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Sample records for durum wheat germplasm

  1. Development of Durum Wwheat Germplasm with Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight Derived from Emmer Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) is a unique class of commercial wheat specifically for making pasta products. Durum production has been seriously challenged by the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in the United States in the past decade. Although utilization of resistant cultivar...

  2. Genome Wide Association Analysis of Leaf Rust Response in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks.) is increasingly impacting durum wheat production with the recent appearance of races with virulence to widely grown cultivars in many durum producing areas worldwide. A highly virulent P. triticina race on durum wheat was recently collected in Kansas....

  3. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California–Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch. PMID:27110322

  4. Association Mapping of Leaf Rust Response in Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) is a main objective for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) breeding.Association mapping on germplasm collections is now being used as an additional approach for the discovery and validation of major genes/QTLs. In this study, a collection of 164 el...

  5. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of soft durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  6. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.))

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A. I.; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26110423

  7. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  8. Soft kernel durum wheat -- a new bakery ingredient?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Bread wheat”, also known as “common wheat” (Triticum aestivum L.), is a leading cereal that sustains humankind. Current worldwide production stands at over 700 million metric tons produced from around 220 million hectares. In contrast, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is grown on about ...

  9. Registration of ‘Snowglenn’ Winter Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowglenn’ (Reg. No. CV-#####, PI ######) winter durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) developed and tested as VA05WD-40 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Snowglenn was derived from the three-way cross N1291-86 / N1439-83 // ‘Alidur’. Snowglenn is a f...

  10. Free radical kinetics of irradiated durum wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, M.; Polat, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the present work, a detailed ESR investigation of characteristic features and kinetic behaviors at three different temperatures of free radicals produced in a species of durum wheat cultivated in Turkey and irradiated at doses of up to 5 kGy by a γ source, is reported. Unirradiated wheat samples exhibit a weak, single-line ESR signal originating from a radical of unknown structure called radical III in this work. Irradiation produces two more radicals identified as hydroxyalkyl (I) and aldehydalkyl (II) radicals beside radical III. The radicals (I, II and III) follow complicated kinetics. Species I and II initially decay very fast after the irradiation followed by slower decay. Radical half-life times depend on whether they were induced in the crystalline or amorphous fractions of the wheat starch. Activation energy values of the radicals were found to follow the order Ea(III)> Ea(II)> Ea(I). ESR parameters of the radical species were determined by simulating experimental spectra recorded following the irradiation. Room temperature dose-response curves and variations of different spectral parameters between 120 and 390 K were also studied.

  11. Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) lines show different abilities to form masked mycotoxins under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2013-12-24

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  12. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall’Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G. PMID:24368326

  13. Milling behavior of a soft durum wheat line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the initial hybridization of two wild grasses to form the wheat species Triticum turgidum some 0.5 m years ago, the puroindoline genes from both wild species were eliminated, along with their inherent and mysterious ability to soften kernels. Consequently, all durum wheat varieties have very ...

  14. Effect of soft kernel texture on the milling properties of soft durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide nearly twenty times more common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is produced than durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum). Durum wheat is predominately milled into coarse semolina due to the extreme hardness of the kernels. Semolina, lacking the versatility of traditional flour, is used primarily ...

  15. Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains.

  16. Common wheat determination in durum wheat samples through LC/MS analysis of gluten peptides.

    PubMed

    Prandi, Barbara; Bencivenni, Mariangela; Tedeschi, Tullia; Marchelli, Rosangela; Dossena, Arnaldo; Galaverna, Gianni; Sforza, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    A method to detect the presence of common wheat in durum wheat flour samples was developed and tested. Flour samples, or ground wheat samples, were digested by pepsin and chymotrypsin, and the peptide mixture obtained was analyzed by LC/ESI-MS and LC/ESI-MS/MS, which led to the identification of two marker peptides. One peptide was coded only in the DD genome, and thus present only in common wheat; the second was present in all wheat samples (both common and durum), so it was used as marker of the total wheat content. The ratio of the chromatographic areas of these two peptides, as determined by LC/ESI-MS, was related to the proportion of common wheat in the sample using a calibration curve that was constructed with standards of known composition. The proportions of common wheat in samples obtained by mixing different common and durum wheat varieties were accurately determined by this method. Finally, the method was applied in a survey of several durum wheat flour brands present on the Italian market. The results of the survey revealed that contamination of durum wheat flour with common wheat is commonplace.

  17. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for cost efficient and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a leaf rust resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf rust resistance sources presently deployed in durum wheat breed...

  18. Cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer rate affect yield and nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimizing nitrogen (N) management and using cultivars with high N use efficiency (NUE) are of great importance for durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) producers in irrigated desert production systems. Field experiments with six durum wheat cultivars (Ocotillo, Orita, Kronos, Havasu, Duraking, and Toppe...

  19. Chromosome Engineering of Durum Wheat with Alien Chromatin of Diploid Wheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum or macaroni wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is an important cereal used for human consumption worldwide. Its high protein content and gluten strength make durum the choice wheat for preparing pasta products. Current durum cultivars have little resistance to Fusarium he...

  20. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-23

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  1. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  2. Catalogue of alleles of gliadin-coding loci in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Melnikova, N V; Kudryavtseva, A V; Kudryavtsev, A M

    2012-02-01

    Gliadins are seed storage proteins which are characterized by high intervarietal polymorphism and can be used as genetic markers. As a result of our work, a considerably extended catalogue of allelic variants of gliadin component blocks was compiled for durum wheat; 74 allelic variants for four gliadin-coding loci were identified for the first time. The extended catalogue includes a total of 131 allelic variants: 16 for locus Gli-A1(d), 19 for locus Gli-B1(d), 41 for locus Gli-A2(d), and 55 for locus Gli-B2(d). The electrophoretic pattern of the standard cultivar and a diagram are provided for every block identified. The number of alleles per family is quite small for loci Gli-A1(d) and Gli-B1(d) of durum wheat, as contrasted to loci Gli-A2(d) and Gli-B2(d) that are characterized by large families including many alleles. The presence of large block families determines a higher diversity of durum wheat for loci Gli-A2(d) and Gli-B2(d) as compared to Gli-A1(d) and Gli-B1(d). The catalogue of allelic variants of gliadin component blocks can be used by seed farmers to identify durum wheat cultivars and evaluate their purity; by breeders, to obtain homogenous cultivars and control the initial stages of selection; by gene bank experts, to preserve native varieties and the original biotypic composition of cultivars. PMID:21946233

  3. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

  4. Influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat is predominantly grown in semi-arid to arid environments where common wheat does not flourish, especially in the Middle East, North Africa, Mediterranean Basin, and portions of North America. Durum kernels are extraordinarily hard when compared to their common wheat counterparts. Due to ...

  5. Crop selection for advanced life support systems in the ESA MELiSSA program: Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var durum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiak, M.; Gidzinski, D.; Jordan, M.; Dixon, M.

    2012-06-01

    As part of an ESA MELiSSA investigation into advanced life support (ALS) candidate crop cultivar selection and growth requirements, the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF) conducted a case study on growth and development of four durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum var durum) grown hydroponically under controlled conditions in a sealed environment. Cultivars tested were Canadian developed Avonlea, Commander, Eurostar and Strongfield. There were few fundamental differences in durum quality parameters between hydroponically and field grown wheat, however yields of Eurostar and Strongfield exceeded those of field trials by 41% and 87% respectively.

  6. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  7. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  8. Varietal screening of ozone sensitivity in Mediterranean durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Alonso, Rocìo; Bermejo, Victoria; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Faoro, Franco; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the ozone (O3) sensitivity of five cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) during the 2013 growing season. Two levels of ozone were applied during daylight hours: +50% and -50% of ambient ozone concentration respectively in O3-enriched OTC and charcoal-filtered OTC. Results suggest that the significant differences observed in agronomic parameters, were more cultivar-dependent rather than ozone-dependent. Two cultivars showed a significant reduction of aboveground biomass due to ozone (-19.7% and -25%), however only one of them showed also a significant reduction in grain yield (-16%). Stomatal conductance was significantly reduced by ozone fumigation up to -33% in the afternoon measuring cycle. No significant effects on chlorophyll fluorescence were found, nor correlation was observed between ozone-like symptoms severity (leaf chlorotic/necrotic spots) and yield reduction, suggesting that these parameters cannot be indicative of ozone sensitivity/tolerance. These results may be useful for the selection of durum wheat genotypes more adapted for the cultivation in geographical areas where tropospheric ozone is particularly high, but also for the future definition of consistent dose-response relationships to be used in the ozone risk assessment evaluation for the Mediterranean countries.

  9. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... (36 FR 13804) relating to notices of proposed rulemaking and public participation in rulemaking... 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published in the Federal Register on June 24, 1983 (48 FR 29115... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1413 RIN 0560-AH72 Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program AGENCY:...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid – an allotetraploid between two wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). As shown earlier, even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal ...

  11. Effects of Fusarium culmorum and water stress on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of water stress on Fusarium foot and root rot in durum wheat were investigated in growth chamber, greenhouse and field tests in Tunisia. In the seedling stage, emergence of six durum wheat cultivars in the growth chamber was significantly reduced by inoculation with Fusarium culmorum and...

  12. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  13. The Response of Durum Wheat to the Preceding Crop in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ercoli, Laura; Masoni, Alessandro; Pampana, Silvia; Mariotti, Marco; Arduini, Iduna

    2014-01-01

    Crop sequence is an important management practice that may affect durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) production. Field research was conducted in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons in a rain-fed cold Mediterranean environment to examine the impact of the preceding crops alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on yield and N uptake of four durum wheat varieties. The response of grain yield of durum wheat to the preceding crop was high in 2007-2008 and was absent in the 2008-2009 season, because of the heavy rainfall that negatively impacted establishment, vegetative growth, and grain yield of durum wheat due to waterlogging. In the first season, durum wheat grain yield was highest following alfalfa, and was 33% lower following wheat. The yield increase of durum wheat following alfalfa was mainly due to an increased number of spikes per unit area and number of kernels per spike, while the yield decrease following wheat was mainly due to a reduction of spike number per unit area. Variety growth habit and performance did not affect the response to preceding crop and varieties ranked in the order Levante > Saragolla = Svevo > Normanno. PMID:25401153

  14. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  15. Impact of water deficit intensity on durum wheat seminal roots.

    PubMed

    Adda, Ahmed; Sahnoune, Mohamed; Kaid-Harch, Meriem; Merah, Othmane

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were performed under controlled conditions to study seminal roots traits of durum wheat genotypes grown under four water conditions. Seminal root length, root-to-shoot dry matters ratio and piliferous layer cell size were measured. Root volume was assessed at three soil depths. Water stress has affected significantly root traits and piliferous layer cell size and this impact depends on its intensity. Severe water stress reduced markedly root traits. Water treatment by genotype interaction was observed. Middle-East genotypes responded differently from Algerian ones. Our results and those obtained elsewhere on the same genotypes for other physiological traits are discussed.

  16. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  17. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  18. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  19. Attempted compensation for linkage drag affecting agronomic characteristics of durum wheat 1AS/1DL translocation lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield reduction due to linkage drag caused by introgression of alien chromatin is a major problem for incorporating new genes into durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). Here we report attempts to improve yield of 1AS•1AL-1DL translocation lines of durum wheat that had previously been rep...

  20. Chromosome pairing in durum wheat haploids with and without ph1b of bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum or macaroni wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a disomic tetraploid with two related genomes, AA and BB, each with seven pairs of homoeologous chromosomes. Although the corresponding chromosomes of the two genomes are closely related so much so that they can compensate...

  1. Systems Responses to Progressive Water Stress in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Habash, Dimah Z.; Baudo, Marcela; Hindle, Matthew; Powers, Stephen J.; Defoin-Platel, Michael; Mitchell, Rowan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Chris; Latiri, Kawther; Araus, Jose L.; Abdulkader, Ahmad; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawlor, David W.; Nachit, Miloudi M.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1) and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219) showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat’s response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum line

  2. Heavy metal speciation an uptake to durum wheat from sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H.; Frost, H.L.

    1998-07-01

    This project focused on detection of heavy metal accumulation in durum wheat from sewage sludge or commercial phosphate fertilizer application, using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Four parts of the durum wheat plants were separated and analyzed (i.e., root, stem, leaves, and grain). Studies compared the metal uptake resulting from sewage sludge application and from commercial fertilizer. Sludges and fertilizers were applied in one application, except for one study which considered the effect of the same sludge dosage, except in two applications. The main objective of this research is to improve the grain quality by minimizing the accumulation of toxic elements in durum wheat.

  3. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties.

  4. Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m2), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m2). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

  5. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were < 50 ?g kg-1 which is less than those in Canada (> 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  6. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huixia, Wu; Angela, Doherty; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  7. Distribution of toxigenic Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin production in milling fractions of durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Barreau, Christian; Chaurand, Marc; Gregoire, Stephanie; Monmarson, Magalie; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2007-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive PCR assay to specifically detect trichothecene-producing Fusarium spp. in milling fractions and kernel tissue of naturally infected durum wheat is reported. Assays were based on a combination of primers derived from the trichodiene synthase and the beta-tubulin genes. The occurrence of toxigenic Fusarium spp. in semolina and wheat tissue (grain ends, crease, pericarp, aleurone layer, germ and albumen) was detected, even for a weakly contaminated wheat sample. Penetration of toxigenic Fusarium spp. into the interior of durum wheat kernel was demonstrated for the Nefer variety, indicating that none of the tissue structures within the wheat kernel acted as an effective barrier to fungal invasion. Moreover, after inoculation by toxigenic Fusarium strains, semolina was shown to allow high yields of trichothecenes, while bran was demonstrated to contain biochemical inhibitors able to significantly reduce trichothecene production. These results will be useful in improving breeding strategies to control trichothecene contamination of durum wheat kernels. PMID:17164217

  8. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  9. A consensus framework map of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) suitable for linkage disequilibrium analysis and genome-wide association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics applications in durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat have the potential to boost exploitation of genetic resources and to advance understanding of the genetics of important complex traits (e.g. resilience to environmental and biotic stresses). A dense and accurate consensus map specific for ...

  10. Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2014-01-01

    Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2≥0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

  11. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  12. Accumulation of cadmium in near-isogenic lines of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum): the role of transpiration.

    PubMed

    Quinn, C J; Mohammad, A; Macfie, S M

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of cadmium in the grain of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) are often above the internationally acceptable limit of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Cultivars that vary in concentrations of cadmium in the grain have been identified but the physiology behind differential accumulation has not been determined. Three pairs of near-isogenic lines (isolines) of durum wheat that vary in aboveground cadmium accumulation (8982-TL 'high' and 'low', W9260-BC 'high' and 'low', and W9261-BG 'high' and 'low') were used to test the hypothesis that the greater amounts of cadmium in shoots of the 'high' isolines are correlated with greater volumes of water transpired. In general, cadmium content was positively correlated with transpiration only in the 'low' isolines. Although shoots of the 'high' isolines of W9260-BC and W9261-BG contained higher concentrations of cadmium than did their corresponding 'low' isolines, they did not transpire larger volumes of water. In addition, isolines of 8982-TL transpired less water than did the other pairs of isolines yet both 'high' and 'low' isolines of 8982-TL contained higher amounts of cadmium than did the other pairs. The difference between 'high' and 'low' isolines appears to be related to the relative contribution of transpiration to cadmium translocation to the shoot. Increased transpiration was associated with increased cadmium content in the 'low' isolines but in the 'high' isolines increased cadmium in the shoot occurred independently of the volume of water transpired.

  13. Developing improved durum wheat germplasm by altering the cytoplasmic genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic organisms, nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes interact to drive cellular functions. These genomes have co-evolved to form specific nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions that are essential to the origin, success, and evolution of diploid and polyploid species. Hundreds of genetic diseases in h...

  14. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  15. Novel durum wheat genes up-regulated in response to a combination of heat and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Patrizia; Mita, Giovanni; Fasano, Pasqua; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; Aprile, Alessio; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla

    2012-07-01

    We report the effect of heat, drought and combined stress on the expression of a group of genes that are up-regulated under these conditions in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) plants. Modulation of gene expression was studied by cDNA-AFLP performed on RNAs extracted from flag leaves. By this approach, we identified several novel durum wheat genes whose expression is modulated under different stress conditions. We focused on a group of hitherto undescribed up-regulated genes in durum wheat, among these, 7 are up-regulated by heat, 8 by drought stress, 15 by combined heat and drought stress, 4 are up-regulated by both heat and combined stress, and 3 by both drought and combined stress. The functional characterization of these genes will provide new data that could help the developing of strategies aimed at improving durum wheat tolerance to field stress.

  16. Lentinula edodes removes phenols from olive-mill wastewater: impact on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) germinability.

    PubMed

    D'Annibale, A; Casa, R; Pieruccetti, F; Ricci, M; Marabottini, R

    2004-02-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) exhibits highly phytotoxic properties, mainly due to phenols. A valuable option for OMW disposal is its agricultural use provided that phytotoxic effects are removed. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of the lignin-degrading fungus Lentinula edodes in achieving OMW detoxification. Germinability experiments on durum wheat showed that OMW phytotoxicity was significantly reduced by L. edodes cultures. Germinability on undiluted and twofold diluted OMW from fungal cultures was 34+/-5% and 57+/-6%, respectively, while on related incubation controls it was almost completely suppressed. These results suggest that fungal cultures of L. edodes would decrease the phytotoxicity of this waste. PMID:14637346

  17. Structural-functional dissection and characterization of yield-contributing traits originating from a group 7 chromosome of the wheatgrass species Thinopyrum ponticum after transfer into durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanović, Ljiljana; Gennaro, Andrea; Benedettelli, Stefano; Dodd, Ian C; Quarrie, Stephen A; Ceoloni, Carla

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, using chromosome engineering of durum wheat, the underlying genetic determinants of a yield-improving segment from Thinopyrum ponticum (7AgL) were dissected. Three durum wheat-Th. ponticum near-isogenic recombinant lines (NIRLs), with distal portions of their 7AL arm (fractional lengths 0.77, 0.72, and 0.60) replaced by alien chromatin, were field-tested for two seasons under rainfed conditions. Yield traits and other agronomic characteristics of the main shoot and whole plant were measured. Loci for seed number per ear and per spikelet were detected in the proximal 7AgL segment (0.60-0.72). Loci determining considerable increases of flag leaf width and area, productive tiller number per plant, biomass per plant, and grain yield per plant were located in the distally adjacent 0.72-0.77 7AgL segment, while in the most distal portion (0.77-1.00) genetic effects on spikelet number per ear were identified. Contrary to previous reports, trials with the bread wheat T4 translocation line, carrying on 7DL a sizeable 7AgL segment of which those present in the durum wheat-Th. ponticum NIRLs represent fractions, gave no yield advantage. The hypothesis that ABA might be a factor contributing to the 7AgL effects was tested by analysing endogenous ABA contents of the NIRLs and their responses to exogenous ABA application. The 7AgL yield-related loci were shown to be ABA-independent. This study highlights the value of wheat-alien recombinant lines for dissecting the genetic and physiological basis of complex traits present in wild germplasm, and provides a basis for their targeted exploitation in wheat breeding. PMID:24319256

  18. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  19. Introgression of two major FHB-resistance QTLs into durum and hard red spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification and deployment of novel sources of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) are crucial in the current effort in fighting against this serious disease in durum and bread wheat. Recently, we identified and mapped a novel major FHB resistance QTL on chromosome arm 5AL and another major...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Jauhar, Prem P; Peterson, Terrance S

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid-an allotetraploid between 2 wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). Even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal imbalance, for example, addition of alien chromosome 1E of diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum. Therefore, one way to broaden its genetic base is to add a desirable chromosome(s) from diploid wild relatives. We attempted chromosomal engineering with chromosomes of a diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum bessarabicum-a source of resistance to some diseases including Fusarium head blight. Several advanced hybrids and alien addition lines were studied using traditional cytology, multicolor fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization, and molecular markers. Hybrid derivatives varied in chromosome number from F1 to F8 generations and in backcross generations. In advanced generations, we exercised selection against 28-chromosome plants and in favor of 30-chromosome plants that helped recover 14 addition lines in the F8 generation, as indicated by the absence of segregation for 29-chromosome plants. Disomic additions showed regular meiosis with 15 bivalents, 14 of durum wheat, and 1 of Th. bessarabicum. The addition lines will facilitate further chromosome engineering work on durum wheat for broadening its genetic base. PMID:23396879

  1. Antagonist effects of Bacillus spp. strains against Fusarium graminearum for protection of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Ali, Hacina; Sellami, Sameh; Nasfi, Zina; Tounsi, Slim; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus species are attractive due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB369, Bacillus subtilis strain BLB277, and Paenibacillus polymyxa strain BLB267 were isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular (16S rDNA, gyrA, and rpoB) approaches. They could produce, respectively, (iturin and surfactin), (surfactin and fengycin), and (fusaricidin and polymyxin) exhibiting broad spectrum against several phytopathogenic fungi. In vivo examination of wheat seed germination, plant height, phenolic compounds, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents proved the efficiency of the bacterial cells and the secreted antagonist activities to protect Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) cultivar Om Rabiia against F. graminearum fungus. Application of single bacterial culture medium, particularly that of B. amyloliquefaciens, showed better protection than combinations of various culture media. The tertiary combination of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, and P. polymyxa bacterial cells led to the highest protection rate which could be due to strains synergistic or complementary effects. Hence, combination of compatible biocontrol agents could be a strategic approach to control plant diseases. PMID:27664733

  2. Differential CO2 effect on primary carbon metabolism of flag leaves in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Alvaro; Abadie, Cyril; Gilard, Françoise; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Araus, Jose L; Bourguignon, Jacques; Irigoyen, Juan J; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    C sink/source balance and N assimilation have been identified as target processes conditioning crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 . However, little is known about phenology-driven modifications of C and N primary metabolism at elevated CO2 in cereals such as wheat. Here, we examined the differential effect of elevated CO2 at two development stages (onset of flowering, onset of grain filling) in durum wheat (Triticum durum, var. Sula) using physiological measurements (photosynthesis, isotopes), metabolomics, proteomics and (15) N labelling. Our results show that growth at elevated CO2 was accompanied by photosynthetic acclimation through a lower internal (mesophyll) conductance but no significant effect on Rubisco content, maximal carboxylation or electron transfer. Growth at elevated CO2 altered photosynthate export and tended to accelerate leaf N remobilization, which was visible for several proteins and amino acids, as well as lysine degradation metabolism. However, grain biomass produced at elevated CO2 was larger and less N rich, suggesting that nitrogen use efficiency rather than photosynthesis is an important target for improvement, even in good CO2 -responsive cultivars. PMID:26081746

  3. Differential CO2 effect on primary carbon metabolism of flag leaves in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Alvaro; Abadie, Cyril; Gilard, Françoise; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Araus, Jose L; Bourguignon, Jacques; Irigoyen, Juan J; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    C sink/source balance and N assimilation have been identified as target processes conditioning crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 . However, little is known about phenology-driven modifications of C and N primary metabolism at elevated CO2 in cereals such as wheat. Here, we examined the differential effect of elevated CO2 at two development stages (onset of flowering, onset of grain filling) in durum wheat (Triticum durum, var. Sula) using physiological measurements (photosynthesis, isotopes), metabolomics, proteomics and (15) N labelling. Our results show that growth at elevated CO2 was accompanied by photosynthetic acclimation through a lower internal (mesophyll) conductance but no significant effect on Rubisco content, maximal carboxylation or electron transfer. Growth at elevated CO2 altered photosynthate export and tended to accelerate leaf N remobilization, which was visible for several proteins and amino acids, as well as lysine degradation metabolism. However, grain biomass produced at elevated CO2 was larger and less N rich, suggesting that nitrogen use efficiency rather than photosynthesis is an important target for improvement, even in good CO2 -responsive cultivars.

  4. Puroindoline genes introduced into durum wheat reduce milling energy and change milling behavior similar to soft common wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain physical characteristics and milling behavior of a durum wheat line in which both wild-type puroindoline alleles were translocated and stabilized after backcrossing (Svevo-Pin) were compared with the parent line (Svevo). The only observed differences between grain characteristics were the mech...

  5. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  6. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain.

    PubMed

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: "Primadur", an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and "T1303", an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in "Primadur", with a general decrease in "T1303". Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  7. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health.

  8. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. PMID:25732000

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of ERF1, an ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum), potentially involved in salt-stress responses.

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Marande, William; Mila, Isabelle; Hanana, Mohsen; Bergès, Hélène; Mzid, Rim; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-12-01

    As food crop, wheat is of prime importance for human society. Nevertheless, our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling wheat productivity conditions has been, so far, hampered by the lack of sufficient genomic resources. The present work describes the isolation and characterization of TdERF1, an ERF gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). The structural features of TdERF1 supported the hypothesis that it is a novel member of the ERF family in durum wheat and, considering its close similarity to TaERF1 of Triticum aestivum, it probably plays a similar role in mediating responses to environmental stresses. TdERF1 displayed an expression pattern that discriminated between two durum wheat genotypes contrasted with regard to salt-stress tolerance. The high number of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses present in the TdERF1 promoter and the ability of TdERF1 to regulate the transcription of ethylene and drought-responsive promoters clearly indicated its potential role in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental constrains. TdERF1 was also regulated by abscisic acid, ethylene, auxin, and salicylic acid, suggesting that it may be at the crossroads of multiple hormone signalling pathways. Four TdERF1 allelic variants have been identified in durum wheat genome, all shown to be transcriptionally active. Interestingly, the expression of one allelic form is specific to the tolerant genotype, further supporting the hypothesis that this gene is probably associated with the susceptibility/tolerance mechanism to salt stress. In this regard, the TdERF1 gene may provide a discriminating marker between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties.

  10. Classification of the waxy condition of durum wheat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy using wavelets and a genetic algorithm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been applied to the problem of differentiating four genotypes of durum wheat: ‘waxy’, wx-A1 null, wx-B1 null and wild type. The test data consisted of 95 NIR reflectance spectra of wheat samples obtained from a USDA-ARS wheat breeding program. A two...

  11. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  12. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  13. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  14. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  15. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  16. Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    De Girolamo, Annalisa; Cervellieri, Salvatore; Visconti, Angelo; Pascale, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of <50–16,000 µg/kg DON. The model displayed a large root mean square error of prediction value (1,977 µg/kg) as compared to the EU maximum limit for DON in unprocessed durum wheat (i.e., 1,750 µg/kg), thus making the PLS approach unsuitable for quantitative prediction of DON in durum wheat. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was successfully used to differentiate wheat samples based on their DON content. A first approach used LDA to group wheat samples into three classes: A (DON ≤ 1,000 µg/kg), B (1,000 < DON ≤ 2,500 µg/kg), and C (DON > 2,500 µg/kg) (LDA I). A second approach was used to discriminate highly contaminated wheat samples based on three different cut-off limits, namely 1,000 (LDA II), 1,200 (LDA III) and 1,400 µg/kg DON (LDA IV). The overall classification and false compliant rates for the three models were 75%–90% and 3%–7%, respectively, with model LDA IV using a cut-off of 1,400 µg/kg fulfilling the requirement of the European official guidelines for screening methods. These findings confirmed the suitability of FT-NIR to screen a large number of wheat samples for DON contamination and to verify the compliance with EU regulation. PMID:25384107

  17. Rapid analysis of deoxynivalenol in durum wheat by FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, Annalisa; Cervellieri, Salvatore; Visconti, Angelo; Pascale, Michelangelo

    2014-11-06

    Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of <50-16,000 µg/kg DON. The model displayed a large root mean square error of prediction value (1,977 µg/kg) as compared to the EU maximum limit for DON in unprocessed durum wheat (i.e., 1,750 µg/kg), thus making the PLS approach unsuitable for quantitative prediction of DON in durum wheat. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was successfully used to differentiate wheat samples based on their DON content. A first approach used LDA to group wheat samples into three classes: A (DON ≤ 1,000 µg/kg), B (1,000 < DON ≤ 2,500 µg/kg), and C (DON > 2,500 µg/kg) (LDA I). A second approach was used to discriminate highly contaminated wheat samples based on three different cut-off limits, namely 1,000 (LDA II), 1,200 (LDA III) and 1,400 µg/kg DON (LDA IV). The overall classification and false compliant rates for the three models were 75%-90% and 3%-7%, respectively, with model LDA IV using a cut-off of 1,400 µg/kg fulfilling the requirement of the European official guidelines for screening methods. These findings confirmed the suitability of FT-NIR to screen a large number of wheat samples for DON contamination and to verify the compliance with EU regulation.

  18. Response of durum wheat to water variability under climate change scenarios in southern Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soddu, Antonino; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Meloni, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio; Ludwig, Ralf; Sodde, Marcella; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Perra, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    Durum wheat is the most important C3 rainfed crop in southern Sardinia, Italy and is highly vulnerable to climate variability. This region has experienced severe drought conditions and problems of competing water demands during the last decades. Within the framework of European (1) and Regional (2) research projects, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased maximum temperature and high rainfall variability on durum wheat yield, as part of an effort to devise strategies for water management and adaptation at the field and catchment scales in southern Sardinia. Towards this goal, the AquaCrop model was calibrated and its predictive performance was tested in the period from 1995 to 2012 using daily meteorological data and durum wheat (CV Creso) yield measurements from the experimental fields of the Agris Research Agency in Ussana (Sardinia, Italy). During the verification period, the model showed a good performance with a significant correlation between observed and simulated yield for durum wheat and a very good estimation of the water stress conditions during the drought period in 1995. Next, four future scenarios of climate change were simulated with AquaCrop to predict wheat yield responses and to investigate water availability for rainfed and irrigated crops for the 30-year periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. The simulated future scenarios show potential improved productivity arising from the increased CO2 concentration. This positive outlook is however tempered by increased uncertainty and fluctuations in rainfall during the fall and early winter periods (September-December). The possible tradeoffs between these factors, as well as the expected negative effects of increased maximum temperatures, are being further examined. (1) Climate Induced Changes in the Mediterranean Region (CLIMB), funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Program. (2) Valutazione degli impatti sul comportamento idrologico dei bacini idrografici e sulle

  19. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa) were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium). Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable. PMID:20626919

  20. Cloning, expression analysis, and functional characterization of two secretory phospholipases A2 in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta; Trono, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    We previously isolated four cDNAs in durum wheat, TdsPLA2I, TdsPLA2II, TdsPLA2III and TdsPLA2IV, that encode proteins with homology to plant secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) (Verlotta et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14, 2013, 5146-5169). In this study, we have further characterized TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III sequences that, on the basis of our previous findings, might encode sPLA2 isoforms with different features. Functional analysis revealed that, similarly to other known sPLA2s, TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III have an optimum at pH 9.0, require Ca(2+), are heat stable, and are inhibited by the disulfide-bond-reducing agent dithiothreitol. However, differences emerged between these TdsPLA2 isoforms. Transcript analysis revealed that the TdsPLA2III gene is highly up-regulated under different environmental stresses; conversely, the TdsPLA2II gene is expressed at constant levels under almost all of the stress conditions examined. Moreover, TdsPLA2II is saturated at micromolar substrate and Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas TdsPLA2III requires millimolar concentrations to reach maximal activity. This suggests that TdsPLA2II normally functions under optimal conditions in vivo, whereas TdsPLA2III is only partially activated, depending on the specific phospholipid and Ca(2+) levels. Altogether these data lead to the hypothesis that in vivo TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III are differently regulated at both molecular and biochemical level and that TdsPLA2III plays a major role in durum wheat response to adverse environmental conditions.

  1. Cloning, expression analysis, and functional characterization of two secretory phospholipases A2 in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta; Trono, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    We previously isolated four cDNAs in durum wheat, TdsPLA2I, TdsPLA2II, TdsPLA2III and TdsPLA2IV, that encode proteins with homology to plant secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) (Verlotta et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14, 2013, 5146-5169). In this study, we have further characterized TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III sequences that, on the basis of our previous findings, might encode sPLA2 isoforms with different features. Functional analysis revealed that, similarly to other known sPLA2s, TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III have an optimum at pH 9.0, require Ca(2+), are heat stable, and are inhibited by the disulfide-bond-reducing agent dithiothreitol. However, differences emerged between these TdsPLA2 isoforms. Transcript analysis revealed that the TdsPLA2III gene is highly up-regulated under different environmental stresses; conversely, the TdsPLA2II gene is expressed at constant levels under almost all of the stress conditions examined. Moreover, TdsPLA2II is saturated at micromolar substrate and Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas TdsPLA2III requires millimolar concentrations to reach maximal activity. This suggests that TdsPLA2II normally functions under optimal conditions in vivo, whereas TdsPLA2III is only partially activated, depending on the specific phospholipid and Ca(2+) levels. Altogether these data lead to the hypothesis that in vivo TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III are differently regulated at both molecular and biochemical level and that TdsPLA2III plays a major role in durum wheat response to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26706080

  2. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice.

  3. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice. PMID:27442951

  4. Development of a diagnostic co-dominant marker for stem rust resistance gene Sr47 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, abbreviated as Pgt) resistance gene Sr47, originally transferred from Aegilops speltoides to durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) line DAS15, confers a high level of resistance to Pgt race TTKSK (known as Ug99). Recently, the durum Rust...

  5. Durum wheat in conventional and organic farming: yield amount and pasta quality in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  6. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    PubMed

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples.

  7. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming. PMID:22701377

  8. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti. PMID:27507488

  9. Evaluation of the technological and sensory properties of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with different dietary fibres.

    PubMed

    Rakhesh, Nisha; Fellows, Christopher M; Sissons, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of fibres, whether insoluble or soluble, in durum wheat pasta negatively impacts desirable end-use properties, especially if incorporated in significant amounts. Fibres can disrupt the starch-protein matrix of the dough during pasta preparation and can also often swell more readily with water than starch, competing with the starch for water during dough development. Similar degrees of substitution with different fibres gave markedly different impacts on firmness, stickiness, cooking loss and sensory attributes, suggesting that results obtained for one fibre cannot readily be generalized to other fibres. The in vitro starch digestibility of the pastas was significantly reduced when resistant starch, β-glucan-enriched flour, carboxymethyl cellulose or guar gum was incorporated but increased when pollard or inulin was added. In many instances, different sources of the same fibre gave dramatically different impacts on the properties of cooked durum wheat pasta.

  10. In vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics and vitamins from durum wheat aleurone fractions.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Maria; Scazzina, Francesca; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Bianchi, Marta A; Melegari, Camilla; De Albertis, Pietro; Tribuzio, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio

    2014-02-19

    Durum wheat aleurone, thanks to its nutrient-rich composition, might be of potential use as a functional ingredient in cereal-based foods provided nutrients can be made available for absorption. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of thiamine, niacin, and phenolic acids in different aleurone fractions obtained with an industrial processing aimed to obtain material of different composition and particle size. Results indicate that the main phenolic compounds and vitamins investigated have a higher bioaccessibility when present in the inner part of the aleurone layer compared to the outer part of aleurone or the unfractionated bran. Moreover, an ultramicronization treatment employed to reduce particle size does not further improve the bioaccessibility of these compounds. We conclude that aleurone fractions from durum wheat bran could represent a nutritionally relevant ingredient, bringing together a high fiber content and an excellent bioaccessibility of vitamins and phytochemicals generally associated with nutritional benefits.

  11. Response of carotenoids and tocols of durum wheat in relation to water stress and sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Giuzio, Luigia; Di Criscio, Tiziana; Zina, Flagella; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2013-03-20

    Lipophilic antioxidants are essential components of plant defense against stressful conditions. The response of carotenoids and tocols to water deficit and sulfur fertilization was investigated in durum wheat cultivars. The amounts of tocols and carotenoids were evaluated in both whole meal and semolina samples. Differences among cultivars were observed. Simeto cultivar showed a significant effect of water regime on whole meal and semolina carotenoids, with about 20% and 15% increase, respectively. Also tocols and tocotrienols of Simeto were positively affected by water stress (about 10% increase and 15% increase in whole meals and semolinas). Sulfur fertilization positively impacted mainly Ofanto whole-grain and semolina carotenoids, semolina tocols, and tocotrienols. In conclusion, water deficit occurring under a Mediterranean environment was responsible for an improvement of lipophilic antioxidant content in durum wheat; in contrast sulfur supplementation did not improve the response of the antioxidant pool under water deficit.

  12. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species.

  13. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  14. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  15. Introgression of a 4D chromosomal fragment into durum wheat confers aluminium tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang; Ryan, Peter R.; Yan, ZeHong; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Aluminium (Al3+) inhibits root growth of sensitive plant species and is a key factor that limits durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) production on acid soils. The aim of this study was to enhance the Al3+ tolerance of an elite durum cultivar by introgression of a chromosomal fragment from hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) that possesses an Al3+ tolerance gene. Methods A 4D(4B) substitution line of durum wheat ‘Langdon’ was backcrossed to ‘Jandaroi’, a current semi-dwarf Australian durum. In the second backcross, using ‘Jandaroi’ as the recurrent parent, a seedling was identified where TaALMT1 on chromosome 4D was recombined with the Rht-B1b locus on chromosome 4B to yield an Al3+-tolerant seedling with a semi-dwarf habit. This seedling was used in a third backcross to generate homozygous sister lines with contrasting Al3+ tolerances. The backcrossed lines were characterized and compared with selected cultivars of hexaploid wheat for their Al3+ and Na+ tolerances in hydroponic culture as well as in short-term experiments to assess their growth on acid soil. Key Results Analysis of sister lines derived from the third backcross showed that the 4D chromosomal fragment substantially enhanced Al3+ tolerance. The ability to exclude Na+ from leaves was also enhanced, indicating that the chromosomal fragment possessed the Kna1 salt tolerance locus. Although Al3+ tolerance of seminal roots was enhanced in acid soil, the development of fine roots was not as robust as found in Al3+-tolerant lines of hexaploid wheat. Analysis of plant characteristics in the absence of Al3+ toxicity showed that the introgressed fragment did not affect total grain yield but reduced the weight of individual grains. Conclusions The results show that it is possible to increase substantially the Al3+ tolerance of an elite durum wheat cultivar by introgression of a 4D chromosomal fragment. Further improvements are possible, such as introducing additional genes to enhance

  16. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant’s responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development. PMID:26417365

  17. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant's responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development.

