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Sample records for durum wheat germplasm

  1. Development of Durum Wwheat Germplasm with Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight Derived from Emmer Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) is a unique class of commercial wheat specifically for making pasta products. Durum production has been seriously challenged by the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in the United States in the past decade. Although utilization of resistant cultivar...

  2. Genome-wide association mapping of leaf rust response in a durum wheat worldwide germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks.) is increasingly impacting durum wheat production with the recent appearance of races with virulence to widely grown cultivars in many durum producing areas worldwide. A highly virulent P. triticina race on durum wheat was recently collected in Kansas....

  3. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. I. Grain, milling and soft wheat quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture is used in part to define U.S. wheat market class due to its importance in end-use quality and utilization. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) has lower demand and fewer culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture, which precl...

  4. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2014-08-25

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California-Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch.

  5. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California–Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch. PMID:27110322

  6. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. II. Dough strenth and pan bread quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because its weak gluten strength combined with flour particle size and flour starch damage after milling are not commensurate with hexaploid wheat flours. Recently a new durum cultivar...

  7. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Daokun; Chen, Liang; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Peng, Yunliang; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity. PMID:23538839

  8. Association Mapping of Leaf Rust Response in Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) is a main objective for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) breeding.Association mapping on germplasm collections is now being used as an additional approach for the discovery and validation of major genes/QTLs. In this study, a collection of 164 el...

  9. Registration of 70 Common Spring Wheat Germplasm Lines Resistant to Stripe Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy common spring wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum) germplasm lines resistant to stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, were developed from crosses of 66 common and 4 durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat lines originating from 28 countries. Among the new lines, 4 ...

  10. Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ondřej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin).

  11. Insect and mite pests of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses the postharvest arthropod pests of durum wheat and their control. The main internally feeding pests are Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, and S. zeamais. The main externally feeding pests are Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, O. m...

  12. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of soft durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  13. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat is known for its very hard texture, which influences how it is milled and for what products it is well suited. We developed soft kernel durum wheat lines via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination with Dr. Leonard Joppa...

  14. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.))

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A. I.; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26110423

  15. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  16. Soft kernel durum wheat -- a new bakery ingredient?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Bread wheat”, also known as “common wheat” (Triticum aestivum L.), is a leading cereal that sustains humankind. Current worldwide production stands at over 700 million metric tons produced from around 220 million hectares. In contrast, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is grown on about ...

  17. Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) lines show different abilities to form masked mycotoxins under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2013-12-24

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  18. Effect of soft kernel texture on the milling properties of soft durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide nearly twenty times more common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is produced than durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum). Durum wheat is predominately milled into coarse semolina due to the extreme hardness of the kernels. Semolina, lacking the versatility of traditional flour, is used primarily ...

  19. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for high-throughput and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Irma; Maccaferri, Marco; Bassi, Filippo; Mantovani, Paola; Sanguineti, Maria C; Salvi, Silvio; Simková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Massi, Andrea; Ammar, Karim; Kolmer, James; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a-resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative cv. Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf-rust resistance sources deployed in durum wheat breeding. Lr14a has been mapped close to the simple sequence repeat markers gwm146, gwm344 and wmc10 in the distal portion of the chromosome arm 7BL, a gene-dense region. The objectives of this study were: (1) to enrich the Lr14a region with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and high-resolution melting (HRM)-based markers developed from conserved ortholog set (COS) genes and from sequenced Diversity Array Technology (DArT(®)) markers; (2) to further investigate the gene content and colinearity of this region with the Brachypodium and rice genomes. Ten new COS-SNP and five HRM markers were mapped within an 8.0 cM interval spanning Lr14a. Two HRM markers pinpointed the locus in an interval of <1.0 cM and eight COS-SNPs were mapped 2.1-4.1 cM distal to Lr14a. Each marker was tested for its capacity to predict the state of Lr14a alleles (in particular, Lr14-Creso associated to resistance) in a panel of durum wheat elite germplasm including 164 accessions. Two of the most informative markers were converted into KASPar(®) markers. Single assay markers ubw14 and wPt-4038-HRM designed for agarose gel electrophoresis/KASPar(®) assays and high-resolution melting analysis, respectively, as well as the double-marker combinations ubw14/ubw18, ubw14/ubw35 and wPt-4038-HRM-ubw35 will be useful for germplasm haplotyping and for molecular-assisted breeding.

  20. Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains.

  1. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for cost efficient and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a leaf rust resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf rust resistance sources presently deployed in durum wheat breed...

  2. Susceptibility of European bread and durum wheat cultivars to Tilletia indica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative European wheat cultivars were tested under quarantine containment for their susceptibility to Tilletia indica, the cause of Karnal bunt (or partial bunt) of wheat. Fifteen winter, 15 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 11 durum wheat cultivars (Triticum durum) were inoculated by ‘boo...

  3. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium analysis in bread wheat and durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Somers, Daryl J; Banks, Travis; Depauw, Ron; Fox, Stephen; Clarke, John; Pozniak, Curtis; McCartney, Curt

    2007-06-01

    Bread wheat and durum wheat were examined for linkage disequilibrium (LD) using microsatellite markers distributed across the genome. The allele database consisted of 189 bread wheat accessions genotyped at 370 loci and 93 durum wheat accessions genotyped at 245 loci. A significance level of p < 0.001 was set for all comparisons. The bread and durum wheat collections showed that 47.9% and 14.0% of all locus pairs were in LD, respectively. LD was more prevalent between loci on the same chromosome compared with loci on independent chromosomes and was highest between adjacent loci. Only a small fraction (bread wheat, 0.9%; durum wheat, 3.2%) of the locus pairs in LD showed R2 values > 0.2. The LD between adjacent locus pairs extended (R2 > 0.2) approximately 2-3 cM, on average, but some regions of the bread and durum wheat genomes showed high levels of LD (R2 = 0.7 and 1.0, respectively) extending 41.2 and 25.5 cM, respectively. The wheat collections were clustered by similarity into subpopulations using unlinked microsatellite data and the software Structure. Analysis within subpopulations showed 14- to 16-fold fewer locus pairs in LD, higher R2 values for those pairs in LD, and LD extending further along the chromosome. The data suggest that LD mapping of wheat can be performed with simple sequence repeats to a resolution of <5 cM.

  4. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-23

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  5. Photoperiod insensitive Ppd-A1a mutations in tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Edward P; Turner, Adrian S; Laurie, David A

    2009-01-01

    Variation in photoperiod response plays an important role in adapting crops to agricultural environments. In hexaploid wheat, mutations conferring photoperiod insensitivity (flowering after a similar time in short or long days) have been mapped on the 2B (Ppd-B1) and 2D (Ppd-D1) chromosomes in colinear positions to the 2H Ppd-H1 gene of barley. No A genome mutation is known. On the D genome, photoperiod insensitivity is likely to be caused by deletion of a regulatory region that causes misexpression of a member of the pseudo-response regulator (PRR) gene family and activation of the photoperiod pathway irrespective of day length. Photoperiod insensitivity in tetraploid (durum) wheat is less characterized. We compared pairs of near-isogenic lines that differ in photoperiod response and showed that photoperiod insensitivity is associated with two independent deletions of the A genome PRR gene that cause altered expression. This is associated with induction of the floral regulator FT. The A genome deletions and the previously described D genome deletion of hexaploid wheat remove a common region, suggesting a shared mechanism for photoperiod insensitivity. The identification of the A genome mutations will allow characterization of durum wheat germplasm and the construction of genotypes with novel combinations of photoperiod insensitive alleles.

  6. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  7. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management.

    PubMed

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-09-24

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control.

  8. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

  9. Influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat is predominantly grown in semi-arid to arid environments where common wheat does not flourish, especially in the Middle East, North Africa, Mediterranean Basin, and portions of North America. Durum kernels are extraordinarily hard when compared to their common wheat counterparts. Due to ...

  10. Genetic structure of Argentinean hexaploid wheat germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Vanzetti, Leonardo S.; Yerkovich, Nadia; Chialvo, Eugenia; Lombardo, Lucio; Vaschetto, Luis; Helguera, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals is an ancient issue in population genetics and in the case of crops like wheat, it can be valuable information for breeding programs, genetic mapping and germplasm resources. In this work we determined the genetic structure of a set of 102 Argentinean bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) elite cultivars using 38 biochemical and molecular markers (functional, closely linked to genes and neutral ones) distributed throughout 18 wheat chromosomes. Genetic relationships among these lines were examined using model-based clustering methods. In the analysis three subpopulations were identified which correspond largely to the origin of the germplasm used by the main breeding programs in Argentina. PMID:24130447

  11. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  12. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  13. Effects of durum wheat background on the expression of hexaploid wheat-derived Fusarium head blight resistance genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance sources have been identified in common wheat, but an effective source of resistance to FHB has not found in durum wheat. Here we report preliminary results on the effects of durum background on the expression of hexaploid wheat-derived FHB resistance g...

  14. Fusarium head blight resistance in durum wheat – progress and challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several sources of FHB resistance have been identified in tetraploid wheat, including durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, genome AABB), emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum, genome AABB), wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genome AABB), Persian wheat (T. turgidum ssp. carthlicum, genome AABB...

  15. Marker-assisted Characterization of Durum Wheat Langdon-Golden Ball Disomic Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The durum wheat cultivar ‘Golden Ball’ (GB) has superior solid stem, which is a source of resistance to wheat sawfly and also a potential source of biofeed for producing biofuel. Dr. Leonard Joppa previously used GB as the chromosome donor and Langdon (LDN) durum as the recipient to develop a compl...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid – an allotetraploid between two wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). As shown earlier, even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal ...

  17. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  18. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  19. Attempted compensation for linkage drag affecting agronomic characteristics of durum wheat 1AS/1DL translocation lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield reduction due to linkage drag caused by introgression of alien chromatin is a major problem for incorporating new genes into durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). Here we report attempts to improve yield of 1AS•1AL-1DL translocation lines of durum wheat that had previously been rep...

  20. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  1. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  2. Systems Responses to Progressive Water Stress in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Habash, Dimah Z.; Baudo, Marcela; Hindle, Matthew; Powers, Stephen J.; Defoin-Platel, Michael; Mitchell, Rowan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Chris; Latiri, Kawther; Araus, Jose L.; Abdulkader, Ahmad; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawlor, David W.; Nachit, Miloudi M.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1) and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219) showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat’s response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum line

  3. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties.

  4. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties. PMID:26338450

  5. Physical mapping of DNA markers linked to stem rust resistance gene Sr47 in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), the gene Sr47 derived from Aegilops speltoides conditions resistance to race TTKSK (Ug99) of stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici). Sr47 is carried on small interstitial translocation chromosomes (Ti2BL-2SL-2BL·2BS) in which the Ae. s...

  6. Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m2), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m2). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

  7. Population density and distribution of wheat bugs infesting durum wheat in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m²), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m²). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread.

  8. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  9. Agronomic and Quality Characteristics of Two New Sets of Langdon Durum – wWld Emmer Wheat Chromosome Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides) has been a useful source of genes for high grain protein content (GPC) in durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). Prior studies have found other useful genes for agronomic and quality traits in Langdon durum - T. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) disomic sub...

  10. A consensus framework map of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) suitable for linkage disequilibrium analysis and genome-wide association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics applications in durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat have the potential to boost exploitation of genetic resources and to advance understanding of the genetics of important complex traits (e.g. resilience to environmental and biotic stresses). A dense and accurate consensus map specific for ...

  11. Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2014-01-01

    Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2≥0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

  12. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E; Newman, John W; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch.

  13. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  14. Accumulation of cadmium in near-isogenic lines of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum): the role of transpiration.

    PubMed

    Quinn, C J; Mohammad, A; Macfie, S M

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of cadmium in the grain of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) are often above the internationally acceptable limit of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Cultivars that vary in concentrations of cadmium in the grain have been identified but the physiology behind differential accumulation has not been determined. Three pairs of near-isogenic lines (isolines) of durum wheat that vary in aboveground cadmium accumulation (8982-TL 'high' and 'low', W9260-BC 'high' and 'low', and W9261-BG 'high' and 'low') were used to test the hypothesis that the greater amounts of cadmium in shoots of the 'high' isolines are correlated with greater volumes of water transpired. In general, cadmium content was positively correlated with transpiration only in the 'low' isolines. Although shoots of the 'high' isolines of W9260-BC and W9261-BG contained higher concentrations of cadmium than did their corresponding 'low' isolines, they did not transpire larger volumes of water. In addition, isolines of 8982-TL transpired less water than did the other pairs of isolines yet both 'high' and 'low' isolines of 8982-TL contained higher amounts of cadmium than did the other pairs. The difference between 'high' and 'low' isolines appears to be related to the relative contribution of transpiration to cadmium translocation to the shoot. Increased transpiration was associated with increased cadmium content in the 'low' isolines but in the 'high' isolines increased cadmium in the shoot occurred independently of the volume of water transpired.

  15. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  16. Developing improved durum wheat germplasm by altering the cytoplasmic genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic organisms, nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes interact to drive cellular functions. These genomes have co-evolved to form specific nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions that are essential to the origin, success, and evolution of diploid and polyploid species. Hundreds of genetic diseases in h...

  17. Genomic dissection of drought resistance in durum wheat x wild emmer wheat recombinant inbreed line population.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Abbo, Shahal; Yakir, Dan; Korol, Abraham B; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2009-07-01

    Drought is the major factor limiting wheat productivity worldwide. The gene pool of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, harbours a rich allelic repertoire for morpho-physiological traits conferring drought resistance. The genetic and physiological bases of drought responses were studied here in a tetraploid wheat population of 152 recombinant inbreed lines (RILs), derived from a cross between durum wheat (cv. Langdon) and wild emmer (acc# G18-16), under contrasting water availabilities. Wide genetic variation was found among RILs for all studied traits. A total of 110 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were mapped for 11 traits, with LOD score range of 3.0-35.4. Several QTLs showed environmental specificity, accounting for productivity and related traits under water-limited (20 QTLs) or well-watered conditions (15 QTLs), and in terms of drought susceptibility index (22 QTLs). Major genomic regions controlling productivity and related traits were identified on chromosomes 2B, 4A, 5A and 7B. QTLs for productivity were associated with QTLs for drought-adaptive traits, suggesting the involvement of several strategies in wheat adaptation to drought stress. Fifteen pairs of QTLs for the same trait were mapped to seemingly homoeologous positions, reflecting synteny between the A and B genomes. The identified QTLs may facilitate the use of wild alleles for improvement of drought resistance in elite wheat cultivars.

  18. Graphical evaluation and partitioning of turgor responses to drought in leaves of durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, S B; Richter, H

    1986-05-01

    The relationship between relative water content (R) and turgor potential (Ψp) may be derived from pressure-volume (PV) curves and analyzed in various ways. Fifty PV curves were measured with the pressure chamber on leaves of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.). The plots of Ψp versus R were highly variable and could not be adequately described by a single mathematical function. The area below the curve was therefore determined by means of an area meter. This procedure gave the integral of turgor from full saturation to the turgor-loss point. Responses to drought treatment could thus be quantified and partitioned into effects of osmotic adjustment and elastic adjustment. These two adjustment responses, which are probably of different metabolic origin, together improve turgor maintenance in durum wheat considerably.

  19. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  20. A Transgenic Durum Wheat Line that is Free of Marker Genes and Expresses 1dy10

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a combination of “clean gene” technology and positive selection to generate transgenic durum wheat lines free of herbicide and antibiotic resistance marker genes. Biolistic transformation experiments were carried out using three “minimal gene cassettes” consisting of linear DNA fragments exc...

  1. A multiparental cross population for mapping QTL for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum).

    PubMed

    Milner, Sara Giulia; Maccaferri, Marco; Huang, Bevan Emma; Mantovani, Paola; Massi, Andrea; Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Tuberosa, Roberto; Salvi, Silvio

    2016-02-01

    Multiparental cross designs for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) provide an efficient alternative to biparental populations because of their broader genetic basis and potentially higher mapping resolution. We describe the development and deployment of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) obtained by crossing four elite cultivars. A linkage map spanning 2664 cM and including 7594 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was produced by genotyping 338 RILs. QTL analysis was carried out by both interval mapping on founder haplotype probabilities and SNP bi-allelic tests for heading date and maturity date, plant height and grain yield from four field experiments. Sixteen QTL were identified across environments and detection methods, including two yield QTL on chromosomes 2BL and 7AS, with the former mapped independently from the photoperiod response gene Ppd-B1, while the latter overlapped with the vernalization locus VRN-A3. Additionally, 21 QTL with environment-specific effects were found. Our results indicated a prevalence of environment-specific QTL with relatively small effect on the control of grain yield. For all traits, functionally different QTL alleles in terms of direction and size of genetic effect were distributed among parents. We showed that QTL results based on founder haplotypes closely matched functional alleles at known heading date loci. Despite the four founders, only 2.1 different functional haplotypes were estimated per QTL, on average. This durum wheat population provides a mapping resource for detailed genetic dissection of agronomic traits in an elite background typical of breeding programmes.

  2. Polymorphism of omega-gliadins in durum wheat as revealed by the two-step APAGE/SDS-PAGE technique.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Taladriz, M T; Branlard, G; Dardevet, M

    1994-03-01

    Polymorphism of omega-gliadins was studied in 243 durum wheats from 27 countries using the two-step one-dimensional APAGE/SDS-PAGE technique. A total of 12 bands of different mobility were observed, and four of them were found to be different from those previously detected by Khelifi et al. (1992) in bread wheat. Fifteen alleles, six coded by the Gli-A1 locus and nine coded by the Gli-B1 locus, were identified, accounting for 19 different electrophoretic patterns. Seven new alleles were detected: two at the Gli-A1 locus and five at the Gli-B1 locus. The polymorphism found at the Gli-A1 and Gli-B1 loci was slightly greater than that found in bread wheat. Allelic differences between both species were higher at the Gli-B1 locus. A comparison of the frequencies of alleles in both species was carried out. The null allele, Gli-A1e, was more common in durum wheat than in bread wheat. The Gli-B1b allele, present in 60% of the bread wheats, was found in only 2% of the durum wheats and Gli-B1e, very common in durum wheat (45%), was rare in bread wheat (4%). The Gli-B1IV allele, common in durum wheat (28%), was not detected in bread wheat.

  3. Antagonist effects of Bacillus spp. strains against Fusarium graminearum for protection of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Ali, Hacina; Sellami, Sameh; Nasfi, Zina; Tounsi, Slim; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus species are attractive due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB369, Bacillus subtilis strain BLB277, and Paenibacillus polymyxa strain BLB267 were isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular (16S rDNA, gyrA, and rpoB) approaches. They could produce, respectively, (iturin and surfactin), (surfactin and fengycin), and (fusaricidin and polymyxin) exhibiting broad spectrum against several phytopathogenic fungi. In vivo examination of wheat seed germination, plant height, phenolic compounds, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents proved the efficiency of the bacterial cells and the secreted antagonist activities to protect Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) cultivar Om Rabiia against F. graminearum fungus. Application of single bacterial culture medium, particularly that of B. amyloliquefaciens, showed better protection than combinations of various culture media. The tertiary combination of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, and P. polymyxa bacterial cells led to the highest protection rate which could be due to strains synergistic or complementary effects. Hence, combination of compatible biocontrol agents could be a strategic approach to control plant diseases.

  4. Differential CO2 effect on primary carbon metabolism of flag leaves in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Alvaro; Abadie, Cyril; Gilard, Françoise; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Araus, Jose L; Bourguignon, Jacques; Irigoyen, Juan J; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    C sink/source balance and N assimilation have been identified as target processes conditioning crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 . However, little is known about phenology-driven modifications of C and N primary metabolism at elevated CO2 in cereals such as wheat. Here, we examined the differential effect of elevated CO2 at two development stages (onset of flowering, onset of grain filling) in durum wheat (Triticum durum, var. Sula) using physiological measurements (photosynthesis, isotopes), metabolomics, proteomics and (15) N labelling. Our results show that growth at elevated CO2 was accompanied by photosynthetic acclimation through a lower internal (mesophyll) conductance but no significant effect on Rubisco content, maximal carboxylation or electron transfer. Growth at elevated CO2 altered photosynthate export and tended to accelerate leaf N remobilization, which was visible for several proteins and amino acids, as well as lysine degradation metabolism. However, grain biomass produced at elevated CO2 was larger and less N rich, suggesting that nitrogen use efficiency rather than photosynthesis is an important target for improvement, even in good CO2 -responsive cultivars.

  5. The Lr34 adult plant rust resistance gene provides seedling resistance in durum wheat without senescence.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Amy; Gilbert, Brian; Boni, Rainer; Krattinger, Simon G; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F; Lagudah, Evans; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-12-22

    The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad-spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in field-grown seedlings. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome-encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or up-regulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings, suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance, although leaf tip necrosis occurred in mature plant flag leaves. Several abiotic stress-response genes were up-regulated in these seedlings in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Increasing day length significantly increased Lr34 seedling resistance. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad-spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat.

  6. The Lr34 adult plant rust resistance gene provides seedling resistance in durum wheat without senescence.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Amy; Gilbert, Brian; Boni, Rainer; Krattinger, Simon G; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F; Lagudah, Evans; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-09-29

    The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in seedlings under standard growth conditions. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or upregulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance. Several abiotic stress response genes were upregulated in these seedling in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Photoperiod and light intensity had significant effects on Lr34 phenotypes. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary history of the mitochondrial genome in Mycosphaerella populations infecting bread wheat, durum wheat and wild grasses.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Stefano F F; Brunner, Patrick C; McDonald, Bruce A

    2011-02-01

    Plant pathogens emerge in agro-ecosystems following different evolutionary mechanisms over different time scales. Previous analyses based on sequence variation at six nuclear loci indicated that Mycosphaerella graminicola diverged from an ancestral population adapted to wild grasses during the process of wheat domestication approximately 10,500 years ago. We tested this hypothesis by conducting coalescence analyses based on four mitochondrial loci using 143 isolates that included four closely related pathogen species originating from four continents. Pathogen isolates from bread and durum wheat were included to evaluate the emergence of specificity towards these hosts in M. graminicola. Although mitochondrial and nuclear genomes differed greatly in degree of genetic variability, their coalescence was remarkably congruent, supporting the proposed origin of M. graminicola through host tracking. The coalescence analysis was unable to trace M. graminicola host specificity through recent evolutionary time, indicating that the specificity towards durum or bread wheat emerged following the domestication of the pathogen on wheat.

  8. Puroindoline genes introduced into durum wheat reduce milling energy and change milling behavior similar to soft common wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain physical characteristics and milling behavior of a durum wheat line in which both wild-type puroindoline alleles were translocated and stabilized after backcrossing (Svevo-Pin) were compared with the parent line (Svevo). The only observed differences between grain characteristics were the mech...

  9. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  10. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health.

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of ERF1, an ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum), potentially involved in salt-stress responses.

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Marande, William; Mila, Isabelle; Hanana, Mohsen; Bergès, Hélène; Mzid, Rim; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-12-01

    As food crop, wheat is of prime importance for human society. Nevertheless, our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling wheat productivity conditions has been, so far, hampered by the lack of sufficient genomic resources. The present work describes the isolation and characterization of TdERF1, an ERF gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). The structural features of TdERF1 supported the hypothesis that it is a novel member of the ERF family in durum wheat and, considering its close similarity to TaERF1 of Triticum aestivum, it probably plays a similar role in mediating responses to environmental stresses. TdERF1 displayed an expression pattern that discriminated between two durum wheat genotypes contrasted with regard to salt-stress tolerance. The high number of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses present in the TdERF1 promoter and the ability of TdERF1 to regulate the transcription of ethylene and drought-responsive promoters clearly indicated its potential role in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental constrains. TdERF1 was also regulated by abscisic acid, ethylene, auxin, and salicylic acid, suggesting that it may be at the crossroads of multiple hormone signalling pathways. Four TdERF1 allelic variants have been identified in durum wheat genome, all shown to be transcriptionally active. Interestingly, the expression of one allelic form is specific to the tolerant genotype, further supporting the hypothesis that this gene is probably associated with the susceptibility/tolerance mechanism to salt stress. In this regard, the TdERF1 gene may provide a discriminating marker between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties.

  12. Classification of the waxy condition of durum wheat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy using wavelets and a genetic algorithm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been applied to the problem of differentiating four genotypes of durum wheat: ‘waxy’, wx-A1 null, wx-B1 null and wild type. The test data consisted of 95 NIR reflectance spectra of wheat samples obtained from a USDA-ARS wheat breeding program. A two...

  13. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa) were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium). Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable. PMID:20626919

  14. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice.

  15. Development of a diagnostic co-dominant marker for stem rust resistance gene Sr47 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, abbreviated as Pgt) resistance gene Sr47, originally transferred from Aegilops speltoides to durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) line DAS15, confers a high level of resistance to Pgt race TTKSK (known as Ug99). Recently, the durum Rust...

  16. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming. PMID:22701377

  17. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    PubMed

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples.

  18. Durum wheat in conventional and organic farming: yield amount and pasta quality in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  19. Evaluation of the technological and sensory properties of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with different dietary fibres.

    PubMed

    Rakhesh, Nisha; Fellows, Christopher M; Sissons, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of fibres, whether insoluble or soluble, in durum wheat pasta negatively impacts desirable end-use properties, especially if incorporated in significant amounts. Fibres can disrupt the starch-protein matrix of the dough during pasta preparation and can also often swell more readily with water than starch, competing with the starch for water during dough development. Similar degrees of substitution with different fibres gave markedly different impacts on firmness, stickiness, cooking loss and sensory attributes, suggesting that results obtained for one fibre cannot readily be generalized to other fibres. The in vitro starch digestibility of the pastas was significantly reduced when resistant starch, β-glucan-enriched flour, carboxymethyl cellulose or guar gum was incorporated but increased when pollard or inulin was added. In many instances, different sources of the same fibre gave dramatically different impacts on the properties of cooked durum wheat pasta.

  20. In vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics and vitamins from durum wheat aleurone fractions.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Maria; Scazzina, Francesca; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Bianchi, Marta A; Melegari, Camilla; De Albertis, Pietro; Tribuzio, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio

    2014-02-19

    Durum wheat aleurone, thanks to its nutrient-rich composition, might be of potential use as a functional ingredient in cereal-based foods provided nutrients can be made available for absorption. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of thiamine, niacin, and phenolic acids in different aleurone fractions obtained with an industrial processing aimed to obtain material of different composition and particle size. Results indicate that the main phenolic compounds and vitamins investigated have a higher bioaccessibility when present in the inner part of the aleurone layer compared to the outer part of aleurone or the unfractionated bran. Moreover, an ultramicronization treatment employed to reduce particle size does not further improve the bioaccessibility of these compounds. We conclude that aleurone fractions from durum wheat bran could represent a nutritionally relevant ingredient, bringing together a high fiber content and an excellent bioaccessibility of vitamins and phytochemicals generally associated with nutritional benefits.

  1. Wheat streak mosaic virus resistance in eight wheat germplasm lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) disease is an important disease in wheat. Use of resistant cultivars is the most effective approach to reduce the yield losses caused by the disease. To identify new sources of resistance to WSMV, eight resistant wheat lines that were selected based on the results fr...

  2. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species.

  3. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  4. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant’s responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development. PMID:26417365

  5. A Whole Genome DArTseq and SNP Analysis for Genetic Diversity Assessment in Durum Wheat from Central Fertile Crescent

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Çiftçi, Vahdettin; E. Sáenz de Miera, Luis; Aasim, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad Azhar; Aktaş, Husnu; Özkan, Hakan; Hatipoğlu, Rüştü

    2017-01-01

    Until now, little attention has been paid to the geographic distribution and evaluation of genetic diversity of durum wheat from the Central Fertile Crescent (modern-day Turkey and Syria). Turkey and Syria are considered as primary centers of wheat diversity, and thousands of locally adapted wheat landraces are still present in the farmers’ small fields. We planned this study to evaluate the genetic diversity of durum wheat landraces from the Central Fertile Crescent by genotyping based on DArTseq and SNP analysis. A total of 39,568 DArTseq and 20,661 SNP markers were used to characterize the genetic characteristic of 91 durum wheat land races. Clustering based on Neighbor joining analysis, principal coordinate as well as Bayesian model implemented in structure, clearly showed that the grouping pattern is not associated with the geographical distribution of the durum wheat due to the mixing of the Turkish and Syrian landraces. Significant correlation between DArTseq and SNP markers was observed in the Mantel test. However, we detected a non-significant relationship between geographical coordinates and DArTseq (r = -0.085) and SNP (r = -0.039) loci. These results showed that unconscious farmer selection and lack of the commercial varieties might have resulted in the exchange of genetic material and this was apparent in the genetic structure of durum wheat in Turkey and Syria. The genomic characterization presented here is an essential step towards a future exploitation of the available durum wheat genetic resources in genomic and breeding programs. The results of this study have also depicted a clear insight about the genetic diversity of wheat accessions from the Central Fertile Crescent. PMID:28099442

  6. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  7. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  8. SSR Markers Associated with Proline in Drought Tolerant Wheat Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Maqsood, Yasir; Abdin, Zain Ul; Manzoor, Atif; Hassan, Muhammad; Jamil, Amer

    2016-03-01

    Water stress causes major agricultural loss throughout the world as survival of the crops remained under stress and loss in yield. Plants respond to drought stress by means of different adaptive mechanisms such as accumulation of osmoprotectants to counteract the water stress. Amino acid proline is known to occur widely in higher plants and normally accumulates in large quantities as an osmolyte in response to environmental stresses. Biochemical estimation of proline was done in the drought-affected wheat genotypes by spectrophotometric method. Proline promoted a positive effect as root/shoot ratio was enhanced in wheat germplasm under drought stress. SSR primer pairs (45) were tested for polymorphism among selected wheat genotypes. The dendrogram results have shown the wheat genotype association with the levels of proline during induced drought stress. The relationship between pattern of drought responsive biochemical attributes and DNA markers in the selected wheat genotypes was recognized to select drought tolerant genotypes for sowing in drought affected areas of the country.

  9. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  10. Carotenoid evolution during short-storage period of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum conv. durum) and tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner) whole-grain flours.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Ortega, Elena; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of storage temperature on carotenoid composition in durum wheat and tritordeum whole-grain flours. For both cereal genotypes, total carotenoid content significantly decreased during storage, following a temperature dependent first-order kinetic model. Individual and total carotenoid content decay were similar for durum wheat, with a maximum at 50 °C at the end of the storage period (94%). In contrast, the evolution of lutein ester fractions in tritordeum showed lower losses than for free lutein (∼ 50%), and consequently the total carotenoid content was less affected (83%). A decrease in the lutein monoesters fraction was observed, coinciding with an increase in the diesterified forms, especially for lutein dilinoleate. These data suggest an esterifying activity in flours different from the enzyme systems operating in vivo (xanthophyll acyl transferase). The formation of lutein diesters, with greater stability, explains the slower carotenoid degradation in tritordeum whole-grain flours.

  11. Molecular mapping of Yr53, a new gene for stripe rust resistance in durum wheat accession PI 480148 and its transfer to common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. It is essential to identify new genes for effective resistance against the disease. Durum wheat PI 480148, originally from Ethiopia, was resistant in all seedling tests with s...

  12. The impact of the SSIIa null mutations on grain traits and composition in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Botticella, Ermelinda; Sestili, Francesco; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Mantovani, Paola; Cammerata, Alessandro; D’Egidio, Maria Grazia; Lafiandra, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Starch represents a major nutrient in the human diet providing essentially a source of energy. More recently the modification of its composition has been associated with new functionalities both at the nutritional and technological level. Targeting the major starch biosynthetic enzymes has been shown to be a valuable strategy to manipulate the amylose-amylopectin ratio in reserve starch. In the present work a breeding strategy aiming to produce a set of SSIIa (starch synthases IIa) null durum wheat is described. We have characterized major traits such as seed weight, total starch, amylose, protein and β-glucan content in a set of mutant families derived from the introgression of the SSIIa null trait into Svevo, an elite Italian durum wheat cultivar. A large degree of variability was detected and used to select wheat lines with either improved quality traits or agronomic performances. Semolina of a set of two SSIIa null lines showed new rheological behavior and an increased content of all major dietary fiber components, namely arabinoxylans, β-glucans and resistant starch. Furthermore the investigation of gene expression highlighted important differences in some genes involved in starch and β-glucans biosynthesis. PMID:27795682

  13. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  14. Mycotoxins in durum wheat grain: hygienic-health quality of sicilian production.

    PubMed

    Gallo, G; Lo Bianco, M; Bognanni, R; Saimbene, G

    2008-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin concentrations in Sicilian durum wheat were determined through ELISA tests. The results highlighted the safety of the grain samples at harvest because deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin levels did not exceed European legal limits. With regard to aflatoxins, reliability of the ELISA test was evaluated, comparing it with HPLC analyses. The comparison of HPLC and ELISA data showed a tendency to overestimate aflatoxin concentrations with respect to chromatographic determinations. The usefulness of ELISA was confirmed as a rapid screening method; however, when contamination levels are close to legal limits, chromatographic analyses are necessary to quantify aflatoxins with greater accuracy and specificity.

  15. Degradation of pyrethrin residues on stored durum wheat after postharvest treatment.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Minello, Elizabeth V; Cabras, Marco; Angioni, Alberto; Sarais, Giorgia; Dedola, Fabrizio; Cabras, Paolo

    2007-02-07

    In this paper, pyrethrin levels during a postharvest treatment on stored durum wheat were studied. Two experiments were carried out at single and double the dose recommended by the manufacturer. In all trials, the initial deposition of pyrethrins levels was below the fixed maximum residue level of 3 mg/kg. The fate of pyrethrins in the two experiments was similar, and the total content of pyrethrins remained unchanged for 22 days with a complete dissipation in 8 months. In the single dose experiment, half-life times of pyrethrins I and II were 46 and 72 days, while for the double dose, pyrethrins I and II were 41 and 53 days, respectively.

  16. Disentangling homeologous contigs in allo-tetraploid assembly: application to durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Using Next Generation Sequencing, SNP discovery is relatively easy on diploid species and still hampered in polyploid species by the confusion due to homeology. We develop HomeoSplitter; a fast and effective solution to split original contigs obtained by RNAseq into two homeologous sequences. It uses the differential expression of the two homeologous genes in the RNA. We verify that the new sequences are closer to the diploid progenitors of the allopolyploid species than the original contig. By remapping original reads on these new sequences, we also verify that the number of valuable detected SNPs has significantly increased. Thirty accessions of the tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, A and B genomes) were sequenced in pooled cDNA libraries. Reads were assembled in a de novo durum assembly. Transcriptomes of the diploid species, Aegilops speltoides (close B genome) and Triticum urartu (A genome) were used as reference to benchmark the method. Results HomeoSplitter is a fast and effective solution to disentangle homeologous sequences based on a maximum likelihood optimization. On a benchmark set of 2,505 clusters containing homologous sequences of urartu, speltoides and durum, HomeoSplitter was efficient to build sequences closer to the diploid references and increased the number of valuable SNPs from 188 out of 1,360 SNPs detected when mapping the reads on the de novo durum assembly to 762 out of 1,620 SNPs when mapping on HomeoSplitter contigs. Conclusions The HomeoSplitter program is freely available at http://bioweb.supagro.inra.fr/homeoSplitter/. This work provides a practical solution to the complex problem of disentangling homeologous transcripts in allo-tetraploids, which further allows an improved SNP detection. PMID:24564644

  17. Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; De Simone, Vanessa; De Leonardis, Anna Maria; Giovanniello, Valentina; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Lecce, Lucia; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (p<0.05) reduced the content of anthocyanins (21.42 μg/g vs. 46.32 μg/g) and carotenoids (3.77 μg/g vs. 4.04 μg/g) with respect to the pasteurisation process involved in fresh pasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower. Thus, it is possible to consider this genetic material as a good ingredient for the production of functional foods from cereals naturally rich in bioactive compounds.

  18. Registration of DGE-3, a durum wheat disomic substitution line 1E(1B) involving a wheatgrass chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) alien disomic substitution 1E(1B) line DGE-3 (PI 665473) was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service, Northern Crop Science Lab, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Fargo, ND and released in 2012. It was ...

