorn inside the Cactus computational toolkit. As examples, we exhibit convergence plots, the violation of the Hamiltonian constraint as well as the initial data for D=4,5,6,7. These initial data are the starting point to perform high-energy collisions of black holes in D dimensions.

  15. Roller coaster headaches revisited.

    PubMed

    Huang, Paul P

    2003-11-01

    Roller coasters are probably one of the more popular rides at amusement parks around the world. Despite their relative safety, nontraumatic intracranial injuries have been reported following roller coaster rides. The presence of an intracranial arachnoid cyst may increase the risk of nontraumatic injury in this setting. We describe a 33-year-old female with a left middle fossa arachnoid cyst who presented with increasing headaches from bilateral subdural hygromas after a roller coaster ride. The patient underwent bilateral burr hole drainage of her subdural hygromas with resolution of her symptoms. This case demonstrates the potential risks of intracranial injury in patients with an underlying arachnoid cyst who engage in certain types of recreational activity.

  16. Headaches during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Albani, Francesca; Sances, Grazia; Terreno, Erica; Brambilla, Emanuela; Polatti, Franco

    2011-08-01

    Among primary headaches, migraine is the form more sensitive to the ovarian hormonal milieu. Migraine without aura (MO) benefits from the hyperestrogenic state of pregnancy and the lack of hormonal fluctuations, while migraine with aura (MA) presents distinctive features. Indeed, a very strong improvement of MO has been documented across gestation, and only a minority of pregnant women still suffers during the third trimester. On the other hand, fewer women with MA report improvement or remission, and new onset of aura may be observed during pregnancy. After delivery, breastfeeding exerts a protective action on migraine recurrence. The persistence of migraine during gestation seems to affect neonatal outcomes, and several studies indicate a link between migraine and an increased risk of developing gestational hypertension/preeclampsia and other vascular complications.

  17. The effect of vancomycin powder on human dural fibroblast culture and its implications for dural repair during spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Rasmussen, Jorge; Chabot, Joseph D; Gandhoke, Gurpreet; Luzzi, Emilia; Merlotti, Lina; Proni, Romina; Loresi, Mónica; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S; Gerszten, Peter C

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a major source of morbidity after spinal surgery. Several recent studies have described the finding that applying vancomycin powder to the surgical bed may reduce the incidence of SSI. However, applying vancomycin in high concentrations has been shown in vitro to inhibit osteoblast proliferation and to induce cell death. Vancomycin may have a deleterious effect on dural healing after repair of an intentional or unintentional durotomy. This study was therefore undertaken to assess the effect of different concentrations of vancomycin on a human dura mater cell culture. METHODS Human dura intended for disposal after decompressive craniectomy was harvested. Explant primary cultures and subcultures were subsequently performed. Cells were characterized through common staining and immunohistochemistry. A growth curve was performed to assess the effect of different concentrations of vancomycin (40, 400, and 4000 μg/ml) on cell count. The effect of vancomycin on cellular shape, intercellular arrangement, and viability was also evaluated. RESULTS All dural tissue samples successfully developed into fusiform cells, demonstrating pseudopod projections and spindle formation. The cells demonstrated vimentin positivity and also had typical features of fibroblasts. When applied to the cultures, the highest dose of vancomycin induced generalized cell death within 24 hours. The mean (± SD) cell counts for control, 40, 400, and 4000 μg/ml were 38.72 ± 15.93, 36.28 ± 22.87, 19.48 ± 6.53, and 4.07 ± 9.66, respectively (p < 0.0001, ANOVA). Compared with controls, vancomycin-exposed cells histologically demonstrated a smaller cytoplasm and decreased pseudopodia formation resulting in the inhibition of normal spindle intercellular arrangement. CONCLUSIONS When vancomycin powder is applied locally, dural cells are exposed to a concentration several times greater than when delivered systemically. In this in vitro model, vancomycin induced

  18. Simple Systems for Detecting Spacecraft Meteoroid Punctures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes proposed systems to be installed in spacecraft to detect punctures by impinging meteoroids or debris. Relative to other systems that have been used for this purpose, the proposed systems would be simpler and more adaptable, and would demand less of astronauts attention and of spacecraft power and computing resources. The proposed systems would include a thin, hollow, hermetically sealed panel containing an inert fluid at a pressure above the spacecraft cabin pressure. A transducer would monitor the pressure in the panel. It is assumed that an impinging object that punctures the cabin at the location of the panel would also puncture the panel. Because the volume of the panel would be much smaller than that of the cabin, the panel would lose its elevated pressure much faster than the cabin would lose its lower pressure. The transducer would convert the rapid pressure drop to an electrical signal that could trigger an alarm. Hence, the system would provide an immediate indication of the approximate location of a small impact leak, possibly in time to take corrective action before a large loss of cabin pressure could occur.

  19. [Scorpion puncture: medical treatment and home remedies].

    PubMed

    Lagunas-Flores, Artemio; Lagunas-Jaimes, Gregoria Natividad

    2009-01-01

    The scorpion puncture is a medical urgency. The greater frequency happens in Jalisco, Morelos and Guerrero. Controversy in the medical treatment persists, some use serum anti-scorpion, others only in critical cases. People by tradition are used the home remedies to cure the scorpion puncture. Our objective was to know the medical treatment and home remedies used in scorpion punctures in the State of Guerrero. Retrospective, cross-sectional-descriptive, observational study through a non-probabilistic sample by quotas during a period of eight years with 1,174 patients with age above 18 years with a interview applied by medical students. All the affected patients used home remedies, 94% went to the physician, the more frequent remedies used were garlic, tobacco, cacahuananche, salt, eggs. The most frequent prescribed drugs were: antiscorpion serum, calcium, chloroquine, an antihistamine drugs. Of the total of affected patients, 45% were children and 53 % adults. In Guerrero, it is traditional to use different home remedies. Doctors used antiscorpion serum in the 56.73% of the cases and symptomatic treatment with different medications.

  20. Risk-benefit analysis of lumbar puncture to evaluate for nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in adult ED patients.

    PubMed

    Migdal, Victoria L; Wu, W Kelly; Long, Drew; McNaughton, Candace D; Ward, Michael J; Self, Wesley H

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the risks and benefits of lumbar puncture (LP) to evaluate for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after a normal head computed tomographic (CT) scan. This was an observational study of adult emergency department patients at a single hospital who presented with headache and underwent LP after a normal head CT to evaluate for SAH. Lumbar puncture results classified as indicating a SAH included xanthochromia in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or red blood cells in the final tube of CSF with an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation on cerebral angiography. An LP-related complication was defined as hospitalization or a return visit due to symptoms attributed to the LP. Proportions of the study patients who had SAH diagnosed by LP and who experienced an LP-related complication were compared. The study included 302 patients, including 2 (0.66%) who were diagnosed with SAH based on LP (number needed to diagnose, 151); both of these patients had a known intracranial aneurysm. Eighteen (5.96%) patients experienced an LP-related complication (P < .01 compared with number with SAH diagnosed; number needed to harm, 17). Complications included 12 patients with low-pressure headaches, 4 with pain at the LP site, and 2 with contaminated CSF cultures. The yield of LP for diagnosing SAH in adults with nontraumatic headache after a normal head CT was very low. The severity of LP-related complications was low, but complications were more common than SAH diagnoses. Lumbar puncture may not be advisable after a normal head CT to evaluate for SAH, particularly in patients with low-risk clinical features for SAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of an Intrathecal Catheter for Analgesia, Anesthesia, and Therapy in an Obstetric Patient with Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gragasin, Ferrante S; Chiarella, Angelo B

    2016-03-15

    Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is a rare disorder chiefly observed in obese women of childbearing age. We describe a case of a parturient with PTCS managed successfully with an intrathecal catheter, after inadvertent dural puncture, for labor analgesia, surgical anesthesia, and treatment of headache because of intracranial hypertension during the peripartum period. Prolonged placement of the intrathecal catheter (i.e., >24 hours) may have contributed to the absence of postdural puncture headache symptoms and an uneventful postpartum period. Intrathecal catheter placement may therefore be a viable option in patients with PTCS should inadvertent dural puncture occur.

  2. Efficacy and safety of small intestinal submucosa in dural defect repair in a canine model.

    PubMed

    He, Shu-Kun; Guo, Jin-Hai; Wang, Zhu-le; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Yun-Hu; Wu, Shi-Zhou; Huang, Fu-Guo; Xie, Hui-Qi

    2017-04-01

    Dural defects are a common problem, and inadequate dural closure can lead to complications. Several types of dural substitute materials have recently been discarded or modified owing to poor biocompatibility or mechanical properties and adverse reactions. The small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is a promising material used in a variety of applications. Based on the limitations of previous studies, we conducted an animal study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the SIS in preclinical trials. Twenty-four male beagle dogs were subjected to surgical resection to produce dural defects. SIS or autologous dural mater was patched on the dural defect. Gross and histological evaluations were carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the therapy. Our findings demonstrated that the SIS, which stimulated connective and epithelial tissue responses for dural regeneration and functional recovery without immunological rejection, could provide prolonged defect repair and prevent complications. The mechanical properties of the SIS could be adjusted by application of multiple layers, and the biocompatibility of the material was appropriate. Thus, our data suggested that this material may represent an alternative option for clinical treatment of dural defects.

  3. Long-term prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis. results of the VENOPORT study.

    PubMed

    Ferro, J M; Lopes, M G; Rosas, M J; Ferro, M A; Fontes, J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the long-term mortality, functional recovery and long-term complications of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVDST) admitted to Portuguese hospitals. A follow-up of symptomatic CVDST admitted to Portuguese hospitals since 1980 was performed. Fifty-one patients (retrospective cases) were re-evaluated during 1996; 91 consecutively admitted patients from 6/1995 to 6/1998 were followed up to 1999. In 1996, 4 (8%) of the retrospective cases had died (3 patients died in the acute phase), 4 (8%) could not be reached, 33 (64%) had recovered completely (Rankin 0 or 1) and 3 (6%) were dependent. The prospective cases had a mean follow-up of 1 year: 6 (7%) patients died in the acute phase, one (1%) died during follow-up, 75 (82%) recovered completely, and only 1 (1%) was dependent. For the prospective cases, worsening after admission (OR = 18.2; 95% CI = 2.9-112.4) and encephalopathy as the presenting syndrome (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.2-40.9) predicted death or dependency, while absence of aphasia (OR 6.7, 95% CI = 1.6-33) and no worsening after admission (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.6-20) predicted total recovery. During follow-up of the prospective cases, 4 (5%) patients had thrombotic events, 8 (10%) patients experienced seizures, 9 (11%) complained of severe headaches and 1 patient suffered severe visual loss. The long-term functional prognosis of patients with CVDST was fairly good with complete recovery in the majority of cases. However, these patients had a moderate risk of further thrombotic events and seizures. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Stenting Procedure for Sinus Stenosis with Transverse-Sigmoid Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, S.; Ueda, T.; Igase, K.; Ohue, S.; Kumon, Y.; Ohnishi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Summary We reported the dural AVF case with sinus stenosis, that was entirely treated through the stenting procedure. 61-year-old male had been realizing the attack which causes bilateral visual problem. He would have suffered from the intracranial hypertension caused by dural AVF in the right transverse sinus and left transverse sinus stenosis. We performed TVE and sinus stenting, then used the antiplatelet and the anticoagulant. However, six months later, he suffered from SAH due to recurrence of dural AVF. We performed TVE again, denser packing than usual. Two years later, he have no symptom, angiographically, there was no recurrence of dural AVF and patency of stented sinus. We think denser embolizations should have performed in case of dural AVF with sinus stenting. PMID:20569627

  5. Cauda equina syndrome and dural ectasia: rare manifestations in chronic ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C-C; Lin, Y-C; Lo, C-P; Chang, T-P

    2011-01-01

    Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare manifestation in patients with long-standing ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We report a 57-year-old male patient with a 30-year history of AS who developed CES in the past 4 years. The CT and MRI examinations showed unique appearances of dural ectasia, multiple dorsal dural diverticula, erosion of the vertebral posterior elements, tethering of the conus medullaris to the dorsal aspect of the spinal canal and adhesion of the nerve roots of the cauda equina to the wall of the dural sac. A large dural defect was found at surgery. De-adhesion of the tethered conus medullaris was performed but without significant clinical improvement. The possible aetiologies of CES and dural ectasia in patients with chronic AS are discussed and the literature is reviewed. PMID:21606066

  6. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting with Status Epilepticus Treated Successfully with Endovascular Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Yu; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Tsai, Li-Kai; Tang, Sung-Chun; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2015-06-01

    Status epilepticus was rarely reported as the initial manifestation of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas. Successful treatment with endovascular intervention has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of dural arteriovenous fistulas initially presenting with various types of status epilepticus, including generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, complex partial status epilepticus, and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The status epilepticus of these patients was successfully terminated through aggressive endovascular intervention in conjunction with antiepileptic drugs. These cases highlight the importance of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas in diagnosing patients with status epilepticus. Moreover, directly treating dural arteriovenous fistulas plays a crucial role in addition to anti-epileptic drugs therapy in controlling seizures in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas related status epilepticus.

  7. Dural ectasia and FBN1 mutation screening of 40 patients with Marfan syndrome and related disorders: role of dural ectasia for the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Monica; Pratelli, Elisa; Porciani, Maria Cristina; Evangelisti, Lucia; Torricelli, Elena; Pellicanò, Giannantonio; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Pepe, Guglielmina

    2013-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), a matrix component of microfibrils. Dural ectasia, i.e. enlargement of the neural canal mainly located in the lower lumbar and sacral region, frequently occurs in Marfan patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of dural ectasia in raising the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome and its association with FBN1 mutations. We studied 40 unrelated patients suspected for MFS, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging searching for dural ectasia. In all of them FBN1 gene analysis was also performed. Thirty-seven patients resulted affected by Marfan syndrome according to the '96 Ghent criteria; in 30 of them the diagnosis was confirmed when revaluated by the recently revised criteria (2010). Thirty-six patients resulted positive for dural ectasia. The degree of dural ectasia was grade 1 in 19 patients, grade 2 in 11 patients, and grade 3 in 6 patients. In 7 (24%) patients, the presence of dural ectasia allowed to reach a positive score for systemic feature criterion. Twenty-four patients carried an FBN1 mutation, that were represented by 13 missense (54%), and 11 (46%) mutations generating a premature termination codon (PTC, frameshifts and stop codons). No mutation was detected in the remaining 16 (6 patients with MFS and 10 with related disorders according to revised Ghent criteria). The prevalence of severe (grade 2 and grade 3) involvement of dura mater was higher in patients harbouring premature termination codon (PTC) mutations than those carrying missense-mutations (8/11 vs 2/13, P = 0.0111). Our data emphasizes the importance of dural ectasia screening to reach the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome especially when it is uncertain and indicates an association between PTC mutations and severe dural ectasia in Marfan patients.

  8. Onyx embolization of anterior condylar confluence dural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Koichiro; Tateshima, Satoshi; Rastogi, Sachin; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jahan, Reza; Duckwiler, Gary; Vinuela, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The anterior condylar confluence (ACC) is a small complex venous structure located medial to the jugular vein and adjacent to the hypoglossal canal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transvenous Onyx embolization for ACC dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). Three patients with ACC DAVF were treated using the Onyx liquid embolic agent with or without detachable coils. Complete angiographic obliteration of the fistulas was achieved in all cases without permanent lower cranial neuropathy. This report suggests that the controlled penetration of Onyx is advantageous in order to obliterate ACC DAVFs with a small amount of embolic material. PMID:23459160

  9. Novalis Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyoung-Su; Song, Young-Jin; Kim, Ki-Uk

    2016-07-01

    The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is rare, presenting with progressive, insidious symptoms, and inducing spinal cord ischemia and myelopathy, resulting in severe neurological deficits. If physicians have accurate and enough information about vascular anatomy and hemodynamics, they achieve the good results though the surgery or endovascular embolization. However, when selective spinal angiography is unsuccessful due to neurological deficits, surgery and endovascular embolization might be failed because of inadequate information. We describe a patient with a history of vasospasm during spinal angiography, who was successfully treated by spinal stereotactic radiosurgery using Novalis system.

  10. Novalis Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kyoung-Su; Song, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is rare, presenting with progressive, insidious symptoms, and inducing spinal cord ischemia and myelopathy, resulting in severe neurological deficits. If physicians have accurate and enough information about vascular anatomy and hemodynamics, they achieve the good results though the surgery or endovascular embolization. However, when selective spinal angiography is unsuccessful due to neurological deficits, surgery and endovascular embolization might be failed because of inadequate information. We describe a patient with a history of vasospasm during spinal angiography, who was successfully treated by spinal stereotactic radiosurgery using Novalis system. PMID:27446527

  11. Phantosmia and Migraine With and Without Headache.

    PubMed

    Jion, Yasmin I; Grosberg, Brian M; Evans, Randolph W

    2016-10-01

    Phantosmia is a rare migraine aura. We present two cases of phantosmias occurring before migraine headaches and also without headaches. To our knowledge, these are the third and fourth cases of phantosmias ever reported due to migraine aura without headache. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  12. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications

    PubMed Central

    ÖZGE, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. In this article, the classification adventure of scientists who work in the area of headache will be summarized. More specifically, 2 classifications made by the International Headache Society (IHS) and the point reached in relation with the 3rd classification which is still being worked on will be discussed together with headache subtypes. It has been presented with the wish and belief that it will contribute to the readers and young investigators who are interested in this subject.

  13. [A woman with unilateral headache].

    PubMed

    Müller, Kai Ivar; Bekkelund, Svein Ivar

    2011-04-08

    A woman in her fifties, with a long history of side-locked unilateral headache, was hospitalized for left-sided side-locked paroxysmal headache (attacks with 10-20 min duration). Clinical and neurological examinations, and brain MRI revealed normal findings. She responded well to indomethacin (50 mg three times daily). Due to non-compliance because of dyspepsia, which delayed the final diagnosis of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) for 16, months indomethacin was administered both rectally and orally. A retrospective review of her medical history showed 15 years of unsuccessfully treated unilateral headache, until she responded completely to rofecoxib. Ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms also supported the diagnosis of hemicrania continua, although these symptoms presented before indomethacin was tried. Diagnostic delay and misdiagnoses of unilateral headaches, as illustrated by this case, shows the clinical controversies and difficulties in diagnosing and treating this condition.

  14. [Headache patient at the emergency call service].

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    Headache is a common symptom, sometimes concealing a severe illness. It is the primary task of the doctor on call to find out whether the headache is a symptom of serious incidence needing diagnosis urgently to prevent death or permanent disability. Dangerous headaches are associated with easily remembered warning signs: sudden onset, the first or worst headache in life, disturbance of consciousness in connection with the headache, onset at age over 50, worsening of headache in the lying position, a neurological deficit associated with the headache, or papilledema.

  15. Headache after carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Suller Marti, A; Bellosta Diago, E; Velázquez Benito, A; Tejero Juste, C; Santos Lasaosa, S

    2017-04-18

    Headache after carotid artery stenting is a headache with onset during the procedure or in the first few hours after it, and where there is no evidence to suggest a complication of that procedure. The purpose of this study is to describe the main features of these headaches based on our clinical experience. Observational prospective study of a sample of patients undergoing carotid artery stenting at Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, in Zaragoza, Spain. We recorded sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, carotid artery disease, and history of primary headache; data were gathered using structured interviews completed before and 24hours after the procedure. We included 56 patients (mean age 67±9.52 years); 84% were men. Twelve patients (21.4%) experienced headache, 83.3% of whom were men; mean age was 60.58±9.31 years. Headache appeared within the first 6hours in 7 patients (58.4%) and during the procedure in 4 (33.3%). Pain lasted less than 10minutes in 4 patients (33.3%) and between 10 and 120minutes in 5 (41.7%). Headache affected the frontotemporal area in 7 patients (58.3%); 7 patients (58.3%) described pain as unilateral. It was oppressive in 8 patients (66.7%) and of moderate intensity in 6 (50%). Nine patients (75%) required no analgesics. We found no statistically significant associations with any of the variables except for age (P=.007; t test). In our sample, headache after carotid artery stenting was mild to moderate in intensity, unilateral, oppressive, and short-lasting. Further studies are necessary to gain a deeper knowledge of its characteristics and associated risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Diet and Headache: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent T; Vij, Brinder

    2016-10-01

    Comprehensive diets do not require the exclusion of a specific provocative food or ingredient, but regulate the quantities of core components of foods such as vitamins, ions, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. To review the evidence supporting the use of comprehensive diets in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders and to discuss the mechanisms through which food, and ingredients within foods and beverages might trigger attacks of headache METHODS: This represents Part 2 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders. A PubMed search was performed with the following search terms: "folate," "vitamin D," "low fat diet," "omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid diet," "ketogenic diet," "Atkins diet," and "sodium." Each of these search terms was then crossreferenced with "headache" and "migraine" to identify relevant studies. Only studies that were written in English were included in this review. Low fat and high omega-3/low omega-6 fatty diets decrease the frequency of attacks of migraine and/or other headache disorders as demonstrated in two separate randomized controlled trials. A ketogenic diet was more effective than a standard diet in reducing the frequency of migraine in a single nonrandomized clinical study. An observation study found that dietary consumption of folate was inversely associated with the frequency of migraine attacks in persons with migraine with aura that have the C variant of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene. The mechanisms though which diets may precipitate headache include their effects on neuropeptides, neuro-receptors and ion channels, inflammation, sympathetic nervous system, release of nitric oxide, vasodilation, and cerebral glucose metabolism. Evidence exists to support the use of comprehensive diets in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders. However, the results of these studies should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger

  17. Spinal dural enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, N N; Henson, J W; Schaefer, P W; Zervas, N T

    1998-05-01

    This report offers a description of typical changes seen on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the entire spine that indicate spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of its kind. They describe three cases of SIH that were accompanied by dural enhancement throughout the neuraxis on imaging, with the evolution of associated subdural and epidural fluid collections in the spine. Recognition of this disorder is important to be able to distinguish it from an infectious or neoplastic process in which surgical intervention might be warranted. Evaluation using gadolinium-enhanced cranial and spinal MR imaging in patients with postural headaches and an (111)In-labeled cerebrospinal fluid leak study are discussed. Treatment with an epidural blood patch is shown to be particularly effective, with resolution of the radiological and clinical findings.

  18. Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Headache.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2017-04-01

    Neuromodulation is an emerging area in headache management. Through neurostimulation, multiple brain areas can be modulated to alleviate pain, hence reducing the pharmacological need. In this review, we discuss the recent development of the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for headache management. Early case series from epilepsy and depression cohorts using invasive VNS showed a serendipitous reduction in headache frequency and/or severity. Noninvasive VNS (nVNS), which stimulates the carotid vagus nerve with the use of a personal handheld device, also demonstrated efficacy for acute migraine or cluster headache attacks. Long-term use of nVNS seemed to exert a prophylactic effect for both chronic migraine and chronic cluster headache. In animal studies, nVNS modulated multiple pain pathways and even lessen cortical spreading depression. Progression in nVNS clinical efficacy over time suggests an underlying disease-modifying neuromodulation. Noninvasive VNS appears to be as effective as the invasive counterpart for many indications. With an enormous potential therapeutic gain and a high safety profile, further development and application of nVNS is promising. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  19. "WHICH Headache to Investigate, WHEN, and HOW?"