  18. The influence of climate on durum wheat quality in Tuscany, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Marta, Anna; Grifoni, D.; Mancini, M.; Zipoli, G.; Orlandini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Climate and meteorological conditions greatly affect agricultural activities, modifying plant responses and determining the quantity and the quality of production. In this respect, the aim of this research was to analyze the quality of winter durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum), in terms of protein content through the use of meteorological information. Meteorological conditions were described utilizing both local weather station data (air temperature, cumulated precipitation) and large-scale information available freely on the internet, such as geopotential height (GPH), sea surface temperature (SST), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. The analysis was carried out for the period 1997-2009 in the Tuscany region, Central Italy. Grain protein was positively correlated with air temperature during the February to June period, and negatively with cumulative precipitation during the entire period from November to June. Protein content was also negatively correlated with 500 hPa GPH over Gibraltar and North-Western Africa during the March to June period and with the SST of the Atlantic Ocean south-west of the Canary Islands during the January to June period. Finally, with regard to the NAO, winter durum wheat quality was positively correlated with the specific index for several months, in particular during the winter period. These results demonstrate that precipitation and air temperature over the production area represent two crucial variables driving the vegeto-productive responses of winter durum wheat. On the other hand, the use of large-scale meteorological information showed great potential from the perspective of a local quality forecast system setup.

  19. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  20. Impact of domestication on the phenotypic architecture of durum wheat under contrasting nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Tania; Nagel, Kerstin A; Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Pieruschka, Roland; De Vita, Pasquale; Fiorani, Fabio; Papa, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The process of domestication has led to dramatic morphological and physiological changes in crop species due to adaptation to cultivation and to the needs of farmers. To investigate the phenotypic architecture of shoot- and root-related traits and quantify the impact of primary and secondary domestication, we examined a collection of 36 wheat genotypes under optimal and nitrogen-starvation conditions. These represented three taxa that correspond to key steps in the recent evolution of tetraploid wheat (i.e. wild emmer, emmer, and durum wheat). Overall, nitrogen starvation reduced the shoot growth of all genotypes, while it induced the opposite effect on root traits, quantified using the automated phenotyping platform GROWSCREEN-Rhizo. We observed an overall increase in all of the shoot and root growth traits from wild emmer to durum wheat, while emmer was generally very similar to wild emmer but intermediate between these two subspecies. While the differences in phenotypic diversity due to the effects of primary domestication were not significant, the secondary domestication transition from emmer to durum wheat was marked by a large and significant decrease in the coefficient of additive genetic variation. In particular, this reduction was very strong under the optimal condition and less intense under nitrogen starvation. Moreover, although under the optimal condition both root and shoot traits showed significantly reduced diversity due to secondary domestication, under nitrogen starvation the reduced diversity was significant only for shoot traits. Overall, a considerable amount of phenotypic variation was observed in wild emmer and emmer, which could be exploited for the development of pre-breeding strategies.

  1. Assessment of the quality of durum wheat products by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence video image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novales, Bruno; Abecassis, Joel; Bertrand, Dominique; Devaux, Marie-Francoise; Robert, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Because assessment of Durum wheat semolina purity by standard ash-test has been widely criticized, we attempted to characterize products of a semolina mill by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging. A collection of milled wheat products ranging from very pure semolina to brans were chosen for this study. Multidimensional statistical analyses (Principal component analyses) were applied to the spectral and image data. Maps showing a classification of the products according to purity were obtained without biochemical calibration. Principal component regression was applied to the data in order to test the relationship of aleurone fluorescence to ash content. Both spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging gave similar results with good determination coefficients (r2 equals 0.97 and 0.92) for the study of a single wheat variety. Products obtained from different wheat varieties were more difficult to compare.

  2. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  3. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  4. Carotenoid evolution during short-storage period of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum conv. durum) and tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner) whole-grain flours.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Ortega, Elena; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of storage temperature on carotenoid composition in durum wheat and tritordeum whole-grain flours. For both cereal genotypes, total carotenoid content significantly decreased during storage, following a temperature dependent first-order kinetic model. Individual and total carotenoid content decay were similar for durum wheat, with a maximum at 50 °C at the end of the storage period (94%). In contrast, the evolution of lutein ester fractions in tritordeum showed lower losses than for free lutein (∼ 50%), and consequently the total carotenoid content was less affected (83%). A decrease in the lutein monoesters fraction was observed, coinciding with an increase in the diesterified forms, especially for lutein dilinoleate. These data suggest an esterifying activity in flours different from the enzyme systems operating in vivo (xanthophyll acyl transferase). The formation of lutein diesters, with greater stability, explains the slower carotenoid degradation in tritordeum whole-grain flours.

  5. Contrasting effects of water salinity and ozone concentration on two cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Finco, Angelo; Monga, Robert; Fusaro, Isa; Faoro, Franco

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the results of an Open-Top Chambers experiment on the responses of two durum wheat cultivars (Neodur and Virgilio) exposed to two different levels of ozone (charcoal-filtered air and ozone-enriched air) and irrigation water salinity (tap water as control and a 75 mM NaCl solution once a week). The stomatal conductance of the flag leaves was measured on four dates during May. Flag leaf samples were collected to detect ozone visible leaf injuries. At the end of the growing season, the yield/biomass and grain quality parameters were assessed. Saline irrigation caused significant reductions in gs, yield and grain quality in Neodur, while Virgilio was more tolerant. The yield response to ozone was almost negligible, with Virgilio, despite the higher susceptibility to visible leaf injuries, being more productive than Neodur. The responses to the combined stress were not consistent, with the main tendencies undoubtedly driven by the saline irrigation factor.

  6. Diagonal two-dimensional electrophoresis (D-2DE): a new approach to study the effect of osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Kacem, N S; Mauro, S; Muhovski, Y; Delporte, F; Renaut, J; Djekoun, A; Watillon, B

    2016-09-01

    Acclimatization to stress is associated with profound changes in proteome composition. The use of plant cell and tissue culture offers a means to investigate the physiological and biochemical processes involved in the adaptation to osmotic stress. We employed a new proteomic approach to further understand the response of calli to dehydration induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Calli of three durum wheat genotypes Djenah Khetifa, Oued Zenati and Waha were treated with two concentrations of polyethylene glycol to mimic osmotic stress. Changes in protein relative abundance were analyzed using a new electrophoretic approach named diagonal two-dimensional electrophoresis (D-2DE), combined with mass spectrometry. Total proteins were extracted from 30-day-old calli from three durum wheat genotypes that showed contrasting levels of drought stress tolerance in the field. The combination of one-dimensional electrophoresis and D-2DE gave a specific imprint of the protein extracts under osmotic stress, as well as characterizing and identifying individual target proteins. Of the variously expressed proteins, three were selected (globulin, GAPDH and peroxidase) and further analyzed using qRT-PCR at the transcriptome level in order to compare the results with the proteomic data. Western blot analysis was used to further validate the differences in relative abundance pattern. The proteins identified through this technique provide new insights as to how calli respond to osmotic stress. Our method of study provides an original and relevant approach of analyzing the osmotic-responsive mechanisms at the cellular level of durum wheat with agronomic perspectives.

  7. The impact of the SSIIa null mutations on grain traits and composition in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Botticella, Ermelinda; Sestili, Francesco; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Mantovani, Paola; Cammerata, Alessandro; D’Egidio, Maria Grazia; Lafiandra, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Starch represents a major nutrient in the human diet providing essentially a source of energy. More recently the modification of its composition has been associated with new functionalities both at the nutritional and technological level. Targeting the major starch biosynthetic enzymes has been shown to be a valuable strategy to manipulate the amylose-amylopectin ratio in reserve starch. In the present work a breeding strategy aiming to produce a set of SSIIa (starch synthases IIa) null durum wheat is described. We have characterized major traits such as seed weight, total starch, amylose, protein and β-glucan content in a set of mutant families derived from the introgression of the SSIIa null trait into Svevo, an elite Italian durum wheat cultivar. A large degree of variability was detected and used to select wheat lines with either improved quality traits or agronomic performances. Semolina of a set of two SSIIa null lines showed new rheological behavior and an increased content of all major dietary fiber components, namely arabinoxylans, β-glucans and resistant starch. Furthermore the investigation of gene expression highlighted important differences in some genes involved in starch and β-glucans biosynthesis. PMID:27795682

  8. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  9. Effects of two systemic fungicides: Artea (Propiconazole+cyproconazole) and Punch (Flusilazole) on the physiology and the respiratory metabolism of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.).

    PubMed

    Bensoltane, S; Youbi, M; Djebar, H; Djebar, M R

    2006-01-01

    The present work aimed at the study of the effects of Artea and Punch; two systemic fungicides on durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. cv. GTA dur). Seeds were grown in a medium containing respectively 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea and Punch under controlled conditions. After measuring root number and length, eight-day-old-root tips were used to determine Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), Ascorbate-Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and Guaïacol-Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) enzymatic activities. Root respiratory activity was also determined using a polarographic method (Clark electrode). Fungicide treatment triggered a decrease in root number and length for both fungicides. On the other hand, treatment with Artea and Punch resulted in an enhancement of the respiratory activity and increased antioxidative enzymatic levels in durum wheat roots. Activities of Catalase, Ascorbate-Peroxydase and Guaïacol-Peroxydase increased proportionally and were more meaningful at high concentrations (75 and 100 ppm) compared with controls. Modulations in respiratory metabolism and antioxidant system could probably be the result of Artea/Punch-induced toxicity which could lead to an oxidative stress status. The present study enhances previous works relevant to the toxic effects induced by systemic fungicides on plants.

  10. Identification and Characterization of the Sucrose Synthase 2 Gene (Sus2) in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Volpicella, Mariateresa; Fanizza, Immacolata; Leoni, Claudia; Gadaleta, Agata; Nigro, Domenica; Gattulli, Bruno; Mangini, Giacomo; Blanco, Antonio; Ceci, Luigi R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS), which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for SUS in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo) is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur, and 5-BIL42). The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modeling approaches. The combined results of sucrose synthase 2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield. PMID:27014292

  11. Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; De Simone, Vanessa; De Leonardis, Anna Maria; Giovanniello, Valentina; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Lecce, Lucia; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (p<0.05) reduced the content of anthocyanins (21.42 μg/g vs. 46.32 μg/g) and carotenoids (3.77 μg/g vs. 4.04 μg/g) with respect to the pasteurisation process involved in fresh pasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower. Thus, it is possible to consider this genetic material as a good ingredient for the production of functional foods from cereals naturally rich in bioactive compounds. PMID:27006230

  12. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    PubMed

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples. PMID:25977050

  13. Differential Expression of Durum Wheat Gluten Proteome under Water Stress during Grain Filling.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Palermo, Carmen; De Santis, Michele Andrea; Mentana, Annalisa; Pompa, Marianna; Giuzio, Luigia; Masci, Stefania; Centonze, Diego; Flagella, Zina

    2015-07-29

    Environmental stress during grain filling may affect wheat protein composition, thus influencing its final quality. A proteomic approach was used to evaluate changes in storage protein composition under water stress of two Italian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo. The high-molecular-weight glutenin region increased progressively in both cultivars and under two water regimens. The L48-35 region, corresponding to low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits, increased slightly during grain development and decreased under water stress in both cultivars. In particular, an s-type LMW related to superior technological quality was down-expressed in the early-mid period in Svevo and in the mid-late period in Ciccio. Finally, the L<35 region, corresponding to gliadin-like proteins, decreased slightly during grain development and increased under stress in both cultivars. Several α-gliadins, associated with immunological potential, increased their expression under water stress, especially in Svevo in the early-mid stage of grain filling.

  14. Differential Expression of Durum Wheat Gluten Proteome under Water Stress during Grain Filling.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Palermo, Carmen; De Santis, Michele Andrea; Mentana, Annalisa; Pompa, Marianna; Giuzio, Luigia; Masci, Stefania; Centonze, Diego; Flagella, Zina

    2015-07-29

    Environmental stress during grain filling may affect wheat protein composition, thus influencing its final quality. A proteomic approach was used to evaluate changes in storage protein composition under water stress of two Italian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo. The high-molecular-weight glutenin region increased progressively in both cultivars and under two water regimens. The L48-35 region, corresponding to low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits, increased slightly during grain development and decreased under water stress in both cultivars. In particular, an s-type LMW related to superior technological quality was down-expressed in the early-mid period in Svevo and in the mid-late period in Ciccio. Finally, the L<35 region, corresponding to gliadin-like proteins, decreased slightly during grain development and increased under stress in both cultivars. Several α-gliadins, associated with immunological potential, increased their expression under water stress, especially in Svevo in the early-mid stage of grain filling. PMID:26138860

  15. Identification and validation of a major cadmium accumulation locus and closely associated SNP markers in North Dakota durum wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat has the tendency of accumulating more cadmium (Cd), a biotoxic heavy metal, in seeds than other commonly grown cereals, thus posing a serious food safety/public health concern. This could have serious negative impact on the national pasta industry and the international export market of d...

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of yellow pigment content and evaluation of carotenoids by high-performance liquid chromatography in durum wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Verena; Kranl, Katja; Hollmann, Jürgen; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Böhm, Volker; Bitsch, Roland

    2002-11-01

    The so-called "yellow pigment" content of durum wheat has been used for a long time as an indicator of the color quality of durum wheat and pasta products. For decades the chemical nature of these pigments has been assigned to carotenoids, mainly to the xanthophyll lutein and its fatty acid esters. The chemical composition of the yellow pigments of eight German durum wheat cultivars was studied. Grains were milled on a laboratory mill. Pigment extraction of millstream fractions was performed according to the optimized ICC standard method 152 procedure, and the chemical composition of the extract was analyzed by isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. all-trans-Lutein ranged from 1.5 to 4 mg kg(-1), and zeaxanthin was found in traces. No lutein esters and carotenes were detected. Surprisingly, the fraction of carotenoids of the complete yellow pigment content amounted to only 30-50% of the yellow pigment quantities, so there are still compounds in durum wheat not yet identified that contribute considerably to the yellow color of the grain extracts. The isolation and chemical identification of those pigments are under investigation. PMID:12405758

  17. Interactive effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation on grain yield, canopy temperature, and nitrogen use efficiency in overhead sprinkler-irrigated Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen and irrigation management are crucial in the production of high protein irrigated durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in arid regions. However, as the availability of irrigation water decreases and potential costs and regulation of nitrogen (N) increase, there is a need to understand how ir...

  18. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes.

  19. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  20. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  1. Diagonal two-dimensional electrophoresis (D-2DE): a new approach to study the effect of osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Kacem, N S; Mauro, S; Muhovski, Y; Delporte, F; Renaut, J; Djekoun, A; Watillon, B

    2016-09-01

    Acclimatization to stress is associated with profound changes in proteome composition. The use of plant cell and tissue culture offers a means to investigate the physiological and biochemical processes involved in the adaptation to osmotic stress. We employed a new proteomic approach to further understand the response of calli to dehydration induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Calli of three durum wheat genotypes Djenah Khetifa, Oued Zenati and Waha were treated with two concentrations of polyethylene glycol to mimic osmotic stress. Changes in protein relative abundance were analyzed using a new electrophoretic approach named diagonal two-dimensional electrophoresis (D-2DE), combined with mass spectrometry. Total proteins were extracted from 30-day-old calli from three durum wheat genotypes that showed contrasting levels of drought stress tolerance in the field. The combination of one-dimensional electrophoresis and D-2DE gave a specific imprint of the protein extracts under osmotic stress, as well as characterizing and identifying individual target proteins. Of the variously expressed proteins, three were selected (globulin, GAPDH and peroxidase) and further analyzed using qRT-PCR at the transcriptome level in order to compare the results with the proteomic data. Western blot analysis was used to further validate the differences in relative abundance pattern. The proteins identified through this technique provide new insights as to how calli respond to osmotic stress. Our method of study provides an original and relevant approach of analyzing the osmotic-responsive mechanisms at the cellular level of durum wheat with agronomic perspectives. PMID:27317377

  2. Characterization of chromosomal regions containing quantitive trait loci determining specificity towards bread and durum wheat cultivars in the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specificity of the haploid, plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola towards durum (tetraploid, genomes AABB) versus bread (AABBDD) wheat is well documented. To estimate the number of genes involved in host species specificity, we crossed an isolate of M. graminicola collected from bread w...

  3. Thallium and potassium uptake kinetics and competition differ between durum wheat and canola.

    PubMed

    Renkema, Heidi; Koopmans, Amy; Hale, Beverley; Berkelaar, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is very toxic to mammals but little is known about its accumulation by plants, and it would be useful if prediction of Tl accumulation could be done using potassium (K) accumulation models. The objectives of this study were to compare the uptake kinetics of Tl(+) and K(+), and to determine how readily K(+) can inhibit Tl(+) uptake. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and spring canola (Brassica napus L.) were grown hydroponically and exposed to 0-75 μM Tl or 0-250 μM K for up to 150 min (kinetics experiment), or to 0.1 or 10 μM Tl with Tl to K ratios of 1:1 to 1:10,000 for up to 300 min (competition experiment). The rate of uptake of Tl(+) by canola was about three to five times faster than by wheat, while the rate of Tl(+) uptake in wheat was the same as the rate of K(+) uptake by either species. Uptake of Tl(+) was more readily suppressed by K(+) in wheat than in canola. When exposed to 0.1 uM Tl for 300 min with 100 or 1,000 uM K(+), Tl(+) uptake by wheat was reduced by 20 % and 50 %, respectively, while Tl(+) uptake by canola was not reduced. Our results suggest that predicting Tl accumulation using a K accumulation model with a correction factor may be possible for canola, but would be much more difficult for wheat, since uptake of Tl(+) is very sensitive to levels of K(.)

  4. Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; de Bang, Thomas C; Pedas, Pai R; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail; Andersen, Birgit; Finnie, Christine; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Søren

    2016-09-01

    Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins were analysed with liquid chromatography ICP-MS and Orbitrap MS(2) , respectively. Laser ablation ICP-MS with simultaneous Zn, sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) detection was used for bioimaging of Zn and its potential ligands. Increasing the Zn and N supply had a major impact on the Zn concentration in the endosperm, reaching concentrations higher than current breeding targets. The S concentration also increased, but S was only partly co-localized with Zn. The mutual Zn and S enrichment was reflected in substantially more Zn bound to small cysteine-rich proteins (apparent size 10-30 kDa), whereas the response of larger proteins (apparent size > 50 kDa) was only modest. Most of the Zn-responsive proteins were associated with redox- and stress-related processes. This study offers a methodological platform to deepen the understanding of processes behind endosperm Zn enrichment. Novel information is provided on how the localization and speciation of Zn is modified during Zn biofortification of grains. PMID:27159614

  5. Structural Variation and Content of Arabinoxylans in Endosperm and Bran of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    PubMed

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Hsieh, Yves S-Y; Lahnstein, Jelle; Yap, Kuok; Burton, Rachel Anita; Blanco, Antonio; Fincher, Geoffrey Bruce; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-04-13

    Arabinoxylans are one group of dietary fiber components in cereal grains, and specific health benefits have been linked with their molecular fine structures and hence with physicochemical properties such as solubility in aqueous media. To characterize the fiber quality for functional foods, starchy endosperm and bran fractions from 11 durum wheat lines were analyzed for total and water-soluble arabinoxylans, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, and bound ferulic acid. The arabinoxylan contents ranged from 11 to 16.4% (w/w) in bran and from 1.5 to 1.8% in the starchy endosperm. Of the starchy endosperm arabinoxylans, 37% was soluble in water. No correlation was found between arabinoxylan content and bound ferulic acid in bran, although a relatively high level of this antioxidant was found in endosperm (38.3 μg/g endosperm flour). Enzymatic fingerprinting was performed to define the major fine structural features of arabinoxylans from both regions of the grain. Five major oligosaccharides released by xylanase hydrolysis were identified and characterized in the 11 durum lines. In addition, DP5, DP6, and DP7 oligosaccharides containing five, six, and seven pentosyl residues, respectively, were purified. PMID:27018210

  6. Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; de Bang, Thomas C; Pedas, Pai R; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail; Andersen, Birgit; Finnie, Christine; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Søren

    2016-09-01

    Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins were analysed with liquid chromatography ICP-MS and Orbitrap MS(2) , respectively. Laser ablation ICP-MS with simultaneous Zn, sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) detection was used for bioimaging of Zn and its potential ligands. Increasing the Zn and N supply had a major impact on the Zn concentration in the endosperm, reaching concentrations higher than current breeding targets. The S concentration also increased, but S was only partly co-localized with Zn. The mutual Zn and S enrichment was reflected in substantially more Zn bound to small cysteine-rich proteins (apparent size 10-30 kDa), whereas the response of larger proteins (apparent size > 50 kDa) was only modest. Most of the Zn-responsive proteins were associated with redox- and stress-related processes. This study offers a methodological platform to deepen the understanding of processes behind endosperm Zn enrichment. Novel information is provided on how the localization and speciation of Zn is modified during Zn biofortification of grains.

  7. Genetics of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in a cross of Canadian adapted durum wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, A; Depauw, R M; Cuthbert, R D

    2014-01-01

    Severe losses attributable to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) have been reported in Canada in recent years. The genetics of PHS resistance have been more extensively studied in hexaploid wheat and generally not using combinations of elite agronomic parents. The objective of our research was to understand the genetic nature of PHS resistance in an elite durum cross. A doubled haploid (DH) population and checks were phenotyped in replicated trials for grain yield and PHS traits over 3 years in western Canada. The response of intact spikes to sprouting conditions, sampled over two development time points, was measured in a rain simulation chamber. The DH population was genotyped with simple sequence repeat and Diversity Arrays Technology markers. Genotypes were a significant source of variation for grain yield and PHS resistance traits in each tested environment. Transgressive segregant DH genotypes were identified for grain yield and PHS resistance measurements. Low or no correlation was detected between grain yield and PHS, while correlation between PHS resistance measurements was moderate. The heritability of PHS resistance was moderate and higher than grain yield. Significant quantitative trait loci with small effect were detected on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 5B, 7A and 7B. Both parents contributed to the PHS resistance. Promising DH genotypes with high and stable grain yield as well as PHS resistance were identified, suggesting that grain yield and PHS can be improved simultaneously in elite genetic materials, and that these DH genotypes will be useful parental material for durum breeding programs. PMID:24659906

  8. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  9. Comparative analysis of gluten proteins in three durum wheat cultivars by a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Marianna; Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Palermo, Carmen; Agriesti, Francesca; Centonze, Diego; Flagella, Zina

    2013-03-20

    The gluten protein composition and expression level influence dough properties and are cultivar and environment dependent. To broaden the knowledge of the durum wheat gluten proteome, three cultivars were compared in two different growing seasons by a proteomic approach. Cultivar-specific and differentially expressed spots in the two years were identified by mass spectrometry. Significant differences were observed among the cultivars: Ofanto showed the lowest protein spot volumes in the high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) <35,000 regions and the highest in the LMW 48,000-35,000 region, Latino the lowest in the LMW 48,000-35,000 region, and Simeto an intermediate expression level in both LMW regions. In the warmer year the up-regulation of HMW glutenins, α-gliadins, and a globulin 3 protein and the down-expression of LMW glutenins and γ-gliadins were observed. Among the cultivars, Simeto showed the highest stability across the environments.

  10. Effect of raw material on cooking quality and nutritional composition of durum wheat spaghetti.

    PubMed

    Padalino, L; Mastromatteo, M; Lecce, L; Spinelli, S; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the effect of semolina and wholemeal flour from six durum wheat cultivars on the pasta cooking and nutritional quality was evaluated. The wholemeal spaghetti samples showed an improvement in the chemical composition (high protein and insoluble dietary fibre content) but they have a decline in the cooking quality (high cooking loss) with respect to the semolina spaghetti. In particular, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli and Core samples recorded the highest protein and insoluble dietary fibre content, respectively. As compared to the other samples, the wholemeal spaghetti Iride recorded a higher cooking loss. Moreover, the wholemeal spaghetti showed the lowest overall quality due to the low score of elasticity, firmness and colour. Specifically, the wholemeal Cappelli recorded a slight rise of the overall quality with respect to other wholemeal samples. In conclusion, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli was found to be an optimum compromise between the sensory and nutritional quality. PMID:25666412

  11. Genomic approaches for designing durum wheat ready for climate change with a focus on drought.

    PubMed

    Habash, D Z; Kehel, Z; Nachit, M

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have a significant impact on temperature and precipitation profiles in the Mediterranean basin. The incidence and severity of drought will become commonplace and this will reduce the productivity of rain-fed crops such as durum wheat. Genetic diversity is the material basis for crop improvement and plant breeding has exploited naturally occurring variation to deliver cultivars with improved resistance to abiotic stresses. The coupling of new genomic tools, technologies, and resources with genetic approaches is essential to underpin wheat breeding through marker-assisted selection and hence mitigate climate change. Improvements in crop performance under abiotic stresses have primarily targeted yield-related traits and it is anticipated that the application of genomic technologies will introduce new target traits for consideration in wheat breeding for resistance to drought. Many traits relating to the plant's response and adaptation to drought are complex and multigenic, and quantitative genetics coupled with genomic technologies have the potential to dissect complex genetic traits and to identify regulatory loci, genes and networks. Full realization of our abilities to manipulate metabolism, transduction pathways, and transcription factors for crop improvement ultimately relies on our basic understanding of the regulation of plant networks at all levels of function.

  12. Proteomic study of a tolerant genotype of durum wheat under salt-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Papa, Roberto; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-02-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress conditions limiting crop growth and productivity. Duilio is a wheat genotype that shows tolerant behavior in both salt-stress and drought-stress conditions. Toward better understanding of the biochemical response to salinity in this genotype of durum wheat, a comparative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis based on normalized spectral abundance factors was conducted on wheat leaf samples subjected to increasing salt-stress levels (100 and 200 mmol L(-1) NaCl) with respect to untreated samples. We found significant changes in 71 proteins for the first stress level, in 83 proteins at the higher salinity level, and in 88 proteins when comparing salt-stress levels with each other. The major changes concerned the proteins involved in primary metabolism and production of energy, followed by those involved in protein metabolism and cellular defense mechanisms. Some indications of different specific physiological and defense mechanisms implicated in increasing tolerance were obtained. The enhanced salinity tolerance in Duilio appeared to be governed by a higher capacity for osmotic homeostasis, a more efficient defense, and an improvement of protection from mechanical stress by increased cell wall lignifications, allowing a better potential for growth recovery.

  13. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ricci, Andrea; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara Giulia; Noli, Enrico; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Akhunov, Eduard; Scalabrin, Simone; Vendramin, Vera; Ammar, Karim; Blanco, Antonio; Desiderio, Francesca; Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Fahima, Tzion; Faris, Justin; Korol, Abraham; Massi, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; N'Diaye, Amidou; Xu, Steven; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30 144 markers (including 26 626 SNPs and 791 SSRs) half of which were present in at least two component maps. The final map spanned 2631 cM of all 14 durum wheat chromosomes and, differently from the individual component maps, all markers fell within the 14 linkage groups. Marker density per genetic distance unit peaked at centromeric regions, likely due to a combination of low recombination rate in the centromeric regions and even gene distribution along the chromosomes. Comparisons with bread wheat indicated fewer regions with recombination suppression, making this consensus map valuable for mapping in the A and B genomes of both durum and bread wheat. Sequence similarity analysis allowed us to relate mapped gene-derived SNPs to chromosome-specific transcripts. Dense patterns of homeologous relationships have been established between the A- and B-genome maps and between nonsyntenic homeologous chromosome regions as well, the latter tracing to ancient translocation events. The gene-based homeologous relationships are valuable to infer the map location of homeologs of target loci/QTLs. Because most SNP and SSR markers were previously mapped in bread wheat, this consensus map will facilitate a more effective integration and exploitation of genes and QTL for wheat breeding purposes. PMID:25424506

  14. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ricci, Andrea; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara Giulia; Noli, Enrico; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Akhunov, Eduard; Scalabrin, Simone; Vendramin, Vera; Ammar, Karim; Blanco, Antonio; Desiderio, Francesca; Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Fahima, Tzion; Faris, Justin; Korol, Abraham; Massi, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; N'Diaye, Amidou; Xu, Steven; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30 144 markers (including 26 626 SNPs and 791 SSRs) half of which were present in at least two component maps. The final map spanned 2631 cM of all 14 durum wheat chromosomes and, differently from the individual component maps, all markers fell within the 14 linkage groups. Marker density per genetic distance unit peaked at centromeric regions, likely due to a combination of low recombination rate in the centromeric regions and even gene distribution along the chromosomes. Comparisons with bread wheat indicated fewer regions with recombination suppression, making this consensus map valuable for mapping in the A and B genomes of both durum and bread wheat. Sequence similarity analysis allowed us to relate mapped gene-derived SNPs to chromosome-specific transcripts. Dense patterns of homeologous relationships have been established between the A- and B-genome maps and between nonsyntenic homeologous chromosome regions as well, the latter tracing to ancient translocation events. The gene-based homeologous relationships are valuable to infer the map location of homeologs of target loci/QTLs. Because most SNP and SSR markers were previously mapped in bread wheat, this consensus map will facilitate a more effective integration and exploitation of genes and QTL for wheat breeding purposes.

  15. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  16. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    PubMed

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:26555900

  17. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D’Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  18. Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Yield and Adaptation of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Across a Wide Range of Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Maccaferri, Marco; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Corneti, Simona; Ortega, José Luis Araus; Salem, Moncef Ben; Bort, Jordi; DeAmbrogio, Enzo; del Moral, Luis Fernando Garcia; Demontis, Andrea; El-Ahmed, Ahmed; Maalouf, Fouad; Machlab, Hassan; Martos, Vanessa; Moragues, Marc; Motawaj, Jihan; Nachit, Miloudi; Nserallah, Nasserlehaq; Ouabbou, Hassan; Royo, Conxita; Slama, Amor; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Grain yield is a major goal for the improvement of durum wheat, particularly in drought-prone areas. In this study, the genetic basis of grain yield (GY), heading date (HD), and plant height (PH) was investigated in a durum wheat population of 249 recombinant inbred lines evaluated in 16 environments (10 rainfed and 6 irrigated) characterized by a broad range of water availability and GY (from 5.6 to 58.8 q ha−1). Among the 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affected GY, two major QTL on chromosomes 2BL and 3BS showed significant effects in 8 and 7 environments, with R2 values of 21.5 and 13.8% (mean data of all 16 environments), respectively. In both cases, extensive overlap was observed between the LOD profiles of GY and PH, but not with those for HD. QTL specific for PH were identified on chromosomes 1BS, 3AL, and 7AS. Additionally, three major QTL for HD on chromosomes 2AS, 2BL, and 7BS showed limited or no effects on GY. For both PH and GY, notable epistasis between the chromosome 2BL and 3BS QTL was detected across several environments. PMID:18202390

  19. The Bo1-specific PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of boron tolerance status in a range of exotic durum and bread wheats.

    PubMed

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2008-12-01

    High soil boron (B) constitutes a major soil problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low-rainfall areas and land under irrigation. Low accumulation of B in the shoot or grain of cereal crops is correlated with the maintenance of biomass production and grain yield under high B conditions, suggesting that this trait is an important component of field tolerance. A novel screening protocol to measure B accumulation in aerated and supported hydroponics was validated using a set of known and exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) accessions. Furthermore, B accumulation in two Triticum urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan and 54 Triticum monococcum L. accessions was measured and showed considerable phenotypic variation. However, B accumulation in these lines was higher than that observed in the most tolerant durum or bread wheats. Mapping of high B tolerance in the durum population AUS14010/Yallaroi revealed a locus possibly allelic to Bo1, a major source of B toxicity tolerance previously identified in bread wheat. Here, we show that the Bo1-specific codominant PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of B tolerance status among exotic durum and bread wheat accessions. All tolerant durum accessions assayed carried very similar AWW5L7 marker fragments, indicating wide distribution of this allele among tolerant durum wheats. Three bread wheat accessions had tolerance that was independent of Bo1 and is probably located on chromosome 4A. These lines represent a valuable genetic resource for B toxicity tolerance breeding in wheat. PMID:19088810

  20. Characterization of EST-SSR markers in durum wheat EST library and functional analysis of SSR-containing EST fragments.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Ali Akbar; Rashidi Monfared, Sajad

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to identify characterization of expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers from EST library of durum wheat and functional analysis of SSR-containing EST sequences for application in comparative genomics and breeding. 19,141 sequences were analyzed among which 18,937 ESTs were selected. Consistent with MISA results, 313 EST-SSRs were yielded. The final EST-SSRs were compared to the GenBank non-redundant database using BLASTX and classified based on these functions. Results indicated that the perfect EST-SSRs are the most frequent. The TTG/CTG imperfect EST-SSR had gamma-gliadin putative function that can be appropriate for durum wheat. Also, the mononucleotides and trinucleotides were the most frequent. Findings suggested that the identified EST-SSRs could be categorized into 83 types. Motifs TTG in trinucleotides and TC in dinucleotides had the highest frequency. TTG is the new motif in durum wheat identified in this study. We identified new EST-SSRs with more than trinucleotide and detected motifs that have potential to code amino acids. Arginine was the most frequent amino acid. Enzymes had the highest frequency among predicted functions. EST-SSRs have been identified in this study can be used for developing ESS-SSR-based detection tool for durum wheat in future studies and will be a useful resource for molecular breeding, genetics, genomics, and environmental stress studies. Motifs coding amino acids could be used as a new source of functional markers and biological study. In addition to, designed new PCR primer pairs are new resources for to identify useful alleles in transcription factors, storage proteins, and enzymes which incorporated them again into the cultivated material.

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel WIN1/SHN1 ethylene-responsive transcription factor TdSHN1 from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum. L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Djemal, Rania; Khoudi, Habib

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) proteins have become the subject of intensive research activity due to their involvement in a variety of biological processes. This research led to the identification of AP2/ERF genes in many species; however, little is known about these genes in durum wheat, one of the most important cereal crops in the world. In this study, a new member of the AP2/ERF transcription factor family, designated TdSHN1, was isolated from durum wheat using thermal asymetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) method. Protein sequence analysis showed that TdSHN1 contained an AP2/ERF domain of 63 amino acids and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis showed that TdSHN1 belongs to a group Va protein in the ERF subfamily which contains the Arabidopsis ERF proteins (SHN1, SHN2, and SHN3). Expression of TdSHN1 was strongly induced by salt, drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold. In planta, TdSHN1 protein was able to activate the transcription of GUS reporter gene driven by the GCC box and DRE element sequences. In addition, TdSHN1 was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells. In transgenic yeast, overexpression of TdSHN1 increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Taken together, the results showed that TdSHN1 encodes an abiotic stress-inducible, transcription factor which confers abiotic stress tolerance in yeast. TdSHN1 is therefore a promising candidate for improvement of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in wheat as well as other crops.

  2. [Use of artificial neuronal nets in automation of analysis and genetic identification of electrophoretic spectra of gliadin from durum wheat].

    PubMed

    Ruanet, V V; Kudriavtsev, A M; Dadashev, S Ia

    2001-10-01

    Each wheat cultivar has a characteristic spectrum of gliadins. This makes it possible to use blocks of the components of reserve proteins as genetic markers when estimating seed quality. However, identification of the blocks that constitute the electrophoretic spectrum is a complicated task. For this purpose artificial neural network (ANN) technology is proposed. Based on experimental data, a teaching database and testing databases have been created. ANN was shown to be highly efficient (efficiency up to 100%) expert system for deciphering the electrophoretic spectra of gliadins of durum wheat cultivars.

  3. Expression, purification and refolding of active durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Verlotta, Angelo; Trono, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Recently, a durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 (TdsPLA2III) was identified in leaves as potentially involved in plant responses to conditions of limiting water supply. Therefore, to allow future functional studies on TdsPLA2III and shed further light on the involvement of sPLA2 isoforms in specific plant functions, here we report a protocol for the overexpression of TdsPLA2III in Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies, and for its purification and refolding. The use of the Gateway system (Invitrogen) allows the expression of a large quantity of the mature form (without the signal peptide) of TdsPLA2III with an N-terminal 6×His-tag, for purification using Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III fusion protein is then refolded using a step-wise dialysis approach. About 40mg purified and active protein was obtained from 1L of cell culture. This recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III protein shows PLA2 activity, as it can hydrolyze linoleate from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Moreover, it has some features that are typical of other known plant sPLA2s: Ca(2+)-dependence, inhibition by the disulfide bond reducing agent dithiothreitol, and resistance to high temperature.

  4. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, cultivar Senatore Cappelli) production systems effects on grain and flours functional properties under Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Chami, Ziad Al

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of organic farming is the "production of high quality products". Integrity and vital quality of products should be preserved along the entire production chain. In order to evaluate the effect of organic vs. conventional production systems on durum wheat phenolic acids and antioxidant activity open field experiment has been carried out. During the whole process chain from field to fork, there are various factors influencing the quality of the end product. Organic production should rely on genotypes with high nitrogen use efficiency, disease and pest resistance, weed competitiveness and tolerance especially under Mediterranean conditions. In this study, production systems differed according to the practices and inputs applied to manage the soil fertility and plant protection. In conventional system, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides were used. Whereas, in the two organic systems, cow manure with fertilizers and temporary intercropping with fava bean (Vicia faba) and fertilizers were used to manage soil fertility. Biopesticides were used for plant protection for organic systems. One treatment without inputs was used as a control in order to evaluate environmental site and cultivar effect. Quantity of free, free and conjugated and bounded phenolic acids were evaluated in relation to overall quality and production systems. In addition, antioxidant capacities of each fraction by different assays were assessed. The organic production method assured higher overall quality in paricular functional properties compared to the conventional one. Therefore, understanding the functional links between production systems variables and physiological responses is essential to improve and standardize the quality of organic durum wheat products. Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility management, phenolic acids, antioxidant activity.