  19. Identification and validation of a major cadmium accumulation locus and closely associated SNP markers in North Dakota durum wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat has the tendency of accumulating more cadmium (Cd), a biotoxic heavy metal, in seeds than other commonly grown cereals, thus posing a serious food safety/public health concern. This could have serious negative impact on the national pasta industry and the international export market of d...

  20. Marker-assisted characterization of durum wheat Langdon-Golden Ball disomic substitution lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Steven S; Chu, C G; Chao, S; Klindworth, D L; Faris, J D; Elias, E M

    2010-05-01

    The durum wheat cultivar 'Golden Ball' (GB) is a source of resistance to wheat sawfly due to its superior solid stem. In the late 1980s, Dr. Leonard Joppa developed a complete set of 14 'Langdon' (LDN)-GB disomic substitution (DS) lines by using GB as the chromosome donor and LDN as the recipient. However, these substitution lines have not been previously characterized and reported in the literature. The objectives of this study were to confirm the authenticity of the substituted chromosomes and to analyze the genetic background of the 14 LDN-GB DS lines with the aid of molecular markers, and to further use the substitution lines for chromosomal localization of DNA markers and genes conferring the superior stem solidness in GB. Results from simple sequence repeat marker analysis validated the authenticity of the substituted chromosomes in 14 LDN-GB DS lines. Genome-wide scans using the target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) marker system produced a total of 359 polymorphic fragments that were used to compare the genetic background of substitution lines with that of LDN. Among the polymorphic TRAP markers, 134 (37.3%) and 185 (51.5%) were present in LDN and GB, respectively, with only 10 (2.8%) derived from Chinese Spring. Therefore, marker analysis demonstrated that each LDN-GB DS line had a pair of chromosomes from GB with a genetic background similar to that of LDN. Of the TRAP markers generated in this study, 200 were successfully assigned to specific chromosomes based on their presence or absence in the corresponding LDN-GB DS lines. Also, evaluation of stem solidness in the substitution lines verified the presence of a major gene for stem solidness in chromosome 3B. Results from this research provides useful information for the utilization of GB and LDN-GB DS lines for genetic and genomic studies in tetraploid wheat and for the improvement of stem solidness in both durum and bread wheat.

  1. Evaluation of genetic diversity and host resistance to stem rust in durum wheat accessions from the USDA National Small Grains Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) located in Aberdeen, ID, maintains collections representing the global diversity of small grains and their wild relatives. To evaluate the utility of the NSGC durum wheat accessions, we assessed genetic diversity and LD patterns in a durum core s...

  2. Interactive effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation on grain yield, canopy temperature, and nitrogen use efficiency in overhead sprinkler-irrigated Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen and irrigation management are crucial in the production of high protein irrigated durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in arid regions. However, as the availability of irrigation water decreases and potential costs and regulation of nitrogen (N) increase, there is a need to understand how ir...

  3. Association analysis of stem solidness and wheat stem sawfly resistance in a panel of North American spring wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of the geographical range of the wheat stem sawfly, coupled with the limited number of effective control measures, calls for a need to better characterize and explore genetic variability for resistance in wheat germplasm from North America. An association mapping analysis for stem solidne...

  4. Real-time PCR for the detection of precise transgene copy number in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Gadaleta, Agata; Giancaspro, Angelica; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Blanco, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Recent results obtained in various crops indicate that real-time PCR could be a powerful tool for the detection and characterization of transgene locus structures. The determination of transgenic locus number through real-time PCR overcomes the problems linked to phenotypic segregation analysis (i.e. lack of detectable expression even when the transgenes are present) and can analyse hundreds of samples in a day, making it an efficient method for estimating gene copy number. Despite these advantages, many authors speak of "estimating" copy number by real-time PCR, and this is because the detection of a precise number of transgene depends on how well real-time PCR performs.This study was conducted to determine transgene copy number in transgenic wheat lines and to investigate potential variability in sensitivity and resolution of real-time chemistry by TaqMan probes. We have applied real-time PCR to a set of four transgenic durum wheat lines previously obtained. A total of 24 experiments (three experiments for two genes in each transgenic line) were conducted and standard curves were obtained from serial dilutions of the plasmids containing the genes of interest. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.95 to 0.97. By using TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR we were able to detect 1 to 41 copies of transgenes per haploid genome in the DNA of homozygous T4 transformants. Although a slight variability was observed among PCR experiments, in our study we found real-time PCR to be a fast, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of transgene copy number in durum wheat, and a useful adjunct to Southern blot and FISH analyses to detect the presence of transgenic DNA in plant material.

  5. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  6. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes.

  7. Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; de Bang, Thomas C; Pedas, Pai R; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail; Andersen, Birgit; Finnie, Christine; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Søren

    2016-09-01

    Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins were analysed with liquid chromatography ICP-MS and Orbitrap MS(2) , respectively. Laser ablation ICP-MS with simultaneous Zn, sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) detection was used for bioimaging of Zn and its potential ligands. Increasing the Zn and N supply had a major impact on the Zn concentration in the endosperm, reaching concentrations higher than current breeding targets. The S concentration also increased, but S was only partly co-localized with Zn. The mutual Zn and S enrichment was reflected in substantially more Zn bound to small cysteine-rich proteins (apparent size 10-30 kDa), whereas the response of larger proteins (apparent size > 50 kDa) was only modest. Most of the Zn-responsive proteins were associated with redox- and stress-related processes. This study offers a methodological platform to deepen the understanding of processes behind endosperm Zn enrichment. Novel information is provided on how the localization and speciation of Zn is modified during Zn biofortification of grains.

  8. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, aw and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days.

  9. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  10. Geostatistics as a validation tool for setting ozone standards for durum wheat.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Alessandra; Screpanti, Augusto; Paoletti, Elena

    2010-02-01

    Which is the best standard for protecting plants from ozone? To answer this question, we must validate the standards by testing biological responses vs. ambient data in the field. A validation is missing for European and USA standards, because the networks for ozone, meteorology and plant responses are spatially independent. We proposed geostatistics as validation tool, and used durum wheat in central Italy as a test. The standards summarized ozone impact on yield better than hourly averages. Although USA criteria explained ozone-induced yield losses better than European criteria, USA legal level (75 ppb) protected only 39% of sites. European exposure-based standards protected > or =90%. Reducing the USA level to the Canadian 65 ppb or using W126 protected 91% and 97%, respectively. For a no-threshold accumulated stomatal flux, 22 mmol m(-2) was suggested to protect 97% of sites. In a multiple regression, precipitation explained 22% and ozone explained <0.9% of yield variability.

  11. Effect of raw material on cooking quality and nutritional composition of durum wheat spaghetti.

    PubMed

    Padalino, L; Mastromatteo, M; Lecce, L; Spinelli, S; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the effect of semolina and wholemeal flour from six durum wheat cultivars on the pasta cooking and nutritional quality was evaluated. The wholemeal spaghetti samples showed an improvement in the chemical composition (high protein and insoluble dietary fibre content) but they have a decline in the cooking quality (high cooking loss) with respect to the semolina spaghetti. In particular, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli and Core samples recorded the highest protein and insoluble dietary fibre content, respectively. As compared to the other samples, the wholemeal spaghetti Iride recorded a higher cooking loss. Moreover, the wholemeal spaghetti showed the lowest overall quality due to the low score of elasticity, firmness and colour. Specifically, the wholemeal Cappelli recorded a slight rise of the overall quality with respect to other wholemeal samples. In conclusion, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli was found to be an optimum compromise between the sensory and nutritional quality.

  12. Relationship of various flour properties with noodle making characteristics among durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Davinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2015-12-01

    The grain, flour, dough and noodle making properties of Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated. Varieties having higher grain weight had lower hardness and higher yellow pigment content. Gluten performance index showed positive correlation with α-helix and negative with intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets in gluten. The proportion of extracted polymeric proteins was related to dough strength. Elastic (G') and loss (G″) modulus of dough were positively correlated to intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets and negatively with β-turn+ β-sheets proportion of dough and gluten. PDW291 with exceptionally higher G' and G″ and best noodle making properties showed the presence 90 kDa and 88 kDa polypeptides corresponding to 14+15 and type 2 banding pattern.

  13. Drought-induced changes in photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant components of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M; Rustamova, Samira M; Suleymanov, Saftar Y; Aliyeva, Durna R; Mammadov, Alamdar Ch; Aliyev, Jalal A

    2016-12-01

    Water deficit is a key factor influencing the yield and quality of crops. In the present study, the photosynthetic responses by means of chlorophyll fluorescence of chloroplasts, thylakoid membrane proteins, and antioxidant components were analyzed in wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) plants differing in their tolerance to drought. Two durum winter wheat varieties, Barakatli 95 (drought tolerant) and Garagylchyg 2 (drought sensitive) were grown under field well-watered and drought conditions. It was found that contents of the PS I core (CPI) with Mr of 123 kD and apoprotein P700 with Mr of 63 kD were relatively higher in Barakatli 95 variety under drought stress compared with the control plants. Synthesis of α- and β-subunits of CF1 ATP-synthase complex with Mr of 55 and 53.5 kD also slightly increased in the tolerant Barakatli 95 and decreased in the drought sensitive variety Garagylchyg 2. A decrease in the intensity of 30 kD band and a significant increase were found in the content of the 25-16 kD region in Garagylchyg 2 variety. The synthesis of 60 kD and content of low molecular mass polypeptides (21.5 and 12 kD) were increased in the tolerant genotype Barakatli 95. The intensity of peaks at 687, 695, and 742 nm considerably increases in the fluorescence spectra (77 K) of chloroplasts isolated from the sensitive variety Garagylchyg 2, and there is a stimulation of the ratio of fluorescence band intensity F687/F740. At the same time, higher level of glycine betaine was found in the drought tolerant variety compared with the control one throughout the different periods of growth.

  14. Proteomic study of a tolerant genotype of durum wheat under salt-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Papa, Roberto; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-02-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress conditions limiting crop growth and productivity. Duilio is a wheat genotype that shows tolerant behavior in both salt-stress and drought-stress conditions. Toward better understanding of the biochemical response to salinity in this genotype of durum wheat, a comparative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis based on normalized spectral abundance factors was conducted on wheat leaf samples subjected to increasing salt-stress levels (100 and 200 mmol L(-1) NaCl) with respect to untreated samples. We found significant changes in 71 proteins for the first stress level, in 83 proteins at the higher salinity level, and in 88 proteins when comparing salt-stress levels with each other. The major changes concerned the proteins involved in primary metabolism and production of energy, followed by those involved in protein metabolism and cellular defense mechanisms. Some indications of different specific physiological and defense mechanisms implicated in increasing tolerance were obtained. The enhanced salinity tolerance in Duilio appeared to be governed by a higher capacity for osmotic homeostasis, a more efficient defense, and an improvement of protection from mechanical stress by increased cell wall lignifications, allowing a better potential for growth recovery.

  15. Genomic approaches for designing durum wheat ready for climate change with a focus on drought.

    PubMed

    Habash, D Z; Kehel, Z; Nachit, M

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have a significant impact on temperature and precipitation profiles in the Mediterranean basin. The incidence and severity of drought will become commonplace and this will reduce the productivity of rain-fed crops such as durum wheat. Genetic diversity is the material basis for crop improvement and plant breeding has exploited naturally occurring variation to deliver cultivars with improved resistance to abiotic stresses. The coupling of new genomic tools, technologies, and resources with genetic approaches is essential to underpin wheat breeding through marker-assisted selection and hence mitigate climate change. Improvements in crop performance under abiotic stresses have primarily targeted yield-related traits and it is anticipated that the application of genomic technologies will introduce new target traits for consideration in wheat breeding for resistance to drought. Many traits relating to the plant's response and adaptation to drought are complex and multigenic, and quantitative genetics coupled with genomic technologies have the potential to dissect complex genetic traits and to identify regulatory loci, genes and networks. Full realization of our abilities to manipulate metabolism, transduction pathways, and transcription factors for crop improvement ultimately relies on our basic understanding of the regulation of plant networks at all levels of function.

  16. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    PubMed

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants.

  17. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  18. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D’Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  19. Chemical and functional properties of cassava starch, durum wheat semolina flour, and their blends.

    PubMed

    Oladunmoye, Olufunmilola O; Aworh, Ogugua C; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Elemo, Gloria N

    2014-03-01

    High-quality cassava starch (HQCS) produced from high-yielding low-cyanide improved cassava variety, TMS 30572, was mixed with durum wheat semolina (DWS) on a replacement basis to produce flour samples containing 0, 20, 30, 50, 70, and 100% cassava starch. They were analyzed for chemical composition (proximate, amylose, free sugars, starch, wet gluten, and cyanide) and functional properties (pasting, swelling power, solubility, water absorption, water binding, starch damage, diastatic and α-amylase activity, dough mixing, and stability). Protein, carbohydrate, fat, and ash of flour samples ranged from 0.75-12.31%, 70.87-87.80%, 0.95-4.41%, and 0.12-0.83%, respectively. Cyanide levels in all the flour samples were less than 0.1 ppm. Amylose content varied between 19.49% for cassava and 28.19% for wheat, correlating significantly with protein (r = 0.95, P = 0.004) and ash contents (r = 0.92, P = 0.01) at 5%. DWS and HQCS had similar pasting temperatures (50.2-53°C), while other pasting properties increased with increasing levels of HQCS. Dough mixing stability of samples decreased with increasing levels of HQCS. All the flour samples had α-amylase activity greater than 200. Both HQCS and DWS compare favorably well in swelling power (7.80-9.01%); but the solubility of wheat starch doubled that of cassava. Starch damage varied between 3.3 and 7.2 AACC for semolina and starch, with the latter having higher absorption rate (97%), and the former, higher absorption speed (67 sec). Results obtained showed positive insight into cassava-wheat blend characteristics. Data thus generated provide additional opportunities of exploiting cassava utilization and hence boost its value-addition potentials for product development.

  20. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel WIN1/SHN1 ethylene-responsive transcription factor TdSHN1 from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum. L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Djemal, Rania; Khoudi, Habib

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) proteins have become the subject of intensive research activity due to their involvement in a variety of biological processes. This research led to the identification of AP2/ERF genes in many species; however, little is known about these genes in durum wheat, one of the most important cereal crops in the world. In this study, a new member of the AP2/ERF transcription factor family, designated TdSHN1, was isolated from durum wheat using thermal asymetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) method. Protein sequence analysis showed that TdSHN1 contained an AP2/ERF domain of 63 amino acids and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis showed that TdSHN1 belongs to a group Va protein in the ERF subfamily which contains the Arabidopsis ERF proteins (SHN1, SHN2, and SHN3). Expression of TdSHN1 was strongly induced by salt, drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold. In planta, TdSHN1 protein was able to activate the transcription of GUS reporter gene driven by the GCC box and DRE element sequences. In addition, TdSHN1 was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells. In transgenic yeast, overexpression of TdSHN1 increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Taken together, the results showed that TdSHN1 encodes an abiotic stress-inducible, transcription factor which confers abiotic stress tolerance in yeast. TdSHN1 is therefore a promising candidate for improvement of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in wheat as well as other crops.

  1. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... control Fusarium head blight, commonly known as wheat scab. DATES: Effective Date: July 20, 2010. FOR... Fusarium head blight, a wheat disease caused by the Fusarium genus of fungi. The 2008 Farm Bill authorizes... producer must have used an eligible fungicide to control Fusarium head blight on acres certified as...

  2. Expression, purification and refolding of active durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Verlotta, Angelo; Trono, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Recently, a durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 (TdsPLA2III) was identified in leaves as potentially involved in plant responses to conditions of limiting water supply. Therefore, to allow future functional studies on TdsPLA2III and shed further light on the involvement of sPLA2 isoforms in specific plant functions, here we report a protocol for the overexpression of TdsPLA2III in Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies, and for its purification and refolding. The use of the Gateway system (Invitrogen) allows the expression of a large quantity of the mature form (without the signal peptide) of TdsPLA2III with an N-terminal 6×His-tag, for purification using Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III fusion protein is then refolded using a step-wise dialysis approach. About 40mg purified and active protein was obtained from 1L of cell culture. This recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III protein shows PLA2 activity, as it can hydrolyze linoleate from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Moreover, it has some features that are typical of other known plant sPLA2s: Ca(2+)-dependence, inhibition by the disulfide bond reducing agent dithiothreitol, and resistance to high temperature.

  3. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of durum wheat contamination or adulteration.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rosita; Cusano, Erica; Perissi, Andrea; Ferron, Francisco; Severino, Valeria; Parente, Augusto; Chambery, Angela

    2014-12-01

    In this work, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization (UPLC-ESI)-MS/MS methodology based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the selective and sensitive detection and quantification of durum wheat adulteration has been developed and fully validated. The targeted analysis was performed by monitoring specific transitions at m/z 543.7 > 657.4 and m/z 543.7 > 299.2 of a species-specific marker derived from a tryptic peptide of puroindoline a (Pin-a), a cysteine-rich protein selectively present only in common wheat. In addition, two transitions at m/z 500.4 > 725.4 and m/z 500.4 > 561.9 of a reference peptide belonging to purothionin A-1, present in both species, were also monitored. The calibration curves obtained on binary mixtures with known percentages of common/durum wheat flours showed linearity (coefficient of regression, r ≥ 0.99) over concentrations that ranged between 80 and 1%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the Pin-a marker in wheat flours were 0.01 and 0.03%, respectively. The identified Pin-a marker was also found to be highly diagnostic for the quantification of common wheat in raw materials (kernels) and processed products (pasta), thus offering new opportunities to assess food authenticity.

  4. Molecular mapping of genes Yr64 and Yr65 for stripe rust resistance in hexaploid derivatives of durum wheat accessions PI 331260 and PI 480016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide and resistance is the best control strategy. Durum wheat accessions PI 331260 and PI 480016 were resistant to all tested Pst races. To transfer the resistance genes to common ...

  5. The existence of phospholipase A(2) activity in plant mitochondria and its activation by hyperosmotic stress in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Trono, Daniela; Soccio, Mario; Laus, Maura N; Pastore, Donato

    2013-02-01

    The activity of mitochondrial phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) was shown for the first time in plants. It was observed in etiolated seedlings from durum wheat, barley, tomato, spelt and green seedlings of maize, but not in potato and topinambur tubers and lentil etiolated seedlings. This result was achieved by a novel spectrophotometric assay based on the coupled PLA(2)/lipoxygenase reactions using 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine as substrate; the mitochondrial localisation was assessed by checking recovery of marker enzymes. Durum wheat mitochondrial PLA(2) (DWM-PLA(2)) showed maximal activity at pH 9.0 and 1mM Ca(2+), hyperbolic kinetics (K(m)=90±6μM, V(max)=29±1nmolmin(-1)mg(-1) of protein) and inhibition by methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, 5-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-4S-(7-phenylheptanoylamino)pentanoic acid and palmityl trifluoromethyl ketone. Reactive oxygen species had no effect on DWM-PLA(2), that instead was activated by about 50% and 95%, respectively, under salt (0.21M NaCl) and osmotic (0.42M mannitol) stress imposed during germination. Contrarily, a secondary Ca(2+)-independent activity, having optimum at pH 7.0, was stress-insensitive. We propose that the activation of DWM-PLA(2) is responsible for the strong increase of free fatty acids recently measured in mitochondria under the same stress conditions [Laus, et al., J. Exp. Bot. 62 (2011) 141-154] that, in turn, activate potassium channel and uncoupling protein, able to counteract hyperosmotic stress.

  6. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, cultivar Senatore Cappelli) production systems effects on grain and flours functional properties under Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Chami, Ziad Al

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of organic farming is the "production of high quality products". Integrity and vital quality of products should be preserved along the entire production chain. In order to evaluate the effect of organic vs. conventional production systems on durum wheat phenolic acids and antioxidant activity open field experiment has been carried out. During the whole process chain from field to fork, there are various factors influencing the quality of the end product. Organic production should rely on genotypes with high nitrogen use efficiency, disease and pest resistance, weed competitiveness and tolerance especially under Mediterranean conditions. In this study, production systems differed according to the practices and inputs applied to manage the soil fertility and plant protection. In conventional system, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides were used. Whereas, in the two organic systems, cow manure with fertilizers and temporary intercropping with fava bean (Vicia faba) and fertilizers were used to manage soil fertility. Biopesticides were used for plant protection for organic systems. One treatment without inputs was used as a control in order to evaluate environmental site and cultivar effect. Quantity of free, free and conjugated and bounded phenolic acids were evaluated in relation to overall quality and production systems. In addition, antioxidant capacities of each fraction by different assays were assessed. The organic production method assured higher overall quality in paricular functional properties compared to the conventional one. Therefore, understanding the functional links between production systems variables and physiological responses is essential to improve and standardize the quality of organic durum wheat products. Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility management, phenolic acids, antioxidant activity.

  7. Characterization of α/β- and γ-gliadins in commercial varieties and breeding lines of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF and A-PAGE gels.

    PubMed

    Marín, Santiago; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Hernando, Alberto; Barro, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    In this work, gliadin composition has been analyzed in 33 accessions of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF MS and compared with A-PAGE results. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra were 29,900-42,500 Da, which corresponds to the α/β- and γ-gliadin regions in A-PAGE. The average of gliadin peaks per line was 23 for MALDI-TOF MS and only 14.8 bands for A-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS identified 33 gliadin peaks in the durum wheat collection, 20 of which were unique peaks present in 7 lines. A-PAGE analysis identified 30 bands, of which only 4 were unique. Thus, the MALDI-TOF MS method was more sensitive than A-PAGE for identifying α/β- and γ-gliadins in the 33 durum wheat lines studied. Phylogenetic analyses performed using MALDI-TOF MS data assigned the durum wheat lines to two groups. The utility of MALDI-TOF MS to determine relationships among genotypes and for identification of durum wheat accessions is discussed.

  8. Validation and application of a quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect common wheat adulteration of durum wheat for pasta production.

    PubMed

    Carloni, Elisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Omiccioli, Enrica; Ceppetelli, Veronica; Del Mastro, Michele; Rotundo, Luca; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Pasta is the Italian product par excellence and it is now popular worldwide. Pasta of a superior quality is made with pure durum wheat. In Italy, addition of Triticum aestivum (common wheat) during manufacturing is not allowed and, without adequate labeling, its presence is considered an adulteration. PCR-related techniques can be employed for the detection of common wheat contaminations. In this work, we demonstrated that a previously published method for the detection of T. aestivum, based on the gliadin gene, is inadequate. Moreover, a new molecular method, based on DNA extraction from semolina and real-time PCR determination of T. aestivum in Triticum spp., was validated. This multiplex real-time PCR, based on the dual-labeled probe strategy, guarantees target detection specificity and sensitivity in a short period of time. Moreover, the molecular analysis of common wheat contamination in commercial wheat and flours is described for the first time.

  9. Molecular characterization of durum and common wheat recombinant lines carrying leaf rust resistance (Lr19) and yellow pigment (Y) genes from Lophopyrum ponticum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Lukaszewski, Adam J; Kolmer, Jim; Soria, Marcelo A; Goyal, Sham; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2005-08-01

    Chromosome 7E from Lophopyrum ponticum carries a valuable leaf rust resistant gene designated Lr19. This gene has not been widely used in common wheat breeding because of linkage with the yellow pigment gene Y. This gene tints flour yellow, reducing its appeal in bread making. However, a high level of yellow pigment is desirable in durum wheat breeding. We produced 97 recombinant chromosomes between L. ponticum transfer 7D.7E#1 and its wheat homoeologues, using the ph1b mutation that promotes homoeologous pairing. We characterized a subset of 37 of these lines with 11 molecular markers and evaluated their resistance to leaf rust and the abundance of yellow pigment. The Lr19 gene was mapped between loci Xwg420 and Xmwg2062, whereas Y was mapped distal to Xpsr687, the most distal marker on the long arm of chromosome 7. A short terminal 7EL segment translocated to 7A, including Lr19 and Y (line 1-23), has been transferred to durum wheat by backcrossing. The presence of this alien segment significantly increased the abundance of yellow pigment. The Lr19 also conferred resistance to a new durum leaf rust race from California and Mexico that is virulent on most durum wheat cultivars. The new durum lines with the recombinant 7E segment will be useful parents to increase yellow pigment and leaf rust resistance in durum wheat breeding programs. For the common wheat breeding programs, we selected the recombinant line 1-96, which has an interstitial 7E segment carrying Lr19 but not Y. This recombinant line can be used to improve leaf rust resistance without affecting flour color. The 7EL/7DL 1-96 recombinant chromosome did not show the meiotic self-elimination previously reported for a 7EL/7BL translocation.

  10. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P < 0.05) cell numbers of lactic acid bacteria after the first fermentation. Constant pH of ca. 4.0 was found after two (macerated pears or water pears-doughs) to seven (control-dough) back-slopping steps. The use of additional ingredients caused lower microbial diversity, after the first fermentation and in mature sourdoughs. Regardless of the type of ingredient used, OTU belonging to the genus Lactobacillus represented more than 95% of the total Firmicutes in mature sourdoughs. Some metabolic capacities of microbial community of the mature sourdoughs were linked to the additional ingredient. Based on culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated in all the sourdoughs. However, the sourdoughs showed different strains of these two species. Other lactic acid bacterium species were associated to baker's yeast, grape must and macerated pears. The different microbial composition was correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives).

  11. Aromatic and proteomic analyses corroborate the distinction between Mediterranean landraces and modern varieties of durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Federico; Taiti, Cosimo; Pompeiano, Antonio; Gu, Zuguang; Lo Presti, Emilio; Whitney, Larisa; Monti, Michele; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Giambalvo, Dario; Ruisi, Paolo; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from durum wheat cultivars and landraces were analyzed using PTR-TOF-MS. The aim was to characterize the VOC’s profile of the wholemeal flour and of the kernel to find out if any VOCs were specific to varieties and sample matrices. The VOC data is accompanied by SDS-PAGE analyses of the storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins). Statistical analyses was carried out both on the signals obtained by MS and on the protein profiles. The difference between the VOC profile of two cultivars or two preparations of the same sample - matrices, in this case kernel vs wholemeal flour - can be very subtle; the high resolution of PTR-TOF-MS - down to levels as low as pptv - made it possible to recognize these differences. The effects of grinding on the VOC profiles were analyzed using SIMPER and Tanglegram statistical methods. Our results show that it is possible describe samples using VOC profiles and protein data. PMID:27708424

  12. Transport Pathways—Proton Motive Force Interrelationship in Durum Wheat Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N.; Soccio, Mario; Pastore, Donato

    2014-01-01

    In durum wheat mitochondria (DWM) the ATP-inhibited plant mitochondrial potassium channel (PmitoKATP) and the plant uncoupling protein (PUCP) are able to strongly reduce the proton motive force (pmf) to control mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species; under these conditions, mitochondrial carriers lack the driving force for transport and should be inactive. However, unexpectedly, DWM uncoupling by PmitoKATP neither impairs the exchange of ADP for ATP nor blocks the inward transport of Pi and succinate. This uptake may occur via the plant inner membrane anion channel (PIMAC), which is physiologically inhibited by membrane potential, but unlocks its activity in de-energized mitochondria. Probably, cooperation between PIMAC and carriers may accomplish metabolite movement across the inner membrane under both energized and de-energized conditions. PIMAC may also cooperate with PmitoKATP to transport ammonium salts in DWM. Interestingly, this finding may trouble classical interpretation of in vitro mitochondrial swelling; instead of free passage of ammonia through the inner membrane and proton symport with Pi, that trigger metabolite movements via carriers, transport of ammonium via PmitoKATP and that of the counteranion via PIMAC may occur. Here, we review properties, modulation and function of the above reported DWM channels and carriers to shed new light on the control that they exert on pmf and vice-versa. PMID:24821541

  13. Quality classification of Italian wheat durum spaghetti by means of different spectrophometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.; Bucarelli, A.

    2007-09-01

    Wheat durum pasta (spaghetti in particular) can be considered as the most typical Italy's food product. Many small or craft pasta factories realize different quality product regarding the use of biological wheat and the application of mild (lower drying temperature) or traditional (bronze draw-plate) technologies, in competition with large industrial enterprises. The application of higher quality standards increases the producing cost and determines higher pasta prices. In order to setup a reliable easy-to-use methodology to distinguish different production technology approaches, spectrophotometric visible and near-infrared (VIS-Nir) techniques were applied on the intact pasta. Eighteen samples of commercial brand spaghetti classified in five different quality production factors (Full industrial - Teflon-drawn, high temperature-short time drying -; semolina from organic cultivations; bronze-drawn treatment; low temperature - long time drying; traditional high quality pasta - bronze-drawn and low temperature drying treatments-) were analyzed by three different spectrometric techniques: a VIS (400 - 700 nm) spectral imaging, a Nir (1000-1700 nm) spectral imaging - both of them acquiring reflected spectral images of spaghetti bundle - and a portable VIS-Nir system (400-800 nm), working with an interactance probe on single spaghetti string. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regressions (PLS) were performed on about 1500 spectral arrays, to test the ability of the systems to distinguish the different pasta products (commercial brands). Reflectance visible data presented highest percentage of correct classification: 98.6% total value, 100% for high quality spaghetti (bronze-drawn and/or low temperature drying). NIR reflectance and VIS-NIR interactance systems presented 85% and 70% of entire correct classification while for high quality pasta the percentages rise up to 75% and 83%

  14. Description of durum wheat linkage map and comparative sequence analysis of wheat mapped DArT markers with rice and Brachypodium genomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of wheat to the world economy, together with progresses in high-throughput next-generation DNA sequencing, have accelerated initiatives of genetic research for wheat improvement. The availability of high density linkage maps is crucial to identify genotype-phenotype associations, but also for anchoring BAC contigs to genetic maps, a strategy followed for sequencing the wheat genome. Results Here we report a genetic linkage map in a durum wheat segregating population and the study of mapped DArT markers. The linkage map consists of 126 gSSR, 31 EST-SSR and 351 DArT markers distributed in 24 linkage groups for a total length of 1,272 cM. Through bioinformatic approaches we have analysed 327 DArT clones to reveal their redundancy, syntenic and functional aspects. The DNA sequences of 174 DArT markers were assembled into a non-redundant set of 60 marker clusters. This explained the generation of clusters in very small chromosome regions across genomes. Of these DArT markers, 61 showed highly significant (Expectation < E-10) BLAST similarity to gene sequences in public databases of model species such as Brachypodium and rice. Based on sequence alignments, the analysis revealed a mosaic gene conservation, with 54 and 72 genes present in rice and Brachypodium species, respectively. Conclusions In the present manuscript we provide a detailed DArT markers characterization and the basis for future efforts in durum wheat map comparing. PMID:24304553

  15. Complete characterization of wheat-alien metaphase I pairing in interspecific hybrids between durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Marta; Benavente, Elena

    2009-05-01

    The pattern of homoeologous metaphase I (MI) pairing has been fully characterized in durum wheat x Aegilops cylindrica hybrids (2n = 4x = 28, ABC(c)D(c)) by an in situ hybridization procedure that has permitted individual discrimination of every wheat and wild constituent genome. One of the three hybrid genotypes examined carried the ph1c mutation. In all cases, MI associations between chromosomes of both species represented around two-third of total. Main results from the analysis are as follows (a) the A genome chromosomes are involved in wheat-wild MI pairing more frequently than the B genome partners, irrespective of the alien genome considered; (b) both durum wheat genomes pair preferentially with the D(c) genome of jointed goatgrass. These findings are discussed in relation to the potential of genetic transference between wheat crops and this weedy relative. It can also be highlighted that inactivation of Ph1 provoked a relatively higher promotion of MI associations involving B genome.

  16. Size exclusion HPLC of proteins for evaluation of durum wheat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present research aimed to assess size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) in protein molecular weight distribution determination for quality evaluation of durum semolina. Semolina samples were milled from 13 durum genotypes grown at 7 locations in 2009 and 2010 in ND. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer ...

  17. Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cereal seeds mutations in one or more starch synthases lead to decreased amylopectin and increased amylose content. Here, the impact of starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SGP-1) mutations upon durum starch was investigated. A screen of durum accessions identified two lines lacking SGP-A1, the A geno...

  18. Pasta made from durum wheat semolina fermented with selected lactobacilli as a tool for a potential decrease of the gluten intolerance.

    PubMed

    di Cagno, Raffaella; de Angelis, Maria; Alfonsi, Giuditta; de Vincenzi, Massimo; Silano, Marco; Vincentini, Olimpia; Gobbetti, Marco

    2005-06-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used to ferment durum wheat semolina under liquid conditions. After fermentation, the dough was freeze-dried, mixed with buckwheat flour at a ratio of 3:7, and used to produce the "fusilli" type Italian pasta. Pasta without prefermentation was used as the control. Ingredients and pastas were characterized for compositional analysis. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 92 of the 130 durum wheat gliadin spots were hydrolyzed almost totally during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the hydrolysis of gliadins. As shown by immunological analysis by R5-Western blot, the concentration of gluten decreased from 6280 ppm in the control pasta to 1045 ppm in the pasta fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Gliadins were extracted from fermented and nonfermented durum wheat dough semolina and used to produce a peptic-tryptic (PT) digest for in vitro agglutination tests on cells of human origin. The whole PT digests did not cause agglutination. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose-6-B mannan column separated the PT digests in three fractions. Fraction C showed agglutination activity. The minimal agglutinating activity of fraction C from the PT digest of fermented durum wheat semolina was ca. 80 times higher than that of durum wheat semolina. Pasta was subjected to sensory analysis: The scores for stickiness and firmness were slightly lower than those found for the pasta control. Odor and flavor did not differ between the two types of pasta. These results showed that a pasta biotechnology that uses a prefermentation of durum wheat semolina by selected lactic acid bacteria and tolerated buckwheat flour could be considered as a novel tool to potentially decrease gluten intolerance and the risk of gluten contamination in gluten-free products.

  19. New Insights into the Roles of Host Gene-Necrotrophic Effector Interactions in Governing Susceptibility of Durum Wheat to Tan Spot and Septoria nodorum Blotch

    PubMed Central

    Virdi, Simerjot K.; Liu, Zhaohui; Overlander, Megan E.; Zhang, Zengcui; Xu, Steven S.; Friesen, Timothy L.; Faris, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) are important diseases of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Parastagonospora nodorum, respectively. The P. tritici-repentis necrotrophic effector (NE) Ptr ToxB causes tan spot when recognized by the Tsc2 gene. The NE ToxA is produced by both pathogens and has been associated with the development of both tan spot and SNB when recognized by the wheat Tsn1 gene. Most work to study these interactions has been conducted in common wheat, but little has been done in durum wheat. Here, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of a segregating biparental population indicated that the Tsc2-Ptr ToxB interaction plays a prominent role in the development of tan spot in durum. However, analysis of two biparental populations indicated that the Tsn1-ToxA interaction was not associated with the development of tan spot, but was strongly associated with the development of SNB. Pa. nodorum expressed ToxA at high levels in infected Tsn1 plants, whereas ToxA expression in P. tritici-repentis was barely detectable, suggesting that the differences in disease levels associated with the Tsn1-ToxA interaction were due to differences in pathogen expression of ToxA. These and previous results together indicate that: (1) the effects of Tsn1-ToxA on tan spot in common wheat can range from nonsignificant to highly significant depending on the host genetic background; (2) Tsn1-ToxA is not a significant factor for tan spot development in durum wheat; and (3) Tsn1-ToxA plays a major role in SNB development in both common and durum wheat. Durum and common wheat breeders alike should strive to remove both Tsc2 and Tsn1 from their materials to achieve disease resistance. PMID:27777262

  20. New Insights into the Roles of Host Gene-Necrotrophic Effector Interactions in Governing Susceptibility of Durum Wheat to Tan Spot and Septoria nodorum Blotch.