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, K

    2016-11-01

    Headache is a common problem in medical practice. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta)(1) divides all headaches into two broad categories. Most headaches seen in practice belong to the category of primary headaches, where there is no underlying structural cause identifiable. Less than 10% headaches in practice belong to the category of secondary headaches where there is an underlying condition, that can sometimes be ominous and life-threatening. Fear of missing a treatable serious secondary headache disorder is the most important reason why we need to investigate headache patients. There is no dilemma in investigating the patient when the clinical presentation is straightforward but when the headache presents differently or with 'red flags,' it can sometimes be quite challenging to order the right investigation and rapidly arrive at the right diagnosis. This article looks at some of the elusive headache scenarios and outlines an approach that addresses the issue of 'appropriate' investigation in the headache patient. With advancing technology and increasing expertise, the author feels it is time now to do away with the practice of ordering an exhaustive battery of tests in all headache patients. With experience, clinicians can learn to choose tests judiciously and order specific tests based on a working diagnosis. As the title suggests, knowing 'WHEN to order WHAT test in WHICH headache patient? ' forms the theme of this article. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  20. A novel fish collagen scaffold as dural substitute.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Mu, Lanlan; Zhang, Fenghua; Sun, Yue; Chen, Quan; Xie, Cuicui; Wang, Hongmei

    2017-11-01

    The novel fish collagen scaffolds were prepared by lyophilization. The collagen sponges and chitosan were chemically cross-linked with the 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as a cross-linking agent by pressing in one special mould. The collagen scaffolds were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical property, and the in vitro collagenase degradation was tested. The results revealed that the scaffold has a suitable porosity, elasticity and prevent fluid leakage, suggesting potential applications in the tissue-engineered. In vitro collagenase degradation demonstrated that the collagen cross-linking with EDC by pressing played an important role in their resistance to biodegradation. Moreover, the scaffold proved excellent biocompatibility for the activity and proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells (MEFs) in vitro. The rabbit dural defect model demonstrated that the scaffolds could prevent brain tissue adhesion, which reduce the opportunity of inflammation, facilitate the growth of fibroblasts and enhance the tissue regeneration and healing. The novel fish collagen scaffold as dural substitute, demonstrate a capability for using in the field of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Intraoperative brain shift compensation: accounting for dural septa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ishita; Coffey, Aaron M; Ding, Siyi; Dumpuri, Prashanth; Dawant, Benoit M; Thompson, Reid C; Miga, Michael I

    2011-03-01

    Biomechanical models that describe soft tissue deformation provide a relatively inexpensive way to correct registration errors in image-guided neurosurgical systems caused by nonrigid brain shift. Quantifying the factors that cause this deformation to sufficient precision is a challenging task. To circumvent this difficulty, atlas-based methods have been developed recently that allow for uncertainty, yet still capture the first-order effects associated with deformation. The inverse solution is driven by sparse intraoperative surface measurements, which could bias the reconstruction and affect the subsurface accuracy of the model prediction. Studies using intraoperative MR have shown that the deformation in the midline, tentorium, and contralateral hemisphere is relatively small. The dural septa act as rigid membranes supporting the brain parenchyma and compartmentalizing the brain. Accounting for these structures in models may be an important key to improving subsurface shift accuracy. A novel method to segment the tentorium cerebelli will be described, along with the procedure for modeling the dural septa. Results in seven clinical cases show a qualitative improvement in subsurface shift accuracy making the predicted deformation more congruous with previous observations in the literature. The results also suggest a considerably more important role for hyperosmotic drug modeling for the intraoperative shift correction environment.

  2. Foramen magnum dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Manisor, Monica; Aloraini, Ziad; Chibarro, Salvatore; Proust, Francois; Quenardelle, Véronique; Wolff, Valérie; Beaujeux, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) with perimedullary drainage represent a rare subtype of intracranial dAVF. Patients usually experience slowly progressive ascending myelopathy and/or lower brainstem signs. We present a case of foramen magnum dural arteriovenous fistula with an atypical clinical presentation. The patient initially presented with a generalised tonic-clonic seizure and no signs of myelopathy, followed one month later by rapidly progressive tetraplegia and respiratory insufficiency. The venous drainage of the fistula was directed both to the left temporal lobe and to the perimedullary veins (type III + V), causing venous congestion and oedema in these areas and explaining this unusual combination of symptoms. Rotational angiography and overlays with magnetic resonance imaging volumes were helpful in delineating the complex anatomy of the fistula. After endovascular embolisation, there was complete remission of venous congestion on imaging and significant clinical improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a craniocervical junction fistula presenting with epilepsy. PMID:26472637

  3. An international study of emergency physicians' practice for acute headache management and the need for a clinical decision rule.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jeffrey J; Eagles, Debra; Clement, Catherine M; Brehaut, Jamie; Kelly, Anne-Maree; Mason, Suzanne; Stiell, Ian G

    2009-11-01

    Patients with acute headache often undergo computed tomography (CT) followed by a lumbar puncture to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Our international study examined current practice, the perceived need for a clinical decision rule for acute headache and the required sensitivity for such a rule. We approached 2100 emergency physicians from 4 countries (Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States) to participate in our survey by sampling the membership of their emergency associations. We used a modified Dillman technique with 3-5 notifications and a prenotification letter employing a combination of electronic mail and postal mail. Physicians were questioned about neurologically intact patients who presented with headache. Analysis included both descriptive statistics for the entire sample and stratification by country. The total response rate was 54.7% (1149/2100). Respondents were primarily male (75.5%), with a mean age of 42.5 years and a mean 12.3 years of emergency department (ED) experience. Of the physicians who responded, 49.5% thought all acute headache patients should be investigated with CT and 57.4% felt CT should always be followed by lumbar puncture. Of the respondents, 95.7% reported they would consider using a clinical decision rule for patients with acute headache to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Respondents deemed the median sensitivity required by such a rule to be 99% (interquartile range 98%-99%). Approximately 1 in 5 physicians suggested that 100% sensitivity was required. Emergency physicians report that they would welcome a clinical decision rule for headache that would determine which patients require costly or invasive tests to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. The required sensitivity of such a rule was realistic. These results will inform and inspire the development of clinical decision rules for acute headache in the ED.

  4. Clinical features of unilateral headaches beyond migraine and cluster headache and their response to indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Stefan; Lieba-Samal, Doris; Vigl, Marion; Wöber, Christian

    2011-09-01

    The majority of previous studies on unilateral headaches beyond migraine and cluster headache have focussed on certain disorders such as paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT and primary stabbing headache. We assessed headache characteristics, importance of neuroimaging and response to indomethacin in an unselected series of uncommon unilateral headaches. We investigated all consecutive patients presented with unilateral headaches not fulfilling ICHD-II criteria of migraine and cluster headache. Patients underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography as well as an indo-test, i.e. oral indomethacin 75 mg b.i.d. for 3 days. Among 63 patients we diagnosed primary stabbing headache in 12 patients, (probable) paroxysmal hemicrania in 6 and tension-type headache in 3 patients. One patient each had probable SUNCT, new daily persistent headache and nasociliary neuralgia. Eight patients had a secondary headache and 31 could not be classified according to ICDH-II. Imaging revealed lesions causally related to the headache in 8 patients. Indo-test achieved full remission of headache in 13 of 51 patients. At follow-up 11 ± 3 months after the first visit 29% of the patients were headache-free for ≥3 months. In conclusion, almost half of the patients presented with unilateral headaches beyond migraine and cluster headache cannot be classified according to ICHD-II. Among classifiable headaches primary stabbing headache was the most common. Imaging should be considered to rule out secondary headaches. The course is favourable in one third of the patients.

  5. Tension-Type Headache - The Normal and Most Prevalent Headache.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2017-03-13

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent form of primary headache in the general population but paradoxically the least studied headache. In this article, the epidemiology and diagnostic challenges of TTH are presented and discussed. The typical features and differential diagnosis of TTH are highlighted and the situations more likely to raise doubts are discussed. A structured approach to the patient and a better comprehension of the very frequent coexistence of migraine and medication overuse headache in the clinical population are emphasized. According to the IHS classification, several diagnoses should be applied but still some clinicians prefer to apply a single combined diagnosis in the severely affected patients, namely chronic migraine. Such uneven practice may complicate the diagnostic comparability and the entire management of TTH. The present treatment strategies for TTH are summarized and hopefully an increased awareness of TTH can translate into better quality of care and a more specific diagnosis and treatment for the numerous TTH sufferers. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  6. Human psyche and headache: tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Torelli, Paola; Abrignani, Giorgia; Castellini, Paola; Lambru, Giorgio; Manzoni, Gian Camillo

    2008-05-01

    The role of psychological factors related to headache, particularly tension-type headache (TTH), has long been a focus of investigation. The subject at issue is a complex one, with some aspects that are still being debated by experts. In episodic TTH, it is possible to hypothesise that headache is not only a "primary" headache that causes gratuitous pain to sufferers. In fact, it might represent an improper mode of communicating the sufferers' intimate discomfort, caused by an inadequate relationship between their personality profiles and events in their lives. As in migraine, in TTH, too, evidence has been found of comorbidity between headache and psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety disorder. Such evidence will have to be confirmed by further studies on the general population. As regards behaviour and personality traits, subjects with TTH had significantly higher scores than healthy controls on measures of automatic thoughts and alexithymia, and lower scores on assertiveness. Patients with chronic TTH had higher automatic thoughts scores than patients with episodic TTH. These findings suggest that people with TTH may have difficulty in expressing their emotions. Finally, psychological factors and emotional disturbances have been indicated as risk factors for TTH. Indeed, stress and mental tension are the most common factors that cause TTH.

  7. Comorbidity between headache and epilepsy in a pediatric headache center.

    PubMed

    Toldo, Irene; Perissinotto, Egle; Menegazzo, Francesca; Boniver, Clementina; Sartori, Stefano; Salviati, Leonardo; Clementi, Maurizio; Montagna, Pasquale; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the comorbidity between headache and epilepsy in a large series of children with headache (1,795). Fifty-six cases (3.1%) suffered from idiopathic headache and idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy or unprovoked seizures. There was a strong association between migraine and epilepsy: in migraineurs (46/56) the risk of epilepsy was 3.2 times higher when compared with tension-type headache, without significant difference between migraine with and without aura (P = 0.89); children with epilepsy had a 4.5-fold increased risk of developing migraine than tension-type headache. In cases with comorbidity, focal epilepsies prevailed (43/56, 76.8%). Migraineurs affected by focal epilepsies (36/56) had a three times higher risk of having a cryptogenic epilepsy (27/36, 75%) than an idiopathic epilepsy (9/36, 25%) (P = 0.003). In migraine with aura, epilepsy preceded migraine in 71% of cases. Photosensitivity (7/56, 12.5%) and positive family history for epilepsy (22/56, 39%) were frequent in cases with comorbidity.

  8. C6 plate puncture testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vangoethem, Douglas J.; Cordova, Theresa Elena; Reu, Phillip L.

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.

  9. [Digital simulation of unipedicular thoracolumbar vertebroplasty puncture].

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia-min; Cheng, Li-ming; Jia, Yong-wei

    2011-08-09

    To measure such operative parameters of unipedicular kyphoplasty as optimal entry point, angle and depth so as to provide rationales for its clinical management and formulate a standardized protocol for unipedicular vertebroplasty. Ten dry thoracolumbar specimens were prepared for measurement. The entry and target points were defined according to the Roy-Camille method. A 3mm Kirschner wire was used to puncture and view in the anteroposterior and lateral aspects of radiography until a satisfying position. The outside oblique and upward oblique angles were measured on the radiographic pictures. After extraction, the depth of Kirschner wire was measured. The positions of entry point were changed and the largest upward oblique angle and largest declination angle measured on the radiographic pictures. For safe puncturing, as the outside oblique and upward oblique angles enlarged from T(11) to L(3), the length enlarged from T(11) to T(12) and L(1) to L(3). The accepted error was that the largest upward oblique angle and largest declination angle enlarged from T(11) to L(3). The alteration range for outside oblique angle was extremely narrow. The experimental results provide the guiding data for the operative management of unipedicular thoracolumbar vertebroplasty. If the pedicle is too small or the angle too narrow, the operative sophistication of vertebroplasty will be highly demanding.

  10. Headache in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, L B; Huber, J C; Luna-Gonzales, H; Saldin, K R; Grotta, J C; Shaw, S G; Knudson, L; Frankowski, R F

    2001-06-01

    To perform an observational study of the demographics, clinical factors, and therapeutic efficacy in patients presenting to the emergency department with a chief complaint of headache. Acute headache presentations to the emergency department are a therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Patients presenting with nontraumatic headache to the emergency department of Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas, during a 16-month period were prospectively ascertained by active and passive surveillance. The medical record was abstracted. Demographic and clinical information are presented with descriptive statistics. Relative benefit of individual therapies are compared with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals). Of the 38 730 patients who were prospectively screened, 455 presented with a chief complaint of headache. Seventy-six percent were women, and the mean age was 37 years. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely diagnosed with migraine compared with Hispanics or African Americans (P<.001). Three percent had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurologist follow-up was ordered in 10%. The median time in the emergency department was 265 minutes. With the initial treatment, 44% resolved, 47% improved, and 9% had no change; none worsened. In comparison with all other therapies used, there was a trend suggesting the superiority of antiemetics (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 8.61). Acetaminophen was less helpful (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.70). When comparing specific agents to therapies which could be used at home, antiemetics led to headache resolution most often (odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 7.22); ketorolac showed a similar trend (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 4.89). Headache in the emergency department is a phenomena of young women who spend a long time waiting and receive many tests. A variety of therapies are used. Antiemetics may be especially useful for headache resolution.

  11. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  12. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  13. Microvascular anatomy of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: arteriovenous connections and their relationships with the dura mater.

    PubMed

    Takai, Keisuke; Komori, Takashi; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT The microvascular anatomy of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), especially the relationships of the vessels with the dura mater, has yet to be angiographically demonstrated in detail and proven histologically. METHODS From January 2012 through April 2014, a total of 7 patients with spinal dural AVFs in the thoracic region underwent open microsurgical obliteration at Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital. The microvascular anatomy of spinal dural AVFs was comprehensively assessed by using advanced microangiography, including 3D computer graphics and intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography, and by histological findings. RESULTS The 2 microangiography techniques revealed the spatial course and in vivo blood flow of the meningeal vessels and their relationships with the dura mater in sufficient detail. The meningeal branch of the intercostal artery split into multiple meningeal vessels on the outer dural surface adjacent to the root sleeve. After crossing the dura mater to the inner dural surface, these vessels gathered and joined a single intradural draining vessel. On the inner dural surface, the single draining vessel was fed by the surrounding multiple meningeal vessels, which appeared to be caput medusae. Histological findings revealed that the structure of the meningeal branch of the intercostal artery corresponded to that of a normal artery. The structure of intradural draining vessels corresponded to that of a vein modified by retrograde arterial inflow. On the inner dural surface, more than 1 meningeal artery gathered and joined with the proximal radiculomedullary vein. CONCLUSIONS Spinal dural AVFs are located on the inner dural surface, where multiple direct AV connections between more than 1 meningeal feeding artery and a single proximal radiculomedullary vein occur at the site where the vein connects to the dura mater.

  14. Prevalence of dural ectasia in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: comparison with Marfan syndrome and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kono, Atsushi K; Higashi, Masahiro; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Naito, Hiroaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Dural ectasia is well recognized in Marfan syndrome (MFS) as one of the major diagnostic criteria, but the exact prevalence of dural ectasia is still unknown in Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), which is a recently discovered connective tissue disease. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of dural ectasia in LDS according by using qualitative and quantitative methods and compared our findings with those for with MFS and normal controls. We retrospectively studied 10 LDS (6 males, 4 females, mean age 36.3 years) and 20 MFS cases (12 males, 8 females, mean age 37.1 years) and 20 controls (12 males, 8 females, mean age 36.1 years) both qualitatively and quantitatively using axial CT images and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction images of the lumbosacral region. For quantitative examination, we adopted two methods: method-1 (anteroposterior dural diameter of S1> L4) and method-2 (ratio of anteroposterior dural diameter/vertebral body diameter>cutoff values). The prevalence of dural ectasia among groups was compared by using Fisher's exact test and the Tukey-Kramer test. In LDS patients, the qualitative method showed 40% of dural ectasia, the quantitative method-1 50%, and the method-2 70%. In MFS patients, the corresponding prevalences were 50%, 75%, and 85%, and in controls, 0%, 0%, and 5%. Both LDS and MFS had a significantly wider dura than controls. While the prevalence of dural ectasia varied depending on differences in qualitative and quantitative methods, LDS as well as MFS, showed, regardless of method, a higher prevalence of dural ectasia than controls. This finding should help the differentiation of LDS from controls.

  15. Prevalence of Dural Ectasia in Loeys-Dietz Syndrome: Comparison with Marfan Syndrome and Normal Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Higashi, Masahiro; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Naito, Hiroaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dural ectasia is well recognized in Marfan syndrome (MFS) as one of the major diagnostic criteria, but the exact prevalence of dural ectasia is still unknown in Loeys−Dietz syndrome (LDS), which is a recently discovered connective tissue disease. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of dural ectasia in LDS according by using qualitative and quantitative methods and compared our findings with those for with MFS and normal controls. Material and Methods We retrospectively studied 10 LDS (6 males, 4 females, mean age 36.3 years) and 20 MFS cases (12 males, 8 females, mean age 37.1 years) and 20 controls (12 males, 8 females, mean age 36.1 years) both qualitatively and quantitatively using axial CT images and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction images of the lumbosacral region. For quantitative examination, we adopted two methods: method-1 (anteroposterior dural diameter of S1> L4) and method-2 (ratio of anteroposterior dural diameter/vertebral body diameter>cutoff values). The prevalence of dural ectasia among groups was compared by using Fisher’s exact test and the Tukey−Kramer test. Results In LDS patients, the qualitative method showed 40% of dural ectasia, the quantitative method-1 50%, and the method-2 70%. In MFS patients, the corresponding prevalences were 50%, 75%, and 85%, and in controls, 0%, 0%, and 5%. Both LDS and MFS had a significantly wider dura than controls. Conclusions While the prevalence of dural ectasia varied depending on differences in qualitative and quantitative methods, LDS as well as MFS, showed, regardless of method, a higher prevalence of dural ectasia than controls. This finding should help the differentiation of LDS from controls. PMID:24086486

  16. Outcome and Cost of Inpatient Hospitalization for Intravenous Dihydroergotamine Treatment of Refractory Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gary R; Bale, James F; Kerr, Lynne M

    2017-01-01

    To determine the cost and efficacy of admitting patients for intravenous dihydroergotamine treatment and to identify factors associated with a higher likelihood of response to treatment. We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric hospitalizations from 2001 to 2010 for intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for headache. Data were collected using the REDcap database and consisted of multiple variables, including preadmission demographics, headache duration, use of prophylactic medications, inpatient therapies including dihydroergotamine dosing, procedures, consultations, total hospital cost, and headache severity at discharge and at follow-up. Seventy-four percent of the 145 individuals who were hospitalized were female. Mean age was 14.9 years. Headache was described as chronic or daily in almost all patients and 28 (19%) had status migrainosus. Sixty-six percent had a first-degree relative with migraine. The average length of stay was 3.7 days, and the average cost was $7569 per hospitalization. Patients received an average of eight doses of dihydroergotamine. At the time of discharge, 63% of patients reported improvement. Follow-up information was available for 68% of the cohort at a median of 42 days after discharge, and 21 of 99 patients (21%) experienced sustained relief of headache. Response to dihydroergotamine was correlated with a lower rate of comorbid diagnoses, lumbar puncture, and outpatient neuroimaging. Response also correlated to less expensive hospitalizations with an average cost of $5379 per hospitalization versus $7105 per hospitalization without positive response. Response was also correlated with a patient receiving more doses of intravenous dihydroergotamine. Although intravenous dihydroergotamine is an effective abortive medication for intractable migraine, it may provide only short-term headache relief in many pediatric patients. Hospitalization is relatively costly with only modest long-term benefit, especially in patients

  17. European Headache Federation consensus on technical investigation for primary headache disorders.

    PubMed

    Mitsikostas, D D; Ashina, M; Craven, A; Diener, H C; Goadsby, P J; Ferrari, M D; Lampl, C; Paemeleire, K; Pascual, J; Siva, A; Olesen, J; Osipova, V; Martelletti, P

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary headache disorders is clinical and based on the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (ICHD-3-beta). However several brain conditions may mimic primary headache disorders and laboratory investigation may be needed. This necessity occurs when the treating physician doubts for the primary origin of headache. Features that represent a warning for a possible underlying disorder causing the headache are new onset headache, change in previously stable headache pattern, headache that abruptly reaches the peak level, headache that changes with posture, headache awakening the patient, or precipitated by physical activity or Valsalva manoeuvre, first onset of headache ≥50 years of age, neurological symptoms or signs, trauma, fever, seizures, history of malignancy, history of HIV or active infections, and prior history of stroke or intracranial bleeding. All national headache societies and the European Headache Alliance invited to review and comment the consensus before the final draft. The consensus recommends brain MRI for the case of migraine with aura that persists on one side or in brainstem aura. Persistent aura without infarction and migrainous infarction require brain MRI, MRA and MRV. Brain MRI with detailed study of the pituitary area and cavernous sinus, is recommended for all TACs. For primary cough headache, exercise headache, headache associated with sexual activity, thunderclap headache and hypnic headache apart from brain MRI additional tests may be required. Because there is little and no good evidence the committee constructed a consensus based on the opinion of experts, and should be treated as imperfect.

  18. Benign vascular sexual headache and exertional headache: interrelationships and long term prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Silbert, P L; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G; Gubbay, S S

    1991-01-01

    There is a definite relationship between the vascular type of benign sexual headache and benign exertional headache. Forty five patients with benign vascular sexual headache were reviewed. Twenty seven (60%) experienced benign vascular sexual headache alone and eighteen (40%) had experienced both benign vascular sexual headache and benign exertional headache on at least one occasion. The mean age was 34.3 years with a male:female ratio of 5.4:1. Thirty patients with a history of benign vascular sexual headache were followed for an average of 74 months. A personal history of migraine was found in 47% of cases and a family history of migraine in 30%. Forty one per cent of patients with benign vascular sexual headache alone had recurrences after diagnosis, and stress and fatigue were considered major contributing factors to the initial and recurrent headache. Nine patients had experienced benign vascular sexual headache and benign exertional headache within 72 hours of each other on at least one occasion, often with a residual headache between the two. Four patients experienced their benign vascular sexual headache and benign exertional headache separated by months to years. The prognosis of benign vascular sexual headache and the clinical and possible pathophysiological relationships between benign vascular sexual headache and benign exertional headache are discussed. Knowledge of the interrelationships of these varieties of headache is valuable in the counselling of patients. PMID:1865204

  19. Headache, migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Many physicians will not provide oral contraceptives (OCs) to women with a history of migraine due to concerns about increasing the risk of a cerebrovascular accident. The World Health Organization's revised medical eligibility criteria indicate that only women with serious migraine that includes focal neurologic symptoms should be cautioned against OC use. This article reviews the research evidence on headache, migraine, and OCs. The recent literature suggests that healthy, nonsmoking women using low-dose OCs (35 mcg of estrogen or less) have no increased risk of stroke. Although the presence of diabetes, hypertension, and/or migraine appears to be associated with an increased risk of cerebral thromboembolism, the use of OCs does not synergistically add to the risk. It is important, however, for physicians to differentiate between tension headaches, migraines with aura (classic migraine), and migraines without aura (common migraine). Women with classic migraine should avoid OCs if an alternative method of contraception can be used. Common migraine is not a contraindication to OC use, although the frequency and severity of headaches during OC use should be monitored. OC discontinuation should be discontinued, at least temporarily, if previously existing migraine suddenly worsens, headaches that are qualitatively different than the type usually experienced by the patient occur, headaches wake a patient from sleep, or double vision or loss of vision occur.

  20. Headache (chronic tension-type).

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anita; Silver, Nicholas

    2009-07-22

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is a disorder that evolves from episodic tension-type headache, with daily or very frequent episodes of headache lasting minutes to days. It affects 4.1% of the general population in the USA, and is more prevalent in women (up to 65% of cases). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture; amitriptyline; analgesics; anticonvulsant drugs; benzodiazepines; botulinum toxin; chiropractic and osteopathic manipulations; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); Indian head massage; mirtazapine; relaxation and electromyographic biofeedback; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs); and tricyclic antidepressants (other than amitriptyline).

  1. Headache (chronic tension-type).

    PubMed

    Silver, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is a disorder that evolves from episodic tension-type headache, with daily or very frequent episodes of headache lasting minutes to days. It affects 4.1% of the general population in the USA, and is more prevalent in women (up to 65% of cases). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2005 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 38 systematic reviews, RCTs or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, amitriptyline, benzodiazepines, botulinum toxin, cognitive behavioural therapy, Indian head massage, mirtazapine, regular acute pain relief medication, relaxation and electromyographic biofeedback, serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, and tricyclic antidepressants (other than amitriptyline).