  5. The existence of phospholipase A(2) activity in plant mitochondria and its activation by hyperosmotic stress in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Trono, Daniela; Soccio, Mario; Laus, Maura N; Pastore, Donato

    2013-02-01

    The activity of mitochondrial phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) was shown for the first time in plants. It was observed in etiolated seedlings from durum wheat, barley, tomato, spelt and green seedlings of maize, but not in potato and topinambur tubers and lentil etiolated seedlings. This result was achieved by a novel spectrophotometric assay based on the coupled PLA(2)/lipoxygenase reactions using 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine as substrate; the mitochondrial localisation was assessed by checking recovery of marker enzymes. Durum wheat mitochondrial PLA(2) (DWM-PLA(2)) showed maximal activity at pH 9.0 and 1mM Ca(2+), hyperbolic kinetics (K(m)=90±6μM, V(max)=29±1nmolmin(-1)mg(-1) of protein) and inhibition by methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, 5-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-4S-(7-phenylheptanoylamino)pentanoic acid and palmityl trifluoromethyl ketone. Reactive oxygen species had no effect on DWM-PLA(2), that instead was activated by about 50% and 95%, respectively, under salt (0.21M NaCl) and osmotic (0.42M mannitol) stress imposed during germination. Contrarily, a secondary Ca(2+)-independent activity, having optimum at pH 7.0, was stress-insensitive. We propose that the activation of DWM-PLA(2) is responsible for the strong increase of free fatty acids recently measured in mitochondria under the same stress conditions [Laus, et al., J. Exp. Bot. 62 (2011) 141-154] that, in turn, activate potassium channel and uncoupling protein, able to counteract hyperosmotic stress.

  6. Fructan biosynthesis and degradation as part of plant metabolism controlling sugar fluxes during durum wheat kernel maturation

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Sara; Locato, Vittoria; Vergauwen, Rudy; Paradiso, Annalisa; Cecchini, Cristina; Vandenpoel, Liesbeth; Verspreet, Joran; Courtin, Christophe M.; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Van den Ende, Wim; De Gara, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Wheat kernels contain fructans, fructose based oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties, in levels between 2 and 35 weight % depending on the developmental stage of the kernel. To improve knowledge on the metabolic pathways leading to fructan storage and degradation, carbohydrate fluxes occurring during durum wheat kernel development were analyzed. Kernels were collected at various developmental stages and quali-quantitative analysis of carbohydrates (mono- and di-saccharides, fructans, starch) was performed, alongside analysis of the activities and gene expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and hydrolysis. High resolution HPAEC-PAD of fructan contained in durum wheat kernels revealed that fructan content is higher at the beginning of kernel development, when fructans with higher DP, such as bifurcose and 1,1-nystose, were mainly found. The changes in fructan pool observed during kernel maturation might be part of the signaling pathways influencing carbohydrate metabolism and storage in wheat kernels during development. During the first developmental stages fructan accumulation may contribute to make kernels more effective Suc sinks and to participate in osmotic regulation while the observed decrease in their content may mark the transition to later developmental stages, transition that is also orchestrated by changes in redox balance. PMID:25750648

  7. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P < 0.05) cell numbers of lactic acid bacteria after the first fermentation. Constant pH of ca. 4.0 was found after two (macerated pears or water pears-doughs) to seven (control-dough) back-slopping steps. The use of additional ingredients caused lower microbial diversity, after the first fermentation and in mature sourdoughs. Regardless of the type of ingredient used, OTU belonging to the genus Lactobacillus represented more than 95% of the total Firmicutes in mature sourdoughs. Some metabolic capacities of microbial community of the mature sourdoughs were linked to the additional ingredient. Based on culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated in all the sourdoughs. However, the sourdoughs showed different strains of these two species. Other lactic acid bacterium species were associated to baker's yeast, grape must and macerated pears. The different microbial composition was correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives). PMID:27554152

  8. Aromatic and proteomic analyses corroborate the distinction between Mediterranean landraces and modern varieties of durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Federico; Taiti, Cosimo; Pompeiano, Antonio; Gu, Zuguang; Lo Presti, Emilio; Whitney, Larisa; Monti, Michele; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Giambalvo, Dario; Ruisi, Paolo; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from durum wheat cultivars and landraces were analyzed using PTR-TOF-MS. The aim was to characterize the VOC’s profile of the wholemeal flour and of the kernel to find out if any VOCs were specific to varieties and sample matrices. The VOC data is accompanied by SDS-PAGE analyses of the storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins). Statistical analyses was carried out both on the signals obtained by MS and on the protein profiles. The difference between the VOC profile of two cultivars or two preparations of the same sample - matrices, in this case kernel vs wholemeal flour - can be very subtle; the high resolution of PTR-TOF-MS - down to levels as low as pptv - made it possible to recognize these differences. The effects of grinding on the VOC profiles were analyzed using SIMPER and Tanglegram statistical methods. Our results show that it is possible describe samples using VOC profiles and protein data. PMID:27708424

  9. Quality classification of Italian wheat durum spaghetti by means of different spectrophometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.; Bucarelli, A.

    2007-09-01

    Wheat durum pasta (spaghetti in particular) can be considered as the most typical Italy's food product. Many small or craft pasta factories realize different quality product regarding the use of biological wheat and the application of mild (lower drying temperature) or traditional (bronze draw-plate) technologies, in competition with large industrial enterprises. The application of higher quality standards increases the producing cost and determines higher pasta prices. In order to setup a reliable easy-to-use methodology to distinguish different production technology approaches, spectrophotometric visible and near-infrared (VIS-Nir) techniques were applied on the intact pasta. Eighteen samples of commercial brand spaghetti classified in five different quality production factors (Full industrial - Teflon-drawn, high temperature-short time drying -; semolina from organic cultivations; bronze-drawn treatment; low temperature - long time drying; traditional high quality pasta - bronze-drawn and low temperature drying treatments-) were analyzed by three different spectrometric techniques: a VIS (400 - 700 nm) spectral imaging, a Nir (1000-1700 nm) spectral imaging - both of them acquiring reflected spectral images of spaghetti bundle - and a portable VIS-Nir system (400-800 nm), working with an interactance probe on single spaghetti string. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regressions (PLS) were performed on about 1500 spectral arrays, to test the ability of the systems to distinguish the different pasta products (commercial brands). Reflectance visible data presented highest percentage of correct classification: 98.6% total value, 100% for high quality spaghetti (bronze-drawn and/or low temperature drying). NIR reflectance and VIS-NIR interactance systems presented 85% and 70% of entire correct classification while for high quality pasta the percentages rise up to 75% and 83%

  10. Bacterial endophytes mediate positive feedback effects of early legume termination times on the yield of subsequent durum wheat crops.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Field crops influence the biotic properties of the soil, impacting the health and productivity of subsequent crops. Polymerase chain reaction and 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing of amplicons were used to clarify the legacy of chickpea and pea crops on the quality of the bacterial community colonizing the root endosphere of subsequent crops of wheat, in a replicated field study. Similar communities of root endosphere bacteria were formed in durum wheat grown after pea and chickpea crops when chickpea crops were terminated as early as pea (July). Termination of the chickpea crops in September led to the domination of Firmicutes in wheat root endosphere; Actinobacteria dominated the wheat root endosphere following early pulse crop termination. The architecture of wheat plants was correlated with the composition of its root endosphere community. High grain yield was associated with the production of fewer but larger wheat heads, the abundance of endospheric Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria, and the scarcity of endospheric Firmicutes. Pulse termination time affected wheat root endosphere colonization strongly in 2009 but weakly in 2010, an abnormally wet year. This study improved our understanding of the so-called "crop rotation effect" in pulse-wheat systems and showed how this system can be manipulated through agronomic decisions. PMID:23210994

  11. Bacterial endophytes mediate positive feedback effects of early legume termination times on the yield of subsequent durum wheat crops.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Field crops influence the biotic properties of the soil, impacting the health and productivity of subsequent crops. Polymerase chain reaction and 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing of amplicons were used to clarify the legacy of chickpea and pea crops on the quality of the bacterial community colonizing the root endosphere of subsequent crops of wheat, in a replicated field study. Similar communities of root endosphere bacteria were formed in durum wheat grown after pea and chickpea crops when chickpea crops were terminated as early as pea (July). Termination of the chickpea crops in September led to the domination of Firmicutes in wheat root endosphere; Actinobacteria dominated the wheat root endosphere following early pulse crop termination. The architecture of wheat plants was correlated with the composition of its root endosphere community. High grain yield was associated with the production of fewer but larger wheat heads, the abundance of endospheric Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria, and the scarcity of endospheric Firmicutes. Pulse termination time affected wheat root endosphere colonization strongly in 2009 but weakly in 2010, an abnormally wet year. This study improved our understanding of the so-called "crop rotation effect" in pulse-wheat systems and showed how this system can be manipulated through agronomic decisions.

  12. Description of durum wheat linkage map and comparative sequence analysis of wheat mapped DArT markers with rice and Brachypodium genomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of wheat to the world economy, together with progresses in high-throughput next-generation DNA sequencing, have accelerated initiatives of genetic research for wheat improvement. The availability of high density linkage maps is crucial to identify genotype-phenotype associations, but also for anchoring BAC contigs to genetic maps, a strategy followed for sequencing the wheat genome. Results Here we report a genetic linkage map in a durum wheat segregating population and the study of mapped DArT markers. The linkage map consists of 126 gSSR, 31 EST-SSR and 351 DArT markers distributed in 24 linkage groups for a total length of 1,272 cM. Through bioinformatic approaches we have analysed 327 DArT clones to reveal their redundancy, syntenic and functional aspects. The DNA sequences of 174 DArT markers were assembled into a non-redundant set of 60 marker clusters. This explained the generation of clusters in very small chromosome regions across genomes. Of these DArT markers, 61 showed highly significant (Expectation < E-10) BLAST similarity to gene sequences in public databases of model species such as Brachypodium and rice. Based on sequence alignments, the analysis revealed a mosaic gene conservation, with 54 and 72 genes present in rice and Brachypodium species, respectively. Conclusions In the present manuscript we provide a detailed DArT markers characterization and the basis for future efforts in durum wheat map comparing. PMID:24304553

  13. Size exclusion HPLC of proteins for evaluation of durum wheat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present research aimed to assess size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) in protein molecular weight distribution determination for quality evaluation of durum semolina. Semolina samples were milled from 13 durum genotypes grown at 7 locations in 2009 and 2010 in ND. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer ...

  14. Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cereal seeds mutations in one or more starch synthases lead to decreased amylopectin and increased amylose content. Here, the impact of starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SGP-1) mutations upon durum starch was investigated. A screen of durum accessions identified two lines lacking SGP-A1, the A geno...

  15. Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Saia, Sergio; Rappa, Vito; Ruisi, Paolo; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sunseri, Francesco; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso S; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.

  16. Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Sergio; Rappa, Vito; Ruisi, Paolo; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sunseri, Francesco; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso S.; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4+) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3- transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem. PMID:26483827

  17. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:27152457

  18. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

    2010-09-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple

  19. Cereal cyst nematode screening in locally adapted spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm of the Pacific Northwest, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field screenings were performed to determine if there is resistance to Heterodera filipjevi in locally adapted wheat germplasm which could be introgressed into new WA wheat varieties. A field naturally infested with Heterodera filipjevi located in Colton, WA, was selected for this experiment. Cultiv...

  20. Registration of scab-resistant KY06C-11-3-10 soft red winter wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide that has elicited a widespread resistance-breeding effort. One approach to breeding relies on deployment of exotic quantitative trait loci (QTL) from wheat outside North America. Germplasm line KY06C-11-3-10 (R...

  1. Identification of Yr59 conferring high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat germplasm PI 178759

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Resistant cultivars are the preferred means of control. The spring wheat germplasm ‘PI 178759’ originating from Iraq showed effective resistance to stripe rust in fie...

  2. Establishing an efficient way to utilize the drought resistance germplasm population in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancheng; Guan, Yajing; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Liwei; Wang, Qitian; Hu, Qijuan; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Drought resistance breeding provides a hopeful way to improve yield and quality of wheat in arid and semiarid regions. Constructing core collection is an efficient way to evaluate and utilize drought-resistant germplasm resources in wheat. In the present research, 1,683 wheat varieties were divided into five germplasm groups (high resistant, HR; resistant, R; moderate resistant, MR; susceptible, S; and high susceptible, HS). The least distance stepwise sampling (LDSS) method was adopted to select core accessions. Six commonly used genetic distances (Euclidean distance, Euclid; Standardized Euclidean distance, Seuclid; Mahalanobis distance, Mahal; Manhattan distance, Manhat; Cosine distance, Cosine; and Correlation distance, Correlation) were used to assess genetic distances among accessions. Unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) method was used to perform hierarchical cluster analysis. Coincidence rate of range (CR) and variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR) were adopted to evaluate the representativeness of the core collection. A method for selecting the ideal constructing strategy was suggested in the present research. A wheat core collection for the drought resistance breeding programs was constructed by the strategy selected in the present research. The principal component analysis showed that the genetic diversity was well preserved in that core collection.

  3. Variability in glutenin subunit composition of Mediterranean durum wheat germplasm and its relationship with gluten strength.

    PubMed

    Nazco, R; Peña, R J; Ammar, K; Villegas, D; Crossa, J; Moragues, M; Royo, C

    2014-06-01

    The allelic composition at five glutenin loci was assessed by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE) on a set of 155 landraces (from 21 Mediterranean countries) and 18 representative modern varieties. Gluten strength was determined by SDS-sedimentation on samples grown under rainfed conditions during 3 years in north-eastern Spain. One hundred and fourteen alleles/banding patterns were identified (25 at Glu-1 and 89 at Glu-2/Glu-3 loci); 0·85 of them were in landraces at very low frequency and 0·72 were unreported. Genetic diversity index was 0·71 for landraces and 0·38 for modern varieties. All modern varieties exhibited medium to strong gluten type with none of their 13 banding patterns having a significant effect on gluten-strength type. Ten banding patterns significantly affected gluten strength in landraces. Alleles Glu-B1e (band 20), Glu-A3a (band 6), Glu-A3d (bands 6 + 11), Glu-B3a (bands 2 + 4+15 + 19) and Glu-B2a (band 12) significantly increased the SDS-value, and their effects were associated with their frequency. Two alleles, Glu-A3b (band 5) and Glu-B2b (null), significantly reduced gluten strength, but only the effect of the latter locus could be associated with its frequency. Only three rare banding patterns affected gluten strength significantly: Glu-B1a (band 7), found in six landraces, had a negative effect, whereas banding patterns 2 + 4+14 + 15 + 18 and 2 + 4+15 + 18 + 19 at Glu-B3 had a positive effect. Landraces with outstanding gluten strength were more frequent in eastern than in western Mediterranean countries. The geographical pattern displayed from the frequencies of Glu-A1c is discussed.

  4. Genetic Structure of Modern Durum Wheat Cultivars and Mediterranean Landraces Matches with Their Agronomic Performance.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jose Miguel; Villegas, Dolors; Aranzana, Maria Jose; García Del Moral, Luis F; Royo, Conxita

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 172 durum wheat landraces from 21 Mediterranean countries and 20 modern cultivars were phenotyped in 6 environments for 14 traits including phenology, biomass, yield and yield components. The genetic structure of the collection was ascertained with 44 simple sequence repeat markers that identified 448 alleles, 226 of them with a frequency lower than 5%, and 10 alleles per locus on average. In the modern cultivars all the alleles were fixed in 59% of the markers. Total genetic diversity was HT = 0.7080 and the genetic differentiation value was GST = 0.1730. STRUCTURE software allocated 90.1% of the accessions in five subpopulations, one including all modern cultivars, and the four containing landrace related to their geographic origin: eastern Mediterranean, eastern Balkans and Turkey, western Balkans and Egypt, and western Mediterranean. Mean yield of subpopulations ranged from 2.6 t ha-1 for the western Balkan and Egyptian landraces to 4.0 t ha-1 for modern cultivars, with the remaining three subpopulations showing similar values of 3.1 t ha-1. Modern cultivars had the highest number of grains m-2 and harvest index, and the shortest cycle length. The diversity was lowest in modern cultivars (HT = 0.4835) and highest in landraces from the western Balkans and Egypt (HT = 0.6979). Genetic diversity and AMOVA indicated that variability between subpopulations was much lower (17%) than variability within them (83%), though all subpopulations had similar biomass values in all growth stages. A dendrogram based on simple sequence repeat data matched with the clusters obtained by STRUCTURE, improving this classification for some accessions that have a large admixture. landraces included in the subpopulation from the eastern Balkans and Turkey were separated into two branches in the dendrogram drawn with phenotypic data, suggesting a different origin for the landraces collected in Serbia and Macedonia. The current study shows a reliable relationship between

  5. Genetic Structure of Modern Durum Wheat Cultivars and Mediterranean Landraces Matches with Their Agronomic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Dolors; Aranzana, Maria Jose; García del Moral, Luis F.; Royo, Conxita

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 172 durum wheat landraces from 21 Mediterranean countries and 20 modern cultivars were phenotyped in 6 environments for 14 traits including phenology, biomass, yield and yield components. The genetic structure of the collection was ascertained with 44 simple sequence repeat markers that identified 448 alleles, 226 of them with a frequency lower than 5%, and 10 alleles per locus on average. In the modern cultivars all the alleles were fixed in 59% of the markers. Total genetic diversity was HT = 0.7080 and the genetic differentiation value was GST = 0.1730. STRUCTURE software allocated 90.1% of the accessions in five subpopulations, one including all modern cultivars, and the four containing landrace related to their geographic origin: eastern Mediterranean, eastern Balkans and Turkey, western Balkans and Egypt, and western Mediterranean. Mean yield of subpopulations ranged from 2.6 t ha-1 for the western Balkan and Egyptian landraces to 4.0 t ha-1 for modern cultivars, with the remaining three subpopulations showing similar values of 3.1 t ha-1. Modern cultivars had the highest number of grains m-2 and harvest index, and the shortest cycle length. The diversity was lowest in modern cultivars (HT = 0.4835) and highest in landraces from the western Balkans and Egypt (HT = 0.6979). Genetic diversity and AMOVA indicated that variability between subpopulations was much lower (17%) than variability within them (83%), though all subpopulations had similar biomass values in all growth stages. A dendrogram based on simple sequence repeat data matched with the clusters obtained by STRUCTURE, improving this classification for some accessions that have a large admixture. landraces included in the subpopulation from the eastern Balkans and Turkey were separated into two branches in the dendrogram drawn with phenotypic data, suggesting a different origin for the landraces collected in Serbia and Macedonia. The current study shows a reliable relationship between

  6. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection.

    PubMed

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-08-09

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs.

  7. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection.

    PubMed

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs. PMID:27226168

  8. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs. PMID:27226168

  9. Identification and mapping of leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance quantitative trait loci and their interactions in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Pandey, M P; Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Ammar, K; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, R P; Pozniak, C J; Depauw, R M; McCallum, B D; Cuthbert, R D; Randhawa, H S; Fetch, T G

    2013-02-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks.) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) cause major production losses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The objective of this research was to identify and map leaf, stripe and stem rust resistance loci from the French cultivar Sachem and Canadian cultivar Strongfield. A doubled haploid population from Sachem/Strongfield and parents were phenotyped for seedling reaction to leaf rust races BBG/BN and BBG/BP and adult plant response was determined in three field rust nurseries near El Batan, Obregon and Toluca, Mexico. Stripe rust response was recorded in 2009 and 2011 nurseries near Toluca and near Njoro, Kenya in 2010. Response to stem rust was recorded in field nurseries near Njoro, Kenya, in 2010 and 2011. Sachem was resistant to leaf, stripe and stem rust. A major leaf rust quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on chromosome 7B at Xgwm146 in Sachem. In the same region on 7B, a stripe rust QTL was identified in Strongfield. Leaf and stripe rust QTL around DArT marker wPt3451 were identified on chromosome 1B. On chromosome 2B, a significant leaf rust QTL was detected conferred by Strongfield, and at the same QTL, a Yr gene derived from Sachem conferred resistance. Significant stem rust resistance QTL were detected on chromosome 4B. Consistent interactions among loci for resistance to each rust type across nurseries were detected, especially for leaf rust QTL on 7B. Sachem and Strongfield offer useful sources of rust resistance genes for durum rust breeding.

  10. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  11. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  12. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  13. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  14. Comparison of bed planting-furrow irrigation with conventional planting-flood irrigation in durum wheat (T. durum Desf) in southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozberk, Irfan; Coskun, Yalçin; Ilkhan, Ali; Köten, Mehmet; Karli, Bahri; Ryan, John

    2009-05-15

    There is no clear consensus regarding the advantages of bed planting with furrow irrigation over conventionally irrigated cropping. This 3-year study from Southeastern Turkey aimed to assess the limits to some input savings in bed planting-furrow irrigation in terms of yields and profitability of durum wheat. Field trials were carried out using a randomized complete block design with six treatments and tree replications: T1: Conventional Planting-Flood Irrigation (CP-FI) with recommended practices for seed rate, chemical fertilizers and chemical weed control; T2: Bed Planting and Furrow Irrigation (BP-FI) with recommended input rates as in T2; T3: BP-FI with 10% input reduction; T4: BP-FI with 20% input reduction; T5: BP-FI with 30% input reduction; T6: BP-FI with 40% input reduction. The trial had four replications at each location over three cropping seasons, i.e., Akçakale (2004-05, 2005-06) and Koruklu (2006-2007). Individual and combined analysis of variance were performed for grain yields, market prices based on quality assessment, protein content and both 1000-kernel and hectoliter weights. Profitability was assessed with partial budget analysis. Except for yields, there was little effect of treatments on the other variables. Based on yields and economic analysis, the conventional system with flood irrigation was superior to the bed and furrow system, even when the inputs were reduced in such a system. The work demonstrates the site-specific nature of any new technology as there are several local biological and economical factors to be considered.

  15. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Kristin; Abate, Zewdie; Chao, Shiaoman; Zhang, Wenjun; Rouse, Matt; Jin, Yue; Elias, Elias; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to increase resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999, is virulent on most of the resistance genes currently deployed, and is rapidly spreading to other regions of the world. It is therefore important to identify, map, and deploy resistance genes that are still effective against TTKSK. One of these resistance genes, Sr13, was previously assigned to the long arm of chromosome 6A, but its precise map location was not known. In this study, the genome location of Sr13 was determined in four tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum) mapping populations involving the TTKSK resistant varieties Kronos, Kofa, Medora and Sceptre. Our results showed that resistance was linked to common molecular markers in all four populations, suggesting that these durum lines carry the same resistance gene. Based on its chromosome location and infection types against different races of stem rust, this gene is postulated to be Sr13. Sr13 was mapped within a 1.2 to 2.8 cM interval (depending on the mapping population) between EST markers CD926040 and BE471213, which corresponds to a 285-kb region in rice chromosome 2, and a 3.1-Mb region in Brachypodium chromosome 3. These maps will be the foundation for developing high-density maps, identifying diagnostic markers, and positional cloning of Sr13. PMID:20857083

  16. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Durum Wheat Flour Are Endophytic Components of the Plant during Its Entire Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; Tedone, Luigi; De Mastro, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria and other Firmicutes associated with durum wheat organs and processed products. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus were the main epiphytic and endophytic genera among lactic acid bacteria. Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Staphylococcus completed the picture of the core genus microbiome. The relative abundance of each lactic acid bacterium genus was affected by cultivars, phenological stages, other Firmicutes genera, environmental temperature, and water activity (aw) of plant organs. Lactobacilli, showing the highest sensitivity to aw, markedly decreased during milk development (Odisseo) and physiological maturity (Saragolla). At these stages, Lactobacillus was mainly replaced by Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. However, a key sourdough species, Lactobacillus plantarum, was associated with plant organs during the life cycle of Odisseo and Saragolla wheat. The composition of the sourdough microbiota and the overall quality of leavened baked goods are also determined throughout the phenological stages of wheat cultivation, with variations depending on environmental and agronomic factors. PMID:26187970

  17. Effect of 5-n-alkylresorcinol extracts from durum wheat whole grain on the growth of fusarium head blight (FHB) causal agents.

    PubMed

    Ciccoritti, Roberto; Pasquini, Marina; Sgrulletta, Daniela; Nocente, Francesca

    2015-01-14

    In an approach toward the identification of ecofriendly compounds for fusarium head blight biocontrol, the in vitro antifungal activity of 5-n-alkylresorcinol (AR) extracts, obtained from durum wheat intact kernels, was tested. In comparison with ethyl acetate and acetone extracts containing AR, total inhibition of Fusarium graminearum spore germination was observed with cyclohexane extract, which also exhibited a significant fungistatic activity against F. graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, and Fusarium poae. Additionally, the study of the influence of such variables as predrying of seeds and durum wheat genotype on AR cyclohexane extract properties allowed the association of its highest antifungal activity with the AR homologue composition and, in particular, with the presence of a higher C21:0/C23:0 ratio. The interesting finding of this study suggests a potential application of the AR homologues in crop protection systems and could be an important step toward the development of commercial formulations suitable to the prevention of fungal diseases.

  18. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability.

  19. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. PMID:25047068

  20. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements.

    PubMed

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  1. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  2. Reduced light and moderate water deficiency sustain nitrogen assimilation and sucrose degradation at low temperature in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Majláth, Imre; Darko, Eva; Palla, Balázs; Nagy, Zoltán; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    The rate of carbon and nitrogen assimilation is highly sensitive to stress factors, such as low temperature and drought. Little is known about the role of light in the simultaneous effect of cold and drought. The present study thus focused on the combined effect of mild water deficiency and different light intensities during the early cold hardening in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.) cultivars with different levels of cold sensitivity. The results showed that reduced illumination decreased the undesirable effects of photoinhibition in the case of net photosynthesis and nitrate reduction, which may help to sustain these processes at low temperature. Mild water deficiency also had a slight positive effect on the effective quantum efficiency of PSII and the nitrate reductase activity in the cold. Glutamine synthesis was affected by light rather than by water deprivation during cold stress. The invertase activity increased to a greater extent by water deprivation, but an increase in illumination also had a facilitating effect on this enzyme. This suggests that both moderate water deficiency and light have an influence on nitrogen metabolism and sucrose degradation during cold hardening. A possible rise in the soluble sugar content caused by the invertase may compensate for the decline in photosynthetic carbon assimilation indicated by the decrease in net photosynthesis. The changes in the osmotic potential can be also correlated to the enhanced level of invertase activity. Both of them were regulated by light at normal water supply, but not at water deprivation in the cold. However, changes in the metabolic enzyme activities and osmotic adjustment could not be directly contributed to the different levels of cold tolerance of the cultivars in the early acclimation period. PMID:26788956

  3. Genome-wide search of stem rust resistance loci at the seedling stage in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causative agent of stem rust in wheat, is known to rapidly evolve new virulence to resistance genes. While more than 50 stem rust resistance (Sr) loci have been identified in wheat, only a few remain effective, particularly against the highly virulent race Ug99 ...

  4. Differential response of NADP-dehydrogenases and carbon metabolism in leaves and roots of two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars (Karim and Azizi) with different sensitivities to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Bouthour, Donia; Kalai, Tawba; Chaffei, Haouari C; Gouia, Houda; Corpas, Francisco J

    2015-05-01

    Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is a common Mediterranean species of considerable agronomic importance. Salinity is one of the major threats to sustainable agricultural production mainly because it limits plant productivity. After exposing the Karim and Azizi durum wheat cultivars, which are of agronomic significance in Tunisia, to 100mM NaCl salinity, growth parameters (dry weight and length), proline content and chlorophylls were evaluated in their leaves and roots. In addition, we analyzed glutathione content and key enzymatic activities, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), involved in the carbon metabolism and NADPH-generating system. The sensitivity index indicates that cv Karim was more tolerant to salinity than cv Azizi. This higher tolerance was corroborated at the biochemical level, as cv Karim showed a greater capacity to accumulate proline, especially in leaves, while the enzyme activities studied were differentially regulated in both organs, with NADP-ICDH being the only activity to be unaffected in all organs. In summary, the data indicate that higher levels of proline accumulation and the differential responses of some key enzymes involved in the carbon metabolism and NADPH regeneration contribute to the salinity tolerance mechanism and lead to increased biomass accumulation in cv Karim.

  5. A proteomic approach to study protein variation in GM durum wheat in relation to technological properties of semolina.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, Aldo; Lamacchia, Carmela; Fares, Clara; Padalino, Lucia; Mamone, Gianfranco; La Gatta, Barbara; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Faccia, Michele; Di Fonzo, Natale; La Notte, Ennio

    2005-06-01

    Genetic manipulation of durum wheats by tobacco rab-1 genes influence the trafficking of gluten proteins through the secretory system by up- or down-regulating the transport step from the ER to the Golgi apparatus which may in turn modify functional performance of the grain. Gluten proteins were extracted from two genetically manipulated lines - Svevo B730 1-1 and Ofanto B688 1-2 - and their control lines and were analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. When the two-dimensional maps were compared by image analysis no significant differences between the GM line with an up-regulated trafficking containing the wild type tobacco rab1 (Svevo B730 1-1) and its control (Svevo control). By contrast, significant differences were found between the GM line with a down-regulated trafficking due to the tobacco rab1 mutant form (Ofanto B688 1-2) and its control (Ofanto control). Of the new protein spots detected in the down-regulated Ofanto B688 1-2 map, only a beta-amylase was identified. The remaining spots were susceptible to chymotripsin action but not to trypsin one, as in the case of the gluten protein. Rheological measurements showed that gluten quality was enhanced in the down-regulated Ofanto B688 1-2 without an increase in the amount of gluten. Proteomics is a useful and powerful tool for investigating protein changes in GMOs and in understanding events in food science and technology.

  6. Accumulation of cadmium by durum wheat roots: bases for citrate-mediated exceptions to the free ion model.

    PubMed

    Berkelaar, Edward; Hale, Beverley A

    2003-05-01

    The accumulation of Cd in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) roots from hydroponic solutions, with the proportion of total Cd (8.9-445 nM Cd) as Cd2+ varied by the addition of citrate, was determined to test the free-ion model (FIM) of metal bioavailability for higher plants. Calcium, Mg, and K were also varied. Citrate enhanced root-Cd accumulation at higher Cd2+ concentrations but not lower relative to the same Cd2+ concentrations in solutions containing 0 mM citrate. Elevating Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in the citrate solution to the same as those in control solutions alleviated some of the citrate-mediated enhancement but not all. Solutions containing 66% less Ca or Mg than control but the same Cd2+ concentration and no citrate also resulted in increased root Cd. Elevated K+ did not influence Cd accumulation. Regression relationships between root-Cd accumulation and total Cd in solution were similar for the control and pooled amended solutions, whereas they were different for root-Cd accumulation and solution Cd2+. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence that the FIM alone is likely insufficient to predict plant accumulation of metals from soils, although it may be a useful probe for the mechanistic bases of metal bioavailability.

  7. Functional characterization in Xenopus oocytes of Na+ transport systems from durum wheat reveals diversity among two HKT1;4 transporters

    PubMed Central

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2014-01-01

    Plant tolerance to salinity constraint involves complex and integrated functions including control of Na+ uptake, translocation, and compartmentalization. Several members of the high-affinity K+ transporter (HKT) family, which comprises plasma-membrane transporters permeable to K+ and Na+ or to Na+ only, have been shown to play major roles in plant Na+ and K+ homeostasis. Among them, HKT1;4 has been identified as corresponding to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) of salt tolerance in wheat but was not functionally characterized. Here, we isolated two HKT1;4-type cDNAs from a salt-tolerant durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) cultivar, Om Rabia3, and investigated the functional properties of the encoded transporters using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Both transporters displayed high selectivity for Na+, their permeability to other monovalent cations (K+, Li+, Cs+, and Rb+) being ten times lower than that to Na+. Both TdHKT1;4-1 and TdHKT1;4-2 transported Na+ with low affinity, although the half-saturation of the conductance was observed at a Na+ concentration four times lower in TdHKT1;4-1 than in TdHKT1;4-2. External K+ did not inhibit Na+ transport through these transporters. Quinine slightly inhibited TdHKT1;4-2 but not TdHKT1;4-1. Overall, these data identified TdHKT1;4 transporters as new Na+-selective transporters within the HKT family, displaying their own functional features. Furthermore, they showed that important differences in affinity exist among durum wheat HKT1;4 transporters. This suggests that the salt tolerance QTL involving HKT1;4 may be at least in part explained by functional variability among wheat HKT1;4-type transporters. PMID:24192995

  8. [Competitiveness of hard wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth)].

    PubMed

    Hamal, A; Benbella, M; Rzozi, S B; Bouhache, M; Msatef, Y

    2001-01-01

    Varieties with an excellent competitiveness against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) would be very important to reinforce others methods to control ripgut brome weed. This study was carried out in 1999-2000 season in a greenhouse experiment to test the aggressiveness degree of six varieties of hard wheat (Oum Rabia, Isly, Marzak, Karim, Sebou, and Massa) combined with ripgut brome. Plant density was fixed at 16 plants of wheat or Bromus for pure crop and 8 plants for wheat and 8 for Bromus mixture. The results showed that the numbers of kernels/spikes were higher in the mixture for on pure composition. For the kernel weight, the result was opposite except for Isly and Marzak varieties. Karim and Isly varieties obtained the highest grain yield and were more competitive in mixture composition but Sebou and Massa varieties were less competitive against ripgut brome. Results of ripgut brome productivity and water use efficiency were similar and were used to determine the aggressiveness coefficient of hard wheat varieties against ripgut brome. The reduction of the shoot dry matter of brome was 22 to 56% at flowering. The grain yield of brome was reduced from 57 to 81%.

  9. Accelerated evolution of the mitochondrial genome in an alloplasmic line of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is not only an important crop but also an excellent plant species for nuclear mitochondrial interaction studies. To investigate the level of sequence changes introduced into the mitochondrial genome under the alloplasmic conditions, three mitochondrial genomes of Triticum-Aegilops species w...

  10. Glutamine synthetase in durum wheat: Genotypic variation and relationship with grain protein content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), one of the most valuable indicators for nitrogen use in crops, both in terms of yield and final grain protein content (GPC), is a very complex trait. The identification of wheat varieties with high NUE, as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in th...

  11. Effect of salinity and water stress during the reproductive stage on growth, ion concentrations, Delta 13C, and delta 15N of durum wheat and related amphiploids.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolores; Voltas, Jordi; Araus, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    The physiological performance of durum wheat and two related amphiploids was studied during the reproductive stage under different combinations of salinity and irrigation. One triticale, one tritordeum, and four durum wheat genotypes were grown in pots in the absence of stress until heading, when six different treatments were imposed progressively. Treatments resulted from the combination of two irrigation regimes (100% and 35% of container water capacity) with three levels of water salinity (1.8, 12, and 17 dS m(-1)), and were maintained for nearly 3 weeks. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence and content were measured prior to harvest; afterwards shoot biomass and height were recorded, and Delta(13)C, delta(15)N, and the concentration of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and several ions (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) were analysed in shoot material. Compared with control conditions (full irrigation with Hoagland normal) all other treatments inhibited photosynthesis through stomatal closure, accelerated senescence, and decreased biomass. Full irrigation with 12 dS m(-1) outperformed other stress treatments in terms of biomass production and physiological performance. Biomass correlated positively with N and delta(15)N, and negatively with Na(+) across genotypes and fully irrigated treatments, while relationships across deficit irrigation conditions were weaker or absent. Delta(13)C did not correlate with biomass across treatments, but it was the best trait correlating with phenotypic differences in biomass within treatments. Tritordeum produced more biomass than durum wheat in all treatments. Its low Delta(13)C and high K(+)/Na(+) ratio, together with a high potential growth, may underlie this finding. Mechanisms relating delta(15)N and Delta(13)C to biomass are discussed.