    PubMed

    Virdi, Simerjot K; Liu, Zhaohui; Overlander, Megan E; Zhang, Zengcui; Xu, Steven S; Friesen, Timothy L; Faris, Justin D

    2016-12-07

    Tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) are important diseases of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Parastagonospora nodorum, respectively. The P. tritici-repentis necrotrophic effector (NE) Ptr ToxB causes tan spot when recognized by the Tsc2 gene. The NE ToxA is produced by both pathogens and has been associated with the development of both tan spot and SNB when recognized by the wheat Tsn1 gene. Most work to study these interactions has been conducted in common wheat, but little has been done in durum wheat. Here, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of a segregating biparental population indicated that the Tsc2-Ptr ToxB interaction plays a prominent role in the development of tan spot in durum. However, analysis of two biparental populations indicated that the Tsn1-ToxA interaction was not associated with the development of tan spot, but was strongly associated with the development of SNB. Pa. nodorum expressed ToxA at high levels in infected Tsn1 plants, whereas ToxA expression in P. tritici-repentis was barely detectable, suggesting that the differences in disease levels associated with the Tsn1-ToxA interaction were due to differences in pathogen expression of ToxA These and previous results together indicate that: (1) the effects of Tsn1-ToxA on tan spot in common wheat can range from nonsignificant to highly significant depending on the host genetic background; (2) Tsn1-ToxA is not a significant factor for tan spot development in durum wheat; and (3) Tsn1-ToxA plays a major role in SNB development in both common and durum wheat. Durum and common wheat breeders alike should strive to remove both Tsc2 and Tsn1 from their materials to achieve disease resistance.

  1. Water deficit effects on solute contribution to osmotic adjustment as a function of leaf ageing in three durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars performing differently in arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Bajji, M; Lutts, S; Kinet, J -M.

    2001-03-01

    A greenhouse study was carried out using three durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars differing in their field performances under arid conditions (Kabir 1, poor yield stability; Omrabi 5, high yield stability and Haurani, landrace well adapted to drought). Water stress was imposed by withholding water at the seedling stage. Water potential (Psi(w)), relative water content (RWC), stomatal resistance (SR), and changes in solute concentrations were quantified: (1) as a function of leaf development during the stress period; and (2) in young expanded and growing leaves harvested at the end of the stress treatment. Psi(w), RWC and SR were almost unaffected by leaf age in controls. In contrast, solute concentrations appeared to vary in the course of leaf development. During the stress treatment, Psi(w) and RWC decreased and SR increased in all cultivars; the changes were most often largest in Omrabi 5, lowest in Haurani and intermediate in Kabir 1. Water stress also increased sugar and proline concentrations and decreased nitrate levels. Young expanded and growing leaves differed in terms of Psi(w), RWC and osmotic adjustment (OA). The capacity of OA was greater in growing than in expanded leaves, especially in the two cultivars best adapted to aridity, and allowed turgor maintenance in these genotypes. Sugars were the main solutes that contributed to OA particularly in growing leaves followed by proline and then quaternary ammonium compounds. The contributions of these organic solutes to OA tended to be higher in Omrabi 5 and in Haurani than in Kabir 1. Inorganic solutes, however, did not seem to play an important role in OA despite their high proportion in total solutes.

  2. Genetic Diversity and Association Mapping for Agromorphological and Grain Quality Traits of a Structured Collection of Durum Wheat Landraces Including subsp. durum, turgidum and diccocon

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Patricia; Royo, Conxita; González, Mirvana; Carrillo, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping was performed for 18 agromorphological and grain quality traits in a set of 183 Spanish landraces, including subspecies durum, turgidum and dicoccon, genotyped with 749 DArT (Diversity Array Technology) markers. Large genetic and phenotypic variability was detected, being the level of diversity among the chromosomes and genomes heterogeneous, and sometimes complementary, among subspecies. Overall, 356 were monomorphic in at least one subspecies, mainly in dicoccon, and some of them coincidental between subspecies, especially between turgidum and dicoccon. Several of those fixed markers were associated to plant responses to environmental stresses or linked to genes subjected to selection during tetraploid wheat domestication process. A total of 85 stable MTAs (marker–trait associations) have been identified for the agromorphological and quality parameters, some of them common among subspecies and others subspecies-specific. For all the traits, we have found MTAs explaining more than 10% of the phenotypic variation in any of the three subspecies. The number of MTAs on the B genome exceeded that on the A genome in subsp. durum, equalled in turgidum and was below in dicoccon. The validation of several adaptive and quality trait MTAs by combining the association mapping with an analysis of the signature of selection, identifying the putative gene function of the marker, or by coincidences with previous reports, showed that our approach was successful for the detection of MTAs and the high potential of the collection to identify marker–trait associations. Novel MTAs not previously reported, some of them subspecies specific, have been described and provide new information about the genetic control of complex traits. PMID:27846306

  3. Durum wheat seedling responses to simultaneous high light and salinity involve a fine reconfiguration of amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Pasqualina; Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Annunziata, Maria Grazia; Pacifico, Severina; Iannuzzi, Federica; Mirto, Antonio; D'Amelia, Luisa; Dell'Aversana, Emilia; Piccolella, Simona; Fuggi, Amodio; Carillo, Petronia

    2017-03-01

    Durum wheat plants are extremely sensitive to drought and salinity during seedling and early development stages. Their responses to stresses have been extensively studied to provide new metabolic targets and improving the tolerance to adverse environments. Most of these studies have been performed in growth chambers under low light [300-350 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), LL]. However, in nature plants have to face frequent fluctuations of light intensities that often exceed their photosynthetic capacity (900-2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) ). In this study we investigated the physiological and metabolic changes potentially involved in osmotic adjustment and antioxidant defense in durum wheat seedlings under high light (HL) and salinity. The combined application of the two stresses decreased the water potential and stomatal conductance without reducing the photosynthetic efficiency of the plants. Glycine betaine (GB) synthesis was inhibited, proline and glutamate content decreased, while γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amides and minor amino acids increased. The expression level and enzymatic activities of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, asparagine synthetase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as other enzymatic activities of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, were analyzed. Antioxidant enzymes and metabolites were also considered. The results showed that the complex interplay seen in durum wheat plants under salinity at LL was simplified: GB and antioxidants did not play a main role. On the contrary, the fine tuning of few specific primary metabolites (GABA, amides, minor amino acids and hexoses) remodeled metabolism and defense processes, playing a key role in the response to simultaneous stresses.

  4. Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Sergio; Rappa, Vito; Ruisi, Paolo; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sunseri, Francesco; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso S.; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4+) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3- transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem. PMID:26483827

  5. Cell-specific localization of Na+ in roots of durum wheat and possible control points for salt exclusion.

    PubMed

    Läuchli, André; James, Richard A; Huang, Cheng X; McCully, Margaret; Munns, Rana

    2008-11-01

    Sodium exclusion from leaves is an important mechanism for salt tolerance in durum wheat. To characterize possible control points for Na(+) exclusion, quantitative cryo-analytical scanning electron microscopy was used to determine cell-specific ion profiles across roots of two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting rates of Na(+) transport from root to shoot grown in 50 mm NaCl. The Na(+) concentration in Line 149 (low transport genotype) declined across the cortex, being highest in the epidermal and sub-epidermal cells (48 mm) and lowest in the inner cortical cells (22 mm). Na(+) was high in the pericycle (85 mm) and low in the xylem parenchyma (34 mm). The Na(+) profile in Tamaroi (high transport genotype) had a similar trend but with a high concentration (130 mm) in the xylem parenchyma. The K(+) profiles were generally inverse to those of Na(+). Chloride was only detected in the epidermis. These data suggest that the epidermal and cortical cells removed most of the Na(+) and Cl(-) from the transpiration stream before it reached the endodermis, and that the endodermis is not the control point for salt uptake by the plant. The pericycle as well as the xylem parenchyma may be important in the control of net Na(+) loading of the xylem.

  6. Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis in Durum Wheat Pasta by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tolosa, Josefa; Graziani, Giulia; Gaspari, Anna; Chianese, Donato; Ferrer, Emilia; Mañes, Jordi; Ritieni, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    A simple and rapid multi-mycotoxin method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins simultaneously is described in the present survey on durum and soft wheat pasta samples. Mycotoxins included in the study were those mainly reported in cereal samples: ochratoxin-A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-AcDON and 15-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon-X, (FUS-X), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2), and four emerging mycotoxins: three enniatins (ENA, ENA1, and ENB), and beauvericin (BEA). Twenty-nine samples were analyzed to provide an overview on mycotoxin presence: 27 samples of durum wheat pasta, and two samples of baby food. Analytical results concluded that trichothecenes showed the highest incidence, mainly DON, NIV, and HT-2 toxin, followed by ZON and ENB, while NEO, FUS-X, OTA, AFB1, and FUM were not detected in any sample. The highest contents corresponded to ENB and ranged from 91.15 µg/kg to 710.90 µg/kg. PMID:28208797

  7. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

    2010-09-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple

  8. Registration of scab-resistant KY06C-11-3-10 soft red winter wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide that has elicited a widespread resistance-breeding effort. One approach to breeding relies on deployment of exotic quantitative trait loci (QTL) from wheat outside North America. Germplasm line KY06C-11-3-10 (R...

  9. Registration of the Soft Red Winter Wheat Germplasm MD01W233-06-1 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) [caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe; telomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch] is a major disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the US mid- Atlantic region. The objective of this research was to derive soft red winter wheat (SRWW) germplasm with enhanced ...

  10. Identification of Yr59 conferring high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat germplasm PI 178759

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Resistant cultivars are the preferred means of control. The spring wheat germplasm ‘PI 178759’ originating from Iraq showed effective resistance to stripe rust in fie...

  11. Cereal cyst nematode screening in locally adapted spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm of the Pacific Northwest, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field screenings were performed to determine if there is resistance to Heterodera filipjevi in locally adapted wheat germplasm which could be introgressed into new WA wheat varieties. A field naturally infested with Heterodera filipjevi located in Colton, WA, was selected for this experiment. Cultiv...

  12. ND 803 spring wheat germplasm combining resistance to scab and leaf diseases with good agronomic and quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of adapted wheat germplasm is essential so that breeding programs can develop superior cultivars, which was the objective of this research. ND 803 is hard red spring wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) line that was developed at North Dakota State University (NDSU) and released by the...

  13. High molecular weight glutenin subunits in some durum wheat cultivars investigated by means of mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Muccilli, Vera; Lo Bianco, Marisol; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Gallo, Giulia; Foti, Salvatore

    2011-11-23

    The primary structures of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of 5 Triticum durum Desf. cultivars (Simeto, Svevo, Duilio, Bronte, and Sant'Agata), largely cultivated in the south of Italy, and of 13 populations of the old spring Sicilian durum wheat landrace Timilia (Triticum durum Desf.) (accession nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, SG1, SG2, and SG3) were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography/nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS). M(r) of the intact proteins determined by MALDI mass spectrometry showed that all the 13 populations of Timilia contained the same two HMW-GS with 75.2 kDa and 86.4 kDa, whereas the other durum wheat cultivars showed the presence of the expected HMW-GS 1By8 and 1Bx7 at 75.1 kDa and 83.1 kDa, respectively. By MALDI mass spectrometry of the tryptic digestion peptides of the isolated HMW-GS of Timilia, the 1Bx and 1By subunits were identified as the NCBInr Acc. No AAQ93629, and AAQ93633, respectively. Sequence verification for HMW-GS 1Bx and 1By both in Simeto and Timilia was obtained by MALDI mass mapping and HPLC/nESI-MSMS of the tryptic peptides. The Bx subunit of Timila presents a sequence similarity of 96% with respect to Simeto, with differences in the insertion of 3 peptides of 5, 9, and 15 amino acids, for a total insertion of 29 amino acids and 25 amino acid substitutions. These differences in the amino acidic sequence account for the determined Δm of 3294 Da between the M(r) of the 1Bx subunits in Timilia and Simeto. Sequence alignment between the two By subunits shows 10 amino acid substitutions and is consistent with the Δm of 148 Da found in the MALDI mass spectra of the intact subunits.

  14. Searching for novel sources of field resistance to Ug99 and Ethiopian stem rust races in durum wheat via association mapping.

    PubMed

    Letta, Tesfaye; Maccaferri, Marco; Badebo, Ayele; Ammar, Karim; Ricci, Andrea; Crossa, Jose; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causative agent of stem rust in wheat, is a devastating disease of durum wheat. While more than 50 stem rust resistance (Sr) loci have been identified in wheat, only a few of them have remained effective against Ug99 (TTKSK race) and other durum-specific Ethiopian races. An association mapping (AM) approach based on 183 diverse durum wheat accessions was utilized to identify resistance loci for stem rust response in Ethiopia over four field-evaluation seasons and artificial inoculation with Ug99 and a mixture of durum-specific races. The panel was profiled with simple sequence repeat, Diversity Arrays Technology and sequence-tagged site markers (1,253 in total). The resistance turned out to be oligogenic, with twelve QTL-tagging markers that were significant (P < 0.05) across three or four seasons. R (2) values ranged from 1.1 to 11.3 %.Twenty-four additional single-marker/QTL regions were found to be significant over two seasons. The AM results confirmed the role of Sr13, previously described in bi-parental mapping studies, and the role of chromosome regions putatively harbouring Sr9, Sr14, Sr17 and Sr28. Three minor QTLs were coincident with those reported in hexaploid wheat and five overlapped with those recently reported in the Sebatel × Kristal durum mapping population. Thirteen single-marker/QTL regions were located in chromosome regions where no Sr genes/QTLs have been previously reported. The allelic variation identified in this study is readily available and can be exploited for marker-assisted selection, thus providing additional opportunities for a more durable stem rust resistance under field conditions.

  15. Genetic Structure of Modern Durum Wheat Cultivars and Mediterranean Landraces Matches with Their Agronomic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Dolors; Aranzana, Maria Jose; García del Moral, Luis F.; Royo, Conxita

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 172 durum wheat landraces from 21 Mediterranean countries and 20 modern cultivars were phenotyped in 6 environments for 14 traits including phenology, biomass, yield and yield components. The genetic structure of the collection was ascertained with 44 simple sequence repeat markers that identified 448 alleles, 226 of them with a frequency lower than 5%, and 10 alleles per locus on average. In the modern cultivars all the alleles were fixed in 59% of the markers. Total genetic diversity was HT = 0.7080 and the genetic differentiation value was GST = 0.1730. STRUCTURE software allocated 90.1% of the accessions in five subpopulations, one including all modern cultivars, and the four containing landrace related to their geographic origin: eastern Mediterranean, eastern Balkans and Turkey, western Balkans and Egypt, and western Mediterranean. Mean yield of subpopulations ranged from 2.6 t ha-1 for the western Balkan and Egyptian landraces to 4.0 t ha-1 for modern cultivars, with the remaining three subpopulations showing similar values of 3.1 t ha-1. Modern cultivars had the highest number of grains m-2 and harvest index, and the shortest cycle length. The diversity was lowest in modern cultivars (HT = 0.4835) and highest in landraces from the western Balkans and Egypt (HT = 0.6979). Genetic diversity and AMOVA indicated that variability between subpopulations was much lower (17%) than variability within them (83%), though all subpopulations had similar biomass values in all growth stages. A dendrogram based on simple sequence repeat data matched with the clusters obtained by STRUCTURE, improving this classification for some accessions that have a large admixture. landraces included in the subpopulation from the eastern Balkans and Turkey were separated into two branches in the dendrogram drawn with phenotypic data, suggesting a different origin for the landraces collected in Serbia and Macedonia. The current study shows a reliable relationship between

  16. Establishing an efficient way to utilize the drought resistance germplasm population in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancheng; Guan, Yajing; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Liwei; Wang, Qitian; Hu, Qijuan; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Drought resistance breeding provides a hopeful way to improve yield and quality of wheat in arid and semiarid regions. Constructing core collection is an efficient way to evaluate and utilize drought-resistant germplasm resources in wheat. In the present research, 1,683 wheat varieties were divided into five germplasm groups (high resistant, HR; resistant, R; moderate resistant, MR; susceptible, S; and high susceptible, HS). The least distance stepwise sampling (LDSS) method was adopted to select core accessions. Six commonly used genetic distances (Euclidean distance, Euclid; Standardized Euclidean distance, Seuclid; Mahalanobis distance, Mahal; Manhattan distance, Manhat; Cosine distance, Cosine; and Correlation distance, Correlation) were used to assess genetic distances among accessions. Unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) method was used to perform hierarchical cluster analysis. Coincidence rate of range (CR) and variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR) were adopted to evaluate the representativeness of the core collection. A method for selecting the ideal constructing strategy was suggested in the present research. A wheat core collection for the drought resistance breeding programs was constructed by the strategy selected in the present research. The principal component analysis showed that the genetic diversity was well preserved in that core collection.

  17. Identification and mapping of leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance quantitative trait loci and their interactions in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Pandey, M P; Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Ammar, K; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, R P; Pozniak, C J; Depauw, R M; McCallum, B D; Cuthbert, R D; Randhawa, H S; Fetch, T G

    2013-02-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks.) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) cause major production losses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The objective of this research was to identify and map leaf, stripe and stem rust resistance loci from the French cultivar Sachem and Canadian cultivar Strongfield. A doubled haploid population from Sachem/Strongfield and parents were phenotyped for seedling reaction to leaf rust races BBG/BN and BBG/BP and adult plant response was determined in three field rust nurseries near El Batan, Obregon and Toluca, Mexico. Stripe rust response was recorded in 2009 and 2011 nurseries near Toluca and near Njoro, Kenya in 2010. Response to stem rust was recorded in field nurseries near Njoro, Kenya, in 2010 and 2011. Sachem was resistant to leaf, stripe and stem rust. A major leaf rust quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on chromosome 7B at Xgwm146 in Sachem. In the same region on 7B, a stripe rust QTL was identified in Strongfield. Leaf and stripe rust QTL around DArT marker wPt3451 were identified on chromosome 1B. On chromosome 2B, a significant leaf rust QTL was detected conferred by Strongfield, and at the same QTL, a Yr gene derived from Sachem conferred resistance. Significant stem rust resistance QTL were detected on chromosome 4B. Consistent interactions among loci for resistance to each rust type across nurseries were detected, especially for leaf rust QTL on 7B. Sachem and Strongfield offer useful sources of rust resistance genes for durum rust breeding.

  18. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  19. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs. PMID:27226168

  20. Variations of the sensory profile of durum wheat Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread during staling.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Bilancia, Maria Teresa; Caponio, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    The typical sensory characteristics of Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread are due to both the use of durum wheat remilled semolina and the prolonged sponge-dough method based on sourdough. In this paper the sensory properties of Altamura bread were evaluated during a period of 6 days from baking. A total number of 24 descriptors was considered. The obtained results indicated that during the whole storage period many of the desirable characters such as crust consistence, crumb elasticity, crumb cohesiveness, overall aroma, and sour aroma decreased, while the undesirable stale aroma and crumb consistence increased their intensity. In any case, after 4 days from the production crumb color, crumb grain, crumb elasticity, and crumb humidity did not vary significantly.

  1. Improvements in the production of doubled haploids in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) through isolated microspore culture.

    PubMed

    Cistué, Luis; Romagosa, I; Batlle, F; Echávarri, B

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to produce durum wheat doubled haploid (DH) plants through the induction of microspore embryogenesis. The microspore culture technique was improved to maximize production of green plants per spike using three commercial cultivars. Studies on factors such as induction media composition, induction media support and the stage and growth of donor plants were carried out in order to develop an efficient protocol to regenerate green and fertile DH plants. Microspores were plated on a C(17) induction culture medium with ovary co-culture and a supplement of glutathione plus glutamine; 300 g/l Ficoll Type-400 was incorporated to the induction medium support. Donor plants were fertilized with a combination of macro and microelements. With the cultivars 'Ciccio' and 'Claudio' an average of 36.5 and 148.5 fertile plants were produced, respectively, from 1,000 anthers inoculated. This technique was then used to produce fertile DH plants of potential agronomic interest from a collection of ten F(1) crosses involving cultivars of high breeding value. From these crosses 849 green plants were obtained and seed was harvested from 702 plants indicating that 83% of green plants were fertile and therefore were spontaneously DHs. No aneuploid plant was obtained. The 702 plants yielded enough seeds to be field tested. One of the DH lines obtained by microspore embryogenesis, named 'Lanuza', has been sent to the Spanish Plant Variety Office for Registration by the Batlle Seed Company. This protocol can be used instead of the labor-intensive inter-generic crossing with maize as an economically feasible method to obtain DHs for most crosses involving the durum wheat cultivars grown in Spain.

  2. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Durum Wheat Flour Are Endophytic Components of the Plant during Its Entire Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; Tedone, Luigi; De Mastro, Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria and other Firmicutes associated with durum wheat organs and processed products. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus were the main epiphytic and endophytic genera among lactic acid bacteria. Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Staphylococcus completed the picture of the core genus microbiome. The relative abundance of each lactic acid bacterium genus was affected by cultivars, phenological stages, other Firmicutes genera, environmental temperature, and water activity (aw) of plant organs. Lactobacilli, showing the highest sensitivity to aw, markedly decreased during milk development (Odisseo) and physiological maturity (Saragolla). At these stages, Lactobacillus was mainly replaced by Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. However, a key sourdough species, Lactobacillus plantarum, was associated with plant organs during the life cycle of Odisseo and Saragolla wheat. The composition of the sourdough microbiota and the overall quality of leavened baked goods are also determined throughout the phenological stages of wheat cultivation, with variations depending on environmental and agronomic factors.

  3. Molecular mapping of resistance gene to English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) in Triticum durum wheat line C273.

    PubMed

    Liu, X L; Yang, X F; Wang, C Y; Wang, Y J; Zhang, H; Ji, W Q

    2012-02-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), is one of the most important insect pests causing substantial yield losses in wheat production in China and other grain-growing areas in the world. The efficient utilization of wheat genes for resistance to English grain aphid (EGA) provides an efficient, economic and environmentally sound approach to reduce the yield losses. In the present study, the wheat line C273 (Triticum durum AABB, 2n = 4x = 28), is resistant to EGA in greenhouse and field tests. To identify the resistance gene, designated RA-1 temporarily, C273 was crossed with susceptible genotype Poland 305 (T. polonicum, AABB, 2n = 4x = 28). The F(1), F(2) and F(2:3) lines were tested with EGA in the field and greenhouse. The results indicated that RA-1 is a single dominant gene, closely linked to the microsatellite markers (SSR) Xwmc179, Xwmc553 and Xwmc201 on chromosome 6AL at genetic distances of 3.47, 4.73 and 7.57 cM, respectively. The three SSR markers will be valuable in marker-assisted selection for resistance to EGA as well as for cloning this gene in the future.

  4. Accelerated hydrolysis method to estimate the amino acid content of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) flour using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kabaha, Khaled; Taralp, Alpay; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent

    2011-04-13

    The technique of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was applied to wholegrain wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Balcali 2000) flour in order to speed the preparation of samples for analysis. The resultant hydrolysates were chromatographed and quantified in an automated amino acid analyzer. The effect of different hydrolysis temperatures, times and sample weights was examined using flour dispersed in 6 N HCl. Within the range of values tested, the highest amino acid recoveries were generally obtained by setting the hydrolysis parameters to 150 °C, 3 h and 200 mg sample weight. These conditions struck an optimal balance between liberating amino acid residues from the wheat matrix and limiting their subsequent degradation or transformation. Compared to the traditional 24 h reflux method, the hydrolysates were prepared in dramatically less time, yet afforded comparable ninhydrin color yields. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, the total amino acid recovery corresponded to at least 85.1% of the total protein content, indicating the efficient extraction of amino acids from the flour matrix. The findings suggest that this microwave-assisted method can be used to rapidly profile the amino acids of numerous wheat grain samples, and can be extended to the grain analysis of other cereal crops.

  5. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Durum Wheat Flour Are Endophytic Components of the Plant during Its Entire Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; Tedone, Luigi; De Mastro, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria and other Firmicutes associated with durum wheat organs and processed products. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus were the main epiphytic and endophytic genera among lactic acid bacteria. Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Staphylococcus completed the picture of the core genus microbiome. The relative abundance of each lactic acid bacterium genus was affected by cultivars, phenological stages, other Firmicutes genera, environmental temperature, and water activity (aw) of plant organs. Lactobacilli, showing the highest sensitivity to aw, markedly decreased during milk development (Odisseo) and physiological maturity (Saragolla). At these stages, Lactobacillus was mainly replaced by Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. However, a key sourdough species, Lactobacillus plantarum, was associated with plant organs during the life cycle of Odisseo and Saragolla wheat. The composition of the sourdough microbiota and the overall quality of leavened baked goods are also determined throughout the phenological stages of wheat cultivation, with variations depending on environmental and agronomic factors. PMID:26187970

  6. A comparative analysis of chromosome pairing at metaphase I in interspecific hybrids between durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and the most widespread Aegilops species.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, M; Garcia-Agüero, V; Benavente, E

    2010-07-01

    Homoeologous metaphase I (MI) associations in hybrids between durum wheat and its wild allotetraploid relatives Aegilops neglecta, Ae. triuncialis and Ae. ventricosa have been characterized by a genomic in situ hybridization procedure that allows simultaneous discrimination of A, B and wild species genomes. Earlier results in equivalent hybrids with the wild species Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata have also been considered to comparatively assay the MI pairing pattern of the durum wheat x Aegilops interspecific combinations more likely to occur in nature. The general picture can be drawn as follows. A and B wheat genomes pair with each other less than the 2 wild constituent genomes do in any of the hybrid combinations examined. Interspecific wheat-wild associations account for 60-70% of total MI pairing in all hybrids, except in that derived from Ae. triuncialis, but the A genome is always the wheat partner most frequently involved in MI pairing with the wild homoeologues. Hybrids with Ae. cylindrica, Ae. geniculata and Ae. ventricosa showed similar reduced levels of MI association and virtually identical MI pairing patterns. However, certain recurrent differences were found when the pattern of homoeologous pairing of hybrids from either Ae. triuncialis or Ae. neglecta was contrasted to that observed in the other durum wheat hybrid combinations. In the former case, a remarkable preferential pairing between the wild species constituent genomes U(t) and C(t) seems to be the reason, whereas a general promotion of homoeologous pairing, qualitatively similar to that observed under the effect of the ph1c mutation, appears to occur in the hybrid with Ae. neglecta. It is further discussed whether the results reported here can be extrapolated to the corresponding bread wheat hybrid combinations.

  7. Effect of 5-n-alkylresorcinol extracts from durum wheat whole grain on the growth of fusarium head blight (FHB) causal agents.

    PubMed

    Ciccoritti, Roberto; Pasquini, Marina; Sgrulletta, Daniela; Nocente, Francesca

    2015-01-14

    In an approach toward the identification of ecofriendly compounds for fusarium head blight biocontrol, the in vitro antifungal activity of 5-n-alkylresorcinol (AR) extracts, obtained from durum wheat intact kernels, was tested. In comparison with ethyl acetate and acetone extracts containing AR, total inhibition of Fusarium graminearum spore germination was observed with cyclohexane extract, which also exhibited a significant fungistatic activity against F. graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, and Fusarium poae. Additionally, the study of the influence of such variables as predrying of seeds and durum wheat genotype on AR cyclohexane extract properties allowed the association of its highest antifungal activity with the AR homologue composition and, in particular, with the presence of a higher C21:0/C23:0 ratio. The interesting finding of this study suggests a potential application of the AR homologues in crop protection systems and could be an important step toward the development of commercial formulations suitable to the prevention of fungal diseases.

  8. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability.

  9. Reduced light and moderate water deficiency sustain nitrogen assimilation and sucrose degradation at low temperature in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Majláth, Imre; Darko, Eva; Palla, Balázs; Nagy, Zoltán; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    The rate of carbon and nitrogen assimilation is highly sensitive to stress factors, such as low temperature and drought. Little is known about the role of light in the simultaneous effect of cold and drought. The present study thus focused on the combined effect of mild water deficiency and different light intensities during the early cold hardening in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.) cultivars with different levels of cold sensitivity. The results showed that reduced illumination decreased the undesirable effects of photoinhibition in the case of net photosynthesis and nitrate reduction, which may help to sustain these processes at low temperature. Mild water deficiency also had a slight positive effect on the effective quantum efficiency of PSII and the nitrate reductase activity in the cold. Glutamine synthesis was affected by light rather than by water deprivation during cold stress. The invertase activity increased to a greater extent by water deprivation, but an increase in illumination also had a facilitating effect on this enzyme. This suggests that both moderate water deficiency and light have an influence on nitrogen metabolism and sucrose degradation during cold hardening. A possible rise in the soluble sugar content caused by the invertase may compensate for the decline in photosynthetic carbon assimilation indicated by the decrease in net photosynthesis. The changes in the osmotic potential can be also correlated to the enhanced level of invertase activity. Both of them were regulated by light at normal water supply, but not at water deprivation in the cold. However, changes in the metabolic enzyme activities and osmotic adjustment could not be directly contributed to the different levels of cold tolerance of the cultivars in the early acclimation period.

  10. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  11. Registration of the Soft Red Winter Wheat Germplasm MD01W233-06-1 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MD01W233-06-1 (Reg. No., PI ) is a soft red winter wheat (SRWW) (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm line developed at the University of Maryland and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station in 2009. MD01W233-06-1 was selected from a cross of ‘McCormick’/ ‘Choptank’ made in 2001. McCorm...

  12. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wheat (bran, durum, germ, gluten, grass, malt, sprouts, starch) Wheat bran hydrolysate Wheat germ oil Wheat grass ... in the following: Glucose syrup Surimi Soy sauce Starch (gelatinized starch, modified starch, modified food starch, vegetable ...

  13. Differential response of NADP-dehydrogenases and carbon metabolism in leaves and roots of two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars (Karim and Azizi) with different sensitivities to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Bouthour, Donia; Kalai, Tawba; Chaffei, Haouari C; Gouia, Houda; Corpas, Francisco J

    2015-05-01

    Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is a common Mediterranean species of considerable agronomic importance. Salinity is one of the major threats to sustainable agricultural production mainly because it limits plant productivity. After exposing the Karim and Azizi durum wheat cultivars, which are of agronomic significance in Tunisia, to 100mM NaCl salinity, growth parameters (dry weight and length), proline content and chlorophylls were evaluated in their leaves and roots. In addition, we analyzed glutathione content and key enzymatic activities, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), involved in the carbon metabolism and NADPH-generating system. The sensitivity index indicates that cv Karim was more tolerant to salinity than cv Azizi. This higher tolerance was corroborated at the biochemical level, as cv Karim showed a greater capacity to accumulate proline, especially in leaves, while the enzyme activities studied were differentially regulated in both organs, with NADP-ICDH being the only activity to be unaffected in all organs. In summary, the data indicate that higher levels of proline accumulation and the differential responses of some key enzymes involved in the carbon metabolism and NADPH regeneration contribute to the salinity tolerance mechanism and lead to increased biomass accumulation in cv Karim.

  14. Genome-wide search of stem rust resistance loci at the seedling stage in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causative agent of stem rust in wheat, is known to rapidly evolve new virulence to resistance genes. While more than 50 stem rust resistance (Sr) loci have been identified in wheat, only a few remain effective, particularly against the highly virulent race Ug99 ...

  15. Single Marker and Haplotype-Based Association Analysis of Semolina and Pasta Colour in Elite Durum Wheat Breeding Lines Using a High-Density Consensus Map

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Jemanesh K.; Cory, Aron T.; Clarke, Fran R.; Clarke, John M.; Knox, Ron E.; Pozniak, Curtis J.

    2017-01-01

    Association mapping is usually performed by testing the correlation between a single marker and phenotypes. However, because patterns of variation within genomes are inherited as blocks, clustering markers into haplotypes for genome-wide scans could be a worthwhile approach to improve statistical power to detect associations. The availability of high-density molecular data allows the possibility to assess the potential of both approaches to identify marker-trait associations in durum wheat. In the present study, we used single marker- and haplotype-based approaches to identify loci associated with semolina and pasta colour in durum wheat, the main objective being to evaluate the potential benefits of haplotype-based analysis for identifying quantitative trait loci. One hundred sixty-nine durum lines were genotyped using the Illumina 90K Infinium iSelect assay, and 12,234 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were generated and used to assess the population structure and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns. A total of 8,581 SNPs previously localized to a high-density consensus map were clustered into 406 haplotype blocks based on the average LD distance of 5.3 cM. Combining multiple SNPs into haplotype blocks increased the average polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.27 per SNP to 0.50 per haplotype. The haplotype-based analysis identified 12 loci associated with grain pigment colour traits, including the five loci identified by the single marker-based analysis. Furthermore, the haplotype-based analysis resulted in an increase of the phenotypic variance explained (50.4% on average) and the allelic effect (33.7% on average) when compared to single marker analysis. The presence of multiple allelic combinations within each haplotype locus offers potential for screening the most favorable haplotype series and may facilitate marker-assisted selection of grain pigment colour in durum wheat. These results suggest a benefit of haplotype

  16. Metabolic and Transcriptional Analysis of Durum Wheat Responses to Elevated CO2 at Low and High Nitrate Supply.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Rubén; Pérez, Pilar; Martínez-Carrasco, Rafael; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Arrivault, Stephanie; Stitt, Mark; Hoefgen, Rainer; Morcuende, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Elevated [CO2] (eCO2) can lead to photosynthetic acclimation and this is often intensified by low nitrogen (N). Despite intensive studies of plant responses to eCO2, the regulation mechanism of primary metabolism at the whole-plant level in interaction with [Formula: see text] supply remains unclear. We examined the metabolic and transcriptional responses triggered by eCO2 in association with physiological-biochemical traits in flag leaves and roots of durum wheat grown hydroponically in ambient and elevated [CO2] with low (LN) and high (HN) [Formula: see text] supply. Multivariate analysis revealed a strong interaction between eCO2 and [Formula: see text] supply. Photosynthetic acclimation induced by eCO2 in LN plants was accompanied by an increase in biomass and carbohydrates, and decreases of leaf organic N per unit area, organic acids, inorganic ions, Calvin-Benson cycle intermediates, Rubisco, nitrate reductase activity, amino acids and transcripts for N metabolism, particularly in leaves, whereas [Formula: see text] uptake was unaffected. In HN plants, eCO2 did not decrease photosynthetic capacity or leaf organic N per unit area, but induced transcripts for N metabolism, especially in roots. In conclusion, the photosynthetic acclimation in LN plants was associated with an inhibition of leaf [Formula: see text] assimilation, whereas up-regulation of N metabolism in roots could have mitigated the acclimatory effect of eCO2 in HN plants.

  17. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches.

  18. Functional characterization in Xenopus oocytes of Na+ transport systems from durum wheat reveals diversity among two HKT1;4 transporters.

    PubMed

    Ben Amar, Siwar; Brini, Faiçal; Sentenac, Hervé; Masmoudi, Khaled; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2014-01-01

    Plant tolerance to salinity constraint involves complex and integrated functions including control of Na(+) uptake, translocation, and compartmentalization. Several members of the high-affinity K(+) transporter (HKT) family, which comprises plasma-membrane transporters permeable to K(+) and Na(+) or to Na(+) only, have been shown to play major roles in plant Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis. Among them, HKT1;4 has been identified as corresponding to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) of salt tolerance in wheat but was not functionally characterized. Here, we isolated two HKT1;4-type cDNAs from a salt-tolerant durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) cultivar, Om Rabia3, and investigated the functional properties of the encoded transporters using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Both transporters displayed high selectivity for Na(+), their permeability to other monovalent cations (K(+), Li(+), Cs(+), and Rb(+)) being ten times lower than that to Na(+). Both TdHKT1;4-1 and TdHKT1;4-2 transported Na(+) with low affinity, although the half-saturation of the conductance was observed at a Na(+) concentration four times lower in TdHKT1;4-1 than in TdHKT1;4-2. External K(+) did not inhibit Na(+) transport through these transporters. Quinine slightly inhibited TdHKT1;4-2 but not TdHKT1;4-1. Overall, these data identified TdHKT1;4 transporters as new Na(+)-selective transporters within the HKT family, displaying their own functional features. Furthermore, they showed that important differences in affinity exist among durum wheat HKT1;4 transporters. This suggests that the salt tolerance QTL involving HKT1;4 may be at least in part explained by functional variability among wheat HKT1;4-type transporters.

  19. Variation and correlations between protein MW distribution and semolina quality parameters for durum wheat genotypes grown in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research assessed the associations between protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) and quality characteristics for durum semolina samples that were obtained from thirteen durum genotypes grown at seven locations for two years in North Dakota. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extractable and un...