  2. An unusual presentation of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Payam; Adabi, Marzie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal dural AVF is the most common type of spinal vascular malformation. However, presenting symptoms differ according to site of spinal involvement. This study described a case of arteriovenous malformation with paraparesis and incontinence. Case Presentation: Diagnosis of patient was confirmed by clinical and imaging examination using magnetic resonance image and ruling out other possibilities Result: A definitive diagnosis of arterio venous fistula was confirmed by clinical and MRI examination and demonstrated abnormalities compatible with dural arteriovenous fistula. Conclusion: Dural arteriovenous fistula should be considered in patients with paresis in both lower extremities. PMID:27757211

  3. Dural arteriovenous fistula presenting as an acute subdural hemorrhage that subsequently progressed to a chronic subdural hemorrhage: case report.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, S; Ishihara, S; Yamane, F; Kanazawa, R; Ishihara, H

    2009-02-01

    Non-traumatic subdural hemorrhage (SDH) caused by dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is rare and is usually accompanied by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This report describes a very rare case of DAVF that caused non-traumatic acute SDH without ICH or SAH, which subsequently progressed into chronic SDH. The patient presented with a sudden-onset severe headache, and was diagnosed with acute SDH by computed tomography. Cerebral angiography showed a DAVF on the left convexity adjacent to the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). This DAVF drained to the SSS and to the pterygoid venous plexus via the left middle fossa without retrograde flow (Type I according to the Cognard classification). The SDH was thickest at the lower convexity, which suggested that the draining vein of the DAVF was responsible for the bleeding. The SDH slowly progressed for two weeks. The DAVF was successfully treated with transarterial embolization using N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate. The SDH was resolved via burr-hole drainage surgery. This is the first reported case of DAVF that caused non-traumatic progression to SDH. As DAVF can be the cause of acute and chronic SDH, cerebral angiography is recommended for non-traumatic acute SDH as well as for intractable chronic SDH.

  4. Intraoperative image updating for brain shift following dural opening.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W; Schaewe, Timothy J; Ji, Songbai; Holton, Leslie H; Simon, David A; Paulsen, Keith D

    2016-09-09

    OBJECTIVE Preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR) are typically coregistered to provide intraoperative navigation, the accuracy of which can be significantly compromised by brain deformation. In this study, the authors generated updated MR images (uMR) in the operating room (OR) to compensate for brain shift due to dural opening, and evaluated the accuracy and computational efficiency of the process. METHODS In 20 open cranial neurosurgical cases, a pair of intraoperative stereovision (iSV) images was acquired after dural opening to reconstruct a 3D profile of the exposed cortical surface. The iSV surface was registered with pMR to detect cortical displacements that were assimilated by a biomechanical model to estimate whole-brain nonrigid deformation and produce uMR in the OR. The uMR views were displayed on a commercial navigation system and compared side by side with the corresponding coregistered pMR. A tracked stylus was used to acquire coordinate locations of features on the cortical surface that served as independent positions for calculating target registration errors (TREs) for the coregistered uMR and pMR image volumes. RESULTS The uMR views were visually more accurate and well aligned with the iSV surface in terms of both geometry and texture compared with pMR where misalignment was evident. The average misfit between model estimates and measured displacements was 1.80 ± 0.35 mm, compared with the average initial misfit of 7.10 ± 2.78 mm between iSV and pMR, and the average TRE was 1.60 ± 0.43 mm across the 20 patients in the uMR image volume, compared with 7.31 ± 2.82 mm on average in the pMR cases. The iSV also proved to be accurate with an average error of 1.20 ± 0.37 mm. The overall computational time required to generate the uMR views was 7-8 minutes. CONCLUSIONS This study compensated for brain deformation caused by intraoperative dural opening using computational model-based assimilation of iSV cortical surface displacements. The u

  5. An interesting case of headache.

    PubMed

    Dangra, Vasant R; Sharma, Yogesh B; Bharucha, Nadir E; Deopujari, Chandrashekar E

    2011-04-01

    A 35-year-old businessman with a history of migraine with aura developed new neck pain while lying on a sofa in his home. He was given neck massage and physical therapy for a day, and subsequently after two days developed severe generalized headache when sitting or standing. He was hospitalized in his hometown. Investigations revealed venous sinus thrombosis and bilateral thin subdural collections for which he was anticoagulated. Headache improved and then worsened and became severe in all positions. He was then admitted under our care. MRI scan of the brain at our hospital showed left subdural hematoma with midline shift. It required urgent evacuation. His previous first brain MRI was re-evaluated. It showed characteristic features of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). If not recognized early, SIH results in various complications, some of which require immediate intervention. Any change in the pattern of headache in SIH one must alert the clinician due to the possibility of one of its complications.

  6. Hallucinogens and cannabinoids for headache.

    PubMed

    McGeeney, Brian E

    2012-10-01

    Most hallucinogens and cannabinoids fall into Federal Controlled Substances schedule 1, meaning they cannot be prescribed by practitioners, allegedly have no accepted medical use, and have a high abuse potential. The legal and regulatory status has inhibited clinical research on these substances such that there are no blinded studies from which to assess true efficacy. Despite such classification, hallucinogens and cannabinoids are used by patients with headache on occasion. Cannabinoids in particular have a long history of use for headache and migraine before prohibition and are still used by patients as a migraine abortive. Hallucinogens are being increasing used by cluster headache patients outside of physician recommendation mainly to abort a cluster period and to maintain quiescence for which there is considerable anecdotal success.

  7. Cluster headache: conventional pharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Becker, Werner J

    2013-01-01

    Cluster headache pain is very intense, usually increases in intensity very rapidly from onset, and attacks are often frequent. These clinical features result in significant therapeutic challenges. The most effective pharmacological treatment options for acute cluster attack include subcutaneous sumatriptan, 100% oxygen, and intranasal zolmitriptan. Subcutaneous or intramuscular dihydroergotamine and intranasal sumatriptan are additional options. Transitional therapy is applicable mainly for patients with high-frequency (>2 attacks per day) episodic cluster headache, and options include short courses of high-dose oral corticosteroids, dihydroergotamine, and occipital nerve blocks with local anesthetic and steroids. Prophylactic therapy is important both for episodic and chronic cluster headache, and the main options are verapamil and lithium. Verapamil is drug of first choice but may cause cardiac arrhythmias, and periodic electrocardiograms (EKGs) during dose escalation are important. Many other drugs are also in current use, but there is an insufficient evidence base to recommend them.

  8. Percutaneous vertebroplasty performed by the isocenter puncture method.

    PubMed

    Sakaino, Shinjirou; Takizawa, Kenji; Yoshimatsu, Misako; Ogawa, Yukihisa; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the usefulness of the isocenter puncture (ISOP) method. We investigated 73 vertebral bodies that had undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) by the ISOP method, 118 vertebral bodies that had undergone the puncture simulation method, and 33 vertebral bodies that had undergone the conventional method. The items to be examined included the success rate (SR) of the median puncture of the vertebral body and the procedure time. The puncture accuracy and fluoroscopy time were also measured for the ISOP method. The SR was significantly higher and the procedure time significantly shorter when using the ISOP method rather than the conventional method. However, no significant differences were observed between the ISOP method and the puncture simulation method. The errors between the puncture needle tip and the puncture target point in the ISOP method were an average of 1.52, 2.08, and 1.87 mm in each of the horizontal, ventrodorsal, and craniocaudal directions. The fluoroscopy time when operating on one vertebral body was an average of 5.8 min. The ISOP method is considered to be a useful approach while also reducing the puncture time and the fluoroscopy time.

  9. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Temporal Bone Presenting with Headache and Partial Facial Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kletke, Stephanie N.; Popovic, Snezana; Algird, Almunder; Alobaid, Abdullah; Reddy, Kesava K. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bony lesions that rarely affect the skull base. Very few cases of temporal bone ABCs have been reported. We describe the first case of a temporal bone ABC that was thought to be consistent with a meningioma based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Clinical Presentation An otherwise healthy 23-year-old woman presented with a pulsatile noise in her left ear and a 4-week history of throbbing headache with nausea. There was no associated emesis, visual or auditory changes, or other neurologic features. Neurologic examination revealed a left lower motor neuron facial paresis. Computed tomography and MRI studies demonstrated a large lesion in the left middle cranial fossa skull base with erosion of the petrous temporal bone. Based on the presence of a “dural tail” on preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, the lesion was interpreted to likely be consistent with a meningioma. An orbitozygomatic approach was utilized for surgical excision. Histopathologic evaluation was consistent with an ABC. Conclusion Postoperatively the patient had improvement in the lower motor neuron facial paresis. It is important to consider ABC in the differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions accompanied by the dural tail sign on MRI. PMID:26251800

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the ophthalmic artery and the distal dural ring for the juxta-dural ring aneurysms via the pterional approach.

    PubMed

    Hokama, M; Hongo, K; Gibo, H; Kyoshima, K; Kobayashi, S

    2001-06-01

    Microsurgical anatomy for the pterional approach was studied regarding the origin and the course of the ophthalmic artery and the distal dural ring using human cadaveric specimens, with special reference to the surrounding bony structures. In 50 human adult formalin-fixed cadaveric cerebral hemispheres and 10 block specimens of the skull base region including the ophthalmic artery and the carotid dural ring were examined under magnification using an operating microscope. The ophthalmic artery originated from the intradural portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA), except in 5% where the ophthalmic artery originated extradurally. The extradural origin had two patterns: one was that the ophthalmic artery penetrated the bony optic strut (trans-optic strut pattern) and the other was that it coursed into the optic canal proximally to the optic strut without bone penetration (supra-optic strut pattern). The origin of the intradural ophthalmic artery was commonly located at the medial third of the superior wall of the ICA (78%). The ophthalmic artery was commonly taking an S-shaped course in the intradural portion and entered the optic canal over the optic strut. The distal dural ring was tightly adherent to the internal carotid artery; circumferential sectioning of the dural ring is required to mobilize the internal carotid artery. When approaching juxtadural ring ICA aneurysms via the pterional route, it is important to recognize the extradural origin, especially the trans-optic strut type, and to precisely understand the microsurgical anatomy around the dural ring.

  11. Anxiety sensitivity and headache: diagnostic differences, impact, and relations with perceived headache triggers.

    PubMed

    Smitherman, Todd A; Davis, Rachel E; Walters, A Brooke; Young, John; Houle, Timothy T

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), the fear of arousal-related bodily sensations due to beliefs about presumed harmful consequences, predicts fear and avoidance among musculoskeletal pain patients but remains largely unexplored in headache. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to evaluate AS among young adult migraine and tension-type headache sufferers and to assess relations with headache impact and perceived susceptibility to headache triggers. A total of 2350 young adults (72.6% with primary headache; 64.9% female; 22.5% minority) completed measures of AS and headache symptomatology. Generalized linear models assessed relations between AS and ICHD-II diagnosis, headache-related disability, and perceived trigger susceptibility. Canonical correlation analyses quantified relations with headache symptomatology. AS reliably differentiated headache sufferers from those without headache, being highest among chronic migraineurs and episodic migraineurs with aura. AS accounted for 8.4% of variance in headache symptomatology and was most strongly associated with prototypical migraine symptoms. AS predicted headache-related disability and trigger variables, even after controlling for headache frequency and severity. AS accounted for more unique variance in disability than depression and anxiety symptoms combined. AS predicts pain itself, adjustment to pain, and evaluation of factors influencing pain among primary headache sufferers, even after controlling for headache burden. Further study of AS among headache patients is warranted. © International Headache Society 2014.

  12. Ballistic Puncture Self-Healing Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Yost, William T.; Bogert, Phil B.; Howell, Patricia A.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Burke, Eric R.

    2017-01-01

    Space exploration launch costs on the order of $10,000 per pound provide an incentive to seek ways to reduce structural mass while maintaining structural function to assure safety and reliability. Damage-tolerant structural systems provide a route to avoiding weight penalty while enhancing vehicle safety and reliability. Self-healing polymers capable of spontaneous puncture repair show promise to mitigate potentially catastrophic damage from events such as micrometeoroid penetration. Effective self-repair requires these materials to quickly heal following projectile penetration while retaining some structural function during the healing processes. Although there are materials known to possess this capability, they are typically not considered for structural applications. Current efforts use inexpensive experimental methods to inflict damage, after which analytical procedures are identified to verify that function is restored. Two candidate self-healing polymer materials for structural engineering systems are used to test these experimental methods.

  13. Headache in an Italian pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Scagni, Paola; Pagliero, Rosaura

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess epidemiology, diagnostic work-up, treatment and follow-up of children presenting to emergency department (ED) with headache. Records of visits for non-traumatic headache to the ED of a pediatric hospital over a period of 12 months were retrospectively reviewed. Headache center charts were analyzed one year after. Five-hundred and fifty patients (1% of all ED visits) were included. Spectrum of diagnoses was: primary headache (56.7%), with 9.6% of migraine; secondary headache (42%); unclassified headache (1.3%). Viral illnesses accounted for 90.5% of secondary headaches. A serious disorder was found in 4% of patients. Forty-four patients (8%) underwent neuroimaging studies, with 25% of abnormal findings. Only 223 patients (40.5%) received pharmacological treatment. On discharge, 212 patients (38.5%) were referred to headache center and 114 (20.7% of all patients) attended it. ED diagnosis was confirmed in 74.6% of cases. Most of ED repeated visits (82.6%) occurred in patients not referred to headache center at discharge from first ED visit. The most frequent diagnosis was primary headache; viral illnesses represented the majority of secondary headaches. Underlying serious disorders were associated with neurological signs, limiting the need of diagnostic investigations. Well structured prospective studies are needed to evaluate appropriate diagnostic tools, as well as correct therapeutic approach of pediatric headache in emergency. Collaboration with headache center might limit repeated visits and provide a correct diagnostic definition.

  14. Multiple needle puncturing: balancing the varus knee.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, Johan

    2011-09-09

    The so-called "pie crusting" technique using multiple stab incisions is a well-established procedure for correcting tightness of the iliotibial band in the valgus knee. It is, however, not applicable for balancing the medial side in varus knees because of the risk for iatrogenic transsection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). This article presents our experience with a safer alternative and minimally invasive technique for medial soft tissue balancing, where we make multiple punctures in the MCL using a 19-gauge needle to progressively stretch the MCL until a correct ligament balance is achieved. Our technique requires minimal to no additional soft tissue dissection and can even be performed percutaneously when necessary. This technique, therefore, does not impact the length of the skin or soft tissue incisions. We analyzed 61 cases with varus deformity that were intraoperatively treated using this technique. In 4 other cases, the technique was used as a percutaneous procedure to correct postoperative medial tightness that caused persistent pain on the medial side. The procedure was considered successful when a 2- to 4-mm mediolateral joint line opening was obtained in extension and 2 to 6 mm in flexion. In 62 cases (95%), a progressive correction of medial tightness was achieved according to the above-described criteria. Three cases were overreleased and required compensatory release of the lateral structures and use of a thicker insert. Based on these results, we consider needle puncturing an effective and safe technique for progressive correction of MCL tightness during minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.

  15. An Analysis of Complications of Brachial and Axillary Artery Punctures.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhu; Gu, Yongquan; Guo, Lianrui; Guo, Jianming; Gao, Xixiang; Li, Jianxin; Wang, Zhonggao; Zhang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    To examine the complications of brachial and axillary artery punctures and the precautionary measures taken to lower their incidences. Retrospective analysis of 266 cases of brachial and axillary artery punctures was performed for angiography or angioplasty between January 2009 and December 2013 at the Department of Vascular Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University. Complications and their causes were assessed. Among all brachial artery punctures (n = 140), there were complications in 3.6 per cent of cases, including local hematoma in 1.4 per cent, pseudoaneurysm in 0.7 per cent, acute arterial thrombosis in 0.7 per cent, and median nerve injury in 0.7 per cent. Among all axillary artery punctures (n = 126), there were complications in 10.3 per cent of cases, including local hematoma in 4.8 per cent, pseudoaneurysm in 0.8 per cent, acute arterial thrombosis in 0.8 per cent, acute venous thrombosis in 0.8 per cent, and nerve injury in 3.2 per cent. The incidence of complications was significantly lower in brachial axillary artery puncture compared with axillary artery puncture (P < 0.05). The main factors associated with complications might be patient's vascular condition, perioperative medication, anatomical features of the artery, puncture site, successful rate of first-attempt puncture, and bandage strength. Incidence of complications of brachial and axillary artery punctures could be lowered by strengthening the choice of indications, improving the perioperative managements, being fully aware of the anatomical characteristics of the brachial and axillary arteries, and applying the standardized techniques of puncture and compression hemostasis.

  16. Biopsychosocial correlates of headache: what predicts pediatric headache occurrence?

    PubMed

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Morris, Lisette; Heinrich, Marion

    2008-04-01

    The study aims at identifying biopsychosocial risk factors for headache in children and adolescents aged 9 to 14. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomly drawn population sample of families with children in the above age group. Questionnaires were mailed to parents and children (n=6400), on whose data this report is based. The objective of the study was to establish a profile of risk factors regarding the occurrence of headache. Headache, as the criterion variable, was ranked according to its frequency in the last 6 months (no, rare, monthly, weekly). Independent variables came from 6 domains: health, socioeconomic, family, school, leisure/peers, and psychological factors. Data analysis was conducted via multinomial regression analyses in a 4-step strategy: (1) analysis of age and sex as control variables; (2) analysis of single variables from each of the 6 domains (controlled for age and sex); (3) domain analyses; and (4) comprehensive analysis including all significant variables from the domain analyses. Age and sex explained a small but significant proportion of the variance in headache frequency (3.5%). All health variables, several socioeconomic, and most family- and school-related as well as the psychological variables demonstrated a significant association with the criterion in the single variable models. However, only a few of the variables related to leisure/peer activities reached significance. The domain model comprising health variables explained 27% of the variance, achieving the best model fit, followed by the psychological model with 13%. The comprehensive model was able to explain one third of the total variance in headache occurrence. Contrary to our hypothesis, the addition of psychosocial variables to health-related predictors did not markedly improve model fit.

  17. Multilayer scaffold of electrospun PLA-PCL-collagen nanofibers as a dural substitute.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-fei; Guo, Hong-feng; Ying, Da-jun

    2013-11-01

    Dural closure after the neurosurgery can prevent postoperative complications. Although many types of dural substitute have been developed, most of them lack functional and structural characteristics compared with the natural dura mater. In this study, we used electrospinning method to fabricate a multilayer scaffold to promote dural repair. The inner layer of the scaffold that faces the brain tissue is composed of poly-lactic acid (PLA) to reduce tissue adhesion. The middle layer of the scaffold is composed of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and PLA, which provides a watertight seal. The outer layer of the scaffold contains a large amount of collagen to promote cell attachment and proliferation. The results from in vitro study and an animal model have shown that this multilayer fibrous scaffold has sufficient mechanic strength and biochemical properties to enhance dural repair. Therefore, fabrication of scaffold with multiple functional and structural layers may provide a novel approach for tissue engineering.

  18. Headaches during Pregnancy: What's the Best Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week What can I do about headaches during pregnancy? I'd rather not ... 11, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/headaches-during- ...

  19. TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ... Sign up for NHF Updates . CAQ in Headache Medicine In 2015, NHF will be offering a Certificate ...

  20. Adhesive arachnoiditis causing cauda equina syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis: CT and MRI demonstration of dural calcification and a dorsal dural diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, I G; Yunten, N; Ustun, E E; Oksel, F; Gumusdis, G

    1999-07-01

    We present the radiological features of a 42-year-old man with long-standing inactive ankylosing spondylitis (AS), demonstrating that arachnoiditis is a cause of a cauda equina syndrome (CES) in this disease. CT showed a dorsal arachnoid diverticulum causing scalloped erosion of the laminae, and punctate and curvilinear dural calcification. MRI revealed adhesion and convergence of the cauda equina dorsally into the arachnoid pouch, causing the dural sac to appear empty canal. To the best of our knowledge, dural calcification on CT is a new finding in AS, which may be related to the CES. Our findings support the hypothesis that chronic adhesive arachnoiditis with subsequent loss of meningeal elasticity may be the main cause of CES in AS.

  1. Headaches in patients with neurofibromatosis-1.

    PubMed

    DiMario, F J; Langshur, S

    2000-04-01

    An analysis of patients followed with a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis-1 and headache was conducted. Characterization of headache type was done after chart review of 81 patients with neurofibromatosis-1 and headache. Consent was obtained for subsequent telephone interviews using a standardized questionnaire concerning the onset, characteristics, timing, triggers, and associated symptoms of the patients' headaches. Data was summarized and tabulated. Of 132 patients with neurofibromatosis-1, 81 were identified with any headache by screening history. Recurrent headaches were present in 77% of patients and in 47% of our neurofibromatosis-1 clinic population. Fifty-three of 81 patients were accessible for and agreeable to telephone interview. There were 23 male patients and 30 female patients aged 5 6/12 to 49 6/12 years, with a mean age of 20.9 years. Eighty-one percent reported having experienced recurrent headaches within the year. The majority reported onset of headache prior to the age of 10 years. Headache characteristics included the following: frequency of monthly or less, frontotemporal location, pulsating or pressing quality, and moderate severity (pain scale 4 to 5 out of 10). Headaches interfered with daily activities, had weekend occurrence, and had a duration less than 2 hours. Common headache triggers included stress, "change in weather," menstruation, fatigue, and certain foods. A high percentage of patients reported associated symptoms of nausea with or without vomiting (37%), phonophobia, photophobia, pallor, and visual scotoma. We classified 34% of the patients as having migraine (25% with aura, 9% without aura), 45% with nonmigrainous headache only, and 15% with mixed headache types (either intermittently), and 7.5% with other head pains. We conclude that patients with neurofibromatosis-1 are at greater risk for headaches than the general population. While the prevalence of both migraine and nonnigraine headache is somewhat greater than in the

  2. Paranasal Sinus Disease in Children With Headache.

    PubMed

    Vieira Neto, Ronan J; Teixeira, Karine C S; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Montenegro, Maria Augusta

    2017-10-01

    Sinus headache is one of the most frequent misdiagnosis given to children with headache. The objective of this study is to evaluate the frequency of sinus disease in children with headache that do not fulfill the criteria for headache attributed to disorder of the nose or paranasal sinuses. This is a prospective study conducted at the authors' pediatric neurology clinic. Data from children with headache was evaluated and compared with a disease control group composed of children without history of headache. All patients underwent neuroimaging assessment. Patients with diagnosis of acute infectious sinus disease were excluded from the analysis. The type of headache was classified according to the International Headache Society. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test, with a level of significance of .05. A total of 62 patients with headache were evaluated; 24 boys, 38 girls, ages ranging from 3 to 18 years (mean = 9.7 years). Of the patients, 29 had migraine without aura, 4 had frequent episodic tension type headache, 3 had both migraine without aura and frequent episodic tension type headache, 3 had migraine with brainstem aura, 2 had episodic tension type headache, 1 had migraine with aura. In 20 patients the type of headache could not be established. The disease control group had 41 patients; 25 boys, 16 girls, ages ranging from 3 to 17 years (mean = 7.3 years). Sinus abnormalities detected by neuroimaging were present in 12 patients in the headache group and in 11 patients in the disease control group ( P = .469). The authors conclude that sinus abnormalities are a common finding in neuroimaging tests of children with or without headache. Sinus disease disclosed by neuroimaging evaluation should not preclude the diagnosis of migraine or other types of primary headache.

  3. Comorbidity headache and epilepsy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Yamane, L E; Montenegro, M A; Guerreiro, M M

    2004-04-01

    Epilepsy and headache are both frequent in childhood. Because seizures are frequently a frightening event, other medical conditions--including headache--are often neglected not only by the patient, but also by the physician. The objective of this study was to verify the comorbidity between headache and epilepsy in childhood. This was a prospective study conducted at the pediatric epilepsy clinic of our university hospital. Fifty children with epilepsy and ability to describe their symptoms, between 5 and 18 years old, were interviewed according to a semi-structured questionnaire. The headache was classified according to the International Headache Society. The frequency of headache was compared with the findings of a control group composed by children without epilepsy, siblings of children with epilepsy. Fifty children were evaluated, 29 boys, mean age 11 years. Twenty-three (46 %) patients presented with headache, as opposed to only 1 (2.5 %) in the control group ( p < 0.01). Ten (43.5 %) had migraine, 4 (17.4 %) had tension type headache and in 9 (39.1 %) the type of headache could not be established. In 9/23 (39 %) a temporal relationship between headache and epilepsy was present, 6 postictal and 3 preictal. There was no difference in gender, age, type of seizure and family history of headache in the groups of patients with or without headache. However, most patients with headache were older than 10 years (54.5 %) and had idiopathic epilepsy (65.2 %; p < 0.01). The headache usually started in the same year or after the diagnosis of epilepsy (95 %; p < 0.01). Headache and epilepsy are a common comorbidity in childhood, and occur mostly in children older than 10 years with idiopathic epilepsy. The headache usually starts in the same year or after the diagnosis of epilepsy.