  12. Anchoring durum wheat diversity in the reality of traditional agricultural systems: varieties, seed management, and farmers’ perception in two Moroccan regions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional agrosystems are the places were crop species have evolved and continue to evolve under a combination of human and environmental pressures. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of crop diversity in these agrosystems is crucial to sustain food security and farmers’ self-reliance. It requires as a first step, anchoring a description of the available diversity in its geographical, environmental, cultural and socio-economic context. Methods We conducted interviews with farmers cultivating durum wheat in two contrasted traditional agrosystems of Morocco in the Pre-Rif (163 farmers) and in the oases of the Atlas Mountains (110 farmers). We documented the varietal diversity of durum wheat, the main characteristics of the farms, the farming and seed management practices applied to durum wheat, and the farmers’ perception of their varieties. Results As expected in traditional agrosystems, farmers largely practiced diversified subsistence agriculture on small plots and relied on on-farm seed production or informal seed exchange networks. Heterogeneity nevertheless prevailed on many variables, especially on the modernization of practices in the Pre-Rif region. Fourteen (resp. 11) traditional and 5 (resp. 3) modern varieties were identified in the Pre-Rif region (resp. in the Atlas Mountains). The majority of farmers grew a single variety, and most traditional varieties were distributed in restricted geographical areas. At the farm level, more than half of the varieties were renewed in the last decade in the Pre-Rif, a more rapid renewal than in the Atlas Mountain. Modern varieties were more prevalent in the Pre-Rif region and were integrated in the traditional practices of seed production, selection and exchange. They were clearly distinguished by the farmers from the landraces, the last ones being appreciated for their quality traits. Conclusions The surveyed traditional agrosystems constitute open, dynamic and heterogeneous

  13. Evaluation of Protocol for Assessing the Reaction of Rice and Wheat Germplasm to Infection by Meloidogyne graminicola

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Ramesh R.; Duxbury, John M.; Abawai, George

    2012-01-01

    Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola), an important and widespread pathogen, causes high yield losses in rice with limited information on wheat and on efficient management. Absence of uniform screening protocols is contributing to slow progress of host resistance development. To develop an efficient screening protocol, several greenhouse studies were conducted, and effects of incubation period, inoculum level, inoculation method, seedling age, and their interactions on root-galling severity (RGS) ratings and reproductive factor (RF) values of M. graminicola were determined. At 2 eggs/cm3 soil, significantly lower RGS but higher RF values were observed at 60 days than at 45 days of incubation. Meloidogyne graminicola reproduced six times more on rice than on wheat where the RGS index in both crops increased steadily with increasing inoculum levels, but RF increased at lower levels and decreased beyond a maximum at medium inoculum levels. Inoculum level, container size, seedling age, inoculation method, and their interactions impacted nematode infection and reproduction. The protocol was verified on eleven rice germplasm lines and seven wheat cultivars using the resistance index (RI) calculated from RGS and RF, to screen rice and wheat germplasm. PMID:23481227

  14. Bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates in rats fed with durum wheat aleurone fractions.

    PubMed

    Calani, Luca; Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Brighenti, Furio; Melegari, Camilla; Crozier, Alan; de Lorgeril, Michel; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of wholemeal cereals has been associated with the reduced risk of several chronic diseases, and the mechanisms behind these protective effects may be linked, besides dietary fiber and micronutrients, to an increased intake of hydroxycinnamates contained in the bran. Among bran fractions, aleurone usually contains the highest concentration of ferulic acid and diferulic acid esters linked to arabinoxylans representing the most relevant subclasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the absorption of hydroxycinnamates by measuring the urinary metabolite profiles of rats fed with the two different aleurone fractions (the inner part of the aleurone, named wheat aleurone A, WA-A, and the outer part, named wheat aleurone B, WA-B). An acute feeding experiment with two rat groups consuming equivalent amounts of total ferulic acid from the different aleurone fractions was carried out to evaluate ferulic acid bioavailability as affected by different sources. A chronic feeding experiment was also conducted with two rat groups consuming the same amount of the two different aleurone fractions, carried out to investigate the short-term metabolism and absorption of aleurone phenolics. The results revealed higher increases in the 24 h-excretion of phenolic metabolites/catabolites in aleurone fed rats compared to rats fed with a regular diet. Specifically, in the chronic feeding, ferulic acid was more bioavailable when WA-A was ingested. Based on previous observations, demonstrating various positive physiological responses to ferulic acid and aleurone fractions characterized by higher phenolic bioavailability, our results indicate that the WA-A fraction has potentially interesting nutritional characteristics that might be used for the formulation of new wheat based products.

  15. Estimation of color of durum wheat. Comparison of WSB, HPLC, and reflectance colorimeter measurements.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Irano, Mario; Panfili, Gianfranco; Acquistucci, Rita

    2005-04-01

    Color is an important parameter involved in the definition of semolina and pasta quality. This character is mainly due to natural pigments (carotenoids) that are present at different levels in cereals and cereal products, due to botanical origin, growing conditions, distribution in the kernel, and technological processes. In food industries, color measurements are usually performed by means of automatic instruments that are rapid and safe, as alternatives to the chemical extraction methods. In this study, automatic measurements (CIE, color-space system L, a, b), water-saturated butanol (WSB), and HPLC determinations have been applied to evaluate the carotenoid content in whole meals and respective semolina samples produced from wheat cultivated in the years 2001 and 2002. In whole meals, total carotenoids, determined by HPLC, were about 3.0 microg/g (2001) and 3.5 microg/g (2002) calculated on dry weight (dw) and about 3.0 and 3.2 microg/g dw in corresponding semolina samples. The b values for the same period were 19.78 and 15.75, respectively, in raw materials and 20.03-21.67 in semolina. Results have confirmed lutein and beta-carotene as the main components mainly responsible for the yellow color in wheat grains. The ability of the index b to express natural dyeing was dependent on sample characteristics as demonstrated by the relationships found between this index and pigments, although the best correlation resulted between HPLC and WSB. PMID:15796565

  16. How can crop intra-specific biodiversity mitigate the vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change? A case study on durum wheat in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Lorenzi, Fracesca

    2014-05-01

    Climate evolution may lead to changes in the amount and distribution of precipitations and to reduced water availability, with constraints on the cultivation of some crops. Recently, foreseen crop responses to climate change raise a crucial question for the agricultural stakeholders: are the current production systems resilient to this change? An active debate is in progress about the definition of adaptation of agricultural systems, particularly about the integrated assessment of climate stressors, vulnerability and resilece towards the evaluation of climate impact on agricultural systems. Climate change represents a risk for rain-fed agricultural systems, where irrigations cannot compensate reductions in precipitations. The intra-specific biodiversity of crops can be a resource towards adaptation. The knowledge of the responses to environmental conditions (temperature and water availability) of different cultivars can allow to identify options for adaptation to future climate. Simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, driven by different climate scenarios, can describe present and foreseen soil water regime. The present work deals with a case-study on the adaptive capacity of durum wheat to climate change. The selected study area is a hilly region in Southern Italy (Fortore Beneventano, Campania Region). Two climate cases were studied: "reference" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was run to determine the water regime in some soil units, representative of the soil variability in the study area. From model output, the Relative Evapotranspiration Deficit (RETD) was determined as an indicator of hydrological conditions during the crop growing period for each year and climate case; and periods with higher frequencies of soil water deficits were identified. The timing of main crop development stages was calculated. The occurrence of water deficit at different

  17. Selecting optimal hyperspectral bands to discriminate nitrogen status in durum wheat: a comparison of statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Stellacci, A M; Castrignanò, A; Troccoli, A; Basso, B; Buttafuoco, G

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral data can provide prediction of physical and chemical vegetation properties, but data handling, analysis, and interpretation still limit their use. In this study, different methods for selecting variables were compared for the analysis of on-the-ground hyperspectral signatures of wheat grown under a wide range of nitrogen supplies. Spectral signatures were recorded at the end of stem elongation, booting, and heading stages in 100 georeferenced locations, using a 512-channel portable spectroradiometer operating in the 325-1075-nm range. The following procedures were compared: (i) a heuristic combined approach including lambda-lambda R(2) (LL R(2)) model, principal component analysis (PCA), and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA); (ii) variable importance for projection (VIP) statistics derived from partial least square (PLS) regression (PLS-VIP); and (iii) multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis through maximum R-square improvement (MAXR) and stepwise algorithms. The discriminating capability of selected wavelengths was evaluated by canonical discriminant analysis. Leaf-nitrogen concentration was quantified on samples collected at the same locations and dates and used as response variable in regressive methods. The different methods resulted in differences in the number and position of the selected wavebands. Bands extracted through regressive methods were mostly related to response variable, as shown by the importance of the visible region for PLS and stepwise. Band selection techniques can be extremely useful not only to improve the power of predictive models but also for data interpretation or sensor design.

  18. Selecting optimal hyperspectral bands to discriminate nitrogen status in durum wheat: a comparison of statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Stellacci, A M; Castrignanò, A; Troccoli, A; Basso, B; Buttafuoco, G

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral data can provide prediction of physical and chemical vegetation properties, but data handling, analysis, and interpretation still limit their use. In this study, different methods for selecting variables were compared for the analysis of on-the-ground hyperspectral signatures of wheat grown under a wide range of nitrogen supplies. Spectral signatures were recorded at the end of stem elongation, booting, and heading stages in 100 georeferenced locations, using a 512-channel portable spectroradiometer operating in the 325-1075-nm range. The following procedures were compared: (i) a heuristic combined approach including lambda-lambda R(2) (LL R(2)) model, principal component analysis (PCA), and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA); (ii) variable importance for projection (VIP) statistics derived from partial least square (PLS) regression (PLS-VIP); and (iii) multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis through maximum R-square improvement (MAXR) and stepwise algorithms. The discriminating capability of selected wavelengths was evaluated by canonical discriminant analysis. Leaf-nitrogen concentration was quantified on samples collected at the same locations and dates and used as response variable in regressive methods. The different methods resulted in differences in the number and position of the selected wavebands. Bands extracted through regressive methods were mostly related to response variable, as shown by the importance of the visible region for PLS and stepwise. Band selection techniques can be extremely useful not only to improve the power of predictive models but also for data interpretation or sensor design. PMID:26922749

  19. Development of PCR markers for the selection of wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr24 and Sr26 in diverse wheat germplasm.

    PubMed

    Mago, R; Bariana, H S; Dundas, I S; Spielmeyer, W; Lawrence, G J; Pryor, A J; Ellis, J G

    2005-08-01

    The use of major resistance genes is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing stem rust epidemics in Australian wheat crops. The long-term success of this strategy is dependent on combining resistance genes that are effective against all predominant races of the pathogen, a task greatly assisted by the use of molecular markers linked to individual resistance genes. The wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr24 and Sr26 (derived from Agropyron elongatum) and SrR and Sr31 (derived from rye) are available in wheat as segments of alien chromosome translocated to wheat chromosomes. Each of these genes provides resistance to all races of wheat stem rust currently found in Australia . We have developed robust PCR markers for Sr24 and Sr26 (this study) and SrR and Sr31 (previously reported) that are applicable across a wide selection of Australian wheat germplasm. Wheat lines have recently become available in which the size of the alien segments containing Sr26, SrR and Sr31 has been reduced. Newly developed PCR-markers can be used to identify the presence of the shorter alien segment in all cases. Assuming that these genes have different gene-for-gene specificities and that the wheat industry will discourage the use of varieties carrying single genes only, the newly developed PCR markers will facilitate the incorporation of two or more of the genes Sr24, Sr26, SrR and Sr31 into wheat lines and have the potential to provide durable control to stem rust in Australia and elsewhere. PMID:15918008

  20. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes.

  1. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of a pale-green durum wheat mutant shows variations in photosystem components and metabolic deficiencies under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leaf pigment content is an important trait involved in environmental interactions. In order to determine its impact on drought tolerance in wheat, we characterized a pale-green durum wheat mutant (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) under contrasting water availability conditions. Results The pale-green mutant was investigated by comparing pigment content and gene/protein expression profiles to wild-type plants at anthesis. Under well-watered (control) conditions the mutant had lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids, but higher levels of xanthophyll de-epoxidation compared to wild-type. Transcriptomic analysis under control conditions showed that defense genes (encoding e.g. pathogenesis-related proteins, peroxidases and chitinases) were upregulated in the mutant, suggesting the presence of mild oxidative stress that was compensated without altering the net rate of photosynthesis. Transcriptomic analysis under terminal water stress conditions, revealed the modulation of antioxidant enzymes, photosystem components, and enzymes representing carbohydrate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, indicating that the mutant was exposed to greater oxidative stress than the wild-type plants, but had a limited capacity to respond. We also compared the two genotypes under irrigated and rain-fed field conditions over three years, finding that the greater oxidative stress and corresponding molecular changes in the pale-green mutant were associated to a yield reduction. Conclusions This study provides insight on the effect of pigment content in the molecular response to drought. Identified genes differentially expressed under terminal water stress may be valuable for further studies addressing drought resistance in wheat. PMID:24521234

  2. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. PMID:27505458

  3. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death.

  4. ASCORBIC ACID CONTROLS MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA IN BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT THROUGH DIRECT EFFECT ON THE PATHOGEN AND INDIRECT ACTION VIA PLANT DEFENCE.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Magnin-Robert, M; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on wheat. Due to the emergence of fungicide-resistant M. graminicola strains and in an effort to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, considerable interest has been devoted to alternative control strategies. The use of natural products, especially through a defense-activating effect on the host, could be considered. Acid ascorbic (AA) is synthesized by plants and most animal cells with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at: (i) assessing the protective effect of an AA-based product on bread (BW) and durum (DW) wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum, respectively) susceptible cultivars against M. graminicola and (ii) investigating the mechanisms involved in wheat protection. Therefore, the foliar application of a formulated AA-based product (50 mg L-) on 3-week-old wheat plants reduced the infection level by more than 75% for both BW and DW. In vitro experiments revealed that AA induced a strong inhibition of spore germination (at 50 mg L.(-1)) and hyphal growth (at 16 mg L.(-1)) for both M. graminicola strains, infecting either BW or DW. Used as a preventive foliar spray on wheat leaves, microscopic observations revealed that AA inhibits in planta spore germination, hyphal growth, leaf penetration, substomatal colonization and eventually sporulation. Moreover, AA treatment also decreased fungal protease and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, putative pathogenicity determinants of M. graminicola. In addition to these effects on the fungus, AA induced defence reactions in both BW and DW. Indeed, in non-inoculated context, eliciting effect was observed on (i) stimulation of enzymatic activities such as lipoxygenase, peroxydase and catalase and (ii) transcript accumulation of genes encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (chitinase class IV, peroxidase). In inoculated condition, accumulation of H2O2 and phenolic compounds

  5. ASCORBIC ACID CONTROLS MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA IN BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT THROUGH DIRECT EFFECT ON THE PATHOGEN AND INDIRECT ACTION VIA PLANT DEFENCE.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Magnin-Robert, M; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on wheat. Due to the emergence of fungicide-resistant M. graminicola strains and in an effort to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, considerable interest has been devoted to alternative control strategies. The use of natural products, especially through a defense-activating effect on the host, could be considered. Acid ascorbic (AA) is synthesized by plants and most animal cells with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at: (i) assessing the protective effect of an AA-based product on bread (BW) and durum (DW) wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum, respectively) susceptible cultivars against M. graminicola and (ii) investigating the mechanisms involved in wheat protection. Therefore, the foliar application of a formulated AA-based product (50 mg L-) on 3-week-old wheat plants reduced the infection level by more than 75% for both BW and DW. In vitro experiments revealed that AA induced a strong inhibition of spore germination (at 50 mg L.(-1)) and hyphal growth (at 16 mg L.(-1)) for both M. graminicola strains, infecting either BW or DW. Used as a preventive foliar spray on wheat leaves, microscopic observations revealed that AA inhibits in planta spore germination, hyphal growth, leaf penetration, substomatal colonization and eventually sporulation. Moreover, AA treatment also decreased fungal protease and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, putative pathogenicity determinants of M. graminicola. In addition to these effects on the fungus, AA induced defence reactions in both BW and DW. Indeed, in non-inoculated context, eliciting effect was observed on (i) stimulation of enzymatic activities such as lipoxygenase, peroxydase and catalase and (ii) transcript accumulation of genes encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (chitinase class IV, peroxidase). In inoculated condition, accumulation of H2O2 and phenolic compounds

  6. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  7. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  8. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  9. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  10. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  11. Characterization of durum wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits Bx20 and By20 sequences by a molecular and proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Santagati, Vito Davide; Sestili, Francesco; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato; Rogniaux, Helene; Masci, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunit variation is important because of its great influence on glutenin polymer structure, that is related to dough technological properties. Among the different subunits, the pair Bx20 and By20 is known to have a negative effect on quality, but the reasons are not clear: Bx20 has two cysteines, which theoretically make this subunit a chain extender of the glutenin polymer, just like the other Bx subunits, showing four cysteines, two of which should be involved in intra-molecular disulfide bonds. By20 has never been characterized so far at molecular level. Here we report the nucleotide sequences of Bx20 and By20 genes isolated from the durum wheat cultivar 'Lira 45' and the validation of the corresponding deduced amino acid sequences by using MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS. Four nucleotide differences were identified in the Bx20 gene with respect to the deduced sequence present in NCBI, causing two amino acid substitutions. For the By20 subunit, nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed a great similarity to By15, both at gene and protein levels, showing five nucleotide changes generating two amino acid differences. No evidence of post-translational modifications has been found. Hypotheses are formulated in regard to relationships with technological quality. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Effect of Rates and Times of Nitrogen Fertilizer on N Accumulation and Remobilization Efficiency at Flag Leaf in Two Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum.durum) Cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, A.; Sarvestani, Z. Tahmasebi; Bagheri, A. R.; Abad, H. Heidari Sharif

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the physiological basis of absorption and transportation of nitrogen by plants has specific importance. In this experiment, a bread cultivar and durum wheat cultivar, were treated with different rates and times of nitrogen application, by using split factorial with on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications at Shiraz region during 2004-2005. Main plots were consisted of two levels of cultivars (Falat and Yavaros) and sub plots included nitrogen rates (40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and times of nitrogen application (T1 = all N fertilizer at planting, T2 = 1/2 at planting+1/2 during booting stage and T3 = 1/3 at planting+1/3 during booting stage+1/3 at heading stage). The results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars in flag leaf nitrogen content in maturity stage, N remobilization and its efficiency from flag leaf to grains and also grain protein percentage. Durum wheat was more efficient in nitrogen remobilization and therefore, had a higher grain protein percentage. Increasing in rates and times of nitrogen application had significant effect on most of the measured traits. There were significant interactions between cultivars, rates and times of N application, indicating that durum wheat was more efficient in N remobilization from flag leaf to the grain. It appeared that, N remobilization efficiency was the main factor affecting the grain protein percentage, under the conditions of low N absorption and drought after flowering, in this experiment.

  13. Combined use of δ¹³C, δ18O and δ15N tracks nitrogen metabolism and genotypic adaptation of durum wheat to salinity and water deficit.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolores; Márquez, Antonio José; Voltas, Jordi; Araus, José Luis

    2012-04-01

    • Accurate phenotyping remains a bottleneck in breeding for salinity and drought resistance. Here the combined use of stable isotope compositions of carbon (δ¹³C), oxygen (δ¹⁸O) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) in dry matter is aimed at assessing genotypic responses of durum wheat under different combinations of these stresses. • Two tolerant and two susceptible genotypes to salinity were grown under five combinations of salinity and irrigation regimes. Plant biomass, δ¹³C, δ¹⁸O and δ¹⁵N, gas-exchange parameters, ion and N concentrations, and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities were measured. • Stresses significantly affected all traits studied. However, only δ¹³C, δ¹⁸O, δ¹⁵N, GS and NR activities, and N concentration allowed for clear differentiation between tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Further, a conceptual model explaining differences in biomass based on such traits was developed for each growing condition. • Differences in acclimation responses among durum wheat genotypes under different stress treatments were associated with δ¹³C. However, except for the most severe stress, δ¹³C did not have a direct (negative) relationship to biomass, being mediated through factors affecting δ¹⁸O or N metabolism. Based upon these results, the key role of N metabolism in durum wheat adaptation to salinity and water stress is highlighted.

  14. Registration of Zak ERA8 Soft White Spring Wheat Germplasm with Enhanced Response to ABA and Increased Seed Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Shantel A.; Schramm, Elizabeth C.; Harris, Tracy J.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly; Steber, Camille M.

    2014-01-01

    Zak ERA8 (ENHANCED RESPONSE to ABA8) (Reg. No. GP-966, PI 669443) is a unique line derived from soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Zak that has increased seed dormancy but after-ripens within 10 to 16 wk. The goal in developing this germplasm was to use increased seed dormancy to improve tolerance to preharvest sprouting, a problem that can cause severe economic losses. This germplasm was developed by USDA–ARS, Pullman, WA, in collaboration with Washington State University. Zak ERA8was tested under experimental number 60.1.27.10. The ERA8mutation was generated by chemical mutagenesis followed by selection for the inability to germinate on abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations too low to inhibit wild-type Zak seed germination. The semidominant Zak ERA8 line has been backcrossed twice to wild-type Zak. Following the first backcross, Zak ERA8 showed similar morphological and grain quality traits to the original Zak cultivar. PMID:25580180

  15. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  16. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha‑1, N1: 110 kg ha‑1, N2: 170 kg ha‑1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3‑, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha‑1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha‑1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days

  17. Use of the Electronic Nose as a Screening Tool for the Recognition of Durum Wheat Naturally Contaminated by Deoxynivalenol: A Preliminary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Anna; Cheli, Federica; Polidori, Carlo; Zaninelli, Mauro; Zecca, Oreste; Savoini, Giovanni; Pinotti, Luciano; Dell’Orto, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Fungal contamination and the presence of related toxins is a widespread problem. Mycotoxin contamination has prompted many countries to establish appropriate tolerance levels. For instance, with the Commission Regulation (EC) N. 1881/2006, the European Commission fixed the limits for the main mycotoxins (and other contaminants) in food. Although valid analytical methods are being developed for regulatory purposes, a need exists for alternative screening methods that can detect mould and mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains with high sample throughput. In this study, a commercial electronic nose (EN) equipped with metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) sensors was used in combination with a trap and the thermal desorption technique, with the adoption of Tenax TA as an adsorbent material to discriminate between durum wheat whole-grain samples naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and non-contaminated samples. Each wheat sample was analysed with the EN at four different desorption temperatures (i.e., 180 °C, 200 °C, 220 °C, and 240 °C) and without a desorption pre-treatment. A 20-sample and a 122-sample dataset were processed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and classified via classification and regression trees (CART). Results, validated with two different methods, showed that it was possible to classify wheat samples into three clusters based on the DON content proposed by the European legislation: (a) non-contaminated; (b) contaminated below the limit (DON < 1,750 μg/kg); (c) contaminated above the limit (DON > 1,750 μg/kg), with a classification error rate in prediction of 0% (for the 20-sample dataset) and 3.28% (for the 122-sample dataset). PMID:22163882

  18. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  19. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  20. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  1. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  2. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  3. Isolated durum wheat and potato cell mitochondria oxidize externally added NADH mostly via the malate/oxaloacetate shuttle with a rate that depends on the carrier-mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Donato; Di Pede, Sergio; Passarella, Salvatore

    2003-12-01

    We investigated whether and how mitochondria from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), isolated from etiolated shoots and a cell suspension culture, respectively, oxidize externally added NADH via the mitochondrial shuttles; in particular, we compared the shuttles and the external NADH dehydrogenase (NADH DHExt) with respect to their capacity to oxidize external NADH. We found that external NADH and NADPH can be oxidized via two separate DHExt, whereas under conditions in which the activities of NAD(P)H DHExt are largely prevented, NADH (but not NADPH) is oxidized in the presence of external malate (MAL) and MAL dehydrogenase, in a manner sensitive to several non-penetrant compounds according to the occurrence of the MAL/oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle. In durum wheat mitochondria and potato cell mitochondria, the rate of NADH oxidation was limited by the rate of a novel carrier, the MAL/OAA antiporter, which is different from other carriers thought to transport OAA across the mitochondrial membrane. No NAD(P)H oxidation occurred arising from the MAL/Aspartate and the alpha-glycerophosphate/dihydroxyacetonphosphate shuttles. We determined the kinetic parameters of the enzymes and the antiporter involved in NADH oxidation, and, on the basis of a kinetic analysis, we showed that, at low physiological NADH concentrations, oxidation via the MAL/OAA shuttle occurred with a higher efficiency than that due to the NADH DHExt (about 100- and 10-fold at 1 microm NADH in durum wheat mitochondria and in potato cell mitochondria, respectively). The NADH DHExt contribution to NADH oxidation increased with increasing NADH concentration.

  4. Sources of resistance to stem rust race Ug99 in spring wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks & E. Henn.) race TTKSK (Ug99) with virulence to the majority of the world’s wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties has spread from Uganda throughout eastern and southern Africa, Yemen, and Iran. The identification and spread of vari...

  5. Development and Verification of Wheat Germplasm Containing Both Sr2 and Fhb1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) and stem rust are two devastating fungal diseases of common wheat prevalent worldwide. Fhb1 is a well-known major quantitative trait locus (QTL) effective against FHB, and Sr2 is the most widely characterized and deployed wheat stem rust adult plant resistance gene. These ...

  6. Genotyping by Sequencing Using Specific Allelic Capture to Build a High-Density Genetic Map of Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Yan; Ardisson, Morgane; Ranwez, Vincent; Besnard, Alban; Leroy, Philippe; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Viader, Véronique; Santoni, Sylvain; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequence capture is a promising technology which helps reduce costs for sequencing and genotyping numerous genomic regions in large sets of individuals. Bait sequences are designed to capture specific alleles previously discovered in parents or reference populations. We studied a set of 135 RILs originating from a cross between an emmer cultivar (Dic2) and a recent durum elite cultivar (Silur). Six thousand sequence baits were designed to target Dic2 vs. Silur polymorphisms discovered in a previous RNAseq study. These baits were exposed to genomic DNA of the RIL population. Eighty percent of the targeted SNPs were recovered, 65% of which were of high quality and coverage. The final high density genetic map consisted of more than 3,000 markers, whose genetic and physical mapping were consistent with those obtained with large arrays. PMID:27171472

  7. From durum wheat to pasta: effect of technological processing on the levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cubadda, F; Raggi, A; Zanasi, F; Carcea, M

    2003-04-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of technological processing in pasta-making on the content of arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel. Milling of durum wheat as well as further processing were carried out in a pilot plant. Commercial pasta samples purchased from the local market were also included for comparison. Furthermore, the effect of cooking was investigated to gain information on the actual content of the selected elements in the final ready-to-eat product. Analyte concentrations in whole grain, semolina, pasta and cooked pasta were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Milling reduced the element content in the order nickel > arsenic > cadmium > lead. In the experimental conditions of this study, slight contamination by atmospheric lead in milling/pasta-making and release of nickel during pasta-making were observed. These issues have evidently been effectively dealt with in industrial processing given that remarkably lower levels of lead and nickel were found in commercial pastas compared with the experimental samples. On the whole, commercial pasta samples showed low average levels of all the elements included in this study. Cooking caused a significant decrease of the element content in all pasta samples, with average losses of 50-60% on a dry weight basis.

  8. Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Chamekh, Zoubeir; Ayadi, Sawsen; Karmous, Chahine; Trifa, Youssef; Amara, Hajer; Boudabbous, Khaoula; Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Supplemental irrigation with low-quality water will be paramount in Mediterranean agriculture in the future, where durum wheat is a major crop. Breeding for salinity tolerance may contribute towards improving resilience to irrigation with brackish water. However, identification of appropriate phenotyping traits remains a bottleneck in breeding. A set of 25 genotypes, including 19 landraces and 6 improved varieties most cultivated in Tunisia, were grown in the field and irrigated with brackish water (6, 13 and 18dSm(-1)). Improved genotypes exhibited higher grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency at the crop level (WUEyield or 'water productivity'), shorter days to flowering (DTF), lower N concentration (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in mature kernels and lower nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in the flag leaf compared with landraces. GY was negatively correlated with DTF and the δ(13)C and N of mature kernels and was positively correlated with the δ(15)N of the flag leaf. Moreover, δ(13)C of mature kernels was negatively correlated with WUEyield. The results highlight the importance of shorter phenology together with photosynthetic resilience to salt-induced water stress (lower δ(13)C) and nitrogen metabolism (higher N and δ(15)N) for assessing genotypic performance to salinity. PMID:27593462

  9. Rapid changes in leaf elongation, ABA and water status during the recovery phase following application of water stress in two durum wheat varieties differing in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mahdid, Mohamed; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ehlert, Christina; Simonneau, Thierry

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of Abscisic acid (ABA) in water potential and turgor variations as well as growth recovery during the first phase of a rapid water stress induced by PEG6000. Two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.), MBB (more tolerant) and OZ (less productive under drought), were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of the growing leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Water potential was measured using a pressure chamber; osmotic potential was estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone, turgor pressure of the same zone of leaf three was estimated directly by pressure probe. Growth rapidly ceased for a period of about one hour after the addition of PEG, gradual recovery was then observed for about 2 h. A significant difference was found in the % recovery of Leaf Elongation Rate (LER) and ABA between the two varieties, leading to better water status in MBB compared to OZ. The results of this study showed the possible role of ABA on growth resumption by the increase of relative water content and turgor via osmotic adjustment during the stress period in the leaves, which indicates the importance of OA in the resumption of LER even in the short term under conditions of water deficit. Full recovery of turgor but not of LER at the end stress period suggested the possible effect on cell wall extensibility (hardening) even at short term resulting from the rapid accumulation of ABA.

  10. Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Chamekh, Zoubeir; Ayadi, Sawsen; Karmous, Chahine; Trifa, Youssef; Amara, Hajer; Boudabbous, Khaoula; Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Supplemental irrigation with low-quality water will be paramount in Mediterranean agriculture in the future, where durum wheat is a major crop. Breeding for salinity tolerance may contribute towards improving resilience to irrigation with brackish water. However, identification of appropriate phenotyping traits remains a bottleneck in breeding. A set of 25 genotypes, including 19 landraces and 6 improved varieties most cultivated in Tunisia, were grown in the field and irrigated with brackish water (6, 13 and 18dSm(-1)). Improved genotypes exhibited higher grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency at the crop level (WUEyield or 'water productivity'), shorter days to flowering (DTF), lower N concentration (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in mature kernels and lower nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in the flag leaf compared with landraces. GY was negatively correlated with DTF and the δ(13)C and N of mature kernels and was positively correlated with the δ(15)N of the flag leaf. Moreover, δ(13)C of mature kernels was negatively correlated with WUEyield. The results highlight the importance of shorter phenology together with photosynthetic resilience to salt-induced water stress (lower δ(13)C) and nitrogen metabolism (higher N and δ(15)N) for assessing genotypic performance to salinity.

  11. Characterizing Croatian Wheat Germplasm Diversity and Structure in a European Context by DArT Markers

    PubMed Central

    Novoselović, Dario; Bentley, Alison R.; Šimek, Ruđer; Dvojković, Krešimir; Sorrells, Mark E.; Gosman, Nicolas; Horsnell, Richard; Drezner, Georg; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Narrowing the genetic base available for future genetic progress is a major concern to plant breeders. In order to avoid this, strategies to characterize and protect genetic diversity in regional breeding pools are required. In this study, 89 winter wheat cultivars released in Croatia between 1936 and 2006 were genotyped using 1,229 DArT (diversity array technology) markers to assess the diversity and population structure. In order to place Croatian breeding pool (CBP) in a European context, Croatian wheat cultivars were compared to 523 European cultivars from seven countries using a total of 166 common DArT markers. The results show higher genetic diversity in the wheat breeding pool from Central Europe (CE) as compared to that from Northern and Western European (NWE) countries. The most of the genetic diversity was attributable to the differences among cultivars within countries. When the geographical criterion (CE vs. NWE) was applied, highly significant difference between regions was obtained that accounted for 16.19% of the total variance, revealing that the CBP represents genetic variation not currently captured in elite European wheat. The current study emphasizes the important contribution made by plant breeders to maintaining wheat genetic diversity and suggests that regional breeding is essential to the maintenance of this diversity. The usefulness of open-access wheat datasets is also highlighted. PMID:26941756

  12. Identification of genes induced by Fusarium graminearum inoculation in the resistant durum wheat line Langdon(Dic-3A)10 and the susceptible parental line Langdon.

    PubMed

    Soresi, Daniela; Carrera, Alicia D; Echenique, Viviana; Garbus, Ingrid

    2015-08-01

    The wheat recombinant chromosome inbred line LDN(Dic-3A)10, obtained through introgression of a Triticum dicoccoides disomic chromosome 3A fragment into Triticum turgidum spp. durum var. Langdon, is resistant to fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum. To identify genes involved in FHB resistance, we used a cDNA-AFLP approach to compare gene expression between LDN(Dic-3A)10 and the susceptible parental line LDN at different time points post-inoculation. In total, 85 out of the ∼ 500 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were found to be differentially expressed: 36 and 19% were upregulated in LDN(Dic-3A)10 and LDN, respectively, whereas 45% were induced in both genotypes. Several of the cloned TDFs showed similarity to proteins involved in specific recognition of plant pathogens or associated with early responses to infection. Some TDFs specific to the inoculation response did not show similarity to characterized proteins. The availability of T. aestivum genome sequences allowed the in silico mapping of 28 TDFs and the acquirement of the corresponding gene sequences and, in some cases, their regulatory regions. Analysis of promoter regions revealed the potential existence of shared transcription regulation mechanisms. For instance, three TDF-associated genes contained binding sites for WRKY transcription factors, which have been implicated in the regulation of genes associated with pathogen defense, and three for abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE). Collectively, our results revealed specific pathogen recognition in the interactions of LDN and LDN(Dic-3A)10 with F. graminearum. Such recognition leads to changes in the expression of several transcripts, attributable to the presence of the wheat QTL Qfhs.ndsu-3AS. PMID:26211966

  13. COMPARATIVE TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF SALT-TOLERANT WHEAT GERMPLASM LINES USING GENOME ARRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salt-tolerant wheat lines W4909 and W4910 were derived from a cross between AJDAj5 (a disomic addition line carrying a pair of Eb chromosomes from Thinopyrum junceum) and Ph1 (a line having the Ph1 allele from Aegilops speltoides, which promotes homoeologous recombination). Both lines have greater ...

  14. Modeling end-use quality in U. S. soft wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be assessed by a wide array of measurements, generally categorized into grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Samples were obtained from four regional nurseries. Selected parameters included: test weight, kernel hardness, kernel size, ke...

  15. Genetic architecture of resistance to stripe rust in a global winter wheat germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and intr...

  16. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a durum wheat Aegilops speltoides chromosome translocation conferring resistance to stem rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust is a serious disease of wheat that has caused historical epidemics, but it has not been a threat in recent decades in North America due to the eradication of the alternate host and deployment of resistant cultivars. However, the recent emergence of Ug99 (or race TTKS) poses a threat to glo...

  17. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to extend the resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999, is virulent...

  18. Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum.

  19. Genetic Dissection of Grain Size and Grain Number Trade-Offs in CIMMYT Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F.; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability. PMID:25775191

  20. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria-An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about 15 years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP). Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous) and tissues/organs (etiolated and green) have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel) are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane toward the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ), the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp) in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K(+)/H(+) antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate hyperosmotic stress

  1. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria—An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N.; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about 15 years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP). Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous) and tissues/organs (etiolated and green) have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel) are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane toward the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ), the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp) in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate hyperosmotic stress

  2. Transcriptome analysis of genes related to resistance against powdery mildew in wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanquan; Niu, Zubiao; Bao, Yinguang; Tian, Qiuju; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun

    2016-09-15

    Wheat powdery mildew, which is mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), seriously damages wheat production. The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306, being one of the important sources of genes for wheat resistance, is highly resistant to Bgt E09 and to many other powdery mildew physiological races. However, knowledge on the resistance mechanism of SN6306 remains limited. Our study employed high-throughput RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology (Illumina) to obtain an overview of the transcriptome characteristics of SN6306 and its parent wheat Yannong 15 (YN15) during Bgt infection. The sequencing generated 104,773 unigenes, 9909 of which showed varied expression levels. Among the 9909 unigenes, 1678 unigenes showed 0 reads in YN15. The expression levels in Bgt-inoculated SN6306 and YN15 of exactly 39 unigenes that showed 0 or considerably low reads in YN15 were validated to identify the genes involved in Bgt resistance. Among the 39 unigenes, 12 unigenes were upregulated in SN6306 by 3-45 times. These unigenes mainly encoded kinase, synthase, proteases, and signal transduction proteins, which may play an important role in the resistance against Bgt. To confirm whether the unigenes that showed 0 reads in YN15 are really unique to SN6306, 8 unigenes were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that the selected unigenes are more similar to SN6306 and Th. intermedium than to the wheat cultivar YN15. The sequencing results further confirmed that the unigenes showing 0 reads in YN15 are unique to SN6306 and are most likely derived from Th. intermedium (Host) Nevski. Thus, the genes from Th. intermedium most probably conferred the resistance of SN6306 to Bgt. PMID:27265028

  3. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a serious pest of barley in the ...

  4. Metabolomics Suggests That Soil Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Decreased Free Amino Acid Content in Roots of Durum Wheat Grown under N-Limited, P-Rich Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Sergio; Ruisi, Paolo; Fileccia, Veronica; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Amato, Gaetano; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a major impact on plant nutrition, defence against pathogens, a plant’s reaction to stressful environments, soil fertility, and a plant’s relationship with other microorganisms. Such effects imply a broad reprogramming of the plant’s metabolic activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of AMF and their relation to other soil plant growth—promoting microorganisms in the plant metabolome, especially under realistic field conditions. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with AMF, either alone or in combination with plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on the metabolome and changes in metabolic pathways in the roots of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown under N-limited agronomic conditions in a P-rich environment. These two treatments were compared to infection by the natural AMF population (NAT). Soil inoculation with AMF almost doubled wheat root colonization by AMF and decreased the root concentrations of most compounds in all metabolic pathways, especially amino acids (AA) and saturated fatty acids, whereas inoculation with AMF+PGPR increased the concentrations of such compounds compared to inoculation with AMF alone. Enrichment metabolomics analyses showed that AA metabolic pathways were mostly changed by the treatments, with reduced amination activity in roots most likely due to a shift from the biosynthesis of common AA to γ-amino butyric acid. The root metabolome differed between AMF and NAT but not AMF+PGPR and AMF or NAT. Because the PGPR used were potent mineralisers, and AMF can retain most nitrogen (N) taken as organic compounds for their own growth, it is likely that this result was due to an increased concentration of mineral N in soil inoculated with AMF+PGPR compared to AMF alone. PMID:26067663

  5. Metabolomics Suggests That Soil Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Decreased Free Amino Acid Content in Roots of Durum Wheat Grown under N-Limited, P-Rich Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Saia, Sergio; Ruisi, Paolo; Fileccia, Veronica; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Amato, Gaetano; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a major impact on plant nutrition, defence against pathogens, a plant's reaction to stressful environments, soil fertility, and a plant's relationship with other microorganisms. Such effects imply a broad reprogramming of the plant's metabolic activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of AMF and their relation to other soil plant growth-promoting microorganisms in the plant metabolome, especially under realistic field conditions. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with AMF, either alone or in combination with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on the metabolome and changes in metabolic pathways in the roots of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown under N-limited agronomic conditions in a P-rich environment. These two treatments were compared to infection by the natural AMF population (NAT). Soil inoculation with AMF almost doubled wheat root colonization by AMF and decreased the root concentrations of most compounds in all metabolic pathways, especially amino acids (AA) and saturated fatty acids, whereas inoculation with AMF+PGPR increased the concentrations of such compounds compared to inoculation with AMF alone. Enrichment metabolomics analyses showed that AA metabolic pathways were mostly changed by the treatments, with reduced amination activity in roots most likely due to a shift from the biosynthesis of common AA to γ-amino butyric acid. The root metabolome differed between AMF and NAT but not AMF+PGPR and AMF or NAT. Because the PGPR used were potent mineralisers, and AMF can retain most nitrogen (N) taken as organic compounds for their own growth, it is likely that this result was due to an increased concentration of mineral N in soil inoculated with AMF+PGPR compared to AMF alone.