  20. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C.; Lenucci, Marcello S.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  1. Interactive Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Water Stress on Physiological Traits and Gene Expression during Vegetative Growth in Four Durum Wheat Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Susan; Vicente, Rubén; Amador, Amaya; Araus, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of elevated [CO2] and water stress will have an effect on the adaptation of durum wheat to future climate scenarios. For the Mediterranean basin these scenarios include the rising occurrence of water stress during the first part of the crop cycle. In this study, we evaluated the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and moderate to severe water stress during the first part of the growth cycle on physiological traits and gene expression in four modern durum wheat genotypes. Physiological data showed that elevated [CO2] promoted plant growth but reduced N content. This was related to a down-regulation of Rubisco and N assimilation genes and up-regulation of genes that take part in C-N remobilization, which might suggest a higher N efficiency. Water restriction limited the stimulation of plant biomass under elevated [CO2], especially at severe water stress, while stomatal conductance and carbon isotope signature revealed a water saving strategy. Transcript profiles under water stress suggested an inhibition of primary C fixation and N assimilation. Nevertheless, the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and water stress depended on the genotype and the severity of the water stress, especially for the expression of drought stress-responsive genes such as dehydrins, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The network analysis of physiological traits and transcript levels showed coordinated shifts between both categories of parameters and between C and N metabolism at the transcript level, indicating potential genes and traits that could be used as markers for early vigor in durum wheat under future climate change scenarios. Overall the results showed that greater plant growth was linked to an increase in N content and expression of N metabolism-related genes and down-regulation of genes related to the antioxidant system. The combination of elevated [CO2] and severe water stress was highly dependent on the genotypic variability, suggesting specific genotypic

  2. Effect of salinity and water stress during the reproductive stage on growth, ion concentrations, Delta 13C, and delta 15N of durum wheat and related amphiploids.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolores; Voltas, Jordi; Araus, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    The physiological performance of durum wheat and two related amphiploids was studied during the reproductive stage under different combinations of salinity and irrigation. One triticale, one tritordeum, and four durum wheat genotypes were grown in pots in the absence of stress until heading, when six different treatments were imposed progressively. Treatments resulted from the combination of two irrigation regimes (100% and 35% of container water capacity) with three levels of water salinity (1.8, 12, and 17 dS m(-1)), and were maintained for nearly 3 weeks. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence and content were measured prior to harvest; afterwards shoot biomass and height were recorded, and Delta(13)C, delta(15)N, and the concentration of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and several ions (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) were analysed in shoot material. Compared with control conditions (full irrigation with Hoagland normal) all other treatments inhibited photosynthesis through stomatal closure, accelerated senescence, and decreased biomass. Full irrigation with 12 dS m(-1) outperformed other stress treatments in terms of biomass production and physiological performance. Biomass correlated positively with N and delta(15)N, and negatively with Na(+) across genotypes and fully irrigated treatments, while relationships across deficit irrigation conditions were weaker or absent. Delta(13)C did not correlate with biomass across treatments, but it was the best trait correlating with phenotypic differences in biomass within treatments. Tritordeum produced more biomass than durum wheat in all treatments. Its low Delta(13)C and high K(+)/Na(+) ratio, together with a high potential growth, may underlie this finding. Mechanisms relating delta(15)N and Delta(13)C to biomass are discussed.

  3. Accelerated evolution of the mitochondrial genome in an alloplasmic line of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is not only an important crop but also an excellent plant species for nuclear mitochondrial interaction studies. To investigate the level of sequence changes introduced into the mitochondrial genome under the alloplasmic conditions, three mitochondrial genomes of Triticum-Aegilops species w...

  4. Glutamine synthetase in durum wheat: Genotypic variation and relationship with grain protein content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), one of the most valuable indicators for nitrogen use in crops, both in terms of yield and final grain protein content (GPC), is a very complex trait. The identification of wheat varieties with high NUE, as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in th...

  5. Vegetation indices from active optical sensors in irrigated Durum Wheat: nitrogen and water effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the use of active optical sensors (AOS) for guiding nitrogen (N) management of crops like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been strong since the mid-1990s. Recently, AOS have been used to assess water status of crops in addition to plant N status. Researchers have investigated vegetati...

  6. Anchoring durum wheat diversity in the reality of traditional agricultural systems: varieties, seed management, and farmers’ perception in two Moroccan regions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional agrosystems are the places were crop species have evolved and continue to evolve under a combination of human and environmental pressures. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of crop diversity in these agrosystems is crucial to sustain food security and farmers’ self-reliance. It requires as a first step, anchoring a description of the available diversity in its geographical, environmental, cultural and socio-economic context. Methods We conducted interviews with farmers cultivating durum wheat in two contrasted traditional agrosystems of Morocco in the Pre-Rif (163 farmers) and in the oases of the Atlas Mountains (110 farmers). We documented the varietal diversity of durum wheat, the main characteristics of the farms, the farming and seed management practices applied to durum wheat, and the farmers’ perception of their varieties. Results As expected in traditional agrosystems, farmers largely practiced diversified subsistence agriculture on small plots and relied on on-farm seed production or informal seed exchange networks. Heterogeneity nevertheless prevailed on many variables, especially on the modernization of practices in the Pre-Rif region. Fourteen (resp. 11) traditional and 5 (resp. 3) modern varieties were identified in the Pre-Rif region (resp. in the Atlas Mountains). The majority of farmers grew a single variety, and most traditional varieties were distributed in restricted geographical areas. At the farm level, more than half of the varieties were renewed in the last decade in the Pre-Rif, a more rapid renewal than in the Atlas Mountain. Modern varieties were more prevalent in the Pre-Rif region and were integrated in the traditional practices of seed production, selection and exchange. They were clearly distinguished by the farmers from the landraces, the last ones being appreciated for their quality traits. Conclusions The surveyed traditional agrosystems constitute open, dynamic and heterogeneous

  7. Is floret primordia death triggered by floret development in durum wheat?

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Ariel; Savin, Roxana; Slafer, Gustavo A

    2013-07-01

    Survival of floret primordia initiated seems critical for the determination of grain number and yield in wheat, and understanding what determines floret mortality would help in the development of more robust physiological models of yield determination. The growth of the juvenile spikes has been frequently considered the determinant of grain number, implying that floret development would depend on resource availability and that the onset of floret death would be related to spike growth. However, this model has been recently challenged from a study concluding that floret death started when the most advanced floret primordia reached a particular developmental stage. As the few previous studies on this relationship involved photoperiod treatments which affect both floret development and the onset of spike growth, conclusions cannot be considered mechanistic. This comprehensive study analysed in detail floret development in wheat as affected by resource availability (mainly soil nitrogen levels) and found that the onset of floret death may occur when development of the most advanced florets ranged from stages 5 to 9 and that the average and standard deviation of floret developmental stage coinciding with the onset of floret death was not related to the level of availability of resources. These results provide further support to the model relating the onset of floret death with the initiation of active growth of the juvenile spike in which florets are developing.

  8. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  9. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  10. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  11. How can crop intra-specific biodiversity mitigate the vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change? A case study on durum wheat in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Lorenzi, Fracesca

    2014-05-01

    Climate evolution may lead to changes in the amount and distribution of precipitations and to reduced water availability, with constraints on the cultivation of some crops. Recently, foreseen crop responses to climate change raise a crucial question for the agricultural stakeholders: are the current production systems resilient to this change? An active debate is in progress about the definition of adaptation of agricultural systems, particularly about the integrated assessment of climate stressors, vulnerability and resilece towards the evaluation of climate impact on agricultural systems. Climate change represents a risk for rain-fed agricultural systems, where irrigations cannot compensate reductions in precipitations. The intra-specific biodiversity of crops can be a resource towards adaptation. The knowledge of the responses to environmental conditions (temperature and water availability) of different cultivars can allow to identify options for adaptation to future climate. Simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, driven by different climate scenarios, can describe present and foreseen soil water regime. The present work deals with a case-study on the adaptive capacity of durum wheat to climate change. The selected study area is a hilly region in Southern Italy (Fortore Beneventano, Campania Region). Two climate cases were studied: "reference" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was run to determine the water regime in some soil units, representative of the soil variability in the study area. From model output, the Relative Evapotranspiration Deficit (RETD) was determined as an indicator of hydrological conditions during the crop growing period for each year and climate case; and periods with higher frequencies of soil water deficits were identified. The timing of main crop development stages was calculated. The occurrence of water deficit at different

  12. Selecting optimal hyperspectral bands to discriminate nitrogen status in durum wheat: a comparison of statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Stellacci, A M; Castrignanò, A; Troccoli, A; Basso, B; Buttafuoco, G

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral data can provide prediction of physical and chemical vegetation properties, but data handling, analysis, and interpretation still limit their use. In this study, different methods for selecting variables were compared for the analysis of on-the-ground hyperspectral signatures of wheat grown under a wide range of nitrogen supplies. Spectral signatures were recorded at the end of stem elongation, booting, and heading stages in 100 georeferenced locations, using a 512-channel portable spectroradiometer operating in the 325-1075-nm range. The following procedures were compared: (i) a heuristic combined approach including lambda-lambda R(2) (LL R(2)) model, principal component analysis (PCA), and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA); (ii) variable importance for projection (VIP) statistics derived from partial least square (PLS) regression (PLS-VIP); and (iii) multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis through maximum R-square improvement (MAXR) and stepwise algorithms. The discriminating capability of selected wavelengths was evaluated by canonical discriminant analysis. Leaf-nitrogen concentration was quantified on samples collected at the same locations and dates and used as response variable in regressive methods. The different methods resulted in differences in the number and position of the selected wavebands. Bands extracted through regressive methods were mostly related to response variable, as shown by the importance of the visible region for PLS and stepwise. Band selection techniques can be extremely useful not only to improve the power of predictive models but also for data interpretation or sensor design.

  13. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of a pale-green durum wheat mutant shows variations in photosystem components and metabolic deficiencies under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leaf pigment content is an important trait involved in environmental interactions. In order to determine its impact on drought tolerance in wheat, we characterized a pale-green durum wheat mutant (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) under contrasting water availability conditions. Results The pale-green mutant was investigated by comparing pigment content and gene/protein expression profiles to wild-type plants at anthesis. Under well-watered (control) conditions the mutant had lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids, but higher levels of xanthophyll de-epoxidation compared to wild-type. Transcriptomic analysis under control conditions showed that defense genes (encoding e.g. pathogenesis-related proteins, peroxidases and chitinases) were upregulated in the mutant, suggesting the presence of mild oxidative stress that was compensated without altering the net rate of photosynthesis. Transcriptomic analysis under terminal water stress conditions, revealed the modulation of antioxidant enzymes, photosystem components, and enzymes representing carbohydrate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, indicating that the mutant was exposed to greater oxidative stress than the wild-type plants, but had a limited capacity to respond. We also compared the two genotypes under irrigated and rain-fed field conditions over three years, finding that the greater oxidative stress and corresponding molecular changes in the pale-green mutant were associated to a yield reduction. Conclusions This study provides insight on the effect of pigment content in the molecular response to drought. Identified genes differentially expressed under terminal water stress may be valuable for further studies addressing drought resistance in wheat. PMID:24521234

  14. Production of aneuhaploid and euhaploid sporocytes by meiotic restitution in fertile hybrids between durum wheat Langdon chromosome substitution lines and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianquan; Chen, Qijiao; Yuan, Zhongwei; Xiang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Youliang; Liu, Dengcai

    2008-10-01

    Fertile F(1) hybrids were obtained between durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Langdon (LDN) and its 10 disomic substitution (LDN DS) lines with Aegilops tauschii accession AS60 without embryo rescue. Selfed seedset rates for hybrids of LDN with AS60 were 36.87% and 49.45% in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Similar or higher selfed seedset rates were observed in the hybrids of 1D (1A), 1D (1B), 3D (3A), 4D (4B), 7D (7A), and 2D (2B) with AS60, while lower in hybrids of 3D (3B) + 3BL, 5D (5A) + 5AL, 5D (5B) + 5B and 6D (6B) + 6BS with AS60 compared with the hybrids of LDN with AS60. Observation of male gametogenesis showed that meiotic restitution, both first-division restitution (FDR) and single-division meiosis (SDM) resulted in the formation of functional unreduced gametes, which in turn produced seeds. Both euhaploid and aneuhaploid gametes were produced in F(1) hybrids. This suggested a strategy to simultaneously transfer and locate major genes from the ancestral species T. turgidum or Ae. tauschii. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the aneuhaploid rates between the F(1) hybrids of LDN and LDN DS lines with AS60, suggesting that meiotic pairing between the two D chromosomes in the hybrids of LDN DS lines with AS60 did not promote the formation of aneuhaploid gametes.

  15. Quantitative RT-PCR Platform to Measure Transcript Levels of C and N Metabolism-Related Genes in Durum Wheat: Transcript Profiles in Elevated [CO2] and High Temperature at Different Levels of N Supply.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Rubén; Pérez, Pilar; Martínez-Carrasco, Rafael; Usadel, Björn; Kostadinova, Svetla; Morcuende, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Only limited public transcriptomics resources are available for durum wheat and its responses to environmental changes. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) platform for analysing the expression of primary C and N metabolism genes in durum wheat in leaves (125 genes) and roots (38 genes), based on available bread wheat genes and the identification of orthologs of known genes in other species. We also assessed the expression stability of seven reference genes for qRT-PCR under varying environments. We therefore present a functional qRT-PCR platform for gene expression analysis in durum wheat, and suggest using the ADP-ribosylation factor as a reference gene for qRT-PCR normalization. We investigated the effects of elevated [CO(2)] and temperature at two levels of N supply on C and N metabolism by combining gene expression analysis, using our qRT-PCR platform, with biochemical and physiological parameters in durum wheat grown in field chambers. Elevated CO(2) down-regulated the photosynthetic capacity and led to the loss of N compounds, including Rubisco; this effect was exacerbated at low N. Mechanistically, the reduction in photosynthesis and N levels could be associated with a decreased transcription of the genes involved in photosynthesis and N assimilation. High temperatures increased stomatal conductance, and thus did not inhibit photosynthesis, even though Rubisco protein and activity, soluble protein, leaf N, and gene expression for C fixation and N assimilation were down-regulated. Under a future scenario of climate change, the extent to which C fixation capacity and N assimilation are down-regulated will depend upon the N supply.

  16. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  17. Water and nitrogen conditions affect the relationships of Delta13C and Delta18O to gas exchange and growth in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Molero, Gemma; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the effects of water and nitrogen (N) on plant Delta(13)C have been reported previously, these factors have scarcely been studied for Delta(18)O. Here the combined effect of different water and N regimes on Delta(13)C, Delta(18)O, gas exchange, water-use efficiency (WUE), and growth of four genotypes of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] cultured in pots was studied. Water and N supply significantly increased plant growth. However, a reduction in water supply did not lead to a significant decrease in gas exchange parameters, and consequently Delta(13)C was only slightly modified by water input. Conversely, N fertilizer significantly decreased Delta(13)C. On the other hand, water supply decreased Delta(18)O values, whereas N did not affect this parameter. Delta(18)O variation was mainly determined by the amount of transpired water throughout plant growth (T(cum)), whereas Delta(13)C variation was explained in part by a combination of leaf N and stomatal conductance (g(s)). Even though the four genotypes showed significant differences in cumulative transpiration rates and biomass, this was not translated into significant differences in Delta(18)O(s). However, genotypic differences in Delta(13)C were observed. Moreover, approximately 80% of the variation in biomass across growing conditions and genotypes was explained by a combination of both isotopes, with Delta(18)O alone accounting for approximately 50%. This illustrates the usefulness of combining Delta(18)O and Delta(13)C in order to assess differences in plant growth and total transpiration, and also to provide a time-integrated record of the photosynthetic and evaporative performance of the plant during the course of crop growth.

  18. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  19. Genotyping by Sequencing Using Specific Allelic Capture to Build a High-Density Genetic Map of Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Yan; Ardisson, Morgane; Ranwez, Vincent; Besnard, Alban; Leroy, Philippe; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Viader, Véronique; Santoni, Sylvain; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequence capture is a promising technology which helps reduce costs for sequencing and genotyping numerous genomic regions in large sets of individuals. Bait sequences are designed to capture specific alleles previously discovered in parents or reference populations. We studied a set of 135 RILs originating from a cross between an emmer cultivar (Dic2) and a recent durum elite cultivar (Silur). Six thousand sequence baits were designed to target Dic2 vs. Silur polymorphisms discovered in a previous RNAseq study. These baits were exposed to genomic DNA of the RIL population. Eighty percent of the targeted SNPs were recovered, 65% of which were of high quality and coverage. The final high density genetic map consisted of more than 3,000 markers, whose genetic and physical mapping were consistent with those obtained with large arrays. PMID:27171472

  20. Genotyping by Sequencing Using Specific Allelic Capture to Build a High-Density Genetic Map of Durum Wheat.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Yan; Ardisson, Morgane; Ranwez, Vincent; Besnard, Alban; Leroy, Philippe; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Viader, Véronique; Santoni, Sylvain; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequence capture is a promising technology which helps reduce costs for sequencing and genotyping numerous genomic regions in large sets of individuals. Bait sequences are designed to capture specific alleles previously discovered in parents or reference populations. We studied a set of 135 RILs originating from a cross between an emmer cultivar (Dic2) and a recent durum elite cultivar (Silur). Six thousand sequence baits were designed to target Dic2 vs. Silur polymorphisms discovered in a previous RNAseq study. These baits were exposed to genomic DNA of the RIL population. Eighty percent of the targeted SNPs were recovered, 65% of which were of high quality and coverage. The final high density genetic map consisted of more than 3,000 markers, whose genetic and physical mapping were consistent with those obtained with large arrays.

  1. Sources of resistance to stem rust race Ug99 in spring wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks & E. Henn.) race TTKSK (Ug99) with virulence to the majority of the world’s wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties has spread from Uganda throughout eastern and southern Africa, Yemen, and Iran. The identification and spread of vari...

  2. Development and Verification of Wheat Germplasm Containing Both Sr2 and Fhb1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) and stem rust are two devastating fungal diseases of common wheat prevalent worldwide. Fhb1 is a well-known major quantitative trait locus (QTL) effective against FHB, and Sr2 is the most widely characterized and deployed wheat stem rust adult plant resistance gene. These ...

  3. Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Chamekh, Zoubeir; Ayadi, Sawsen; Karmous, Chahine; Trifa, Youssef; Amara, Hajer; Boudabbous, Khaoula; Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Supplemental irrigation with low-quality water will be paramount in Mediterranean agriculture in the future, where durum wheat is a major crop. Breeding for salinity tolerance may contribute towards improving resilience to irrigation with brackish water. However, identification of appropriate phenotyping traits remains a bottleneck in breeding. A set of 25 genotypes, including 19 landraces and 6 improved varieties most cultivated in Tunisia, were grown in the field and irrigated with brackish water (6, 13 and 18dSm(-1)). Improved genotypes exhibited higher grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency at the crop level (WUEyield or 'water productivity'), shorter days to flowering (DTF), lower N concentration (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in mature kernels and lower nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in the flag leaf compared with landraces. GY was negatively correlated with DTF and the δ(13)C and N of mature kernels and was positively correlated with the δ(15)N of the flag leaf. Moreover, δ(13)C of mature kernels was negatively correlated with WUEyield. The results highlight the importance of shorter phenology together with photosynthetic resilience to salt-induced water stress (lower δ(13)C) and nitrogen metabolism (higher N and δ(15)N) for assessing genotypic performance to salinity.

  4. Rapid changes in leaf elongation, ABA and water status during the recovery phase following application of water stress in two durum wheat varieties differing in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mahdid, Mohamed; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ehlert, Christina; Simonneau, Thierry

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of Abscisic acid (ABA) in water potential and turgor variations as well as growth recovery during the first phase of a rapid water stress induced by PEG6000. Two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.), MBB (more tolerant) and OZ (less productive under drought), were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of the growing leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Water potential was measured using a pressure chamber; osmotic potential was estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone, turgor pressure of the same zone of leaf three was estimated directly by pressure probe. Growth rapidly ceased for a period of about one hour after the addition of PEG, gradual recovery was then observed for about 2 h. A significant difference was found in the % recovery of Leaf Elongation Rate (LER) and ABA between the two varieties, leading to better water status in MBB compared to OZ. The results of this study showed the possible role of ABA on growth resumption by the increase of relative water content and turgor via osmotic adjustment during the stress period in the leaves, which indicates the importance of OA in the resumption of LER even in the short term under conditions of water deficit. Full recovery of turgor but not of LER at the end stress period suggested the possible effect on cell wall extensibility (hardening) even at short term resulting from the rapid accumulation of ABA.

  5. Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2013-01-15

    Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility.

  6. Genetic variation for the duration of pre-anthesis development in durum wheat and its interaction with vernalization treatment and photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Gavino; Giunta, Francesco; Motzo, Rosella; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-07-01

    A recombinant inbred durum wheat population was grown under three contrasting regimes: long days following vernalization (LDV), long days without vernalization (LD), and short days following vernalization (SDV). The length of several pre-anthesis stages and the number of leaves and the phyllochron were measured. Different groups of genes were involved in determining the phenology in the three treatments, as demonstrated by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. The length of the period required to reach the terminal spikelet stage was correlated with the time to anthesis only in the case of LDV- and LD-grown plants where the timing of anthesis depended on the final leaf number. However, for SDV-grown plants, anthesis date was more dependent on the length of the period between the terminal spikelet stage and anthesis and was independent of leaf number. The involvement of the phyllochron in determining the duration of pre-anthesis development was also treatment-dependent. QTL mapping of the various flowering time associated traits uncovered some novel loci (such as those associated with the phyllochron), in addition to confirming the presence of several well-established loci.

  7. Identification of genes induced by Fusarium graminearum inoculation in the resistant durum wheat line Langdon(Dic-3A)10 and the susceptible parental line Langdon.

    PubMed

    Soresi, Daniela; Carrera, Alicia D; Echenique, Viviana; Garbus, Ingrid

    2015-08-01

    The wheat recombinant chromosome inbred line LDN(Dic-3A)10, obtained through introgression of a Triticum dicoccoides disomic chromosome 3A fragment into Triticum turgidum spp. durum var. Langdon, is resistant to fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum. To identify genes involved in FHB resistance, we used a cDNA-AFLP approach to compare gene expression between LDN(Dic-3A)10 and the susceptible parental line LDN at different time points post-inoculation. In total, 85 out of the ∼ 500 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were found to be differentially expressed: 36 and 19% were upregulated in LDN(Dic-3A)10 and LDN, respectively, whereas 45% were induced in both genotypes. Several of the cloned TDFs showed similarity to proteins involved in specific recognition of plant pathogens or associated with early responses to infection. Some TDFs specific to the inoculation response did not show similarity to characterized proteins. The availability of T. aestivum genome sequences allowed the in silico mapping of 28 TDFs and the acquirement of the corresponding gene sequences and, in some cases, their regulatory regions. Analysis of promoter regions revealed the potential existence of shared transcription regulation mechanisms. For instance, three TDF-associated genes contained binding sites for WRKY transcription factors, which have been implicated in the regulation of genes associated with pathogen defense, and three for abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE). Collectively, our results revealed specific pathogen recognition in the interactions of LDN and LDN(Dic-3A)10 with F. graminearum. Such recognition leads to changes in the expression of several transcripts, attributable to the presence of the wheat QTL Qfhs.ndsu-3AS.

  8. Quality Characteristics of Soft Kernel Durum -- A New Cereal Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of crops is in part limited by consumer demand and utilization. In this regard, world production of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is limited by its culinary uses. The leading constraint is its very hard kernels. Puroindolines, which act to soften the endosperm, are completel...

  9. Characterizing Croatian Wheat Germplasm Diversity and Structure in a European Context by DArT Markers.

    PubMed

    Novoselović, Dario; Bentley, Alison R; Šimek, Ruđer; Dvojković, Krešimir; Sorrells, Mark E; Gosman, Nicolas; Horsnell, Richard; Drezner, Georg; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Narrowing the genetic base available for future genetic progress is a major concern to plant breeders. In order to avoid this, strategies to characterize and protect genetic diversity in regional breeding pools are required. In this study, 89 winter wheat cultivars released in Croatia between 1936 and 2006 were genotyped using 1,229 DArT (diversity array technology) markers to assess the diversity and population structure. In order to place Croatian breeding pool (CBP) in a European context, Croatian wheat cultivars were compared to 523 European cultivars from seven countries using a total of 166 common DArT markers. The results show higher genetic diversity in the wheat breeding pool from Central Europe (CE) as compared to that from Northern and Western European (NWE) countries. The most of the genetic diversity was attributable to the differences among cultivars within countries. When the geographical criterion (CE vs. NWE) was applied, highly significant difference between regions was obtained that accounted for 16.19% of the total variance, revealing that the CBP represents genetic variation not currently captured in elite European wheat. The current study emphasizes the important contribution made by plant breeders to maintaining wheat genetic diversity and suggests that regional breeding is essential to the maintenance of this diversity. The usefulness of open-access wheat datasets is also highlighted.

  10. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a durum wheat Aegilops speltoides chromosome translocation conferring resistance to stem rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust is a serious disease of wheat that has caused historical epidemics, but it has not been a threat in recent decades in North America due to the eradication of the alternate host and deployment of resistant cultivars. However, the recent emergence of Ug99 (or race TTKS) poses a threat to glo...

  11. Screening USDA-ARS wheat germplasm for bird cherry-oat aphid tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) can cause significant yield reduction in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) without causing aboveground visual damage signs or symptoms. This lack of obvious aboveground symptom development makes it difficult to use standard aphid tolerance testing protoc...

  12. Genetic architecture of resistance to stripe rust in a global winter wheat germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and intr...

  13. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases. Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of these diseases that can limit yields in the area. Thus developing and cultivating genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the only sustaina...

  14. Modeling end-use quality in U. S. soft wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be assessed by a wide array of measurements, generally categorized into grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Samples were obtained from four regional nurseries. Selected parameters included: test weight, kernel hardness, kernel size, ke...

  15. Evaluation of germplasm effect on Fe, Zn and Se content in wheat seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrients are essential for human health and crucial for plant survival. The capacity of food crops in acquiring mineral nutrients affects plant growth and potentially the yield and nutrient content in edible tissues/organs. In this study, we selected 20 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions ...

  16. Analysis of the Lr34/Yr18 rust resistance region in wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insertion/deletion size variant located at the csLV34 locus on chromosome 7D within an intron sequence of a sulphate transporter-like gene tightly linked to the Lr34/Yr18 dual rust resistance was used to examine a global collection of wheat cultivars, landraces and D genome containing diploid and...

  17. A comprehensive survey of soft wheat grain quality in United States germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors, which work in combination to produce specific grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Along with these genetic and environmental factors, the adaptation of the genetics to the given growing environment...

  18. Association mapping and gene-gene interaction for stem rust resistance in CIMMYT spring wheat germplasm.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long-Xi; Lorenz, Aaron; Rutkoski, Jessica; Singh, Ravi P; Bhavani, Sridhar; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Sorrells, Mark E

    2011-12-01

    The recent emergence of wheat stem rust Ug99 and evolution of new races within the lineage threatens global wheat production because they overcome widely deployed stem rust resistance (Sr) genes that had been effective for many years. To identify loci conferring adult plant resistance to races of Ug99 in wheat, we employed an association mapping approach for 276 current spring wheat breeding lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Breeding lines were genotyped with Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and microsatellite markers. Phenotypic data was collected on these lines for stem rust race Ug99 resistance at the adult plant stage in the stem rust resistance screening nursery in Njoro, Kenya in seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010. Fifteen marker loci were found to be significantly associated with stem rust resistance. Several markers appeared to be linked to known Sr genes, while other significant markers were located in chromosome regions where no Sr genes have been previously reported. Most of these new loci colocalized with QTLs identified recently in different biparental populations. Using the same data and Q + K covariate matrices, we investigated the interactions among marker loci using linear regression models to calculate P values for pairwise marker interactions. Resistance marker loci including the Sr2 locus on 3BS and the wPt1859 locus on 7DL had significant interaction effects with other loci in the same chromosome arm and with markers on chromosome 6B. Other resistance marker loci had significant pairwise interactions with markers on different chromosomes. Based on these results, we propose that a complex network of gene-gene interactions is, in part, responsible for resistance to Ug99. Further investigation may provide insight for understanding mechanisms that contribute to this resistance gene network.

  19. Rapid separation of seed gliadins by reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) and its application in wheat cultivar and germplasm identification.

    PubMed

    Han, Caixia; Lu, Xaiobing; Yu, Zitong; Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    To separate gliadin from wheat flour, a novel and stability-indicating reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method is established and optimized. A comparative analysis of routine capillary electrophoresis (CE), reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and RP-UPLC was performed and the results showed that the resolution and efficiency of RP-UPLC were significantly higher than those of CE and RP-HPLC. Characteristic RP-UPLC patterns of different bread wheat variety and related species were readily identified. These results demonstrated that our RP-UPLC procedure resulted in significant improvements in sensitivity, speed, and resolution, and thus is highly useful in wheat cultivar and germplasm identification.

  20. Association analysis of historical bread wheat germplasm using additive genetic covariance of relatives and population structure.

    PubMed

    Crossa, José; Burgueño, Juan; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Vargas, Mateo; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Lillemo, Morten; Singh, Ravi P; Trethowan, Richard; Warburton, Marilyn; Franco, Jorge; Reynolds, Matthew; Crouch, Jonathan H; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2007-11-01

    Linkage disequilibrium can be used for identifying associations between traits of interest and genetic markers. This study used mapped diversity array technology (DArT) markers to find associations with resistance to stem rust, leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew, plus grain yield in five historical wheat international multienvironment trials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two linear mixed models were used to assess marker-trait associations incorporating information on population structure and covariance between relatives. An integrated map containing 813 DArT markers and 831 other markers was constructed. Several linkage disequilibrium clusters bearing multiple host plant resistance genes were found. Most of the associated markers were found in genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the same traits, providing an independent validation of this approach. In addition, many new chromosome regions for disease resistance and grain yield were identified in the wheat genome. Phenotyping across up to 60 environments and years allowed modeling of genotype x environment interaction, thereby making possible the identification of markers contributing to both additive and additive x additive interaction effects of traits.

  1. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria—An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N.; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about 15 years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP). Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous) and tissues/organs (etiolated and green) have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel) are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane toward the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ), the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp) in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate hyperosmotic stress

  2. Transcriptome analysis of genes related to resistance against powdery mildew in wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanquan; Niu, Zubiao; Bao, Yinguang; Tian, Qiuju; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun

    2016-09-15

    Wheat powdery mildew, which is mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), seriously damages wheat production. The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306, being one of the important sources of genes for wheat resistance, is highly resistant to Bgt E09 and to many other powdery mildew physiological races. However, knowledge on the resistance mechanism of SN6306 remains limited. Our study employed high-throughput RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology (Illumina) to obtain an overview of the transcriptome characteristics of SN6306 and its parent wheat Yannong 15 (YN15) during Bgt infection. The sequencing generated 104,773 unigenes, 9909 of which showed varied expression levels. Among the 9909 unigenes, 1678 unigenes showed 0 reads in YN15. The expression levels in Bgt-inoculated SN6306 and YN15 of exactly 39 unigenes that showed 0 or considerably low reads in YN15 were validated to identify the genes involved in Bgt resistance. Among the 39 unigenes, 12 unigenes were upregulated in SN6306 by 3-45 times. These unigenes mainly encoded kinase, synthase, proteases, and signal transduction proteins, which may play an important role in the resistance against Bgt. To confirm whether the unigenes that showed 0 reads in YN15 are really unique to SN6306, 8 unigenes were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that the selected unigenes are more similar to SN6306 and Th. intermedium than to the wheat cultivar YN15. The sequencing results further confirmed that the unigenes showing 0 reads in YN15 are unique to SN6306 and are most likely derived from Th. intermedium (Host) Nevski. Thus, the genes from Th. intermedium most probably conferred the resistance of SN6306 to Bgt.

  3. Metabolomics Suggests That Soil Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Decreased Free Amino Acid Content in Roots of Durum Wheat Grown under N-Limited, P-Rich Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Sergio; Ruisi, Paolo; Fileccia, Veronica; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Amato, Gaetano; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a major impact on plant nutrition, defence against pathogens, a plant’s reaction to stressful environments, soil fertility, and a plant’s relationship with other microorganisms. Such effects imply a broad reprogramming of the plant’s metabolic activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of AMF and their relation to other soil plant growth—promoting microorganisms in the plant metabolome, especially under realistic field conditions. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with AMF, either alone or in combination with plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on the metabolome and changes in metabolic pathways in the roots of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown under N-limited agronomic conditions in a P-rich environment. These two treatments were compared to infection by the natural AMF population (NAT). Soil inoculation with AMF almost doubled wheat root colonization by AMF and decreased the root concentrations of most compounds in all metabolic pathways, especially amino acids (AA) and saturated fatty acids, whereas inoculation with AMF+PGPR increased the concentrations of such compounds compared to inoculation with AMF alone. Enrichment metabolomics analyses showed that AA metabolic pathways were mostly changed by the treatments, with reduced amination activity in roots most likely due to a shift from the biosynthesis of common AA to γ-amino butyric acid. The root metabolome differed between AMF and NAT but not AMF+PGPR and AMF or NAT. Because the PGPR used were potent mineralisers, and AMF can retain most nitrogen (N) taken as organic compounds for their own growth, it is likely that this result was due to an increased concentration of mineral N in soil inoculated with AMF+PGPR compared to AMF alone. PMID:26067663

  4. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a serious pest of barley in the ...

  5. Registration of Zak ERA8 soft white spring wheat germplasm with enhanced response to ABA and increased seed dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ZakERA8 is a unique mutant line selected from mutagenized soft white spring 'Zak' that has increased seed dormancy as a result of enhanced responsiveness to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during germination. This germplasm was developed by USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA in collaboration with Washingt...

  6. [Hybrids of Aegilops cylindrica Host with Triticum durum Desf. and T. aestivum L].

    PubMed

    Avsenin, V I; Motsnyĭ, A I; Rybalka, A I; Faĭt, V I

    2003-01-01

    The hybrids of durum and bread wheat with Ae. cylindrica have been obtained without using an embryo rescue technique. The hybrid output (of pollinated flower number) in the field conditions scored 1.0, 15.3 and 10.0% in the crosses T. durum x Ae. cylindrica, Ae. cylindrica x T. durum and T. aestivum x Ae. cylindrica, respectively. A high level of meiotic chromosome pairing between homologous D genomes of bread wheat and Aegilops has been revealed (c = 80.0-83.7%). The possibility of homoeological pairing between wheat and Ae. cylindrica chromosomes has been shown. Herewith, the correlation between the levels of homological and homoeological pairing is absent. The possibilities of genetic material interchange, including between the tetraploid species, as well as the using of Ae. cylindrica cytoplasm for durum wheat breeding are discussed.

  7. Characterization of chemically modified waxy, partially waxy, and wild type tetraploid wheat starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheats (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) contain two Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS) genes (wx-A1and wx-B1) controlling amylose synthesis; the other major starch polymer in durum wheat is amylopectin. Starches with little or no amylose are “waxy.” A GBSS null (non-producing) gene results ...

  8. Identification of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, characterization of wheat cultivars for resistance, identification of resistant germplasm, and inheritance of resistance to stripe rust in Kazakhstan wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the major factors reducing the productivity of wheat crop. The region of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is one of the most important wheat areas in the world. As there was p...