  4. Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula and Cecal Arteriovenous Malformation in a Boy

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Vimlesh; Vaidya, Pankaj C; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and cecal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are very rare. A 6-year old boy presented with lower limb paresis after trauma. On imaging work-up spinal dural AVF was found. It was managed with endovascular glue embolization. After two years, the boy presented with severe anemia and occult gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleed. Cecal AVM was diagnosed and managed with embolization. PMID:28164000

  5. Feasibility of Lumbar Puncture in the Study of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease in Subjects with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Iragui, María; Santos, Telma; Videla, Sebastián; Fernández, Susana; Benejam, Bessy; Videla, Laura; Alcolea, Daniel; Blennow, Kaj; Blesa, Rafael; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main medical problem in older adults with Down syndrome (DS). Studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers are limited and the feasibility of lumbar puncture (LP) is controversial in this population. To analyze the frequency of complications after a LP in DS. We collected data from 80 adults with DS that underwent a LP within the Down Alzheimer Barcelona Neuroimaging Initiative. Demographics, cognitive status, headache history, and presence of complications after the LP were recorded in every subject. In 53 of them (active group), this information was collected following a semi-structured and validated protocol that actively looks for complications. Other variables related to the LP procedure were also recorded. A telephone interview to the caregiver was performed 5-7 days after the procedure to ask about complications. Data from 27 subjects (clinical practice group), from whom the presence of complications was obtained in a medical follow-up visit within the three months after the LP, were also included. There were no adverse events in 90% of our participants. The most frequent complication was headache (6.25%); only one subject reported a typical post-lumbar puncture headache with moderate severity that required analgesic treatment. Dizziness (3.75%) and back pain (1.25%) were also reported. All the participants that reported complications belonged to the active group. LP can be safely performed to study CSF biomarkers in DS. The reported complications are qualitatively similar to the general population, but are less frequently reported, even when actively searched for.

  6. Reconstruction after retrosigmoid approaches using autologous fat graft-assisted Medpor Titan cranioplasty: assessment of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks and headaches in 60 cases.

    PubMed

    Ling, Phoebe Y; Mendelson, Zachary S; Reddy, Rohit K; Jyung, Robert W; Liu, James K

    2014-10-01

    Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and headaches remain potential complications after retrosigmoid approaches for lesions in the posterior fossa and cerebellopontine angle. The authors describe a simple repair technique with an autologous fat graft-assisted Medpor Titan cranioplasty and investigate the incidence of postoperative CSF leaks and headaches using this technique. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all cases (n = 60) of retrosigmoid craniectomy from September 2009 to May 2014 in patients who underwent fat graft-assisted cranioplasty. After obtaining a watertight dural closure and sealing off any visible mastoid air cells with bone wax, an autologous fat graft was placed over the dural suture line and up against the waxed-off air cells. The fat graft filled the retrosigmoid cranial defect and was then bolstered with a Medpor Titan (titanium mesh embedded in porous polyethylene) cranioplasty. A postoperative mastoid pressure dressing was applied for 48 h, and prophylactic lumbar drainage was not used. Factors examined in this study included postoperative CSF leak (incisional, rhinorrhea, otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, incidence and severity of postoperative headache, length of hospital stay, and length of follow-up. No patients developed postoperative CSF leaks (0 %), pseudomeningoceles (0 %), or new-onset postoperative headaches (0 %) with the described repair technique. There were no cases of graft site morbidity such as hematoma or wound infection. Mean duration of postoperative hospital stay was 3.8 days (range 2-10 days). Mean postoperative follow-up was 12.4 months (range 2.0-41.1 months). Our multilayer repair technique with a fat graft-assisted Medpor Titan cranioplasty appears effective in preventing postoperative CSF leaks and new-onset postoperative headaches after retrosigmoid approaches. Postoperative lumbar drainage may not be necessary.

  7. Headache in subarachnoid hemorrhage and headache attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, E; Zagaria, M; Longoni, M

    2015-05-01

    Headache is a critical problem in the emergency setting. In this paper we briefly review the epidemiological data regarding headache in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH), considering the role of headache as a warning symptom and the other clinical manifestation of SAH. We have also introduced a recent clinical entity, represented by headache associated to intracranial endovascular procedures (IEPs).

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Primary Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Pirjo; Sourander, Andre; Metsahonkala, Liisa; Aromaa, Minna; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpaa, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of psychiatric symptoms with migraine and tension-type headache in children. Method: A questionnaire completed by 1,135 Finnish children in the sixth grade identified 154 children with migraine, 138 with tension-type headache, and 407 children who were headache-free. Seventy children were randomly selected…

  9. Headache - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Headaches (Arabic) الصداع - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Headaches 头痛 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Headaches 頭痛 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) ...

  10. The evaluation and management of paediatric headaches

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, JM

    2009-01-01

    The management of patients with headaches is a major component of every paediatric practice. In a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents, it was found that 26.6% of those 12 to 13 years of age and 31.2% of those 14 to 15 years of age reported that they experienced headaches at least once per week. The diagnosis of headaches in children and adolescents is established through a headache history in the vast majority of patients. Specific questions can identify those at most risk for headaches secondary to underlying pathology. Similarly, the examination should be tailored to identify those who require further investigation. Investigations are not routinely indicated for paediatric headache, but neuroimaging should be considered in children whose headaches do not meet the criteria for one of the primary headache syndromes and in those with an abnormal neurological examination. The optimal treatment of primary headaches should begin with nonpharmacological methods. Preventive pharmacological therapy should be considered when headaches significantly impair the patient’s quality of life. Flunarizine may be valuable in paediatric headache prevention, and ibuprofen, acetaminophen and nasal sumatriptan may be effective in the acute management of headaches. PMID:19436460

  11. Headache symptoms in pediatric sickle cell patients.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M; Platt-Houston, Candis; Kiska, Raechel E; Berman, Brian

    2005-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics of headaches in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and to assess the relationship between headache symptoms and children's physical and emotional status. A detailed headache questionnaire using International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) criteria was mailed to a cohort (n = 50) of children with SCD, ages 9 to 17 years. Respondents also completed measures of functional disability and psychological distress. Headaches had occurred over the previous 3-month period in 76.2% of the patients. Frequent headaches were common, occurring greater than once a week in 31.2% of children. Average pain severity was reported as moderate on a 0-to-10 scale (mean = 5.8). Duration of headaches ranged from 30 minutes to several days, with a mean of 5 hours. Based on ICHD-2 criteria, 43.8% of children had headache symptoms consistent with migraines, 6.2% with migraine with aura, and 50.0% with tension-type headaches. Children with symptoms of migraine had significantly greater functional disability compared with children with symptoms of tension-type headaches (P < 0.01). Further studies to determine the characteristics and determinants of headaches experienced in SCD patients will help maximize treatment of headaches and enhance daily functioning in these patients.

  12. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Primary Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Pirjo; Sourander, Andre; Metsahonkala, Liisa; Aromaa, Minna; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpaa, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of psychiatric symptoms with migraine and tension-type headache in children. Method: A questionnaire completed by 1,135 Finnish children in the sixth grade identified 154 children with migraine, 138 with tension-type headache, and 407 children who were headache-free. Seventy children were randomly selected…

  13. Nonrhinologic headache in a tertiary rhinology practice.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brian F; Login, Ivan S; Kountakis, Stilianos E

    2004-04-01

    Our goal was to determine the etiology of headache in patients who were referred for sinus evaluation but were found to have no evidence of rhinosinusitis on computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses and on endoscopic examination. Data were collected prospectively from 100 patients with headache but with normal sinus CT and endoscopic examination. Headache and 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-20) scores of patients with the chief complaint of headache and who requested further neurologic evaluation (group I) were compared with the scores of patients who did not list headache as a significant symptom (group II) and with the scores of patients without headache (group III). The most common neurologic diagnosis for group I patients (n = 36) was migraine headaches (58%). These patients also had higher mean SNOT-20 scores (24 +/- 3.3) compared to group II patients with mild headache (14.6 +/- 2.3) or group III patients without headache (12.4 +/- 2.1). Migraine was the most common type of headache in patients with normal sinus CT treated for presumed rhinosinusitis as the cause of the headache. Patients with headache as their chief complaint that required further neurologic evaluation had overall higher SNOT-20 scores than nonheadache patients, indicating greater disability of their overall quality of life index.

  14. Delay in hospital admission of patients with cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Lopes, M G; Rosas, M J; Fontes, J

    2005-01-01

    Factors influencing early hospital admission have been described for several stroke types but not for cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVT). CVT is more difficult to diagnose than arterial stroke; delay in hospital admission may postpone CVT treatment. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe the delay between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission of patients with CVT, and (2) to identify the variables that influence that delay. We registered the interval (days) between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission in 91 consecutive patients admitted to 20 Portuguese hospitals between June 1995 and June 1998. We also studied the impact of admission delay on treatments (prescription of anticoagulants and the number of days elapsed between the onset of symptoms and start of anticoagulation and admission). Median admission delay was 4 days. Twenty-two (25%) patients were admitted within 24 h. Two thirds of the patients were admitted within 7 days and 75% within 13 days. In multiple logistic regression analysis, admission within 24 h was positively associated with mental status disorder (delirium or abulia; OR = 4.59; 95% CI = 1.41-14.89) and negatively associated with headache (OR = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.00-0.32). Presentation as isolated intracranial hypertension was associated with admission delay of more than 4 days (OR = 2.63; 95% CI = 0.97-7.14). Papilloedema was associated with an admission delay of more than 13 days (OR = 4.69; 95% CI = 1.61-13.61). There was no association between admission delay and the proportion of anticoagulated patients. The interval between onset of symptoms and start of anticoagulation was shorter in patients admitted earlier (p = 0.0001, for either admission within 24 h, 4 or 13 days). There is a considerable delay until the clinical picture associated with CVT is recognised as justifying hospital admission, especially when patients present with symptoms identical to isolated intracranial hypertension syndrome

  15. Assessment of Headache in Asthma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gungen, Adil Can; Gungen, Belma

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Headache is a common health problem, which may present with neurological diseases and other chronic diseases, and has an adverse effect on the emotional status. We think that headache is a common disease in asthmatic patients. This study aims to evaluate the presence of headache and risk factors in patients with asthma. Methods: Ninety-three patients with asthma and 58 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The presence of headache was evaluated according to the revised criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICDH-II). Asthma control test (ACT) was performed to determine asthma control status. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were performed in all participants. Demographic features, used medications, and presence of headaches were recorded. Results: Fifty-eight patients with asthma (62.4%) had headaches, whereas only 19 control subjects (32.8%) had headaches. Thirty-two patients (34.4%) had tension-type headache, 19 patients (20.3%) had migraine-type headache, and 7 patients (7.5%) had other types of headaches. The frequency of headaches was significantly higher in patients with asthma, compared to healthy control subjects (p=0.001). There was a significant correlation between migraine-type headache and inhaled steroid use, and presence of allergies. Conclusion: Migraine-type and tension-type headaches are more common in patients with asthma, compared to the overall population. The frequency of migraine-type headache is higher in patients with asthma who have allergies and low respiratory function test scores. PMID:28367191

  16. [Integrated headache care network. Kiel Migraine and Headache Center and German National Headache Treatment Network].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze-Kuhn, K; Petersen, I; Göbel, A; Heinze, A

    2013-04-01

    Migraine and other headaches affect 54 million people in Germany. They rank among the ten most severely disabling complaints and the three most expensive neurological disorders. Nevertheless, they are not adequately recognized in the healthcare system with sketchy diagnoses and inadequate treatment. This inadequate care is not primarily due to a lack of medical and scientific knowledge on the development and treatment of headaches but is predominantly due to organizational deficits in the healthcare system and in the implementation of current knowledge. To overcome the organizational barriers the national headache treatment network was initiated in Germany. For the first time it allows national cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary links between inpatient and outpatient care. A hand in hand treatment programme, better education, better information exchange between all partners and combined efforts using clearly defined treatment pathways and goals are the basis for state of the art and efficient treatment results. The treatment network is geared towards the specialized treatment of severely affected patients with chronic headache disorders. A national network of outpatient and inpatient pain therapists in both practices and hospitals works hand in hand to optimally alleviate pain in a comprehensive cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary manner. For therapy refractive disorders, a high-intensive supraregional fully inpatient treatment can be arranged. This concept offers for the first time a nationwide coordinated treatment without limitation by specialization and bureaucratic remuneration sectors.

  17. Maass Cusp Forms on Singly Punctured Two-Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Siddig, Abubaker Ahmed Mohamed; Shah, Nurisya Mohd; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    2009-07-07

    Quantum mechanical systems on punctured surfaces modeled by hyperbolic spaces can play an interesting role in exploring quantum chaos and in studying behaviour of future quantum nano-devices. The case of singly-punctured two-torus, for example, has been well-studied in the literature particularly for its scattering states. However, the bound states on the punctured torus given by Maass cusp forms are lesser known. In this note, we report on the algorithm of numerically computing these functions and we present ten lower-lying eigenvalues for each odd and even Maass cusp forms.

  18. Benchmarking Lumbar Puncture Fluoroscopy Time during Fellowship Training.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Schaffer, K; Liu, L; Mahesh, M; Yousem, D M

    2017-03-01

    We sought to establish a guide for identifying fellowship competency in performing fluoroscopically guided lumbar punctures. With a linear mixed-effects model, we compared the fluoroscopy time between the first and last 3 months of neuroradiology training. During 7 years, 55 fellows performed 1142 and 861 lumbar punctures in the first and last quarters of training. A target fluoroscopy time of 0.26 minutes, the upper 95% confidence interval, can serve as a fellowship benchmark for successfully achieving competence in fluoroscopically guided lumbar punctures.

  19. Contraindications to lumbar puncture as defined by computed cranial tomography.

    PubMed Central

    Gower, D J; Baker, A L; Bell, W O; Ball, M R

    1987-01-01

    Papilloedema is not always an adequate predictor of potential complications from lumbar puncture, and many clinicians are using computed tomography (CT) before lumbar puncture in an effort to identify more accurately the "at risk" patient. This paper identifies the following anatomical criteria defined by CT scanning that correlate with unequal pressures between intracranial compartments and predispose a patient to herniation following decompression of the spinal compartment: lateral shift of midline structures, loss of the suprachiasmatic and basilar cisterns, obliteration of the fourth ventricle, or obliteration of the superior cerebellar and quadrigeminal plate cisterns with sparing of the ambient cisterns. These criteria should be considered to be contraindications to lumbar puncture. Images PMID:3655817

  20. A Survey of Headache Medicine Physicians on the Likeability of Headaches and Their Personal Headache History.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randolph W; Ghosh, Kamalika

    2016-03-01

    Two prior studies have shown an increased prevalence of migraine among physicians who are headache medicine specialists (HMS). There have been no studies of the prevalence of other headache disorders among HMS. A prior survey showed that neurologists like to treat some headaches more than others but there has not been a similar survey of HMS. The aim of the survey was to learn more about the prevalence of headaches among HMS and which headache disorders they like to treat. An email survey was sent to 749 physician members of the American Headache Society who were asked to respond to the following statement using a 5-point Likert scale (from 1, strongly disagree to 5, strongly agree): "I like to treat patients with the following types of headaches or syndromes." They were asked, "Have you personally suffered from any of the following at any time during your life: episodic migraine (EM), chronic migraine (CM), refractory migraine (RM), episodic cluster (EC), chronic cluster (CC), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and postconcussion syndrome (PCS)." The response rate was 15.8% (n = 118) with a mean age of 51.4 years, 64.4% males, and 85.6% neurologists. HMS reported likeability for treating disorders in rank order as follows: EM (mean = 4.69, SD = 0.61); CM (mean = 4.20, SD = 0.94); RM (mean = 3.62, SD = 1.17); EC (mean = 4.37, SD = 0.80); CC (mean = 3.68, SD = 1.10); NDPH (mean = 3.52, SD = 1.21); and PCS (mean = 3.66, SD = 1.18). The lifetime prevalence of disorders was as follows: EM, 69.5% (85.7% in females and 60.5% in males); CM, 13.6% (19% in females and 10.5% in males); RM, .9% (2.4% females and 0% males); EC, 1.7% (0% females and 2.6% males); CC, 0%; NDPH, 0%, and PCS, 4.2% (7.1% females and 2.6% males). HMS with a personal history of EM (mean = 4.73, SD = 0.51) showed a significant preference (t130  = 7.30, P < .001) to treat episodic migraine more than other headaches (mean

  1. Headache in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D W

    2001-03-01

    Headache is one of the most common presenting complaints to emergency departments. Although the overwhelming majority of these headaches are benign and self-limited, headache can be the initial symptom of life-threatening disorders. It is therefore essential for physicians to have a rational approach to the evaluation of a child or adolescent who presents to the emergency department with headache. The purpose of this article is to review the causes, evaluation, and appropriate investigations for nontraumatic headache in the pediatric emergency department.

  2. Chronic daily headache in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-12-01

    Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic daily headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (<4 hours) forms of CDH are chronic cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body.

  3. Headache associated with cough: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected by coughing. The diagnosis of primary cough headache is made when headache is brought on and occurs only in association with coughing, straining or a Valsalva manoeuvre and in the absence of any abnormalities on neuro-imaging. In case an underlying pathology is identified as a cause of the headache, the diagnosis of symptomatic cough headache is made. The vast majority of these patients present with a Chiari malformation type I. Other frequently reported causes include miscellaneous posterior fossa pathology, carotid or vertebrobasilar disease and cerebral aneurysms. Consequently, diagnostic neuroimaging is key in the diagnosis of cough-related headache and guides treatment. Besides primary and symptomatic cough headache, several other both primary and secondary headache disorders exist where coughing acts as a trigger or aggravator of headache symptomatology. PMID:23687906

  4. Characteristics of headache in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Sano, Fumikazu; Ishii, Sayaka; Ohyama, Tetsuo; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao

    2013-10-01

    The association of headache with seizures is well known to neurologists but poorly understood. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the types and frequency of seizure-associated headaches among pediatric patients with epilepsy, and to identify their risk factors with special attention to the anatomic localization of the epileptogenic focus and seizure classification. Patients with focal and generalized active seizures and on treatment at the time of questionnaire administration were included. Patients were prospectively interviewed by questionnaire as to whether or not they suffered from headaches associated with epileptic seizures. Of 98 patients (age range: 5-18 years), 34 (34.7%) complained of seizure-associated headaches. In patients with seizure-associated headaches, headache was significantly more frequent (31/74, 41.9%) with partial seizures than with generalized seizures (3/24, 12.5%; p=0.012). The frequency of seizure attacks was 4.1 times per year in patients with seizure-associated headache and 1.3 times per year in those with non-seizure-associated headache. Of the 34 patients, 20 (58.8%) complained of headache at the frontal region. The location of headache was not always in agreement with electroencephalographic focus. Headache was more frequent in patients with partial epilepsy and frequent seizures. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The spontaneous puncture of thick liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Néel, Baptiste; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2016-11-01

    We call thick those films for which the disjoining pressure is ineffective. Water films with thickness h in the 1-10 μm range are thick, but it is also known that, paradoxically, they nucleate holes spontaneously. We have uncovered a mechanism solving the paradox. Most natural films are dirty to some extent, and we show that if a spot of dissolved substance lowers locally the surface tension of the liquid, the corresponding Marangoni stress may lead to a self-sustained instability triggering film rupture. When deposited with size a, the spot dissipates by molecular diffusion (coefficient D) along the film in a time a2 / D . Before doing so, the surface tension gradient Δσ / a between the spot center (tension σ - Δσ) and the rest of the film (tension σ) induces an inhomogeneous outward interstitial flow which digs the spot, and reinforces the tension gradient. Hence the instability, which occurs within a timescale τ √{ ρa2 h / Δσ } , with ρ the liquid density. When the Péclet number Pe =a2 / Dτ is small, diffusion regularizes the film, which remains flat: clean films don't break, while for Pe > 1 , the film punctures. This new scenario will be illustrated by several experiments.

  6. [Headache and oral contraceptives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Farias Da Silva, W; Benicio, G

    1978-01-01

    175 patients using oral contraceptives (OCs) for periods from 2 months-6 years were studied. A survey was made of the secondary effects of the treatment. Among the total group, 101 of them had not presented headache before the use of contraceptives, and the remaining 75 patients had previously complained of chronic headaches which were considered due to different etiologies. 50 patients from the group without previous headache claimed that OC treatment marked the initiation of the headaches. 25 had vascular headaches and 25 had tension headaches. Among the 75 patients included in the other group as complainers of chronic headache prior to treatment, 30 had a worsening of the symptoms after use of the OCs. The authors compare their results with those referred to in the literature. (author's)

  7. Sheehan syndrome: acute presentation with severe headache.

    PubMed

    Hale, B; Habib, A S

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum headache is a common occurrence with a broad differential diagnosis. Sheehan syndrome, or postpartum pituitary necrosis, is not typically recognized as a cause of postpartum headache. We present a case of Sheehan syndrome that initially presented as severe headache after vaginal delivery complicated by retained placenta and postpartum hemorrhage. The patient was discharged home on postpartum day three but continued to have headaches and returned to hospital on postpartum day six with severe headache, failure to lactate, edema, dizziness, fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary infarction consistent with Sheehan syndrome. We discuss the differential diagnosis for postpartum headache, the pathophysiological features of Sheehan syndrome and headache as an atypical acute presentation.

  8. Lumbar puncture in patients using anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Renan; Bruniera, Gustavo; Brunale, Fernando; Mangueira, Cristóvão; Senne, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents has largely increased. Diagnostic lumbar puncture in patients taking these drugs represents a challenge considering the opposing risks of bleeding and thrombotic complications. To date there are no controlled trials, specific guidelines, nor clear recommendations in this area. In the present review we make some recommendations about lumbar puncture in patients using these drugs. Our recommendations take into consideration the pharmacology of these drugs, the thrombotic risk according to the underlying disease, and the urgency in cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Evaluating such information and a rigorous monitoring of neurological symptoms after lumbar puncture are crucial to minimize the risk of hemorrhage associated neurological deficits. An individualized patient decision-making and an effective communication between the assistant physician and the responsible for conducting the lumbar puncture are essential to minimize potential risks.

  9. Anaphylactic shock ensuing therapeutic puncture of an echinococcal cyst.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Profis, Efim; Holtfreter, Martha C; Orhun, Arzu; Müller-Stöver, Irmela; Dedelen, Hülya; Kubitz, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widespread zoonosis. For treating single echinococcal cysts during the last decades, therapeutic puncture of the cyst, aspiration, injection of a scolicide, and re-aspiration (PAIR) has been established as a minimal-invasive alternative method to surgery. A recent review on the complications of therapeutic cyst punctures has shown that dangerous complications occur much less frequently than previously assumed. A case is described where an allergic acute bronchospasm and arterial hypotension led to a life-threatening shock immediately after echinococcal cyst puncture. Fortunately, the situation could be managed by an experienced and well-equipped anesthesiology team. Life-threatening allergic phenomena after puncture of echinococcal cysts may occur less frequently than generally assumed; nevertheless, they must be taken into account, and precautions must be taken to manage serious adverse events.

  10. Punctures for theories of class S_{Γ}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckman, Jonathan J.; Jefferson, Patrick; Rudelius, Tom; Vafa, Cumrun

    2017-03-01

    With the aim of understanding compactifications of 6D superconformal field theories to four dimensions, we study punctures for theories of class S_{Γ} . The class S_{Γ} theories arise from M5-branes probing ℂ 2/ Γ, an ADE singularity. The resulting 4D theories descend from compactification on Riemann surfaces decorated with punctures. We show that for class S_{Γ} theories, a puncture is specified by singular boundary conditions for fields in the 5D quiver gauge theory obtained from compactification of the 6D theory on a cylinder geometry. We determine general boundary conditions and study in detail solutions with first order poles. This yields a generalization of the Nahm pole data present for 1/2 BPS punctures for theories of class S. Focusing on specific algebraic structures, we show how the standard discussion of nilpotent orbits and its connection to representations of su(2) generalizes in this broader context.

  11. Migraine headaches: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Margaret F; Johnson, Constance J

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that migraines are one of the major problems seen by primary care providers, almost half of people with migraines do not obtain appropriate diagnosis and/or treatment. Migraine occurs in about 18% of women, and is often aggravated by hormonal shifts occurring around women's menses, during pregnancy, and during perimenopause. Quality of life with migraines is often greatly diminished, and many women miss work days and/or are less productive with migraines. Women's health care providers are very likely to see women with poorly managed migraines, but are often not comfortable diagnosing and treating their patients with headaches. A variety of self-care treatments, acute care prescription and non-prescription headache medications, and preventive medications are available and if used by a knowledgeable provider can provide relief for many women who might not otherwise receive appropriate care.