  6. Characterization and molecular mapping of Yr52 for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat germplasm PI 183527.

    PubMed

    Ren, R S; Wang, M N; Chen, X M; Zhang, Z J

    2012-09-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best approach to control the disease. High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) stripe rust resistance has proven to be race non-specific and durable. However, genes conferring high-levels of HTAP resistance are limited in number and new genes are urgently needed for breeding programs to develop cultivars with durable high-level resistance to stripe rust. Spring wheat germplasm PI 183527 showed a high-level of HTAP resistance against stripe rust in our germplasm evaluations over several years. To elucidate the genetic basis of resistance, we crossed PI 183527 and susceptible wheat line Avocet S. Adult plants of parents, F(1), F(2) and F(2:3) progeny were tested with selected races under the controlled greenhouse conditions and in fields under natural infection. PI 183527 has a single dominant gene conferring HTAP resistance. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in combination with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) were used to identify markers linked to the resistance gene. A linkage map consisting of 4 RGAP and 7 SSR markers was constructed for the resistance gene using data from 175 F(2) plants and their derived F(2:3) lines. Amplification of nulli-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines of Chinese Spring with three RGAP markers mapped the gene to the distal region (0.86-1.0) of chromosome 7BL. The molecular map spanned a genetic distance of 27.3 cM, and the resistance gene was narrowed to a 2.3-cM interval flanked by markers Xbarc182 and Xwgp5258. The polymorphism rates of the flanking markers in 74 wheat lines were 74 and 30 %, respectively; and the two markers in combination could distinguish the alleles at the resistance locus in 82 % of tested genotypes. To determine the genetic relationship between this resistance gene and Yr39, a gene also on 7BL conferring HTAP resistance in

  7. Registration of Zak ERA8 soft white spring wheat germplasm with enhanced response to ABA and increased seed dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ZakERA8 is a unique mutant line selected from mutagenized soft white spring 'Zak' that has increased seed dormancy as a result of enhanced responsiveness to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during germination. This germplasm was developed by USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA in collaboration with Washingt...

  8. Registration of Common Wheat Germplasm with Mutations in SBEII Genes Conferring Increased Grain Amylose and Resistant Starch Content

    PubMed Central

    Schönhofen, André; Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch present in the endosperm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains is an important source of carbohydrates worldwide. Starches with a greater proportion of amylose have increased levels of resistant starch, a dietary fiber that can provide human health benefits. Induced mutations in STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes in wheat are associated with increased amylose and resistant starch. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined in the hexaploid wheat cultivar Lassik. Four mutant combinations were generated: SBEIIa/b-AB (Reg. No. GP-997, PI 675644); SBEIIa/b-A, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-998, PI 675645); SBEIIa/b-B, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-999, PI 675646); and SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-1000, PI 675647). The SBEII mutant lines were compared with a wild-type control in a greenhouse and field experiment. The quintuple mutant line (SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D) presented significant increases in both amylose (51% greenhouse; 63% field) and resistant starch (947% greenhouse; 1057% field) relative to the control. A decrease in total starch content (7.8%) was observed in the field experiment. The quintuple mutant also differed in starch viscosity parameters. Registration of the hexaploid wheat SBEII-mutant lines by University of California, Davis can help expedite the development of common wheat cultivars with increased amylose and resistant starch content.

  9. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Wenjun; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeologs of wheat HYDs exhibited major β-ring and minor ε-ring hydroxylation activities in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains. Distinct expression patterns were observed for different HYD genes and homeologs in vegetative tissues and developing grains of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, suggesting their functional divergence and differential regulatory control in tissue-, grain development-, and ploidy-specific manners. An intriguing observation was that the expression of HYD1, particularly HYD-B1, reached highest levels at the last stage of tetraploid and hexaploid grain development, suggesting that carotenoids (at least xanthophylls) were still actively synthesized in mature grains. This result challenges the common perception that carotenoids are simply being turned over during wheat grain development after their initial biosynthesis at the early grain development stages. Overall, this improved understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression and carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains will contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of wheat grains for human consumption.

  10. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Wenjun; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeologs of wheat HYDs exhibited major β-ring and minor ε-ring hydroxylation activities in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains. Distinct expression patterns were observed for different HYD genes and homeologs in vegetative tissues and developing grains of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, suggesting their functional divergence and differential regulatory control in tissue-, grain development-, and ploidy-specific manners. An intriguing observation was that the expression of HYD1, particularly HYD-B1, reached highest levels at the last stage of tetraploid and hexaploid grain development, suggesting that carotenoids (at least xanthophylls) were still actively synthesized in mature grains. This result challenges the common perception that carotenoids are simply being turned over during wheat grain development after their initial biosynthesis at the early grain development stages. Overall, this improved understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression and carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains will contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of wheat grains for human consumption. PMID:23015203

  11. Registration of near-isogenic winter wheat germplasm contrasting in Fhb1 for fusarium head blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese wheat Ning7840 (Triticum aestivum L.) contains Fhb1, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, and has been widely used as a resistant parent in breeding programs worldwide, but due to its poor adaptation in the US, its progenies usually exhibit re...

  12. Novel necrotrophic effectors from Stagonospora nodorum and corresponding host sensitivities in winter wheat germplasm in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Crook, A D; Friesen, T L; Liu, Z H; Ojiambo, P S; Cowger, C

    2012-05-01

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the necrotrophic fungus Stagonospora nodorum (teleomorph: Phaeosphaeria nodorum), is among the most common diseases of winter wheat in the United States. New opportunities in resistance breeding have arisen from the recent discovery of several necrotrophic effectors (NEs, also known as host-selective toxins) produced by S. nodorum, along with their corresponding host sensitivity (Snn) genes. Thirty-nine isolates of S. nodorum collected from wheat debris or grain from seven states in the southeastern United States were used to investigate the production of NEs in the region. Twenty-nine cultivars with varying levels of resistance to SNB, representing 10 eastern-U.S. breeding programs, were infiltrated with culture filtrates from the S. nodorum isolates in a randomized complete block design. Three single-NE Pichia pastoris controls, two S. nodorum isolate controls, and six Snn-differential wheat controls were also used. Cultivar-isolate interactions were visually evaluated for sensitivity at 7 days after infiltration. Production of NEs was detected in isolates originating in each sampled state except Maryland. Of the 39 isolates, 17 produced NEs different from those previously characterized in the upper Great Plains region. These novel NEs likely correspond to unidentified Snn genes in Southeastern wheat cultivars, because NEs are thought to arise under selection pressure from genes for resistance to biotrophic pathogens of wheat cultivars that differ by geographic region. Only 3, 0, and 23% of the 39 isolates produced SnToxA, SnTox1, and SnTox3, respectively, by the culture-filtrate test. A Southern dot-blot test showed that 15, 74, and 39% of the isolates carried the genes for those NEs, respectively; those percentages were lower than those found previously in larger international samples. Only two cultivars appeared to contain known Snn genes, although half of the cultivars displayed sensitivity to culture filtrates

  13. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions...

  14. Evolutionary Metabolomics Reveals Domestication-Associated Changes in Tetraploid Wheat Kernels.

    PubMed

    Beleggia, Romina; Rau, Domenico; Laidò, Giovanni; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nikoloski, Zoran; Papa, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Domestication and breeding have influenced the genetic structure of plant populations due to selection for adaptation from natural habitats to agro-ecosystems. Here, we investigate the effects of selection on the contents of 51 primary kernel metabolites and their relationships in three Triticum turgidum L. subspecies (i.e., wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat) that represent the major steps of tetraploid wheat domestication. We present a methodological pipeline to identify the signature of selection for molecular phenotypic traits (e.g., metabolites and transcripts). Following the approach, we show that a reduction in unsaturated fatty acids was associated with selection during domestication of emmer (primary domestication). We also show that changes in the amino acid content due to selection mark the domestication of durum wheat (secondary domestication). These effects were found to be partially independent of the associations that unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids have with other domestication-related kernel traits. Changes in contents of metabolites were also highlighted by alterations in the metabolic correlation networks, indicating wide metabolic restructuring due to domestication. Finally, evidence is provided that wild and exotic germplasm can have a relevant role for improvement of wheat quality and nutritional traits. PMID:27189559

  15. Evolutionary Metabolomics Reveals Domestication-Associated Changes in Tetraploid Wheat Kernels.

    PubMed

    Beleggia, Romina; Rau, Domenico; Laidò, Giovanni; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nikoloski, Zoran; Papa, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Domestication and breeding have influenced the genetic structure of plant populations due to selection for adaptation from natural habitats to agro-ecosystems. Here, we investigate the effects of selection on the contents of 51 primary kernel metabolites and their relationships in three Triticum turgidum L. subspecies (i.e., wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat) that represent the major steps of tetraploid wheat domestication. We present a methodological pipeline to identify the signature of selection for molecular phenotypic traits (e.g., metabolites and transcripts). Following the approach, we show that a reduction in unsaturated fatty acids was associated with selection during domestication of emmer (primary domestication). We also show that changes in the amino acid content due to selection mark the domestication of durum wheat (secondary domestication). These effects were found to be partially independent of the associations that unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids have with other domestication-related kernel traits. Changes in contents of metabolites were also highlighted by alterations in the metabolic correlation networks, indicating wide metabolic restructuring due to domestication. Finally, evidence is provided that wild and exotic germplasm can have a relevant role for improvement of wheat quality and nutritional traits.

  16. Evolutionary Metabolomics Reveals Domestication-Associated Changes in Tetraploid Wheat Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Beleggia, Romina; Rau, Domenico; Laidò, Giovanni; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran; Papa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Domestication and breeding have influenced the genetic structure of plant populations due to selection for adaptation from natural habitats to agro-ecosystems. Here, we investigate the effects of selection on the contents of 51 primary kernel metabolites and their relationships in three Triticum turgidum L. subspecies (i.e., wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat) that represent the major steps of tetraploid wheat domestication. We present a methodological pipeline to identify the signature of selection for molecular phenotypic traits (e.g., metabolites and transcripts). Following the approach, we show that a reduction in unsaturated fatty acids was associated with selection during domestication of emmer (primary domestication). We also show that changes in the amino acid content due to selection mark the domestication of durum wheat (secondary domestication). These effects were found to be partially independent of the associations that unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids have with other domestication-related kernel traits. Changes in contents of metabolites were also highlighted by alterations in the metabolic correlation networks, indicating wide metabolic restructuring due to domestication. Finally, evidence is provided that wild and exotic germplasm can have a relevant role for improvement of wheat quality and nutritional traits. PMID:27189559

  17. Diversity in Puccinia triticina detected on wheat from 2008 to 2010 and the impact of new races on South African wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of wheat and triticale infected with leaf rust were collected from 2008 to 2010 in South Africa to identify Puccinia triticina races. Races were identified based on their virulence profile on standard differential lines. Eight races were identified from 362 isolates. The dominant races were ...

  18. Analysis of agronomic and domestication traits in a durum x cultivated emmer wheat population using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism-based linkage map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum) is tetraploid and considered one of the eight founder crops that spawned the Agricultural Revolution about 10,000 years ago. Cultivated emmer has non-free-threshing seed and a somewhat fragile rachis, but mutations in genes governing these an...

  19. Toward a better understanding of the genomic region harboring Fusarium head blight resistance QTL Qfhs.ndsu-3AS in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides)-derived Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance quantitative trait locus (QTL) Qfhs.ndsu-3AS previously mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3A (3AS) in a population of recombinant inbred chromosome lines (RICLs). This study aimed to attain a better unders...

  20. Characterization of a New Pm2 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in the Wheat Germplasm Line FG-1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pengtao; Xu, Hongxng; Li, Lihui; Zhang, Hongxia; Han, Guohao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fu, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Xiaotian; An, Diaoguo

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew has a negative impact on wheat production. Novel host resistance increases the diversity of resistance genes and helps to control the disease. In this study, wheat line FG-1 imported from France showed a high level of powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. An F2 population and F2:3 families from the cross FG-1 × Mingxian 169 both fit Mendelian ratios for a single dominant resistance gene when tested against multiple avirulent Blumeria tritici f. sp. tritici (Bgt) races. This gene was temporarily designated PmFG. PmFG was mapped on the multi-allelic Pm2 locus of chromosome 5DS using seven SSR, 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-derived and two SCAR markers with the flanking markers Xbwm21/Xcfd81/Xscar112 (distal) and Xbwm25 (proximal) at 0.3 and 0.5 cM being the closest. Marker SCAR203 co-segregated with PmFG. Allelism tests between PmFG and documented Pm2 alleles confirmed that PmFG was allelic with Pm2. Line FG-1 produced a significantly different reaction pattern compared to other lines with genes at or near Pm2 when tested against 49 Bgt isolates. The PmFG-linked marker alleles detected by the SNP-derived markers revealed significant variation between FG-1 and other lines with genes at or near Pm2. It was concluded that PmFG is a new allele at the Pm2 locus. Data from seven closely linked markers tested on 31 wheat cultivars indicated opportunities for marker-assisted pyramiding of this gene with other genes for powdery mildew resistance and additional traits. PMID:27200022

  1. Characterization of a New Pm2 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in the Wheat Germplasm Line FG-1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pengtao; Xu, Hongxng; Li, Lihui; Zhang, Hongxia; Han, Guohao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fu, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Xiaotian; An, Diaoguo

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew has a negative impact on wheat production. Novel host resistance increases the diversity of resistance genes and helps to control the disease. In this study, wheat line FG-1 imported from France showed a high level of powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. An F2 population and F2:3 families from the cross FG-1 × Mingxian 169 both fit Mendelian ratios for a single dominant resistance gene when tested against multiple avirulent Blumeria tritici f. sp. tritici (Bgt) races. This gene was temporarily designated PmFG. PmFG was mapped on the multi-allelic Pm2 locus of chromosome 5DS using seven SSR, 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-derived and two SCAR markers with the flanking markers Xbwm21/Xcfd81/Xscar112 (distal) and Xbwm25 (proximal) at 0.3 and 0.5 cM being the closest. Marker SCAR203 co-segregated with PmFG. Allelism tests between PmFG and documented Pm2 alleles confirmed that PmFG was allelic with Pm2. Line FG-1 produced a significantly different reaction pattern compared to other lines with genes at or near Pm2 when tested against 49 Bgt isolates. The PmFG-linked marker alleles detected by the SNP-derived markers revealed significant variation between FG-1 and other lines with genes at or near Pm2. It was concluded that PmFG is a new allele at the Pm2 locus. Data from seven closely linked markers tested on 31 wheat cultivars indicated opportunities for marker-assisted pyramiding of this gene with other genes for powdery mildew resistance and additional traits. PMID:27200022

  2. Evaluation of seedling resistance to tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch in tetraploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum, 2n = 4x = 28, AABB) is an important cereal specifically used for making pasta products but its production is more vulnerable to various wheat diseases than hexaploid bread wheat (T. aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). In order to identify res...

  3. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification.

  4. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification. PMID:26471602

  5. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  6. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  7. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  8. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  9. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  10. Population divergence in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina is correlated with wheat evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M; Rodrigue, N; Kolmer, J

    2014-01-01

    Co-evolution of fungal pathogens with their host species during the domestication of modern crop varieties has likely affected the current genetic divergence of pathogen populations. The objective of this study was to determine if the evolutionary history of the obligate rust pathogen on wheat, Puccinia triticina, is correlated with adaptation to hosts with different ploidy levels. Sequence data from 15 loci with different levels of polymorphism were generated. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, Bayesian, maximum likelihood) showed the clear initial divergence of P. triticina isolates collected from Aegilops speltoides (the likely B genome donor of modern wheat) in Israel from the other isolates that were collected from tetraploid (AB genomes) durum wheat and hexaploid (ABD genomes) common wheat. Coalescence-based genealogy samplers also indicated that P. triticina on A. speltoides, diverged initially, followed by P. triticina isolates from durum wheat in Ethiopia and then by isolates from common wheat. Isolates of P. triticina found worldwide on cultivated durum wheat were the most recently coalesced and formed a clade nested within the isolates from common wheat. By a relative time scale, the divergence of P. triticinia as delimited by host specificity appears very recent. Significant reciprocal gene flow between isolates from common wheat and isolates from durum wheat that are found worldwide was detected, in addition to gene flow from isolates on common wheat to isolates on durum wheat in Ethiopia. PMID:24301080

  11. Chromosome engineering of wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr47 in a tetraploid wheat background

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) line DAS15 carries Sr47, a gene conferring resistance to races of stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), including race TTKSK (Ug99). The Ae. speltoides segment harboring Sr47 accounts for most of the T2BL-2SL•2SS chromosome. Our objective was t...

  12. Searching for new sources of FHB resistance in the relatives of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, have threatened the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L., subsp. durum) in North America in recent years. Deployment of FHB-resistant cultivars has been considered th...

  13. Association mapping of North American spring wheat breeding germplasm reveals loci conferring resistance to Ug99 and other African stem rust races

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recently identified Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) race TTKSK (Ug99) poses a severe threat to global wheat production because of its broad virulence on several widely deployed resistance genes. Additional concerning virulences have been detected in the Ug99 group of races, and spread of ...

  14. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  15. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a wheat - Leymus mollis 3D(3Ns) substitution line with resistance to leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuhui; Chen, Xinhong; Zhao, Jixin; Du, Wanli; Cheng, Xueni; Wu, Jun; Li, Yanli; Wang, Liangming; Wang, Jing; Yang, Qunhui

    2014-04-20

    Leymus mollis (Trin.) Pilger (NsNsXmXm, 2n = 28), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that could be transferred to common wheat during breeding programs. In this study, the karyotypic constitution of a wheat - L. mollis 3D(3Ns#1) disomic substitution line isolated from the F5 progeny of octoploid Tritileymus M842-16 × Triticum durum cv. D4286, which was designated as 10DM57, was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), SSR markers, and EST-STS markers. Screening of mitosis and meiosis showed that 10DM57 had a chromosome karyotype of 2n = 42 = 21II. GISH indicated that 10DM57 was a line with 40 chromosomes from wheat and two of the Ns chromosomes from L. mollis, which formed a ring bivalent in pollen mother cells at metaphase I. FISH analysis showed that the chromosome 3D may be replaced by 3Ns#1 in 10DM57. DNA markers, including SSR and EST-STS primers, showed that the pair of wheat chromosome 3D in 10DM57 was substituted by the pair of chromosome 3Ns#1 from L. mollis. Evaluation of the agronomic traits showed that, compared with its common wheat relative 7182, 10DM57 was resistant to leaf rust while the spike length and number of spikes per plant were improved significantly, which correlated with a higher wheat yield. The new germplasm, 10DM57, could be exploited as an intermediate material in wheat genetic and breeding programs. PMID:24780618

  16. Changes in Enzyme Levels During Germination of Seeds of Triticum durum 1

    PubMed Central

    Firenzuoli, A. M.; Vanni, P.; Ramponi, G.; Baccari, V.

    1968-01-01

    The changes in level of activity during the germination of wheat seedling (Triticum durum) in the dark have been investigated with 4 enzymes of glycolysis, 2 enzymes of the pentose phosphate shunt, 2 of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, 2 of amino acid metabolism and acid phosphatase. For some enzymes, which function in photosynthesis (fructose diphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase NADP dependent), the level of activity was influenced by the presence of light. Images PMID:16656761

  17. Multiple leaf measurements improve effectiveness of the cholorophyll meter in drum wheat nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple and rapid methods are needed to measure durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) nitrogen (N) status and make on-site N application decisions for increased crop yield and grain quality. Although chlorophyll meters (SPAD meters) have been widely tested for cereal crop N management, significant variatio...

  18. Evaluation of Fusarium head blight resistance in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) in North America in recent years has been seriously threatened and compromised by epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch]. Deployment of FHB-resista...

  19. Genome-Wide Identification of MicroRNAs in Leaves and the Developing Head of Four Durum Genotypes during Water Deficit Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haipei; Searle, Iain R; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Baumann, Ute; Mather, Diane E; Able, Amanda J; Able, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses. The miRNA transcriptome (miRNAome) under water deficit stress has been investigated in many plant species, but is poorly characterised in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). Water stress during early reproductive stages can result in significant yield loss in durum wheat and this study describes genotypic differences in the miRNAome between water deficit tolerant and sensitive durum genotypes. Small RNA libraries (96 in total) were constructed from flag leaf and developing head tissues of four durum genotypes, with or without water stress to identify differentially abundant miRNAs. Illumina sequencing detected 110 conserved miRNAs and 159 novel candidate miRNA hairpins with 66 conserved miRNAs and five novel miRNA hairpins differentially abundant under water deficit stress. Ten miRNAs (seven conserved, three novel) were validated through qPCR. Several conserved and novel miRNAs showed unambiguous inverted regulatory profiles between the durum genotypes. Several miRNAs also showed differential abundance between two tissue types regardless of treatment. Predicted mRNA targets (130) of four novel durum miRNAs were characterised using Gene Ontology (GO) which revealed functions common to stress responses and plant development. Negative correlation was observed between several target genes and the corresponding miRNA under water stress. For the first time, we present a comprehensive study of the durum miRNAome under water deficit stress. The identification of differentially abundant miRNAs provides molecular evidence that miRNAs are potential determinants of water stress tolerance in durum wheat. GO analysis of predicted targets contributes to the understanding of genotypic physiological responses leading to stress tolerance capacity. Further functional analysis of specific stress responsive miRNAs and their interaction with targets is

  20. Genome-Wide Identification of MicroRNAs in Leaves and the Developing Head of Four Durum Genotypes during Water Deficit Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haipei; Searle, Iain R.; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S.; Baumann, Ute; Mather, Diane E.; Able, Amanda J.; Able, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses. The miRNA transcriptome (miRNAome) under water deficit stress has been investigated in many plant species, but is poorly characterised in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). Water stress during early reproductive stages can result in significant yield loss in durum wheat and this study describes genotypic differences in the miRNAome between water deficit tolerant and sensitive durum genotypes. Small RNA libraries (96 in total) were constructed from flag leaf and developing head tissues of four durum genotypes, with or without water stress to identify differentially abundant miRNAs. Illumina sequencing detected 110 conserved miRNAs and 159 novel candidate miRNA hairpins with 66 conserved miRNAs and five novel miRNA hairpins differentially abundant under water deficit stress. Ten miRNAs (seven conserved, three novel) were validated through qPCR. Several conserved and novel miRNAs showed unambiguous inverted regulatory profiles between the durum genotypes. Several miRNAs also showed differential abundance between two tissue types regardless of treatment. Predicted mRNA targets (130) of four novel durum miRNAs were characterised using Gene Ontology (GO) which revealed functions common to stress responses and plant development. Negative correlation was observed between several target genes and the corresponding miRNA under water stress. For the first time, we present a comprehensive study of the durum miRNAome under water deficit stress. The identification of differentially abundant miRNAs provides molecular evidence that miRNAs are potential determinants of water stress tolerance in durum wheat. GO analysis of predicted targets contributes to the understanding of genotypic physiological responses leading to stress tolerance capacity. Further functional analysis of specific stress responsive miRNAs and their interaction with targets is

  1. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

  2. Genetic mapping of QTL for resistance to Fusarium head blight spread (type 2 resistance) in a Triticum dicoccoides × Triticum durum backcross-derived population.

    PubMed

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Alimari, Abdallah; Steiner, Barbara; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Improvement of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a continuous challenge for durum wheat breeders, particularly due to the limited genetic variation within this crop species. We accordingly generated a backcross-derived mapping population using the type 2 FHB resistant Triticum dicoccoides line Mt. Gerizim #36 as donor and the modern Austrian T. durum cultivar Helidur as recipient; 103 BC1F6:7 lines were phenotyped for type 2 FHB resistance using single-spikelet inoculations and genotyped with 421 DNA markers (SSR and AFLP). QTL mapping revealed two highly significant QTL, mapping to chromosomes 3A and 6B, respectively. For both QTL the T. dicoccoides allele improved type 2 FHB resistance. Recombinant lines with both favorable alleles fixed conferred high resistance to FHB similar to that observed in the T. dicoccoides parent. The results appear directly applicable for durum wheat resistance breeding.

  3. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-11-01

    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly ( P≤0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

  4. Wheat domestication: lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Charmet, Gilles

    2011-03-01

    Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated more than 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed the reconstruction of plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars. For diploid einkorn and tetraploid durum wheat, a single domestication event has likely occurred in the Karacadag Mountains, Turkey. Following a cross between tetraploid durum and diploid T. tauschii, the resultant hexaploid bread wheat was domesticated and disseminated around the Caucasian region. These polyploidisation events facilitated wheat domestication and created genetic bottlenecks, which excluded potentially adaptive alleles. With the urgent need to accelerate genetic progress to confront the challenges of climate change and sustainable agriculture, wild ancestors and old landraces represent a reservoir of underexploited genetic diversity that may be utilized through modern breeding methods. Understanding domestication processes may thus help identifying new strategies.

  5. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  7. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  8. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  9. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Vernalization Genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1 in Spring Wheat Germplasm from the Pacific Northwest Region of the USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring wheat genotypes carrying specific combinations of dominant Vrn-1 alleles were reported to have higher grain yield potential than other lines; therefore, it may be possible to improve spring wheat yields by manipulating these alleles. The objective of this study was to determine the Vrn-1 all...

  10. The compressive strength of wheat endosperm: Comparison of endosperm 'bricks' to the single kernel characterization system.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three major classes of endosperm texture (“grain hardness”) of soft and hard common, and durum wheat represent and define one of the leading determinants of the milling and end-use quality of wheat. Although these three genetic classes are directly related to the Hardness locus and puroindoline ...

  11. Targeted introgression of stem rust Ug99 resistance from wheatgrasses into pasta and bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 50 years, a number of stem rust resistance (Sr) genes have been transferred from several wheat-related grasses into durum (i.e. pasta) and bread wheat through chromosome translocations and additions. To utilize these genes for controlling the Ug99 races of the stem rust pathogen, we ini...

  12. CANCER MORTALITY IN FOUR NORTHERN WHEAT PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of s...

  13. Structural and functional peculiarities of the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the roots of Triticum durum.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alevtina S; Konnova, Svetlana A; Fedonenko, Yulia P; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Smol'kina, Olga N; Kachala, Vadim V; Ignatov, Vladimir V

    2011-10-20

    Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the rhizosphere of Triticum durum, was classified as serogroup II on the basis of serological tests. Such serogroup affiliation is uncharacteristic of wheat-associated Azospirillum species. The lipid A of A. brasilense SR55 lipopolysaccharide contained 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids. The structure of the lipopolysaccharide's O polysaccharide was established, with the branched octasaccharide repeating unit being represented by l-rhamnose, l-3-O-Me-rhamnose, d-galactose and d-glucuronic acid. The SR55 lipopolysaccharide induced deformations of wheat root hairs. The lipopolysaccharide was not involved in bacterial cell aggregation, but its use to pretreat wheat roots was conducive to cell adsorption. This study shows that Azospirillum bacteria can utilise their own lipopolysaccharide as a carbon source, which may give them an advantage in competitive natural environments.

  14. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Dhiraj, B.; Prabhasankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina). Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour) and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina) were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C) but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU). Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45%) when compared with control (44.9%) as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N) when compared with control (2.304 N), and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta. PMID:26904601

  15. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dhiraj, B; Prabhasankar, P

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina). Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour) and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina) were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C) but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU). Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45%) when compared with control (44.9%) as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N) when compared with control (2.304 N), and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta. PMID:26904601

  16. Biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for wheat.

    PubMed

    Tamás-Nyitrai, Cecília; Jones, Huw D; Tamás, László

    2012-01-01

    After rice, wheat is considered to be the most important world food crop, and the demand for high-quality wheat flour is increasing. Although there are no GM varieties currently grown, wheat is an important target for biotechnology, and we anticipate that GM wheat will be commercially available in 10-15 years. In this chapter, we summarize the main features and challenges of wheat transformation and then describe detailed protocols for the production of transgenic wheat plants both by biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated DNA-delivery. Although these methods are used mainly for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), they can also be successfully applied, with slight modifications, to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). The appropriate size and developmental stage of explants (immature embryo-derived scutella), the conditions to produce embryogenic callus tissues, and the methods to regenerate transgenic plants under increasing selection pressure are provided in the protocol. To illustrate the application of herbicide selection system, we have chosen to describe the use of the plasmid pAHC25 for biolistic transformation, while for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation the binary vector pAL156 (incorporating both the bar gene and the uidA gene) has been chosen. Beside the step-by-step methodology for obtaining stably transformed and normal fertile plants, procedures for screening and testing transgenic wheat plants are also discussed.

  17. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  18. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

  19. Safflower Germplasm: Past, Present, and Future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm collections are a critical resource for development and improving safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars and germplasm. Our objective is to describe the safflower germplasm collection at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS), Pullman WA, USA, in light of past, pre...

  20. Targeted discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an unmarked wheat chromosomal region containing the Hessian fly resistance gene H33

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly effective Hessian fly-resistance gene, H33, was introgressed from durum wheat into common wheat and genetically mapped to chromosome 3AS, in previous research. However, H33 located to a region that is well-known to be devoid of molecular markers, with the closest flanking simple sequence ...

  1. Identification and molecular mapping of two QTLs with major effects for resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. Novel sources of resistance are critical for improving FHB resistance levels in wheat. From a large-scale evaluation of germplasm for reactions to FHB, we identified one wheat accession (PI 277012) that consistently showed a h...

  2. Notice of release of Fanny Germplasm, Carmel Germplasm, and Bonneville Germplasm Searls' prairie clover: Selected class of natural germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three natural-track selected germplasms of Searls' prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae [A. Gray] Barneby [Fabaceae]) have been released for use in revegetation/restoration of semi-arid rangelands in the western US. Searls' prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that is native to Utah, Nevada, Ar...

  3. MALFORMATIONS AND OTHER ADVERSE PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN FOUR U.S. WHEAT-PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are widely used in the U.S. and Western Europe in
    grain agriculture and for weed control. Most of the spring and durum wheat
    produced in the U.S. is grown in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and
    South Dakota, with over 85% of th...

  4. BIRTH MALFORMATIONS AND OTHER ADVERSE PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN FOUR U.S. WHEAT PRODUCING STATES: RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are widely used in the U.S. and Western Europe for broadleaf weed control in grain farming and park maintenance. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, with over 85% of the a...

  5. Mapping QTLs for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in an Interspecific Wheat Population

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspro, Angelica; Giove, Stefania L.; Zito, Daniela; Blanco, A.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar. A total of 135 RILs were used for constituting a genetic linkage map and mapping loci for head blight incidence, severity, and disease-related plant morphological traits (plant height, spike compactness, and awn length). The new genetic map accounted for 4,366 single nucleotide polymorphism markers assembled in 52 linkage groups covering a total length of 4,227.37 cM. Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for scab incidence and severity were mapped on chromosomes 2AS, 3AL, and 2AS, 2BS, 4BL, respectively. Plant height loci were identified on 3A, 3B, and 4B, while major QTL for ear compactness were found on 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, and 7A. In this work, resistance to Fusarium was transferred from hexaploid to durum wheat, and correlations between the disease and morphological traits were assessed. PMID:27746787

  6. Identifying rare FHB-resistant transgressive segregants in intransigent backcross and F2 winter wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch)] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.). FHB-infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) a mycotoxin ...

  7. Evidence for stable transformation of wheat by floraldip in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaploid wheat is one of the world’s most important staple crops but genetic transformation is still challenging. We have developed a floral transformation protocol that does not utilize tissue culture. Three T-DNA wheat transformants have been produced in the germplasm line, Crocus, using this p...

  8. Leaf rust resistance in selected Uruguayan late maturity common wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Uruguay, therefore and breeding for resistance to this disease has been a priority for the INIA wheat breeding development program. Knowledge of the resistance genes present in the germplasm is relevant to bre...

  9. Genetically Divergent Types of the Wheat Leaf Fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a Center of Tetraploid Wheat Diversity.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, J A; Acevedo, M A

    2016-04-01

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya, from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. Single-uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes and for molecular genotypes with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Nine virulence phenotypes were described among the 193 isolates tested for virulence. Phenotype BBBQJ, found only in Ethiopia, was predominantly collected from tetraploid wheat. Phenotype EEEEE, also found only in Ethiopia, was exclusively collected from tetraploid wheat and was avirulent to the susceptible hexaploid wheat 'Thatcher'. Phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS, found in both Ethiopia and Kenya, were predominantly collected from common wheat. Phenotypes CCMSS, CCPSS, and CBMSS were found in Ethiopia from common wheat at low frequency. Phenotypes TCBSS and TCBSQ were found on durum wheat and common wheat in Kenya. Four groups of distinct SSR genotypes were described among the 48 isolates genotyped. Isolates with phenotypes BBBQJ and EEEEE were in two distinct SSR groups, and isolates with phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS were in a third group. Isolates with CCMSS, CCPSS, CBMSS, TCBSS, and TCBSQ phenotypes were in a fourth SSR genotype group. The diverse host environment of Ethiopia has selected and maintained a genetically divergent population of P. triticina.

  10. Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-07-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence.

  11. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  12. Strategic Sugar Beet Germplasm Resource Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smooth-root varieties (SR) have been recognized as desirable since the 1940’s for their potential to reduce soil tare at harvest and at the factory. Until the 1990’s this germplasm had low sugar and was unacceptable. Since 2000, USDA-ARS SR germplasm releases increased sugar content to acceptable le...

  13. Melon Trait and Germplasm Resources Survey 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucurbit Crop Germplasm Committee (CCGC), which operates under the auspices of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), is composed of ARS, university and industry scientists, and provides guidance to NPGS on matters relating to cucurbit crop and wild related species. The CCGC is res...

  14. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  15. Variation in Kernel Characteristics and Protein Molecular Weight Distribution of Langdon Durum–Wild Emmer Wheat Chromosome Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides (DIC) provides a useful source of genes to improve agronomic and quality characteristics of durum wheat. Research was performed to identify DIC chromosomes that carry useful genes for quality improvement. Langdon-T. dicoccoides substitution lines consisting of...

  16. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND WHEAT ACREAGE AS A SURROGATE FOR CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES IN COUNTIES OF OUR NORTHERN STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides which have endocrine disrupting properties, are used widely both in cereal grain agriculture and in non-agricultural settings, such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in four northern stat...

  17. Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

    PubMed

    Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat.

  18. A SNP-Based Molecular Barcode for Characterization of Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, LiFeng; Jia, JiZeng; Kong, XiuYing

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown as a staple crop worldwide. It is important to develop an effective genotyping tool for this cereal grain both to identify germplasm diversity and to protect the rights of breeders. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides a means for developing a practical, rapid, inexpensive and high-throughput assay. Here, we investigated SNPs as robust markers of genetic variation for typing wheat cultivars. We identified SNPs from an array of 9000 across a collection of 429 well-known wheat cultivars grown in China, of which 43 SNP markers with high minor allele frequency and variations discriminated the selected wheat varieties and their wild ancestors. This SNP-based barcode will allow for the rapid and precise identification of wheat germplasm resources and newly released varieties and will further assist in the wheat breeding program. PMID:26985664

  19. [Characteristics of alpha-amylase isozymes in cytologenetically different wheat cultivars].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D

    2014-07-01

    The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods. PMID:25720140

  20. Synthetic hexaploids derived from under-exploited tetraploids as a new resource for disease resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) (2n = 6x = 42, genome AABBDD), which is developed from the hybridization between tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28, genome AABB) and Aegilops tauschii Coss. (2n = 2x = 14, genome DD), is a useful bridging germplasm for the introgression of desirable...

  1. MlNCD1: A novel Aegilops tauschii derived powdery mildew resistance gene identified in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease in wheat, especially in cool maritime climates. A novel Aegilops tauschii derived wheat powdery mildew resistance gene present in the germplasm line NC96BGTD1 was genetically characterized as a monogenic trait in field trials using F2 and F4-derived lines fr...