  9. Registration of Common Wheat Germplasm with Mutations in SBEII Genes Conferring Increased Grain Amylose and Resistant Starch Content

    PubMed Central

    Schönhofen, André; Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch present in the endosperm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains is an important source of carbohydrates worldwide. Starches with a greater proportion of amylose have increased levels of resistant starch, a dietary fiber that can provide human health benefits. Induced mutations in STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes in wheat are associated with increased amylose and resistant starch. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined in the hexaploid wheat cultivar Lassik. Four mutant combinations were generated: SBEIIa/b-AB (Reg. No. GP-997, PI 675644); SBEIIa/b-A, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-998, PI 675645); SBEIIa/b-B, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-999, PI 675646); and SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-1000, PI 675647). The SBEII mutant lines were compared with a wild-type control in a greenhouse and field experiment. The quintuple mutant line (SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D) presented significant increases in both amylose (51% greenhouse; 63% field) and resistant starch (947% greenhouse; 1057% field) relative to the control. A decrease in total starch content (7.8%) was observed in the field experiment. The quintuple mutant also differed in starch viscosity parameters. Registration of the hexaploid wheat SBEII-mutant lines by University of California, Davis can help expedite the development of common wheat cultivars with increased amylose and resistant starch content. PMID:27818720

  10. Evolutionary Metabolomics Reveals Domestication-Associated Changes in Tetraploid Wheat Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Beleggia, Romina; Rau, Domenico; Laidò, Giovanni; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran; Papa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Domestication and breeding have influenced the genetic structure of plant populations due to selection for adaptation from natural habitats to agro-ecosystems. Here, we investigate the effects of selection on the contents of 51 primary kernel metabolites and their relationships in three Triticum turgidum L. subspecies (i.e., wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat) that represent the major steps of tetraploid wheat domestication. We present a methodological pipeline to identify the signature of selection for molecular phenotypic traits (e.g., metabolites and transcripts). Following the approach, we show that a reduction in unsaturated fatty acids was associated with selection during domestication of emmer (primary domestication). We also show that changes in the amino acid content due to selection mark the domestication of durum wheat (secondary domestication). These effects were found to be partially independent of the associations that unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids have with other domestication-related kernel traits. Changes in contents of metabolites were also highlighted by alterations in the metabolic correlation networks, indicating wide metabolic restructuring due to domestication. Finally, evidence is provided that wild and exotic germplasm can have a relevant role for improvement of wheat quality and nutritional traits. PMID:27189559

  11. Novel necrotrophic effectors from stagonospora nodorum and corresponding host genes in winter wheat germplasm in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the necrotrophic fungus Stagonospora nodorum (teleomorph: Phaeosphaeria nodorum), is among the most common diseases of winter wheat in the U.S. New opportunities in resistance breeding have arisen from the recent discovery of several necrotrophic effect...

  12. Registration of near-isogenic winter wheat germplasm contrasting in Fhb1 for fusarium head blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese wheat Ning7840 (Triticum aestivum L.) contains Fhb1, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, and has been widely used as a resistant parent in breeding programs worldwide, but due to its poor adaptation in the US, its progenies usually exhibit re...

  13. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2008 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the west...

  14. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2010 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the wes...

  15. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2007 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the west...

  16. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2006 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the weste...

  17. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions ...

  18. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions...

  19. Diversity in Puccinia triticina detected on wheat from 2008 to 2010 and the impact of new races on South African wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of wheat and triticale infected with leaf rust were collected from 2008 to 2010 in South Africa to identify Puccinia triticina races. Races were identified based on their virulence profile on standard differential lines. Eight races were identified from 362 isolates. The dominant races were ...

  20. New insights into the roles of host gene-necrotrophic effector interactions in governing susceptibility of durum wheat to tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) are important diseases of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Parastagonospora nodorum, respectively. The P. tritici-repentis necrotrophic effector (NE) Ptr ToxB causes tan spot when recognized by the Tsc2 gene. The NE To...

  1. Toward a better understanding of the genomic region harboring Fusarium head blight resistance QTL Qfhs.ndsu-3AS in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides)-derived Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance quantitative trait locus (QTL) Qfhs.ndsu-3AS previously mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3A (3AS) in a population of recombinant inbred chromosome lines (RICLs). This study aimed to attain a better unders...

  2. Ecogeography, genetic diversity, and breeding value of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Korn ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Körn ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell. is the allotetraploid (2n=4x=28; genome BBAA) progenitor of cultivated wheat. It is fully compatible with the tetraploid (BBAA) durum wheat (Triticum durum), and can be crossed with the hexaploid (2n=6x=42; BBAADD) wheat (Triticu...

  3. Characterization of a New Pm2 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in the Wheat Germplasm Line FG-1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pengtao; Xu, Hongxng; Li, Lihui; Zhang, Hongxia; Han, Guohao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fu, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Xiaotian; An, Diaoguo

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew has a negative impact on wheat production. Novel host resistance increases the diversity of resistance genes and helps to control the disease. In this study, wheat line FG-1 imported from France showed a high level of powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. An F2 population and F2:3 families from the cross FG-1 × Mingxian 169 both fit Mendelian ratios for a single dominant resistance gene when tested against multiple avirulent Blumeria tritici f. sp. tritici (Bgt) races. This gene was temporarily designated PmFG. PmFG was mapped on the multi-allelic Pm2 locus of chromosome 5DS using seven SSR, 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-derived and two SCAR markers with the flanking markers Xbwm21/Xcfd81/Xscar112 (distal) and Xbwm25 (proximal) at 0.3 and 0.5 cM being the closest. Marker SCAR203 co-segregated with PmFG. Allelism tests between PmFG and documented Pm2 alleles confirmed that PmFG was allelic with Pm2. Line FG-1 produced a significantly different reaction pattern compared to other lines with genes at or near Pm2 when tested against 49 Bgt isolates. The PmFG-linked marker alleles detected by the SNP-derived markers revealed significant variation between FG-1 and other lines with genes at or near Pm2. It was concluded that PmFG is a new allele at the Pm2 locus. Data from seven closely linked markers tested on 31 wheat cultivars indicated opportunities for marker-assisted pyramiding of this gene with other genes for powdery mildew resistance and additional traits. PMID:27200022

  4. Characterization of a New Pm2 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in the Wheat Germplasm Line FG-1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pengtao; Xu, Hongxng; Li, Lihui; Zhang, Hongxia; Han, Guohao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fu, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Xiaotian; An, Diaoguo

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew has a negative impact on wheat production. Novel host resistance increases the diversity of resistance genes and helps to control the disease. In this study, wheat line FG-1 imported from France showed a high level of powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. An F2 population and F2:3 families from the cross FG-1 × Mingxian 169 both fit Mendelian ratios for a single dominant resistance gene when tested against multiple avirulent Blumeria tritici f. sp. tritici (Bgt) races. This gene was temporarily designated PmFG. PmFG was mapped on the multi-allelic Pm2 locus of chromosome 5DS using seven SSR, 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-derived and two SCAR markers with the flanking markers Xbwm21/Xcfd81/Xscar112 (distal) and Xbwm25 (proximal) at 0.3 and 0.5 cM being the closest. Marker SCAR203 co-segregated with PmFG. Allelism tests between PmFG and documented Pm2 alleles confirmed that PmFG was allelic with Pm2. Line FG-1 produced a significantly different reaction pattern compared to other lines with genes at or near Pm2 when tested against 49 Bgt isolates. The PmFG-linked marker alleles detected by the SNP-derived markers revealed significant variation between FG-1 and other lines with genes at or near Pm2. It was concluded that PmFG is a new allele at the Pm2 locus. Data from seven closely linked markers tested on 31 wheat cultivars indicated opportunities for marker-assisted pyramiding of this gene with other genes for powdery mildew resistance and additional traits.

  5. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  6. Complex Regulation by Apetala2 Domain-Containing Transcription Factors Revealed through Analysis of the Stress-Responsive TdCor410b Promoter from Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Eini, Omid; Yang, Nannan; Pyvovarenko, Tatiana; Pillman, Katherine; Bazanova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Natalia; Eliby, Serik; Shirley, Neil; Sivasankar, Shoba; Tingey, Scott; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the wheat dehydrin gene Cor410b is induced several fold above its non-stressed levels upon exposure to stresses such as cold, drought and wounding. Deletion analysis of the TdCor410b promoter revealed a single functional C-repeat (CRT) element. Seven transcription factors (TFs) were shown to bind to this CRT element using yeast one-hybrid screens of wheat and barley cDNA libraries, of which only one belonged to the DREB class of TFs. The remaining six encoded ethylene response factors (ERFs) belong to three separate subfamilies. Analysis of binding selectivity of these TFs indicated that all seven could bind to the CRT element (GCCGAC), and that three of the six ERFs could bind both to the CRT element and the ethylene-responsive GCC-box (GCCGCC). The TaERF4 subfamily members specifically bound the CRT element, and did not bind either the GCC-box or DRE element (ACCGAC). Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis identified a single residue Pro42 in the Apetala2 (AP2) domain of TaERF4-like proteins that is conserved in monocotyledonous plants and is responsible for the recognition selectivity of this subfamily. We suggest that both DREB and ERF proteins regulate expression of the Cor410b gene through a single, critical CRT element. Members of the TaERF4 subfamily are specific, positive regulators of Cor410b gene expression. PMID:23527011

  7. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification.

  8. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  9. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  10. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  11. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  12. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  13. Performance and carcass measurements of ewe lambs reared in a feedlot and fed wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) middlings total mixed rations in the summer season.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Mazzei, Domenico; Laudadio, Vito

    2012-04-01

    The effect of total mixed ratios containing wheat middlings (WM) as a corn grain substitute on the growth performance and carcass traits of Comisana ewe lambs was evaluated. Forty ewe lambs, with average live body weight of 13 ± 0.3 kg (mean ± SEM), were allocated randomly to two isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets for 50 days. Control diet contained 400 g/kg of dry matter (DM) of corn as the main starchy source, whereas experimental diet contained 600 g/kg DM of WM. In vivo nutrient apparent digestibility of the two diets was determined using Comisana rams (mean body weight, 65 ± 2.3 kg) and indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences for neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. Results from the trial using Comisana ewe lambs showed that growth traits were unaffected by dietary treatments as well as none of the carcass measurements examined (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that WM results as a suitable feed ingredient for growing ewe lambs that can be a satisfactory substitute to conventional grain source.

  14. Apple Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) in Geneva, NY part of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System. The PGRU maintains 55 species of apple (Malus) in both field and seed collections. The main field collection of apples has 2621 diverse clones grafted onto EMLA 9 rootstock. Ninety-seven p...

  15. Chromosome engineering of wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr47 in a tetraploid wheat background

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) line DAS15 carries Sr47, a gene conferring resistance to races of stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), including race TTKSK (Ug99). The Ae. speltoides segment harboring Sr47 accounts for most of the T2BL-2SL•2SS chromosome. Our objective was t...

  16. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  17. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  18. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  19. Registration of fusarium head blight-resistant soft red winter wheat germplasm VA04W-433 and VA04W-474

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Fusarium head blight [FHB; caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe; telomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch] is one of the major diseases of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this research was to develop adapted soft red winter (SRW) wheat germp...

  20. The wheat Phs-A1 pre-harvest sprouting resistance locus delays the rate of seed dormancy loss and maps 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes in UK germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Shorinola, Oluwaseyi; Bird, Nicholas; Simmonds, James; Berry, Simon; Henriksson, Tina; Jack, Peter; Werner, Peter; Gerjets, Tanja; Scholefield, Duncan; Balcárková, Barbara; Valárik, Miroslav; Holdsworth, M. J.; Flintham, John; Uauy, Cristobal

    2016-01-01

    The precocious germination of cereal grains before harvest, also known as pre-harvest sprouting, is an important source of yield and quality loss in cereal production. Pre-harvest sprouting is a complex grain defect and is becoming an increasing challenge due to changing climate patterns. Resistance to sprouting is multi-genic, although a significant proportion of the sprouting variation in modern wheat cultivars is controlled by a few major quantitative trait loci, including Phs-A1 in chromosome arm 4AL. Despite its importance, little is known about the physiological basis and the gene(s) underlying this important locus. In this study, we characterized Phs-A1 and show that it confers resistance to sprouting damage by affecting the rate of dormancy loss during dry seed after-ripening. We show Phs-A1 to be effective even when seeds develop at low temperature (13 °C). Comparative analysis of syntenic Phs-A1 intervals in wheat and Brachypodium uncovered ten orthologous genes, including the Plasma Membrane 19 genes (PM19-A1 and PM19-A2) previously proposed as the main candidates for this locus. However, high-resolution fine-mapping in two bi-parental UK mapping populations delimited Phs-A1 to an interval 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes. This study suggests the possibility that more than one causal gene underlies this major pre-harvest sprouting locus. The information and resources reported in this study will help test this hypothesis across a wider set of germplasm and will be of importance for breeding more sprouting resilient wheat varieties. PMID:27217549

  1. Prevalence of Puroindoline D1 and Puroindoline b-2 variants in U.S. Pacific Northwest wheat breeding germplasm pools, and their association with kernel texture.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongwei; Beecher, Brian S; He, Zhonghu; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Morris, Craig F

    2012-05-01

    Kernel texture is a major factor influencing the classification and end use properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and is mainly controlled by the Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. Recently, a new puroindoline gene, Puroindoline b-2 (Pin b-2), was identified. In this study, 388 wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines from the U.S. Pacific Northwest were investigated for frequencies of Puroindoline D1 alleles and Pinb-2 variants 2 and 3. Results indicated that Pinb-D1b (74.0%) was the predominant genotype among hard wheats (N = 196), the only other hard allele encountered was Pina-D1b (26.0%). Across all varieties, Pinb-2v3 was the predominant genotype (84.5%) compared with Pinb-2v2 (15.5%). However, among 240 winter wheat varieties (124 soft white, 15 club, 68 hard red and 33 hard white varieties), all carried Pinb-2v3. Among spring wheats, Pinb-2v2 and Pinb-2v3 frequencies were more variable (soft white 25.0:75.0, hard red 58.2:41.8 and hard white 40.0:60.0, respectively). Kernel texture variation was analyzed using 247 of the 388 wheat varieties grown in multi-location factorial trials in up to 7 crop years. The range of variety means among the four groups, soft winter, soft spring, hard winter and hard spring, was on the order of 15-25 single kernel characterization system (SKCS) Hardness Index. The least significant difference for each of these trials ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 SKCS Hardness Index. Observations lead to the conclusion that Pinb-2 variants do not exert a prominent effect on kernel texture, however, Pinb-2 variants do identify features of wheat germ plasm structure in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

  2. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sundeep; Archak, Sunil; Tyagi, R K; Kumar, Jagdish; Vk, Vikas; Jacob, Sherry R; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J; Parimalan, R; Sivaswamy, M; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N S; Chowdhury, A K; Saha, B C; Bhattacharya, P M; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M C; Gangwar, O P; Prasad, P; Bharadwaj, S C; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J B; Gm, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M S; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T V; Sharma, R K; Dutta, M; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K C

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  3. Compared use of HPLC and FZCE for cluster analysis of Triticum spp and for the identification of T. durum adulteration.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Alessandra; Marotti, Ilaria; Catizone, Pietro; Dinelli, Giovanni; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2004-06-30

    Wheat quality criteria continually evolve in response to market pressure and consumer preference. Characterization of cereal cultivars for quality and agronomic properties, have widely shown the importance of the protein content to ensure good quality products. The aim of this work is a comparison of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE) in the identification of Italian wheat cultivars and detection of durum wheat flour adulteration. Mainly alcohol soluble (gliadins) and water soluble (albumins) proteins were extracted from 14 common wheat cultivars and from 9 durum wheat cultivars. In RP-HPLC chromatograms, wheat albumins and gliadins eluted between 3 and 9 min and between 10 and 42 min, respectively. Even if the chosen chromatographic conditions (reversed phase) did not permit a complete resolution of hydrophilic proteins such as albumins, a good reproducibility was observed for both albumins and gliadins. In FZCE electropherograms, wheat albumins and gliadins migrated between 8 and 14 min and 16-25 min, respectively. A good reproducibility was found for wheat albumins, while the relatively poor reproducibility of gliadin fractions was a consequence of the selected separation conditions aimed to separate in the same run either hydrophilic (albumins) and alcohol-soluble (gliadins) proteins. The principal component analysis (PCA) of HPLC and FZCE data evidenced that both techniques allowed the univocal identification of the great proportion of investigated wheat cultivars. Three peaks were exclusively detected in RP-HPLC chromatograms of common wheat cultivars, while three unique peaks were found in FZCE electropherograms of common wheat cultivars. These peaks were investigated as a basis for detecting and estimating the adulteration of durum wheat flour with flour from common wheat. The direct relationship between the area of the peaks and adulteration level enabled standard curves to be

  4. Characterization and molecular mapping of Yr52 for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat germplasm PI 183527

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best approach to control the disease. High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) stripe rust resistance has proven to be race non-specific and durable. However, genes...

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci for High-Temperature Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust (Puccinia Striiformis f. sp. tritici) in a Hard Red Winter Wheat Germplasm IDO444

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a durable type of resistance in wheat. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring the HTAP resistance to stripe rust in a population consisted of 179 F7:8...

  6. Association mapping of North American spring wheat breeding germplasm reveals loci conferring resistance to Ug99 and other African stem rust races

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recently identified Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) race TTKSK (Ug99) poses a severe threat to global wheat production because of its broad virulence on several widely deployed resistance genes. Additional concerning virulences have been detected in the Ug99 group of races, and spread of ...

  7. Agronomic selenium biofortification in Triticum durum under Mediterranean conditions: from grain to cooked pasta.

    PubMed

    Poblaciones, M J; Rodrigo, S; Santamaría, O; Chen, Y; McGrath, S P

    2014-03-01

    To improve the nutritional value of durum wheat and derived products, two foliar Se fertilisers (sodium selenate and selenite) were tested at four rates (0-10-20-40gha(-1)) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in southwestern Spain. There was a strong and linear relationship between total Se or selenomethionine (Se-Met) accumulation in grain and Se dose for both fertilisers, although selenate was much more efficient. Se-Met was the main Se species (≈90%) of the total Se extracted from all materials. Milling caused a 27% loss of Se due to the removal of Se located in bran and germ. In the pasta making process and the cooking process the loss of Se, mainly as selenite, was about 7%. Durum wheat may be a good candidate to be included in Se biofortification programs under rainfed Mediterranean conditions, as foodstuffs derived from it could efficiently increase the Se content in the human diet.

  8. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sherry R.; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J.; Parimalan, R.; Sivaswamy, M.; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N. S.; Chowdhury, A. K.; Saha, B. C.; Bhattacharya, P. M.; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M. C.; Gangwar, O. P.; Prasad, P.; Bharadwaj, S. C.; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J. B.; GM, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M. S.; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T. V.; Sharma, R. K.; Dutta, M.; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat–Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011–14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels. PMID:27942031

  9. Photoperiod and vernalization effect on anthesis date in winter-sown spring wheat regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate prediction of phenology is required to guide crop management decisions and to predict crop growth and yield. However, the relative importance of photoperiod and vernalization in predicting anthesis dates for spring bread and durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf.) grown as a w...

  10. Better Collection and Maintenance Procedures Needed to Help Protect Agriculture’s Germplasm Resources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-04

    numerous operational problems, primarily because of a lack of depart- mental attention and a low priority given to improving the system. Germplasm has...potato failure, crop failures have occurred. In 1953 and 1954, a wheat disease, wheat stem rust, took 65 and 75 percent, respectively, of the pasta crop...officials within ARS cite lack of funds and staff as the source of their problems. Until recently, germplasm has had a relatively low priority within

  11. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

  12. Pentaploid Wheat Hybrids: Applications, Characterisation, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Sriram; Zhang, Peng; Hare, Ray A.; Sutherland, Mark W.; Martin, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation between hexaploid and tetraploid wheat species leads to the development of F1 pentaploid hybrids with unique chromosomal constitutions. Pentaploid hybrids derived from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum Desf.) crosses can improve the genetic background of either parent by transferring traits of interest. The genetic variability derived from bread and durum wheat and transferred into pentaploid hybrids has the potential to improve disease resistance, abiotic tolerance, and grain quality, and to enhance agronomic characters. Nonetheless, pentaploid wheat hybrids have not been fully exploited in breeding programs aimed at improving crops. There are several potential barriers for efficient pentaploid wheat production, such as low pollen compatibility, poor seed set, failed seedling establishment, and frequent sterility in F1 hybrids. However, most of the barriers can be overcome by careful selection of the parental genotypes and by employing the higher ploidy level genotype as the maternal parent. In this review, we summarize the current research on pentaploid wheat hybrids and analyze the advantages and pitfalls of current methods used to assess pentaploid-derived lines. Furthermore, we discuss current and potential applications in commercial breeding programs and future directions for research into pentaploid wheat. PMID:28367153

  13. Genetic mapping of QTL for resistance to Fusarium head blight spread (type 2 resistance) in a Triticum dicoccoides × Triticum durum backcross-derived population.

    PubMed

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Alimari, Abdallah; Steiner, Barbara; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Improvement of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a continuous challenge for durum wheat breeders, particularly due to the limited genetic variation within this crop species. We accordingly generated a backcross-derived mapping population using the type 2 FHB resistant Triticum dicoccoides line Mt. Gerizim #36 as donor and the modern Austrian T. durum cultivar Helidur as recipient; 103 BC1F6:7 lines were phenotyped for type 2 FHB resistance using single-spikelet inoculations and genotyped with 421 DNA markers (SSR and AFLP). QTL mapping revealed two highly significant QTL, mapping to chromosomes 3A and 6B, respectively. For both QTL the T. dicoccoides allele improved type 2 FHB resistance. Recombinant lines with both favorable alleles fixed conferred high resistance to FHB similar to that observed in the T. dicoccoides parent. The results appear directly applicable for durum wheat resistance breeding.

  14. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  15. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum

    PubMed Central

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  16. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  17. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690-710 mm) and water-limited (290-320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass-specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  18. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  19. Ancient wheat and health: a legend or the reality? A review on KAMUT khorasan wheat.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Danesi, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Taccari, Annalisa; Valli, Veronica

    2017-05-01

    After WWII, the industrialized agriculture selected modern varieties of Triticum turgidum spp. durum and spp. aestivum (durum wheat and common wheat) based on higher yields and technological characteristics. Nowadays, the use of whole ancient grains and pseudo cereals is considered nutritionally important. How ancient grains have positive effects is not entirely known, the fragmentation of the scientific knowledge being also related to the fact that ancient grains are not a homogeneous category. The KAMUT(®) trademark indicates a specific and ancient variety of grain (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum, commonly khorasan wheat), and guarantees certain attributes making studies sufficiently comparable. In this work, studies on KAMUT(®) khorasan wheat have been systematically reviewed, evidencing different aspects supporting its benefits. Although it is not possible to establish whether all ancient grains share these positive characteristics, in total or in part, this review provides further evidences supporting the consumption of ancient grains.

  20. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  1. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  2. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  3. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  4. LACIE: Wheat yield models for the United States, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    For abstract, see volume 1 N77-30577. The enclosed maps indicate the areal coverage of the various models for spring (durum and other spring) and winter wheat. The given regions are the combination of several climatic divisions and many times comprise an entire state.

  5. CANCER MORTALITY IN FOUR NORTHERN WHEAT PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of s...

  6. 21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...(a), (f)(2), (f)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Soy flour is added in a quantity not less than 12.5 percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat... derived from semolina, durum flour, farina, flour or any combination of these used, does not exceed...

  7. 21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(a), (f)(2), (f)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Soy flour is added in a quantity not less than 12.5 percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat... derived from semolina, durum flour, farina, flour or any combination of these used, does not exceed...

  8. 21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...(a), (f)(2), (f)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Soy flour is added in a quantity not less than 12.5 percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat... derived from semolina, durum flour, farina, flour or any combination of these used, does not exceed...

  9. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  10. Mapping of Yr62 and a small effect QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat PI 192252

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. Spring wheat germplasm PI 192252 showed a high level of high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust in germplasm evaluation over eight years in the State of Washington. ...

  11. Fusarium head blight resistance in U.S. winter wheat cultivars and elite breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium (Fusarium graminearum) head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To characterize FHB resistance in U.S. wheat germplasm, 363 U.S. winter wheat accessions were repeatedly evaluated for FHB resistance. A high correlation (r = 0.73, P < 0.001) for me...

  12. Characterization of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Genetic Variation for Preharvest Sprouting in Synthetic Backcross-Derived Wheat Lines

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Ogbonnaya, Francis C.; Oman, Jason; van Ginkel, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Aegilops tauschii, the wild relative of wheat, has stronger seed dormancy, a major component of preharvest sprouting resistance (PHSR), than bread wheat. A diploid Ae. tauschii accession (AUS18836) and a tetraploid (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum var. Altar84) wheat were used to construct a synthetic wheat (Syn37). The genetic architecture of PHS was investigated in 271 BC1F7 synthetic backcross lines (SBLs) derived from Syn37/2*Janz (resistant/susceptible). The SBLs were evaluated in three environments over 2 years and PHS was assessed by way of three measures: the germination index (GI), which measures grain dormancy, the whole spike assay (SI), which takes into account all spike morphology, and counted visually sprouted seeds out of 200 (VI). Grain color was measured using both Chroma Meter- and NaOH-based approaches. QTL for PHSR and grain color were mapped and their additive and epistatic effects as well as their interactions with environment were estimated by a mixed linear-model approach. Single-locus analysis following composite interval mapping revealed four QTL for GI, two QTL for SI, and four QTL for VI on chromosomes 3DL and 4AL. The locus QPhs.dpiv-3D.1 on chromosome 3DL was tightly linked to the red grain color (RGC) at a distance of 5 cM. The other locus on chromosome 3D, “QPhs.dpiv-3D.2” was independent of RGC locus. Two-locus analysis detected nine QTL with main effects and 18 additive × additive interactions for GI, SI, and VI. Two of the nine main effects QTL and two epistatic QTL showed significant interactions with environments. Both additive and epistatic effects contributed to phenotypic variance in PHSR and the identified markers are potential candidates for marker-assisted selection of favorable alleles at multiple loci. SBLs derived from Ae. tauschii proved to be a promising tool to dissect, introgress, and pyramid different PHSR genes into adapted wheat genetic backgrounds. The enhanced expression of PHS resistance in SBLs enabled

  13. Wheat Genotypes With Combined Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite, Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus, Wheat Mosaic Virus, and Triticum Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Po; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Khalaf, Luaay Kahtan; Zhang, Guorong; Fritz, Allan K; Whitfield, Anna E; Smith, C Michael

    2017-01-13

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, (WCM) is a global pest of bread wheat that reduces yields significantly. In addition, WCM carries Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus), the most significant wheat virus in North America; High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV, genus Emaravirus, formerly High plains virus); and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, family Potyviridae, genus Poacevirus). Viruses carried by WCM have reduced wheat yields throughout the U.S. Great Plains for >50 yr, with average yield losses of 2-3% and occasional yield losses of 7-10%. Acaricides are ineffective against WCM, and delayed planting of winter wheat is not feasible. Five wheat breeding lines containing Cmc4, a WCM resistance gene from Aegilops tauschii, and Wsm2, a WSMV resistance gene from wheat germplasm CO960293-2 were selected from the breeding process and assessed for phenotypic reaction to WCM feeding, population increase, and the degree of WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection. Experiments determined that all five lines are resistant to WCM biotype 1 feeding and population increase, and that two breeding lines contain resistance to WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection as well. These WCM-, WSMV-, HPWMoV-, and TriMV-resistant genotypes can be used improve management of wheat yield losses from WCM-virus complexes.

  14. Targeted discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an unmarked wheat chromosomal region containing the Hessian fly resistance gene H33

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly effective Hessian fly-resistance gene, H33, was introgressed from durum wheat into common wheat and genetically mapped to chromosome 3AS, in previous research. However, H33 located to a region that is well-known to be devoid of molecular markers, with the closest flanking simple sequence ...

  15. Effects of wheat maturation stage and cooking method on dietary fiber and phytic acid contents of firik, a wheat-based local food.

    PubMed

    Ozboy, O; Ozkaya, B; Ozkaya, H; Köksel, H

    2001-10-01

    Samples of two durum wheat cultivars (cvs. Duraking and Ege 88) at different maturation stages (13, 16, 19, 22, 25 days post anthesis) were processed into firik (a wheat-based specialty food) using two different cooking methods: roasting (scorching) on flames and boiling at atmospheric pressure. Both the acid detergent and neutral detergent fiber contents of the firiks produced from two durum wheat samples decreased significantly (p < 0.01) with maturation. Total P contents of the firiks of both cultivars produced by both methods showed a significant downward trend within the period of maturation while their phytic acid contents showed a significant upward trend (p < 0.01). It was possible to obtain a reduced phytic acid, high fiber product from the wheats harvested at early stages of maturation (13 and 16 days after anthesis).

  16. Usefulness of descriptors in phenotyping germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large number of crop germplasm collections are maintained within the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). For each of these crop collections, Crop Germplasm committees (CGC), crop curators, and collection staff have established extensive lists of descriptors or phenotypic traits by which t...

  17. Safflower Germplasm: Past, Present, and Future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm collections are a critical resource for development and improving safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars and germplasm. Our objective is to describe the safflower germplasm collection at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS), Pullman WA, USA, in light of past, pre...

  18. Molecular mapping of greenbug resistance loci Gb6 and Gb2 in 1AL.1RS wheat-rye translocations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is an economically important aphid pest of wheat worldwide. The greenbug resistance genes Gb2 and Gb6, derived from the same donor rye line 'Insave', are presented in wheat germplasm lines 'Amigo' and 'GRS1201' respectively as 1AL.1RS wheat-rye transloca...

  19. Yield, Quality, Water and Nitrogen Use of Durum and Annual Forages in Two-year Rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Available water and nitrogen (N) are typically the biggest constraints to dryland spring durum (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) production in the northern Great Plains (NGP). A common rotation for spring durum is with summer fallow, which is used to accrue additional soil moisture and N for the su...

  20. Tetraploid Wheat Landraces in the Mediterranean Basin: Taxonomy, Evolution and Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Hugo R.; Campana, Michael G.; Jones, Huw; Hunt, Harriet V.; Leigh, Fiona; Redhouse, David I.; Lister, Diane L.; Jones, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity and the population structure of tetraploid wheat landraces in the Mediterranean basin has received relatively little attention. This is complicated by the lack of consensus concerning the taxonomy of tetraploid wheats and by unresolved questions regarding the domestication and spread of naked wheats. These knowledge gaps hinder crop diversity conservation efforts and plant breeding programmes. We investigated genetic diversity and population structure in tetraploid wheats (wild emmer, emmer, rivet and durum) using nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeats, functional variations and insertion site-based polymorphisms. Emmer and wild emmer constitute a genetically distinct population from durum and rivet, the latter seeming to share a common gene pool. Our population structure and genetic diversity data suggest a dynamic history of introduction and extinction of genotypes in the Mediterranean fields. PMID:22615891

  1. BIRTH MALFORMATIONS AND OTHER ADVERSE PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN FOUR U.S. WHEAT PRODUCING STATES: RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are widely used in the U.S. and Western Europe for broadleaf weed control in grain farming and park maintenance. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, with over 85% of the a...

  2. Identifying rare FHB-resistant transgressive segregants in intransigent backcross and F2 winter wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch)] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.). FHB-infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) a mycotoxin ...

  3. MALFORMATIONS AND OTHER ADVERSE PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN FOUR U.S. WHEAT-PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are widely used in the U.S. and Western Europe in
    grain agriculture and for weed control. Most of the spring and durum wheat
    produced in the U.S. is grown in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and
    South Dakota, with over 85% of th...

  4. Mapping QTLs for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in an Interspecific Wheat Population

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspro, Angelica; Giove, Stefania L.; Zito, Daniela; Blanco, A.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar. A total of 135 RILs were used for constituting a genetic linkage map and mapping loci for head blight incidence, severity, and disease-related plant morphological traits (plant height, spike compactness, and awn length). The new genetic map accounted for 4,366 single nucleotide polymorphism markers assembled in 52 linkage groups covering a total length of 4,227.37 cM. Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for scab incidence and severity were mapped on chromosomes 2AS, 3AL, and 2AS, 2BS, 4BL, respectively. Plant height loci were identified on 3A, 3B, and 4B, while major QTL for ear compactness were found on 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, and 7A. In this work, resistance to Fusarium was transferred from hexaploid to durum wheat, and correlations between the disease and morphological traits were assessed. PMID:27746787

  5. Quantification of genetic relationships among A genomes of wheats.

    PubMed

    Brandolini, A; Vaccino, P; Boggini, G; Ozkan, H; Kilian, B; Salamini, F

    2006-04-01

    The genetic relationships of A genomes of Triticum urartu (Au) and Triticum monococcum (Am) in polyploid wheats are explored and quantified by AFLP fingerprinting. Forty-one accessions of A-genome diploid wheats, 3 of AG-genome wheats, 19 of AB-genome wheats, 15 of ABD-genome wheats, and 1 of the D-genome donor Ae. tauschii have been analysed. Based on 7 AFLP primer combinations, 423 bands were identified as potentially A genome specific. The bands were reduced to 239 by eliminating those present in autoradiograms of Ae. tauschii, bands interpreted as common to all wheat genomes. Neighbour-joining analysis separates T. urartu from T. monococcum. Triticum urartu has the closest relationship to polyploid wheats. Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. turgidum subsp. durum lines are included in tightly linked clusters. The hexaploid spelts occupy positions in the phylogenetic tree intermediate between bread wheats and T. turgidum. The AG-genome accessions cluster in a position quite distant from both diploid and other polyploid wheats. The estimates of similarity between A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats indicate that, compared with Am, Au has around 20% higher similarity to the genomes of polyploid wheats. Triticum timo pheevii AG genome is molecularly equidistant from those of Au and Am wheats.

  6. Notice of release of Fanny Germplasm, Carmel Germplasm, and Bonneville Germplasm Searls' prairie clover: Selected class of natural germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three natural-track selected germplasms of Searls' prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae [A. Gray] Barneby [Fabaceae]) have been released for use in revegetation/restoration of semi-arid rangelands in the western US. Searls' prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that is native to Utah, Nevada, Ar...

  7. Linkage disequilibrium and genome-wide association mapping in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    PubMed

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Mastrangelo, Anna M; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker-trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker-trait associations.

  8. Linkage Disequilibrium and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A.; Colecchia, Salvatore A.; Mastrangelo, Anna M.; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker–trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker–trait associations. PMID:24759998

  9. Comparative germination responses to water potential across different populations of Aegilops geniculata and cultivar varieties of Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Orsenigo, S; Guzzon, F; Abeli, T; Rossi, G; Vagge, I; Balestrazzi, A; Mondoni, A; Müller, J V

    2017-03-01

    Crop Wild Relatives are often used to improve crop quality and yields because they contain genetically important traits that can contribute to stress resistance and adaptation. Seed germination of different populations of Aegilops geniculata Roth collected along a latitudinal gradient was studied under different drought stress in order to find populations suitable for improving drought tolerance in wheat. Different accessions of Aegilops neglecta Req. ex Bertol., Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. were used as comparison. Under full hydration, germination was high in all populations, but increasing drought stress led to reduced and delayed germination. Significant differences in final germination and mean time to germinate were detected among populations. Wheat, durum wheat and the southern population of Ae. geniculata were not significantly affected by drought stress, germinating similarly under all treatments. However, seed germination of the northern populations of Ae. geniculata was significantly reduced under high water stress treatment. Differences between populations of the same species could not be explained by annual rainfall across populations' distributions, but by rainfall during seed development and maturation. Differences in the germination responses to drought found here highlight the importance of source populations as criteria for genotype selection for pre-breeders.

  10. Leaf rust resistance in selected Uruguayan late maturity common wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Uruguay, therefore and breeding for resistance to this disease has been a priority for the INIA wheat breeding development program. Knowledge of the resistance genes present in the germplasm is relevant to bre...

  11. Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-07-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence.

  12. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  13. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  14. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  15. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND WHEAT ACREAGE AS A SURROGATE FOR CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES IN COUNTIES OF OUR NORTHERN STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides which have endocrine disrupting properties, are used widely both in cereal grain agriculture and in non-agricultural settings, such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in four northern stat...

  16. Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

    PubMed

    Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-09-04

    Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat.

  17. A SNP-Based Molecular Barcode for Characterization of Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, LiFeng; Jia, JiZeng; Kong, XiuYing

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown as a staple crop worldwide. It is important to develop an effective genotyping tool for this cereal grain both to identify germplasm diversity and to protect the rights of breeders. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides a means for developing a practical, rapid, inexpensive and high-throughput assay. Here, we investigated SNPs as robust markers of genetic variation for typing wheat cultivars. We identified SNPs from an array of 9000 across a collection of 429 well-known wheat cultivars grown in China, of which 43 SNP markers with high minor allele frequency and variations discriminated the selected wheat varieties and their wild ancestors. This SNP-based barcode will allow for the rapid and precise identification of wheat germplasm resources and newly released varieties and will further assist in the wheat breeding program. PMID:26985664

  18. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  19. Melon Trait and Germplasm Resources Survey 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucurbit Crop Germplasm Committee (CCGC), which operates under the auspices of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), is composed of ARS, university and industry scientists, and provides guidance to NPGS on matters relating to cucurbit crop and wild related species. The CCGC is res...