  12. Migraine headache prophylaxis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2014-01-01

    Migraine headache is estimated to affect up to 28 percent of adolescents, most of whom are female. Chronic migraine in this population has been associated with reduced quality of life and academic disruption due to missed school days. Historically, migraine headache was treated episodically as it occurred. In March 2014 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved an existing medication, topiramate (Topamax®), for migraine prophylaxis in adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17. This is the first FDA approval of a drug for migraine prevention in this population. There are several possible adverse effects of taking topiramate, some potentially serious, so adequate education for adolescents and their families on all the potential benefits and risks is imperative.

  13. Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches in a child: response to a headache diary.

    PubMed

    Klassen, B D; Dooley, J M

    2000-01-01

    Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania and cluster headache are both characterized by recurrent, severe, unilateral headaches accompanied by symptoms and signs of autonomic dysfunction. They are differentiated by the frequency, duration, and medication responsiveness of the headaches. Both occur in childhood, although such reports are rare. A 6-year-old boy presented with chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches. Through the use of a headache diary, his headaches were found to follow stressful events and resolved shortly after the introduction of the diary. Precipitation of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches by stress has not been previously reported. We recommend the use of a headache diary as both an aid to diagnosis and an initial nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention for children with such headaches.

  14. Dural ectasia in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: quantitative assessment on magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Angelica; Ohlin, Acke

    2010-01-01

    To our knowledge, the assessment of dural sac diameters in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is not reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to find out if, dural ectasia occurs more frequently among patients with AIS, to define cut-off values for dural sac ratio and test the validity of such values. A total of 126 spine MRIs (79 patients with AIS and 47 control subjects) were included in this retrospective analysis (age range 7–25 years, 62% were females). Dural sac diameter (DSD) and vertebral body diameter (VBD) were estimated and dural sac ratio (DSR = DSD/VBD) was calculated at T5 and L3. DSR at T5 and L3 were 0.69 ± 0.12, and 0.52 ± 0.10, respectively, in patients with AIS compared with 0.62 ± 0.11, and 0.44 ± 0.07, respectively, in controls (P = 0.001 at T5 and <0.001 at L3). Our estimated cut-off values for DSR were 0.84 and 0.58 at T5 and L3, respectively. This resulted in 100% sensitivity compared with 74% when using the cut-off values proposed by Oosterhof et al. No statistically significant association was found between the occurrence of dural sac enlargement in patients with AIS and the severity of scoliotic deformity, the apical vertebral rotation, epidural fat thickness, occurrence of pain, neurological deficit, atypical scoliosis or rapid curve progression. Females were affected more frequently than males. As dural sac enlargement means thinning of the pedicles, we believe that the findings of this study have important clinical implications on the preoperative workup of AIS. PMID:20217153

  15. Headache following intracranial neuroendovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Baron, Eric P; Moskowitz, Shaye I; Tepper, Stewart J; Gupta, Rishi; Novak, Eric; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Stillman, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    Predicting who will develop post-procedure headache (PPH) following intracranial endovascular procedures (IEPs) would be clinically useful and potentially could assist in reducing the excessive diagnostic testing so often obtained in these patients. Although limited safety data exist, the use of triptans or dihydroergotamine (DHE) often raise concern when used with pre/post-coiled aneurysms. We sought to determine risk factors for PPH following IEP, to evaluate the utility of diagnostic testing in patients with post-coil acute headache (HA), and to record whether triptans and DHE have been used safely in this clinical setting. We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients undergoing IEPs. Bivariate analyses were conducted to compare patients who did and did not develop PPH. We reviewed records pertaining to 372 patients, of whom 263 underwent intracranial coil embolizations, 21 acrylic glue embolizations, and 88 stent placements. PPH occurred in 72% of coil patients, 33% of glue patients, and 14% of stent patients. Significant risk factors for post-coil HA were female gender, any pre-coil HA history, smoking, and anxiety/depression. A pre-stent history of HA exceeding 1 year's duration, and smoking were risk factors for post-stent HA. A pre-glue history of HA exceeding 1 year was the only risk factor for post-glue HA. In the small subgroup available for study, treatment with triptans or DHE was not associated with adverse events in pre/post-coiled aneurysms. Diagnostic testing was low yield. Occurrence of PPH was common after IEPs and especially so with coiling and in women, smokers, and those with anxiety/depression, and was often of longer duration than allowed by current International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. The yield of diagnostic testing was low, and in a small subgroup treatment with triptans or DHE did not cause adverse events in pre/post-coiled aneurysms. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Stress and Sleep Duration Predict Headache Severity in Chronic Headache Sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Timothy T.; Butschek, Ross A.; Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Rains, Jeanetta C.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the time-series relationships between stress, sleep duration, and headache pain among patients with chronic headaches. Sleep and stress have long been recognized as potential triggers of episodic headache (< 15 headache days/month), though prospective evidence is inconsistent and absent in patients diagnosed with chronic headaches (≥ 15 days/month). We reanalyzed data from a 28-day observational study of chronic migraine (n = 33) and chronic tension-type headache (n = 22) sufferers. Patients completed the Daily Stress Inventory and recorded headache and sleep variables using a daily sleep/headache diary. Stress ratings, duration of previous nights' sleep, and headache severity were modeled using a series of linear mixed models with random effects to account for individual differences in observed associations. Models were displayed using contour plots. Two consecutive days of either high stress or low sleep were strongly predictive of headache, whereas two days of low stress or adequate sleep were protective. When patterns of stress or sleep were divergent across days, headache risk was increased only when the earlier day was characterized by high stress or poor sleep. As predicted, headache activity in the combined model was highest when high stress and low sleep occurred concurrently during the prior 2 days denoting an additive effect. Future research is needed to expand on current findings among chronic headache patients and to develop individualized models that account for multiple simultaneous influences of headache trigger factors. PMID:23073072

  17. Awareness of headache and of National Headache Society activities among primary care physicians - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, Andreas R; Jäggi, Christian; Sturzenegger, Mathias; Gobbi, Claudio; Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Emmenegger, Mark J; Taub, Ethan; Sándor, Peter S

    2013-03-26

    Headache is one of the most common symptoms in primary care. To improve the quality of headache diagnosis and management with the largest possible benefit for the general population, headache and pain societies around the world have recently been devoting more attention to headache in primary care.The aim of the study was to investigate the potential contribution that national societies can make toward raising the awareness of primary headaches in general practice. In a qualitative telephone survey, targeting primary care practices (PCP), we asked about the frequency of headache patients in their practices and inquired about their treatment and referral strategies.A total of 1000 telephone interviews with PCP have been conducted. Three-hundred and fifty physicians have been directly interviewed, 95% of them see headache patients every week, 23% daily. Direct MRI referral is done by 84%. Sixty-two per cent of the physicians knew the Swiss headache society, 73% were interested in further education about headaches. The survey yielded information about the physicians' awareness of the Swiss Headache Society and its activities, and about their desire for continuing education in the area of headache. National headache societies should work to improve the cooperation between headache specialists and PCP, aiming for a better care for our patients with headache.

  18. Creating normograms of dural sinuses in healthy persons using computer-assisted detection for analysis and comparison of cross-section dural sinuses in the brain.

    PubMed

    Anconina, Reut; Zur, Dinah; Kesler, Anat; Lublinsky, Svetlana; Toledano, Ronen; Novack, Victor; Benkobich, Elya; Novoa, Rosa; Novic, Evelyne Farkash; Shelef, Ilan

    2017-06-01

    Dural sinuses vary in size and shape in many pathological conditions with abnormal intracranial pressure. Size and shape normograms of dural brain sinuses are not available. The creation of such normograms may enable computer-assisted comparison to pathologic exams and facilitate diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate normal magnetic resonance venography (MRV) studies in order to create normograms of dural sinuses using a computerized algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis. This was a retrospective analysis of MRV studies of 30 healthy persons. Data were analyzed using a specially developed Matlab algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis. The cross-sectional area and shape measurements were evaluated to create normograms. Mean cross-sectional size was 53.27±13.31 for the right transverse sinus (TS), 46.87+12.57 for the left TS (p=0.089) and 36.65+12.38 for the superior sagittal sinus. Normograms were created. The distribution of cross-sectional areas along the vessels showed distinct patterns and a parallel course for the median, 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles. In conclusion, using a novel computerized method for vessel cross-sectional analysis we were able to quantitatively characterize dural sinuses of healthy persons and create normograms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak after watertight dural closure with a polyethylene glycol hydrogel dural sealant in posterior fossa surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Jito, Junya; Nitta, Naoki; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel sealant recently has been approved as an adjunct to sutured dural closure in Japan. We treated consecutive six patients with PEG hydrogel sealant in posterior fossa operation. Three of six cases suffered delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak after watertight dural closure with the PEG hydrogel sealant, although there was no leak case which was treated with fibrin glue, before 2 years until the adoption of the new material. These patients underwent posterior fossa craniotomy and discharged without remarkable CSF leak. The pseudomeningocele under the occipital wound caused the CSF leak occurr from 5th to 7th week postoperatively. All CSF leak cases needed surgical repair. At the repair, the PEG hydrogel was liquefied and almost absorbed. A fistula on the closure line and a dead space after the absorption of the PEG hydrogel was observed. When the absorbable PEG hydrogel sealant plugs in small gaps of sutured dura, its properties to prevent adhesion might suppress healing process of dural closure, so that CSF could leak through the gaps and collect as a pseudomeningocele in the dead space after absorption of the PEG hydrogel. In posterior fossa surgery a PEG hydrogel sealant should be applied when dural edges are closed tightly without any gaps.

  20. Puncture wounds of the foot: can infective complications be avoided?

    PubMed Central

    Pennycook, A; Makower, R; O'Donnell, A M

    1994-01-01

    The bacteriological flora of the foot and shoe was studied concurrently in 200 volunteers without foot injuries, and 80 patients with puncture wounds of the foot. Seven of 28 child patients developed clinical infections, three with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eleven of 52 adult patients also developed infections. No patients developed infection if oral antibiotics were given within the first 24 h after injury (P < 0.05). Oral antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for puncture wounds of the foot. PMID:7966102

  1. Puncture wounds of the foot: can infective complications be avoided?

    PubMed

    Pennycook, A; Makower, R; O'Donnell, A M

    1994-10-01

    The bacteriological flora of the foot and shoe was studied concurrently in 200 volunteers without foot injuries, and 80 patients with puncture wounds of the foot. Seven of 28 child patients developed clinical infections, three with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eleven of 52 adult patients also developed infections. No patients developed infection if oral antibiotics were given within the first 24 h after injury (P < 0.05). Oral antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for puncture wounds of the foot.

  2. Evolving a Puncture Black Hole with Fixed Mesh Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbiriba, Breno; Baker, John; Choi, Dae-II; Centrella, Joan; Fiske. David R.; Brown, J. David; vanMeter, James R.; Olson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of mesh refinement boundaries on the convergence and stability of simulations of black hole spacetimes. We find no technical problems. In our applications of this technique to the evolution of puncture initial data, we demonstrate that it is possible to simulaneously maintain second order convergence near the puncture and extend the outer boundary beyond 100M, thereby approaching the asymptotically flat region in which boundary condition problems are less difficult.

  3. Fang tip spread, puncture distance, and suction for snake bite.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, K R; Hardy, D L; Martins, M; Greene, H W

    2000-05-01

    We measured the distance between fang tip punctures in defensive bites by western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) and the distance between their retracted fangs. Because the fang tips at penetration average 112% further apart than their bases at rest, The Extractor, a device widely marketed in the United States for snake bite first aid, will not simultaneously cover both punctures of most adult New World pitvipers.

  4. Cannabinoids and hallucinogens for headache.

    PubMed

    McGeeney, Brian E

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogens and most cannabinoids are classified under schedule 1 of the Federal Controlled Substances Act 1970, along with heroin and ecstacy. Hence they cannot be prescribed by physicians, and by implication, have no accepted medical use with a high abuse potential. Despite their legal status, hallucinogens and cannabinoids are used by patients for relief of headache, helped by the growing number of American states that have legalized medical marijuana. Cannabinoids in particular have a long history of use in the abortive and prophylactic treatment of migraine before prohibition and are still used by patients as a migraine abortive in particular. Most practitioners are unaware of the prominence cannabis or "marijuana" once held in medical practice. Hallucinogens are being increasingly used by cluster headache patients outside of physician recommendation mainly to abort a cluster period and maintain quiescence for which there is considerable anecdotal success. The legal status of cannabinoids and hallucinogens has for a long time severely inhibited medical research, and there are still no blinded studies on headache subjects, from which we could assess true efficacy.

  5. Frequency of headaches in children is influenced by headache status in the mother.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Marco A; Guidetti, Vincenzo; Galli, Federica; Albuquerque, Regina C A P; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2010-06-01

    Migraine aggregates within families. Nonetheless the familial aggregation of chronic daily headaches (CDH) and of episodic headaches of different frequencies has been very poorly studied. Accordingly herein we test the hypothesis that frequency of primary headaches aggregates in the family. Sample consisted of 1994 children (5-12 years) identified in the population. Validated questionnaires were used to interview the parents. Crude and adjusted prevalences of low-frequency (1-4 headache days/month), intermediate-frequency (5-9 days/month), high-frequency (10-14 headache days/month), and CDH (15 or more headache days/month) in children were calculated as a function of headaches in the mother. Frequency of headaches in the mother predicted frequency of headaches in the children; when the mother had low frequency headaches, the children had an increased chance to have low or intermediate headache frequency (relative risk = 1.4, 1.2-1.6) but not CDH. When the mother had CDH, risk of CDH in the children was increased by almost 13-fold, but the risk of infrequent headaches was not increased. In multivariate models, headaches in the children were independently predicted by headaches in the mother (P < .001); headache frequency in the children was also predicted by frequency in the mother (P < .001). Frequency of headaches in children is influenced by frequency of headaches in the mother and seems to aggregate in families. Future studies should focus on the determinants of headache aggregation, including genetic and non-genetic factors.

  6. Headache in children with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Rajan, Prashant V; Das, Deepanjana; Datta, Priya; Rothner, A David; Erenberg, Gerald

    2012-08-01

    The authors analyzed the frequency of occurrence of headaches in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) to address their possible inclusion as a comorbidity. Using a prospective questionnaire, administered directly, we interviewed a total sample size of 109 patients with TS ≤ 21 years of age. The questionnaires were then analyzed according to the International Headache Society's diagnostic criteria. We found headaches to be present in 55% of the patients, with the 2 most common headache types being migraine headaches and tension-type headaches. The rate of migraine headache within the TS group was found to be 4 times greater than that of the general pediatric population, as reported in the literature. In addition, the rate of tension-type headache was found to be more than 5 times greater than that of the general pediatric population. Overall, the high rates of migraine and tension-type headache within this population support the proposition that headaches are a comorbidity of TS. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention in children and adolescents with headache.

    PubMed

    Riva, Daria; Usilla, Arianna; Aggio, Federica; Vago, Chiara; Treccani, Chiara; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2012-03-01

    The previous studies reporting consistent visual reaction times slowing in patients with migraine prompted us to verify if headache could be associated to a broader impairment of attention. This study aims to undertake a thorough investigation of attentional performance by extending the evaluation to children with primary headache of different types. We compared 62 children with headache (14 migraineurs with aura, 29 without aura and 19 with tension type headache) and 52 controls without headache, matched for age, sex, and intelligence using Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The 3 clinical groups did not differ in attentional measures. The headache patients, collapsed in 1 single sample, had mean scores in Hit Reaction Time significantly different from those of controls and also had a higher percentage of atypical scores in 2 indices of the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (faster mean reaction time and more commissions). Our results confirm the presence of an association between attentional problems and headache that may impact academic learning and daily activities on the long term. The finding that the 3 clinical groups did not show significant differences in attentional performance supports the hypothesis that migraine and tension headache form a continuum that may share the same pathophysiological mechanisms. These results are discussed considering that neurotransmitters and the cerebral circuits subserving headache, personality profile, and attention could overlap, thus predisposing these children to even mild attention malfunctioning. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  8. Chronic cluster headache and the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    De Pue, Annelien; Lutin, Bart; Paemeleire, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is classified as a primary headache by definition not caused by an underlying pathology. However, symptomatic cases of otherwise typical cluster headache have been reported. A 47-year-old male suffered from primary chronic cluster headache (CCH, ICHD-3 beta criteria fulfilled) since the age of 35 years. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the brain in 2006 came back normal. He tried several prophylactic treatments but was never longer than 1 month without attacks. He was under chronic treatment with verapamil with only a limited effect on the attack frequency. Subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg injections were very effective in aborting attacks. By February 2014 the patient developed a continuous interictal pain ipsilateral to the right-sided cluster headache attacks. An indomethacin test (up to 225 mg/day orally) was negative. Because of the change in headache pattern we performed a new brain MRI, which showed a cystic structure in the pituitary gland. The differential diagnosis was between a Rathke cleft cyst and a cystic adenoma. Pituitary function tests showed an elevated serum prolactin level. A dopamine agonist (cabergoline) was started and the headache subsided completely. Potential pathophysiological mechanisms of pituitary tumor-associated headache are discussed. Neuroimaging should be considered in all patients with CCH, especially those with an atypical presentation or evolution. Response to acute treatment does not exclude a secondary form of cluster headache. There may be shared pathophysiological mechanisms of primary and secondary cluster headache.

  9. Headache in children with Chiari I malformation.

    PubMed

    Toldo, Irene; Tangari, Marta; Mardari, Rodica; Perissinotto, Egle; Sartori, Stefano; Gatta, Michela; Calderone, Milena; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Headache is the most common symptom of Chiari 1 malformation, a condition characterized by the herniation of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. However, the headache pattern of cases with Chiari 1 malformations is not well defined in the literature, especially in children. The aim of this retrospective chart review was to evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of headache in children with Chiari 1 malformation at initial evaluation and during follow up. Forty-five cases with tonsillar ectopia were selected among 9947 cases under 18 years of age who underwent neuroimaging between 2002 and 2010. A semistructured clinical interview (mean follow-up: 5.2 years) was conducted. Headache was classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Possible associations between clinical picture, in particular headache pattern, but also other signs and symptoms attributable to Chiari 1 malformation, and the extent of tonsillar ectopia were found for 3 different groups: those with borderline (<5 mm, N = 12), mild (5-9 mm, N = 27), and severe tonsillar ectopia (≥10 mm, N = 6), respectively. Twenty-four out of 33 (73%) cases with Chiari 1 malformation complained of headache, and 9/33 (27%) of those patients (5 with mild and 4 with severe tonsillar ectopia) reported headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation. In our studied pediatric population, the most common symptom for cases diagnosed with Chiari 1 malformation was headache, and headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation was the most common headache pattern in patients with Chiari 1 malformation. The presence of headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation along with 3 other signs or symptoms of Chiari 1 malformation were highly predictive of severe tonsillar ectopia. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  10. [Management of transient radicular pain after receiving an epidural blood patch for headaches due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension].

    PubMed

    Melo, M C; Revuelta, M E; Santeularia, T; Genové, M; Català, E

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache is an uncommon disease that resolves spontaneously in most of the cases and in a short period of time. The initial treatment should be symptomatic. In some patients the symptomatology is extremely disabling, and in these cases both the diagnosis and treatment may be performed by an epidural blood patch. A 49-year-old Caucasian woman, with no previous record of epidural or intrathecal puncture, consulted in the Emergency Department complaining of a 9-day history of frontal headache and diplopia, along with nausea and vomiting. The patient was diagnosed with spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache. Considering the symptomatology and the uncontrolled pain, the Pain Unit of our hospital performed an epidural blood patch. In the first 24h the patient reported a remarkable relief of both headache and diplopia but developed a left lumbar radiculopathy that was treated successfully with supportive measures. Transient lumbar radiculopathy is a common and acceptable event secondary to the use of epidural blood patch as a treatment for spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Ossification of the Posterior Petroclinoid Dural Fold: A Cadaveric Study with Neurosurgical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, David; Kimball, Heather; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R. Shane; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, A. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The roof of the porus trigeminus, composed of the posterior petroclinoid dural fold, is an important landmark to the skull base surgeon. Ossification of the posterior petroclinoid dural fold is an anatomical variation rarely mentioned in the literature. Such ossification results in the trigeminal nerve traversing a bony foramen as it enters Meckel cave. The authors performed this study to better elucidate this anatomical variation. Design Fifteen adult cadaveric head halves were subjected to dissection of the middle cranial fossa. Microdissection techniques were used to examine the posterior petroclinoid dural folds. Skull base osteology was also studied in 71 dry human skulls with attention paid to the attachment point of the posterior petroclinoid dural folds at the trigeminal protuberances. Setting Cadaver laboratory Main Outcome Measures Measurements were made using a microcaliper. Digital images were made of the dissections. Results Completely ossified posterior petroclinoid folds were present in 20% of the specimens. Of the 142 dry skull sides examined, 9% had large trigeminal protuberances. Conclusions Based on this study, the posterior petroclinoid dural fold may completely ossify in adults that may lead to narrowing of the porus trigeminus and potential compression of the trigeminal nerve at the entrance to Meckel cave. PMID:26225315

  12. Bacterial cellulose membranes used as artificial substitutes for dural defection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Ma, Xia; Chen, Shiwen; Tao, Meifeng; Yuan, Lutao; Jing, Yao

    2014-06-16

    To improve the efficacy and safety of dural repair in neurosurgical procedures, a new dural material derived from bacterial cellulose (BC) was evaluated in a rabbit model with dural defects. We prepared artificial dura mater using bacterial cellulose which was incubated and fermented from Acetobacter xylinum. The dural defects of the rabbit model were repaired with BC membranes. All surgeries were performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering. All animals were humanely euthanized by intravenous injection of phenobarbitone, at each time point, after the operation. Then, the histocompatibility and inflammatory effects of BC were examined by histological examination, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western Blot. BC membranes evenly covered the surface of brain without adhesion. There were seldom inflammatory cells surrounding the membrane during the early postoperative period. The expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as iNOS and COX-2 were lower in the BC group compared to the control group at 7, 14 and 21 days after implantation. BC can repair dural defects in rabbit and has a decreased inflammatory response compared to traditional materials. However, the long-term effects need to be validated in larger animals.

  13. Bacterial Cellulose Membranes Used as Artificial Substitutes for Dural Defection in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Ma, Xia; Chen, Shiwen; Tao, Meifeng; Yuan, Lutao; Jing, Yao

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy and safety of dural repair in neurosurgical procedures, a new dural material derived from bacterial cellulose (BC) was evaluated in a rabbit model with dural defects. We prepared artificial dura mater using bacterial cellulose which was incubated and fermented from Acetobacter xylinum. The dural defects of the rabbit model were repaired with BC membranes. All surgeries were performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering. All animals were humanely euthanized by intravenous injection of phenobarbitone, at each time point, after the operation. Then, the histocompatibility and inflammatory effects of BC were examined by histological examination, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western Blot. BC membranes evenly covered the surface of brain without adhesion. There were seldom inflammatory cells surrounding the membrane during the early postoperative period. The expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as iNOS and COX-2 were lower in the BC group compared to the control group at 7, 14 and 21 days after implantation. BC can repair dural defects in rabbit and has a decreased inflammatory response compared to traditional materials. However, the long-term effects need to be validated in larger animals. PMID:24937688

  14. Surgical management of dural arteriovenous fistulas with transosseous arterial feeders involving the jugular bulb

    PubMed Central

    Benes, L.; Kappus, C.; Sure, U.; Farhoud, A.; Bien, S.; Bertalanffy, H.

    2006-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas located in the vicinity of the jugular foramen are complex vascular malformations and belong to the most challenging skull base lesions to treat. The authors comprehensively analyze multiple features in a series of dural arteriovenous fistulas with transosseous arterial feeders involving the jugular bulb. Four patients who underwent surgery via the transcondylar approach to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas around the jugular foramen were retrospectively reviewed. Previously, endovascular treatment was attempted in all patients. The success of the surgical treatment was examined with postoperative angiography. Complete obliteration of the dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was achieved in three patients, and significant flow reduction in one individual. All patients had a good postoperative outcome, and only one experienced mild hypoglossal nerve palsy. Despite extensive bone drilling, an occipitocervical fusion was necessary in only one patient with bilateral lesions. The use of an individually tailored transcondylar approach to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas at the region of the jugular foramen is most effective. This approach allows for complete obliteration of the connecting arterial feeders, and removal of bony structures containing pathological vessels. PMID:17109181

  15. Headache in children: effectiveness of multidisciplinary treatment in a tertiary paediatric headache clinic.

    PubMed

    Soee, Ann-Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Thomsen, Lise L

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific multidisciplinary treatment programme for children with headache and to describe the concept and settings of the Children's Headache Clinic in Denmark. All new patients were included and evaluations were conducted after six and 12 months. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments were offered by a team of specialists (physicians, headache nurses, a physiotherapist and a psychologist). The subjects comprised 169 children (mean age 11.7 (range 4-17), 91 females, 78 males), 39% of whom suffered from chronic headache (≥15 days/month). All children were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition; 20% had migraine, 34% tension-type headache, 27% mixed headache, 4% medication-overuse headache, and 15% were diagnosed with other types of headaches. Fifty per cent of the children had an improvement in headache frequency above 50% at six months. By the use of repeated measurement analysis, we found a significant decrease in headache frequency in all of the six headache groups, whereas the increase in quality of life (PedsQL™ 4.0) was significant for the group as a whole. Though preliminary, the results show a good outcome for multidisciplinary treatment programmes for children who suffer from frequent or chronic headache.

  16. Chronic post-traumatic headache in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Abu-Arafeh, Ishaq; Howells, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Both primary headaches and minor head injuries are common in children. If headache presents for the first time or becomes exacerbated soon after head injury it is described as post-traumatic headache (PTH). Acute PTH resolves within 3 months from injury, but chronic PTH continues beyond 3 months. The pathogenesis of PTH is not well understood. Several mechanisms were proposed such as axonal injuries and disturbances of cerebral metabolic processes. The clinical features of PTH are those of primary headache disorders such as migraine and tension-type headache and usually follow a favorable prognosis. Investigations and management should therefore be relevant to the type of headache and focused on clinical needs of the child.

  17. Headache and Obesity in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Christopher B.; Scher, Ann I.; Recober, Ana; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity and headache are both significant health concerns that often have a marked impact both personally and socially, that if not addressed can carry over into adulthood. For many individuals, these effects may be magnified when obesity and headache are seen in conjunction. It is this overlap between obesity and headache in children, as well as similarities in the known mechanism of action for feeding and headache, which led to a suspected association between the two. Unfortunately, although recent studies have supported this association, only a limited number have been conducted to directly address this. Furthermore, despite rising rates of childhood obesity and headache, the associated medical comorbidities, and the significant financial cost for these conditions, there is a relative void in studies investigating treatment options that address both underlying conditions of obesity and headache in children. PMID:24695998

  18. The Use of Cannabis for Headache Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lochte, Bryson C.; Beletsky, Alexander; Samuel, Nebiyou K.; Grant, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Headache disorders are common, debilitating, and, in many cases, inadequately managed by existing treatments. Although clinical trials of cannabis for neuropathic pain have shown promising results, there has been limited research on its use, specifically for headache disorders. This review considers historical prescription practices, summarizes the existing reports on the use of cannabis for headache, and examines the preclinical literature exploring the role of exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids to alter headache pathophysiology. Currently, there is not enough evidence from well-designed clinical trials to support the use of cannabis for headache, but there are sufficient anecdotal and preliminary results, as well as plausible neurobiological mechanisms, to warrant properly designed clinical trials. Such trials are needed to determine short- and long-term efficacy for specific headache types, compatibility with existing treatments, optimal administration practices, as well as potential risks. PMID:28861505

  19. Headache and obesity in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Christopher B; Scher, Ann I; Recober, Ana; Peterlin, B Lee

    2014-05-01

    Childhood obesity and headache are both significant health concerns that often have a marked impact both personally and socially, that if not addressed can carry over into adulthood. For many individuals, these effects may be magnified when obesity and headache are seen in conjunction. It is this overlap between obesity and headache in children, as well as similarities in the known mechanism of action for feeding and headache, which led to a suspected association between the two. Unfortunately, although recent studies have supported this association, only a limited number have been conducted to directly address this. Furthermore, despite rising rates of childhood obesity and headache, the associated medical comorbidities, and the significant financial cost for these conditions, there is a relative void in studies investigating treatment options that address both underlying conditions of obesity and headache in children.

  20. The Geriatric Headache: A Unique Clinical Ailment

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Donald F.; Purdy, R. Allan

    1986-01-01

    The “geriatric headache” may be a unique clinical ailment. A change in a chronic headache pattern or a new onset headache should raise suspicion immediately in an elderly patient. Temporal arteritis occurs almost exclusively in the elderly population. Because of its grave prognosis and ease of treatment, this condition should always be considered a possibility in the elderly patient with headache. A throbbing non-migranous headache may indicate an impending cerebrovascular event. Other causes of headache, such as mass lesions (tumours, subdural hematomas), drugs (nitrates, estrogens) and depression, take on greater significance in the elderly. While migraine and cluster headaches are more common in young adults, they may begin in older persons; indeed, transient migraine accompaniments are “TIA mimics”. The authors hope that this overview of the “geriatric headache” will facilitate early recognition of this ailment which often leads to diagnostic confusion. PMID:20469461

  1. Assessment of Headache Incidence During SURVIVEX 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-12

    Assessment of Headache Incidence during SURVIVEX 2004 Gerard DeMers, DO, MPH Wayne G. Horn, M.D. Linda M. Hughes, M.S. Approved and...7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 12/08/2009 Memorandum Report 10/1/2002-04/13/2009 Assessment of Headache Incidence during SURVIVEX...release, distribution unlimited The extent to which headaches occur among submariners and impact their performance is unknown. The objective of this

  2. Temporomandibular disorders, facial pain, and headaches.

    PubMed

    Bender, Steven D

    2012-05-01

    Headaches and facial pain are common in the general population. In many cases, facial pain can be resultant from temporomandibular joint disorders. Studies have identified an association between headaches and temporomandibular joint disorders suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms of these 2 maladies. The aim of this paper is to elucidate potential commonalities of these disorders and to provide a brief overview of an examination protocol that may benefit the headache clinician in daily practice.

  3. High risk clinical characteristics for subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients with acute headache: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jeffrey J; Stiell, Ian G; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bullard, Michael J; Lee, Jacques S; Eisenhauer, Mary; Symington, Cheryl; Mortensen, Melodie; Sutherland, Jane; Lesiuk, Howard; Wells, George A

    2010-10-28

    To identify high risk clinical characteristics for subarachnoid haemorrhage in neurologically intact patients with headache. Multicentre prospective cohort study over five years. Six university affiliated tertiary care teaching hospitals in Canada. Data collected from November 2000 until November 2005. Neurologically intact adults with a non-traumatic headache peaking within an hour. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, as defined by any of subarachnoid haemorrhage on computed tomography of the head, xanthochromia in the cerebrospinal fluid, or red blood cells in the final sample of cerebrospinal fluid with positive results on angiography. Physicians completed data collection forms before investigations. In the 1999 patients enrolled there were 130 cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Mean (range) age was 43.4 (16-93), 1207 (60.4%) were women, and 1546 (78.5%) reported that it was the worst headache of their life. Thirteen of the variables collected on history and three on examination were reliable and associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage. We used recursive partitioning with different combinations of these variables to create three clinical decisions rules. All had 100% (95% confidence interval 97.1% to 100.0%) sensitivity with specificities from 28.4% to 38.8%. Use of any one of these rules would have lowered rates of investigation (computed tomography, lumbar puncture, or both) from the current 82.9% to between 63.7% and 73.5%. Clinical characteristics can be predictive for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Practical and sensitive clinical decision rules can be used in patients with a headache peaking within an hour. Further study of these proposed decision rules, including prospective validation, could allow clinicians to be more selective and accurate when investigating patients with headache.

  4. Thomas Jefferson's headaches: were they migraines?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Gary L; Rolak, Loren A

    2006-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson had severe headaches on a number of occasions during his adult life, as noted by most of his biographers. Some occurred during important historical events, including the period just before the writing of the Declaration of Independence. Historians generally have considered these headaches to be migraines, while some physician authors have considered the alternative diagnoses of tension-type headaches and cluster headaches. A review of the literature, including Jefferson's many letters, suggests that they probably were migraines, although not all of the current diagnostic criteria can be met.

  5. Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Section in a Pregnant Woman with Marfan Syndrome and Dural Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Franco; De Luca, Francesco; Privitera, Agata; Sanalitro, Elisabetta; Scarpinati, Puccio

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of connective tissue, characterized by variable clinical features and multisystem complications. The anesthetic management during delivery is debated. Regional anesthesia has been used with success during cesarean delivery, but in some MFS patients there is a probability of erratic and inadequate spread of intrathecal local anesthetics as a result of dural ectasia. In these cases, epidural anesthesia may be a particularly useful technique during cesarean delivery because it allows an adequate spread and action of local anesthetic with a controlled onset of anesthesia, analgesia, and sympathetic block and a low risk of perioperative complications. We report the perioperative management of a patient with MFS and dural ectasia who successfully underwent cesarean section using epidural technique anesthesia. The previous pregnancy of this woman ended with cesarean section with a failed spinal anesthesia that was converted to general anesthesia due to unknown dural ectasia at that time. PMID:28611929

  6. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma: A rare presentation of a dural intracranial fistula.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Guilherme Brasileiro; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves; Silva, João Miguel de Almeida; Conti, Mario Luiz Marques

    2016-03-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas are acquired lesions between the meningeal arteries and their associated draining veins. They may have highly variable clinical presentations and evolution, from severe neurological deficit to no or trivial symptoms. Intracranial hemorrhage occurs in less than 24% of all dural fistulas, and the bleeding is usually subarachnoid, more infrequently intracerebral, and rarely in the subdural space. Here, we present a rare case of a patient who presented with a subdural spontaneous hemorrhage. After investigation by cerebral angiography, the diagnosis of a dural arteriovenous fistula was made. The patient underwent uneventful endovascular treatment. As there are with only a few reports in the literature of such a presentation, we present this patient and perform a brief review of the literature.

  7. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Manifested as Rapid Progressive Dementia Successfully Treated by Endovascular Embolization Only

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Heewon; La, Yun Kyung; Baek, Min Seok; Baik, Kyoungwon; Suh, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A 43-year-old male presented with daytime sleepiness at work and indifferent behavior like never before. Two weeks prior to hospital admission, he had episodic memory loss with well preserved remote memory. Brain MRI showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in the right lateral transverse sinus with a bilateral thalamic venous infarction. Cerebral angiography confirmed a right transverse sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistula with a feeding artery of the right occipital artery and left posterior meningeal artery. The DAVF was completely eliminated through multiple endovascular interventions. Recently, endovascular treatment has become one of the main therapeutic options to obliterate a fistulous site, which has led to a rapid diagnostic approach and management of DAVFs with high curative rates. We report a rare case of posterior fossa located at a dural arteriovenous fistula that caused rapid progressive dementia and was successfully eliminated through only endovascular treatment. PMID:28316870

  8. Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Section in a Pregnant Woman with Marfan Syndrome and Dural Ectasia.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Franco; Stracquadanio, Mariagrazia; De Luca, Francesco; Privitera, Agata; Sanalitro, Elisabetta; Scarpinati, Puccio

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of connective tissue, characterized by variable clinical features and multisystem complications. The anesthetic management during delivery is debated. Regional anesthesia has been used with success during cesarean delivery, but in some MFS patients there is a probability of erratic and inadequate spread of intrathecal local anesthetics as a result of dural ectasia. In these cases, epidural anesthesia may be a particularly useful technique during cesarean delivery because it allows an adequate spread and action of local anesthetic with a controlled onset of anesthesia, analgesia, and sympathetic block and a low risk of perioperative complications. We report the perioperative management of a patient with MFS and dural ectasia who successfully underwent cesarean section using epidural technique anesthesia. The previous pregnancy of this woman ended with cesarean section with a failed spinal anesthesia that was converted to general anesthesia due to unknown dural ectasia at that time.

  9. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after a spinal surgery complicated by dural tear: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Karaeminogullari, Oguz; Atalay, Basar; Sahin, Orcun; Ozalay, Metin; Demirors, Huseyin; Tuncay, Cengiz; Ozen, Ozlem; Tandogan, Reha

    2005-07-01

    This report presents a case in which cerebellar hemorrhage occurred after lumbar decompression surgery that was complicated by dural tear and prolonged cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after spinal surgery is extremely rare. Our objective is to describe this unusual complication, discuss the possible mechanisms of remote cerebellar hemorrhage, and review the literature. A 73-year-old woman underwent surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. A dural tear occurred during decompression, and the patient developed remote cerebellar hemorrhage on postoperative Day 2. The cerebellar hemorrhage was treated surgically, and a biopsy of hemorrhagic brain parenchyma revealed an arteriovenous malformation. Although it is an extremely rare complication, remote cerebellar hemorrhage should be kept in mind as a possible complication of spinal surgery, especially in operations complicated by dural tears.

  10. Endovascular Occlusion of Dural Cavernous Fistulas through a Superior Ophthalmic Vein Approach

    PubMed Central

    Briganti, Francesco; Caranci, Ferdinando; Leone, Giuseppe; Napoli, Manuela; Cicala, Domenico; Briganti, Giuseppe; Tranfa, Fausto; Bonavolontà, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dural cavernous fistulas are low-flow vascular malformations with usually benign clinical course and a high rate of spontaneous resolution. Cases with symptom progression must be treated with an endovascular approach by arterial or venous route. We report 30 patients with dural cavernous fistulas treated by coil embolization using surgical exposure and retrograde catheterization of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). The procedure resulted in closure of the fistula without other endovascular treatments in all 30 patients and clinical remission or improvement in 20 and eight patients, respectively. Embolization via a SOV approach is a safe and easy endovascular procedure, particularly indicated for dural cavernous fistulas with exclusive or prevalent internal carotid artery feeders and anterior venous drainage. PMID:24199817

  11. Preclinical characterization and safety of a novel hydrogel for augmenting dural repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Michael J.; Carnahan, Michael A.; D'Alessio, Keith; Butlin, Jared D. G.; Butt, Mark T.; Asher, Anthony L.

    2015-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a potentially serious complication in surgical procedures involving opening of the dura mater. Although several materials have been developed to help achieve watertight dural closures, CSF leakages persist. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel hydrogel designed to provide augmentation to standard methods of dural repair. Performance measures such as polymerization time, dimensional swelling, burst strength, and elasticity were examined in laboratory situations. Additionally, biocompatibility in an in vivo rat model was examined. The results demonstrate that this novel hydrogel has superior mechanical strength and tissue adherence with enhanced flexibility, reduced swelling, and quicker set time compared with existing hydrogel dural sealants approved for intra-cranial use. Furthermore, biocompatibility studies demonstrate that this compound is both non-toxic and non-immunogenic.

  12. [Rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism associated to multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas].

    PubMed

    Mejia, P; Piedra, L M; Merchan-Del Hierro, X

    2017-03-01

    Introduccion. Las demencias rapidamente progresivas son un grupo poco frecuente de enfermedades caracterizadas por un deterioro cognitivo y otras alteraciones neurologicas que evolucionan en el transcurso de semanas a meses. Su etiologia es diversa e incluye un gran numero de condiciones neurodegenerativas, toxicas, metabolicas, autoinmunes, infecciosas y vasculares. Caso clinico. Varon de 69 años, que ingreso por demencia rapidamente progresiva y parkinsonismo causado por multiples fistulas arteriovenosas durales tratadas exitosamente mediante terapia endovascular. Conclusion. Las fistulas arteriovenosas durales son conexiones anomalas entre las arterias durales y los senos venosos o venas corticales que constituyen una causa inusual de demencia rapidamente progresiva, pero que debe considerarse, dada la disponibilidad de un tratamiento especifico con reversion de los sintomas.

  13. Primary headache syndromes and sinus headache: An approach to diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Emma Catherine; Smyth, David

    2012-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and primary headache syndromes are common disease entities and headache and facial pain are common reasons for referral to otolaryngology units. Because of an association of nasal symptoms with primary headache syndromes and considerable similarities in their clinical presentations, primary headache syndromes may be misdiagnosed as sinus disease and vice versa. In this review we examine the evidence on which otolaryngologists can base clinical diagnosis and management and offer an approach to distinguishing these common clinical entities.

  14. Single center experience with treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Neriman; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Goerike, Sophia Luise; Wrede, Karsten Henning; Kleist, Bernadette; Stein, Klaus-Peter; Gembruch, Oliver; Sandalcioglu, Ibrahim Erol; Wanke, Isabel; Sure, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) are rare pathologies with a yearly incidence of 5-10 new cases/million, constituting 60-80 % of spinal arteriovenous malformations. Clinical symptoms include progressive paraparesis, paresthesias, bladder, and bowel disturbances. The pathophysiology of SDAVFs is not well elucidated. Microneurosurgery and endovascular techniques are established treatment modalities for permanent fistula occlusion, which are oftentimes accompanied by an amelioration of neurological deficits in the long run. Here, we report our interdisciplinary neurosurgical/neuroradiological management strategy of SDAVFs in 32 patients who were evaluated retrospectively. We focused on clinical presentation, microneurosurgical and interventional technique, early, and late neurological results. Quality of life (QoL) was additionally assessed in 12 patients at last follow-up. We discuss the results against the background of the current literature. Our series and the literature indicate that clinical outcome after treatment of SDAVF is favorable in general. Both neurosurgical and neurointerventional therapies appear to be safe and effective, but short-term neurological deterioration after the intervention constitutes an as-of-yet unsolved problem. Beyond age and preoperative neurological state, presence of comorbidities had a significant influence on neurological outcome in our study sample. Self-assessed physical and mental QoL at long-term follow-up was reduced in quite a number of patients and was associated with a poorer neurological result as well as presence of comorbidities. The patients' perspective in terms of QoL was first investigated in this study, but further research on QoL and psychosocial impairment of SDAVF patients is needed to enable individualized counseling and rehabilitation strategies.

  15. Activity of botulinum toxin type A in cranial dura: implications for treatment of migraine and other headaches

    PubMed Central

    Filipović, Boris; Matak, Ivica; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) is approved for chronic migraine treatment, its mechanism of action is still unknown. Dural neurogenic inflammation (DNI) commonly used to investigate migraine pathophysiology can be evoked by trigeminal pain. Here, we investigated the reactivity of cranial dura to trigeminal pain and the mechanism of BoNT/A action on DNI. Experimental Approach Because temporomandibular disorders are highly comorbid with migraine, we employed a rat model of inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant, followed by treatment with BoNT/A injections or sumatriptan p.o. DNI was assessed by Evans blue‐plasma protein extravasation, cell histology and RIA for CGRP. BoNT/A enzymatic activity in dura was assessed by immunohistochemistry for cleaved synaptosomal‐associated protein 25 (SNAP‐25). Key Results BoNT/A and sumatriptan reduced the mechanical allodynia and DNI, evoked by complete Freund's adjuvant. BoNT/A prevented inflammatory cell infiltration and inhibited the increase of CGRP levels in dura. After peripheral application, BoNT/A‐cleaved SNAP‐25 colocalized with CGRP in intracranial dural nerve endings. Injection of the axonal transport blocker colchicine into the trigeminal ganglion prevented the formation of cleaved SNAP‐25 in dura. Conclusions and Implications Pericranially injected BoNT/A was taken up by local sensory nerve endings, axonally transported to the trigeminal ganglion and transcytosed to dural afferents. Colocalization of cleaved SNAP‐25 and the migraine mediator CGRP in dura suggests that BoNT/A may prevent DNI by suppressing transmission by CGRP. This might explain the effects of BoNT/A in temporomandibular joint inflammation and in migraine and some other headaches. PMID:26493010

  16. Posterior Trans-Dural Repair of Iatrogenic Spinal Cord Herniation after Resection of Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic spinal cord herniation is a rare complication following spinal surgery. We introduce a posterior trans-dural repair technique used in a case of thoracic spinal cord herniation through a ventral dural defect following resection of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervicothoracic spine. A 51-year-old female was suffering from paraplegia after laminectomy alone for cervicothoracic OPLL. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a severely compressed spinal cord with pseudomeningocele identified postoperatively. Cerebrospinal fluid leak and iatrogenic spinal cord herniation persisted despite several operations with duroplasty and sealing agent. Finally, the problems were treated by repair of the ventral dural defect with posterior trans-dural duroplasty. Several months after surgery, the patient could walk independently. This surgical technique can be applied to treat ventral dural defect and spinal cord herniation. PMID:27114779

  17. Spinal bone defects in neurofibromatosis type I with dural ectasia: stress fractures or dysplastic? A case series.

    PubMed

    Khoo Bao, Jenn Nee; Ogunwale, Bamikole; Huson, Susan M; Ealing, John; Whitehouse, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a multisystem neurocutaneous disorder with varied musculoskeletal manifestations. Dural ectasia is a known association, whilst pedicular anomalies have been described, although not as frequently as other skeletal manifestations. However, reports of pedicular and other spinal clefts or fractures in combination with dural ectasia in NF1 are scarce. We aimed to identify osseous defects in the posterior elements of NF1 patients with dural ectasia. Images of patients with NF1 and back pain were reviewed for osseous defects in the posterior elements. Four patients were identified with NF1, back pain, dural ectasia and bone defects. The imaging appearances of the defects are illustrated. Defects in the spinal posterior elements of patients with NF1, back pain and dural ectasia may be dysplastic, stress fractures or, most probably, multifactorial in origin. Computed tomography demonstrates these defects most clearly.

  18. Posterior Trans-Dural Repair of Iatrogenic Spinal Cord Herniation after Resection of Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2016-04-01

    Iatrogenic spinal cord herniation is a rare complication following spinal surgery. We introduce a posterior trans-dural repair technique used in a case of thoracic spinal cord herniation through a ventral dural defect following resection of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervicothoracic spine. A 51-year-old female was suffering from paraplegia after laminectomy alone for cervicothoracic OPLL. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a severely compressed spinal cord with pseudomeningocele identified postoperatively. Cerebrospinal fluid leak and iatrogenic spinal cord herniation persisted despite several operations with duroplasty and sealing agent. Finally, the problems were treated by repair of the ventral dural defect with posterior trans-dural duroplasty. Several months after surgery, the patient could walk independently. This surgical technique can be applied to treat ventral dural defect and spinal cord herniation.

  19. Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... powered by a computer program that performs symptom triage. The goal of symptom triage is to decide when, and where, you should seek care when you have symptoms. Symptom triage does not replace a physician evaluation or make ...

  20. Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... Migraines may be triggered by foods, such as chocolate, certain cheeses, or monosodium glutamate (MSG). Caffeine withdrawal, ... if you have vomited. Rest in a quiet, dark room. Place a cool cloth on your head. ...

  1. Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections strep throat urinary tract infections ear infections Lyme disease For some teens, hormonal changes can also cause ... can buy these in drugstores under various brand names — and your drugstore may ... but dangerous disease called Reye syndrome. If you are taking over- ...

  2. Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter medicines, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. An over-the-counter decongestant and saline nasal ... over-the-counter medicine, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, to relieve pain. Getting plenty of rest, taking ...

  3. Onyx Migration in the Endovascular Management of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H.; Lv, X.; Jiang, C.; Li, Y.; Wu, Z.; Xu, K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Onyx migration in the endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dural AVFs) is uncommon. We describe five cases of Onyx migration to the heart and draining vein and its avoidance. Between February 2007 and August 2008, Onyx migration was encountered in five patients with dural AVFs treated endovascularly at our institute. Procedures performed under general anesthesia consisted of two arterial approaches and three venous approaches. Two patients with dural AVFs involving the transverse-sigmoid sinus were treated by tran- sarterial embolization using Onyx-18 via the occipital artery and the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, respectively. A piece of Onyx was found in the right ventricle on post- embolization chest X-ray film in both patients, one developed tricuspid valve dysfunction requiring thoracic surgery and one was asymptomatic. The other three patients were treated with a combination of Onyx (34 or 18) and coils transvenously with venous Onyx migration leading to draining vein occlusion, one with dur- al AVF involving the tentorium died from venous rupture, two patients with bilateral dural AVFs of the cavernous sinus (one with deterioration of ocular symptoms and one without symptoms). Postoperative digital subtraction an- giography confirmed the elimination of dural AVF in one patient, and residual fistulae in three patients. The follow-up study ranging from two to nine months (average, 4.5 months). Three patients recovered to their full activities, while one had visual disturbance. Although Onyx has been considered a controllable embolic agent, its migration to other locations causing clinical deterioration can occur. This problem should be noted and prevented. PMID:20465913

  4. Diagnostic Performance of Routine Brain MRI Sequences for Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, D; Machnowska, M; Symons, S; Yeung, R; Fox, A J; Aviv, R I; Jabehdar Maralani, P

    2016-06-16

    Signs suggestive of unexpected dural venous sinus thrombosis are detectable on routine MR imaging studies without MRV. We assessed performance characteristics and interrater reliability of routine MR imaging for the diagnosis of dural venous sinus thrombosis, focusing on the superior sagittal, transverse, and sigmoid sinuses. This case series included 350 patients with MRIs performed with contrast-enhanced MRV and 79 patients with routine MRIs performed within 48 hours of a CTV from 2008 to 2014 (total, n = 429). Routine MR images were separated from the contrast-enhanced MRVs and CTVs. Three neuroradiologists, blinded to clinical data, independently reviewed the MRIs for signs of dural venous sinus thrombosis, including high signal on sagittal T1, loss of flow void on axial T2, high signal on FLAIR, high signal on DWI, increased susceptibility effects on T2*-weighted gradient recalled-echo imaging, and filling defects on axial contrast-enhanced spin-echo T1WI and/or volumetric gradient-echo T1WI. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed contrast-enhanced MRVs and CTVs to determine the consensus gold standard. Interrater reliability was calculated by using the κ coefficient. Contrast-enhanced MRV and CTV confirmed that dural venous sinus thrombosis was present in 72 of 429 cases (16.8%). The combination of routine MR sequences had an overall sensitivity of 79.2%, specificity of 89.9%, and moderate interrater reliability (κ = 0.50). The 3 readers did not have similar performance characteristics. 69.4% of positive cases had clinical suspicion of dural venous sinus thrombosis indicated on imaging requisition. Routine MR images can suggest dural venous sinus thrombosis with high specificity in high-risk patients, even in cases without clinical suspicion. © 2016 American Society of Neuroradiology.

  5. Relativistic hydrodynamics in the presence of puncture black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, Joshua A.; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2007-11-15

    Many of the recent numerical simulations of binary black holes in vacuum adopt the moving puncture approach. This successful approach avoids the need to impose numerical excision of the black hole interior and is easy to implement. Here we wish to explore how well the same approach can be applied to moving black hole punctures in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. First, we evolve single black hole punctures in vacuum to calibrate our Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura implementation and to confirm that the numerical solution for the exterior spacetime is invariant to any junk (i.e., constraint-violating) initial data employed in the black hole interior. Then we focus on relativistic Bondi accretion onto a moving puncture Schwarzschild black hole as a numerical test bed for our high-resolution shock-capturing relativistic hydrodynamics scheme. We find that the hydrodynamical equations can be evolved successfully in the interior without imposing numerical excision. These results help motivate the adoption of the moving puncture approach to treat the binary black hole-neutron star problem using conformal thin-sandwich initial data.

  6. [Consensus paper of the German Migraine and Headache Society on the structure of headache care facilities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Marziniak, M; Malzacher, V; Förderreuther, S; Jürgens, T; Kropp, P; May, A; Straube, A

    2014-04-01

    This consensus paper introduces a classification of headache care facilities on behalf of the German Migraine and Headache Society. This classification is based on the recommendations of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and the European Headache Federation (EHF) and was adapted to reflect the specific situation of headache care in Germany. It defines three levels of headache care: headache practitioner (level 1), headache outpatient clinic (level 2) and headache centers (level 3). The objective of the publication is to define and establish reliable criteria in the field of headache care in Germany.

  7. Rounding behavior in the reporting of headache frequency complicates headache chronification research.

    PubMed

    Houle, Timothy T; Turner, Dana P; Houle, Thomas A; Smitherman, Todd A; Martin, Vincent; Penzien, Donald B; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-06-01

    To characterize the extent of measurement error arising from rounding in headache frequency reporting (days per month) in a population sample of headache sufferers. When reporting numerical health information, individuals tend to round their estimates. The tendency to round to the nearest 5 days when reporting headache frequency can distort distributions and engender unreliability in frequency estimates in both clinical and research contexts. This secondary analysis of the 2005 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study survey characterized the population distribution of 30-day headache frequency among community headache sufferers and determined the extent of numerical rounding ("heaping") in self-reported data. Headache frequency distributions (days per month) were examined using a simplified version of Wang and Heitjan's approach to heaping to estimate the probability that headache sufferers round to a multiple of 5 when providing frequency reports. Multiple imputation was used to estimate a theoretical "true" headache frequency. Of the 24,000 surveys, headache frequency data were available for 15,976 respondents diagnosed with migraine (68.6%), probable migraine (8.3%), or episodic tension-type headache (10.0%); the remainder had other headache types. The mean number of headaches days/month was 3.7 (standard deviation = 5.6). Examination of the distribution of headache frequency reports revealed a disproportionate number of responses centered on multiples of 5 days. The odds that headache frequency was rounded to 5 increased by 24% with each 1-day increase in headache frequency (odds ratio: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 1.25), indicating that heaping occurs most commonly at higher headache frequencies. Women were more likely to round than men, and rounding decreased with increasing age and increased with symptoms of depression. Because of the coarsening induced by rounding, caution should be used when distinguishing between episodic and chronic

  8. Dural sinus thrombosis owing to polycythaemia vera in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Guo, H X; Chan, G C; Chiang, A K; Ho, M H; Chan, E Y T; Ha, S Y

    2012-08-01

    Because of the rarity of dural sinus thrombosis in children with polycythaemia vera (PV), the options for diagnosis and treatment remain elusive. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with dural sinus thrombosis associated with PV, diagnosed by magnetic resonance venography. She was managed with interventional endovascular thrombolectomy and venoplasty, phlebotomy, hydroxyurea, low molecular weight heparin, and aspirin followed by warfarin. She made a good recovery without residual neurological deficit. This case highlights the importance of diagnosis and appropriate intervention with multi-modality treatments in patients with PV and thrombosis.

  9. Spinal anaesthesia in a patient with post-spine surgery dural ectasia.

    PubMed

    Errando, C L; Del Moral, A; Cobo, I; García-Gregorio, N; Pallardó-López, M A

    2014-01-01

    Dural sac ectasia is a very infrequent anatomical abnormality, usually caused by connective tissue diseases, as Marfan syndrome. Very few cases have been described being a consequence of a previous spine surgical procedure. We describe the case of an elderly patient who should be operated on twice due to sub-occlusive colon disease. Surgery was performed under spinal anaesthesia. A dural sac ectasia was suspected after the first procedure and the abdominal X-ray was reviewed. The characteristics of the anatomical alteration and the course of both anaesthetic procedures were described. X-ray and CT images were provided.

  10. Spontaneous Aggressive Conversion of Venous Drainage Pattern in Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Treated with Onyx Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yeongu; Choi, Seok Keun; Lee, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) that showed spontaneous conversion of venous drainage pattern from Borden type II to type III within a four month period of follow-up. Upon admission, the patient presented with aggravated neurologic status and newly developed seizure. After admission, endovascular embolization was performed through the middle meningeal artery with Onyx®. Complete obliteration of dural arteriovenous shunt was confirmed by angiography, and the patient's clinical symptoms improved. Although most cases of DAVF show benign clinical course and conversion pattern, close follow-up is required to detect potential aggravation. PMID:28184352

  11. Dural Reduction Surgery: A Treatment Option for Frontotemporal Brain Sagging Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Emily; Schievink, Wouter I; Sim, Valerie L

    2016-07-01

    Frontotemporal brain sagging syndrome is a dementia associated with hypersomnolence, personality changes, and features of intracranial hypotension on magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is sparse with respect to treatment options; many patients simply worsen. We present a case in which this syndrome responded to lumbar dural reduction surgery. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging indicated normalization of brain sagging and lumbar intrathecal pressure. Although no evidence of cerebrospinal leak was found, extremely thin dura was noted intraoperatively, suggesting that a thin and incompetent dura could result in this low-pressure syndrome. Clinicians who encounter this syndrome should consider dural reduction surgery as a treatment strategy.

  12. Cervicogenic headache alleviation after cervical coblation nucleoplasty

    PubMed Central

    He, Liangliang; Yue, Jianning; Yang, Liqiang; Wu, Baishan; Cao, Guoqing; Guo, Yuna; Lai, Guanghui; Tang, Yuanzhang; Ni, Jiaxiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A degenerative cervical disc is a pain generator for headaches, and headaches can benefit from cervical prolapse surgery. However, as an alternative intervention for open cervical surgery, no study has reported whether headaches can benefit from cervical nucleoplasty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cervical coblation nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervicogenic headaches. In a prospective cohort study performed between December 2013 and August 2015, 20 patients with cervicogenic headaches undergoing cervical nucleoplasty for shoulder-arm pain were recruited into group C, and 20 patients with cervicogenic headaches undergoing lumbar nucleoplasty for low back pain, matched for age and sex, were recruited into group L. Cervicogenic pain was diagnosed according to the International Headache Society criteria. During the 24-month follow-up, pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores were collected as the primary outcomes, and significant pain relief rate, Neck Disability Index (NDI) headache scores, and Patients Satisfaction Index (PSI) scores were recorded as secondary outcomes to evaluate headache severity and physical function postoperatively. During the 24-month follow-up, a significant decrease in headache VAS scores was observed in group C but not in group L. NDI and PSI scores in group C were better than those in group L. In comparison with the final follow-up, no significant differences in the NDI and PSI scores were found in all observations after surgery. In comparison to group L, ≥50% pain relief was significantly better in group C. No serious complications were observed except for ≤20% of ecchymoma at the needle insertion site. This prospective study indicated that cervicogenic headaches may benefit from nucleoplasty. PMID:27684803

  13. Importance of recognizing sentinel headache

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Júlio Leonardo Barbosa; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne Freitas; Dellaretti, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gervásio Teles Cardoso; Vieira Junior, Gerival; Rocha, Marcella Israel; Loures, Laize Luzia Andrade; Christo, Paulo Pereira; de Sousa, Atos Alves

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sentinel headache (SH) is a kind of secondary headache and is characterized as sudden, intense, and persistent, preceding spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by days or weeks. Methods: Eighty-nine consecutive patients with a diagnosis of spontaneous SAH were evaluated following admission to the Neurosurgical Service at Santa Casa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, between December 2009 and December 2010. Results: Out of the 89 patients, 64 (71.9%) were women. Mean age was 48.9 years (SD ± 13.4, ranging from 18 to 85 years). Twenty-four patients (27.0%) presented SH, which occurred, in average, 10.6 days (SD ± 13.5) before a SAH. No statistically significant differences were observed between the presence of SH and gender, arterial hypertension and migraine (P > 0.05), Glasgow Comma Scale (GCS) and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale at admission. Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was 27% in this study but no related factors were identified. Therefore, further clarification of this important entity is required so as to facilitate its recognition in emergency services and improve the prognosis of patients with cerebral aneurysms. PMID:23372978

  14. Headache characteristics and chronification of migraine and tension-type headache: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ashina, Sait; Lyngberg, Ann; Jensen, Rigmor

    2010-08-01

    Migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) can increase in frequency and transform from episodic to chronic forms. The process of transformation of these primary headaches is complex and involves multiple risk factors. In this cross-sectional and longitudinal population study, we aimed to investigate the relation of clinical characteristics of primary headaches to poor outcome: new-onset or persistent chronic headache (> or =180 days/year). Individuals who had migraine + / - TTH and those who had pure TTH were studied separately. Of 740 individuals who entered this study in 1989, 673 were eligible for follow-up in 2001, and a total of 549 individuals participated in the follow-up study. At baseline in 1989, no difference was found between episodic and chronic migraine headache ( + / - TTH). Duration of headache episodes >72 hours (p = .002) was associated with pure chronic TTH at baseline in 1989 whereas aggravation of headache by physical activity (p = .045) was associated with pure frequent episodic TTH. Of 64 subjects with migraine + / - TTH, 12 had a poor outcome in 2001. For pure TTH, of 116 subjects at baseline, 11 had a poor outcome in 2001. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for medication overuse and use of preventive medications, poor outcome of migraine + / - TTH tended to be associated with a baseline pulsating quality and severe intensity of migraine, photophobia and phonophobia, as well as longer duration of an individual headache attack. For pure TTH, unilateral headache, nausea and individual headache attack duration greater than 72 hours was associated with poor outcome. Pooled data univariate analysis revealed that nausea, daily use of acute headache medications, use of headache preventive medications and coexistent headaches were significant predictors of chronic headache in 2001(p<.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that certain clinical characteristics of headaches are associated with poor outcome but alone

  15. Obesity in children with headaches: association with headache type, frequency, and disability.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Sarit; Shahar, Eli; Schiff, Aharon; Gordon, Shirie

    2013-06-01

    To examine the association between obesity and the different types of primary headaches, and the relation to headache frequency and disability The association between obesity and headache has been well established in adults, but only a few studies have examined this association in children, in particular, the relationship between obesity and different types of primary headaches. The authors retrospectively evaluated 181 children evaluated for headaches as their primary complaint between 2006 and 2007 in their Pediatric Neurology Clinic. Data regarding age, gender, headache type, frequency, and disability, along with height and weight were collected. Body mass index was calculated, and percentiles were determined for age and sex. Headache type and features were compared among normal weight, at risk for overweight, and overweight children. A higher prevalence (39.8%) of obesity was found in our study group compared with the general population. The diagnosis of migraine, but not of tension-type headache, was significantly associated with being at risk for overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.21-4.67, P = .01) or overweight (OR = 2.29, 95% confidence interval 0.95-5.56, P = .04). A significant independent risk for overweight was present in females with migraine (OR = 4.93, 1.46-8.61, P = .006). Regardless of headache type, a high body mass index percentile was associated with increased headache frequency and disability, but not with duration of attack. Obesity and primary headaches in children are associated. Although obesity seems to be a risk factor for migraine more than for tension-type headache, it is associated with increased headache frequency and disability regardless of headache type. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  16. Protective materials with real-time puncture detection capability

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, R.E.; Stampfer, J.F.; Valdez-Boyle, L.S.; Ramsey, D.R.

    1996-08-01

    The protection of workers from chemical, biological, or radiological hazards requires the use of protective materials that can maintain their integrity during use. An accidental puncture in the protective material can result in a significant exposure to the worker. A five ply material has been developed that incorporates two layers of an electrically conductive polymer sandwiched between three layers of a nonconductive polymer. A normally open circuit that is connected between the conductive layers will be closed by puncturing the material with either a conductive or nonconductive object. This can be used to activate an audible alarm or visual beacon to warn the worker of a breach in the integrity of the material. The worker is not connected to the circuit, and the puncture can be detected in real-time, even when caused by a nonconductor.

  17. Single-domain spectral method for black hole puncture data

    SciTech Connect

    Ansorg, Marcus; Bruegmann, Bernd; Tichy, Wolfgang

    2004-09-15

    We calculate puncture initial data corresponding to both single and binary black hole solutions of the constraint equations by means of a pseudospectral method applied in a single spatial domain. Introducing appropriate coordinates, these methods exhibit rapid convergence of the conformal factor and lead to highly accurate solutions. As an application we investigate small mass ratios of binary black holes and compare these with the corresponding test mass limit that we obtain through a semianalytical limiting procedure. In particular, we compare the binding energy of puncture data in this limit with that of a test particle in the Schwarzschild spacetime and find that it deviates by 50% from the Schwarzschild result at the innermost stable circular orbit of Schwarzschild, if the ADM mass at each puncture is used to define the local black hole masses.

  18. Rounding Behavior in the Reporting of Headache Frequency Complicates Headache Chronification Research

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Timothy T.; Turner, Dana P.; Houle, Thomas A.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent; Penzien, Donald B.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the extent of measurement error arising from rounding in headache frequency reporting (days per month) in a population sample of headache sufferers. Background When reporting numerical health information, individuals tend to round their estimates. The tendency to round to the nearest 5 days when reporting headache frequency can distort distributions and engender unreliability in frequency estimates in both clinical and research contexts. Methods This secondary analysis of the 2005 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study (AMPP) survey characterized the population distribution of 30-day headache frequency among community headache sufferers and determined the extent of numerical rounding (“heaping”) in self-reported data. Headache frequency distributions (days per month) were examined using a simplified version of Wang and Heitjan’s (2008) approach to heaping to estimate the probability that headache sufferers round to a multiple of 5 when providing frequency reports. Multiple imputation was used to estimate a theoretical “true” headache frequency. Results Of the 24,000 surveys, headache frequency data were available for 15,976 respondents diagnosed with migraine (68.6%), probable migraine (8.3%), or episodic tension-type headache (10.0%); the remainder had other headache types. The mean number of headaches days/month was 3.7 (SD = 5.6). Examination of the distribution of headache frequency reports revealed a disproportionate number of responses centered on multiples of 5 days. The odds that headache frequency was rounded to 5 increased by 24% with each one-day increase in headache frequency (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.25), indicating that heaping occurs most commonly at higher headache frequencies. Women were more likely to round than men, and rounding decreased with increasing age and increased with symptoms of depression. Conclusions Because of the coarsening induced by rounding, caution should be used when

  19. Athletes' Headaches: Not Necessarily 'Little' Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Headaches experienced by athletes are categorized (exertional, effort, and trauma-triggered migraines), and treatment methods related. Consequences of misdiagnosis, lack of reporting, and poor monitoring are discussed as well as categories of athletes most likely to suffer sports-related headaches. (IAH)

  20. Primary stabbing "ice-pick" headache.

    PubMed

    Mukharesh, Loulwah O; Jan, Mohammed M S

    2011-10-01

    Primary stabbing "ice-pick" headache is rarely reported in children. It is characterized by transient, sharp stabbing pain that occurs within a localized area of the scalp for seconds. Five children were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders Diagnostic Criteria, Second Edition. Ages at diagnosis ranged from 6-16 years (mean age, 9.8 years), with signs lasting for 3-12 months (mean, 6.5 months) before assessment. All children presented with recurrent daily to monthly headaches that were very brief, lasting for seconds. The headache was orbital in one child, temporal in one child, and occipital in three children. Three children manifested other associated migraine headache types, and two had a positive family history of migraine. Amitriptyline was prescribed to two patients because of headache frequency and severity. The signs gradually subsided in all patients during follow-up of 3 months to 5 years (mean, 27 months). Primary stabbing headache may occasionally occur in children with features different from those encountered in adults. The headache is less frequent and often occipital in location. Its signs respond well to amitriptyline. However, larger prospective pediatric studies are needed to describe this syndrome further.

  1. Headache among medical and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Ferri-de-Barros, João Eliezer; Alencar, Mauricio José de; Berchielli, Luis Felipe; Castelhano Junior, Luis Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Headaches occur frequently and thus are a key component of sociocentric medical education. To study headaches among students of medicine and psychology in a single university. This was a questionnaire-based survey of a cohort of students of medicine and psychology. The overall lifetime prevalence of headache was 98% and over the last year, 91%. Tensional headache accounted for 59% and migraine 22% in medicine; and 48.5% and 32% respectively in psychology. Forty-five percent reported that headaches had a variable sporadic impact on their productivity. The self-medication rate was 77%. Thirty-six percent reported worsening since admission to the university. The prevalence of headaches was very high. Tension-type headaches predominated in males and migraine in females. Tension-type was more frequent among medical students than among psychology students; migraine was more frequent in psychology (more females) than in medicine. Both kinds of students reported that headaches caused low interference with daily activities. The students reported that their symptoms had worsened since admission to the university.

  2. The psychiatric comorbidities of cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S

    2013-02-01

    Although the comorbidity of migraine has been extensively studied, the relationships between cluster headache and psychiatric disease have not been well-addressed. In this review the available literature concerning cluster headache and depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, aggression, suicide, and their implications are discussed. Potential mechanisms, confounding variables, and unanswered questions are also addressed.

  3. Clinical aspects of headache in HIV.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Huma U; Cho, Tracey A

    2014-05-01

    Headaches are commonly seen in those patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are the most common form of pain reported among HIV patients. There have been relatively few studies attempting to determine the rates and phenotypes of the headaches that occur in patients with HIV. Patients with HIV are susceptible to a much broader array of secondary headache causes, sometimes with atypical manifestations due to a dampened inflammatory response. The investigation of a headache in the HIV patient should be thorough and focused on making sure that secondary and HIV-specific causes are either ruled out or treated if present. An effective treatment plan should incorporate the use of appropriate pharmacological agents along with the integration of non-pharmacological therapies, such as relaxation and lifestyle regulation. When treating for headaches in patients with HIV, it is important to keep in mind comorbidities and other medications, especially combination antiretroviral therapy. For those with complicated headache histories, referral to a specialized headache center may be appropriate. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  4. Drug-Drug Interactions in Headache Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Hossein; Ziad, Sanaz

    2016-07-01

    The main treatments in a majority of headache patients are pharmacologic therapies. As a result, it is imperative to have strong background in pharmacotherapy used to treat headaches in order to provide optimal therapy and avoid drug interactions. One of the main reasons for failure of pharmacologic treatment of headaches is drug-drug interactions (DDIs). While there are many distinct pathways and mechanisms in which DDIs can occur, most occur through alterations within the cytochrome P450 pathways (CYP). Drugs that cause induction, inhibition, or are simply substrates for these pathways are responsible for many of the DDIs. We review and discuss the important and potential DDIs of commonly used headache medication often encountered in clinical practice. We divide the drugs into two classes, abortive and preventive. Within each group we select the most commonly used drugs and provide a detailed discussion of the mechanisms of interaction for each. Also included are commonly used herbal supplements, which can interact with headache medications. Drug-drug-interactions are a major concern when developing a treatment regimen for patients suffering from headaches. There is a growing need for physician attention to the pharmacokinetics of drugs to improve the quality of patient care. It is vital that prescribing physicians be aware of the DDIs associated with the commonly prescribed headache medications to optimize patient care and therapy results. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  5. Aspartame as a dietary trigger of headache.

    PubMed

    Lipton, R B; Newman, L C; Cohen, J S; Solomon, S

    1989-02-01

    Many dietary factors have been implicated as possible precipitants of headache. There have been recent differences of opinion with regard to the effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame as a precipitant of headache. To assess the importance of aspartame as a dietary factor in headache, 190 consecutive patients of the Montefiore Medical Center Headache Unit were questioned about the effect of alcohol, carbohydrates and aspartame in triggering their headaches. Of the 171 patients who fully completed the survey, 49.7 percent reported alcohol as a precipitating factor, compared to 8.2 percent reporting aspartame and 2.3 percent reporting carbohydrates. Patients with migraine were significantly more likely to report alcohol as a triggering factor and also reported aspartame as a precipitant three times more often than those having other types of headache. The conflicting results of two recent placebo-control studies of aspartame and headache are discussed. We conclude that aspartame may be an important dietary trigger of headache in some people.

  6. Hypothalamic dopaminergic stimulation in cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Lepper, Anne; Frese, Achim; Summ, Oliver; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Evers, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Cluster headache is associated with structural abnormalities of the hypothalamus. We were interested in the association of cluster headache with endocrinological functional abnormalities. Therefore, we applied the apomorphine challenge test, which is a specific test of hypothalamic dopaminergic activation. We enrolled 13 patients with cluster headache outside the bout and without medication. They were stimulated with 0.005 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneous apomorphine hydrochloride. After 45 and 60 minutes, growth hormone (GH), prolactin and cortisol were measured. The test was also applied to 14 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. There were significantly higher GH levels in healthy subjects as compared to cluster headache patients 45 minutes after injection (10.8 ± 10.8 versus 4.4 ± 7.4 ng/ml; P  = 0.038). Only in cluster headache, the GH level after 60 minutes was not significantly different from the baseline. The levels of prolactin and cortisol did not show any significant differences between cluster headache patients and in healthy subjects. Our data suggest that cluster headache is associated with an impaired dopaminergic stimulation. This finding supports the body of evidence that cluster headache is associated with a functional abnormality of the hypothalamus and that this association is a primary (i.e. idiopathic) and not a secondary phenomenon during the bout.

  7. Headaches and Migraines: Migraine 101 Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... for migraine headaches. Dietary triggers for migraines include: Chocolate Cheese Food additives such as MSG Alcohol A, B, and C A, B, C, and D True/False: Migraines sometimes run in families. True/False: A bad headache is usually a sign of a brain tumor. Answer Key False. In most cases of ...

  8. Athletes' Headaches: Not Necessarily 'Little' Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Headaches experienced by athletes are categorized (exertional, effort, and trauma-triggered migraines), and treatment methods related. Consequences of misdiagnosis, lack of reporting, and poor monitoring are discussed as well as categories of athletes most likely to suffer sports-related headaches. (IAH)

  9. Comparison of deep wound infection rates using a synthetic dural substitute (neuro-patch) or pericranium graft for dural closure: a clinical review of 1 year.

    PubMed

    Malliti, Miriam; Page, Philippe; Gury, Charles; Chomette, Eric; Nataf, François; Roux, François-Xavier

    2004-03-01

    The need to repair dural defects has prompted the use of dura mater substitutes. Many synthetic materials have been used for dural closure. Neuro-Patch (B. Braun Médical S.A., Boulogne, France) is a nonabsorbable microporous fleece composed of polyester urethane that has been approved for human use by the European Union since 1995. To the best of our knowledge, no clinical series with Neuro-Patch have been published thus far, particularly with regard to septic complications. The aim of our study was to compare the safety of Neuro-Patch with that of pericranium graft with regard to postoperative wound infections. This is a retrospective study of 1 year's experience including all patients who underwent dural plasty with a Neuro-Patch (n = 61) or pericranium graft (n = 63). The follow-up period was at least 12 months after surgery. Before wound infection rates in the two groups were compared, factors suspected of being risks for neurosurgical site infection were evaluated. Patient characteristics (mean age, neurological diagnosis), surgical procedures, prophylactic antibiotics, and risk factors for surgical infections (including duration of surgery, emergency, contaminated operations, and external cerebrospinal fluid drainage) were similar in the Neuro-Patch and pericranium groups. Deep wound infection rates in the Neuro-Patch and pericranium groups were 15 and 5%, respectively (P = 0.06), and cerebrospinal fluid leaks were significantly more frequent in the Neuro-Patch group (13 versus 1.6%, P < 0.05). The results of our investigations show that Neuro-Patch raised the risk of wound infection, as do foreign materials implanted in the body. Synthetic dural grafts should be reserved for when autologous grafts are not sufficient or possible. An extensive prospective multicenter randomized trial is needed to confirm our results.

  10. Comparison of comorbidities of migraine and tension headache in a pediatric headache clinic.

    PubMed

    Eidlitz-Markus, Tal; Zolden, Shirit; Haimi-Cohen, Yishai; Zeharia, Avraham

    2016-09-01

    To compare comorbidities between migraine and tension headache in patients treated in a tertiary pediatric headache clinic. Files of patients with migraine or tension headache attending a pediatric headache clinic were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of organic comorbidities. Additionally, patients were screened with the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to identify nonorganic comorbidities. If necessary, patients were referred to a pediatric psychiatrist, psychologist or social worker for further evaluation. The study cohort comprised 401 patients: 200 with migraine and 201 with tension headache. The main organic comorbidities were atopic disease, asthma, and first-reported iron-deficiency anemia; all occurred with statistical significance more often with migraine than with tension headache (Familial Mediterranean fever was six times more frequent in the migraine group than in the tension headache group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Nonorganic comorbidities (psychiatric, social stressors) were associated significantly more often with tension headache than with migraine (48.3% versus 33%; p = 0.03). Children and adolescents with migraine or tension headache treated in a dedicated clinic have high rates of organic and nonorganic comorbidities. In this setting, patients with migraine have significantly more organic comorbidities, and patients with tension headache, significantly more nonorganic comorbidities. © International Headache Society 2016.

  11. Cluster headache in childhood: case series from a pediatric headache center.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Rosanna; Capuano, Alessandro; Torriero, Roberto; Tarantino, Samuela; Properzi, Enrico; Vigevano, Federico; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Childhood-onset cluster headache is an excruciatingly painful and distressing condition. A retrospective study was conducted on charts of patients referring to our Headache Center. Those diagnosed as cluster headache were selected. We identified 11 children (6 males and 5 females). The mean age of cluster headache onset was 10 years (range: 5-16). All children had episodic cluster headache. All children had unilateral orbital pain; 7 patients had throbbing pain, whereas 4 children complained stabbing pain. The mean duration of the attack was 86 minutes (ranging from 30 to 180 minutes). The frequency of episodes was between 1 and 4 per day. All children had the typical cluster headache autonomic features, such as lacrimation, conjunctival injection, ptosis, and nostril rhinorrhea. Steroids showed a good clinical efficacy in interrupting cluster headache recurrence. As symptomatic drugs, acetaminophen as well as ibuprofen were ineffective; indomethacin was effective in 1 case.

  12. Cluster headache-like disorder in childhood

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, S; Whitehouse, W

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the diagnostic features of cluster headache-like disorder and describes its presentation in childhood. Case note summaries of patients with this condition are presented in the context of a brief summary of the literature. Four patients (two girls; aged 12 to 15 years) with cluster headache-like disorder were seen over a period of four years in the paediatric neurology department of Birmingham Children's Hospital. Their histories and clinical courses are described. All had a history of "thrashing around" or bizarre behaviour during attacks, which had distracted attention from the headache and seemed to contribute to delay in diagnosis. It appears that cluster headache-like disorder does occur in childhood but is not common and can be mistaken for other conditions. A history of thrashing around accompanied by headache is very suggestive. Recognition of the symptoms in the general paediatric clinic would allow rapid diagnosis.

 PMID:10569970

  13. Chronic Headache: The Role of the Psychologist

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the psychologist in chronic headache needs to be tailored to the patient’s presentation. For some patients, psychological issues need to be directly addressed (e.g., psychiatric co-morbidity, difficulties coping with headache, significant problems with sleep and/or stress, medication overuse, and where there is a history of abuse). In other situations, such as considering the patient’s beliefs about their readiness and ability to actively manage their headaches, medication adherence, and managing triggers does not require direct contact with a psychologist but all these involve behavioral/psychological principles. This manuscript reviews the literature on the importance of psychological issues in headache management and provides suggestions for how behavioral and cognitive changes can improve headache management. PMID:20425214

  14. Harry Potter and the curse of headache.

    PubMed

    Sheftell, Fred; Steiner, Timothy J; Thomas, Hallie

    2007-06-01

    Headache disorders are common in children and adolescents. Even young male Wizards are disabled by them. In this article we review Harry Potter's headaches as described in the biographical series by JK Rowling. Moreover, we attempt to classify them. Regrettably we are not privy to the Wizard system of classifying headache disorders and are therefore limited to the Muggle method, the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Harry's headaches are recurrent. Although conforming to a basic stereotype, and constant in location, throughout the 6 years of his adolescence so far described they have shown a tendency to progression. Later descriptions include a range of accompanying symptoms. Despite some quite unusual features, they meet all but one of the ICHD-II criteria for migraine, so allowing the diagnosis of 1.6 Probable migraine.

  15. Chronic headache: the role of the psychologist.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Robert A

    2010-02-01

    The role of the psychologist in chronic headache needs to be tailored to the patient's presentation. For some patients, psychological issues need to be directly addressed (eg, psychiatric comorbidity, difficulties coping with headache, significant problems with sleep and/or stress, medication overuse, and history of abuse). Other situations (eg, patients' beliefs about their readiness to change ability to actively manage headaches, medication adherence, and managing triggers) involve behavioral/psychological principles even when there is no direct contact with a psychologist. This article reviews the literature on the importance of psychological issues in headache management and provides suggestions for how to address behavioral and cognitive factors and their potential for improved headache care.

  16. Cluster headache: present and future therapy.

    PubMed

    Leone, Massimo; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Cecchini, Alberto Proietti

    2017-05-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by severe, unilateral headache attacks of orbital, supraorbital or temporal pain lasting 15-180 min accompanied by ipsilateral lacrimation, rhinorrhea and other cranial autonomic manifestations. Cluster headache attacks need fast-acting abortive agents because the pain peaks very quickly; sumatriptan injection is the gold standard acute treatment. First-line preventative drugs include verapamil and carbolithium. Other drugs demonstrated effective in open trials include topiramate, valproic acid, gabapentin and others. Steroids are very effective; local injection in the occipital area is also effective but its prolonged use needs caution. Monoclonal antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide are under investigation as prophylactic agents in both episodic and chronic cluster headache. A number of neurostimulation procedures including occipital nerve stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation and the more invasive hypothalamic stimulation are employed in chronic intractable cluster headache.

  17. Headaches after Concussion in Pediatrics: a Review.

    PubMed

    Blume, Heidi K

    2015-09-01

    Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common pediatric injuries. Headaches are one of the most common and disabling complaints following concussion in the acute phase and are pervasive in those who have prolonged symptoms following concussion. The body of evidence regarding the epidemiology of and risk factors for pediatric concussion and post-traumatic headache is growing rapidly, but there still is a distinct lack of strong scientific evidence to support the best treatment strategies for post-traumatic headaches in either children or adults. In this article, we will review the current evidence regarding the epidemiology of acute and chronic headaches following concussion in the pediatric population, as well as current recommendations for the management of acute and chronic pediatric post-traumatic headaches.

  18. Complementary and Integrative Approaches for Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sita

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the use of complementary and integrative medicine for the management of pediatric headache is reviewed. Despite limited numbers of studies for pediatric headaches, children and families seek these services. Integrative medicine focuses on treating the whole person, integrating conventional medicine with mind-body-spirit methods. Nutriceuticals include dietary supplements in the form of vitamins (vitamin D), minerals (magnesium), coenzyme Q, butterbur, and melatonin. Acupuncture, stimulation, physical therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulations (TENS) or Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) may also be useful in selected patients. The efficacy of all these therapeutic alternatives in pediatric headache is presented here. Primary care providers, neurologists, and headache specialists alike need to be informed of such interventions and integrate these approaches, when appropriate, in the management of children with headaches. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A common cause of sudden and thunderclap headaches: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Chen; Kuo, Kuei-Hong; Lai, Tzu-Hsien

    2014-03-01

    Thunderclap headache (TCH) is a sudden headache (SH) with accepted criteria of severe intensity and onset to peak within one minute. It is a well-known presentation for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) but most patients with TCH or SH run a benign course without identifiable causes. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), a recently recognized syndrome characterized by recurrent TCH attacks, has been proposed to account for most of these patients. We recruited consecutive patients presenting with SH at our headache clinic. Computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging with angiography were performed to exclude structural causes and to identify vasoconstriction. Catheter angiography and lumbar puncture were performed with patients consent. Reversibility of vasoconstriction was confirmed by follow-up study. From July 2010 to June 2013, 31 patients with SH were recruited. Twenty-four (72.7%) of these SH patients exhibited headache fulfilling the TCH criteria. The diagnosis of RCVS was confirmed in 14 (45.2%) of patients with SH and 11 (45.8%) of patients with TCH. Other diagnoses were as follows: primary headaches (SH: 41.9%, TCH: 45.8%) and other secondary causes (SH: 12.9%, TCH: 8.3%). Compared with non-RCVS patients, patients with RCVS were older (50.8 ± 9.3 years vs. 40.8 ± 10.0 years, P = 0.006) and less likely to experience short headache duration of < 1 hour (23.1% vs. 78.6%, P = 0.007). Patients with RCVS were more likely to cite bathing (42.9% vs. 0%, P = 0.004) and less likely to cite exertion (0% vs. 29.4%, P = 0.048) as headache triggers. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a common cause of SH and TCH. Considering the potential mortality and morbidity of RCVS, systemic examination of cerebral vessels should be performed in these patients.

  20. A common cause of sudden and thunderclap headaches: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thunderclap headache (TCH) is a sudden headache (SH) with accepted criteria of severe intensity and onset to peak within one minute. It is a well-known presentation for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) but most patients with TCH or SH run a benign course without identifiable causes. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), a recently recognized syndrome characterized by recurrent TCH attacks, has been proposed to account for most of these patients. Methods We recruited consecutive patients presenting with SH at our headache clinic. Computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging with angiography were performed to exclude structural causes and to identify vasoconstriction. Catheter angiography and lumbar puncture were performed with patients consent. Reversibility of vasoconstriction was confirmed by follow-up study. Results From July 2010 to June 2013, 31 patients with SH were recruited. Twenty-four (72.7%) of these SH patients exhibited headache fulfilling the TCH criteria. The diagnosis of RCVS was confirmed in 14 (45.2%) of patients with SH and 11 (45.8%) of patients with TCH. Other diagnoses were as follows: primary headaches (SH: 41.9%, TCH: 45.8%) and other secondary causes (SH: 12.9%, TCH: 8.3%). Compared with non-RCVS patients, patients with RCVS were older (50.8 ± 9.3 years vs. 40.8 ± 10.0 years, P = 0.006) and less likely to experience short headache duration of < 1 hour (23.1% vs. 78.6%, P = 0.007). Patients with RCVS were more likely to cite bathing (42.9% vs. 0%, P = 0.004) and less likely to cite exertion (0% vs. 29.4%, P = 0.048) as headache triggers. Conclusions Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a common cause of SH and TCH. Considering the potential mortality and morbidity of RCVS, systemic examination of cerebral vessels should be performed in these patients. PMID:24580731

  1. Tension-Type Headaches: Self-Care Measures for Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoid medications (including some headache medications) that contain caffeine and other stimulants that can affect sleep. Avoid excess caffeine. While caffeine may help curb headaches, heavy daily ...

  2. Cluster headache and lifestyle habits.

    PubMed

    Schürks, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2008-04-01

    Cluster headache (CH) has traditionally been associated with certain anthropometric features, personality traits, and lifestyle features. This article focuses on lifestyle features in patients with CH. Especially excessive smoking and alcohol consumption have been ascribed to patients with CH. Despite country-specific habits and a time trend, smoking is much more prevalent among CH patients compared with the general population. Although excessive alcohol consumption was reported in early studies, this was not corroborated more recently. On the contrary, patients with CH seem to avoid alcohol, particularly during active phases, likely due to its ability to trigger attacks. Present studies are purely descriptive. Thus, the associations sketched give no information about the long-term effects of smoking or alcohol consumption on the course of CH.

  3. Surgical resection without dural reconstruction of a lumbar meningioma in an elderly woman

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Jun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ebara, Sohei; Takahashi, Hideto

    2009-01-01

    Meningiomas of the spine occur in the thoracic spine in approximately 80%, followed in frequency by the cervical and lumbar regions. The treatment of spinal meningiomas is complete surgical resection. As intraspinal meningiomas are almost always adherent to the dura, extensive dural resection or diathermic treatment of the dural attachment is usually performed to prevent tumor recurrence. The authors present the case of lumbar spinal meningioma in 82-year-old woman. Successful resection with preservation of the dura mater using the technique of Saito et al. (Spine 26:1805-1808, 2001) is described: After lumbar laminectomy a small incision was made in the surface of the spinal dura. The dura mater was separated into its inner and outer layers, and the tumor was resected with inner layer alone, preserving the outer layer. The outer layer is simply closed to achieve a watertight seal. The pathologic diagnosis was metaplastic (osseous) meningioma. Almost full recovery of the neurologic deficit was attained. Neither complication nor tumor recurrence has occurred in the 5 years since surgery. Dural preservation during surgical resection of spinal meningioma obviates the need for dural reconstruction and should reduce surgical morbidity. However, the patient should be followed long-term to watch for recurrence. PMID:19219468

  4. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T.; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. PMID:26077718

  5. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner’s syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  6. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner's syndrome in a cat.

  7. Dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction with perimedullary venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Mascalchi, M; Scazzeri, F; Prosetti, D; Ferrito, G; Salvi, F; Quilici, N

    1996-01-01

    MR imaging showed swelling and diffuse signal changes in the spinal cord in two patients with progressive myelopathy. MR angiography revealed slow-flow perimedullary vessels extending to the skull base, which are consistent with drainage vessels of a dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction. This fistula was subsequently seen in both patients on selective arteriograms of the ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries.

  8. Surgical resection without dural reconstruction of a lumbar meningioma in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Takahashi, Jun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ebara, Sohei; Takahashi, Hideto

    2009-07-01

    Meningiomas of the spine occur in the thoracic spine in approximately 80%, followed in frequency by the cervical and lumbar regions. The treatment of spinal meningiomas is complete surgical resection. As intraspinal meningiomas are almost always adherent to the dura, extensive dural resection or diathermic treatment of the dural attachment is usually performed to prevent tumor recurrence. The authors present the case of lumbar spinal meningioma in 82-year-old woman. Successful resection with preservation of the dura mater using the technique of Saito et al. (Spine 26:1805-1808, 2001) is described: After lumbar laminectomy a small incision was made in the surface of the spinal dura. The dura mater was separated into its inner and outer layers, and the tumor was resected with inner layer alone, preserving the outer layer. The outer layer is simply closed to achieve a watertight seal. The pathologic diagnosis was metaplastic (osseous) meningioma. Almost full recovery of the neurologic deficit was attained. Neither complication nor tumor recurrence has occurred in the 5 years since surgery. Dural preservation during surgical resection of spinal meningioma obviates the need for dural reconstruction and should reduce surgical morbidity. However, the patient should be followed long-term to watch for recurrence.

  9. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. © 2015 Aspelund et al.

  10. Dural Defect Repair in Translabyrinthine Acoustic Neuroma Surgery and Its Implications in Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Aloysio Augusto Tahan de Campos; Colafêmina, José Fernando; Centeno, Ricardo Silva

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a complication that may occur after translabyrinthine (translab) acoustic neuroma (AN) removal. The aim of this study is to verify the incidence of CSF leak using two techniques for dural defect closure in translab AN surgery and present a new technique for dural repair. A retrospective study was held, reviewing charts of 34 patients in a tertiary neurotologic referral center. Out of these 34 patients that underwent translab AN excision in a 1-year period, 18 had their dural defect repaired using only abdominal fat graft and 16 using synthetic dura substitute (SDS) plus abdominal fat tissue. One patient (5.5%) in the first group had CSF leak and 1 (6.2%) in the second group had CSF leak postoperatively. Our data suggest that there are no significant differences in CSF leak rates using both techniques, although studies in a larger series must be undertaken to conclude it. We believe that the development of some points in the new technique for dural repair can achieve better results and reduce the CSF leak incidence in the translabyrinthine acoustic neuroma surgery in the near future. PMID:24083124

  11. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p < 0.0001), fever (8.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.014), and an abnormal neurologic examination (34.7% vs 16.5%, p = 0.014). In multivariate logistic regression, elevated blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 17.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2–56.0) and a lack of headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  12. Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogert, Philip B.; Working, Dennis C.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Smith, Janice Y.; Topping, Crystal C.; Britton, Sean M.; Bagby, Paul R.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this work is to develop self-healing polymeric materials to enable damage tolerant systems, and to tailor puncture healing for use temperatures and applications. This will be a benefit in environments and conditions where access for manual repair is limited or impossible, or where damage may not be detected.

  13. Complications in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Associated with Puncture or Cement Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Clemens Fuchs, Heiko; Kiwit, Juergen; Westphalen, Kerstin; Hierholzer, Johannes

    2007-04-15

    Due to the minimally invasive character and excellent clinical outcome of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), the procedure is being performed in greatly increasing numbers. While PVP has a low complication rate in general, severe complications can occur. We focus on the imaging appearance of complications of PVP associated with puncture or cement leakage-from harmless to life-threatening.

  14. Use of Lumbar Punctures in the Management of Ocular Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Reekie, Ian; Reddy, Yaviche

    2016-11-18

    Ocular syphilis has become rare in the developed world, but is a common presentation to ophthalmology departments in South Africa. We investigated the proportion of patients diagnosed with ocular syphilis who went on to receive lumbar punctures, and determined the fraction of these who had cerebrospinal fluid findings suggestive of neurosyphilis. We aimed to determine whether the use of lumbar punctures in ocular syphilis patients was beneficial in picking up cases of neurosyphilis. Retrospective study of case notes of patients admitted to two district hospitals in Durban, South Africa, with ocular syphilis over a 20-month period. A total of 31 of 68 ocular syphilis patients underwent lumbar puncture, and of these, eight (25.8%) had findings suggestive of neurosyphilis. Lumbar puncture in ocular syphilis patients should continue to be a routine part of the investigation of these patients; a large proportion of ocular syphilis patients show cerebrospinal fluid findings suggestive of neurosyphilis, are at risk of the complications of neurosyphilis, and should be managed accordingly.

  15. Fifty-Three Years after a Pencil Puncture Wound.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Vijay H; Kim, Seung Lae

    2015-01-01

    A pencil core with an intact pencil tip was excised from the thigh of a 60-year-old male 53 years after a puncture wound. Histologic examination of the excised pencil core and the surrounding tissue revealed a foreign body reaction with abundant entrapped dark black pigment and chronic reparative changes, including dense sclerosis and focal granulation tissue formation.

  16. Fifty-Three Years after a Pencil Puncture Wound

    PubMed Central

    Aswani, Vijay H.; Kim, Seung Lae

    2015-01-01

    A pencil core with an intact pencil tip was excised from the thigh of a 60-year-old male 53 years after a puncture wound. Histologic examination of the excised pencil core and the surrounding tissue revealed a foreign body reaction with abundant entrapped dark black pigment and chronic reparative changes, including dense sclerosis and focal granulation tissue formation. PMID:26594168

  17. Impact and puncture resistant material protects parts from damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, D. D.

    1966-01-01

    Uniform sized, laminated panels protect delicate parts and equipment from damage during storage and transportation. The panels consist of sheets of steel foil bonded between sheets of elastic foam. They are lightweight, impact and puncture-resistant, and, when formed into an enclosure, provide a barrier against moisture and thermal shock.

  18. Welded repairs of punctured thin-walled aluminum pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. J.

    1969-01-01

    Punctures in thin-walled aluminum pressure vessels are repaired by plugging the hole with an interference-fit disc and welding the unit. The repaired vessels withstood test pressures in excess of vessel ultimate design values for 2-, 4-, and 6-inch holes in 0.202-inch-thick aluminum alloy parent material.

  19. Outcomes after suboccipital decompression without dural opening in children with Chiari malformation Type I

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Benjamin C.; Kelly, Kathleen M.; Phan, Michelle Q.; Bruce, Samuel S.; McDowell, Michael M.; Anderson, Richard C. E.; Feldstein, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Object Symptomatic pediatric Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is most often treated with posterior fossa decompression (PFD), but controversy exists over whether the dura needs to be opened during PFD. While dural opening as a part of PFD has been suggested to result in a higher rate of resolution of CM symptoms, it has also been shown to lead to more frequent complications. In this paper, the authors present the largest reported series of outcomes after PFD without dural opening surgery, as well as identify risk factors for recurrence. Methods The authors performed a retrospective review of 156 consecutive pediatric patients in whom the senior authors performed PFD without dural opening from 2003 to 2013. Patient demographics, clinical symptoms and signs, radiographic findings, intraoperative ultrasound results, and neuromonitoring findings were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors for recurrence of symptoms and the need for reoperation. Results Over 90% of patients had a good clinical outcome, with improvement or resolution of their symptoms at last follow-up (mean 32 months). There were no major complications. The mean length of hospital stay was 2.0 days. In a multivariate regression model, partial C-2 laminectomy was an independent risk factor associated with reoperation (p = 0.037). Motor weakness on presentation was also associated with reoperation but only with trend-level significance (p = 0.075). No patient with < 8 mm of tonsillar herniation required reoperation. Conclusions The vast majority (> 90%) of children with symptomatic CM-I will have improvement or resolution of symptoms after a PFD without dural opening. A non–dural opening approach avoids major complications. While no patient with tonsillar herniation < 8 mm required reoperation, children with tonsillar herniation at or below C-2 have a higher risk for failure when this approach is used. PMID:25932779

  20. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 4. Clinical presentation of the shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Spiessberger, Alex; Hothorn, Torsten; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae have been classified into high- and low-risk lesions mainly based on the pattern of venous drainage. Those with leptomeningeal venous drainage carry a higher risk of an aggressive clinical presentation. Recently, it has been proposed that the clinical presentation should be considered as an additional independent factor determining the clinical course of these lesions. However, dural shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage include a very wide spectrum of inhomogeneous lesions. In the current study, we correlated the clinical presentation of 107 consecutive patients harboring cranial dural arteriovenous shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage, with their distinct anatomic and angiographic features categorized into eight groups based on the "DES" (Directness and Exclusivity of leptomeningeal venous drainage and features of venous Strain) concept. We found that among these groups, there are significant angioarchitectural differences, which are reflected by considerable differences in clinical presentation. Leptomeningeal venous drainage of dural sinus shunts that is neither direct nor exclusive and without venous strain manifested only benign symptoms (aggressive presentation 0%). On the other end of the spectrum, the bridging vein shunts with direct and exclusive leptomeningeal venous drainage and venous strain are expected to present aggressive symptoms almost always and most likely with bleeding (aggressive presentation 91.5%). Important aspects of the above correlations are discussed. Therefore, the consideration of leptomeningeal venous drainage alone, for prediction of the clinical presentation of these shunts appears insufficient. Angiographic analysis based on the above concept, offers the possibility to distinguish the higher- from the lower-risk types of leptomeningeal venous drainage. In this context, consideration of the clinical presentation as an additional independent factor for the prediction of their clinical