  2. Cancer mortality in four northern wheat-producing states.

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, D M

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of spring and durum wheat is treated with chlorophenoxy herbicides, in contrast to treatment of approximately 30% of winter wheat. In this ecologic study I used wheat acreage as a surrogate for exposure to chlorophenoxy herbicides. I investigated the association of chlorophenoxy herbicides with cancer mortality during 1980-1989 for selected counties based on level of agriculture ([greater and equal to] 20%) and rural population ([greater and equal to] 50%). Age-standardized cancer mortality rates were determined for grouped counties based on tertiles of wheat acreage per county or for individual counties for frequently occurring cancers. The cancer sites that showed positive trends of increasing cancer mortality with increasing wheat acreage were esophagus, stomach, rectum, pancreas, larynx, prostate, kidney and ureter, brain, thyroid, bone, and all cancers (men) and oral cavity and tongue, esophagus, stomach, liver and gall bladder and bile ducts, pancreas, cervix, ovary, bladder, and other urinary organs, and all cancers (women). Rare cancers in men and women and cancers in boys and girls were studied by comparing counties above and below the median of wheat acreage per county. There was increased mortality for cancer of the nose and eye in both men and women, brain and leukemia in both boys and girls, and all cancers in boys. These results suggest an association between cancer mortality and wheat acreage in counties of these four states. PMID:11017893

  3. Cancer mortality in four northern wheat-producing states.

    PubMed

    Schreinemachers, D M

    2000-09-01

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of spring and durum wheat is treated with chlorophenoxy herbicides, in contrast to treatment of approximately 30% of winter wheat. In this ecologic study I used wheat acreage as a surrogate for exposure to chlorophenoxy herbicides. I investigated the association of chlorophenoxy herbicides with cancer mortality during 1980-1989 for selected counties based on level of agriculture ([greater and equal to] 20%) and rural population ([greater and equal to] 50%). Age-standardized cancer mortality rates were determined for grouped counties based on tertiles of wheat acreage per county or for individual counties for frequently occurring cancers. The cancer sites that showed positive trends of increasing cancer mortality with increasing wheat acreage were esophagus, stomach, rectum, pancreas, larynx, prostate, kidney and ureter, brain, thyroid, bone, and all cancers (men) and oral cavity and tongue, esophagus, stomach, liver and gall bladder and bile ducts, pancreas, cervix, ovary, bladder, and other urinary organs, and all cancers (women). Rare cancers in men and women and cancers in boys and girls were studied by comparing counties above and below the median of wheat acreage per county. There was increased mortality for cancer of the nose and eye in both men and women, brain and leukemia in both boys and girls, and all cancers in boys. These results suggest an association between cancer mortality and wheat acreage in counties of these four states.

  4. Evolution of the BBAA Component of Bread Wheat during Its History at the Allohexaploid Level[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  5. Tracking the fate of pasta (T. Durum semolina) immunogenic proteins by in vitro simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mackie, Alan

    2015-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the celiacogenic/immunogenic proteins and peptides released during digestion of pasta (Triticum durum semolina). Cooked pasta was digested using a harmonized in vitro static model of oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. The course of pasta protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE, and gluten proteins were specifically analyzed by Western blot using sera of celiac patients. Among the allergens, nonspecific lipid-transfer protein was highly resistant to gastro-duodenal hydrolysis, while other digestion-stable allergens such as α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were not detected being totally released in the pasta cooking water. To simulate the final stage of intestinal degradation, the gastro-duodenal digesta were incubated with porcine jejunal brush-border membrane hydrolases. Sixty-one peptides surviving the brush-border membrane peptidases were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including several gluten-derived sequences encrypting different motifs responsible for the induction of celiac disease. These results provide new insights into the persistence of wheat-derived peptides during digestion of cooked pasta samples.

  6. [Comparative Characteristic of Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum hybrid lines by genomic composition and resistance to fungal diseases under different environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Leonova, I N; Badaeva, E D; Orlovskaya, O A; Roder, M S; Khotyleva, L V; Salina, E A; Shumny, V K

    2013-11-01

    The genetic diversity of common wheat hybrid lines Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum (2n = 42, F(6-7)) using chromosome-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers and C-staining of chromosomes was studied. Cluster analysis of data obtained by 42 SSR markers indicated that the hybrid lines can be broken into three groups according to their origin. There were two cases of complete genetic similarity between lines 183(2)-2/184(1)-6 and-208-3/213-1, which were obtained using common wheat as the parental plants. In cross combinations, when the stabilization of the nuclear genome of hexaploid lines occurred against a background of the cytoplasmic genome of tetraploid wheats, there was a high level of divergence between sister lines, in some cases exceeding 50%. The evaluation of the degree of susceptibility of the lines to powdery mildew, leaf and stem rust, and septoria leafblotch was performed under different environmental conditions. It was shown that resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust significantly depended on the region where assays were conducted. An evaluation of the field data showed that he lines 195-3, 196-1, and 221-1 with T. durum genetic material displayed complex resistance to fungal pathogens in Western Siberia and the Republic of Belarus. For lines 195-3 and 196-1, one shows a possible contribution of chromosomes 4B and 5B in the formation of complex resistance to diseases. Hybrid lines with complex resistance can be used to expand the genetic diversity of modern common wheat cultivars for genes of immunity.

  7. Using Geostatistical Data Fusion Techniques and MODIS Data to Upscale Simulated Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrignano, A.; Buttafuoco, G.; Matese, A.; Toscano, P.

    2014-12-01

    Population growth increases food request. Assessing food demand and predicting the actual supply for a given location are critical components of strategic food security planning at regional scale. Crop yield can be simulated using crop models because is site-specific and determined by weather, management, length of growing season and soil properties. Crop models require reliable location-specific data that are not generally available. Obtaining these data at a large number of locations is time-consuming, costly and sometimes simply not feasible. An upscaling method to extend coverage of sparse estimates of crop yield to an appropriate extrapolation domain is required. This work is aimed to investigate the applicability of a geostatistical data fusion approach for merging remote sensing data with the predictions of a simulation model of wheat growth and production using ground-based data. The study area is Capitanata plain (4000 km2) located in Apulia Region, mostly cropped with durum wheat. The MODIS EVI/NDVI data products for Capitanata plain were downloaded from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) remote for the whole crop cycle of durum wheat. Phenological development, biomass growth and grain quantity of durum wheat were simulated by the Delphi system, based on a crop simulation model linked to a database including soil properties, agronomical and meteorological data. Multicollocated cokriging was used to integrate secondary exhaustive information (multi-spectral MODIS data) with primary variable (sparsely distributed biomass/yield model predictions of durum wheat). The model estimates looked strongly spatially correlated with the radiance data (red and NIR bands) and the fusion data approach proved to be quite suitable and flexible to integrate data of different type and support.

  8. Genetic mapping of major-effect seed dormancy quantitative trait loci on chromosome 2B using recombinant substitution lines in tetraploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat cultivars can benefit from having some level of seed dormancy to help reduce seed damage and lower grain quality caused by pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) occurring during wet harvesting conditions. Previously a single chromosome substitution line carrying chromosome 2B of wild emmer in the...

  9. Marker development, saturation mapping, and high-resolution mapping of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn3-B1 in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by Parastagonospora nodorum, is a severe foliar and glume disease on durum and common wheat. Pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) are the major determinants for SNB on leaves. One such NE is SnTox3, which evokes programmed cell death and leads to dis...

  10. Notice of release of Charleston Peak Germplasm: selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) announces the release of Charleston Peak Germplasm slender wheatgrass [Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners] as a selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm selected directly from collection D-3269. This collection is uni...

  11. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Tetraploid Wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) Estimated by SSR, DArT and Pedigree Data

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Mangini, Giacomo; Taranto, Francesca; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio; Cattivelli, Luigi; Marone, Daniela; Mastrangelo, Anna M.; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of a collection of 230 accessions of seven tetraploid Triticum turgidum L. subspecies were investigated using six morphological, nine seed storage protein loci, 26 SSRs and 970 DArT markers. The genetic diversity of the morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the durum wheat compared to the wild and domesticated emmer. Using Bayesian clustering (K = 2), both of the sets of molecular markers distinguished the durum wheat cultivars from the other tetraploid subspecies, and two distinct subgroups were detected within the durum wheat subspecies, which is in agreement with their origin and year of release. The genetic diversity of morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the improved durum cultivars registered after 1990, than in the intermediate and older ones. This marked effect on diversity was not observed for molecular markers, where there was only a weak reduction. At K >2, the SSR markers showed a greater degree of resolution than for DArT, with their identification of a greater number of groups within each subspecies. Analysis of DArT marker differentiation between the wheat subspecies indicated outlier loci that are potentially linked to genes controlling some important agronomic traits. Among the 211 loci identified under selection, 109 markers were recently mapped, and some of these markers were clustered into specific regions on chromosome arms 2BL, 3BS and 4AL, where several genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are involved in the domestication of tetraploid wheats, such as the tenacious glumes (Tg) and brittle rachis (Br) characteristics. On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of the tetraploid wheat collection partially reflects the evolutionary history of Triticum turgidum L. subspecies and the genetic potential of landraces and wild accessions for the detection of unexplored alleles. PMID:23826256

  12. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in wheat and wild relatives: molecular evidence for a multigene family.

    PubMed

    Massa, Alicia N; Beecher, Brian; Morris, Craig F

    2007-05-01

    Wheat polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is the major cause of browning reactions that discolor Asian noodles and other wheat products. It has been hypothesized that genes encoding wheat PPOs may have evolved by gene duplication into a multigene family. Here we characterized PPO genomic sequences from diploid (Triticum monococcum, T. urartu, Aegilops tauschii, and Ae. speltoides), tetraploid (T. turgidum, subspecies dicoccoides and durum) and hexaploid (T. aestivum cultivars Klasic and ID377s) wheat species to gain a better understanding of the structure and organization of PPO genes. DNA fragments were amplified from a highly polymorphic and phylogenetic informative region of the gene. As a result, we obtained highly discriminative sequences. Three distinct PPOs, obtained from the A genome of T. monococcum, provided evidence for gene duplication events (paralogous loci). Furthermore, the number of sequences obtained for bread and durum wheat was higher than the expected number of orthologous loci. Sequence comparison revealed nucleotide and structural diversity, and detected five sequence intron types, all with a common insertion position. This was hypothesized to be homologous to that of intron 2 of previously reported wheat PPOs. A MITE of the Stowaway family accounted for the major difference between the five intervening sequences, and was unique to T. aestivum cv. Klasic. Nucleotide and structural diversity, together with well-resolved phylogenetic trees, provided molecular evidence to support the hypothesis of a PPO multigene family structure and organization. PMID:17468807

  13. Root phenotyping of new oilseed crop lesquerella germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of germplasm collections rely on the availability of associated characterization and evaluation data for researchers and germplasm users. The information enables users to select accessions with characters of interest thereby saving time and resources. Most germplasm collections in the US...

  14. Preserving oak (Quercus sp.) germplasm to promote ex situ conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm banks are increasingly used as an ex situ conservation strategy. Germplasm banks are able to maintain extraordinary levels of diversity for long periods at relatively low cost. Studies using seeds – the preferred propagules in plant germplasm banks – have revealed the underlying reasons wh...

  15. Improvements in alfalfa subspecies falcata germplasms and their hybrid performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Autotetraploid yellowed flowered alfalfa (falcata) is distinct from purple flowered alfalfa. Collected wild falcata germplasm has poor agronomic performance. Pre-breeding efforts to improve falcata germplasm have occurred over the years, resulting in varieties or germplasms such as: WISFAL, AC Yell...

  16. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  17. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

  18. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  19. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  20. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype wi...

  1. Genome-wide mapping of spike-related and agronomic traits in a common wheat population derived from a supernumerary parent and an elite parent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  2. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new QTLs and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a RIL population developed from a cross of an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype with supernumerary spikelets (SS) was used to identify QTLs and n...

  3. Germplasm Conservation and Access to Genetic Resources: National Plant Germplasm System and the National Clonal Germplasm Repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves more than 550,000 accessions of genetic resources of crop wild relatives and cultivated, economically important crops. These accessions represent more than 20,000 plant species and are stored at about 25 locations throughout the United States. ...

  4. Genetic transformation of wheat via particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    Since its first invention in the late 1980s the particle gun has evolved from a basic gunpowder driven machine firing tungsten particles to one more refined which uses helium gas as the propellant to launch alternative heavy metal particles such as gold and silver. The simple principle is that DNA-coated microscopic particles (microcarriers) are accelerated at high speed by helium gas within a vacuum and travel at such a velocity as to penetrate target cells. However, the process itself involves a range of parameters which are open to variation: microparticle type and size, gun settings (rupture pressure, target distance, vacuum drawn, etc.), preparation of components (e.g., gold coating), and preparation of plant tissues. Here is presented a method optimized for transformation of wheat immature embryos using the Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He particle gun to deliver gold particles coated with a gene of interest and the selectable marker gene bar at 650 psi rupture pressure. Following bombardment, various tissue culture phases are used to encourage embryogenic callus formation and regeneration of plantlets and subsequent selection using glufosinate ammonium causes suppression of non-transformed tissues, thus assisting the detection of transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transgenic plants for a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.).

  5. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  6. Characterizing Safflower Germplasm with AFLP Molecular Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) accessions from the U.S. germplasm collection were characterized using AFLP (Amplified Length Polymorphisms) markers. Separation and scoring of 392 markers was completed using the Beckman CEQ8000 capillary electrophoresis system. Twelve plants from each of eight...

  7. Relationships Between Oases and Germplasm Collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional date palm oases have served as conservators of date palm genetic resources. There have been only a few studies on the population structure of these oases or evaluations of non-fruit-related characteristics. A system is needed in which regional germplasm repositories for date palm genetic...

  8. Shoot tip cryopreservation of Solanum tuberosum germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid nitrogen storage of vegetatively-propagated germplasm collections is the most economic and reliable long-term preservation method for many of these collections. Over the past 11 years, the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) cryopreserved over 100 different pot...

  9. Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2011-10-01

    Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement.

  10. Domestication and Crop Physiology: Roots of Green-Revolution Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Waines, J. Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and ‘Veery’-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Methods Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. Key Results The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F2 of ‘Norin 10’ and ‘Brevor’, further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat–rye translocation in ‘Kavkaz’ for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Conclusions Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters. PMID:17940075

  11. Photosynthetic characteristics and enzymatic antioxidant capacity of leaves from wheat cultivars exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M

    2012-08-01

    Two durum (Triticum durum L.), Barakatli-95 and Garagylchyg-2; and two bread (Triticum aestivum L.) wheat cultivars, Azamatli-95 and Giymatli-2/17 with different sensitivities to drought were grown in the field on a wide area under normal irrigation and severe water deficit. Drought caused a more pronounced inhibition in photosynthetic parameters in the more sensitive cvs Garagylchyg-2 and Giymatli-2/17 compared with the tolerant cvs Barakatli-95 and Azamatli-95. Upon dehydration, a decline in total chlorophyll and relative water content was evident in all cultivars, especially in later periods of ontogenesis. Potential quantum yield of PS II (F(v)/F(m) ratio) in cv Azamatli-95 was maximal during stalk emergency stage at the beginning of drought. This parameter increased in cv Garagylchyg-2, while in tolerant cultivar Barakatli-95 significant changes were not observed. Contrary to other wheat genotypes in Giymatli-2/17 drought caused a decrease in PS II quantum yield. Drought-tolerant cultivars showed a significant increase in CAT activity as compared to control plants. In durum wheat cultivars maximal activity of CAT was observed at the milk ripeness and in bread wheat cultivars at the end of flowering. APX activity also increased in drought-treated leaves: in tolerant wheat genotypes maximal activity occurred at the end of flowering, in sensitive ones at the end of ear formation. GR activity increased in the tolerant cultivars under drought stress at all stages of ontogenesis. SOD activity significantly decreased in sensitive cultivars and remained at the control level or increased in resistant ones. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.

  12. Analysis of fatty acid steryl esters in tetraploid and hexaploid wheats: identification and comparison between chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Iafelice, Giovanna; Pelillo, Marco; Marconi, Emanuele

    2005-09-21

    Fatty acid steryl esters (FASE) in whole meal of 14 genotypes of tetraploid wheats (Triticum dicocconand T. durum) and 17 genotypes of hexaploid wheats (T. spelta and T. aestivum) were analyzed using different chromatographic strategies. By both GC-FID and HPLC-ELSD, tetraploid wheats are lacking two major peaks. The amounts of FASE, calculated on the basis of the GC-FID analysis, were double in hexaploid species as compared to tetraploids (40 and 20 mg/100 g db, respectively). HPLC with ESI-MS detection enabled the identification of FASE by the characteristic fragmentations and ion-adducts of each molecule. The distribution of steryl residues was not different between the wheat species: the main class of steryl derivatives found was the beta-sitosteryl derivatives, followed by campesteryl derivatives with small amounts of stigmasteryl esters. The esterified fatty acids explain the difference between the hexaploid and tetraploid wheats. In particular, small amounts of campesteryl and beta-sitosteryl, while no trace of stigmasteryl palmitates, were found in T. durum or its hulled ancestor T. dicoccon. Steryl oleates were not detectable in T. aestivum or its hulled ancestor T. spelta, which is consistent with the filogenesis of tetraploid and hexaploid species. Both chromatographic techniques (GC and HPLC) showed that FASE are useful to discriminate between hexaploid and tetraploid wheats from both qualitative and quantitative points of view.

  13. Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Çatalhöyük Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Hatice; Hakki, Erdogan E; Pandey, Anamika; Khan, Mohd Kamran; Akkaya, Mahinur S

    2016-01-01

    Human history was transformed with the advent of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent with wheat as one of the founding crops. Although the Fertile Crescent is renowned as the center of wheat domestication, archaeological studies have shown the crucial involvement of Çatalhöyük in this process. This site first gained attention during the 1961-65 excavations due to the recovery of primitive hexaploid wheat. However, despite the seeds being well preserved, a detailed archaeobotanical description of the samples is missing. In this article, we report on the DNA isolation, amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA of charred wheat grains from Çatalhöyük and other Turkish archaeological sites and the comparison of these wheat grains with contemporary wheat species including T. monococcum, T. dicoccum, T. dicoccoides, T. durum and T. aestivum at HMW glutenin protein loci. These ancient samples represent the oldest wheat sample sequenced to date and the first ancient wheat sample from the Middle East. Remarkably, the sequence analysis of the short DNA fragments preserved in seeds that are approximately 8400 years old showed that the Çatalhöyük wheat stock contained hexaploid wheat, which is similar to contemporary hexaploid wheat species including both naked (T. aestivum) and hulled (T. spelta) wheat. This suggests an early transitory state of hexaploid wheat agriculture from the Fertile Crescent towards Europe spanning present-day Turkey.

  14. Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Çatalhöyük Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Hatice; Hakki, Erdogan E.; Akkaya, Mahinur S.

    2016-01-01

    Human history was transformed with the advent of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent with wheat as one of the founding crops. Although the Fertile Crescent is renowned as the center of wheat domestication, archaeological studies have shown the crucial involvement of Çatalhöyük in this process. This site first gained attention during the 1961–65 excavations due to the recovery of primitive hexaploid wheat. However, despite the seeds being well preserved, a detailed archaeobotanical description of the samples is missing. In this article, we report on the DNA isolation, amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA of charred wheat grains from Çatalhöyük and other Turkish archaeological sites and the comparison of these wheat grains with contemporary wheat species including T. monococcum, T. dicoccum, T. dicoccoides, T. durum and T. aestivum at HMW glutenin protein loci. These ancient samples represent the oldest wheat sample sequenced to date and the first ancient wheat sample from the Middle East. Remarkably, the sequence analysis of the short DNA fragments preserved in seeds that are approximately 8400 years old showed that the Çatalhöyük wheat stock contained hexaploid wheat, which is similar to contemporary hexaploid wheat species including both naked (T. aestivum) and hulled (T. spelta) wheat. This suggests an early transitory state of hexaploid wheat agriculture from the Fertile Crescent towards Europe spanning present-day Turkey. PMID:26998604

  15. Stem rust resistance in Aegilops tauschii germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegilops tauschii Cosson, the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum L., has been used extensively for the transfer of agronomically important traits to wheat, including stem rust resistance genes Sr33, Sr45, and Sr46. In order to identify potentially new stem rust resistance genes in ...

  16. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  17. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  18. A wheat lipid transfer protein (TdLTP4) promotes tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Safi, Hela; Saibi, Walid; Alaoui, Meryem Mrani; Hmyene, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Khaled; Hanin, Moez; Brini, Faïçal

    2015-04-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are members of the family of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-14) that are believed to be involved in plant defense responses. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel gene TdLTP4 encoding an LTP protein from durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum Desf.]. Molecular Phylogeny analyses of wheat TdLTP4 gene showed a high identity to other plant LTPs. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of six helices and nine loop turns. Expression analysis in two local durum wheat varieties with marked differences in salt and drought tolerance, revealed a higher transcript accumulation of TdLTP4 under different stress conditions in the tolerant variety, compared to the sensitive one. The overexpression of TdLTP4 in Arabidopsis resulted in a promoted plant growth under various stress conditions including NaCl, ABA, JA and H2O2 treatments. Moreover, the LTP-overexpressing lines exhibit less sensitivity to jasmonate than wild-type plants. Furthermore, detached leaves from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing TdLTP4 gene showed enhanced fungal resistance against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea. Together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of TdLTP4 gene in the tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:25703105

  19. A wheat lipid transfer protein (TdLTP4) promotes tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Safi, Hela; Saibi, Walid; Alaoui, Meryem Mrani; Hmyene, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Khaled; Hanin, Moez; Brini, Faïçal

    2015-04-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are members of the family of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-14) that are believed to be involved in plant defense responses. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel gene TdLTP4 encoding an LTP protein from durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum Desf.]. Molecular Phylogeny analyses of wheat TdLTP4 gene showed a high identity to other plant LTPs. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of six helices and nine loop turns. Expression analysis in two local durum wheat varieties with marked differences in salt and drought tolerance, revealed a higher transcript accumulation of TdLTP4 under different stress conditions in the tolerant variety, compared to the sensitive one. The overexpression of TdLTP4 in Arabidopsis resulted in a promoted plant growth under various stress conditions including NaCl, ABA, JA and H2O2 treatments. Moreover, the LTP-overexpressing lines exhibit less sensitivity to jasmonate than wild-type plants. Furthermore, detached leaves from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing TdLTP4 gene showed enhanced fungal resistance against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea. Together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of TdLTP4 gene in the tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in crop plants.

  20. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  1. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions.

  2. Identification of a Protein Network Interacting with TdRF1, a Wheat RING Ubiquitin Ligase with a Protective Role against Cellular Dehydration1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Davide; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Lopez-Torrejon, Gema; Marzin, Stephan; Schweizer, Patrick; Stanca, Antonio Michele; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Cattivelli, Luigi; Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Plants exploit ubiquitination to modulate the proteome with the final aim to ensure environmental adaptation and developmental plasticity. Ubiquitination targets are specifically driven to degradation through the action of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Genetic analyses have indicated wide functions of ubiquitination in plant life; nevertheless, despite the large number of predicted E3s, only a few of them have been characterized so far, and only a few ubiquitination targets are known. In this work, we characterized durum wheat (Triticum durum) RING Finger1 (TdRF1) as a durum wheat nuclear ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, its barley (Hordeum vulgare) homolog was shown to protect cells from dehydration stress. A protein network interacting with TdRF1 has been defined. The transcription factor WHEAT BEL1-TYPE HOMEODOMAIN1 (WBLH1) was degraded in a TdRF1-dependent manner through the 26S proteasome in vivo, the mitogen-activated protein kinase TdWNK5 [for Triticum durum WITH NO LYSINE (K)5] was able to phosphorylate TdRF1 in vitro, and the RING-finger protein WHEAT VIVIPAROUS-INTERACTING PROTEIN2 (WVIP2) was shown to have a strong E3 ligase activity. The genes coding for the TdRF1 interactors were all responsive to cold and/or dehydration stress, and a negative regulative function in dehydration tolerance was observed for the barley homolog of WVIP2. A role in the control of plant development was previously known, or predictable based on homology, for wheat BEL1-type homeodomain1(WBLH1). Thus, TdRF1 E3 ligase might act regulating the response to abiotic stress and remodeling plant development in response to environmental constraints. PMID:22167118

  3. Modelling ozone stomatal flux of wheat under mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Fernández, I.; Bermejo, V.; Elvira, S.; de la Torre, D.; González, A.; Navarrete, L.; Sanz, J.; Calvete, H.; García-Gómez, H.; López, A.; Serra, J.; Lafarga, A.; Armesto, A. P.; Calvo, A.; Alonso, R.

    2013-03-01

    Correct estimation of leaf-level stomatal conductance (gsto) is central for current ozone (O3) risk assessment of wheat yield loss based on the absorbed O3 phytotoxic dose (POD). The gsto model parameterizations developed in Europe must be checked in the different climatic regions where they are going to be applied in order to reduce the uncertainties associated with the POD approach. This work proposes a new gsto model parameterization for estimating POD of Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under Mediterranean conditions, based on phenological observations over 25 years and gsto field measurements during 5 growing seasons. Results show that POD in the Mediterranean area might be higher than previously estimated. However, caution must be paid when assessing the risk of yield loss for wheat in this area since field validation of O3 impacts is still limited.

  4. Spaghetti from durum wheat: effect of drying conditions on heat damage, ultrastructure and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Stuknytė, Milda; Cattaneo, Stefano; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Marti, Alessandra; Micard, Valérie; Hogenboom, John; De Noni, Ivano

    2014-04-15

    The effects of low (LT) or high (HT) temperature drying on ultrastructural, molecular and in vitro digestibility properties of cooked spaghetti were studied. Starch swelling and denaturation/aggregation of proteins occurring at diverse stages, LT or HT drying and cooking, resulted in different in vitro digestibility of spaghetti. For the first time, these differences were assessed in terms of the release of free AA and simple sugars. Indeed, at the end of in vitro digestion, the total amount of released maltotriose, maltose and glucose significantly differentiated digestates of LT and HT spaghetti (12.6 and 15.9 g 100g⁻¹). In the same samples, diverse amounts (16.3 and 12.5 g 100g⁻¹ protein) of free amino acids were found. Chemical artifacts occurring at protein level impaired release of lysine in cooked HT spaghetti after in vitro digestion. These results increase the knowledge on digestibility of LT and HT cooked spaghetti. PMID:24295674

  5. QTL analysis of pasta quality using a composite microsatellite and SNP map of durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Chao, S; Manthey, F; Chicaiza, O; Brevis, J C; Echenique, V; Dubcovsky, J

    2008-11-01

    Bright yellow color, firmness and low cooking loss are important factors for the production of good-quality pasta products. However, the genetic factors underlying those traits are still poorly understood. To fill this gap we developed a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from the cross between experimental line UC1113 (intermediate pasta quality) with the cultivar Kofa (excellent pasta quality). A total of 269 markers, including 23 SNP markers, were arranged on 14 linkage groups covering a total length of 2,140 cM. Samples from each RIL from five different environments were used for complete pasta quality testing and the results from each year were used for QTL analyses. The combined effect of different loci, environment and their interactions were analyzed using factorial ANOVAs for each trait. We identified major QTLs for pasta color on chromosomes 1B, 4B, 6A, 7A and 7B. The 4B QTL was linked to a polymorphic deletion in the Lpx-B1.1 lipoxygenase locus, suggesting that it was associated with pigment degradation during pasta processing. The 7B QTL for pasta color was linked to the Phytoene synthase 1 (Psy-B1) locus suggesting difference in pigment biosynthesis. QTLs affecting pasta firmness and cooking loss were detected on chromosomes 5A and 7B, and in both cases they were overlapping with QTL for grain protein content and wet gluten content. These last two parameters were highly correlated with pasta firmness (R > 0.71) and inversely correlated to cooking loss (R < -0.37). The location and effect of other QTLs affecting grain size and weight, gluten strength, mixing properties, and ash content are also discussed. PMID:18781292

  6. Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; El-Feki, Walid; Nazemi, Ghasemali; Salvi, Silvio; Canè, Maria Angela; Colalongo, Maria Chiara; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Optimization of root system architecture (RSA) traits is an important objective for modern wheat breeding. Linkage and association mapping for RSA in two recombinant inbred line populations and one association mapping panel of 183 elite durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) accessions evaluated as seedlings grown on filter paper/polycarbonate screening plates revealed 20 clusters of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and number, as well as 30 QTLs for root growth angle (RGA). Divergent RGA phenotypes observed by seminal root screening were validated by root phenotyping of field-grown adult plants. QTLs were mapped on a high-density tetraploid consensus map based on transcript-associated Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for bread and durum wheat, thus allowing for an accurate cross-referencing of RSA QTLs between durum and bread wheat. Among the main QTL clusters for root length and number highlighted in this study, 15 overlapped with QTLs for multiple RSA traits reported in bread wheat, while out of 30 QTLs for RGA, only six showed co-location with previously reported QTLs in wheat. Based on their relative additive effects/significance, allelic distribution in the association mapping panel, and co-location with QTLs for grain weight and grain yield, the RSA QTLs have been prioritized in terms of breeding value. Three major QTL clusters for root length and number (RSA_QTL_cluster_5#, RSA_QTL_cluster_6#, and RSA_QTL_cluster_12#) and nine RGA QTL clusters (QRGA.ubo-2A.1, QRGA.ubo-2A.3, QRGA.ubo-2B.2/2B.3, QRGA.ubo-4B.4, QRGA.ubo-6A.1, QRGA.ubo-6A.2, QRGA.ubo-7A.1, QRGA.ubo-7A.2, and QRGA.ubo-7B) appear particularly valuable for further characterization towards a possible implementation of breeding applications in marker-assisted selection and/or cloning of the causal genes underlying the QTLs.

  7. Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Maccaferri, Marco; El-Feki, Walid; Nazemi, Ghasemali; Salvi, Silvio; Canè, Maria Angela; Colalongo, Maria Chiara; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of root system architecture (RSA) traits is an important objective for modern wheat breeding. Linkage and association mapping for RSA in two recombinant inbred line populations and one association mapping panel of 183 elite durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) accessions evaluated as seedlings grown on filter paper/polycarbonate screening plates revealed 20 clusters of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and number, as well as 30 QTLs for root growth angle (RGA). Divergent RGA phenotypes observed by seminal root screening were validated by root phenotyping of field-grown adult plants. QTLs were mapped on a high-density tetraploid consensus map based on transcript-associated Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for bread and durum wheat, thus allowing for an accurate cross-referencing of RSA QTLs between durum and bread wheat. Among the main QTL clusters for root length and number highlighted in this study, 15 overlapped with QTLs for multiple RSA traits reported in bread wheat, while out of 30 QTLs for RGA, only six showed co-location with previously reported QTLs in wheat. Based on their relative additive effects/significance, allelic distribution in the association mapping panel, and co-location with QTLs for grain weight and grain yield, the RSA QTLs have been prioritized in terms of breeding value. Three major QTL clusters for root length and number (RSA_QTL_cluster_5#, RSA_QTL_cluster_6#, and RSA_QTL_cluster_12#) and nine RGA QTL clusters (QRGA.ubo-2A.1, QRGA.ubo-2A.3, QRGA.ubo-2B.2/2B.3, QRGA.ubo-4B.4, QRGA.ubo-6A.1, QRGA.ubo-6A.2, QRGA.ubo-7A.1, QRGA.ubo-7A.2, and QRGA.ubo-7B) appear particularly valuable for further characterization towards a possible implementation of breeding applications in marker-assisted selection and/or cloning of the causal genes underlying the QTLs. PMID:26880749

  8. Hyperspectral-imaging-based techniques applied to wheat kernels characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Cesare, Daniela; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Single kernels of durum wheat have been analyzed by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Such an approach is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software architecture able to digitally capture and handle spectra as an image sequence, as they results along a pre-defined alignment on a surface sample properly energized. The study was addressed to investigate the possibility to apply HSI techniques for classification of different types of wheat kernels: vitreous, yellow berry and fusarium-damaged. Reflectance spectra of selected wheat kernels of the three typologies have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with an HSI system working in near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The hypercubes were analyzed applying principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of data and for selecting some effective wavelengths. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for classification of the three wheat typologies. The study demonstrated that good classification results were obtained not only considering the entire investigated wavelength range, but also selecting only four optimal wavelengths (1104, 1384, 1454 and 1650 nm) out of 121. The developed procedures based on HSI can be utilized for quality control purposes or for the definition of innovative sorting logics of wheat.

  9. PLANT OLIGOSACCHARIDES ENHANCE WHEAT DEFENCE RESPONSE AGAINST SEPTORIA LEAF BLOTCH.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Siah, A; Randoux, B; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P; Rodriguez, R; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Our work provides the first evidence for elicitation and protection effects of preventive treatments with oligosaccharides (20%)-based new formulation (Oligos) against Mycosphaerella graminicola, a major pathogen of bread wheat (BW) and durum wheat (DW). In planta Oligos treatment led to strongly reduced hyphal growth, penetration, mesophyll colonization and fructification. During the necrotrophic phase, Oligos also drastically decreased the production of M. graminicola CWDE activities, such as xylanase and glucanase as well as protease activity in both wheat species, suggesting their correlation with disease severity. Concerning plant defence markers, PR2, Chi 4 precursor-, Per- and LOX-1-encoding genes were up-regulated, while glucanase (GLUC), catalase (CAT) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities and total phenolic compound (PC) accumulation were induced in both (non-inoculated and inoculated contexts. In inoculated context, a localized accumulation of H2O2 and PC at fungal penetration sites and a specific induction of phenylalanine ammonia-Lyase (PAL) enzymatic activity were observed. Moreover, our experiment exhibited some similarities and differences in both wheat species responses. GLUC and CAT activities and H2O2 accumulation were more responsive in DW leaves, while LOX and PAL activities and PC accumulation occurred earlier and to a stronger extent in BW leaves. The tested Oligos formulation showed an interesting resistance induction activity characterized by a high and stable efficiency whatever the wheat species, suggesting it integration in common control strategies against STB on both DW and BW. PMID:27141743

  10. Resistance to recombinant stem rust race TPPKC in hard red spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Klindworth, D L; Miller, J D; Williams, N D; Xu, S S

    2011-08-01

    The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) resistance gene SrWld1 conditions resistance to all North American stem rust races and is an important gene in hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars. A sexually recombined race having virulence to SrWld1 was isolated in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine the genetics of resistance to the race. The recombinant race was tested with the set of stem rust differentials and with a set of 36 HRS and 6 durum cultivars. Chromosomal location studies in cultivars Len, Coteau, and Stoa were completed using aneuploid analysis, molecular markers, and allelism tests. Stem rust differential tests coded the race as TPPKC, indicating it differed from TPMKC by having added virulence on Sr30 as well as SrWld1. Genes effective against TPPKC were Sr6, Sr9a, Sr9b, Sr13, Sr24, Sr31, and Sr38. Genetic studies of resistance to TPPKC indicated that Len, Coteau, and Stoa likely carried Sr9b, that Coteau and Stoa carried Sr6, and Stoa carried Sr24. Tests of HRS and durum cultivars indicated that five HRS and one durum cultivar were susceptible to TPPKC. Susceptible HRS cultivars were postulated to have SrWld1 as their major stem rust resistance gene. Divide, the susceptible durum cultivar, was postulated to lack Sr13. We concluded that although TPPKC does not constitute a threat similar to TTKSK and its variants, some cultivars would be lost from production if TPPKC became established in the field.

  11. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  12. Crop yield and quality, weeds, insects, and water use of durum and selected brassicaceae oilseeds in two-year rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool-season oilseeds are potential feedstock for biofuel production, but few studies have compared oilseed-durum (Triticum durum Desf.) rotations. We conducted a field trial under dryland conditions for 2007-2010 near Froid, Montana, comparing productivity, water balance, and key weed and arthropod...

  13. Citrullus Germplasm Lines Vary in Clomazone Herbicide Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences between Citrullus germplasm lines in clomazone injury were first observed when the herbicide was used for weed control in fields containing germplasm lines of watermelon breeding project at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. The objectives of this investigation were to asses...

  14. Identification of citrullus lanatus germplasm lines tolerant to clomazone herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for use in watermelon; however, crop tolerance is marginal and the recommended use rates (0.07 to 0.1 kg ai ha-1) are lower for watermelon than for some other crops. In a greenhouse germplasm evaluation experiment including 56 germplasm accessions and watermelon cu...

  15. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  16. Notice of release of Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) was released by USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2015 as a selected class of pre-variety germplasm (natural track). This new plant material originates in Gooding County in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain....

  17. Notice of release of Fowler germplasm green needlegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fowler Germplasm is a new pre-variety germplasm release of green needlegrass developed by artificial selection from five local populations collected in southern Alberta. Selection emphasis was placed on seed yield and germinability. This plant material is expected to be used for restoration and wi...

  18. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  19. Genetic diversity for Russian wheat aphid resistance as determined by genome-wide association mapping and inheritance in progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is an increasing problem on barley throughout the world. Genetic resistance has been identified and used to create barley germplasm and cultivars adapted to the US. Several mapping studies have been conducted to identify loci associated with resistance, but questions remain...

  20. An assessment of wheat breeding gains in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdji, S. M.; Mathews, K.; Reynolds, M.; Crossa, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wheat, a critical crop for ensuring global food security, has the lowest optimum temperatures among the major cereals, and is already grown in many heat stress areas, thereby increasing risks to production from a warming climate. Historical spring wheat trial data from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) was used to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and yield in major wheat-growing areas, assess the response to future warming, and identify different rates of genetic gains due to variety improvement across environments and breeding nurseries. Results were compared for two nurseries: 1) the Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT), which aims to improve yield potential under optimal environmental conditions, and 2) the Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), where improvements are targeted in semi-arid, rainfed environments, frequently subject to heat and water stress. Yields from 25 years of trial data were paired with reconstructed daily weather data in an empirical model with environmental variables averaged by growth stage. Temperature, radiation, day length and interaction terms between temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were all determined to be significant terms in the model. Results show a detrimental response to warming across all temperatures in the grain-filling, or final growth stage, particularly under low VPD/ humid conditions. A negative response to warming was also observed in the reproductive stage after ~14C, although high VPD conferred no additional benefit, perhaps due to a higher sensitivity and/or exposure to water stress during this period. A projected 2C season average warming was seen to have differential effects between ESWYT and SAWYT, with SAWYT germplasm less sensitive to warming up until ~21C, but an equally negative response to further warming for both nurseries. The regions where wheat is already grown under hot, and sometimes humid, conditions, particularly in south and south

  1. DNA fingerprinting of jute germplasm by RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Belayat; Haque, Samiul; Khan, Haseena

    2002-07-31

    The genotype characteristic of cultivars was investigated, along with varieties of both of the jute species, Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis, in the germplasm collection at the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). DNA fingerprinting was generated for 9 different varieties and 12 accessions of jute cultivars by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 29 arbitrary oligonucleotide primers were screened. Seven primers gave polymorphism within the varieties, and 6 primers detected polymorphism within the accessions that were tested. A dendrogram was engendered from these data, and this gave a distinct clustering of the cultivated species of jute. Therefore, we generated RAPD markers, which are species-specific. These primers can distinguish between C. olitorius and C. capsularis. From the dendrogram that we generated between the various members of these two species, we found the existing genetic classification that agrees with our molecular marking data. A different dendrogram showed that jute accessions could be clustered into three groups. These data will be invaluable in the conservation and utilization of the genetic pool in the germplasm collection.

  2. August Weismann on germ-plasm variation.

    PubMed

    Winther, R G

    2001-01-01

    August Weismann is famous for having argued against the inheritance of acquired characters. However, an analysis of his work indicates that Weismann always held that changes in external conditions, acting during development, were the necessary causes of variation in the hereditary material. For much of his career he held that acquired germ-plasm variation was inherited. An irony, which is in tension with much of the standard twentieth-century history of biology, thus exists - Weismann was not a Weismannian. I distinguish three claims regarding the germ-plasm: (1) its continuity, (2) its morphological sequestration, and (3) its variational sequestration. With respect to changes in Weismann's views on the cause of variation, I divide his career into four stages. For each stage I analyze his beliefs on the relative importance of changes in external conditions and sexual reproduction as causes of variation in the hereditary material. Weissmann believed, and Weismannism denies, that variation, heredity, and development were deeply intertwined processes. This article is part of a larger project comparing commitments regarding variation during the latter half of the nineteenth century. PMID:11859887

  3. Characterization of Ferredoxin-Dependent Glutamine-Oxoglutarate Amidotransferase (Fd-GOGAT) Genes and Their Relationship with Grain Protein Content QTL in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In higher plants, inorganic nitrogen is assimilated via the glutamate synthase cycle or GS-GOGAT pathway. GOGAT enzyme occurs in two distinct forms that use NADH (NADH-GOGAT) or Fd (Fd-GOGAT) as electron carriers. The goal of the present study was to characterize wheat Fd-GOGAT genes and to assess the linkage with grain protein content (GPC), an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. Results We report the complete genomic sequences of the three homoeologous A, B and D Fd-GOGAT genes from hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and their localization and characterization. The gene is comprised of 33 exons and 32 introns for all the three homoeologues genes. The three genes show the same exon/intron number and size, with the only exception of a series of indels in intronic regions. The partial sequence of the Fd-GOGAT gene located on A genome was determined in two durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cvs Ciccio and Svevo, characterized by different grain protein content. Genomic differences allowed the gene mapping in the centromeric region of chromosome 2A. QTL analysis was conducted in the Svevo×Ciccio RIL mapping population, previously evaluated in 5 different environments. The study co-localized the Fd-GOGAT-A gene with the marker GWM-339, identifying a significant major QTL for GPC. Conclusions The wheat Fd-GOGAT genes are highly conserved; both among the three homoeologous hexaploid wheat genes and in comparison with other plants. In durum wheat, an association was shown between the Fd-GOGAT allele of cv Svevo with increasing GPC - potentially useful in breeding programs. PMID:25099972

  4. Genetic transformation of wheat via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    The method described involves an initial incubation of wheat immature embryos in a liquid culture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain is engineered to contain a binary vector with a gene of interest and a selectable marker gene placed between the T-DNA borders; the T-DNA is the region transferred to the plant cells, thus harnessing the bacterium's natural ability to deliver specific DNA into host cells. Following the initial inoculation with the Agrobacterium, the embryos are co-cultivated for several days after which the Agrobacterium is selectively destroyed using an antibiotic. Tissue culture of the embryos on plant media with a correct balance of hormones allows embryogenic callus formation followed by regeneration of plantlets, and in the later stages of tissue culture a selectable marker (herbicide) is included to minimize the incidence of non-transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transformed plants of a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.). PMID:24243208

  5. ‘TAM 112’ Wheat, resistant to greenbug and wheat curl mite and adapted to the dryland production system in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘TAM 112’ (PI 643143), a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an F4 derived line from the cross U1254-7-9-2-1/TXGH10440. U1254-7-9-2 is a USDA-ARS germplasm line from the Plant Science and Entomology Research unit, Manhattan, Kansas. It was developed from the cross TAM 200/TA2460. TA24...

  6. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin.

  7. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin. PMID:26909987

  8. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  9. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve grain yield, biomass and photosynthesis across enviroinments in modern wheat.

    PubMed

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-10-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving drought resistance in domesticated wheat. Nevertheless, wild germplasm has not been widely used in wheat breeding for abiotic stress resilience. In the current study, a near isogenic line NIL-7A-B-2, introgressed with a drought-related QTL from wild emmer wheat on chromosome 7A, and its recurrent parent, bread wheat cv. BarNir, were investigated under four environments across 2 years-water-limited and well-watered conditions in a rain-protected screen-house (Year 1) and two commercial open field plots under ample precipitation (Year 2). NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited an advantage over BarNir in grain yield and biomass production under most environments. Further physiological analyses suggested that enhanced photosynthetic capacity and photochemistry combined with higher flag leaf area are among the factors underlying the improved productivity of NIL-7A-B-2. These were coupled with improved sink capacity in NIL-7A-B-2, manifested by greater yield components than its parental line. This study provides further support for our previous findings that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles, using marker assisted selection, can enhance grain yield and biomass production across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of yield and drought resistance. PMID:27593460

  10. Genetic evidence for differential selection of grain and embryo weight during wheat evolution under domestication.

    PubMed

    Golan, Guy; Oksenberg, Adi; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-09-01

    Wheat is one of the Neolithic founder crops domesticated ~10 500 years ago. Following the domestication episode, its evolution under domestication has resulted in various genetic modifications. Grain weight, embryo weight, and the interaction between those factors were examined among domesticated durum wheat and its direct progenitor, wild emmer wheat. Experimental data show that grain weight has increased over the course of wheat evolution without any parallel change in embryo weight, resulting in a significantly reduced (30%) embryo weight/grain weight ratio in domesticated wheat. The genetic factors associated with these modifications were further investigated using a population of recombinant inbred substitution lines that segregated for chromosome 2A. A cluster of loci affecting grain weight and shape was identified on the long arm of chromosome 2AL. Interestingly, a novel locus controlling embryo weight was mapped on chromosome 2AS, on which the wild emmer allele promotes heavier embryos and greater seedling vigour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL for embryo weight in wheat. The results suggest a differential selection of grain and embryo weight during the evolution of domesticated wheat. It is argued that conscious selection by early farmers favouring larger grains and smaller embryos appears to have resulted in a significant change in endosperm weight/embryo weight ratio in the domesticated wheat. Exposing the genetic factors associated with endosperm and embryo size improves our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of wheat under domestication and is likely to be useful for future wheat-breeding efforts.

  11. Characterization of selenium-enriched wheat by agronomic biofortification.

    PubMed

    Galinha, Catarina; Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pacheco, Adriano M G; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Coutinho, José; Maçãs, Benvindo; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Pérez-Corona, María Teresa; Madrid, Yolanda; Wolterbeek, Hubert T

    2015-07-01

    Agronomic biofortification of staple crops is an effective way to enhance their contents in essential nutrients up the food chain, with a view to correcting for their deficiencies in animal or human status. Selenium (Se) is one such case, for its uneven distribution in the continental crust and, therefore, in agricultural lands easily translates into substantial variation in nutritional intakes. Cereals are far from being the main sources of Se on a content basis, but they are likely the major contributors to intake on a dietary basis. To assess their potential to assimilate and biotransform Se, bread and durum wheat were enriched with Se through foliar and soil addition at an equivalent field rate of 100 g of Se per hectare (ha), using sodium selenate and sodium selenite as Se-supplementation matrices, in actual field conditions throughout. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated by using HPLC-ICP-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis for Se-species extraction in the resulting mature wheat grains. Selenomethionine and Se(VI) were identified and quantified: the former was the predominant species, representing 70-100 % of the total Se in samples; the maximum amount of inorganic Se was below 5 %. These results were similar for both supplementation methods and for both wheat varieties. Judging from the present results, one can conclude that agronomic biofortification of wheat may improve the nutritional quality of wheat grains with significant amounts of selenomethionine, which is an attractive option for increasing the Se status in human diets through Se-enriched, wheat-based foodstuff.

  12. Characterization of two adult-plant stripe rust resistance genes on chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in soft red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of soft red winter wheat (SRWW) in the eastern U.S. However, very few resistance genes have been characterized in the SRWW germplasm pool. The SRWW line VA96W-270 is known to be resistant to stripe rust race P...

  13. Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zong, Yuan; Wang, Yanpeng; Liu, Jinxing; Chen, Kunling; Qiu, Jin-Long; Gao, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Editing plant genomes is technically challenging in hard-to-transform plants and usually involves transgenic intermediates, which causes regulatory concerns. Here we report two simple and efficient genome-editing methods in which plants are regenerated from callus cells transiently expressing CRISPR/Cas9 introduced as DNA or RNA. This transient expression-based genome-editing system is highly efficient and specific for producing transgene-free and homozygous wheat mutants in the T0 generation. We demonstrate our protocol to edit genes in hexaploid bread wheat and tetraploid durum wheat, and show that we are able to generate mutants with no detectable transgenes. Our methods may be applicable to other plant species, thus offering the potential to accelerate basic and applied plant genome-engineering research. PMID:27558837

  14. Genetic mapping of polyphenol oxidase in tetraploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Rosanna; Pasqualone, Antonella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Blanco, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Pasta colour is one of the main factors influencing pasta quality. It is the product of a desirable yellow component, an undesirable brown component and, under some drying conditions, a red component. The brown colour depends on enzymatic and chemical factors. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; E.C. 1.14.18.1) is one of the enzymatic factors. It is mainly localised in the peripheral part of the wheat kernel, and is involved in the oxidation of endogenous wheat phenolic compounds resulting in the production of highly coloured products. Therefore, a knowledge of the genetic control of PPO activity could enable the developing of better strategies in breeding programs to reduce pasta darkening. The aim of this study was to map the gene(s) affecting PPO activity using a set of recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from a cross between Triticum turgidum L. var. durum cultivar Messapia and the accession MG4343 of Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides. After performing linkage analysis, the gene for high PPO activity was mapped on the long arm of the chromosome 2A and its characteristic was found highly associated to the RFLP marker Xutv1427-2A, with a value of LOD equal to 29.84. The identification of molecular markers linked to loci controlling the PPO activity may potentially accelerate wheat breeding since the selection of plants can be carried out by genotype rather than phenotype.

  15. Biochemical and functional properties of wheat gliadins: a review.

    PubMed

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B S

    2015-01-01

    Gliadins account for 40-50% of the total storage proteins of wheat and are classified into four subcategories, α-, β-, γ-, and ω-gliadins. They have also been classified as ω5-, ω1, 2-, α/β-, and γ-gliadins on the basis of their primary structure and molecular weight. Cysteine residues of gliadins mainly form intramolecular disulfide bonds, although α-gliadins with odd numbers of cysteine residues have also been reported. Gliadins are generally regarded to possess globular protein structure, though recent studies report that the α/β-gliadins have compact globular structures and γ- and ω-gliadins have extended rod-like structures. Newer techniques such as Mass Spectrometry with the development of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) have been employed to determine the molecular weight of purified ω- gliadins and to carry out the direct analysis of bread and durum wheat gliadins. Few gliadin alleles and components, such as Gli-B1b, Gli-B2c and Gli-A2b in bread wheat cultivars, γ-45 in pasta, γ-gliadins in cookies, lower gliadin content for chapatti and alteration in Gli 2 loci in tortillas have been reported to improve the product quality, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the precise role of gliadin subgroups in dough strength and product quality.

  16. Genetic mapping of polyphenol oxidase in tetraploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Rosanna; Pasqualone, Antonella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Blanco, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Pasta colour is one of the main factors influencing pasta quality. It is the product of a desirable yellow component, an undesirable brown component and, under some drying conditions, a red component. The brown colour depends on enzymatic and chemical factors. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; E.C. 1.14.18.1) is one of the enzymatic factors. It is mainly localised in the peripheral part of the wheat kernel, and is involved in the oxidation of endogenous wheat phenolic compounds resulting in the production of highly coloured products. Therefore, a knowledge of the genetic control of PPO activity could enable the developing of better strategies in breeding programs to reduce pasta darkening. The aim of this study was to map the gene(s) affecting PPO activity using a set of recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from a cross between Triticum turgidum L. var. durum cultivar Messapia and the accession MG4343 of Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides. After performing linkage analysis, the gene for high PPO activity was mapped on the long arm of the chromosome 2A and its characteristic was found highly associated to the RFLP marker Xutv1427-2A, with a value of LOD equal to 29.84. The identification of molecular markers linked to loci controlling the PPO activity may potentially accelerate wheat breeding since the selection of plants can be carried out by genotype rather than phenotype. PMID:12378236

  17. Improved wheat for baking.

    PubMed

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  18. Registration of WSRC01, WSRC02, and WSRC03 Winter Hardy Safflower Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardy safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm lines WSRC01, WSRC02, and WSRC03 were developed at the USDA-ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, Pullman WA. All three lines originated from germplasm introduced from China to the USDA-ARS national safflower germplasm collectio...

  19. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve co...

  20. Elemental mapping of biofortified wheat grains using micro X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, I.; Pataco, I. M.; Mourinho, M. P.; Lidon, F.; Reboredo, F.; Pessoa, M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.; Santos, J. P.; Guerra, M.

    2016-06-01

    Micro X-ray fluorescence has been used to obtain elemental maps of biofortified wheat grains. Two varieties of wheat were used in the study, Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum desf. Two treatments, with different nutrient concentration, were applied to the plants during the whole plant growth cycle. From the obtained elemental maps it was possible to extract information regarding the plant's physiological processes under the biofortification procedures. Both macro and micronutrients were mapped, providing useful insight into the posterior food processing mechanisms of this biofortified staple food. We have also shown that these kind of studies can now be performed with laboratory benchtop apparatus, rather than using synchrotron radiation, increasing the overall attractiveness of micro X-ray fluorescence in the study of highly heterogeneous biological samples.

  1. Microsatellite variation in Avena sterilis oat germplasm.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Chong, James; Fetch, Tom; Wang, Ming-Li

    2007-04-01

    The Avena sterilis L. collection in the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) consists of 11,235 accessions originating from 27 countries and is an invaluable source of genetic variation for genetic improvement of oats, but it has been inadequately characterized, particularly using molecular techniques. More than 35 accessions have been identified with genes for resistance to oat crown and stem rusts, but little is known about their comparative genetic diversity. This study attempted to characterize a structured sample of 369 accessions representing 26 countries and two specific groups with Puccinia coronata avenae (Pc) and Puccinia graminis avenae (Pg) resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Screening of 230 SSR primer pairs developed from other major crop species yielded 26 informative primer pairs for this characterization. These 26 primer pairs were applied to screen all the samples and 125 detected alleles were scored for each accession. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.99 and averaged 0.28. More than 90% of the SSR variation resided within accessions of a country. Accessions from Greece, Liberia, and Italy were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Egypt, Georgia, Ethiopia, Gibraltar, and Kenya were most distinct. Seven major clusters were identified, each consisting of accessions from multiple countries and specific groups, and these clusters were not well congruent with geographic origins. Accessions with Pc and Pg genes had similar levels of SSR variation, did not appear to cluster together, and were not associated with the other representative accessions. These SSR patterns are significant for understanding the progenitor species of cultivated oat, managing A. sterilis germplasm, and exploring new sources of genes for oat improvement.

  2. Pre-season prediction of regional rainfed wheat yield in Northern Greece with CERES-Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatis, T.

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims at forecasting hard wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) yield in northern Greece, a season prior to harvest. It is based on (a) crop simulated, with CERES-Wheat indicators at four planting dates and (b) reported crop yields at two regional levels (three NUTS2 [ Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics] and 16 NUTS3 regions), for the years 1979-2006. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore major patterns of joint variability in 20 crop simulated agroclimatic indicators of the growing season before harvest. Stepwise regression and hindcast were employed for the selection of the modes identified by PCA as predictors in multivariate linear regression models used for forecasting yield a season ahead of harvest. Forecasting skill varied to a large extent by spatial scale and planting date. When the simulation results aggregated to the larger spatial level (NUTS2), the yield forecasting skill, in terms of R2, was rated as high (ranging from 0.48 to 0.73) in three out of four planting dates for Central Macedonia and in one planting ( R 2 = 0.57) for Thrace. Harvest index, nitrogen leaching and related soil water crop simulated output of the previous season, were the most important predictors. No forecasting skill was found in the third NUTS2 region. The performance of the regression models substantially deteriorated at the higher resolution spatial level (NUTS3). In four regions only (including the one where CERES-Wheat was calibrated) yield forecasting skill was moderate ( R 2 > 0.25). The results demonstrate the potential of this approach for regional crop yield forecasting before the beginning of the cropping season. However, crop model calibration is required before its application.

  3. Metabolite Profiling of a Diverse Collection of Wheat Lines Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Pamela; Byrne, Patrick F.; Thompson, Henry J.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic differences among major types of wheat are well characterized; however, little is known about how these distinctions affect the small molecule profile of the wheat seed. Ethanol/water (65% v/v) extracts of seed from 45 wheat lines representing 3 genetically distinct classes, tetraploid durum (Triticum turgidum subspecies durum) (DW) and hexaploid hard and soft bread wheat (T. aestivum subspecies aestivum) (BW) were subjected to ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS). Discriminant analyses distinguished DW from BW with 100% accuracy due to differences in expression of nonpolar and polar ions, with differences attributed to sterol lipids/fatty acids and phospholipids/glycerolipids, respectively. Hard versus soft BW was distinguished with 100% accuracy by polar ions, with differences attributed to heterocyclic amines and polyketides versus phospholipid ions, respectively. This work provides a foundation for identification of metabolite profiles associated with desirable agronomic and human health traits and for assessing how environmental factors impact these characteristics. PMID:22957002

  4. Molecular and comparative mapping of genes governing spike compactness from wild emmer wheat.

    PubMed

    Faris, Justin D; Zhang, Zengcui; Garvin, David F; Xu, Steven S

    2014-08-01

    The development and morphology of the wheat spike is important because the spike is where reproduction occurs and it holds the grains until harvest. Therefore, genes that influence spike morphology are of interest from both theoretical and practical stand points. When substituted for the native chromosome 2A in the tetraploid Langdon (LDN) durum wheat background, the Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides chromosome 2A from accession IsraelA confers a short, compact spike with fewer spikelets per spike compared to LDN. Molecular mapping and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of these traits in a homozygous recombinant population derived from LDN × the chromosome 2A substitution line (LDNIsA-2A) indicated that the number of spikelets per spike and spike length were controlled by linked, but different, loci on the long arm of 2A. A QTL explaining most of the variation for spike compactness coincided with the QTL for spike length. Comparative mapping indicated that the QTL for number of spikelets per spike overlapped with a previously mapped QTL for Fusarium head blight susceptibility. The genes governing spike length and compactness were not orthologous to either sog or C, genes known to confer compact spikes in diploid and hexaploid wheat, respectively. Mapping and sequence analysis indicated that the gene governing spike length and compactness derived from wild emmer could be an ortholog of the barley Cly1/Zeo gene, which research indicates is an AP2-like gene pleiotropically affecting cleistogamy, flowering time, and rachis internode length. This work provides researchers with knowledge of new genetic loci and associated markers that may be useful for manipulating spike morphology in durum wheat.

  5. International crop information system for germplasm data management.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Arllet; Balachandra, Ranjan; Metz, Thomas; Bruskiewich, Richard; McLaren, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Passport and phenotypic data on germplasm and breeding lines are available from worldwide sources in various electronic formats. These data can be collated into a single database format to enable strategic interrogation to make the best use of data for effective germplasm use and enhancement. The International Crop Information System (http://www.icis.cgiar.org) is an open-source project under development by a global community of crop researchers and includes applications designed to achieve the storage and interrogation of pedigree and phenotypic data. PMID:18287707

  6. International crop information system for germplasm data management.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Arllet; Balachandra, Ranjan; Metz, Thomas; Bruskiewich, Richard; McLaren, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Passport and phenotypic data on germplasm and breeding lines are available from worldwide sources in various electronic formats. These data can be collated into a single database format to enable strategic interrogation to make the best use of data for effective germplasm use and enhancement. The International Crop Information System (http://www.icis.cgiar.org) is an open-source project under development by a global community of crop researchers and includes applications designed to achieve the storage and interrogation of pedigree and phenotypic data.

  7. Molecular organization and comparative analysis of chromosome 5B of the wild wheat ancestor Triticum dicoccoides.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala Ani; Yuce, Meral; Lucas, Stuart; Vrána, Jan; Burešová, Veronika; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-06-18

    Wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is the wild relative of Triticum turgidum, the progenitor of durum and bread wheat, and maintains a rich allelic diversity among its wild populations. The lack of adequate genetic and genomic resources, however, restricts its exploitation in wheat improvement. Here, we report next-generation sequencing of the flow-sorted chromosome 5B of T. dicoccoides to shed light into its genome structure, function and organization by exploring the repetitive elements, protein-encoding genes and putative microRNA and tRNA coding sequences. Comparative analyses with its counterparts in modern and wild wheats suggest clues into the B-genome evolution. Syntenic relationships of chromosome 5B with the model grasses can facilitate further efforts for fine-mapping of traits of interest. Mapping of 5B sequences onto the root transcriptomes of two additional T. dicoccoides genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerances, revealed several thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 584 shared polymorphisms on 228 transcripts were specific to the drought-tolerant genotype. To our knowledge, this study presents the largest genomics resource currently available for T. dicoccoides, which, we believe, will encourage the exploitation of its genetic and genomic potential for wheat improvement to meet the increasing demand to feed the world.

  8. Delineating the role of polyphenol oxidase in the darkening of alkaline wheat noodles.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, E Patrick; Anderson, James V; Morris, Craig F

    2006-03-22

    This study evaluated the effects of inhibitors on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, the effect of the PPO inhibitor tropolone on noodle darkening, and the correlation of PPO activity with darkening of alkaline noodles. The PPO inhibitors tropolone and salicylhydroxamic acid (each at 1 microM) reduced kernel PPO activity by approximately 50% in three hexaploid wheat cultivars but did not inhibit PPO activity in the two very low PPO cultivars, durum Langdon, and the synthetic hexaploid-derived ID580. Tropolone (100 microg/g flour) inhibited alkaline noodle darkening (deltaL*) by 13-25% in the low PPO wheat cultivar, ID377s, and by 39-54% in the high PPO wheat cultivar, Klasic. Alkaline noodle darkening among 502 wheat samples was correlated with kernel PPO activity (r = 0.64). Results substantiate the hypothesis that PPO plays a major role in darkening of alkaline noodles. However, results also indicate that substantial darkening would occur even at zero PPO activity, as measured in the kernel PPO assay. Therefore, darkening of alkaline noodles is probably due to the cultivar-specific level of PPO activity and the presence of at least one additional darkening mechanism. Further investigation is required to identify the phenolic discoloration agent(s) and to determine the potential roles of non-PPO discoloration mechanisms, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic, in wheat products.

  9. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement. PMID:25043042

  10. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement.

  11. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes.

    PubMed

    van den Broeck, Hetty; Hongbing, Chen; Lacaze, Xavier; Dusautoir, Jean-Claude; Gilissen, Ludovicus; Smulders, Marinus; van der Meer, Ingrid

    2010-11-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a T-cell mediated auto-immune disorder, in genetically predisposed individuals after ingestion. Compared to hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat might be reduced in T-cell stimulatory epitopes that cause celiac disease because of the absence of the D-genome. We tested gluten protein extracts from 103 tetraploid wheat accessions (obtained from the Dutch CGN genebank and from the French INRA collection) including landraces, old, modern, and domesticated accessions of various tetraploid species and subspecies from many geographic origins. Those accessions were typed for their level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies against the α-gliadin epitopes Glia-α9 and Glia-α20. In the first selection, we found 8 CGN and 6 INRA accessions with reduced epitope staining. Fourteen of the 57 CGN accessions turned out to be mixed with hexaploid wheat, and 5 out of the 8 selected CGN accessions were mixtures of two or more different gluten protein chemotypes. Based on single seed analysis, lines from two CGN accessions and one INRA accession were obtained with significantly reduced levels of Glia-α9 and Glia-α20 epitopes. These lines will be further tested for industrial quality and may contribute to the development of safer foods for celiac patients.

  12. Production and Identification of Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 2P Translocation Lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Lv, Mingjie; Song, Liqiang; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Li, Lihui; Liu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-γ irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement. PMID:26731742

  13. Production and Identification of Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 2P Translocation Lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Lv, Mingjie; Song, Liqiang; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Li, Lihui; Liu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-γ irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement. PMID:26731742

  14. Scarlet-Rz1, an EMS-generated hexaploid wheat with tolerance to the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia Ann; Steber, Camille M; Demacon, Victor L; Walter, Nathalie L; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

    2009-07-01

    The necrotrophic root pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae cause Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, yield-limiting diseases that pose barriers to the adoption of conservation tillage in wheat production systems. Existing control practices are only partially effective, and natural genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia has not been identified in wheat or its close relatives. We report the first genetic resistance/tolerance to R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) germplasm 'Scarlet-Rz1'. Scarlet-Rz1 was derived from the allohexaploid spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Tolerant seedlings displayed substantial root and shoot growth after 14 days in the presence of 100-400 propagules per gram soil of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in greenhouse assays. BC(2)F(4) individuals of Scarlet-Rz1 showed a high and consistent degree of tolerance. Seedling tolerance was transmissible and appeared to be dominant or co-dominant. Scarlet-Rz1 is a promising genetic resource for developing Rhizoctonia-tolerant wheat cultivars because the tolerance trait immediately can be deployed into wheat breeding germplasm through cross-hybridization, thereby avoiding difficulties with transfer from secondary or tertiary relatives as well as constraints associated with genetically modified plants. Our findings also demonstrate the utility of chemical mutagenesis for generating tolerance to necrotrophic pathogens in allohexaploid wheat.

  15. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Vikram, Prashant; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Ortiz, Cynthia; Pierre, Carolina Saint; Payne, Thomas; Ellis, Marc; Amri, Ahmed; Petroli, César Daniel; Wenzl, Peter; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI) estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284) than elites (DI = 0.267) and landraces (DI = 0.245). GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs) and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs) stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT's ongoing 'Seeds of Discovery' project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change.

  16. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Vikram, Prashant; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Ortiz, Cynthia; Pierre, Carolina Saint; Payne, Thomas; Ellis, Marc; Amri, Ahmed; Petroli, César Daniel; Wenzl, Peter; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI) estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284) than elites (DI = 0.267) and landraces (DI = 0.245). GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs) and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs) stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT’s ongoing ‘Seeds of Discovery’ project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change. PMID:26176697

  17. From Germplasm Collection to Kaimana Lychee Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center (PBARC), Tropical Plant Genetic Resource Management Unit (TPGRMU), consisting of a scientific team to manage 14 designated tropical fruit and nut crops, is governed by a mission to collect, maintain, evaluate and distribute available germplasm for rese...

  18. Registration of a tufted-naked seed upland cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tufted-naked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant, 9023n4t (Reg. No. GP-971, PI 667553) was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 (9023) (PI 590933) through chemical mutagenesis. Germplasm line 9023n4t was developed by the Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, and released in...

  19. Notice of release of Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Love) was released by USDA-ARS in 2015. It was developed through five cycles of selection, primarily for increased numbers of spikes, from K68, a population collected in 1980 in Adams County in eastern Washington. The c...

  20. Notice of Release of NBR-1 Germplasm Basalt Milkvetch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basalt milkvetch or threadstalk milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray) is a perennial legume that is widely distributed on rangelands in western North America and holds promise for rangeland revegetation and restoration programs. No germplasms or cultivars are commercially available for ba...

  1. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  2. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  3. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  4. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  5. Registration of EL54 and EL55 sugarbeet germplasms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625), released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France. EL54 has shown excellent Aphan...

  6. Anthracnose resistance in sorghum breeding lines developed from Ethiopian germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-nine dwarf and photoperiod-insensitive breeding lines developed from Ethiopian sorghum germplasm were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated for anthracnose resistance at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2008 and 2009 growing seaso...

  7. Genetic diversity assessment of Musa spp. germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. Among these, a Musa spp. collection has been established and is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornamental, wild and...

  8. Evaluation of cotton germplasm and breeding populations for salt tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2007 to evaluate a total of 211 cotton germplasm and breeding lines for salt tolerance in the greenhouses. The randomized complete block designs with two or three replications were employed for those experiments. 200 mM salt solutions or tap water were ap...

  9. Fingerprinting soybean germplasm and its utility in genomic research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The annual accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection including 18,480 domesticated and 1,168 wild soybeans introduced from 84 countries or developed in the U.S. were genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing >50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SN...

  10. Germplasm preservation in vitro of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He-Ping; Wang, Jian; Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Shan-Lin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Dian-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background: The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is a common traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the wild resources of P. multiflorum have been seriously broken, and the cultivated varieties have been degrading. The germplasm resources of P. multiflorum need protection and preservation. So far, no in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum has been reported. Objective: To explore a method for the in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum. Materials and Methods: A large number of buds from seed explants were induced by tissue culture. The single buds were used as experimental materials to study the effects of plant growth regulator, temperature, and osmotic pressure on the preservation time, growth recovery, and genetic stability. Results: When the buds were inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media containing 4% w/v sucrose, 2% w/v mannitol, and 1% w/v sorbitol, supplemented with paclobutrazol (PP333) 1.0 mg/l, abscisic acid (ABA) 5.0 mg/l, and daminozide (B9) 30.0 mg/l in an illuminated chamber under a 16 h photoperiod of 1500 lx light intensity at 15°C for 10 months, the survival rate was over 70% with good growth recovery and genetic stability. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used for medium-term in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum, and meeting actual needs of research and production. PMID:24914285

  11. High environmental stress yields greater tocotrienol content while changing vitamin e profiles of wild emmer wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Watts, Emily J; Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim P; Nevo, Eviatar; Bobe, Gerd; Traber, Maret G

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin E is an essential human nutrient that was first isolated from wheat. Emmer wheat, the cereal of Old World agriculture and a precursor to durum wheat, grows wild in the Fertile Crescent. Evolution Canyon, Israel, provides a microsite that models effects of contrasting environments. The north-facing and south-facing slopes exhibit low and high stress environments, respectively. Wild emmer wheat seeds were collected from both slopes and seed tocochromanol contents measured to test the hypothesis that high stress alters emmer wheat seed tocol-omics. Seeds from high stress areas contained more total vitamin E (108±15 nmol/g) than seeds from low stress environments (80±17 nmol/g, P=.0004). Vitamin E profiles within samples from these different environments revealed significant differences in isoform concentrations. Within each region, β- plus γ-tocotrienols represented the highest concentration of wheat tocotrienols (high stress, P<.0001; low stress, P<.0001), while α-tocopherol represented the highest concentration of the tocopherols (high stress, P=.0002; low stress, P<.0001). Percentages of both δ-tocotrienol and δ-tocopherol increased in high stress conditions. Changes under higher stress apparently are due to increased pathway flux toward more tocotrienol production. The production of more δ-isoforms suggests increased flow through a divergent path controlled by the VTE1 gene. Hence, stress conditions alter plant responses such that vitamin E profiles are changed, likely an attempt to provide additional antioxidant activity to promote seed viability and longevity.

  12. Water deficit as a driver of the mutualistic relationship between the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and two wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Donoso, Eduardo P; Bustamante, Ramiro O; Carú, Margarita; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of mutualistic interactions between the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and two wheat genotypes, Triticum aestivum cv. Talhuén and T. turgidum subsp. durum cv. Alifén, and the extent to which water deficit affected these interactions. Two wheat genotypes were cultivated in the presence or absence of T. harzianum and in the presence or absence of water deficit. T. harzianum was in turn cultivated in the presence or absence of wheat plants and in the presence or absence of water deficit. To evaluate the plant-fungus interactions, the root volume, dry biomass, and fecundity of wheat were determined, as was the population growth rate of the fungus. Trichoderma harzianum exerted a positive effect only on plants subjected to water deficit. The population growth rate of T. harzianum was negative in the absence of wheat plants and reached its highest level in the presence of plants under conditions of water deficit. These results confirm the occurrence of a mutualistic interaction between wheat and T. harzianum and show that it is asymmetric and context dependent.

  13. Genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by different levels of rye genome integration in wheat recipient.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X L; Zhou, J P; Zang, L L; Tang, A T; Liu, D Q; Deng, K J; Zhang, Y

    2016-06-17

    The narrow genetic variation present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties has greatly restricted the improvement of crop yield in modern breeding systems. Alien addition lines have proven to be an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat. Wheat-rye addition lines, which are the direct bridge materials for wheat improvement, have been wildly used to produce new wheat cultivars carrying alien rye germplasm. In this study, we investigated the genetic and epigenetic alterations in two sets of wheat-rye disomic addition lines (1R-7R) and the corresponding triticales. We used expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analyses to analyze the effects of the introduction of alien chromosomes (either the entire genome or sub-genome) to wheat genetic background. We found obvious and diversiform variations in the genomic primary structure, as well as alterations in the extent and pattern of the genomic DNA methylation of the recipient. Meanwhile, these results also showed that introduction of different rye chromosomes could induce different genetic and epigenetic alterations in its recipient, and the genetic background of the parents is an important factor for genomic and epigenetic variation induced by alien chromosome addition.

  14. Genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by different levels of rye genome integration in wheat recipient.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X L; Zhou, J P; Zang, L L; Tang, A T; Liu, D Q; Deng, K J; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    The narrow genetic variation present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties has greatly restricted the improvement of crop yield in modern breeding systems. Alien addition lines have proven to be an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat. Wheat-rye addition lines, which are the direct bridge materials for wheat improvement, have been wildly used to produce new wheat cultivars carrying alien rye germplasm. In this study, we investigated the genetic and epigenetic alterations in two sets of wheat-rye disomic addition lines (1R-7R) and the corresponding triticales. We used expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analyses to analyze the effects of the introduction of alien chromosomes (either the entire genome or sub-genome) to wheat genetic background. We found obvious and diversiform variations in the genomic primary structure, as well as alterations in the extent and pattern of the genomic DNA methylation of the recipient. Meanwhile, these results also showed that introduction of different rye chromosomes could induce different genetic and epigenetic alterations in its recipient, and the genetic background of the parents is an important factor for genomic and epigenetic variation induced by alien chromosome addition. PMID:27323191

  15. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... have been used in the production of wheat, durum wheat, and triticale found to contain the spores of... the dough stage of all varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), and... that has been used in the production of wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that has tested positive...

  16. Release of EL54 Sugarbeet Germplasm Derived from WB879 Wild Germplasm With Resistance to Aphanomyces and Excellent Stand Establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625). EL54 is being released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France (3 m elevation), w...

  17. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  18. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R.; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95–96%) and predicted protein (96–97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated

  19. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95-96%) and predicted protein (96-97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated under

  20. Compound-Specific δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C Analyses of Amino Acids for Potential Discrimination between Organically and Conventionally Grown Wheat.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Husted, Søren; Camin, Federica

    2015-07-01

    We present a study deploying compound-specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of amino acids to discriminate between organically and conventionally grown plants. We focused on grain samples of common wheat and durum wheat grown using synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, animal manures, or green manures from nitrogen-fixing legumes. The measurement of amino acid δ(15)N and δ(13)C values, after protein hydrolysis and derivatization, was carried out using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our results demonstrated that δ(13)C of glutamic acid and glutamine in particular, but also the combination of δ(15)N and δ(13)C of 10 amino acids, can improve the discrimination between conventional and organic wheat compared to stable isotope bulk tissue analysis. We concluded that compound-specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids represents a novel analytical tool with the potential to support and improve the certification and control procedures in the organic sector.

  1. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  2. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Caiyan; Cao, Shuanghe; Fan, Renchun; Wei, Bo; Chen, Guiping; Wang, Xianping; Li, Yiwen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2013-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR). In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD), only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat. PMID:23887654

  3. Short, natural, and extended photoperiod response in BC2F4 lines of bread wheat with different photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) alleles.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A R; Horsnell, R; Werner, C P; Turner, A S; Rose, G A; Bedard, C; Howell, P; Wilhelm, E P; Mackay, I J; Howells, R M; Greenland, A; Laurie, D A; Gosman, N

    2013-04-01

    Flowering is a critical period in the life cycle of flowering plant species, resulting in an irreversible commitment of significant resources. Wheat is photoperiod sensitive, flowering only when daylength surpasses a critical length; however, photoperiod insensitivity (PI) has been selected by plant breeders for >40 years to enhance yield in certain environments. Control of flowering time has been greatly facilitated by the development of molecular markers for the Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) homeoloci, on the group 2 chromosomes. In the current study, an allelic series of BC2F4 lines in the winter wheat cultivars 'Robigus' and 'Alchemy' was developed to elucidate the influence on flowering of eight gene variants from the B- and D-genomes of bread wheat and the A-genome of durum wheat. Allele effects were tested in short, natural, and extended photoperiods in the field and controlled environments. Across genetic background and treatment, the D-genome PI allele, Ppd-D1a, had a more potent effect on reducing flowering time than Ppd-B1a. However, there was significant donor allele effect for both Ppd-D1a and Ppd-B1a, suggesting the presence of linked modifier genes and/or additional sources of latent sensitivity. Development of Ppd-A1a BC2F4 lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat provided an opportunity to compare directly the flowering time effect of the A-genome allele from durum with the B- and D-genome variants from bread wheat for the first time. Analyses indicated that the reducing effect of Ppd-A1a is comparable with that of Ppd-D1a, confirming it as a useful alternative source of PI. PMID:23420880

  4. Molecular characterization of a new waxy allele with partial expression in spelt wheat.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Carlos; Caballero, Leonor; Yamamori, Makoto; Alvarez, Juan B

    2012-06-01

    Starch composition which is dependent on the waxy protein, the enzyme responsible for amylose synthesis in the grain, is an important aspect of the wheat quality. In this report, we describe the characterization of a novel Wx-A1 allele (Wx-A1g formerly known as -Wx-A1a) in Spanish spelt wheat lines which is responsible for a remarkable decline in the concentration of Wx-A1 protein found in the endosperm. Comparison of the DNA sequences in the Wx-A1a and Wx-A1g alleles showed the presence of a 160-bp insertion within the fourth intron in the latter. This insertion had some characteristics of a transposable-like element. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of normal and aberrant mRNA transcripts in the Wx-A1g lines, indicating that the aberrant transcripts are un-spliced and contained the longer fourth intron. This may be related to the low level of Wx-A1 protein in these lines. In addition, a simple and fast PCR assay was designed for differentiating among different Wx-A1 alleles (a, b, f and g). The mutation described here is not related to either of the Wx-A1 mutations identified previously in common and durum wheats and could help to extend the range of amylose content of wheats.

  5. [Alleles at storage protein loci in Triticum spelta L. accessions and their occurrence in related wheats].

    PubMed

    Kozub, N A; Boguslavskiĭ, R L; Sozinov, I A; Tverdokhleb, E V; Ksinias, I N; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Variation at eight storage protein loci was analyzed in the collection of T. spelta accessions from the National Centre of Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, most of which are European spelts. The analysis allowed identification of seven alleles at the Gli-B1 locus, five alleles at the Gli-A1 and Glu-B1 loci, three alleles at the Gli-A3 locus, two at the Gli-D1, Gli-B5, Glu-A1, and Glu-D1 loci. The majority of alleles are encountered among common wheat cultivars, only five alleles were specific for spelts. The high frequency of the alleles Gli-B1hs* and h encoding the 45-type gamma-gliadin in European spelts and durum wheat cultivars, as well as the occurrence of these alleles in T. dicoccum, in particular, in accessions from Switzerland and Germany, supports von Büren's hypothesis that European spelt resulted from hybridization between a tetraploid wheat with the 45-type y-gliadin and a hexaploid wheat. Analysis of genetic distances based on the genotypes at eight storage protein loci permitted differentiation of the Asian spelt accession from European spelts.

  6. Dissecting the Genetic Architecture of Leaf Rust Resistance in Wheat by QTL Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jose Miguel; Royo, Conxita

    2015-12-01

    Leaf rust is an important disease that causes significant yield losses in wheat. Many studies have reported the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling leaf rust resistance; therefore, QTL meta-analysis has become a useful tool for identifying consensus QTL and refining QTL positions among them. In this study, QTL meta-analysis was conducted using reported results on the number, position, and effects of QTL for leaf rust resistance in bread and durum wheat. Investigation of 14 leaf rust resistance traits from 19 studies involving 20 mapping populations and 33 different parental lines provided information for 144 unique QTL that were projected onto the Wheat Composite 2004 reference map. In total, 35 meta-QTL for leaf rust resistance traits were identified in 17 wheat chromosomes and 13 QTL remained as unique QTL. The results will facilitate further work on the cloning of QTL for pyramiding minor- and partial-effect resistance genes to develop varieties with durable resistance to leaf rust.

  7. Transcriptome asymmetry in synthetic and natural allotetraploid wheats, revealed by RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xutong; Zhang, Huakun; Li, Yaling; Zhang, Zhibin; Li, Linfeng; Liu, Bao

    2016-02-01

    Allopolyploidization has occurred frequently within the Triticum-Aegilops complex which provides a suitable system to investigate how allopolyploidization shapes the expression patterns of duplicated homeologs. We have conducted transcriptome-profiling of leaves and young inflorescences in wild and domesticated tetraploid wheats, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (BBAA) and ssp. durum (BBAA), an extracted tetraploid (BBAA), and a synthetic tetraploid (S(l) S(l) AA) wheat together with its diploid parents, Aegilops longissima (S(l) S(l) ) and Triticum urartu (AA). The two diploid species showed tissue-specific differences in genome-wide ortholog expression, which plays an important role in transcriptome shock-mediated homeolog expression rewiring and hence transcriptome asymmetry in the synthetic tetraploid. Further changes of homeolog expression apparently occurred in natural tetraploid wheats, which led to novel transcriptome asymmetry between the two subgenomes. In particular, our results showed that extremely biased homeolog expression can occur rapidly upon the allotetraploidzation and this trend is further enhanced in the course of domestication and evolution of polyploid wheats. Our results suggest that allopolyploidization is accompanied by distinct phases of homeolog expression changes, with parental legacy playing major roles in the immediate rewiring of homeolog expression upon allopolyploidization, while evolution and domestication under allotetraploidy drive further homeolog-expression changes toward re-established subgenome expression asymmetry. PMID:26436593

  8. Dissecting the Genetic Architecture of Leaf Rust Resistance in Wheat by QTL Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jose Miguel; Royo, Conxita

    2015-12-01

    Leaf rust is an important disease that causes significant yield losses in wheat. Many studies have reported the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling leaf rust resistance; therefore, QTL meta-analysis has become a useful tool for identifying consensus QTL and refining QTL positions among them. In this study, QTL meta-analysis was conducted using reported results on the number, position, and effects of QTL for leaf rust resistance in bread and durum wheat. Investigation of 14 leaf rust resistance traits from 19 studies involving 20 mapping populations and 33 different parental lines provided information for 144 unique QTL that were projected onto the Wheat Composite 2004 reference map. In total, 35 meta-QTL for leaf rust resistance traits were identified in 17 wheat chromosomes and 13 QTL remained as unique QTL. The results will facilitate further work on the cloning of QTL for pyramiding minor- and partial-effect resistance genes to develop varieties with durable resistance to leaf rust. PMID:26571424

  9. Involvement of Fungal Pectin Methylesterase Activity in the Interaction Between Fusarium graminearum and Wheat.

    PubMed

    Sella, Luca; Castiglioni, Carla; Paccanaro, Maria Chiara; Janni, Michela; Schäfer, Wilhelm; D'Ovidio, Renato; Favaron, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The genome of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, contains two putative pectin methylesterase (PME)-encoding genes. However, when grown in liquid culture containing pectin, F. graminearum produces only a single PME, which was purified and identified. Its encoding gene, expressed during wheat spike infection, was disrupted by targeted homologous recombination. Two Δpme mutant strains lacked PME activity but were still able to grow on highly methyl-esterified pectin even though their polygalacturonase (PG) activity showed a reduced capacity to depolymerize this substrate. The enzymatic assays performed with purified F. graminearum PG and PME demonstrated an increase in PG activity in the presence of PME on highly methyl-esterified pectin. The virulence of the mutant strains was tested on Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum spikes, and a significant reduction in the percentage of symptomatic spikelets was observed between 7 and 12 days postinfection compared with wild type, demonstrating that the F. graminearum PME contributes to fungal virulence on wheat by promoting spike colonization in the initial and middle stages of infection. In contrast, transgenic wheat plants with increased levels of pectin methyl esterification did not show any increase in resistance to the Δpme mutant, indicating that the infectivity of the fungus relies only to a certain degree on pectin degradation.

  10. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    PubMed

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity) is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analyzed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization). Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as post-translational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined. PMID:25071816

  11. Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Pitino, Iole; Pecorino, Biagio; Todaro, Aldo; Spina, Alfio; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Restuccia, Cristina

    2016-10-17

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread-making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and to determine the dominant species among identified strains. The second objective was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver solution 12% (HPS) treatment in the leavening cells and cooling chambers, in comparison with the conventional Ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) fumigating treatment, on the incidence of chalk defects of the commercialized products. One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. fibuligera, while H. burtonii and W. anomalus were not detected. Concerning mean water activity (aw) and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0.922-0.940 and 33.40-35.39%. S. fibuligera was able to grow in a wide range of temperature (11.5 to 28.5°C) and relative humidity (70.00 to 80.17%) in the processing environments, and product aw<0.94. Compared to OPP, the combined treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver solution, in association with MAP, reduced to a negligible level yeast contamination of industrial sliced bread. The identification of the spoilage organisms and a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of aw, pO2/pCO2 inside the packages, environmental conditions and sanitizing treatment on the growth behaviour is essential for future development of adequate preventive process strategies against chalk mold defects. PMID:27438909

  12. Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Pitino, Iole; Pecorino, Biagio; Todaro, Aldo; Spina, Alfio; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Restuccia, Cristina

    2016-10-17

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread-making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and to determine the dominant species among identified strains. The second objective was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver solution 12% (HPS) treatment in the leavening cells and cooling chambers, in comparison with the conventional Ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) fumigating treatment, on the incidence of chalk defects of the commercialized products. One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. fibuligera, while H. burtonii and W. anomalus were not detected. Concerning mean water activity (aw) and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0.922-0.940 and 33.40-35.39%. S. fibuligera was able to grow in a wide range of temperature (11.5 to 28.5°C) and relative humidity (70.00 to 80.17%) in the processing environments, and product aw<0.94. Compared to OPP, the combined treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver solution, in association with MAP, reduced to a negligible level yeast contamination of industrial sliced bread. The identification of the spoilage organisms and a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of aw, pO2/pCO2 inside the packages, environmental conditions and sanitizing treatment on the growth behaviour is essential for future development of adequate preventive process strategies against chalk mold defects.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  14. Harvest index, a parameter conditioning responsiveness of wheat plants to elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Jauregui, Iván; Irigoyen, Juan J.; Araus, José L.; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Erice, Gorka

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the world’s population requires the development of high production agriculture. For this purpose, it is essential to identify target points conditioning crop responsiveness to predicted [CO2]. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of ear sink strength in leaf protein and metabolomic profiles and its implications in photosynthetic activity and yield of durum wheat plants exposed to elevated [CO2]. For this purpose, a genotype with high harvest index (HI) (Triticum durum var. Sula) and another with low HI (Triticum durum var. Blanqueta) were exposed to elevated [CO2] (700 µmol mol–1 versus 400 µmol mol–1 CO2) in CO2 greenhouses. The obtained data highlighted that elevated [CO2] only increased plant growth in the genotype with the largest HI; Sula. Gas exchange analyses revealed that although exposure to 700 µmol mol–1 depleted Rubisco content, Sula was capable of increasing the light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat) whereas, in Blanqueta, the carbohydrate imbalance induced the down-regulation of Asat. The specific depletion of Rubisco in both genotypes under elevated [CO2], together with the enhancement of other proteins in the Calvin cycle, revealed that there was a redistribution of N from Rubisco towards RuBP regeneration. Moreover, the down-regulation of N, NO3 –, amino acid, and organic acid content, together with the depletion of proteins involved in amino acid synthesis that was detected in Blanqueta grown at 700 µmol mol–1 CO2, revealed that inhibition of N assimilation was involved in the carbohydrate imbalance and consequently with the down-regulation of photosynthesis and growth in these plants. PMID:23564953

  15. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed.

  16. Mitotic and meiotic behavior of rye chromosomes in wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid x triticale progeny.

    PubMed

    Xie, Q; Kang, H; Sparkes, D L; Tao, S; Fan, X M; Xu, L; Fan, X; Sha, L; Zhang, H; Wang, Y; Zeng, J; Zhou, Y

    2013-07-24

    The dynamics of rye chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis was analyzed in a subset comprising 33 F3 lines from the cross of wheat, Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid (AABBDDNsNs) and hexaploid triticale (AABBRR), as visualized by genomic in situ hybridization. The results indicated that 31 of the total lines contained 4-14 rye chromosomes. Twenty-eight combinations had more rye chromosomes than the F1 hybrids, suggesting the occurrence of spontaneous quantitative increment. No P. huashanica chromosomes were detected in all of the combinations tested. Mitotic analysis showed that rye chromosomes progressed normally with the wheat counterparts without loss. However, abnormal meiosis was found in almost all lines. Similar progression between wheat and rye genomes appeared from interphase to metaphase I. It was at anaphase I that many rye univalents lagged behind those of wheat, followed by equational division. This resulted in the formation of chromosomal segments and micronuclei at telophase I or II. Micronuclei could also be generated from the immobilized univalents in the periphery of cells. Synapsis and translocations between wheat and rye genomes, chromosome bridges, and unreduced gametes were detected. Therefore, it is proposed that rye chromosome elimination may involve chromatid lagging, fragmentation and micronucleation, or the immobilization of certain univalents during meiosis instead of mitosis in the relatively advanced generations. This mechanism, together with spontaneous incremental increase of rye chromosome number, permitted the generation of various germplasms for wheat improvement.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Apricot Germplasm from an Old Stone Collection

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Carolina; Herrero, María; Hormaza, José I.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing germplasm erosion requires the recovery and conservation of traditional cultivars before they disappear. Here we present a particular case in Spain where a thorough prospection of local fruit tree species was performed in the 1950s with detailed data of the origin of each genotype but, unfortunately, the accessions are no longer conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. However, for most of those cultivars, an old stone collection is still preserved. In order to analyze the diversity present at the time when the prospection was made and to which extent variability has been eroded, we developed a protocol in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) to obtain DNA from maternal tissues of the stones of a sufficient quality to be amplified by PCR. The results obtained have been compared with the results from the profiles developed from apricot cultivars currently conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. The results highlight the fact that most of the old accessions are not conserved ex situ but provide a tool to prioritize the recovery of particular cultivars. The approach used in this work can also be applied to other plant species where seeds have been preserved. PMID:21901149

  18. The ectopic expression of a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor increases pectin methyl esterification and limits fungal diseases in wheat.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Chiara; Janni, Michela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2011-09-01

    Cell wall pectin methyl esterification can influence plant resistance because highly methyl-esterified pectin can be less susceptible to the hydrolysis by pectic enzymes such as fungal endopolygalacturonases (PG). Pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methyl-esterified form and, here, is de-methyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME). The activity of PME is controlled by specific protein inhibitors called PMEI; consequently, an increased inhibition of PME by PMEI might modify the pectin methyl esterification. In order to test the possibility of improving wheat resistance by modifying the methyl esterification of pectin cell wall, we have produced durum wheat transgenic lines expressing the PMEI from Actinidia chinensis (AcPMEI). The expression of AcPMEI endows wheat with a reduced endogenous PME activity, and transgenic lines expressing a high level of the inhibitor showed a significant increase in the degree of methyl esterification. These lines showed a significant reduction of disease symptoms caused by the fungal pathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana or Fusarium graminearum. This increased resistance was related to the impaired ability of these fungal pathogens to grow on methyl-esterified pectin and to a reduced activity of the fungal PG to hydrolyze methyl-esterified pectin. In addition to their importance for wheat improvement, these results highlight the primary role of pectin despite its low content in the wheat cell wall.

  19. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S Dutta; Masakapalli, S K

    2013-11-01

    In this study, lyophilized and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms were evaluated for their potential to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. The results showed potent inhibitory effect of Aloe vera gel extracts on L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Significant differences in % inhibition of tyrosinase among the extraction methods and the germplasms were observed. The relative performance of the germplasms was evaluated with the help of posthoc multicomparison test. The methanolic extract was more effective than the lyophilized crude gel in all the germplasms. The inhibitory effect of the lyophilized gel and methanolic extract tested from five germplasms followed the order: RM > TN > S24 > OR > RJN. The germplasm RM showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition, and the maximum % inhibition noted was 26.04% and 41.18%, respectively for the lyophilized and methanolic extracts at 6 mg · mL(-1) concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the different concentrations of L-DOPA in the absence and presence of lyophilized gel extract showed competitive inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in all the germplasms. This study suggests that the germplasm RM could potentially be used for the isolation and identification of the effective tyrosinase inhibitory component, and ascertains the critical role of selecting the best source of germplasm for natural product isolation and characterization.

  20. Real-time PCR Quantification and Mycotoxin Production of Fusarium graminearum in Wheat Inoculated with Isolates Collected from Potato, Sugar Beet, and Wheat.

    PubMed

    Burlakoti, Rishi R; Estrada, Rolando; Rivera, Viviana V; Boddeda, Anuradha; Secor, Gary A; Adhikari, Tika B

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grains worldwide. Although primarily a pathogen of cereals, it also can infect noncereal crops such as potato and sugar beet in the United States. We used a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on intergenic sequences specific to the trichodiene synthase gene (Tri5) from F. graminearum. TaqMan probe and primers were designed and used to estimate DNA content of the pathogen (FgDNA) in the susceptible wheat cv. Grandin after inoculation with the 21 isolates of F. graminearum collected from potato, sugar beet, and wheat. The presence of nine mycotoxins was analyzed in the inoculated wheat heads by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. All isolates contained the Tri5 gene and were virulent to cv. Grandin. Isolates of F. graminearum differed significantly in virulence (expressed as disease severity), FgDNA content, and mycotoxin accumulation. Potato isolates showed greater variability in producing different mycotoxins than sugar beet and wheat isolates. Correlation analysis showed a significant (P < 0.001) positive relationship between FgDNA content and FHB severity or deoxynivalenol (DON) production. Moreover, a significant (P < 0.001) positive correlation between FHB severity and DON content was observed. Our findings revealed that F. graminearum causing potato dry rot and sugar beet decay could be potential sources of inoculum for FHB epidemics in wheat. Real-time PCR assay provides sensitive and accurate quantification of F. graminearum in wheat and can be useful for monitoring the colonization of wheat grains by F. graminearum in controlled environments, and evaluating wheat germplasms for resistance to FHB. PMID:18943932

  1. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  2. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  3. Indian Plant Germplasm on the Global Platter: An Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sherry R.; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K.; Tyagi, Rishi K.

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  4. Characterization of wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica small segment translocation line with enhanced kernels per spike and stripe rust resistance.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hou-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Juan; Xu, Li-Li; Qi, Wei-Liang; Tang, Yao; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Li, Dai-Yan; Zeng, Jian; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Sha, Li-Na; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs), a distant wild relative of common wheat, possesses rich potentially valuable traits, such as disease resistance and more spikelets and kernels per spike, that could be useful for wheat genetic improvement. Development of wheat - P. huashanica translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat breeding. In the present study, a wheat - P. huashanica small segmental translocation line, K-13-835-3, was isolated and characterized from the BC1F5 population of a cross between wheat - P. huashanica amphiploid PHW-SA and wheat cultivar CN16. Cytological studies showed that the mean chromosome configuration of K-13-835-3 at meiosis was 2n = 42 = 0.10 I + 19.43 II (ring) + 1.52 II (rod). GISH analyses indicated that chromosome composition of K-13-835-3 included 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of wheat - P. huashanica translocation chromosomes. FISH results demonstrated that the small segment from an unidentified P. huashanica chromosome was translocated into wheat chromosome arm 5DS, proximal to the centromere region of 5DS. Compared with the cultivar wheat parent CN16, K-13-835-3 was highly resistant to stripe rust pathogens prevalent in China. Furthermore, spikelets and kernels per spike in K-13-835-3 were significantly higher than those of CN16 in two growing seasons. These results suggest that the desirable genes from P. huashanica were successfully transferred into CN16 background. This translocation line could be used as novel germplasm for high-yield and, eventually, resistant cultivar breeding. PMID:26961208

  5. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ .

  6. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ . PMID:26519407

  7. Identifying variation in resistance to the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, between different ancestral and modern wheat species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ancestral wheat relatives are important sources of genetic diversity for the introduction of novel traits for the improvement of modern bread wheat. In this study the aim was to assess the susceptibility of 34 accessions of the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (A genome) to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), the causal agent of take-all disease. The second aim was to explore the susceptibility of tetraploid wheat (T. durum) and the B genome progenitor species Aegilops speltoides to Ggt. Results Field trials, conducted over 5 years, identified seven T. monococcum accessions with a good level of resistance to take-all when exposed to natural inoculum under UK field conditions. All other accessions were highly susceptible or did not exhibit a consistent phenotype across years. DArT marker genotyping revealed that whole genome diversity was not closely related to resistance to take-all within T. monococcum, suggesting that multiple genetic sources of resistance may exist within the species. In contrast the tetraploid wheat cultivars and Ae. speltoides were all highly susceptible to the disease, including those with known elevated levels of benzoxazinoids. Conclusions The diploid wheat species T. monococcum may provide a genetic source of resistance to take-all disease that could be utilised to improve the performance of T. aestivum in high disease risk situations. This represents an extremely valuable resource to achieve economic and sustainable genetic control of this root disease. PMID:25084989

  8. Physiological and molecular characterization of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm with improved seedling freezing tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted greenhouse experiments to compare 14 alfalfa germplasms for their survival following freezing. Among these germplasms are collections adapted to the Grand River National Grasslands in South Dakota. Our hypothesis was that these collections developed tolerance to survive the frigid gro...

  9. Beet curly top resistance in germplasm from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins program, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program, a resistant control germplasm (1996A008), and three commercial control cultivars [SV2012RR (susceptible), Monohikari (susceptible) and HM PM90 (resistant)] were screened for response to Beet ...

  10. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  11. Field screening of maize germplasm lines for whorl-feeding fall armyworm resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new set of 13 maize germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program was examined with 5 controls that have different degrees of insect resistance. Significant difference in fall armyworm damage ratings was detected among the GEM inbred lines. In addition, the total number of ...

  12. Notice of release of Antelope Creek and Pleasant Valley germplasms of bottlebrush squirreltail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new natural-track pre-variety germplasms (selected class), Antelope Creek and Pleasant Valley, were released by the USDA-Agricultural Service and the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Antelope Creek Germplasm is recommended for use in the western Blue Mountain...

  13. Prospects for maximizing the genetic potential within the Pee Dee germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last fifty years, the Pee Dee Cotton Genetics program has developed a large amount of valuable, genetic resources. These genetic resources consist of over 90 officially released germplasm lines and varieties. These germplasm lines and varieties are known as key sources of enhanced fiber qua...

  14. Comprehensive field screenings for whorl- and ear-feeding insect resistance in corn germplasm lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A holistic approach to developing new corn germplasm that confers multiple insect resistance in various plant tissues at different growth stages was examined in two separate studies. The first study was the screening of eight corn germplasm lines for resistance whorl damage to fall armyworm [Spodop...

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  16. Roadmap of the USDA peanut germplasm collection: past, present and future direction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS PGRCU maintains the second largest Arachis germplasm collection in the world with 9,321 cultivated and 655 wild entries. In the last twenty years, USA germplasm has been provided to over 52 countries around the world for research and breeding purposes. This collection has proven to be...

  17. Cryopreservation of citrus in the USDA-ARS national plant germplasm system collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse Citrus germplasm from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System, University of California Riverside, and the California citrus industry is at risk of being lost as a result of disease infestations and unexpected weather disasters. At the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation ...

  18. Kimberly sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet germplasm lines with resistance to BNYVV and storage rots, 11germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Kimberly sugar beet program were screened. The lines wer...

  19. Field evaluation of anthracnose resistance for sorghum germplasm from the Sikasso region in Mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains 132 sorghum landraces from the Sikasso region of Mali. This germplasm was inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated for foliar anthracnose resistance at the USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico...

  20. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  1. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: I. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides x T. tauschii) as a source of favourable alleles for milling and baking quality traits.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Antje; Naz, Ali Ahmad; Dedeck, Oliver; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens

    2007-09-01

    The advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was utilised to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for baking quality traits in two BC(2)F(3) populations of winter wheat. The backcrosses are derived from two German winter wheat cultivars, Batis and Zentos, and two synthetic, hexaploid wheat accessions, Syn022 and Syn086. The synthetics originate from hybridisations of wild emmer (T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides) and T. tauschii, rather than from durum wheat and T. tauschii and thus allowed for the first time to test for exotic QTL effects on wheat genomes A and B in addition to genome D. The investigated quality traits comprised hectolitre weight, grain hardness, flour yield Type 550, falling number, grain protein content, sedimentation volume and baking volume. One hundred and forty-nine SSR markers were applied to genotype a total of 400 BC(2)F(3) lines. For QTL detection, a mixed-model ANOVA was conducted, including the effects DNA marker, BC(2)F(3) line, environment and marker x environment interaction. Overall 38 QTLs significant for a marker main effect were detected. The exotic allele improved trait performance at 14 QTLs (36.8%), while the elite genotype contributed the favourable effect at 24 QTLs (63.2%). The favourable exotic alleles were mainly associated with grain protein content, though the greatest improvement of trait performance due to the exotic alleles was achieved for the traits falling number and sedimentation volume. At the QTL on chromosome 4B the exotic allele increased the falling number by 19.6% and at the QTL on chromosome 6D the exotic allele led to an increase of the sedimentation volume by 21.7%. The results indicate that synthetic wheat derived from wild emmer x T. tauschii carries favourable QTL alleles for baking quality traits, which might be useful for breeding improved wheat varieties by marker-assisted selection.

  2. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  3. Agrometeorology and Wheat Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

  4. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

  5. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    PubMed

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  6. Diversity in global maize germplasm: characterization and utilization.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, B M

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in Mexico and other countries highlighted the genetic variability in the maize germplasm. Applications of molecular markers, particularly in the last two decades, have led to new insights into the patterns of genetic diversity in maize globally, including landraces as well as wild relatives (especially teosintes) in Latin America, helping in tracking the migration routes of maize from the centers of origin, and understanding the fate of genetic diversity during maize domestication. The genome sequencing of B73 (a highly popular US Corn Belt inbred) and Palomero (a popcorn landrace in Mexico) in the recent years are important landmarks in maize research, with significant implications to our understanding of the maize genome organization and evolution. Next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping platforms promise to further revolutionize our understanding of genetic diversity and for designing strategies to utilize the genomic information for maize improvement. However, the major limiting factor to exploit the genetic diversity in crops like maize is no longer genotyping, but high-throughput and precision phenotyping. There is an urgent need to establish a global phenotyping network for comprehensive and efficient characterization of maize germplasm for an array of target traits, particularly for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality. 'Seeds of Discovery' (SeeD), a novel initiative by CIMMYT with financial support from the Mexican Government for generating international public goods, has initiated intensive exploration of phenotypic and molecular diversity of maize germplasm conserved in the CIMMYT Gene Bank; this is

  7. Evaluation of marker-assisted selection for the stripe rust resistance gene Yr15, introgressed from wild emmer wheat

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Elitsur; Raats, Dina; Ronin, Yefim; Korol, Abraham B.; Grama, Adriana; Bariana, Harbans; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Schulman, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Stripe rust disease is caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and severely threatens wheat worldwide, repeatedly breaking resistance conferred by resistance genes and evolving more aggressive strains. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, is an important source for novel stripe rust resistance (Yr) genes. Yr15, a major gene located on chromosome 1BS of T. dicoccoides, was previously reported to confer resistance to a broad spectrum of stripe rust isolates, at both seedling and adult plant stages. Introgressions of Yr15 into cultivated T. aestivum bread wheat and T. durum pasta wheat that began in the 1980s are widely used. In the present study, we aimed to validate SSR markers from the Yr15 region as efficient tools for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for introgression of Yr15 into wheat and to compare the outcome of gene introgression by MAS and by conventional phenotypic selection. Our findings establish the validity of MAS for introgression of Yr15 into wheat. We show that the size of the introgressed segment, defined by flanking markers, varies for both phenotypic selection and MAS. The genetic distance of the MAS marker from Yr15 and the number of backcross steps were the main factors affecting the length of the introgressed donor segments. Markers Xbarc8 and Xgwm493, which are the nearest flanking markers studied, were consistent and polymorphic in all 34 introgressions reported here and are therefore the most recommended markers for the introgression of Yr15 into wheat cultivars. Introgression directed by markers, rather than by phenotype, will facilitate simultaneous selection for multiple stripe rust resistant genes and will help to avoid escapees during the selection process.

  8. 7 CFR 810.2202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2202 Definition of other terms. (a) Classes. There are eight classes for wheat: Durum wheat, Hard Red Spring wheat, Hard Red Winter wheat, Soft Red Winter wheat, Hard White wheat, Soft White wheat, Unclassed wheat, and Mixed wheat. (1) Durum wheat....

  9. 7 CFR 810.2202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2202 Definition of other terms. (a) Classes. There are eight classes for wheat: Durum wheat, Hard Red Spring wheat, Hard Red Winter wheat, Soft Red Winter wheat, Hard White wheat, Soft White wheat, Unclassed wheat, and Mixed wheat. (1) Durum wheat....

  10. 7 CFR 810.2202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2202 Definition of other terms. (a) Classes. There are eight classes for wheat: Durum wheat, Hard Red Spring wheat, Hard Red Winter wheat, Soft Red Winter wheat, Hard White wheat, Soft White wheat, Unclassed wheat, and Mixed wheat. (1) Durum wheat....

  11. 7 CFR 810.2202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2202 Definition of other terms. (a) Classes. There are eight classes for wheat: Durum wheat, Hard Red Spring wheat, Hard Red Winter wheat, Soft Red Winter wheat, Hard White wheat, Soft White wheat, Unclassed wheat, and Mixed wheat. (1) Durum wheat....

  12. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Riar, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Satinder; Dhaliwal, H S; Singh, Kuldeep; Chhuneja, Parveen

    2012-08-01

    Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ever evolving pathogens. The germplasm of nonprogenitor Aegilops species with substantial amount of variability has been exploited to a limited extent. In the present investigation introgression, inheritance and molecular mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene of Ae. caudata (CC) acc. pau3556 in cultivated wheat were undertaken. An F(2) population derived from the cross of Triticum aestivum cv. WL711 - Ae. caudata introgression line T291-2 with wheat cultivar PBW343 segregated for a single dominant leaf rust resistance gene at the seedling and adult plant stages. Progeny testing in F(3) confirmed the introgression of a single gene for leaf rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis using polymorphic D-genome-specific SSR markers and the cosegregation of the 5DS anchored markers (Xcfd18, Xcfd78, Xfd81 and Xcfd189) with the rust resistance in the F(2) population mapped the leaf rust resistance gene (LrAC) on the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D. Genetic complementation and the linked molecular markers revealed that LrAC is a novel homoeoallele of an orthologue Lr57 already introgressed from the 5M chromosome of Ae. geniculata on 5DS of wheat.

  13. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Heinen, Shane J.; Radmer, Lorien; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:18467324

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel glyoxalase I gene TaGly I in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Fanyun; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong; Li, Hongwei; Li, Bin

    2010-02-01

    Methylglyoxal is a kind of poisonous metabolite that can react with RNA, DNA and protein, which generally results in a number of side advert effects to cell. Glyoxalase I is a member of glyoxalase system that can detoxify methylglyoxal. An EST encoding a glyoxalase I was isolated from a SSH (suppression subtractive hybridization)-cDNA library of wheat spike inoculated by Fusarium graminearum. The corresponding full length gene, named TaGly I, was cloned, sequenced and characterized. Its genomic sequence consists of 2,719 bp, including seven exons and six introns, and its coding sequence is 929 bp with an open reading frame encoding 291 amino acids. Sequence alignment showed that there were two glyoxalase I domains in the deduced protein sequence. By using specific primers, TaGly I was mapped to chromosome 7D of wheat via a set of durum wheat 'Langdon' D-genome disomic-substitution lines. The result of Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that TaGly I was induced by the inoculation of Fusarium graminearum in wheat spikes. Additionally, it was also induced by high concentration of NaCl and ZnCl2. When TaGly I was overexpressed in tobacco leaves via Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection, the transgenic tobacco showed stronger tolerance to ZnCl2 stress relative to transgenic control with GFP. The above facts indicated that TaGly I might play a role in response to diverse stresses in plants.

  15. Assessing and broadening genetic diversity of a rapeseed germplasm collection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinfeng; Li, Feng; Xu, Kun; Gao, Guizhen; Chen, Biyun; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Tianyao; Song, Weiling; Wu, Xiaoming

    2014-12-01

    Assessing the level of genetic diversity within a germplasm collection contributes to evaluating the potential for its utilization as a gene pool to improve the performance of cultivars. In this study, 45 high-quality simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were screened and used to estimate the genetic base of a world-wide collection of 248 rapeseed (Brassica napus) inbred lines. For the whole collection, the genetic diversity of A genome was higher than that of C genome. The genetic diversity of C genome for the semi-winter type was the lowest among the different germplasm types. Because B. oleracea is usually used to broaden the genetic diversity of C genome in rapeseed, we evaluated the potential of 25 wild B. oleracea lines. More allelic variations and a higher genetic diversity were observed in B. oleracea than in rapeseed. One B. oleracea line and one oilseed B. rapa line were used to generate a resynthesized Brassica napus line, which was then crossed with six semi-winter rapeseed cultivars to produce 7 F1 hybrids. Not only the allele introgression but also mutations were observed in the hybrids, resulting in significant improvement of the genetic base.

  16. Fingerprinting Soybean Germplasm and Its Utility in Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Jia, Gaofeng; Quigley, Charles V; Fickus, Edward W; Nelson, Randall L; Cregan, Perry B

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection includes 18,480 domesticated soybean and 1168 wild soybean accessions introduced from 84 countries or developed in the United States. This collection was genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing greater than 50K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Redundant accessions were identified in the collection, and distinct genetic backgrounds of soybean from different geographic origins were observed that could be a unique resource for soybean genetic improvement. We detected a dramatic reduction of genetic diversity based on linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure analyses of the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and identified candidate regions associated with domestication and selection imposed by North American breeding. We constructed the first soybean haplotype block maps in the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and observed that most recombination events occurred in the regions between haplotype blocks. These haplotype maps are crucial for association mapping aimed at the identification of genes controlling traits of economic importance. A case-control association test delimited potential genomic regions along seven chromosomes that most likely contain genes controlling seed weight in domesticated soybean. The resulting dataset will facilitate germplasm utilization, identification of genes controlling important traits, and will accelerate the creation of soybean varieties with improved seed yield and quality.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

  18. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia racemosa Lamk.

    PubMed

    Mohan, V R; Janardhanan, K

    1994-12-01

    Two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. viz., Ayyanarkoil Forest and Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary, were analysed for proximate composition, total (true) seed proteins, seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids, minerals and antinutritional factors. Crude proteins, crude lipids, ash and nitrogen free extractives constituted 19.84%, 9.52%, 3.31% and 60.65%, respectively in Ayyanarkoil Forest germplasm; whereas, in Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary germplasm they constituted 19.31%, 8.94%, 3.81% and 61.30%, respectively. The caloric values were found to be 407.64 KCal (Ayyanarkoil Forest) and 402.90 KCal (Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary) germplasms. Essential amino acids like isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and lysine were found to be high in the seed proteins of both the germplasms. The fatty acids, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids, were found to be relatively higher in the seed lipids of both the germplasms. Both the germplasms seemed to be a rich source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese and iron. Antinutritional substances like total free phenols, tannins, L-DOPA and phytohaemagglutinating activity also were investigated. PMID:7716120

  19. Marker development, saturation mapping, and high-resolution mapping of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn3-B1 in wheat.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Zengcui; Friesen, Timothy L; Bansal, Urmil; Cloutier, Sylvie; Wicker, Thomas; Rasmussen, Jack B; Faris, Justin D

    2016-02-01

    Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by Parastagonospora nodorum, is a severe foliar and glume disease on durum and common wheat. Pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) are the major determinants for SNB on leaves. One such NE is SnTox3, which evokes programmed cell death and leads to disease when recognized by the wheat Snn3-B1 gene. Here, we developed saturated genetic linkage maps of the Snn3-B1 region using two F2 populations derived from the SnTox3-sensitive line Sumai 3 crossed with different SnTox3-insensitive lines. Markers were identified and/or developed from various resources including previously mapped simple sequence repeats, bin-mapped expressed sequence tags, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and whole genome survey sequences. Subsequent high-resolution mapping of the Snn3-B1 locus in 5600 gametes delineated the gene to a 1.5 cM interval. Analysis of micro-colinearity of the Snn3-B1 region indicated that it was highly disrupted compared to rice and Brachypodium distachyon. The screening of a collection of durum and common wheat cultivars with tightly linked markers indicated they are not diagnostic for the presence of Snn3-B1, but can be useful for marker-assisted selection if the SnTox3 reactions of lines are first determined. Finally, we developed an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant population of Sumai 3 where the screening of 408 M2 families led to the identification of 17 SnTox3-insensitive mutants. These mutants along with the markers and high-resolution map developed in this research provide a strong foundation for the map-based cloning of Snn3-B1, which will broaden our understanding of the wheat-P. nodorum system and plant-necrotrophic pathogen interactions in general. PMID:26187026

  20. Importance of pre-anthesis anther sink strength for maintenance of grain number during reproductive stage water stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xuemei; Shiran, Behrouz; Wan, Jianlin; Lewis, David C; Jenkins, Colin L D; Condon, Anthony G; Richards, Richard A; Dolferus, Rudy

    2010-06-01

    Reproductive stage water stress leads to spikelet sterility in wheat. Whereas drought stress at anthesis affects mainly grain size, stress at the young microspore stage of pollen development is characterized by abortion of pollen development and reduction in grain number. We identified genetic variability for drought tolerance at the reproductive stage. Drought-tolerant wheat germplasm is able to maintain carbohydrate accumulation in the reproductive organs throughout the stress treatment. Starch depletion in the ovary of drought-sensitive wheat is reversible upon re-watering and cross-pollination experiments indicate that the ovary is more resilient than the anther. The effect on anthers and pollen fertility is irreversible, suggesting that pollen sterility is the main cause of grain loss during drought conditions in wheat. The difference in storage carbohydrate accumulation in drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant wheat is correlated with differences in sugar profiles, cell wall invertase gene expression and expression of fructan biosynthesis genes in anther and ovary (sucrose : sucrose 1-fructosyl-transferase, 1-SST; sucrose : fructan 6-fructosyl-transferase, 6-SFT). Our results indicate that the ability to control and maintain sink strength and carbohydrate supply to anthers may be the key to maintaining pollen fertility and grain number in wheat and this mechanism may also provide protection against other abiotic stresses.