  20. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  1. [Characteristics of alpha-amylase isozymes in cytologenetically different wheat cultivars].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D

    2014-07-01

    The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods.

  2. A genetic linkage map of the Durum x Triticum dicoccoides backcross population based on SSRs and AFLP markers, and QTL analysis for milling traits.

    PubMed

    Elouafi, I; Nachit, M M

    2004-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var durum) is mainly produced and consumed in the Mediterranean region; it is used to produce several specific end-products; such as local pasta, couscous and burghul. To study the genetics of grain-milling quality traits, chromosomal locations, and interaction with the environment, a genetic linkage map of durum was constructed and the quantitative trait loci QTLs for the milling-related traits, test weight (TW) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW), were identified. The population constituted 114 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross: Omrabi 5 /Triticum dicoccoides 600545// Omrabi 5. TW and TKW were analyzed over 18 environments (sites x years). Single-sequence-repeat markers (SSRs), Amplified-fragment-length-polymorphism markers (AFLPs), and seed storage proteins (SSPs) showed a high level of polymorphism (>60%). The map was constructed with 124 SSRs, 149 AFLPs and 6 SSPs; its length covered 2,288.8 cM (8.2 cM/marker). The map showed high synteny with previous wheat maps, and both SSRs and AFLPs mapped evenly across the genome, with more markers in the B genome. However, some rearrangements were observed. For TW, a high genotypic effect was detected and two QTLs with epistasic effect were identified on 7AS and 6BS, explaining 30% of the total variation. The TKW showed a significant transgressive inheritance and five QTLs were identified, explaining 32% of the total variation, out of which 25% was of a genetic nature, and showing QTLxE interaction. The major TKW-QTLs were around the centromere region of 6B. For both traits, Omrabi 5 alleles had a significant positive effect. This population will be used to determine other QTLs of interest, as its parents are likely to harbor different genes for diseases and drought tolerance.

  3. Cancer mortality in four northern wheat-producing states.

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, D M

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of spring and durum wheat is treated with chlorophenoxy herbicides, in contrast to treatment of approximately 30% of winter wheat. In this ecologic study I used wheat acreage as a surrogate for exposure to chlorophenoxy herbicides. I investigated the association of chlorophenoxy herbicides with cancer mortality during 1980-1989 for selected counties based on level of agriculture ([greater and equal to] 20%) and rural population ([greater and equal to] 50%). Age-standardized cancer mortality rates were determined for grouped counties based on tertiles of wheat acreage per county or for individual counties for frequently occurring cancers. The cancer sites that showed positive trends of increasing cancer mortality with increasing wheat acreage were esophagus, stomach, rectum, pancreas, larynx, prostate, kidney and ureter, brain, thyroid, bone, and all cancers (men) and oral cavity and tongue, esophagus, stomach, liver and gall bladder and bile ducts, pancreas, cervix, ovary, bladder, and other urinary organs, and all cancers (women). Rare cancers in men and women and cancers in boys and girls were studied by comparing counties above and below the median of wheat acreage per county. There was increased mortality for cancer of the nose and eye in both men and women, brain and leukemia in both boys and girls, and all cancers in boys. These results suggest an association between cancer mortality and wheat acreage in counties of these four states. PMID:11017893

  4. Tracking the fate of pasta (T. Durum semolina) immunogenic proteins by in vitro simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mackie, Alan

    2015-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the celiacogenic/immunogenic proteins and peptides released during digestion of pasta (Triticum durum semolina). Cooked pasta was digested using a harmonized in vitro static model of oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. The course of pasta protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE, and gluten proteins were specifically analyzed by Western blot using sera of celiac patients. Among the allergens, nonspecific lipid-transfer protein was highly resistant to gastro-duodenal hydrolysis, while other digestion-stable allergens such as α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were not detected being totally released in the pasta cooking water. To simulate the final stage of intestinal degradation, the gastro-duodenal digesta were incubated with porcine jejunal brush-border membrane hydrolases. Sixty-one peptides surviving the brush-border membrane peptidases were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including several gluten-derived sequences encrypting different motifs responsible for the induction of celiac disease. These results provide new insights into the persistence of wheat-derived peptides during digestion of cooked pasta samples.

  5. [Comparative Characteristic of Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum hybrid lines by genomic composition and resistance to fungal diseases under different environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Leonova, I N; Badaeva, E D; Orlovskaya, O A; Roder, M S; Khotyleva, L V; Salina, E A; Shumny, V K

    2013-11-01

    The genetic diversity of common wheat hybrid lines Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum (2n = 42, F(6-7)) using chromosome-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers and C-staining of chromosomes was studied. Cluster analysis of data obtained by 42 SSR markers indicated that the hybrid lines can be broken into three groups according to their origin. There were two cases of complete genetic similarity between lines 183(2)-2/184(1)-6 and-208-3/213-1, which were obtained using common wheat as the parental plants. In cross combinations, when the stabilization of the nuclear genome of hexaploid lines occurred against a background of the cytoplasmic genome of tetraploid wheats, there was a high level of divergence between sister lines, in some cases exceeding 50%. The evaluation of the degree of susceptibility of the lines to powdery mildew, leaf and stem rust, and septoria leafblotch was performed under different environmental conditions. It was shown that resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust significantly depended on the region where assays were conducted. An evaluation of the field data showed that he lines 195-3, 196-1, and 221-1 with T. durum genetic material displayed complex resistance to fungal pathogens in Western Siberia and the Republic of Belarus. For lines 195-3 and 196-1, one shows a possible contribution of chromosomes 4B and 5B in the formation of complex resistance to diseases. Hybrid lines with complex resistance can be used to expand the genetic diversity of modern common wheat cultivars for genes of immunity.

  6. Synthetic hexaploids derived from under-exploited tetraploids as a new resource for disease resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) (2n = 6x = 42, genome AABBDD), which is developed from the hybridization between tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28, genome AABB) and Aegilops tauschii Coss. (2n = 2x = 14, genome DD), is a useful bridging germplasm for the introgression of desirable...

  7. Genome-wide genetic dissection of supernumerary spikelet and related traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  8. Development and validation of high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms for wheat streak mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can cause significant yield loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of North America. A recently identified WSMV resistance gene, Wsm2, was mapped to chromosome 3BS in germplasm line ‘CO960293–2’. Effective genetic markers tightly linked to the gene ...

  9. MlNCD1: A novel Aegilops tauschii derived powdery mildew resistance gene identified in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease in wheat, especially in cool maritime climates. A novel Aegilops tauschii derived wheat powdery mildew resistance gene present in the germplasm line NC96BGTD1 was genetically characterized as a monogenic trait in field trials using F2 and F4-derived lines fr...

  10. Using Geostatistical Data Fusion Techniques and MODIS Data to Upscale Simulated Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrignano, A.; Buttafuoco, G.; Matese, A.; Toscano, P.

    2014-12-01

    Population growth increases food request. Assessing food demand and predicting the actual supply for a given location are critical components of strategic food security planning at regional scale. Crop yield can be simulated using crop models because is site-specific and determined by weather, management, length of growing season and soil properties. Crop models require reliable location-specific data that are not generally available. Obtaining these data at a large number of locations is time-consuming, costly and sometimes simply not feasible. An upscaling method to extend coverage of sparse estimates of crop yield to an appropriate extrapolation domain is required. This work is aimed to investigate the applicability of a geostatistical data fusion approach for merging remote sensing data with the predictions of a simulation model of wheat growth and production using ground-based data. The study area is Capitanata plain (4000 km2) located in Apulia Region, mostly cropped with durum wheat. The MODIS EVI/NDVI data products for Capitanata plain were downloaded from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) remote for the whole crop cycle of durum wheat. Phenological development, biomass growth and grain quantity of durum wheat were simulated by the Delphi system, based on a crop simulation model linked to a database including soil properties, agronomical and meteorological data. Multicollocated cokriging was used to integrate secondary exhaustive information (multi-spectral MODIS data) with primary variable (sparsely distributed biomass/yield model predictions of durum wheat). The model estimates looked strongly spatially correlated with the radiance data (red and NIR bands) and the fusion data approach proved to be quite suitable and flexible to integrate data of different type and support.

  11. EFFICACY AND MODES OF ACTION OF RESISTANCE INDUCERS ON TWO WHEAT SPECIES AGAINST MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Ors, M; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2014-01-01

    Plant resistance inducers could be an alternative to conventional fungicides to control in a more durable and environmentally friendly manner fungal pathogens. Here, we tested the protection efficacy and the modes of action of four resistance inducers (R1, R2, R3 and R4) against the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, Mycosphaerella graminicola, the most frequently occurring pathogen on wheat crops worldwide. The four inducers were tested on two wheat cultivars, Premio (a French bread wheat cultivar) and Karim (a Tunisian durum wheat cultivar), each inoculated with a bread-wheat or a durum-wheat adapted isolate; respectively. All inducers exhibited in the greenhouse a significant protection level on both cultivars regarding disease symptoms (necrosis and chlorosis) and sporulation (pycnidium density). The most efficient inducer was R3 which showed 84% symptom reduction, while the less efficient one was R2 with only a 39% reduction. None of the studied inducers showed direct biocide effect against the fungus, except R4 which displayed a significant in planta inhibition of spore germination. Further investigations revealed that all inducers elicited the plant defence enzymes peroxidase and lipoxygenase, but the activity levels varied depending on the considered inducer. In addition, the effect of resistance inducers on the infection process and the fungal cell-wall degrading enzymes xylanases and glucanases was also investigated. Our study allowed us to find out four efficient resistance inducers on wheat against M. graminicola and to establish data about the modes of action of these inducers.

  12. Genetic mapping of major-effect seed dormancy quantitative trait loci on chromosome 2B using recombinant substitution lines in tetraploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat cultivars can benefit from having some level of seed dormancy to help reduce seed damage and lower grain quality caused by pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) occurring during wet harvesting conditions. Previously a single chromosome substitution line carrying chromosome 2B of wild emmer in the...

  13. Marker development, saturation mapping, and high-resolution mapping of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn3-B1 in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by Parastagonospora nodorum, is a severe foliar and glume disease on durum and common wheat. Pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) are the major determinants for SNB on leaves. One such NE is SnTox3, which evokes programmed cell death and leads to dis...

  14. Identification of Chromosome Locations of Genes Affecting pre-Harvest Sprouting and Seed Dormancy using Chromosome Substitution Lines in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy, the main factor contributing to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance, is a complex trait and strongly influenced by environmental growth conditions. In this study, three sets of single chromosome substitution lines, including 37 genotypes, in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. du...

  15. Proteome Profiling of Wheat Shoots from Different Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lam Dai; Verstraeten, Inge; Stes, Elisabeth; Van Bel, Michiel; Coppens, Frederik; Gevaert, Kris; De Smet, Ive

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is a cereal grain and one of the world’s major food crops. Recent advances in wheat genome sequencing are by now facilitating its genomic and proteomic analyses. However, little is known about possible differences in total protein levels of hexaploid versus tetraploid wheat cultivars, and also knowledge of phosphorylated wheat proteins is still limited. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the proteome of seedling leaves from two hexaploid wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. Pavon 76 and USU-Apogee) and one tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. Senatore Cappelli). Our shotgun proteomics data revealed that, whereas we observed some significant differences, overall a high similarity between hexaploid and tetraploid varieties with respect to protein abundance was observed. In addition, already at the seedling stage, a small set of proteins was differential between the small (USU-Apogee) and larger hexaploid wheat cultivars (Pavon 76), which could potentially act as growth predictors. Finally, the phosphosites identified in this study can be retrieved from the in-house developed plant PTM-Viewer (bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/ptm_viewer/), making this the first searchable repository for phosphorylated wheat proteins. This paves the way for further in depth, quantitative (phospho)proteome-wide differential analyses upon a specific trigger or environmental change. PMID:28348574

  16. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.

  17. Molecular characterization and chromosome-specific TRAP-marker development for Langdon durum D-genome disomic substitution lines.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Klindworth, D L; Shireen, F; Cai, X; Hu, J; Xu, S S

    2006-12-01

    The aneuploid stocks of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husnot) and common wheat (T. aestivum L.) have been developed mainly in 'Langdon' (LDN) and 'Chinese Spring' (CS) cultivars, respectively. The LDN-CS D-genome chromosome disomic substitution (LDN-DS) lines, where a pair of CS D-genome chromosomes substitute for a corresponding homoeologous A- or B-genome chromosome pair of LDN, have been widely used to determine the chromosomal locations of genes in tetraploid wheat. The LDN-DS lines were originally developed by crossing CS nulli-tetrasomics with LDN, followed by 6 backcrosses with LDN. They have subsequently been improved with 5 additional backcrosses with LDN. The objectives of this study were to characterize a set of the 14 most recent LDN-DS lines and to develop chromosome-specific markers, using the newly developed TRAP (target region amplification polymorphism)-marker technique. A total of 307 polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified from LDN and CS, and 302 of them were assigned to individual chromosomes. Most of the markers (95.5%) were present on a single chromosome as chromosome-specific markers, but 4.5% of the markers mapped to 2 or more chromosomes. The number of markers per chromosome varied, from a low of 10 (chromosomes 1A and 6D) to a high of 24 (chromosome 3A). There was an average of 16.6, 16.6, and 15.9 markers per chromosome assigned to the A-, B-, and D-genome chromosomes, respectively, suggesting that TRAP markers were detected at a nearly equal frequency on the 3 genomes. A comparison of the source of the expressed sequence tags (ESTs), used to derive the fixed primers, with the chromosomal location of markers revealed that 15.5% of the TRAP markers were located on the same chromosomes as the ESTs used to generate the fixed primers. A fixed primer designed from an EST mapped on a chromosome or a homoeologous group amplified at least 1 fragment specific to that chromosome or group, suggesting that the fixed primers

  18. Notice of release of Charleston Peak Germplasm: selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) announces the release of Charleston Peak Germplasm slender wheatgrass [Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners] as a selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm selected directly from collection D-3269. This collection is uni...

  19. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  20. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

  1. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new QTLs and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a RIL population developed from a cross of an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype with supernumerary spikelets (SS) was used to identify QTLs and n...

  2. Genome-wide mapping of spike-related and agronomic traits in a common wheat population derived from a supernumerary parent and an elite parent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  3. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype wi...

  4. Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Piemontese, Luca; Perna, Filippo Maria; Logrieco, Antonio; Capriati, Vito; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2017-01-12

    An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) (a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and largely widespread in nature, in wheat and derived products) has, for the first time, been set up and validated using choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (e.g., ChCl/glycerol (1:2) and ChCl/ urea (1:2) up to 40% (w/w) water) as privileged, green, and biodegradable extraction solvents. This also reduces worker exposure to toxic chemicals. Results are comparable to those obtained using conventional, hazardous and volatile organic solvents (VOCs) typical of the standard and official methods. OTA recovery from spiked durum wheat samples, in particular, was to up to 89% versus 93% using the traditional acetonitrile-water mixture with a repeatability of the results (RSDr) of 7%. Compatibility of the DES mixture with the antibodies of the immunoaffinity column was excellent as it was able to retain up to 96% of the OTA. Recovery and repeatability for durum wheat, bread crumbs, and biscuits proved to be within the specifications required by the current European Commission (EC) regulation. Good results in terms of accuracy and precision were achieved with mean recoveries between 70% (durum wheat) and 88% (bread crumbs) and an RSDr between 2% (biscuits) and 7% (bread).

  5. Root phenotyping of new oilseed crop lesquerella germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of germplasm collections rely on the availability of associated characterization and evaluation data for researchers and germplasm users. The information enables users to select accessions with characters of interest thereby saving time and resources. Most germplasm collections in the US...

  6. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  7. Preserving oak (Quercus sp.) germplasm to promote ex situ conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm banks are increasingly used as an ex situ conservation strategy. Germplasm banks are able to maintain extraordinary levels of diversity for long periods at relatively low cost. Studies using seeds – the preferred propagules in plant germplasm banks – have revealed the underlying reasons wh...

  8. Waxy genes from spelt wheat: new alleles for modern wheat breeding and new phylogenetic inferences about the origin of this species

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Carlos; Caballero, Leonor; Martín, Luis M.; Alvarez, Juan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Waxy proteins are responsible for amylose synthesis in wheat seeds, being encoded by three waxy genes (Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1) in hexaploid wheat. In addition to their role in starch quality, waxy loci have been used to study the phylogeny of wheat. The origin of European spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) is not clear. This study compared waxy gene sequences of a Spanish spelt collection with their homologous genes in emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum), durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and common wheat (T. aestivum ssp. aestivum), together with other Asian and European spelt that could be used to determine the origin of European spelt. Methods waxy genes were amplified and sequenced. Geneious Pro software, DNAsp and MEGA5 were used for sequence, nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Key Results Three, four and three new alleles were described for the Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 loci, respectively. Spelt accessions were classified into two groups based on the variation in Wx-B1, which suggests that there were two different origins for the emmer wheat that has been found to be part of the spelt genetic make-up. One of these groups was only detected in Iberian material. No differences were found between the rest of the European spelt and the Asiatic spelt, which suggested that the Iberian material had a different origin from the other spelt sources. Conclusions The results suggested that the waxy gene variability present in wheat is undervalued. The evaluation of this variability has permitted the detection of ten new waxy alleles that could affect starch quality and thus could be used in modern wheat breeding. In addition, two different classes of Wx-B1 were detected that could be used for evaluating the phylogenetic relationships and the origins of different types of wheat. PMID:22984164

  9. Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2011-10-01

    Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement.

  10. Registration of USG 3209/Jaypee Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Mapping Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘USG 3209’/‘Jaypee’ (Reg. No. MP-3, NSL 465777 MAP), is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and submitted to the USDA–ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility in Aberdeen...

  11. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  12. A comprehensive approach toward conserving Malus germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-National Plant Germplasm System apple (Malus) collection has traditionally been conserved by maintaining orchards at the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, NY and cryopreserving dormant buds of clones. The orchard Malus collection includes hundreds of M. sieversii and M. orie...

  13. A Comprehensive Approach Toward Conserving Malus Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-National Plant Germplasm System apple (Malus) collection has traditionally been conserved by maintaining orchards in Geneva, NY and cryopreserving dormant buds of clones. The orchard Malus collection includes hundreds of M. sieversii and M. orientalis individuals. The variation in these w...

  14. Relationships Between Oases and Germplasm Collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional date palm oases have served as conservators of date palm genetic resources. There have been only a few studies on the population structure of these oases or evaluations of non-fruit-related characteristics. A system is needed in which regional germplasm repositories for date palm genetic...

  15. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  16. Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Çatalhöyük Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Hatice; Hakki, Erdogan E.; Akkaya, Mahinur S.

    2016-01-01

    Human history was transformed with the advent of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent with wheat as one of the founding crops. Although the Fertile Crescent is renowned as the center of wheat domestication, archaeological studies have shown the crucial involvement of Çatalhöyük in this process. This site first gained attention during the 1961–65 excavations due to the recovery of primitive hexaploid wheat. However, despite the seeds being well preserved, a detailed archaeobotanical description of the samples is missing. In this article, we report on the DNA isolation, amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA of charred wheat grains from Çatalhöyük and other Turkish archaeological sites and the comparison of these wheat grains with contemporary wheat species including T. monococcum, T. dicoccum, T. dicoccoides, T. durum and T. aestivum at HMW glutenin protein loci. These ancient samples represent the oldest wheat sample sequenced to date and the first ancient wheat sample from the Middle East. Remarkably, the sequence analysis of the short DNA fragments preserved in seeds that are approximately 8400 years old showed that the Çatalhöyük wheat stock contained hexaploid wheat, which is similar to contemporary hexaploid wheat species including both naked (T. aestivum) and hulled (T. spelta) wheat. This suggests an early transitory state of hexaploid wheat agriculture from the Fertile Crescent towards Europe spanning present-day Turkey. PMID:26998604

  17. Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Çatalhöyük Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Hatice; Hakki, Erdogan E; Pandey, Anamika; Khan, Mohd Kamran; Akkaya, Mahinur S

    2016-01-01

    Human history was transformed with the advent of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent with wheat as one of the founding crops. Although the Fertile Crescent is renowned as the center of wheat domestication, archaeological studies have shown the crucial involvement of Çatalhöyük in this process. This site first gained attention during the 1961-65 excavations due to the recovery of primitive hexaploid wheat. However, despite the seeds being well preserved, a detailed archaeobotanical description of the samples is missing. In this article, we report on the DNA isolation, amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA of charred wheat grains from Çatalhöyük and other Turkish archaeological sites and the comparison of these wheat grains with contemporary wheat species including T. monococcum, T. dicoccum, T. dicoccoides, T. durum and T. aestivum at HMW glutenin protein loci. These ancient samples represent the oldest wheat sample sequenced to date and the first ancient wheat sample from the Middle East. Remarkably, the sequence analysis of the short DNA fragments preserved in seeds that are approximately 8400 years old showed that the Çatalhöyük wheat stock contained hexaploid wheat, which is similar to contemporary hexaploid wheat species including both naked (T. aestivum) and hulled (T. spelta) wheat. This suggests an early transitory state of hexaploid wheat agriculture from the Fertile Crescent towards Europe spanning present-day Turkey.

  18. Study of allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. crude extracts against germination and seedling growth of weeds and wheat.

    PubMed

    Ben Ghnaya, Asma; Hamrouni, Lamia; Amri, Ismail; Ahoues, Haifa; Hanana, Mohsen; Romane, Abderrahmane

    2016-09-01

    Allelopathic materials inside a tree can produce positive or negative change in the survival, growth, reproduction and behaviour of other organisms if they escape into the environment. To assess these effects, this work was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. on seed germination and seedling growth of two weeds: Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L.; on one cultivated crop: Triticum durum L. Aqueous; and on ethanolic leaf extracts of E. erythrocorys L. The study was effected using four concentrations (10, 20, 25 and 30 μL/mL) while distilled water was used as a control. The results showed that the E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts had an inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth of both studied weeds and wheat. The inhibition rate was increased by the increase in extract concentration. Only ethanolic extracts of E. erythrocorys L. induced a significant inhibition of seed germination of durum wheat. The effect of E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts was more severe on weeds than on durum wheat. These results indicate that the seedling growth, especially radicle elongation, was the more sensitive indicator to evaluate the effects of extracts than was the seed germination.

  19. A wheat lipid transfer protein (TdLTP4) promotes tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Safi, Hela; Saibi, Walid; Alaoui, Meryem Mrani; Hmyene, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Khaled; Hanin, Moez; Brini, Faïçal

    2015-04-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are members of the family of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-14) that are believed to be involved in plant defense responses. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel gene TdLTP4 encoding an LTP protein from durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum Desf.]. Molecular Phylogeny analyses of wheat TdLTP4 gene showed a high identity to other plant LTPs. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of six helices and nine loop turns. Expression analysis in two local durum wheat varieties with marked differences in salt and drought tolerance, revealed a higher transcript accumulation of TdLTP4 under different stress conditions in the tolerant variety, compared to the sensitive one. The overexpression of TdLTP4 in Arabidopsis resulted in a promoted plant growth under various stress conditions including NaCl, ABA, JA and H2O2 treatments. Moreover, the LTP-overexpressing lines exhibit less sensitivity to jasmonate than wild-type plants. Furthermore, detached leaves from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing TdLTP4 gene showed enhanced fungal resistance against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea. Together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of TdLTP4 gene in the tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in crop plants.

  20. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  1. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  2. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions.

  3. Identification of a Protein Network Interacting with TdRF1, a Wheat RING Ubiquitin Ligase with a Protective Role against Cellular Dehydration1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Davide; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Lopez-Torrejon, Gema; Marzin, Stephan; Schweizer, Patrick; Stanca, Antonio Michele; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Cattivelli, Luigi; Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Plants exploit ubiquitination to modulate the proteome with the final aim to ensure environmental adaptation and developmental plasticity. Ubiquitination targets are specifically driven to degradation through the action of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Genetic analyses have indicated wide functions of ubiquitination in plant life; nevertheless, despite the large number of predicted E3s, only a few of them have been characterized so far, and only a few ubiquitination targets are known. In this work, we characterized durum wheat (Triticum durum) RING Finger1 (TdRF1) as a durum wheat nuclear ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, its barley (Hordeum vulgare) homolog was shown to protect cells from dehydration stress. A protein network interacting with TdRF1 has been defined. The transcription factor WHEAT BEL1-TYPE HOMEODOMAIN1 (WBLH1) was degraded in a TdRF1-dependent manner through the 26S proteasome in vivo, the mitogen-activated protein kinase TdWNK5 [for Triticum durum WITH NO LYSINE (K)5] was able to phosphorylate TdRF1 in vitro, and the RING-finger protein WHEAT VIVIPAROUS-INTERACTING PROTEIN2 (WVIP2) was shown to have a strong E3 ligase activity. The genes coding for the TdRF1 interactors were all responsive to cold and/or dehydration stress, and a negative regulative function in dehydration tolerance was observed for the barley homolog of WVIP2. A role in the control of plant development was previously known, or predictable based on homology, for wheat BEL1-type homeodomain1(WBLH1). Thus, TdRF1 E3 ligase might act regulating the response to abiotic stress and remodeling plant development in response to environmental constraints. PMID:22167118

  4. Spaghetti from durum wheat: effect of drying conditions on heat damage, ultrastructure and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Stuknytė, Milda; Cattaneo, Stefano; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Marti, Alessandra; Micard, Valérie; Hogenboom, John; De Noni, Ivano

    2014-04-15

    The effects of low (LT) or high (HT) temperature drying on ultrastructural, molecular and in vitro digestibility properties of cooked spaghetti were studied. Starch swelling and denaturation/aggregation of proteins occurring at diverse stages, LT or HT drying and cooking, resulted in different in vitro digestibility of spaghetti. For the first time, these differences were assessed in terms of the release of free AA and simple sugars. Indeed, at the end of in vitro digestion, the total amount of released maltotriose, maltose and glucose significantly differentiated digestates of LT and HT spaghetti (12.6 and 15.9 g 100g⁻¹). In the same samples, diverse amounts (16.3 and 12.5 g 100g⁻¹ protein) of free amino acids were found. Chemical artifacts occurring at protein level impaired release of lysine in cooked HT spaghetti after in vitro digestion. These results increase the knowledge on digestibility of LT and HT cooked spaghetti.

  5. Durum Wheat Roots Adapt to Salinity Remodeling the Cellular Content of Nitrogen Metabolites and Sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Annunziata, Maria Grazia; Ciarmiello, Loredana F.; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Maximova, Eugenia; Fuggi, Amodio; Carillo, Petronia

    2017-01-01

    Plants are currently experiencing increasing salinity problems due to irrigation with brackish water. Moreover, in fields, roots can grow in soils which show spatial variation in water content and salt concentration, also because of the type of irrigation. Salinity impairs crop growth and productivity by inhibiting many physiological and metabolic processes, in particular nitrate uptake, translocation, and assimilation. Salinity determines an increase of sap osmolality from about 305 mOsmol kg−1 in control roots to about 530 mOsmol kg−1 in roots under salinity. Root cells adapt to salinity by sequestering sodium in the vacuole, as a cheap osmoticum, and showing a rearrangement of few nitrogen-containing metabolites and sucrose in the cytosol, both for osmotic adjustment and oxidative stress protection, thus providing plant viability even at low nitrate levels. Mainly glycine betaine and sucrose at low nitrate concentration, and glycine betaine, asparagine and proline at high nitrate levels can be assumed responsible for the osmotic adjustment of the cytosol, the assimilation of the excess of ammonium and the scavenging of ROS under salinity. High nitrate plants with half of the root system under salinity accumulate proline and glutamine in both control and salt stressed split roots, revealing that osmotic adjustment is not a regional effect in plants. The expression level and enzymatic activities of asparagine synthetase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, as well as other enzymatic activities of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, are analyzed. PMID:28119716

  6. Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; El-Feki, Walid; Nazemi, Ghasemali; Salvi, Silvio; Canè, Maria Angela; Colalongo, Maria Chiara; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Optimization of root system architecture (RSA) traits is an important objective for modern wheat breeding. Linkage and association mapping for RSA in two recombinant inbred line populations and one association mapping panel of 183 elite durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) accessions evaluated as seedlings grown on filter paper/polycarbonate screening plates revealed 20 clusters of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and number, as well as 30 QTLs for root growth angle (RGA). Divergent RGA phenotypes observed by seminal root screening were validated by root phenotyping of field-grown adult plants. QTLs were mapped on a high-density tetraploid consensus map based on transcript-associated Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for bread and durum wheat, thus allowing for an accurate cross-referencing of RSA QTLs between durum and bread wheat. Among the main QTL clusters for root length and number highlighted in this study, 15 overlapped with QTLs for multiple RSA traits reported in bread wheat, while out of 30 QTLs for RGA, only six showed co-location with previously reported QTLs in wheat. Based on their relative additive effects/significance, allelic distribution in the association mapping panel, and co-location with QTLs for grain weight and grain yield, the RSA QTLs have been prioritized in terms of breeding value. Three major QTL clusters for root length and number (RSA_QTL_cluster_5#, RSA_QTL_cluster_6#, and RSA_QTL_cluster_12#) and nine RGA QTL clusters (QRGA.ubo-2A.1, QRGA.ubo-2A.3, QRGA.ubo-2B.2/2B.3, QRGA.ubo-4B.4, QRGA.ubo-6A.1, QRGA.ubo-6A.2, QRGA.ubo-7A.1, QRGA.ubo-7A.2, and QRGA.ubo-7B) appear particularly valuable for further characterization towards a possible implementation of breeding applications in marker-assisted selection and/or cloning of the causal genes underlying the QTLs.

  7. Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Maccaferri, Marco; El-Feki, Walid; Nazemi, Ghasemali; Salvi, Silvio; Canè, Maria Angela; Colalongo, Maria Chiara; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of root system architecture (RSA) traits is an important objective for modern wheat breeding. Linkage and association mapping for RSA in two recombinant inbred line populations and one association mapping panel of 183 elite durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) accessions evaluated as seedlings grown on filter paper/polycarbonate screening plates revealed 20 clusters of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and number, as well as 30 QTLs for root growth angle (RGA). Divergent RGA phenotypes observed by seminal root screening were validated by root phenotyping of field-grown adult plants. QTLs were mapped on a high-density tetraploid consensus map based on transcript-associated Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for bread and durum wheat, thus allowing for an accurate cross-referencing of RSA QTLs between durum and bread wheat. Among the main QTL clusters for root length and number highlighted in this study, 15 overlapped with QTLs for multiple RSA traits reported in bread wheat, while out of 30 QTLs for RGA, only six showed co-location with previously reported QTLs in wheat. Based on their relative additive effects/significance, allelic distribution in the association mapping panel, and co-location with QTLs for grain weight and grain yield, the RSA QTLs have been prioritized in terms of breeding value. Three major QTL clusters for root length and number (RSA_QTL_cluster_5#, RSA_QTL_cluster_6#, and RSA_QTL_cluster_12#) and nine RGA QTL clusters (QRGA.ubo-2A.1, QRGA.ubo-2A.3, QRGA.ubo-2B.2/2B.3, QRGA.ubo-4B.4, QRGA.ubo-6A.1, QRGA.ubo-6A.2, QRGA.ubo-7A.1, QRGA.ubo-7A.2, and QRGA.ubo-7B) appear particularly valuable for further characterization towards a possible implementation of breeding applications in marker-assisted selection and/or cloning of the causal genes underlying the QTLs. PMID:26880749

  8. Hyperspectral-imaging-based techniques applied to wheat kernels characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Cesare, Daniela; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Single kernels of durum wheat have been analyzed by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Such an approach is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software architecture able to digitally capture and handle spectra as an image sequence, as they results along a pre-defined alignment on a surface sample properly energized. The study was addressed to investigate the possibility to apply HSI techniques for classification of different types of wheat kernels: vitreous, yellow berry and fusarium-damaged. Reflectance spectra of selected wheat kernels of the three typologies have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with an HSI system working in near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The hypercubes were analyzed applying principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of data and for selecting some effective wavelengths. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for classification of the three wheat typologies. The study demonstrated that good classification results were obtained not only considering the entire investigated wavelength range, but also selecting only four optimal wavelengths (1104, 1384, 1454 and 1650 nm) out of 121. The developed procedures based on HSI can be utilized for quality control purposes or for the definition of innovative sorting logics of wheat.

  9. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  10. Crop yield and quality, weeds, insects, and water use of durum and selected brassicaceae oilseeds in two-year rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool-season oilseeds are potential feedstock for biofuel production, but few studies have compared oilseed-durum (Triticum durum Desf.) rotations. We conducted a field trial under dryland conditions for 2007-2010 near Froid, Montana, comparing productivity, water balance, and key weed and arthropod...

  11. Resistance to recombinant stem rust race TPPKC in hard red spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Klindworth, D L; Miller, J D; Williams, N D; Xu, S S

    2011-08-01

    The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) resistance gene SrWld1 conditions resistance to all North American stem rust races and is an important gene in hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars. A sexually recombined race having virulence to SrWld1 was isolated in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine the genetics of resistance to the race. The recombinant race was tested with the set of stem rust differentials and with a set of 36 HRS and 6 durum cultivars. Chromosomal location studies in cultivars Len, Coteau, and Stoa were completed using aneuploid analysis, molecular markers, and allelism tests. Stem rust differential tests coded the race as TPPKC, indicating it differed from TPMKC by having added virulence on Sr30 as well as SrWld1. Genes effective against TPPKC were Sr6, Sr9a, Sr9b, Sr13, Sr24, Sr31, and Sr38. Genetic studies of resistance to TPPKC indicated that Len, Coteau, and Stoa likely carried Sr9b, that Coteau and Stoa carried Sr6, and Stoa carried Sr24. Tests of HRS and durum cultivars indicated that five HRS and one durum cultivar were susceptible to TPPKC. Susceptible HRS cultivars were postulated to have SrWld1 as their major stem rust resistance gene. Divide, the susceptible durum cultivar, was postulated to lack Sr13. We concluded that although TPPKC does not constitute a threat similar to TTKSK and its variants, some cultivars would be lost from production if TPPKC became established in the field.

  12. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  13. Genetic diversity for Russian wheat aphid resistance as determined by genome-wide association mapping and inheritance in progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is an increasing problem on barley throughout the world. Genetic resistance has been identified and used to create barley germplasm and cultivars adapted to the US. Several mapping studies have been conducted to identify loci associated with resistance, but questions remain...

  14. Notice of release of: 1)Majestic germplasm and 2) Spectrum germplasm western prairie clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural-track selected germplasms of western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] [Fabaceae] have been released for use in revegetation of semiarid rangelands in the western USA. Western prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that occurs naturally in Idaho, ...

  15. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  16. Notice of release of Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) was released by USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2015 as a selected class of pre-variety germplasm (natural track). This new plant material originates in Gooding County in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain....

  17. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  18. Notice of release of Fowler germplasm green needlegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fowler Germplasm is a new pre-variety germplasm release of green needlegrass developed by artificial selection from five local populations collected in southern Alberta. Selection emphasis was placed on seed yield and germinability. This plant material is expected to be used for restoration and wi...

  19. Genetic control of seed proteins in wheat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, H S

    1977-09-01

    Electrophoretic profiles of crude protein extracts from seed of F1 hybrids and reciprocal crosses among diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats were compared with those of their respective parental species. The electrophoretic patterns within each of three pairs of reciprocal crosses, T.boeoticum X T.urartu, T.monococcun X T. urartu and T.dicoccum X T. araraticum, were different from one another but were identical with those of their respective maternal parents. Protein bands characteristic of the paternal parents were missing in F1 hybrid seed suggesting that the major seed proteins in wheat were presumably regulated by genotype of the maternal parent rather than by the seed genotype. However, in another three pairs of reciprocal crosses, T.boeoticum X T. durum, T.dicoccum X T.aestivum and T. zhukovskyi x T. aestivum, protein bands attributable to the paternal parents were present in the F1 hybrid seeds indicating that the seed proteins were not always exclusively regulated by the maternal genotype. The expression of paternal genomes is presumably determined by dosage and genetic affinity of the maternal and paternal genomes in the hybrid endosperm. The maternal regulation of seed protein content is probably accomplished through the maternal control over seed size. The seed protein quality may, however, depend upon the extent of expression of the paternal genome.

  20. Inheritance of B subunits of glutenin and ω-and γ-gliadins in tetraploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Shepherd, K W

    1995-06-01

    A double-1RS wheat-rye translocation line lacking all B subunits of glutenin was produced in durum wheat cv 'Langdon' for use in backcrosses and testcrosses in the study of the inheritance of low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits in tetraploid wheats. The B subunits of glutenin and γ-and ω-gliadin bands present in parents derived from Triticum durum and T. dicoccoides, encoded by Glu-3 and Gli-1 loci, respectively, were found to be inherited mainly as units (blocks), as reported previously. Two rare recombination events between the Glu-A3 and Gli-A1 loci were detected in testcross progeny from 'Edmore' x T. dicoccoides landrace 19-27. Several rare recombinants were also detected within the 1BS-controlled B subunits of glutenin blocks, suggesting that there are two separate tightly linked loci (3.07±1.35 cM) within the Glu-B3 'locus'. Evidence was also obtained for the presence of an additional locus coding for a B subunit of glutenin in 'Edmore' that is loosely linked (20.9±3.18%) with the main Glu-B3 'locus'.

  1. DNA fingerprinting of jute germplasm by RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Belayat; Haque, Samiul; Khan, Haseena

    2002-07-31

    The genotype characteristic of cultivars was investigated, along with varieties of both of the jute species, Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis, in the germplasm collection at the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). DNA fingerprinting was generated for 9 different varieties and 12 accessions of jute cultivars by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 29 arbitrary oligonucleotide primers were screened. Seven primers gave polymorphism within the varieties, and 6 primers detected polymorphism within the accessions that were tested. A dendrogram was engendered from these data, and this gave a distinct clustering of the cultivated species of jute. Therefore, we generated RAPD markers, which are species-specific. These primers can distinguish between C. olitorius and C. capsularis. From the dendrogram that we generated between the various members of these two species, we found the existing genetic classification that agrees with our molecular marking data. A different dendrogram showed that jute accessions could be clustered into three groups. These data will be invaluable in the conservation and utilization of the genetic pool in the germplasm collection.

  2. ‘TAM 112’ Wheat, resistant to greenbug and wheat curl mite and adapted to the dryland production system in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘TAM 112’ (PI 643143), a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an F4 derived line from the cross U1254-7-9-2-1/TXGH10440. U1254-7-9-2 is a USDA-ARS germplasm line from the Plant Science and Entomology Research unit, Manhattan, Kansas. It was developed from the cross TAM 200/TA2460. TA24...

  3. Wheat Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Raison, John K.; Chapman, Elza A.; White, P. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative activity and membrane lipid structure of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were measured as a function of temperature. The Arrhenius activation energy for the oxidation of both succinate and α-ketoglutarate was constant over the temperature range of 3 to 27 C. The activation energy for succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was also constant over the same temperature range. The concentration of mitochondria in the reaction, the degree of initial inhibition of state 3 respiration, and the time after isolation of mitochondria were each shown to be capable of causing a disproportionate decrease in the rate of oxidation at low temperatures which resulted in an apparent increase in the activation energy of oxidative activity. Using three spin-labeling techniques, wheat membrane lipids were shown to undergo phase changes at about 0 C and 30 C. It is concluded that the membrane lipids of wheat, a chillingresistant plant, undergo a phase transition similar to the transition observed in the membrane lipids of chilling-sensitive plants. For wheat, however, the transition is initiated at a lower temperature and extends over a wider temperature range. PMID:16659906

  4. Genetic evidence for differential selection of grain and embryo weight during wheat evolution under domestication

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Guy; Oksenberg, Adi; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is one of the Neolithic founder crops domesticated ~10 500 years ago. Following the domestication episode, its evolution under domestication has resulted in various genetic modifications. Grain weight, embryo weight, and the interaction between those factors were examined among domesticated durum wheat and its direct progenitor, wild emmer wheat. Experimental data show that grain weight has increased over the course of wheat evolution without any parallel change in embryo weight, resulting in a significantly reduced (30%) embryo weight/grain weight ratio in domesticated wheat. The genetic factors associated with these modifications were further investigated using a population of recombinant inbred substitution lines that segregated for chromosome 2A. A cluster of loci affecting grain weight and shape was identified on the long arm of chromosome 2AL. Interestingly, a novel locus controlling embryo weight was mapped on chromosome 2AS, on which the wild emmer allele promotes heavier embryos and greater seedling vigour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL for embryo weight in wheat. The results suggest a differential selection of grain and embryo weight during the evolution of domesticated wheat. It is argued that conscious selection by early farmers favouring larger grains and smaller embryos appears to have resulted in a significant change in endosperm weight/embryo weight ratio in the domesticated wheat. Exposing the genetic factors associated with endosperm and embryo size improves our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of wheat under domestication and is likely to be useful for future wheat-breeding efforts. PMID:26019253

  5. Genetic evidence for differential selection of grain and embryo weight during wheat evolution under domestication.

    PubMed

    Golan, Guy; Oksenberg, Adi; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-09-01

    Wheat is one of the Neolithic founder crops domesticated ~10 500 years ago. Following the domestication episode, its evolution under domestication has resulted in various genetic modifications. Grain weight, embryo weight, and the interaction between those factors were examined among domesticated durum wheat and its direct progenitor, wild emmer wheat. Experimental data show that grain weight has increased over the course of wheat evolution without any parallel change in embryo weight, resulting in a significantly reduced (30%) embryo weight/grain weight ratio in domesticated wheat. The genetic factors associated with these modifications were further investigated using a population of recombinant inbred substitution lines that segregated for chromosome 2A. A cluster of loci affecting grain weight and shape was identified on the long arm of chromosome 2AL. Interestingly, a novel locus controlling embryo weight was mapped on chromosome 2AS, on which the wild emmer allele promotes heavier embryos and greater seedling vigour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL for embryo weight in wheat. The results suggest a differential selection of grain and embryo weight during the evolution of domesticated wheat. It is argued that conscious selection by early farmers favouring larger grains and smaller embryos appears to have resulted in a significant change in endosperm weight/embryo weight ratio in the domesticated wheat. Exposing the genetic factors associated with endosperm and embryo size improves our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of wheat under domestication and is likely to be useful for future wheat-breeding efforts.

  6. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve grain yield, biomass and photosynthesis across enviroinments in modern wheat.

    PubMed

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-10-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving drought resistance in domesticated wheat. Nevertheless, wild germplasm has not been widely used in wheat breeding for abiotic stress resilience. In the current study, a near isogenic line NIL-7A-B-2, introgressed with a drought-related QTL from wild emmer wheat on chromosome 7A, and its recurrent parent, bread wheat cv. BarNir, were investigated under four environments across 2 years-water-limited and well-watered conditions in a rain-protected screen-house (Year 1) and two commercial open field plots under ample precipitation (Year 2). NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited an advantage over BarNir in grain yield and biomass production under most environments. Further physiological analyses suggested that enhanced photosynthetic capacity and photochemistry combined with higher flag leaf area are among the factors underlying the improved productivity of NIL-7A-B-2. These were coupled with improved sink capacity in NIL-7A-B-2, manifested by greater yield components than its parental line. This study provides further support for our previous findings that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles, using marker assisted selection, can enhance grain yield and biomass production across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of yield and drought resistance.

  7. Characterization of selenium-enriched wheat by agronomic biofortification.

    PubMed

    Galinha, Catarina; Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pacheco, Adriano M G; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Coutinho, José; Maçãs, Benvindo; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Pérez-Corona, María Teresa; Madrid, Yolanda; Wolterbeek, Hubert T

    2015-07-01

    Agronomic biofortification of staple crops is an effective way to enhance their contents in essential nutrients up the food chain, with a view to correcting for their deficiencies in animal or human status. Selenium (Se) is one such case, for its uneven distribution in the continental crust and, therefore, in agricultural lands easily translates into substantial variation in nutritional intakes. Cereals are far from being the main sources of Se on a content basis, but they are likely the major contributors to intake on a dietary basis. To assess their potential to assimilate and biotransform Se, bread and durum wheat were enriched with Se through foliar and soil addition at an equivalent field rate of 100 g of Se per hectare (ha), using sodium selenate and sodium selenite as Se-supplementation matrices, in actual field conditions throughout. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated by using HPLC-ICP-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis for Se-species extraction in the resulting mature wheat grains. Selenomethionine and Se(VI) were identified and quantified: the former was the predominant species, representing 70-100 % of the total Se in samples; the maximum amount of inorganic Se was below 5 %. These results were similar for both supplementation methods and for both wheat varieties. Judging from the present results, one can conclude that agronomic biofortification of wheat may improve the nutritional quality of wheat grains with significant amounts of selenomethionine, which is an attractive option for increasing the Se status in human diets through Se-enriched, wheat-based foodstuff.

  8. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-02-19

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin.

  9. Genomic characterization of a core set the of USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection: implications for germplasm conservation, evaluation, and utilization in crop improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world and includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity located in Ethiopia. This exotic germplasm has not been characterized on a genome-wide basis to better inform its conservati...

  10. Characterization of two adult-plant stripe rust resistance genes on chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in soft red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of soft red winter wheat (SRWW) in the eastern U.S. However, very few resistance genes have been characterized in the SRWW germplasm pool. The SRWW line VA96W-270 is known to be resistant to stripe rust race P...

  11. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Garrison

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  12. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  13. Determination of catechin content in representative Chinese tea germplasms.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ji-Qiang; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Ma, Chun-Lei; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Liang

    2014-10-01

    To understand tea germplasms better and to use them effectively for production and breeding, the catechin content of 403 accessions of representative tea germplasms collected from various locations in China were studied using HPLC. The catechin content of these tea germplasms varied from 56.6 to 231.9 mg/g and averaged 154.5 ± 18.1 mg/g. One germplasm with low total catechin (TC) content (<60 mg/g) and three with high TC (>200 mg/g) contents were found. Averages of the TC content of the three varieties of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, namely, sinensis, assamica, and pubilimba, were 152.9 ± 16.2 mg/g, 162.8 ± 22.3 mg/g, and 165.1 ± 21.3 mg/g, respectively. The TC content of the sinensis variety was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the other two varieties. The assamica variety had the highest levels of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC), whereas the pubilimba variety had the highest levels of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (+)-catechin (C), and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). Factor analysis indicated that GC, C, GCG, catechin index, and ECG greatly influenced the classification. The TC content of germplasms collected from the various provinces showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Tea germplasms of the southern provinces had higher degrees of variation in TC.

  14. Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zong, Yuan; Wang, Yanpeng; Liu, Jinxing; Chen, Kunling; Qiu, Jin-Long; Gao, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Editing plant genomes is technically challenging in hard-to-transform plants and usually involves transgenic intermediates, which causes regulatory concerns. Here we report two simple and efficient genome-editing methods in which plants are regenerated from callus cells transiently expressing CRISPR/Cas9 introduced as DNA or RNA. This transient expression-based genome-editing system is highly efficient and specific for producing transgene-free and homozygous wheat mutants in the T0 generation. We demonstrate our protocol to edit genes in hexaploid bread wheat and tetraploid durum wheat, and show that we are able to generate mutants with no detectable transgenes. Our methods may be applicable to other plant species, thus offering the potential to accelerate basic and applied plant genome-engineering research. PMID:27558837

  15. Biochemical and functional properties of wheat gliadins: a review.

    PubMed

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B S

    2015-01-01

    Gliadins account for 40-50% of the total storage proteins of wheat and are classified into four subcategories, α-, β-, γ-, and ω-gliadins. They have also been classified as ω5-, ω1, 2-, α/β-, and γ-gliadins on the basis of their primary structure and molecular weight. Cysteine residues of gliadins mainly form intramolecular disulfide bonds, although α-gliadins with odd numbers of cysteine residues have also been reported. Gliadins are generally regarded to possess globular protein structure, though recent studies report that the α/β-gliadins have compact globular structures and γ- and ω-gliadins have extended rod-like structures. Newer techniques such as Mass Spectrometry with the development of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) have been employed to determine the molecular weight of purified ω- gliadins and to carry out the direct analysis of bread and durum wheat gliadins. Few gliadin alleles and components, such as Gli-B1b, Gli-B2c and Gli-A2b in bread wheat cultivars, γ-45 in pasta, γ-gliadins in cookies, lower gliadin content for chapatti and alteration in Gli 2 loci in tortillas have been reported to improve the product quality, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the precise role of gliadin subgroups in dough strength and product quality.

  16. New Data on the Geographical Distribution and Host Utilization of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum

    PubMed Central

    Csősz, Sándor; Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Markó, Bálint

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic Myrmicinosporidium durum Hölldobler, 1933, a fungus known to exploit several ant species, is reported for the first time in five countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, and Turkey. The discovery of the fungus in Anatolia significantly widens its known distribution. In addition, this fungal parasite was found to utilize two hitherto unknown host species: Tetramorium sp. D (sensu Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006) and Tetramorium sp. E (sensu Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006). According to the new data, M. durum seems to be more common in Europe than previously thought, while its host range is considerably larger. In the present paper, data on its currently known distribution and host preference are discussed. PMID:23448195

  17. Expression of a potato antimicrobial peptide SN1 increases resistance to take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Rong, Wei; Qi, Lin; Wang, Jingfen; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Wang, Aiyun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-08-01

    Take-all, caused by soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is a devastating root disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Breeding resistant wheat cultivars is the most promising and reliable approach to protect wheat from take-all. Currently, no resistant wheat germplasm is available to breed cultivars using traditional methods. In this study, gene transformation was carried out using Snakin-1 (SN1) gene isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) because the peptide shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro. Purified SN1 peptide also inhibits in vitro the growth of Ggt mycelia. By bombardment-mediated method, the gene SN1 was transformed into Chinese wheat cultivar Yangmai 18 to generate SN1 transgenic wheat lines, which were used to assess the effectiveness of the SN1 peptide in protecting wheat from Ggt. Genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the alien gene SN1 was integrated into the genomes of five transgenic wheat lines and heritable from T₀ to T₄ progeny. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that the introduced SN1 gene was transcribed and highly expressed in the five transgenic wheat lines. Following challenging with Ggt, disease test results showed that compared to segregants lacking the transgene and untransformed wheat plants, these five transgenic wheat lines expressing SN1 displayed significantly enhanced resistance to take-all. These results suggest that SN1 may be a potentially transgenic tool for improving the take-all resistance of wheat.

  18. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  19. Elemental mapping of biofortified wheat grains using micro X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, I.; Pataco, I. M.; Mourinho, M. P.; Lidon, F.; Reboredo, F.; Pessoa, M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.; Santos, J. P.; Guerra, M.

    2016-06-01

    Micro X-ray fluorescence has been used to obtain elemental maps of biofortified wheat grains. Two varieties of wheat were used in the study, Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum desf. Two treatments, with different nutrient concentration, were applied to the plants during the whole plant growth cycle. From the obtained elemental maps it was possible to extract information regarding the plant's physiological processes under the biofortification procedures. Both macro and micronutrients were mapped, providing useful insight into the posterior food processing mechanisms of this biofortified staple food. We have also shown that these kind of studies can now be performed with laboratory benchtop apparatus, rather than using synchrotron radiation, increasing the overall attractiveness of micro X-ray fluorescence in the study of highly heterogeneous biological samples.

  20. Metabolite Profiling of a Diverse Collection of Wheat Lines Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Pamela; Byrne, Patrick F.; Thompson, Henry J.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic differences among major types of wheat are well characterized; however, little is known about how these distinctions affect the small molecule profile of the wheat seed. Ethanol/water (65% v/v) extracts of seed from 45 wheat lines representing 3 genetically distinct classes, tetraploid durum (Triticum turgidum subspecies durum) (DW) and hexaploid hard and soft bread wheat (T. aestivum subspecies aestivum) (BW) were subjected to ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS). Discriminant analyses distinguished DW from BW with 100% accuracy due to differences in expression of nonpolar and polar ions, with differences attributed to sterol lipids/fatty acids and phospholipids/glycerolipids, respectively. Hard versus soft BW was distinguished with 100% accuracy by polar ions, with differences attributed to heterocyclic amines and polyketides versus phospholipid ions, respectively. This work provides a foundation for identification of metabolite profiles associated with desirable agronomic and human health traits and for assessing how environmental factors impact these characteristics. PMID:22957002

  1. Production of a monoclonal antibody specific for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in wheat and its antigenic determinant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanqian; Zhang, Xueyong; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Binshuang

    2005-02-01

    Wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) 1Bx14 and 1By15 isolated by preparative SDS-PAGE are used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice. Subcutaneous inoculation of the antigen is performed. The intra-peritoneal injection is completed 3 days before fusion with myeloma cell (SP2/0) via PEG-1500. The fusion cells are selected by indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Positive hybrid cells are further verified three times by limit dilution of the culture cells. A hybridoma cell line is successfully obtained. The monoclonal antibody belongs to IgG1 subclass. In immunoblotting, the antibody binds to all HMW-GS of T. aestivum cultivars, but does not bind to other storage proteins in seeds of wheat. This result is consisting with the high homology in amino acid sequences among the HMW glutenin subunits in wheat. The antibody also binds to HMW-GS storage proteins in Aegilops squarrosa and T. durum (durum wheat). Furthermore, it also binds to HMW storage proteins in Secale cereale (rye), Hordeum vulgare (barley). However, it never binds seed storage proteins in other cereals such as maize, oat, rice, foxtail millet, sorghum etc. The antigen determinant recognized by the antibody has been located within hexapeptide [PGQGQQ] or / and nonapeptide [GYYPTSPQQ] in the central repetitive region of HMW-GS.

  2. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-02

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement.

  3. Development and discrimination of 12 double ditelosomics in tetraploid wheat cultivar DR147.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Changyou; Fu, Shulan; Guo, Xiang; Yang, Baoju; Chen, Chunhuan; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yajuan; Liu, Xinlun; Han, Fangpu; Ji, Wanquan

    2014-02-01

    As an important group in Triticum, tetraploid wheat plays a significant role in the research of wheat evolution. Several complete aneuploid sets of common wheat have provided valuable tools for genetic and breeding studies, while similar aneuploids of tetraploid wheat are still not well developed. Here, 12 double ditelosomics developed in Triticum turgidum L. var. durum cultivar DR147 (excluding dDT2B and dDT3A) were reported. Hybrids between DR147 and the original double-ditelosomic dDT2B of Langdon lost vigor and died prematurely after the three-leaf stage; therefore, the dDT2B line was not obtained. The cytogenetic behaviors and phenotypic characteristics of each line were detailedly described. To distinguish the entire chromosome complement of tetraploid wheat, the DR147 karyotype was established by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using the Aegilops tauschii clone pAsl and the barley clone pHvG38 as probes. FISH using a cereal-specific centromere repeat (6C6) probe suggested that all the lines possessed four telosomes, except for 4AS of double-ditelosomic dDT4A, which carried a small segment of the long arm. On the basis of the idiogram of DR147, these lines were successfully discriminated by FISH using the probes pAsl and pHvG38 and were then accurately designated.

  4. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes.

    PubMed

    van den Broeck, Hetty; Hongbing, Chen; Lacaze, Xavier; Dusautoir, Jean-Claude; Gilissen, Ludovicus; Smulders, Marinus; van der Meer, Ingrid

    2010-11-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a T-cell mediated auto-immune disorder, in genetically predisposed individuals after ingestion. Compared to hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat might be reduced in T-cell stimulatory epitopes that cause celiac disease because of the absence of the D-genome. We tested gluten protein extracts from 103 tetraploid wheat accessions (obtained from the Dutch CGN genebank and from the French INRA collection) including landraces, old, modern, and domesticated accessions of various tetraploid species and subspecies from many geographic origins. Those accessions were typed for their level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies against the α-gliadin epitopes Glia-α9 and Glia-α20. In the first selection, we found 8 CGN and 6 INRA accessions with reduced epitope staining. Fourteen of the 57 CGN accessions turned out to be mixed with hexaploid wheat, and 5 out of the 8 selected CGN accessions were mixtures of two or more different gluten protein chemotypes. Based on single seed analysis, lines from two CGN accessions and one INRA accession were obtained with significantly reduced levels of Glia-α9 and Glia-α20 epitopes. These lines will be further tested for industrial quality and may contribute to the development of safer foods for celiac patients.

  5. Registration of WSRC01, WSRC02, and WSRC03 Winter Hardy Safflower Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardy safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm lines WSRC01, WSRC02, and WSRC03 were developed at the USDA-ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, Pullman WA. All three lines originated from germplasm introduced from China to the USDA-ARS national safflower germplasm collectio...

  6. Diversity analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm using the CottonSNP63K Array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton germplasm resources contain beneficial alleles that can be exploited to develop germplasm adapting to emerging environmental and climate conditions, and this germplasm has commonly been characterized based on phenotypes. However, phenotypic profiles are limited by what can be observed and me...

  7. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve co...

  8. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin.

  9. Production and Identification of Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 2P Translocation Lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Lv, Mingjie; Song, Liqiang; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Li, Lihui; Liu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-γ irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement. PMID:26731742

  10. Virus-induced gene silencing of WRKY53 and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in wheat reduces aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Van Eck, Leon; Schultz, Thia; Leach, Jan E; Scofield, Steven R; Peairs, Frank B; Botha, Anna-Maria; Lapitan, Nora L V

    2010-12-01

    Although several wheat genes differentially expressed during the Russian wheat aphid resistance response have recently been identified, their requirement for and specific role in resistance remain unclear. Progress in wheat-aphid interaction research is hampered by inadequate collections of mutant germplasm and difficulty in transforming hexaploid wheat. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology is emerging as a viable reverse genetics approach in cereal crops. However, the potential of VIGS for determining aphid defence gene function in wheat has not been evaluated. We report on the use of recombinant barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) to target and silence a WRKY53 transcription factor and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene, both predicted to contribute to aphid defence in a genetically resistant wheat line. After inoculating resistant wheat with the VIGS constructs, transcript abundance was reduced to levels similar to that observed in susceptible wheat. Notably, the level of PAL expression was also suppressed by the WKRY53 construct, suggesting that these genes operate in the same defence response network. Both knockdowns exhibited a susceptible phenotype upon aphid infestation, and aphids feeding on silenced plants exhibited a significant increase in fitness compared to aphids feeding on control plants. Altered plant phenotype and changes in aphid behaviour after silencing imply that WKRY53 and PAL play key roles in generating a successful resistance response. This study is the first report on the successful use of VIGS to investigate genes involved in wheat-insect interactions.

  11. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... have been used in the production of wheat, durum wheat, and triticale found to contain the spores of... the dough stage of all varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), and... that has been used in the production of wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that has tested positive...

  12. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R.; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95–96%) and predicted protein (96–97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated

  13. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  14. Analysis of grain elements and identification of best genotypes for Fe and P in Afghan wheat landraces

    PubMed Central

    Kondou, Youichi; Manickavelu, Alagu; Komatsu, Kenji; Arifi, Mujiburahman; Kawashima, Mika; Ishii, Takayoshi; Hattori, Tomohiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ban, Tomohiro; Matsui, Minami

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of developing the methodology to determine elemental composition in wheat and identify the best germplasm for further research. Orphan and genetically diverse Afghan wheat landraces were chosen and EDXRF was used to measure the content of some of the elements to establish elemental composition in grains of 266 landraces using 10 reference lines. Four elements, K, Mg, P, and Fe, were measured by standardizing sample preparation. The results of hierarchical cluster analysis using elemental composition data sets indicated that the Fe content has an opposite pattern to the other elements, especially that of K. By systematic analysis the best wheat germplasms for P content and Fe content were identified. In order to compare the sensitivity of EDXRF, the ICP method was also used and the similar results obtained confirmed the EDXRF methodology. The sampling method for measurement using EDXRF was optimized resulting in high-throughput profiling of elemental composition in wheat grains at low cost. Using this method, we have characterized the Afghan wheat landraces and isolated the best genotypes that have high-elemental content and have the potential to be used in crop improvement. PMID:28163583

  15. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  16. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  17. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  18. 50 years of sugarcane germplasm enhancement - roadblocks, hurdles, and success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1959, a sugarcane germplasm enhancement program was initiated in Houma Louisiana, USA. This program was intended to develop parental material with an expanded genetic base for the commercial breeding program. What has come to be known as the “basic breeding program” is a long-term undertaking ...

  19. Notice of Release of NBR-1 Germplasm Basalt Milkvetch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basalt milkvetch or threadstalk milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray) is a perennial legume that is widely distributed on rangelands in western North America and holds promise for rangeland revegetation and restoration programs. No germplasms or cultivars are commercially available for ba...

  20. Registration of EL54 and EL55 sugarbeet germplasms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625), released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France. EL54 has shown excellent Aphan...

  1. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  2. Notice of release of Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Love) was released by USDA-ARS in 2015. It was developed through five cycles of selection, primarily for increased numbers of spikes, from K68, a population collected in 1980 in Adams County in eastern Washington. The c...

  3. Current biotechnologies and future possibilities in preservation of animal germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal germplasm (semen, eggs, embryos, DNA, tissue) can be preserved from all agricultural species and result in the regeneration of animal lines or breeds. However, there are limitations to successful utilization of the material that are attributed to the type, post-thaw quality, and available as...

  4. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  5. Notice of release of Rattlesnake germplasm bottlebrush squirreltail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rattlesnake Germplasm bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Swezey ssp. elymoides) was released 29 Oct. 2007 for use in rangeland seedings. This plant material was developed from T-1175, an accession collected in Elmore County, Idaho. Seeds of eight T-1175 lines selected for dry-matter...

  6. Carotenoid analysis using the puree absorbance method for germplasm screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many fruits and vegetables contain health-promoting compounds which require labor intensive analyses to detect. This is the case with quantifying carotenoids in fresh fruits and vegetables. Carotenoid content can vary significantly between varieties; therefore a method to rapidly screen germplasm ...

  7. Cryopreservation and maintenance of hop material in USDA germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR-Corvallis) is responsible for conservation of the hop (Humulus lupulus L.) genetic resources for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS). The collection includes 675 accessions representing 7 related taxa (species an...

  8. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  9. Identification and evaluation of Forsythia germplasm using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study identified Forsythia germplasm and evaluated the genetic relationships of F. ×intermedia hybrids, cultivars and their putative parental species. Leaf samples of F. ×intermedia cultivars and species, such as F. koreana and F. suspensa, were collected in the Netherlands, Korea, and USA. T...

  10. The National Plant Germplasm System and GRIN-Global

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is a cooperative effort by public and private organizations to preserve plant genetic diversity. Federal and State personnel at 20 sites are responsible for approximately 547,000 unique accessions of a wide array of plant genetic resources (PGR) representi...

  11. Registration of a tufted-naked seed upland cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tufted-naked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant, 9023n4t (Reg. No. GP-971, PI 667553) was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 (9023) (PI 590933) through chemical mutagenesis. Germplasm line 9023n4t was developed by the Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, and released in...

  12. Fingerprinting soybean germplasm and its utility in genomic research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The annual accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection including 18,480 domesticated and 1,168 wild soybeans introduced from 84 countries or developed in the U.S. were genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing >50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SN...

  13. Evaluation of cotton germplasm and breeding populations for salt tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2007 to evaluate a total of 211 cotton germplasm and breeding lines for salt tolerance in the greenhouses. The randomized complete block designs with two or three replications were employed for those experiments. 200 mM salt solutions or tap water were ap...

  14. Portable DNA markers tailored for systematic characterization of Gossypium germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many small-scale ad-hoc studies on characterization of Gossypium germplasm have been conducted that use different sets of markers. Coordination with the cotton community is needed to reach a consensus on the appropriate initial set of DNA markers. In consultation with the cotton community, a set o...

  15. Development of core SSR markers for Gossypium germplasm characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of 105 portable DNA markers were carefully developed to provide a common basis for systematic characterization of cotton germplasm collections in the U.S. and throughout the world. The 105 PCR-based SSR markers of different origins were evenly distributed on each of the 26 cotton chromosomes ...

  16. Improving in vitro mineral nutrition for diverse germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex chemical interactions in growth media and variation in genotype response make it very difficult to optimize mineral nutrition of in vitro plants. Germplasm collections contain diverse species and cultivars that often do not grow well on standard tissue culture media or do not grow at all. Se...

  17. Anthracnose field evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Botswana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum anthracnose is a disease of worldwide importance and host-plant resistance is the most practical method of disease management. In this study, 154 sorghum accessions from the Botswana collection maintained by the United States National Plant Germplasm System were inoculated with Colletotrich...

  18. Short, natural, and extended photoperiod response in BC2F4 lines of bread wheat with different photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) alleles.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A R; Horsnell, R; Werner, C P; Turner, A S; Rose, G A; Bedard, C; Howell, P; Wilhelm, E P; Mackay, I J; Howells, R M; Greenland, A; Laurie, D A; Gosman, N

    2013-04-01

    Flowering is a critical period in the life cycle of flowering plant species, resulting in an irreversible commitment of significant resources. Wheat is photoperiod sensitive, flowering only when daylength surpasses a critical length; however, photoperiod insensitivity (PI) has been selected by plant breeders for >40 years to enhance yield in certain environments. Control of flowering time has been greatly facilitated by the development of molecular markers for the Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) homeoloci, on the group 2 chromosomes. In the current study, an allelic series of BC2F4 lines in the winter wheat cultivars 'Robigus' and 'Alchemy' was developed to elucidate the influence on flowering of eight gene variants from the B- and D-genomes of bread wheat and the A-genome of durum wheat. Allele effects were tested in short, natural, and extended photoperiods in the field and controlled environments. Across genetic background and treatment, the D-genome PI allele, Ppd-D1a, had a more potent effect on reducing flowering time than Ppd-B1a. However, there was significant donor allele effect for both Ppd-D1a and Ppd-B1a, suggesting the presence of linked modifier genes and/or additional sources of latent sensitivity. Development of Ppd-A1a BC2F4 lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat provided an opportunity to compare directly the flowering time effect of the A-genome allele from durum with the B- and D-genome variants from bread wheat for the first time. Analyses indicated that the reducing effect of Ppd-A1a is comparable with that of Ppd-D1a, confirming it as a useful alternative source of PI.

  19. Visualization of A- and B-genome chromosomes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) backcross progenies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z N; Hang, A; Hansen, J; Burton, C; Mallory-Smith, C A; Zemetra, R S

    2000-12-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) can cross with each other, and their self-fertile backcross progenies frequently have extra chromosomes and chromosome segments, presumably retained from wheat, raising the possibility that a herbicide resistance gene might transfer from wheat to jointed goatgrass. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to clarify the origin of these extra chromosomes. By using T. durum DNA (AABB genome) as a probe and jointed goatgrass DNA (CCDD genome) as blocking DNA, one, two, and three A- or B-genome chromosomes were identified in three BC2S2 individuals where 2n = 29, 30, and 31 chromosomes, respectively. A translocation between wheat and jointed goatgrass chromosomes was also detected in an individual with 30 chromosomes. In pollen mother cells with meiotic configuration of 14 II + 2 I, the two univalents were identified as being retained from the A or B genome of wheat. By using Ae. markgrafii DNA (CC genome) as a probe and wheat DNA (AABBDD genome) as blocking DNA. 14 C-genome chromosomes were visualized in all BC2S2 individuals. The GISH procedure provides a powerful tool to detect the A or B-genome chromatin in a jointed goatgrass background, making it possible to assess the risk of transfer of herbicide resistance genes located on the A or B genome of wheat to jointed goatgrass.

  20. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    PubMed

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity) is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analyzed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization). Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as post-translational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined.

  1. Involvement of Fungal Pectin Methylesterase Activity in the Interaction Between Fusarium graminearum and Wheat.

    PubMed

    Sella, Luca; Castiglioni, Carla; Paccanaro, Maria Chiara; Janni, Michela; Schäfer, Wilhelm; D'Ovidio, Renato; Favaron, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The genome of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, contains two putative pectin methylesterase (PME)-encoding genes. However, when grown in liquid culture containing pectin, F. graminearum produces only a single PME, which was purified and identified. Its encoding gene, expressed during wheat spike infection, was disrupted by targeted homologous recombination. Two Δpme mutant strains lacked PME activity but were still able to grow on highly methyl-esterified pectin even though their polygalacturonase (PG) activity showed a reduced capacity to depolymerize this substrate. The enzymatic assays performed with purified F. graminearum PG and PME demonstrated an increase in PG activity in the presence of PME on highly methyl-esterified pectin. The virulence of the mutant strains was tested on Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum spikes, and a significant reduction in the percentage of symptomatic spikelets was observed between 7 and 12 days postinfection compared with wild type, demonstrating that the F. graminearum PME contributes to fungal virulence on wheat by promoting spike colonization in the initial and middle stages of infection. In contrast, transgenic wheat plants with increased levels of pectin methyl esterification did not show any increase in resistance to the Δpme mutant, indicating that the infectivity of the fungus relies only to a certain degree on pectin degradation.

  2. Molecular characterization of a new waxy allele with partial expression in spelt wheat.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Carlos; Caballero, Leonor; Yamamori, Makoto; Alvarez, Juan B

    2012-06-01

    Starch composition which is dependent on the waxy protein, the enzyme responsible for amylose synthesis in the grain, is an important aspect of the wheat quality. In this report, we describe the characterization of a novel Wx-A1 allele (Wx-A1g formerly known as -Wx-A1a) in Spanish spelt wheat lines which is responsible for a remarkable decline in the concentration of Wx-A1 protein found in the endosperm. Comparison of the DNA sequences in the Wx-A1a and Wx-A1g alleles showed the presence of a 160-bp insertion within the fourth intron in the latter. This insertion had some characteristics of a transposable-like element. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of normal and aberrant mRNA transcripts in the Wx-A1g lines, indicating that the aberrant transcripts are un-spliced and contained the longer fourth intron. This may be related to the low level of Wx-A1 protein in these lines. In addition, a simple and fast PCR assay was designed for differentiating among different Wx-A1 alleles (a, b, f and g). The mutation described here is not related to either of the Wx-A1 mutations identified previously in common and durum wheats and could help to extend the range of amylose content of wheats.

  3. [Alleles at storage protein loci in Triticum spelta L. accessions and their occurrence in related wheats].

    PubMed

    Kozub, N A; Boguslavskiĭ, R L; Sozinov, I A; Tverdokhleb, E V; Ksinias, I N; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Variation at eight storage protein loci was analyzed in the collection of T. spelta accessions from the National Centre of Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, most of which are European spelts. The analysis allowed identification of seven alleles at the Gli-B1 locus, five alleles at the Gli-A1 and Glu-B1 loci, three alleles at the Gli-A3 locus, two at the Gli-D1, Gli-B5, Glu-A1, and Glu-D1 loci. The majority of alleles are encountered among common wheat cultivars, only five alleles were specific for spelts. The high frequency of the alleles Gli-B1hs* and h encoding the 45-type gamma-gliadin in European spelts and durum wheat cultivars, as well as the occurrence of these alleles in T. dicoccum, in particular, in accessions from Switzerland and Germany, supports von Büren's hypothesis that European spelt resulted from hybridization between a tetraploid wheat with the 45-type y-gliadin and a hexaploid wheat. Analysis of genetic distances based on the genotypes at eight storage protein loci permitted differentiation of the Asian spelt accession from European spelts.

  4. Release of EL54 Sugarbeet Germplasm Derived from WB879 Wild Germplasm With Resistance to Aphanomyces and Excellent Stand Establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625). EL54 is being released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France (3 m elevation), w...

  5. Assessing the breeding potential of day-neutral converted racestock germplasm in the Pee Dee cotton germplasm enhancement program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primitive, upland cotton landrace collection represents one of the untapped genetic resources in cotton breeding programs. Efforts to utilize these resources have been slow, but the development of day-neutral converted germplasm lines offers tremendous potential for broadening the genetic base i...

  6. Antioxidants, free radicals, storage proteins, puroindolines, and proteolytic activities in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds during accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Calucci, Lucia; Capocchi, Antonella; Galleschi, Luciano; Ghiringhelli, Silvia; Pinzino, Calogero; Saviozzi, Franco; Zandomeneghi, Maurizio

    2004-06-30

    Seeds of bread wheat were incubated at 40 degrees C and 100% relative humidity for 0, 3, 4, 6, and 10 days. The effects of accelerated aging on seed germinability and some biochemical properties of flour (carotenoid, free radical, and protein contents and proteolytic activity) and gluten (free radical content and flexibility) were investigated. Seed germinability decreased during aging, resulting in seed death after 10 days. A progressive decrease of carotenoid content, in particular, lutein, was observed, prolonging the incubation, whereas the free radical content increased in both flour and gluten. A degradation of soluble and storage proteins was found, associated with a marked increase of proteolytic activity and a loss of viscoelastic properties of gluten. On the contrary, puroindolines were quite resistant to the treatment. The results are discussed in comparison with those previously obtained during accelerated aging of durum wheat seeds.

  7. [Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with increased resistance to the storage pest obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens--mediated].

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui-Ming; Jia, Hai-Yan; Feng, De-Shun; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2006-05-01

    The transgenic wheat of improved resistance to the storage pest was production. We have introduced the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene (CpTI) into cultured embryonic callus cells of immature embryos of wheat elite line by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Independent plantlets were obtained from the kanamycin-resistant calli after screening. PCR and real time PCR analysis, PCR-Southern and Southern blot hybridization indicated that there were 3 transgenic plants viz. transformed- I, II and III (T- I, T-II and T-III). The transformation frequencies were obviously affected by Agrobacterium concentration, the infection duration and transformation treatment. The segregations of CpTI in the transgenic wheat progenies were not easily to be elucidated, and some transgenic wheat lines (T- I and T-III) showed Mendelian segregations. The determinations of insect resistance to the stored grain insect of wheat viz. the grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) indicated that the 3 transgenic wheat progeny seeds moth-resistance was improved significantly. The seed moth-eaten ratio of T- I, T-II, T-III and nontransformed control was 19.8%, 21.9%, 32.9% and 58.3% respectively. 3 transgenic wheat T1 PCR-positive plants revealed that the 3 transgenic lines had excellent agronomic traits. They supplied good germplasm resource of insect-resistance for wheat genetic improvement.

  8. Harvest index, a parameter conditioning responsiveness of wheat plants to elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Jauregui, Iván; Irigoyen, Juan J.; Araus, José L.; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Erice, Gorka

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the world’s population requires the development of high production agriculture. For this purpose, it is essential to identify target points conditioning crop responsiveness to predicted [CO2]. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of ear sink strength in leaf protein and metabolomic profiles and its implications in photosynthetic activity and yield of durum wheat plants exposed to elevated [CO2]. For this purpose, a genotype with high harvest index (HI) (Triticum durum var. Sula) and another with low HI (Triticum durum var. Blanqueta) were exposed to elevated [CO2] (700 µmol mol–1 versus 400 µmol mol–1 CO2) in CO2 greenhouses. The obtained data highlighted that elevated [CO2] only increased plant growth in the genotype with the largest HI; Sula. Gas exchange analyses revealed that although exposure to 700 µmol mol–1 depleted Rubisco content, Sula was capable of increasing the light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat) whereas, in Blanqueta, the carbohydrate imbalance induced the down-regulation of Asat. The specific depletion of Rubisco in both genotypes under elevated [CO2], together with the enhancement of other proteins in the Calvin cycle, revealed that there was a redistribution of N from Rubisco towards RuBP regeneration. Moreover, the down-regulation of N, NO3 –, amino acid, and organic acid content, together with the depletion of proteins involved in amino acid synthesis that was detected in Blanqueta grown at 700 µmol mol–1 CO2, revealed that inhibition of N assimilation was involved in the carbohydrate imbalance and consequently with the down-regulation of photosynthesis and growth in these plants. PMID:23564953

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  10. Characterization of Two HKT1;4 Transporters from Triticum monococcum to Elucidate the Determinants of the Wheat Salt Tolerance Nax1 QTL.

    PubMed

    Tounsi, Sana; Ben Amar, Siwar; Masmoudi, Khaled; Sentenac, Hervé; Brini, Faiçal; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2016-10-01

    TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are two Na(+) transporter genes that have been identified as associated with the salt tolerance Nax1 locus found in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) line issued from a cross with T. monococcum. In the present study, we were interested in getting clues on the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL). By analyzing the phylogenetic relationships between wheat and T. monococcum HKT1;4-type genes, we found that durum and bread wheat genomes possess a close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A1, but no functional close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A2. Furthermore, performing real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments, we showed that TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are similarly expressed in the leaves but that TmHKT1;4-A2 is more strongly expressed in the roots, which would enable it to contribute more to the prevention of Na(+) transfer to the shoots upon salt stress. We also functionally characterized the TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 transporters by expressing them in Xenopus oocytes. The two transporters displayed close functional properties (high Na(+)/K(+) selectivity, low affinity for Na(+), stimulation by external K(+) of Na(+) transport), but differed in some quantitative parameters: Na(+) affinity was 3-fold lower and the maximal inward conductance was 3-fold higher in TmHKT1;4-A2 than in TmHKT1;4-A1. The conductance of TmHKT1;4-A2 at high Na(+) concentration (>10 mM) was also shown to be higher than that of the two durum wheat HKT1;4-type transporters so far characterized. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that TmHKT1;4-A2 is responsible for the Nax1 trait and provide new insight into the understanding of this QTL.

  11. Genetic basis of qualitative and quantitative resistance to powdery mildew in wheat: from consensus regions to candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. The objective of this study was to identify the wheat genomic regions that are involved in the control of powdery mildew resistance through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) meta-analysis approach. This meta-analysis allows the use of collected QTL data from different published studies to obtain consensus QTL across different genetic backgrounds, thus providing a better definition of the regions responsible for the trait, and the possibility to obtain molecular markers that will be suitable for marker-assisted selection. Results Five QTL for resistance to powdery mildew were identified under field conditions in the durum-wheat segregating population Creso × Pedroso. An integrated map was developed for the projection of resistance genes/ alleles and the QTL from the present study and the literature, and to investigate their distribution in the wheat genome. Molecular markers that correspond to candidate genes for plant responses to pathogens were also projected onto the map, particularly considering NBS-LRR and receptor-like protein kinases. More than 80 independent QTL and 51 resistance genes from 62 different mapping populations were projected onto the consensus map using the Biomercator statistical software. Twenty-four MQTL that comprised 2–6 initial QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 15 chromosomes. The co-location of the resistance QTL and genes was investigated. Moreover, from analysis of the sequences of DArT markers, 28 DArT clones mapped on wheat chromosomes have been shown to be associated with the NBS-LRR genes and positioned in the same regions as the MQTL for powdery mildew resistance. Conclusions The results from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. The study of the Creso × Pedroso durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had

  12. Quantitation of the immunodominant 33-mer peptide from α-gliadin in wheat flours by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lang, Christina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. The 33-mer peptide from α2-gliadin has frequently been described as the most important CD-immunogenic sequence within gluten. However, from more than 890 published amino acid sequences of α-gliadins, only 19 sequences contain the 33-mer. In order to make a precise assessment of the importance of the 33-mer, it is necessary to elucidate which wheat species and cultivars contain the peptide and at which concentrations. This paper presents the development of a stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the 33-mer in flours of 23 hexaploid modern and 15 old common (bread) wheat as well as two spelt cultivars. All flours contained the 33-mer peptide at levels ranging from 91–603 μg/g flour. In contrast, the 33-mer was absent (durum wheat, emmer, einkorn), most likely because of the absence of the D-genome, which encodes α2-gliadins. Due to the presence of the 33-mer in all common wheat and spelt flours analysed here, the special focus in the literature on this most immunodominant peptide seems to be justified. PMID:28327674

  13. The ectopic expression of a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor increases pectin methyl esterification and limits fungal diseases in wheat.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Chiara; Janni, Michela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2011-09-01

    Cell wall pectin methyl esterification can influence plant resistance because highly methyl-esterified pectin can be less susceptible to the hydrolysis by pectic enzymes such as fungal endopolygalacturonases (PG). Pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methyl-esterified form and, here, is de-methyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME). The activity of PME is controlled by specific protein inhibitors called PMEI; consequently, an increased inhibition of PME by PMEI might modify the pectin methyl esterification. In order to test the possibility of improving wheat resistance by modifying the methyl esterification of pectin cell wall, we have produced durum wheat transgenic lines expressing the PMEI from Actinidia chinensis (AcPMEI). The expression of AcPMEI endows wheat with a reduced endogenous PME activity, and transgenic lines expressing a high level of the inhibitor showed a significant increase in the degree of methyl esterification. These lines showed a significant reduction of disease symptoms caused by the fungal pathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana or Fusarium graminearum. This increased resistance was related to the impaired ability of these fungal pathogens to grow on methyl-esterified pectin and to a reduced activity of the fungal PG to hydrolyze methyl-esterified pectin. In addition to their importance for wheat improvement, these results highlight the primary role of pectin despite its low content in the wheat cell wall.

  14. Quantitation of the immunodominant 33-mer peptide from α-gliadin in wheat flours by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lang, Christina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-03-22

    Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. The 33-mer peptide from α2-gliadin has frequently been described as the most important CD-immunogenic sequence within gluten. However, from more than 890 published amino acid sequences of α-gliadins, only 19 sequences contain the 33-mer. In order to make a precise assessment of the importance of the 33-mer, it is necessary to elucidate which wheat species and cultivars contain the peptide and at which concentrations. This paper presents the development of a stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the 33-mer in flours of 23 hexaploid modern and 15 old common (bread) wheat as well as two spelt cultivars. All flours contained the 33-mer peptide at levels ranging from 91-603 μg/g flour. In contrast, the 33-mer was absent (durum wheat, emmer, einkorn), most likely because of the absence of the D-genome, which encodes α2-gliadins. Due to the presence of the 33-mer in all common wheat and spelt flours analysed here, the special focus in the literature on this most immunodominant peptide seems to be justified.

  15. A Genetic Framework for Grain Size and Shape Variation in Wheat[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gegas, Vasilis C.; Nazari, Aida; Griffiths, Simon; Simmonds, James; Fish, Lesley; Orford, Simon; Sayers, Liz; Doonan, John H.; Snape, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Grain morphology in wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been selected and manipulated even in very early agrarian societies and remains a major breeding target. We undertook a large-scale quantitative analysis to determine the genetic basis of the phenotypic diversity in wheat grain morphology. A high-throughput method was used to capture grain size and shape variation in multiple mapping populations, elite varieties, and a broad collection of ancestral wheat species. This analysis reveals that grain size and shape are largely independent traits in both primitive wheat and in modern varieties. This phenotypic structure was retained across the mapping populations studied, suggesting that these traits are under the control of a limited number of discrete genetic components. We identified the underlying genes as quantitative trait loci that are distinct for grain size and shape and are largely shared between the different mapping populations. Moreover, our results show a significant reduction of phenotypic variation in grain shape in the modern germplasm pool compared with the ancestral wheat species, probably as a result of a relatively recent bottleneck. Therefore, this study provides the genetic underpinnings of an emerging phenotypic model where wheat domestication has transformed a long thin primitive grain to a wider and shorter modern grain. PMID:20363770

  16. Registration of seven spring two-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    STARS 0637B (Reg. No. _________, PI 642923), 0638B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642924), 0639B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642925), 0640B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642926), 0641B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642927), 0642B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642928), and STARS 0643B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642929), are s...

  17. Molecular Variation in Chloroplast DNA Regions in Ancestral Species of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, N. T.; Mori, N.; Tsunewaki, K.

    1994-01-01

    Restriction map variation in two 5-6-kb chloroplast DNA regions of five diploid Aegilops species in the section Sitopsis and two wild tetraploid wheats, Triticum dicoccoides and Triticum araraticum, was investigated with a battery of four-cutter restriction enzymes. A single accession each of Triticum durum, Triticum timopheevi and Triticum aestivum was included as a reference. More than 250 restriction sites were scored, of which only seven sites were found polymorphic in Aegilops speltoides. No restriction site polymorphisms were detected in all of the other diploid and tetraploid species. In addition, six insertion/deletion polymorphisms were detected, but they were mostly unique or species-specific. Estimated nucleotide diversity was 0.0006 for A. speltoides, and 0.0000 for all the other investigated species. In A. speltoides, none of Tajima's D values was significant, indicating no clear deviation from the neutrality of molecular polymorphisms. Significant non-random association was detected for three combinations out of 10 possible pairs between polymorphic restriction sites in A. speltoides. Phylogenetic relationship among all the plastotypes (plastid genotype) suggested the diphyletic origin of T. dicoccoides and T. araraticum. A plastotype of one A. speltoides accession was identical to the major type of T. araraticum (T. timopheevi inclusively). Three of the plastotypes found in the Sitopsis species are very similar, but not identical, to that of T. dicoccoides, T. durum and T. aestivum. PMID:7916310

  18. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed.

  19. Neutral Genetic Markers and Conservation Genetics: Simulated Germplasm Collections

    PubMed Central

    Bataillon, T. M.; David, J. L.; Schoen, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the use of neutral genetic markers to guide sampling from a large germplasm collection with the objective of establishing from it a smaller, but genetically representative sample. We simulated evolutionary change and germplasm sampling in a subdivided population of a diploid hermaphrodite annual plant to create an initially large collection. Several strategies of sampling from this collection were then compared. Our results show that a strategy based on information obtained from marker genes led to retention of the maximum number of neutral and nonneutral alleles in the smaller sample. This occurred when demes were composed of self-fertilizing individuals or when no migration occurred among demes, but not when demes of an outcrossing population were connected by high levels of migration. PMID:8878704

  20. Identifying variation in resistance to the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, between different ancestral and modern wheat species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ancestral wheat relatives are important sources of genetic diversity for the introduction of novel traits for the improvement of modern bread wheat. In this study the aim was to assess the susceptibility of 34 accessions of the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (A genome) to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), the causal agent of take-all disease. The second aim was to explore the susceptibility of tetraploid wheat (T. durum) and the B genome progenitor species Aegilops speltoides to Ggt. Results Field trials, conducted over 5 years, identified seven T. monococcum accessions with a good level of resistance to take-all when exposed to natural inoculum under UK field conditions. All other accessions were highly susceptible or did not exhibit a consistent phenotype across years. DArT marker genotyping revealed that whole genome diversity was not closely related to resistance to take-all within T. monococcum, suggesting that multiple genetic sources of resistance may exist within the species. In contrast the tetraploid wheat cultivars and Ae. speltoides were all highly susceptible to the disease, including those with known elevated levels of benzoxazinoids. Conclusions The diploid wheat species T. monococcum may provide a genetic source of resistance to take-all disease that could be utilised to improve the performance of T. aestivum in high disease risk situations. This represents an extremely valuable resource to achieve economic and sustainable genetic control of this root disease. PMID:25084989

  1. Genetic diversity in a world germplasm collection of tall fescue

    PubMed Central

    Cuyeu, Romina; Rosso, Beatriz; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela; Fox, Romina; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Festuca arundinacea Schreb., commonly known as tall fescue, is a major forage crop in temperate regions. Recently, a molecular analysis of different accessions of a world germplasm collection of tall fescue has demonstrated that it contains different species from the genus Festuca and allowed their rapid classification into the three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous). In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of 161 accessions of Festuca species from 29 countries, including 28 accessions of INTA (Argentina), by analyzing 15 polymorphic SSR markers by capillary electrophoresis. These molecular markers allowed us to detect a total of 214 alleles. The number of alleles per locus varied between 5 and 24, and the values of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.627 to 0.840. In addition, the accessions analyzed by flow cytometry showed different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid), placing in evidence that the world germplasm collection consisted of multiple species, as previously suggested. Interestingly, almost all accessions of INTA germplasm collection were true hexaploid tall fescue, belonging to two eco-geographic races (Continental and Mediterranean). Finally, the data presented revealed an ample genetic diversity of tall fescue showing the importance of preserving the INTA collection for future breeding programs. PMID:23885206

  2. Characterising root trait variability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinglong; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Siddique, Kadambot Hm

    2016-10-06

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume crop but its sustainable production is challenged by predicted climate changes, which are likely to increase production limitations and uncertainty in yields. Characterising the variability in root architectural traits in a core collection of chickpea germplasm will provide the basis for breeding new germplasm with suitable root traits for the efficient acquisition of soil resources and adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses. This study used a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system for assessing root trait variability across 270 chickpea genotypes. The genotypes exhibited large variation in rooting patterns and branching manner. Thirty root-related traits were characterised, 17 of which had coefficients of variation ≥0.3 among genotypes and were selected for further examination. The Pearson correlation matrix showed a strong correlation among most of the selected traits (P≤0.05). Principal component analysis revealed three principal components with eigenvalues >1 capturing 81.5% of the total variation. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis, based on root trait variation, identified three genotype homogeneous groups (rescaled distance of 15) and 16 sub-groups (rescaled distance of 5). The chickpea genotypes characterised in this study with vastly different root properties could be used for further studies in glasshouses and field trials, and for molecular marker studies, gene mapping, and modelling simulations, ultimately aimed at breeding germplasm with root traits for improved adaptation to drought and other specific environments.

  3. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ .

  4. EST mining for structure and expression of genes in the region of the wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin loci.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O D

    2009-08-01

    An in-depth analysis was carried out with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for genes in and near the HMW-GS loci. Considerations for using ESTs are discussed, including the occurrence of chimeric and aberrant HMW-GS ESTs. Complete gene sequences demonstrated the feasibility of constructing accurate full-length coding regions from EST assemblies and found, or supported, errors in several previously reported HMW-GS gene sequences. New complete HMW-GS gene sequences are reported for the cultivars Chinese Spring and Glenlea. The Ay subunit gene, which is considered null in cultivated wheats, was shown to transcribe in at least two germplasms. Analyses support the conclusion that of the five known genes within this genomic region, the two HMW-GS genes and the globulin gene are highly expressed. The other two genes, encoding a receptor kinase and a protein kinase, have one and no identifiable wheat EST, respectively, although ESTs are found for the orthologous genes in barley. The ESTs of all five genes within the HMW-GS region are either definitely associated with the endosperm or possibly originate from imbibed seed, suggesting the four distinct gene classes in this region are part of a seed or endosperm chromatin domain. EST resources were also used to determine relative abundance of ESTs for all classes of wheat prolamines and indicated differential levels of expression both among germplasms and among the three genomes of hexaploid wheats.

  5. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  6. Indian Plant Germplasm on the Global Platter: An Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sherry R.; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K.; Tyagi, Rishi K.

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  7. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: I. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides x T. tauschii) as a source of favourable alleles for milling and baking quality traits.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Antje; Naz, Ali Ahmad; Dedeck, Oliver; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens

    2007-09-01

    The advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was utilised to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for baking quality traits in two BC(2)F(3) populations of winter wheat. The backcrosses are derived from two German winter wheat cultivars, Batis and Zentos, and two synthetic, hexaploid wheat accessions, Syn022 and Syn086. The synthetics originate from hybridisations of wild emmer (T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides) and T. tauschii, rather than from durum wheat and T. tauschii and thus allowed for the first time to test for exotic QTL effects on wheat genomes A and B in addition to genome D. The investigated quality traits comprised hectolitre weight, grain hardness, flour yield Type 550, falling number, grain protein content, sedimentation volume and baking volume. One hundred and forty-nine SSR markers were applied to genotype a total of 400 BC(2)F(3) lines. For QTL detection, a mixed-model ANOVA was conducted, including the effects DNA marker, BC(2)F(3) line, environment and marker x environment interaction. Overall 38 QTLs significant for a marker main effect were detected. The exotic allele improved trait performance at 14 QTLs (36.8%), while the elite genotype contributed the favourable effect at 24 QTLs (63.2%). The favourable exotic alleles were mainly associated with grain protein content, though the greatest improvement of trait performance due to the exotic alleles was achieved for the traits falling number and sedimentation volume. At the QTL on chromosome 4B the exotic allele increased the falling number by 19.6% and at the QTL on chromosome 6D the exotic allele led to an increase of the sedimentation volume by 21.7%. The results indicate that synthetic wheat derived from wild emmer x T. tauschii carries favourable QTL alleles for baking quality traits, which might be useful for breeding improved wheat varieties by marker-assisted selection.

  8. Registration of 'Ripper' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

  9. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

  10. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  11. Registration of 'Byrd' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Byrd' (PI 664257) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released August, 2011, through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State University (CSU), USDA-ARS ...

  12. Agrometeorology and Wheat Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

  13. Effects of pre-industrial, current and future [CO2] in traditional and modern wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Aljazairi, Salvador; Arias, Claudia; Sánchez, Elena; Lino, Gladys; Nogués, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal food crops in the world today. The productivity and quality of this crop is greatly affected by environmental conditions during grain filling. In this study, we have analyzed two genotypes of durum wheat, Blanqueta and Sula (traditional and a modern wheat respectively) in pre-industrial, current and future [CO2]. Plant growth and physiological parameters were analyzed during anthesis and grain filling in order to study the capacity of these plants to create new sinks and their role during the process of the acclimation of photosynthesis. It was observed that plants underwent photosynthetic acclimation at pre-industrial and future [CO2] (up and down-regulation respectively). However, the modern genotype averts the process of down-regulation by creating a new carbon sink (i.e. the spike). Here, we have shown the essential role that the spike plays as a new sink in order to avert the down-regulation of photosynthesis at future [CO2]. Moreover, we have demonstrated that at future [CO2] the growth response will depend on the ability of plants to develop new sinks or expand existing ones.

  14. Front-surface absorbance spectra of wheat flour: determination of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Zandomeneghi, M; Festa, C; Carbonaro, L; Galleschi, L; Lenzi, A; Calucci, L

    2000-06-01

    Front-surface absorbance spectra of wheat flours in the 250-650 nm region can be obtained by measuring reflectance spectra with a conventional spectrofluorometer suitably set to detect light scattered from powder samples. The spectra recorded on flour samples, obtained from seeds of four bread and five durum wheats, show high-intensity absorption bands due to aromatic amino acids of wheat proteins and low-intensity bands due to chromophores bound to low-molecular-weight compounds. The intensity of these last bands is proportional to the concentration of the corresponding chromophores present in the flour; thus, it can be used to measure the content of the compounds containing the chromophore(s). In particular, a quantitative determination of the carotenoids actually present in the flours is made, obtaining information on the original content of the seeds. This determination is important, as, for example, xanthophylls are well-known antioxidants and free-radical scavengers involved in aging processes of seeds. Reflectance measurements on powder samples are far more economic in terms of time and materials consumption than methods such as extraction and HPLC analysis of extracts and, in addition, give an evaluation of the overall content of carotenoids with absorption bands in the spectral range 450-500 nm. Application of the technique to other food powders with low-intensity absorption bands in the near-UV and vis region is possible.

  15. Lipid Composition and Protein Dynamics in Thylakoids of Two Wheat Cultivars Differently Sensitive to Drought.

    PubMed Central

    Quartacci, M. F.; Pinzino, C.; Sgherri, CLM.; Navari-Izzo, F.

    1995-01-01

    Two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars with different sensitivities to drought were either grown under regular irrigation or subjected to water deficit by withholding water for 14 d. Water-stressed plants of both cultivars underwent similar decreases in leaf water potential, but the drought-tolerant cultivar showed higher relative water content and turgor. Neither osmotic nor elastic adjustment mechanisms appeared to be active under the conditions described here. Thylakoids isolated from the stressed, drought-tolerant wheat showed an increase in lipid-to-protein ratio, in comparison with the control, whereas this ratio remained unchanged in the sensitive wheat. In both cultivars, water deficit determined different rearrangements in the composition of the thylakoid individual polar lipids, but their unsaturation level remained unaffected with the exception of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. In the drought-sensitive cultivar, an accumulation of free fatty acids together with a reduction in polar lipid amount was observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of spin-labeled proteins of stressed plants from the sensitive cv Adamello showed a higher spin label rotational correlation time together with lower sulphydryl group and mobile proteic portion levels, in comparison with the control. In the tolerant cv Ofanto, the first two parameters changed to a lesser extent following water depletion, and the mobile proteic portion was not altered. PMID:12228463

  16. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  17. Identification and sequence analysis of grain softness protein in selected wheat, rye and triticale.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, M A S; Bobojonov, V

    2012-08-16

    Grain softness protein (GSP) is an important protein for overcoming milling and grain defenses in the innate immunity systems of cereals. The objective of this study was to evaluate and understand GSP sequences in selected wheat, rye and triticale. Using sequences for this gene from a sequence database, we performed clustering analysis to compare the sequences obtained from 3 germplasms with other studied sequences for GSP. The maximum difference between the Hirmand GSP genotype in wheat and the database sequences was 23% in EF109396 and EF109399. Most amino acid variation between the GSP sequences involved the same amino acids. The Nikita rye GSP gene showed 64% identity with DQ269918 and AY667063. The isoelectric point in the GSP of wheat and Lasko triticale was significantly higher than that of rye GSP. In addition, parameters such as optical density, grand average of hydrophobicity, percentage of hydrophobicity and hydrophilic amino acids, and number of alpha helices and beta sheets in GSP were similar in wheat and triticale but not in wheat and rye.

  18. Ornamental Plants and the US National Plant Germplasm System: Conserving, Evaluating, Seeking, and Sharing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report presents an overview of the US National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) for an audience of plant propagators from the nursery industry, academia, and public gardens. It describes the active sites that conserve germplasm of interest to propagators and how those sites conserve their germpla...

  19. Cryopreservation of citrus in the USDA-ARS national plant germplasm system collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse Citrus germplasm from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System, University of California Riverside, and the California citrus industry is at risk of being lost as a result of disease infestations and unexpected weather disasters. At the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation ...

  20. Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of 476,049 germplasm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPS), ca. 30,000 are vegetatively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports have demonstrated the advantages of long-term storage of plant tissues in ...

  1. Diverse germplasm to devleop male-sterile lines for hybrid breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice breeding in the US has depended largely upon male-sterile lines originating in China or from other Asian sources. By contrast, the program in Arkansas has developed all of its male-sterile lines at Stuttgart,AR using germplasm accessions available in the USDA Rice Germplasm Collection st...

  2. Kimberly sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet germplasm lines with resistance to BNYVV and storage rots, 11germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Kimberly sugar beet program were screened. The lines wer...

  3. Beet curly top resistance in germplasm from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins program, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program, a resistant control germplasm (1996A008), and three commercial control cultivars [SV2012RR (susceptible), Monohikari (susceptible) and HM PM90 (resistant)] were screened for response to Beet ...

  4. Ft. Collins sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is a worldwide problem that can lead to loss of tonnage and lower percent sucrose in the field. BNYVV can also reduce the storability of roots. To identify germplasm with resistance to these problems, 50 sugar beet germplasm lines de...

  5. Spacial analysis of avocado sunblotch disease in an avocado germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first visual symptoms of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) were observed in a few plants of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the germplasm collection at the National Germplasm Repository at Miami in the early 1980s. However, the extent of the infection was unknown because infected trees can re...

  6. Genetic characterization of Asian fine fescue identifies unique germplasm for forage and turf breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of genetic structure and plant morphology are essential to better utilize introduced germplasm in fine-leaved fescue breeding. Recent collections (2006-2010) of fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca and Festuca rubra germplasm have been made by the USDA, ARS in Kyrgyzstan (KGZ) and the People's ...

  7. Molecular and genetic diversity of cultivars in the U.S. cotton germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although a large range of untapped genetic diversity exists within the U.S. Cotton Germplasm Collection, much of this diversity has not been characterized and its sources identified. Our objective in this study was to characterize a subset of cultivated Gossypium hirsutum germplasm within the colle...

  8. Physiological and molecular characterization of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm with improved seedling freezing tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted greenhouse experiments to compare 14 alfalfa germplasms for their survival following freezing. Among these germplasms are collections adapted to the Grand River National Grasslands in South Dakota. Our hypothesis was that these collections developed tolerance to survive the frigid gro...

  9. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic dive...

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  11. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  12. Rapid genome divergence at orthologous low molecular weight glutenin loci of the A and Am genomes of wheat.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Thomas; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Guyot, Romain; Schlagenhauf, Edith; Liu, Zhong-Da; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Keller, Beat

    2003-05-01

    To study genome evolution in wheat, we have sequenced and compared two large physical contigs of 285 and 142 kb covering orthologous low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin loci on chromosome 1AS of a diploid wheat species (Triticum monococcum subsp monococcum) and a tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum subsp durum). Sequence conservation between the two species was restricted to small regions containing the orthologous LMW glutenin genes, whereas >90% of the compared sequences were not conserved. Dramatic sequence rearrangements occurred in the regions rich in repetitive elements. Dating of long terminal repeat retrotransposon insertions revealed different insertion events occurring during the last 5.5 million years in both species. These insertions are partially responsible for the lack of homology between the intergenic regions. In addition, the gene space was conserved only partially, because different predicted genes were identified on both contigs. Duplications and deletions of large fragments that might be attributable to illegitimate recombination also have contributed to the differentiation of this region in both species. The striking differences in the intergenic landscape between the A and A(m) genomes that diverged 1 to 3 million years ago provide evidence for a dynamic and rapid genome evolution in wheat species.

  13. A novel method for determination of the (15) N isotopic composition of Rubisco in wheat plants exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Avice, Jean Christophe; Bourguignon, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Although ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is mostly known as a key enzyme involved in CO2 assimilation during the Calvin cycle, comparatively little is known about its role as a pool of nitrogen storage in leaves. For this purpose, we developed a protocol to purify Rubisco that enables later analysis of its (15) N isotope composition (δ(15) N) at the natural abundance and (15) N-labeled plants. In order to test the utility of this protocol, durum wheat (Triticum durum var. Sula) exposed to an elevated CO2 concentration (700 vs 400 µmol mol(-1) ) was labeled with K(15) NO3 (enriched at 2 atom %) during the ear development period. The developed protocol proves to be selective, simple, cost effective and reproducible. The study reveals that (15) N labeling was different in total organic matter, total soluble protein and the Rubisco fraction. The obtained data suggest that photosynthetic acclimation in wheat is caused by Rubisco depletion. This depletion may be linked to preferential nitrogen remobilization from Rubisco toward grain filling.

  14. SNP Discovery for mapping alien introgressions in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring alien introgressions in crop plants is difficult due to the lack of genetic and molecular mapping information on the wild crop relatives. The tertiary gene pool of wheat is a very important source of genetic variability for wheat improvement against biotic and abiotic stresses. By exploring the 5Mg short arm (5MgS) of Aegilops geniculata, we can apply chromosome genomics for the discovery of SNP markers and their use for monitoring alien introgressions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Results The short arm of chromosome 5Mg of Ae. geniculata Roth (syn. Ae. ovata L.; 2n = 4x = 28, UgUgMgMg) was flow-sorted from a wheat line in which it is maintained as a telocentric chromosome. DNA of the sorted arm was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 with ~45x coverage. The sequence data was used for SNP discovery against wheat homoeologous group-5 assemblies. A total of 2,178 unique, 5MgS-specific SNPs were discovered. Randomly selected samples of 59 5MgS-specific SNPs were tested (44 by KASPar assay and 15 by Sanger sequencing) and 84% were validated. Of the selected SNPs, 97% mapped to a chromosome 5Mg addition to wheat (the source of t5MgS), and 94% to 5Mg introgressed from a different accession of Ae. geniculata substituting for chromosome 5D of wheat. The validated SNPs also identified chromosome segments of 5MgS origin in a set of T5D-5Mg translocation lines; eight SNPs (25%) mapped to TA5601 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.75)] and three (8%) to TA5602 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS (0.95)]. SNPs (gsnp_5ms83 and gsnp_5ms94), tagging chromosome T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.95) with the smallest introgression carrying resistance to leaf rust (Lr57) and stripe rust (Yr40), were validated in two released germplasm lines with Lr57 and Yr40 genes. Conclusion This approach should be widely applicable for the identification of species/genome-specific SNPs. The development of a large number of SNP markers will facilitate the precise introgression and

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    PubMed

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  16. The molecular basis of genetic diversity among cytoplasms of Triticum and Aegilops : 7. Restriction endonuclease analysis of mitochondrial DNAs from polyploid wheats and their ancestral species.

    PubMed

    Terachi, T; Ogihara, Y; Tsunewaki, K

    1990-09-01

    Many related species and strains of common wheat were compared by matching differences among their mitochondrial genomes with their "parent" nuclear genomes. We examined three species of Aegilops, section Sitopsis (Ae. bicornis, Ae. sharonensis, and Ae. speltoides), emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides, T. dicoccum, and T. durum), common wheat (T. spelta, T. aestivum, and T. compaction), and timopheevi wheat (T. araraticum, T. timopheevi, and T. zhukovskyi). A single source of the cytoplasm was used in all the species, except Ae. speltoides (two sources), T. araraticum (two), and T. aestivum (three). Following restriction endonuclease analyses, the mitochondrial genomes were found to comprise seven types, and a dendrogram showing their genetic relatedness was constructed, based upon the percentage of common restriction fragments. MtDNAs from T. dicoccum, T. durum, T. aestivum, and T. compactum yielded identical restriction fragment patterns; these differed from T. dicoccoides and T. spelta mtDNAs in only 2.3% of their fragments. The fragment patterns of T. timopheevi and T. zhukovskyi were identical, and these differed from T. araraticum mtDNA by only one fragment. In both the emmer-dinkel and timopheevi groups, mitochondrial genome differentiation is evident, suggesting a diphyletic origin of each group. MtDNAs from four accessions of the Sitopsis species of Aegilops differ greatly from one another, but those of Ae. bicornis, Ae. sharonensis, and Ae. searsii, belonging to the same subsection Emarginata, are relatively similar. MtDNAs of timopheevi species are identical, or nearly so, to those of Ae. speltoides accession (09), suggesting that the latter was the cytoplasm donor to the former, polyploid group. The origin of this polyploid group seems to be rather recent in that the diploid and polyploid species possess nearly identical mitochondrial genomes. We cannot determine, with precision, the cytoplasm donor to the emmer-dinkel group. However, our results do

  17. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  18. Fingerprinting Soybean Germplasm and Its Utility in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L.; Jia, Gaofeng; Quigley, Charles V.; Fickus, Edward W.; Nelson, Randall L.; Cregan, Perry B.

    2015-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection includes 18,480 domesticated soybean and 1168 wild soybean accessions introduced from 84 countries or developed in the United States. This collection was genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing greater than 50K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Redundant accessions were identified in the collection, and distinct genetic backgrounds of soybean from different geographic origins were observed that could be a unique resource for soybean genetic improvement. We detected a dramatic reduction of genetic diversity based on linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure analyses of the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and identified candidate regions associated with domestication and selection imposed by North American breeding. We constructed the first soybean haplotype block maps in the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and observed that most recombination events occurred in the regions between haplotype blocks. These haplotype maps are crucial for association mapping aimed at the identification of genes controlling traits of economic importance. A case-control association test delimited potential genomic regions along seven chromosomes that most likely contain genes controlling seed weight in domesticated soybean. The resulting dataset will facilitate germplasm utilization, identification of genes controlling important traits, and will accelerate the creation of soybean varieties with improved seed yield and quality. PMID:26224783

  19. Molecular identity of ramie germplasms using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Luan, M B; Chen, B F; Zou, Z Z; Zhu, J J; Wang, X F; Xu, Y; Sun, Z M; Chen, J H

    2015-03-27

    DNA identity is highly effective and efficient for distinguishing crop varieties regardless of their phenotypic similarities. To establish DNA identity in ramie, 21 simple sequence repeat primers were amplified in 108 accessions of domestic and exotic ramie germplasms. Sixty polymorphic bands were obtained, with an average of 2.9 bands per locus and 2-8 band types per primer locus (average of 5.19 band types). The Simpson's diversity index of the 21 simple sequence repeat loci ranged from 0.158 to 0.808 with an average of 0.612. There was large difference in the specific index in the germplasm tested, from 44.082 to 218.163, with an average of 83.620. Based on allele band type, 8 primer pairs were selected for DNA fingerprinting of the 108 genotypes. The combination of the 8 primer pairs were found to be very effective for distinguishing these genotypes, indicating that they can be used in the molecular DNA identity of ramie.

  20. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity.