Science.gov

Sample records for dust mite-specific ige

  1. Association of house dust mite-specific IgE with asthma control, medications and household pets

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, John Donnie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence is conflicting regarding the effectiveness of creating a low-allergen environment or reducing allergen exposure to control asthma exacerbations. Objective This study determined the association of house dust mite (HDM)-specific IgE levels with asthma symptom control, selected medications, family history of allergic disease, and exposure to second-hand smoke and household pets. Methods Serum samples from 102 doctor-diagnosed allergic asthma patients and 100 non-atopic controls were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the HDM species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) allergens. Point-biserial correlation coefficient, Pearson R correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association of HDM-specific IgE levels with the abovementioned variables. Results Of the 102 cases, 38.24%, 47.06%, and 33.33% were sensitized to Bt, Df, and Dp, respectively. Sensitized patients showed greater probability [Bt (OR = 1.21), Df (OR = 1.14), and Dp (OR = 1.35)] to manifest symptoms than those who were not. Obtained p-values [Bt (p = 0.73), Df (p = 0.83), and Dp (p = 0.59)], however, proved that HDM-specific IgE levels had no significant contribution in predicting or explaining occurrence of asthma symptoms. Bt- and Df-specific IgEs showed moderately weak but significant relationship with bambuterol HCl and expectorant, respectively. Patients currently on said medications registered higher HDM-specific IgE levels than those who were not. No significant correlation between IgE levels and family history of allergic disease or with exposure to second-hand smoke was seen. Dp-specific IgE levels of patients exposed to household pets were significantly lower compared to those without exposure. Conclusion This study proves that sensitization to Bt, Df, and Dp allergens is not significantly associated with asthma symptoms and control. Although cases were shown to be sensitized

  2. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  3. Sero-prevalence study of IgE responses to allergens from Malaysian house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM).

    PubMed

    Chong, K T; Wong, S F; Mak, J W; Loh, L C; Ho, T M

    2015-09-01

    Allergens of Dermatophagoides and Blomia species are well-characterized but not for other species. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of allergic sensitization to house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM). One hundred adult subjects (aged ≥ 18) were recruited. The mite specific IgE of all allergic subjects were higher compared with healthy subjetcs despite being not statistically significant except for D. farinae and G. malaysiensis. The mean serum IgE levels against HDM and SM for allergic subjects were significantly higher compared with those in healthy subjects. They were mainly sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae (35%) and Glycycometus malaysiensis (37%). Immunoblots revealed not all allergic subjects showed positive immuno-reactivity against the mites tested. Single or multiple bands were observed for different species. The subjects were commonly sensitized to Group 2 (9-12 kDa), 10 (38 kDa) and 18 (40-48 kDa) allergens. Twenty-one out of 60 allergic subjects were sensitized to either one or more species. The majority of them (71%) were sensitized to single species. The allergic subjects were mainly sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, followed by Tyrophagus putrecentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Seven were solely sensitized to HDM while 10 were solely sensitized to SM. Four subjects were sensitized to both. Pre-adsorption study revealed no cross-reactivity. There was difference between the prevalence and reactivity to allergens of HDM and SM in these subjects. Both ELISA and immunoblot did not correlate well but can complement each other in improving the detection of mite allergens to the species level.

  4. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  5. Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yunginger, J W; Ahlstedt, S; Eggleston, P A; Homburger, H A; Nelson, H S; Ownby, D R; Platts-Mills, T A; Sampson, H A; Sicherer, S H; Weinstein, A M; Williams, P B; Wood, R A; Zeiger, R S

    2000-06-01

    During the past several years, immunoassays for specific IgE antibodies have been refined to permit reporting results in mass units. Thus quantitative immunoassays for IgE antibodies may be an adjunct to skin tests. In cases of food allergy among children with atopic dermatitis, cutoff values for IgE antibody concentrations to egg, milk, peanut, and fish have been derived to provide 95% positive and 90% negative predictive values. Food-specific IgE antibody determinations can also be used to predict which food allergies are resolving spontaneously. Elevated egg-specific IgE antibody levels in infancy are associated with significantly increased risk for development of inhalant allergies later in childhood. In cases of inhalant allergy, specific IgE antibody levels correlate closely with results of inhalation challenge studies in cat-sensitive persons. Also, mite-specific IgE antibody levels correlate significantly with the mite allergen contents of reservoir dust in the homes of mite-sensitive persons. Immunoassays for quantitation of specific IgE antibodies may be used to document allergen sensitization over time and to evaluate the risk of reaction on allergen exposure. However, immunoassays and skin tests are not entirely interchangeable, and neither will replace the other in appropriate circumstances.

  6. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakolis, I; Heinrich, J; Zock, J P; Norbäck, D; Svanes, C; Chen, C M; Accordini, S; Verlato, G; Olivieri, M; Jarvis, D

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed.

  7. Airway inflammation and IgE production induced by dust mite allergen-specific memory/effector Th2 cell line can be effectively attenuated by IL-35.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Hui; Loo, Evelyn Xiu-Ling; Kuo, I-Chun; Soh, Gim Hooi; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Lee, Bee Wah; Chua, Kaw Yan

    2011-07-01

    CD4(+) memory/effector T cells play a central role in orchestrating the rapid and robust immune responses upon re-encounter with specific Ags. However, the immunologic mechanism(s) underlying these responses are still not fully understood. To investigate this, we generated an allergen (major house dust mite allergen, Blo t 5)-specific murine Th2 cell line that secreted IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, but not IL-9 or TNF-α, upon activation by the cognate Ag. These cells also exhibited CD44(high)CD62L(-) and CD127(+) (IL-7Rα(+)) phenotypes, which are characteristics of memory/effector T cells. Experiments involving adoptive transfer of this Th2 cell line in mice, followed by three intranasal challenges with Blo t 5, induced a dexamethasone-sensitive eosinophilic airway inflammation. This was accompanied by elevation of Th2 cytokines and CC- and CXC-motif chemokines, as well as recruitment of lymphocytes and polymorphic mononuclear cells into the lungs. Moreover, Blo t 5-specific IgE was detected 4 d after the last intranasal challenge, whereas elevation of Blo t 5-specific IgG1 was found at week two. Finally, pulmonary delivery of the pVAX-IL-35 DNA construct effectively downregulated Blo t 5-specific allergic airway inflammation, and i.m. injection of pVAX-IL-35 led to long-lasting suppression of circulating Blo t 5-specific and total IgE. This model provides a robust research tool to elucidate the immunopathogenic role of memory/effector Th2 cells in allergic airway inflammation. Our results suggested that IL-35 could be a potential therapeutic target for allergic asthma through its attenuating effects on allergen-specific CD4(+) memory/effector Th2 cell-mediated airway inflammation.

  8. Profiles of IgE Sensitization to Der f 1, Der f 2, Der f 6, Der f 8, Der f 10, and Der f 20 in Korean House Dust Mite Allergy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, June Yong; Son, Mina; Yi, Myung-hee; Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Jung U; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measurement of IgE specific to purified house dust mite (HDM) allergens may improve allergy diagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the sensitization profiles of Korean HDM allergic subjects suffering from respiratory allergy and atopic dermatitis (AD) to Der f 1, Der f 2, Der f 6, Der f 8, Der f 10, and Der f 20. Methods Recombinant HDM allergens were produced in Pichia pastoris (Der f 1) or Escherichia coli (5 allergens). IgE reactivity to the individual recombinant allergens and total extract of mite was assessed by ELISA. Results Der f 1 was recognized by 79.1%, Der f 2 by 79.1%, Der f 6 by 9.3%, Der f 8 by 6.2%, Der f 10 by 6.2%, and Der f 20 by 6.6% of the patients' sera tested, while the prevalence of IgE reactivity to total mite extract was 94.7%. Combination of Der f 1 and Der f 2 had a sensitivity of 87.6%. Specific IgE to Der f 2 alone was detected from 89.4% of HDM-sensitized respiratory allergy subjects and 92.3% to the combination of the 2 major allergens Der f 1 and Der f 2. However, sera from fewer patients with AD, namely 72.4% and 71.0%, recognized Der f 1 and Der f 2, respectively. The combination of 2 major allergens allowed diagnosis of 84.5% of the AD patients. No correlation between sensitization to specific allergens and HDM allergy entity was found. Conclusions Der f 2 was the most frequently sensitized allergen among the HDM-sensitized respiratory and AD patients in Korea, and the combination of the group 1 and 2 major allergens increased the diagnostic sensitivity. Minor allergens did not significantly improve diagnostic sensitivity. However, further studies are needed to analyze the relationship between sensitization to other HDM allergens and the disease entity of the HDM allergy. PMID:25749773

  9. Lack of cross-reactivity between the Bacillus thuringiensis derived protein Cry1F in maize grain and dust mite Der p7 protein with human sera positive for Der p7-IgE.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bardina, Luda; Cressman, Robert F; Mattsson, Joel L; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-03-01

    Cry1F protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is effective at controlling lepidopteran pests and a synthetic Cry1F transgene was transferred into maize. For the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops, the allergenic potential of the introduced novel trait(s) is evaluated. Because no single parameter is currently predictive of allergic potential, a 'weight of evidence' approach has been proposed. As part of this assessment, the amino acid (aa) sequence of the Cry1F protein was compared to a database of known allergens using recommended criteria. The Cry1F protein did not show significant similarity or a match of eight contiguous identical aa with any allergen. However, a single six contiguous aa match was identified between Cry1F and the Der p7 protein of the dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. To investigate whether Cry1F was cross-reactive with Der p7, sera from 10 dust mite allergic patients containing Der p 7-specific IgE antibody were used to compare IgE-specific binding. No evidence of cross-reactivity was observed between Cry1F and Der p7. This study provides in vitro IgE sera screening data, that when considered in the context of other bioinformatic data [Hileman R.E., Silvanovich, A., Goodman R.E., Rice E.A., Holleschak G., Astwood J.D., Hefle S.L., 2002. Bioinformatic methods for allergenicity assessment using a comprehensive allergen database. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 128, 280-291; Stadler, M.B., Stadler, B.M., 2003. Allergenicity prediction by protein sequence. FASEB J. 17, 1141-1143.], adds further evidence arguing against the use of a six contiguous identical amino acid search to identify potential cross-reactive allergens. Cry1F is heat labile, rapidly hydrolyzed in an in vitro pepsin resistance assay, not glycosylated and not from an allergenic source. Taken together, these data indicate a lack of allergenic concern for Cry1F.

  10. Local IgE in non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, P; Rondón, C; Gould, H J; Barrionuevo, E; Gevaert, P; Blanca, M

    2015-05-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the presence of a nasal Th2 inflammatory response with local production of specific IgE antibodies and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without evidence of systemic atopy. The prevalence has been shown to be up to 25% in subjects affected with rhinitis with persistence, comorbidity and evolution similar to allergic rhinitis. LAR is a consistent entity that does not evolve to allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy over time although patients have significant impairment in quality of life and increase in the severity of nasal symptoms over time. Lower airways can be also involved. The diagnosis of LAR is based mostly on demonstration of positive response to NAPT and/or local synthesis of specific IgE. Allergens involved include seasonal or perennial such as house dusts mites, pollens, animal epithelia, moulds (alternaria) and others. Basophils from peripheral blood may be activated by the involved allergens suggesting the spill over of locally synthesized specific IgE to the circulation. LAR patients will benefit from the same treatment as allergic patients using antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids and IgE antagonists. Studies on immunotherapy are ongoing and will determine its efficacy in LAR in terms of symptoms improvement and evolution of the natural course of the disease.

  11. Soluble CD23 Levels are Inversely Associated with Atopy and Parasite-Specific IgE Levels but Not with Polyclonal IgE Levels in People Exposed to Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rujeni, Nadine; Nausch, Norman; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwisai, Reginald; Mduluza, Takafira; Taylor, David W.; Mutapi, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Background Protective acquired immunity against helminths and allergic sensitisation are both characterised by high IgE antibody levels. Levels of IgE antibodies are naturally tightly regulated by several mechanisms including binding of the CD23 receptor. Following observations that helminth infections and allergic sensitisation may co-present, the current study aims to investigate the relationship between the soluble CD23 (sCD23) receptor, parasite-specific IgE responses and allergic sensitisation in people exposed to the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methods A cohort of 434 participants was recruited in two villages with different levels of S. haematobium infection in Zimbabwe. Serum levels of the 25-kDa fragment of sCD23 were related to levels of schistosome infection intensity, allergen (house dust mite, HDM) and schistosome-specific IgE, total IgE and skin sensitisation to HDM. Results sCD23 levels rose significantly with schistosome infection intensity but declined significantly with schistosome-specific IgE levels. Furthermore, sCD23 levels were negatively associated with skin sensitisation and IgE reactivity against HDM, but showed no relationship with total IgE. Conclusion The results are consistent with the suppression of parasite and allergen-specific IgE levels by sCD23. Further mechanistic studies will determine the relevance of this potential regulatory mechanism in the development of helminth-specific immune responses in atopic individuals. PMID:23689700

  12. IgE ELISA using antisera derived from epsilon chain antigenic peptides detects allergen-specific IgE in allergic horses.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Warren V; Pettigrew, Howard D; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-05-12

    Equine disease with an allergic etiology is common. Environmental antigens most often implicated as allergens in horses include molds, dusty hay, grass pollen, hay dust mites, and insect saliva. Although intradermal testing with allergen is a useful diagnostic tool for some species, skin testing frequently produces false positive results in horses. Allergen deprivation as a diagnostic tool is often impossible and at best it is ineffective at diagnosing the specific allergic reactivity. Synthesis of IgE after exposure to allergen is the instigator of the allergic process. While IgE exerts its effect after binding strongly to mast cell Fc receptors, the presence of free IgE in the serum can be used to quantify and determine the allergen specificity of the allergic disease. A lack of widely available reagents for detection of equine IgE has limited this approach in horses. We have used the nucleotide sequence of equine IgE to prepare a peptide-based immunogen to elicit equine epsilon chain-specific antisera. Selection of peptides was based on antigenic attributes of the deduced amino acid sequence of the equine epsilon chain. Six peptides were selected for conjugation to carrier molecules and rabbit immunization. Of these, one peptide elicited antisera that was successfully used in enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to screen horse serum from 64 allergic horses for allergen-specific IgE. Twenty-four of the 64 horses showed positive reactivity to one or more of the following allergens: grass, grain mill dust, mosquito, and horsefly. This study demonstrates the usefulness of peptide-based immunogens for development of antisera to rare or difficult to purify antigens such as IgE. Resultant antisera has great usefulness in diagnostic assays for equine allergy and as a research tool. PMID:12730014

  13. Asthma phenotypes and IgE responses.

    PubMed

    Froidure, Antoine; Mouthuy, Jonathan; Durham, Stephen R; Chanez, Pascal; Sibille, Yves; Pilette, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of IgE represented a major breakthrough in allergy and asthma research, whereas the clinical interest given to IgE in asthma has been blurred until the arrival of anti-IgE biotherapy. Novel facets of the complex link between IgE and asthma have been highlighted by the effect of this treatment and by basic research. In parallel, asthma phenotyping recently evolved to the concept of endotypes, relying on identified/suspected pathobiological mechanisms to phenotype patients, but has not yet clearly positioned IgE among biomarkers of asthma.In this review, we first summarise recent knowledge about the regulation of IgE production and its main receptor, FcεRI. In addition to allergens acting as classical IgE inducers, viral infections as well as air pollution may trigger the IgE pathway, notably resetting the threshold of IgE sensitivity by regulating FcεRI expression. We then analyse the place of IgE in different asthma endo/phenotypes and discuss the potential interest of IgE among biomarkers in asthma.

  14. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  15. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Terr, A.I.; Moss, R.B.; Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

  16. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis." PMID:25404363

  17. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L.; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, though the clinically-related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in helminth-infected population, we performed Immunocap™ tests in filarial-infected and non-infected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins and IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologues were performed. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and non-homologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of Immunocap™ identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologues in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologues in helminths. Mice infected with helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologues in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and brings a new perspective to the Hygiene Hypothesis. PMID:25404363

  18. Improvement of shrimp allergy after sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cortellini, G; Spadolini, I; Santucci, A; Cova, V; Conti, C; Corvetta, A; Passalacqua, G

    2011-10-01

    The appropriateness of house dust mite specific immunotherapy in patients allergic to shrimps still remains unclear We present a clinical case as an immunological model for the strong sensitization to tropomyosin with symptoms of anaphylaxis due to shrimps and coexisting asthma due to house dust mite. The improvement in respiratory symptoms for house dust mite and in the food challenge for shrimps during mite immunotherapy with a known and high dosage of tropomyosin suggests the hypothesis that efficacy of mite immunotherapy in food allergy to tropomyosin may be dose dependent.

  19. Soluble IgE receptors – elements of the IgE network

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Ruiter, Floortje; van der Mee, John; Fiebiger, Edda

    2011-01-01

    Soluble isoforms of three human IgE Fc receptors, namely FcεRI, FcεRII and galectin-3, can be found in serum. These soluble IgE receptors are a diverse family of proteins unified by the characteristic of interacting with IgE in the extracellular matrix. A truncated form of the alpha-chain of FcεRI, the high affinity IgE receptor, has recently been described as a soluble isoform (sFcεRI). Multiple soluble isoforms of CD23 (sCD23), the low affinity IgE receptor also known as FcεRII, are generated via different mechanisms of extracellular and intracellular proteolysis. The second low affinity IgE receptor, galectin-3, only exists as a secretory protein. We here discuss the physiological roles of these three soluble IgE receptors as elements of the human IgE network. Additionally, we review the potential and current use of sFcεRI, sCD23 and galectin-3 as biomarkers in human disease. PMID:21920387

  20. Role of IgE in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Miguel A; Sagar, Divya; Kolbeck, Roland

    2016-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that IgE plays a significant role in autoimmunity. The presence of circulating self-reactive IgE in patients with autoimmune disorders has been long known but, at the same time, largely understudied. However, studies have shown that the increased IgE concentration is not associated with higher prevalence for atopy and allergy in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. IgE-mediated mechanisms are conventionally known to facilitate degranulation of mast cells and basophils and promote TH2 immunity, mechanisms that are not only central to mounting an appropriate defense against parasitic worms, noxious substances, toxins, venoms, and environmental irritants but that also trigger exuberant allergic reactions in patients with allergies. More recently, IgE autoantibodies have been recognized to participate in the self-inflicted damaging immune responses that characterize autoimmunity. Such autoimmune responses include direct damage on tissue-containing autoantigens, activation and migration of basophils to lymph nodes, and, as observed most recently, induction of type 1 interferon responses from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The importance of IgE as a central pathogenic mechanism in autoimmunity has now been clinically validated by the approval of omalizumab, an anti-IgE mAb, for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and for the clinical benefit of patients with bullous pemphigoid. In this review we summarize recent reports describing the prevalence of self-reactive IgE and discuss novel findings that incriminate IgE as central in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune disorders. PMID:27264000

  1. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  2. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  3. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267

  4. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. Aim To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Methodology Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. Results IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. Conclusion We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD. PMID:27228091

  5. Combined effect of smoking habits and occupational exposure to hard metal on total IgE antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Morimoto, K. )

    1992-06-01

    A survey was made within a population of workers (n = 706) exposed to hard metal dust (an alloy including cobalt), an agent known to cause occupational allergy. Twenty-seven (4 percent) of 733 workers were eliminated from consideration in this study because of atopic status identified prior to starting work in the plant. Using a Phadebas PRIST, the subjects' total IgE levels were determined and related to their smoking and exposure status. Nonexposed male smokers (n = 135) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (39.7 IU/ml) than did nonexposed subjects who had never smoked (33.1 IU/ml; n = 99); those with a higher Brinkman index (greater than 300), a smoking index obtained by multiplying the number of cigarettes per day by the duration of smoking in years, had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased IgE levels. Although ex-smokers (n = 72) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (73.3 IU/ml) than did those who had never smoked, their serum IgE level declined with age since the time they quit smoking, regardless of their hard metal exposure status. Hard metal (cobalt) exposure may play a significant role as an adjuvant in the production of total IgE. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that hard metal exposure and a smoking habit together arithmetically (p less than 0.05) increased total IgE levels. These two factors may be preventable risk factors for occupational allergy in hard metal workers.

  6. Immunogenetic analysis of the heavy chain variable regions of IgE from patients allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed

    Janezic, A; Chapman, C J; Snow, R E; Hourihane, J O; Warner, J O; Stevenson, F K

    1998-03-01

    Peanuts are one of the most allergenic of the foods, and hypersensitivity responses to peanut allergens can be fatal. Although the nature of the antigenic components of peanuts is being defined at the molecular level, there is little information on the induced IgE antibodies, which are central to the allergic reaction. Recognition sites of IgE antibody molecules arise from the variable regions of heavy and light chains (VH and VL). By using nested polymerase chain reactions with specific primers for the available repertoire of VH genes, together with primers in the constant epsilon region, we have amplified VH sequences of IgE from blood lymphocytes of two patients with peanut allergy. After cloning and sequencing the products, we found a predominance of VH1 family use in both patients, which was not found in control IgM-specific primers. The IgE VH sequences were highly somatically mutated, but in only six of 17 cases was there clear evidence for clustering of amino acids indicative of antigen selection. Previous results from patients with allergy to house dust mites have indicated predominance of VH5 use and little evidence for antigen selection. Although results from two patients allergic to peanuts must be regarded as preliminary, they do suggest that the IgE response to peanuts may have a different VH bias, with a similar mutational pattern.

  7. A comparison between IgE and IgG4 as markers of allergy in children: an experimental trial in a model of natural antigen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, G L; Guerresi, S; Kantar, A; Lubrano, L; Olivieri, F; Boner, A L; Peroni, D G

    2011-01-01

    IgG4 have been hypothesized to act as blocking antibodies capable of preventing IgE-mediated effector cell triggering. This study aims to evaluate the changes in IgG4 in children during a period of natural antigen avoidance. Serum IgE and IgG4 were evaluated in a group of asthmatic children, aged between 7 and 17 years, admitted to the residential house Istituto Pio XII (Misurina, BL, Italy), located at 1,756 m, in a natural model of antigen avoidance. All the patients were skin prick test positive to at least two of the following allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronissynus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat epithelium, timothy grass pollen and Parietaria pollen. During the 180 days of hospitalization, serum specific IgE and IgG4 were measured six times. A significant decrease (p≤0.05) in serum specific IgE to house dust mite and pollen allergens was observed; by contrast, no significant variations were shown by IgG4 and IgG4/IgE ratio. No significant relationship was found between serum specific IgE, IgG4 and IgG4/IgE ratio variations and the re-exposure to house dust mite allergens during the Christmas holidays. A positive correlation between specific IgE and specific IgG4 was observed at each considered time (T0: r=0.57, p=0.08; T1: r=0.85, p=0.001; T3: r=0.76, p=0.01). The positive correlation between specific IgE and specific IgG4, enduring throughout the entire time of study, suggests a relationship between these classes of immunoglobulins.

  8. Tracing antigen signatures in the human IgE repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Marth, Katharina; Novatchkova, Maria; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Jenisch, Stefan; Jäger, Siegfried; Kabelitz, Dieter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Allergen recognition by IgE antibodies is a key event in allergic inflammation. In this study, the IgE IGHV repertoires of individuals with allergy to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, were analyzed over a four years period of allergen exposure by RT-PCR and sequencing of cDNA. Approximately half of the IgE transcripts represented non-redundant sequences, which belonged to seventeen different IGHV genes. Most variable regions contained somatic mutations but also non-mutated sequences were identified. There was no evidence for relevant increases of somatic mutations over time of allergen exposure. Highly similar IgE variable regions were found after four years of allergen exposure in the same and in genetically non-related individuals. Our results indicate that allergens select and shape a limited number of similar IgE variable regions in the human IgE repertoire. PMID:20573403

  9. An extended study of seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis simplex IgE antibodies in Norwegian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lin, A H; Nepstad, I; Florvaag, E; Egaas, E; Van Do, T

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels ≥1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population. PMID:24219706

  10. Planning and Managing the IGE/S School. Theoretical Paper No. 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struve, Patrick W.; Schultz, James V.

    This document is the initial description of the specifications of the philosophies, procedures, and processes for secondary schools to use in planning, implementing, and managing Individually Guided Education (IGE) learning programs. This is specified in a target format. Also delineated is the general and specific developmental strategy the…

  11. Rapamycin attenuates airway hyperreactivity, goblet cells, and IgE in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mushaben, Elizabeth M; Kramer, Elizabeth L; Brandt, Eric B; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Le Cras, Timothy D

    2011-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates environmental cues, promotes cell growth/differentiation, and regulates immune responses. Although inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin has potent immunosuppressive activity, mixed effects have been reported in OVA-induced models of allergic asthma. We investigated the impact of two rapamycin treatment protocols on the major characteristics of allergic asthma induced by the clinically relevant allergen, house dust mite (HDM). In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were exposed to 10 intranasal HDM doses over a period of 24 d and treated with rapamycin simultaneously during the sensitization/exposure period. In protocol 2, rapamycin was administered after the mice had been sensitized to HDM (i.p. injection) and prior to initiation of two intranasal HDM challenges over 4 d. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR), IgE, inflammatory cells, cytokines, leukotrienes, goblet cells, and activated T cells were assessed. In protocol 1, rapamycin blocked HDM-induced increases in AHR, inflammatory cell counts, and IgE, as well as attenuated goblet cell metaplasia. In protocol 2, rapamycin blocked increases in AHR, IgE, and T cell activation and reduced goblet cell metaplasia, but it had no effect on inflammatory cell counts. Increases in IL-13 and leukotrienes were also blocked by rapamycin, although increases in IL-4 were unaffected. These data demonstrated that rapamycin can inhibit cardinal features of allergic asthma, including increases in AHR, IgE, and goblet cells, most likely as a result of its ability to reduce the production of two key mediators of asthma: IL-13 and leukotrienes. These findings highlight the importance of the mTOR pathway in allergic airway disease. PMID:22021618

  12. Rapamycin attenuates airway hyperreactivity, goblet cells, and IgE in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mushaben, Elizabeth M; Kramer, Elizabeth L; Brandt, Eric B; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Le Cras, Timothy D

    2011-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates environmental cues, promotes cell growth/differentiation, and regulates immune responses. Although inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin has potent immunosuppressive activity, mixed effects have been reported in OVA-induced models of allergic asthma. We investigated the impact of two rapamycin treatment protocols on the major characteristics of allergic asthma induced by the clinically relevant allergen, house dust mite (HDM). In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were exposed to 10 intranasal HDM doses over a period of 24 d and treated with rapamycin simultaneously during the sensitization/exposure period. In protocol 2, rapamycin was administered after the mice had been sensitized to HDM (i.p. injection) and prior to initiation of two intranasal HDM challenges over 4 d. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR), IgE, inflammatory cells, cytokines, leukotrienes, goblet cells, and activated T cells were assessed. In protocol 1, rapamycin blocked HDM-induced increases in AHR, inflammatory cell counts, and IgE, as well as attenuated goblet cell metaplasia. In protocol 2, rapamycin blocked increases in AHR, IgE, and T cell activation and reduced goblet cell metaplasia, but it had no effect on inflammatory cell counts. Increases in IL-13 and leukotrienes were also blocked by rapamycin, although increases in IL-4 were unaffected. These data demonstrated that rapamycin can inhibit cardinal features of allergic asthma, including increases in AHR, IgE, and goblet cells, most likely as a result of its ability to reduce the production of two key mediators of asthma: IL-13 and leukotrienes. These findings highlight the importance of the mTOR pathway in allergic airway disease.

  13. IgE antibodies against snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Scavini, L M; Marino, G A; Rodríguez, S M

    1995-01-01

    A similar event was detected in the clinical records of a small group of atopic patients living in the northern provinces of Argentina, i.e., they were bitten by a snake of the Bothrops species (or yarará) during their rural activities (woodcutters, cattle-drivers and farmers). Those who were bitten twice suffered an acute episode of hives and angioedema within 15 minutes after the snake bite. The presence of specific antibodies against Bothrops alternata (Ba) extract was detected by means of RAST for IgE and Ouchterlony and Boyden for IgG. The Ouchterlony also demonstrated crossreactivity among the venoms of the Bothrops species and the positivity of the six fractions obtained by DEAE-cellulose column fractionation against the horse anti-Ba serum. The Ba antigen induced a definite inhibition of the RAST. We presume that hives and angioedema in atopic patients immediately after a second snake bite could be attributed to the presence of a specific IgE antibody against the venom, and must not be misinterpreted with the toxic effects that appear later. PMID:7551202

  14. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  15. IgE Immunotherapy Against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leoh, Lai Sum

    2015-01-01

    The success of antibody therapy in cancer is consistent with the ability of these molecules to activate immune responses against tumors. Experience in clinical applications, antibody design, and advancement in technology have enabled antibodies to be engineered with enhanced efficacy against cancer cells. This allows re-evaluation of current antibody approaches dominated by antibodies of the IgG class with a new light. Antibodies of the IgE class play a central role in allergic reactions and have many properties that may be advantageous for cancer therapy. IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective in both in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, suggesting the potential use of these approaches in humans. Further studies on the anticancer efficacy and safety profile of these IgE-based approaches are warranted in preparation for translation toward clinical application. PMID:25553797

  16. Selective IgE deficiency, immune dysregulation, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Schlesinger, Menachem; David, Michael; Ben-Zion, Itzhak; Vardy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Selective IgE deficiency (IgED) is currently defined as a significant decrease in serum levels of IgE (<2 kIU/L) in a patient whose other immunoglobulin levels are normal. There are no published large-scale epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of and clinical features of IgED. In the population-based case-control study, we investigated clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with IgED. Case samples were drawn from all subjects (n = 18487), with serum total IgE measurement during 2012 at Leumit Health Care Services (Israel) and had serum total IgE of <2 kIU/L. The control group was randomly sampled from the remaining 18,261 subjects with a case-control ratio of four controls for each case (1:4). Comorbid diseases were identified by specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes given by the corresponding board-certificated physicians. Two hundred twenty-six subjects showed serum total IgE levels of <2 kIU/L; 68 (30.9%) were between the ages of 4 and 12 years (children) and 250 (69.1%) were ≥12 years old (adults). Matched control groups were selected for each age group. The children group was characterized by higher prevalence of asthma and hyperreactive airways disease; and both children and adult groups had significantly higher prevalence of chronic sinusitis, otitis media, autoimmune, and oncological diseases than their respective controls. Undetectable serum total IgE may serve as a marker of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity.

  17. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sever, Michelle L.; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the general US population. Objective We estimated prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from the NHANES 2005–2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (N=8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgEs against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins; and selected foods (egg white, cow’s milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgEs using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. Results In the NHANES 2005–2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever and 23.5% suffered from current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE (adjusted ORs for a 10-fold increase in total IgE =1.86, 95% CI:1.44–2.41 for hay fever and 1.64, 95% CI: 1.41–1.91 for allergies). Elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgEs (adjusted OR=4.75, 95% CI:3.83–5.88). Conclusion In the US population, self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs. PMID:21320720

  18. Associations Between Subjective Symptoms and Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels During Asian Dust Events

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Ikeguchi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium). Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes. PMID:25075882

  19. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:26666347

  20. Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis Beyond IgE.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cano, R; Picado, C; Valero, A; Bartra, J

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mediators derived from mast cells and basophils. Food allergens are the main triggers of anaphylaxis, accounting for 33%-56% of all cases and up to 81% of cases of anaphylaxis in children. Human anaphylaxis is generally thought to be mediated by IgE, with mast cells and basophils as key players, although alternative mechanisms have been proposed. Neutrophils and macrophages have also been implicated in anaphylactic reactions, as have IgG-dependent, complement, and contact system activation. Not all allergic reactions are anaphylactic, and the presence of the so-called accompanying factors (cofactors or augmenting factors) may explain why some conditions lead to anaphylaxis, while in other cases the allergen elicits a milder reaction or is even tolerated. In the presence of these factors, allergic reactions may be induced at lower doses of allergen or become more severe. Cofactors are reported to be relevant in up to 30% of anaphylactic episodes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise are the best-documented cofactors, although estrogens, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, lipid-lowering drugs, and alcohol have also been involved. The mechanisms underlying anaphylaxis are complex and involve several interrelated pathways. Some of these pathways may be key to the development of anaphylaxis, while others may only modulate the severity of the reaction. An understanding of predisposing and augmenting factors could lead to the development of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:27164622

  1. Selective IgE deficiency and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mishal, Joseph; Vardy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Selective immunoglobulin E (IgE) deficiency (IgED) is defined as serum levels of IgE more than or equal to 2 kIU/L and is associated with immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. This study aimed to investigate a prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in population with IgED. Within the electronic patient record (EPR) database of Leumit Health Care Services (LHS) in Israel, data capture was performed using IBM Cognos 10.1.1 BI Report Studio software. The case samples were drawn from the full study population (n = 18,487), having any allergy-related symptoms and/or those requesting antiallergy medications and performed serum total IgE measurement during 2012 at LHS. All subjects aged more than or equal to 40 years old, with serum total IgE less than 2 kIU/L were included in case group. Control group was randomly sampled from the remained subjects, with a case-control ratio of 10 controls for each case (1:10). The comorbid cardiovascular diseases during less than or equal to 10 years before serum total IgE testing were identified and retrieved using specific International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes. There were 103 in case and 1030 subjects in control group. Compared with control group patients, the case group had significantly more arterial hypertension [34 (37.7%) versus 187 (18.2%), p < 0.001], ischemic heart disease (IHD) [26 (25.2%) versus 87 (8.4%), p < 0.001], carotid stenosis [5 (4.9%) versus 7 (0.7%), p = 0.003], cerebrovascular disease (CVD) [3 (2.9%) versus 5 (0.5%), p = 0.029], and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) [4 (3.9%) versus 9 (0.9%), p = 0.024]. IgED is associated with higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and ASCVD. PMID:25976439

  2. Selective IgE deficiency and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Mishal, Joseph; Vardy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Selective immunoglobulin E (IgE) deficiency (IgED) is defined as serum levels of IgE more than or equal to 2 kIU/L and is associated with immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. This study aimed to investigate a prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in population with IgED. Within the electronic patient record (EPR) database of Leumit Health Care Services (LHS) in Israel, data capture was performed using IBM Cognos 10.1.1 BI Report Studio software. The case samples were drawn from the full study population (n = 18,487), having any allergy-related symptoms and/or those requesting antiallergy medications and performed serum total IgE measurement during 2012 at LHS. All subjects aged more than or equal to 40 years old, with serum total IgE less than 2 kIU/L were included in case group. Control group was randomly sampled from the remained subjects, with a case-control ratio of 10 controls for each case (1:10). The comorbid cardiovascular diseases during less than or equal to 10 years before serum total IgE testing were identified and retrieved using specific International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes. There were 103 in case and 1030 subjects in control group. Compared with control group patients, the case group had significantly more arterial hypertension [34 (37.7%) versus 187 (18.2%), p < 0.001], ischemic heart disease (IHD) [26 (25.2%) versus 87 (8.4%), p < 0.001], carotid stenosis [5 (4.9%) versus 7 (0.7%), p = 0.003], cerebrovascular disease (CVD) [3 (2.9%) versus 5 (0.5%), p = 0.029], and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) [4 (3.9%) versus 9 (0.9%), p = 0.024]. IgED is associated with higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and ASCVD.

  3. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings were compared to brucella-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG1-4 demonstrated by ELISA, and to microagglutination test (MAT) results. Elevated (positive) antibrucella IgE titres were detected in 89 and 81% of sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The predominant antibodies found in patients with acute brucellosis were of the IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG3 types while in chronic brucellosis IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG4 were found. Although IgE can be detected in patients with brucellosis, it does not discriminate between the acute and chronic stages of the disease. PMID:2249721

  4. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  5. Recreation of the 28-entity IGES test file using the ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    An Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) test file is called the 28 Entity IGES Test File. This file contains 28 geometric and annotation entities which are considered the basic entities that an IGES translator for any CAD system should support. The main purpose was to determine how the IGES preprocessor supports the 28 entities through recreation of the 28 Entity IGES Test File on the ComputerVision CADDS 4X. Test procedure is described and test results are presented.

  6. Tetracycline-mediated IgE isotype-specific suppression of ongoing human and murine IgE responses in vivo and murine memory IgE responses induced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joks, Rauno; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar; Nowakowski, Maja; Bluth, Martin H; Durkin, Helen G

    2010-04-01

    We previously reported that minocycline treatment of allergic asthmatic patients had oral steroid sparing effects and improved their clinical status and that minocycline suppressed in vitro induction of IgE responses by their PBMC. The effect of minocycline on human or animal IgE responses in vivo has not been studied. Allergic asthmatics (serum IgE: 505 +/- 535 IU ml(-1)) were given minocycline (150 mg po to 250 mg po BID) as add-on therapy to standard care for up to 10 months; control subjects (IgE: 405 +/- 472 IU ml(-1)) received standard care (n = 6 per group). Serum immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG, IgE and IgA) levels were determined monthly (Nephelometry, Unicap Total IgE Fluoroenzyme immunoassay). BALB/c mice (n = 6 per group) were injected intraperitoneally with benzylpenicilloyl(14)-Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO(14)-KLH) in alum on days 0, 21 and 42, fed with minocycline or doxycycline (10-100 mg kg(-1)) on day 44 and numbers of BPO-specific IgG(1), IgE and IgA antibody-forming cell (AFC) in mesenteric LN and spleen and serum immunoglobulin levels were determined on days 46-70 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, ELISA). The ability of minocycline or doxycycline to suppress in vitro induction of murine memory IgE responses also was investigated. Minocycline strongly suppressed serum IgE levels of allergic asthmatics (9% per month) (P = 0.012). Minocycline (and doxycycline) also strongly suppressed peak murine IgE AFC and serum IgE responses (>95, approximately 75%, respectively) and in vitro induction of memory IgE responses by murine mesenteric LN and spleen cells (>95%). Tetracycline suppression of all human and murine IgE responses was IgE isotype specific. Suppression of murine IgE responses in vivo was dose dependent and lasted 5-7 days.

  7. Dust Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a recent sounding rocket experiment which found charged dust in the Earth's tropical mesosphere. The dust detector was designed to measure small (5000 - 10000 amu.) charged dust particles, most likely of meteoric origin. A 5 km thick layer of positively charged dust was found at an altitude of 90 km, in the vicinity of an observed sporadic sodium layer and sporadic E layer. The observed dust was positively charged in the bulk of the dust layer, but was negatively charged near the bottom.

  8. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View ... at JPL September 22, 2009 - Massive dust storm over Australia. project:  MISR category:  ... Sep 22, 2009 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Australia and New Zealand ...

  9. Sensitization rates of causative allergens for dogs with atopic dermatitis: detection of canine allergen-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Ha-Jung; Jang, Hye-Jin; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-12-01

    Allergen-specific IgE serology tests became commercially available in the 1980s. Since then these tests have been widely used to diagnose and treat allergic skin diseases. However, the relationship between a positive reaction and disease occurrence has been controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate allergens using a serologic allergy test in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). Dogs clinically diagnosed with AD (n = 101) were tested using an allergen-specific IgE immunoassay. Among the total 92 environmental and food allergens, house dust and house dust mites were the most common. Several allergens including airborne pollens and molds produced positive reactions, and which was considered increasing allergens relating to the climate changes. The presence of antibodies against staphylococci and Malassezia in cases of canine AD was warranted in this study. Additionally, strong (chicken, turkey, brown rice, brewer's yeast, and soybean) and weakly (rabbit, vension, duck, and tuna) positive reactions to food allergens could be used for avoidance and limited-allergen trials. PMID:24962408

  10. Variability of total and free IgE levels and IgE receptor expression in allergic subjects in and out of pollen season.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M; Thorell, L; Sjölander, A; Larsson-Faria, S

    2015-04-01

    The inter- and intra-individual variability and seasonal variation of IgE, and high (FcεRI)- and low-affinity (CD23) IgE receptor expression in blood of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) subjects, is not well studied. Thirty-two otherwise healthy subjects with a history of SAR to birch pollen and a positive skin prick test to birch pollen were sampled three times out of the pollen season and three times during the pollen season. FcεRI and CD23 expressions were analysed using flow cytometry. Total IgE was analysed using ImmunoCAP(®) and free IgE was analysed with a novel customised research assay using an IgG-FcεRI-chimera protein coupled to ImmunoCAP as capture reagent, ImmunoCAP-specific IgE conjugate and ImmunoCAP IgE calibrators. The performance of the free IgE assay was compared well with the reference ImmunoCAP total IgE assay. The working range of the assay was 0.35-200 kU/l IgE. FcεRI expression on basophils and CD23 expression on B cells showed low intrasubject variability both in and out of the pollen season (<10% CV). There was a small seasonal difference with lower total IgE levels (120 versus 128 kU/l; P = 0.004) and FcεRI expression (283 versus 325 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI); P < 0.001) during the pollen season. IgE, FcεRI expression and CD23 expression fulfilled biomarker and assay requirements of variability, and allergen exposure affected the biomarkers only to a minor degree. The free IgE assay may be used for measurement of free IgE levels in patients after anti-IgE antibody treatment. PMID:25620574

  11. The value of a single skin prick testing for specific IgE Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus to distinguish atopy from non-atopic asthmatic children in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Santoso, H

    1998-01-01

    In a tropical setting, where the prevalence of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) is high, we examined the advantage of a single battery of skin prick testing (SPT) for mite as a diagnostic tool by comparing the results of radio-allergo-sorbent-test (RAST) to distinguish allergic from non-allergic asthma in children. Fifty asthmatic children were enrolled in this study. After questioning the parents, SPT were carried out using house dust mite (D. pteronyssinus) and other 9 common aero-allergens and blood were taken for measuring the total IgE (PRIST) and specific IgE for mite (RAST). Dust was obtained from 14 asthmatic children's houses and mite counting was done under a high power microscope. With a daily temperature of 27.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 80 +/- 1%, house dust mites were found in all samples; and 81% of the allergic asthmatic children had positive SPT for D. pteronyssinus. SPT for D. pteronyssinus had a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 52% using RAST as gold standard and there was a moderate positive correlation between the size of SPT wheals and RAST scores for D. pteronyssinus (r = 0.67 and p = 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that SPT for mites should be used as a screening test and positive SPT should be confirmed by RAST. PMID:9876943

  12. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  13. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  14. A Progress Report on the Development of the Minnesota State IGE Network 1973-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loritz, Daniel B.

    This is a progress report on the development of the Minnesota State Individually Guided Education (IGE) Network. The foreword states that the state IGE network came into being in July of 1973 in response to a need for the continuing awareness, implementation, and refinement of IGE on a statewide basis. Section 1 is an introduction which explains…

  15. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, Dániel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2010-01-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  16. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, D.´niel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  17. Intergalactic Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.

    2002-12-01

    We study the composition and sizes of intergalactic dust based on the expulsion of interstellar dust from the galactic disk. Interstellar grains in the Galactic disk are modelled as a mixture of amorphous silicate dust and carbonaceous dust consisting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and larger graphitic grains (Li & Draine 2001) with size distributions like those of the Milky Way dust (Weingartner & Draine 2001). We model their dynamic evolution in terms of the collective effects caused by (1) radiative acceleration, (2) gravitational attraction, (3) gas drag, (4) thermal sputtering, and (5) Lorenz force from the galactic magnetic field (Ferrara et al. 1991). Radiation pressure from the stellar disk exerts an upward force on dust grains and may ultimately expel them out of the entire galaxy. Gravitational force from the stellar, dust and gas disk as well as the dark matter halo exerts a downward force. Thermal sputtering erodes all grains to some degree but more efficiently destroys small grains. This, together with the fact that (1) very small grains (with small radiation pressure efficiencies) are not well coupled to starlight; (2) for large grains the radiative force to the gravitational force is approximately inversely proportional to grain size, acts as a size ``filter'' for dust leaking into the intergalactic space. Since the radiation pressure efficiency and the grain destruction rate are sensitive to dust composition, the relative importance of carbon dust compared to silicate dust expelled into the intergalactic space differs from that in the galactic plane. We derive the size distributions of both silicate and carbonaceous dust finally getting into the intergalactic space and obtain an intergalactic extinction curve. The predicted intergalactic infrared emission spectrum is calculated. References: Ferrara, A., Ferrini, F., Franco, J., & Barsella, B. 1991, ApJ, 381, 137 Li, A., & Draine, B.T. 2001, ApJ, 554, 778 Weingartner, J

  18. Allergen presentation by epidermal Langerhans' cells from patients with atopic dermatitis is mediated by IgE.

    PubMed Central

    Mudde, G C; Van Reijsen, F C; Boland, G J; de Gast, G C; Bruijnzeel, P L; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the role of IgE-bearing Langerhans' cells (LC) from atopic dermatitis (AD) patients in antigen presentation, IgE+LC and non-IgE bearing LC (IgE-LC) from AD patients were investigated for their antigen-presenting capacity and compared to antigen-presenting cells (APC) from peripheral blood. The T-cell response to Candida albicans, using IgE+LC from AD patients as APC, was in the same range as with IgE-LC. Also, the T-cell response to Candida with autologous APC from peripheral blood did not significantly differ between these groups. In contrast to this finding, the T-cell response to house dust allergen (HDA) was dependent on the type of APC used. If non-T cells from peripheral blood were used as APC, both AD patients and controls responded to HDA. However, when LC were used as APC, a T-cell response to HDA was only observed in the presence of IgE+LC. IgE-LC from AD patients or LC from normal controls were unable to present HDA. Preincubation of IgE+LC with anti-IgE or anti-kappa/lambda antibodies inhibited HDA-induced T-cell proliferation, whereas the response to Candida was not affected. These in vitro results, which demonstrate the necessity of cell-bound IgE on LC for the presentation of aero-allergens, strongly correlate with the in vivo presence of a positive delayed patch reaction to the same antigens. When the LC of a patient appeared to be IgE-, the in vitro proliferative response as well as, in most cases, the in vivo patch test reaction to the same antigens was negative. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrate that there are at least two different mechanisms by which LC capture antigens for antigen presentation. In one of them cell-bound IgE, as can be demonstrated on LC from AD patients, plays a crucial role. The binding and presentation of HDA by APC from peripheral blood can take place independently of cell-bound IgE. Candida can be presented by both types of APC in the absence of IgE. PMID:2179131

  19. [The effect of nedocromil sodium on levels of IL-4 and IgE in serum of children with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Majak, Paweł; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    Levels of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4 are increased in asthmatic airways, contributing to allergic inflammation. IL-4 and IL-13 are the most important factors in production of class E immunoglobulin, playing major role in childhood atopic asthma. The mechanism of effect of nedocromil, often prescribed in children, has been discussed. Our previous study on the effect of nedocromil on different inflammatory markers, showed decreased levels of IL-4 and IgE after monotherapy in 15 asthmatic children. The purpose of this study was to define the effect of treatment with nedocromil on serum level of IL-4 and IgE, clinical symptoms and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in children with moderate atopic asthma. It was 8 week, placebo-controlled and randomized, double blind trial of 81 children with moderate atopic asthma allergic to dust mite. Patients were randomly allocated to receive nedocromil sodium two puffs four times daily (0.002 g/puff) (n = 34) or placebo (n = 47). 69 children completed the study. After treatment with nedocromil the levels of IL-4 and IgE in blood serum in study group significantly decreased, and all clinical parameters improved. Mean levels of IL-4 in serum before and after treatment with nedocromil were 0.13 pg/ml +/- 0.01 and 0.12 pg/ml +/- 0.02 respectively (p < 0.01). Mean serum levels of IgE before and after treatment with nedocromil were 556.83 IU/ml +/- 201.3 and 485 IU/ml +/- 200.5 respectively (p < 0.02). This study demonstrate that one possible way by which nedocromil contribute to inhibition of allergic inflammation is by decreasing IL-4 and IgE levels.

  20. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  1. China Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a ... arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the ...

  2. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... April 11, 2004 (top panels) contrast strongly with the dust storm that swept across Iraq and Saudi Arabia on May 13, 2004 (bottom panels). ... Apr 11 and May 13, 2004 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Middle East thumbnail:  ...

  3. Sequential class switching is required for the generation of high affinity IgE antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Huizhong; Dolpady, Jayashree; Wabl, Matthias; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    IgE antibodies with high affinity for their antigens can be stably cross-linked at low concentrations by trace amounts of antigen, whereas IgE antibodies with low affinity bind their antigens weakly. In this study, we find that there are two distinct pathways to generate high and low affinity IgE. High affinity IgE is generated through sequential class switching (μ→γ→ε) in which an intermediary IgG phase is necessary for the affinity maturation of the IgE response, where the IgE inherits somatic hypermutations and high affinity from the IgG1 phase. In contrast, low affinity IgE is generated through direct class switching (μ→ε) and is much less mutated. Mice deficient in IgG1 production cannot produce high affinity IgE, even after repeated immunizations. We demonstrate that a small amount of high affinity IgE can cause anaphylaxis and is pathogenic. Low affinity IgE competes with high affinity IgE for binding to Fcε receptors and prevents anaphylaxis and is thus beneficial. PMID:22249450

  4. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. PMID:27436445

  5. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  6. IgE sensitization in snow crab-processing workers.

    PubMed

    Cartier, A; Malo, J L; Ghezzo, H; McCants, M; Lehrer, S B

    1986-08-01

    Occupational asthma is a highly prevalent disease among snow crab-processing workers, but its immunologic mechanism has not been identified. Prick skin tests with snow crab-meat extract, commercial extracts from other crab genera, and snow crab cooking water collected in 1984 were performed on 119 workers. Crab-specific IgE was assessed by RAST in sera from 115 workers with meat and water extracts. Both skin and RAST tests were performed in 58 individuals. Diagnosis of occupational asthma had previously been confirmed in 54 individuals. A highly significant relationship was demonstrated between the presence of immediate skin reactivity or increased serum levels of specific IgE to crab extracts and the occurrence of occupational asthma. There was good agreement between the results of skin and RAST tests with extracts of either meat or snow crab cooking water. Cooking water and snow crab-meat extracts were more sensitive than commercial preparations. Water extract was more potent and more sensitive than meat extract. We conclude that there is evidence that occupational asthma in snow crab-processing workers is mediated through an IgE mechanism.

  7. Tetanus toxoid IgE may be useful in predicting allergy during childhood.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Quaglini, S; Labò, E; Castellazzi, A M; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Marseglia, A; Bianchi, L; Moratti, R; Marseglia, G L

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions after immunization with tetanus toxoid are occasionally observed in atopic and non-atopic individuals. High IgE levels in infancy may predict subsequent allergy. The aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the role of specific IgE to tetanus toxoid in children in response to tetanus immunization and the possible factors associated with specific IgE levels, and ii) to investigate the correlation between specific IgE levels to tetanus toxoid and the late development of allergy (up to 12 years). Initially, 278 healthy infants (152 males and 126 females, aged 12 months) living in an urban city were screened for serum total IgE and specific IgE to tetanus toxoid, after having obtained informed consent from parents. After 12 years, 151 children could be evaluated. Total IgE summed with tetanus specific IgE were significantly associated with allergy at 12 years. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that serum total IgE and tetanus specific IgE may be predictive of subsequent allergy onset.

  8. Sahara Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Casting Light and Shadows on a Saharan Dust Storm   ... CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, ...

  9. Tropomyosin sensitization in house dust mite allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; Gröger, Moritz; Canis, Martin; Pfrogner, Elisabeth; Kramer, Matthias F

    2012-04-01

    The growing popularity and frequency of consumption of seafood is accompanied by an increasing number of adverse reactions reported in literature. Allergic reactions to seafood can generate a variety of symptoms ranging from a mild oral allergy syndrome to keen anaphylactic reactions. Tropomyosin, the major shellfish allergen is regarded to be responsible for clinical cross-reactivity to inhaled house dust mites. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to tropomyosin in house dust mite allergic patients in southern Bavaria and to compare the results with allergic symptoms. Sera of house dust mite allergic patients (positive skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE and intranasal provocation) were screened for IgE antibodies to tropomyosin (Der p 10). Patients were contacted by phone to evaluate allergic symptoms when consuming seafood. IgE antibodies to house dust mite tropomyosin (Der p 10) could be found in 4 out of 93 sera (4.3%). Two of these four patients (50%) showed itching and swelling of oral mucosa accompanied by bronchial obstruction after consumption of shrimp. Two patients had no problems when eating seafood. None of the seronegative patients complained about any health problems during or after consumption of seafood. In conclusion, cross-reactivity to tropomyosin in house dust mite allergic patients in southern Bavaria, Germany is rarer than suspected. Beside the direct allergic reactions, a further part of reactions to seafood must therefore be ascribed to other mechanisms such as intoxication or intolerance to, e.g. additives in the food product.

  10. Two Allergen Model Reveals Complex Relationship Between IgE Cross-Linking and Degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Handlogten, Michael W.; Deak, Peter E.; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Allergy is an immune response to complex mixtures of multiple allergens yet current models use a single synthetic allergen. Multiple allergens were modeled using two well-defined tetravalent allergens each specific for a distinct IgE thus enabling a systematic approach to evaluate the effect of each allergen and percent of allergen specific IgE on mast cell degranulation. We found the overall degranulation response caused by two allergens is additive for low allergen concentrations or low percent specific IgE, does not change for moderate allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE, and is reduced for high allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE. These results provide further evidence that supra-optimal IgE cross-linking decreases the degranulation response and establishes the two allergen model as a relevant experimental system to elucidate mast cell degranulation mechanisms. PMID:25308278

  11. Psoriasis in hyper IgE syndrome – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abedian- Kenari, Saeed; Ghasemi, Maryam; Gohardehi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immune deficiency, described as Job`s syndrome characterized by increased serum levels of IgE, eczema, recurrent cutaneous and pulmonary infections. In this paper, we presented a case of Hyper IgE syndrome. Case Presentation: A 16-year-old Iranian boy presented with a one year history of skin lesions in knees and elbows was diagnosed of psoriasis disease. He had a history of recurrent infections including otitis media, pneumonia, diarrea and skin infection. Laboratory results showed increased level of total IgE and normal in other immunoglobulin. Histologic finding showed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis of acanthotic epidermis with regular elongation of rete ridges diagnose psoriasis disorder. Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first case of hyper IgE patient with psoriasis disorder. We addressed the important laboratory findings and actual theories explaining possible association between hyper IgE immunoglobulinemia and psoriasis disorder. PMID:24009971

  12. IgE Antibody Detection and Component Analysis in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Tripathi, Anubha; Ogbogu, Princess U.; Commins, Scott P.; Slack, Maria A.; Cho, Christine B.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Workman, Lisa J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although IgE antibodies to cow's milk and wheat are common in patients with EoE, titers are low and responses to diet are not dependent on having IgE antibodies. Objective To better define specific IgE antibody responses to foods, focusing on those foods that appear to play a role in EoE. Methods Adult (n=46) and pediatric (n=51) EoE patients were recruited for skin prick testing and serum measurement (whole and diluted) of IgE specific for aeroallergens, food extracts and component allergens by ImmunoCAP. Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip (ISAC) analysis was also used to measure IgE to 112 allergen molecules. Results In adults and children, there was a higher prevalence of sensitization to food extracts by ImmunoCAP compared with skin prick testing. Using ISAC to assess the specificity of IgE antibodies to 112 allergen molecules, results for food allergens were mostly negative. In contrast, ImmunoCAP assays for specific milk allergens gave positive IgE antibody results in 31/34 sera. The correlations between specific IgE antibody to Bosidi4 or Bos d 5 and milk extract were strong (R=0.89 and R=0.76 respectively; p<0.001). The evidence that IgE to foods was directed at minor components of the extracts was further supported by measurements on diluted sera. Conclusion The IgE responses in cow's milk sensitized EoE patients are frequently to whey proteins Bos d 4 and Bos d 5, minor components of the extract. These IgE assays may be able to identify the proteins that are relevant to EoE even though IgE is not the primary mechanism. PMID:26099818

  13. Effects of geohelminth infection and age on the associations between allergen-specific IgE, skin test reactivity and wheeze: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, A-L; Vaca, M; Oviedo, G; Workman, L J; Chico, M E; Platts-Mills, T A E; Rodrigues, L C; Barreto, M L; Cooper, P J

    2013-01-01

    Background Most childhood asthma in poor populations in Latin America is not associated with aeroallergen sensitization, an observation that could be explained by the attenuation of atopy by chronic helminth infections or effects of age. Objective To explore the effects of geohelminth infections and age on atopy, wheeze, and the association between atopy and wheeze. Methods A case-control study was done in 376 subjects (149 cases and 227 controls) aged 7–19 years living in rural communities in Ecuador. Wheeze cases, identified from a large cross-sectional survey, had recent wheeze and controls were a random sample of those without wheeze. Atopy was measured by the presence of allergen-specific IgE (asIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) responses to house dust mite and cockroach. Geohelminth infections were measured in stools and anti-Ascaris IgE in plasma. Results The fraction of recent wheeze attributable to anti-Ascaris IgE was 45.9%, while those for SPT and asIgE were 10.0% and 10.5% respectively. The association between atopy and wheeze was greater in adolescents than children. Although Anti-Ascaris IgE was strongly associated with wheeze (adj. OR 2.24 (95% CI 1.33–3.78, P = 0.003) and with asIgE (adj. OR 5.34, 95% CI 2.49–11.45, P < 0.001), the association with wheeze was independent of asIgE. There was some evidence that the association between atopy and wheeze was greater in uninfected subjects compared with those with active geohelminth infections. Conclusions and clinical relevance Atopy to house dust mite and cockroach explained few wheeze cases in our study population, while the presence of anti-Ascaris IgE was an important risk factor. Our data provided only limited evidence that active geohelminth infections attenuated the association between atopy and wheeze in endemic areas or that age modified this association. The role of allergic sensitization to Ascaris in the development of wheeze, independent of atopy, requires further investigation. PMID

  14. IgE to penicillins with different specificities can be identified by a multiepitope macromolecule: Bihaptenic penicillin structures and IgE specificities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, A; Barrionuevo, E; Mayorga, C; Montañez, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E; Ruiz-Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Guéant, R M; Fernández, T D; Guéant, J L; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitation of specific IgE by immunoassay is a recommended in vitro test for the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams (BLs), particularly when skin test results are negative. IgE antibodies that recognize the common nuclear structure of all BLs or the specific side chain structure can be mainly distinguished by immunoassays. The aim of this study was to develop an immunoassay system to detect IgE antibodies with different specificities. Cellulose discs conjugated with benzylpenicillin (BP), amoxicillin (AX) or both drugs, with poly-l-lysine (PLL) as carrier molecule, were used as solid phases in the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Direct and inhibition radioimmunoassay studies were made to verify the structures recognized by serum IgE antibodies from penicillin-allergic patients. Our results indicated that the addition of both haptens did not decrease the capacity to capture IgE when serum specific to either BP or AX was used, at least in terms of sensitivity. In addition, the inclusion of two haptens improved significantly the levels of IgE detection in patients who recognized both BP and AX. Therefore, the use of a solid phase with a carrier molecule conjugated with two determinants (AX and BP) is helpful to recognize IgE antibodies against either of these determinants and is useful for screening sera with different specificities.

  15. Intestinal Microbial Diversity during Early-Life Colonization Shapes Long-Term IgE Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cahenzli, Julia; Köller, Yasmin; Wyss, Madeleine; Geuking, Markus B.; McCoy, Kathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Microbial exposure following birth profoundly impacts mammalian immune system development. Microbiota alterations are associated with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders with elevated serum IgE as a hallmark. The previously reported abnormally high serum IgE levels in germ-free mice suggests that immunoregulatory signals from microbiota are required to control basal IgE levels. We report that germ-free mice and those with low-diversity microbiota develop elevated serum IgE levels in early life. B cells in neonatal germ-free mice undergo isotype switching to IgE at mucosal sites in a CD4 T-cell- and IL-4-dependent manner. A critical level of microbial diversity following birth is required in order to inhibit IgE induction. Elevated IgE levels in germ-free mice lead to increased mast-cell-surface-bound IgE and exaggerated oral-induced systemic anaphylaxis. Thus, appropriate intestinal microbial stimuli during early life are critical for inducing an immunoregulatory network that protects from induction of IgE at mucosal sites. PMID:24237701

  16. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition: estimating IGEs when interactions differ between kin and strangers.

    PubMed

    Alemu, S W; Berg, P; Janss, L; Bijma, P

    2014-02-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The traditional IGE model assumes that an individual interacts equally with all its partners, whether kin or strangers. There is abundant evidence, however, that individuals behave differently towards kin as compared with strangers, which agrees with predictions from kin-selection theory. With a mix of kin and strangers, therefore, IGEs estimated from a traditional model may be incorrect, and selection based on those estimates will be suboptimal. Here we investigate whether genetic parameters for IGEs are statistically identifiable in group-structured populations when IGEs differ between kin and strangers, and develop models to estimate such parameters. First, we extend the definition of total breeding value and total heritable variance to cases where IGEs depend on relatedness. Next, we show that the full set of genetic parameters is not identifiable when IGEs differ between kin and strangers. Subsequently, we present a reduced model that yields estimates of the total heritable effects on kin, on non-kin and on all social partners of an individual, as well as the total heritable variance for response to selection. Finally we discuss the consequences of analysing data in which IGEs depend on relatedness using a traditional IGE model, and investigate group structures that may allow estimation of the full set of genetic parameters when IGEs depend on kin. PMID:24169647

  17. Multiple independent IgE epitopes on the highly allergenic grass pollen allergen Phl p 5

    PubMed Central

    Levin, M; Rotthus, S; Wendel, S; Najafi, N; Källström, E; Focke-Tejkl, M; Valenta, R; Flicker, S; Ohlin, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Group 5 allergens are small proteins that consist of two domains. They belong to the most potent respiratory allergens. Objective To determine the binding sites and to study allergic patients' IgE recognition of the group 5 allergen (Phl p 5) from timothy grass pollen using human monoclonal IgE antibodies that have been isolated from grass pollen allergic patients. Methods Using recombinant isoallergens, fragments, mutants and synthetic peptides of Phl p 5, as well as peptide-specific antibodies, the interaction of recombinant human monoclonal IgE and Phl p 5 was studied using direct binding and blocking assays. Cross-reactivity of monoclonal IgE with group 5 allergens in several grasses was studied and inhibition experiments with patients' polyclonal IgE were performed. Results Monoclonal human IgE showed extensive cross-reactivity with group 5 allergens in several grasses. Despite its small size of 29 kDa, four independent epitope clusters on isoallergen Phl p 5.0101, two in each domain, were recognized by human IgE. Isoallergen Phl p 5.0201 carried two of these epitopes. Inhibition studies with allergic patients' polyclonal IgE suggest the presence of additional IgE epitopes on Phl p 5. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance Our results reveal the presence of a large number of independent IgE epitopes on the Phl p 5 allergen explaining the high allergenic activity of this protein and its ability to induce severe allergic symptoms. High-density IgE recognition may be a general feature of many potent allergens and form a basis for the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic disease. PMID:25262820

  18. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population.

  19. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population. PMID:26233738

  20. Benzyl-benzoate foam: effects on mite allergens in mattress, serum and nasal secretory IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and bronchial hyperreactivity in children with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sette, L; Comis, A; Marcucci, F; Sensi, L; Piacentini, G L; Boner, A L

    1994-10-01

    Home mattresses of 24 asthmatic children with house dust mite allergy were sprayed with either benzyl-benzoate foam or placebo in a double blind fashion, 10 days before the children left the residential house for asthmatic children Istituto Pio XII (located in the Italian Alps in an environment free of mites) and went back to their own home for the Christmas and Easter holidays. A further group of 8 children, whose mattresses received no treatment, was kept as an absolute control. Two days after spraying, benzyl-benzoate or placebo were vacuumed from the mattresses. Acarex test was performed immediately before spraying and at the end of each holiday period of 20 and 10 days, respectively. Bronchial hyperreactivity as well as serum and nasal secretory specific IgE for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were assessed in all children immediately before leaving and within 48 hr after returning to the residential house. The results of the study show that sprayed benzyl-benzoate foam was no more effective than placebo in reducing the level of house dust mite recovered from patients' mattresses, or in reducing bronchial hyperreactivity and IgE concentration in serum and nasal secretions.

  1. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  2. Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D.

    2012-07-11

    House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  3. Maize IgE binding proteins: each plant a different profile?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergies are nearly always triggered by protein molecules and the majority of individuals with documented immunologic reactions to foods exhibit IgE hypersensitivity reactions. In this study we aimed to understand if natural differences, at proteomic level, between maize populations, may induce different IgE binding proteins profiles among maize-allergic individuals. We also intended to deepen our knowledge on maize IgE binding proteins. Results In order to accomplish this goal we have used proteomic tools (SDS-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by western blot) and tested plasma IgE reactivity from four maize-allergic individuals against four different protein fractions (albumins, globulins, glutelins and prolamins) of three different maize cultivars. We have observed that maize cultivars have different proteomes that result in different IgE binding proteins profiles when tested against plasma from maize-allergic individuals. We could identify 19 different maize IgE binding proteins, 11 of which were unknown to date. Moreover, we found that most (89.5%) of the 19 identified potential maize allergens could be related to plant stress. Conclusions These results lead us to conclude that, within each species, plant allergenic potential varies with genotype. Moreover, considering the stress-related IgE binding proteins identified, we hypothesise that the environment, particularly stress conditions, may alter IgE binding protein profiles of plant components. PMID:24650160

  4. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  5. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, in combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. This combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27194387

  6. Unique maturation program of the IgE response in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key event in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergies is the production of IgE antibodies. We show here that IgE+ cells are exceptional because they are largely found outside germinal centers and express, from very early on, a genetic program of plasma cells. In spite of their extra-germinal cente...

  7. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-05-19

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, inmore » combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. Furthermore, this combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions.« less

  8. IgE antibody responses in young children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wahn, U; Warner, J; Simons, F E R; de Benedictis, F M; Diepgen, T L; Naspitz, C K; de Longueville, M; Bauchau, V

    2008-06-01

    In 2184 young children aged 13-24 months with atopic dermatitis (SCORAD 5-59) serum IgE antibodies to a standard panel of food and inhalant allergens were assayed. The frequency of positive IgE responses (>0.35 kU/l) increased with greater severity of skin disease. A significant minority of infants had levels of IgE antibody to foods to suggest they were at risk of acute reaction to those foods (7% to hen's egg, 3% to cow's milk, 4% to peanut). Our findings indicate that the frequency of positive IgE responses is related to disease severity and suggest that differences in the time course of the development of IgE responses to food, which are at maximum prevalence within the first year of life, while inhalant allergies, are still developing between 1 and 2 yr and beyond.

  9. Evidence for a locus regulating total serum IgE levels mapping to chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, D.A.; Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.

    1994-09-15

    Genetic studies of total serum IgE levels were preformed since high IgE levels correlate with clinical expression of allergy and asthma. Families ascertained through a parent with asthma were genotyped for markers on 5q where there are multiple candidate genes that may influence the control of IgE and inflammation. Evidence for linkage of the IgE phenotype to 5q was obtained by both sib-pair and lod score analysis with evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels from segregation analysis. These findings represent a major step in mapping genes important in the regulation of allergic responses and the pathogenesis of asthma. 52 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Cutting Edge: IgE Plays an Active Role in Tumor Immunosurveillance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Elisa A; Brini, Anna T; Yenagi, Vijay A; Ferreira, Lorena M; Achatz-Straussberger, Gertrude; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Sanvito, Francesca; Soprana, Elisa; van Anken, Eelco; Achatz, Gernot; Siccardi, Antonio G; Vangelista, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Exogenous IgE acts as an adjuvant in tumor vaccination in mice, and therefore a direct role of endogenous IgE in tumor immunosurveillance was investigated. By using genetically engineered mice, we found that IgE ablation rendered mice more susceptible to the growth of transplantable tumors. Conversely, a strengthened IgE response provided mice with partial or complete resistance to tumor growth, depending on the tumor type. By genetic crosses, we showed that IgE-mediated tumor protection was mostly lost in mice lacking FcεRI. Tumor protection was also lost after depletion of CD8(+) T cells, highlighting a cross-talk between IgE and T cell-mediated tumor immunosurveillance. Our findings provide the rationale for clinical observations that relate atopy with a lower risk for developing cancer and open new avenues for the design of immunotherapeutics relevant for clinical oncology. PMID:27566822

  11. The 28-entity IGES test file results using ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was based on the following steps: (1) Read the 28 Entity IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) Test File into the CAD data base with the IGES post-processor; (2) Make the modifications to the displayed geometries, which should produce the normalized front view and the drawing entity defined display; (3) Produce the drawing entity defined display of the file as it appears in the CAD system after modification to the geometry; (4) Translate the file back to IGES format using IGES pre-processor; (5) Read the IGES file produced by the pre-processor back into the CAD data base; (6) Produce another drawing entity defined display of the CAD display; and (7) Compare the plots resulting from steps 3 and 6 - they should be identical to each other.

  12. Mutagenesis within human FcepsilonRIalpha differentially affects human and murine IgE binding.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Graham A; Hulett, Mark D; Cook, Justin P D; Trist, Halina M; Henry, Alistair J; McDonnell, James M; Beavil, Andrew J; Beavil, Rebecca L; Sutton, Brian J; Hogarth, P Mark; Gould, Hannah J

    2002-02-15

    Soluble fragments of the alpha-chain of FcepsilonRI, the high-affinity receptor for IgE, compete with membrane-bound receptors for IgE and may thus provide a means to combat allergic responses. Mutagenesis within FcepsilonRIalpha is used in this study, in conjunction with the crystal structure of the FcepsilonRIalpha/IgE complex, to define the relative importance of specific residues within human FcepsilonRIalpha for IgE binding. We have also compared the effects of these mutants on binding to both human and mouse IgE, with a view to evaluating the mouse as an appropriate model for the analysis of future agents designed to mimic the human FcepsilonRIalpha and attenuate allergic disease. Three residues within the C-C' region of the FcepsilonRIalpha2 domain and two residues within the alpha2 proximal loops of the alpha1 domain were selected for mutagenesis and tested in binding assays with human and mouse IgE. All three alpha2 mutations (K117D, W130A, and Y131A) reduced the affinity of human IgE binding to different extents, but K117D had a far more pronounced effect on mouse IgE binding, and although Y131A had little effect, W130A modestly enhanced binding to mouse IgE. The mutations in alpha1 (R15A and F17A) diminished binding to both human and mouse IgE, with these effects most likely caused by disruption of the alpha1/alpha2 interface. Our results demonstrate that the effects of mutations in human FcepsilonRIalpha on mouse IgE binding, and hence the inhibitory properties of human receptor-based peptides assayed in rodent models of allergy, may not necessarily reflect their activity in a human IgE-based system.

  13. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  14. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias towards the plasma cell (PC) fate,...

  15. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of airway allergic inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epithelium lining the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc'RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monola...

  16. Association of end-product adducts with increased IgE binding of roasted peanuts.

    PubMed

    Chung, S Y; Champagne, E T

    2001-08-01

    Recently, we have shown that roasted peanuts have a higher level of IgE binding (i.e., potentially more allergenic) than raw peanuts. We hypothesized that this increase in IgE binding of roasted peanuts is due to an increased levels of protein-bound end products or adducts such as advanced glycation end products (AGE), N-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). To support our hypothesis, we produced polyclonal antibodies (IgG) to each of these adducts, determined their levels in raw and roasted peanuts, and examined their ability to bind to IgE from a pooled serum of patients with clinically important peanut allergy. Results showed that AGE, CML, MDA, and HNE adducts were all present in raw and roasted peanuts. Roasted peanuts exhibited a higher level of AGE and MDA adducts than raw peanuts. IgE was partially inhibited in a competitive ELISA by antibodies to AGE but not by antibodies to CML, MDA, or HNE. This indicates that IgE has an affinity for peanut AGE adducts. Roasted peanuts exhibited a higher level of IgE binding, which was correlated with a higher level of AGE adducts. We concluded that there is an association between AGE adducts and increased IgE binding (i.e., allergenicity) of roasted peanuts.

  17. Total serum IgE levels in systemic lupus erythematosus and associations with childhood onset allergies.

    PubMed

    Parks, C G; Biagini, R E; Cooper, G S; Gilkeson, G S; Dooley, M A

    2010-12-01

    Elevated serum IgE has been described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but associations with disease risk and characteristics remain unresolved. We assessed total serum IgE levels and atopy (IgE > 100 IU/ml) in recently diagnosed SLE patients (n = 228) compared with population controls (n = 293) and in relation to disease activity, autoantibodies, clinical features, total immunoglobulins, C-reactive protein, and allergy history. Multivariate models estimated determinants of IgE and atopy in patients and controls, and associations of SLE with allergy and atopy. Total IgE levels were higher in patients than controls (median = 42 vs. 29 IU/ml); 32% of patients and 25% of controls were atopic (p = 0.06). IgE levels were significantly higher in non-Whites and patients reporting childhood onset (<18 years) asthma and hives, and in controls reporting childhood asthma, hay fever, eczema, and adult onset hives. After accounting for racial differences, atopy was not associated with SLE, nephritis, or other clinical and laboratory parameters. In sum, our findings provide limited evidence of a direct association between total serum IgE and SLE overall or with other disease characteristics after adjusting for demographic characteristics and allergy history. Future studies may want to explore potentially shared risk factors for development of allergy, atopy, and SLE.

  18. IgE reactivity to carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins in wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae Won; Hong, Jung Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Kyung Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties of different glycoproteins, such as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and galactose α-1,3-galactose, can induce IgE reactivity with varied clinical significance. In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat. Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge (OFC) were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA. Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed, and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children.

  19. IgE epitope proximity determines immune complex shape and effector cell activation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Gieras, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Roux, Kenneth H.; Dutta, Moumita; Khodoun, Marat; Zafred, Domen; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Lupinek, Christian; Weber, Milena; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Keller, Walter; Finkelman, Fred D.; Valenta, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background IgE-allergen complexes induce mast cell and basophil activation and thus immediate allergic inflammation. They are also important for IgE-facilitated allergen presentation to T cells by antigen-presenting cells. Objective To investigate whether the proximity of IgE binding sites on an allergen affects immune complex shape and subsequent effector cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Methods We constructed artificial allergens by grafting IgE epitopes in different numbers and proximity onto a scaffold protein. The shape of immune complexes formed between artificial allergens and the corresponding IgE was studied by negative-stain electron microscopy. Allergenic activity was determined using basophil activation assays. Mice were primed with IgE, followed by injection of artificial allergens to evaluate their in vivo allergenic activity. Severity of systemic anaphylaxis was measured by changes in body temperature. Results We could demonstrate simultaneous binding of 4 IgE antibodies in close vicinity to each other. The proximity of IgE binding sites on allergens influenced the shape of the resulting immune complexes and the magnitude of effector cell activation and in vivo inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the proximity of IgE epitopes on an allergen affects its allergenic activity. We thus identified a novel mechanism by which IgE-allergen complexes regulate allergic inflammation. This mechanism should be important for allergy and other immune complex–mediated diseases. PMID:26684291

  20. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Lievanos-Estrada, Zahide; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, Maria Teresa; Dominguez-Soto, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries. METHODS: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Cases were classified by lesion severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and chi-square test was performed. RESULTS: We included 21 actinic prurigo patients and 21 subjects without disease; 11 patients with actinic prurigo had elevated serum IgE levels, and 10 had low serum levels. Six actinic prurigo (AP) patients with elevated serum levels of IgE had moderate injuries, 4 had severe injuries, and 1 had minor injuries. Eight out of 10 patients with normal IgE levels presented with minor injuries in the clinical evaluation. The 21 controls did not have increased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgE levels are associated with moderate to severe clinical lesions, suggesting that actinic prurigo entails a type IV subtype b hypersensitivity response in which Th2 cells predominate. PMID:26982774

  1. IgE reactivity to carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins in wheat allergy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae Won; Hong, Jung Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties of different glycoproteins, such as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and galactose α-1,3-galactose, can induce IgE reactivity with varied clinical significance. In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat. Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge (OFC) were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA. Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed, and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children. PMID:25976436

  2. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. Methods A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. Results Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly high levels of serum IgE compared with malaria free apparently healthy controls (with and without helminth infections). Moreover, malaria patients co-infected with intestinal helminths showed high level of serum IgE compared with those malaria patients without intestinal helminths (2198 IU/ml versus 1668 IU/ml). A strong statistically significant association was observed between malaria parasite density and elevated serum IgE levels (2047 IU/ml versus 1778 IU/ml; P = 0.001) with high and low parasitaemia (parasite density >50,000 parasite/μl of blood), respectively. Likewise, helminth egg loads were significantly associated with elevated serum IgE levels (P = 0.003). Conclusions The elevated serum IgE response in malaria patients irrespective of helminth infection and its correlation with malaria parasite density and helminth egg intensity support that malaria infection is also a strong driver of IgE production as compared to helminths. PMID:24886689

  3. Development of a label free IGE sensitive aptasensor based on electrochemical impedance spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kara, Pinar; Meric, Buket; Ozsoz, Mehmet

    2010-08-01

    A sensitive aptamer based electrochemical biosensor to detect human immunoglobulin E (IgE) is presented in this study. 5' Biotin labeled 45 mer DNA aptamer sequence was immobilized onto streptavidin coated graphite surfaces. Interaction between human IgE and DNA aptamer was monitored by Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) in a 0.48nM detection limit of IgE. EIS analysis are based on electron transfer resistance (Rct) in the presence of 5mM [Fe(CN)6]3-/4-.

  4. Canyon Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03682 Canyon Dust

    These dust slides are located on the wall of Thithonium Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.1N, Longitude 275.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Dust Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03677 Linear Clouds

    Dust slides are common in the dust covered region called Lycus Sulci. A large fracture is also visible in this image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.1N, Longitude 226.3E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  7. Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor); Allamandola, Louis J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A coherent picture of the dust composition and its physical characteristics in the various phases of the interstellar medium was the central theme. Topics addressed included: dust in diffuse interstellar medium; overidentified infrared emission features; dust in dense clouds; dust in galaxies; optical properties of dust grains; interstellar dust models; interstellar dust and the solar system; dust formation and destruction; UV, visible, and IR observations of interstellar extinction; and quantum-statistical calculations of IR emission from highly vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

  8. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  9. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  10. NASA geometry data exchange specification for computational fluid dynamics (NASA IGES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.; Jou, Jin J.

    1994-01-01

    This document specifies a subset of an existing product data exchange specification that is widely used in industry and government. The existing document is called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. This document, a subset of IGES, is intended for engineers analyzing product performance using tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This document specifies how to define mathematically and exchange the geometric model of an object. The geometry is represented utilizing nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and surfaces. Only surface models are represented; no solid model representation is included. This specification does not include most of the other types of product information available in IGES (e.g., no material properties or surface finish properties) and does not provide all the specific file format details of IGES. The data exchange protocol specified in this document is fully conforming to the American National Standard (ANSI) IGES 5.2.

  11. Postsplenectomy type-1 hypersensitivity response: a correlation between IL-4 and IgE serum levels.

    PubMed

    Miniello, Stefano; Cristallo, Graziana; Testini, Mario; Balzanelli, Mario Giosuè; Marzaioli, Rinaldo; Venezia, Pietro; Lissidini, Germana; Petrozza, Dino; Nacchiero, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Authors demonstrated the presence of allergic manifestations in splenectomized patients following traumatic rupture of this organ. In particular, allergic diathesis, as supported by serum IgE increase, was exclusively found in patients with preserved T helper (h)-2 lymphocyte function. Th-2 function was monitored by measuring serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, a cytokine involved in IgE synthesis. On the opposite, in splenectomized individuals with a reduced Th-2 function as supported by lower IL-4 serum levels, no IgE increase and allergic manifestations were detectable. On these grounds, authors hypothesize that allergic manifestations may be correlated to splenectomy since its exeresis may favor the persistence of antigens in the blood. Consequentially, in patients with a preserved Th-2 function, antigenic overload may lead to IgE increase and allergy onset.

  12. Genetic basis of IgE responsiveness: relevance to the atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Marsh, D G; Neely, J D; Breazeale, D R; Ghosh, B; Freidhoff, L R; Schou, C; Beaty, T H

    1995-01-01

    Genetic analysis of 170 subjects in 11 extended Amish families revealed evidence for linkage of five markers in chromosome 5q31.1 with a gene controlling total serum IgE levels. No linkage was found between these markers and specific IgE antibody levels. Analysis of total IgE within a subset of 128 IgE-antibody-negative sib pairs confirmed evidence for linkage to 5q31.1, especially IL4 (p = 4 x 10(-6)). These and other data suggest that IL4 or a nearby gene regulates IgE production in a non-antigen-specific (noncognate) fashion and provide evidence for a possible link between asthma and the IL4 gene. PMID:7613143

  13. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  14. Self-reactive IgE exacerbates interferon responses associated with autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Henault, Jill; Riggs, Jeffrey M.; Karnell, Jodi L.; Liarski, Vladimir M.; Li, Jianqing; Shirinian, Lena; Xu, Linda; Casey, Kerry A.; Smith, Michael A.; Khatry, Deepak B.; Izhak, Liat; Clarke, Lorraine; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel; Petri, Michelle; Clark, Marcus R.; Mustelin, Tomas; Kolbeck, Roland; Sanjuan, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Canonically, IgE mediates allergic immune responses by triggering mast cells and basophils to release histamine and Type 2 helper cytokines. Here, we report that in human systemic lupus erythematosus, IgE antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), an immune cell type linked to viral defense, leading to the secretion of substantial amounts of interferon-α. The concentrations of dsDNA-specific IgE found in patient serum correlated with disease severity and greatly potentiated pDC functions by triggering phagocytosis via FcεRI followed by Toll-like receptor 9-mediated DNA sensing in phagosomes. These findings expand the known pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation beyond those found in allergy and demonstrate that IgE can trigger interferon responses capable of exacerbating self-destructive autoimmune responses. PMID:26692173

  15. Analysis of Ig V{sub H} region genes encoding IgE antibodies in splenic B lymphocytes of a patient with asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, R.E.; Chapman, C.J.; Stevenson, F.K.

    1995-05-15

    An atopic patient with hypersensitivity against house dust mite died as a result of an asthmatic attack. A portion of the spleen was obtained and was used to analyze the spectrum of Ig heavy chain V regions involved in encoding IgE Abs. A nested PCR technique generated 14 cloned V{sub H} sequences that had distinct CDR3 regions; 5 of 14 were derived from the minor V{sub H}5 family, and the remainder derived from the larger families, V{sub H}3 (6 of 14) and V{sub H}4 (3 of 14). One of the V{sub H}3-derived sequences was present as a repeated sequence in three clones. A control PCR with the same V{sub H} primers in combination with J{sub H} primers yielded only 1 of 13 sequences from V{sub H}5, indicating preferential V{sub H}5 usage only for IgE. Analysis of V{sub H}5-C{epsilon} sequences revealed usage of a single gene, DP73, with extensive mutations and several {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} containing common replacement amino acids. However, there was no concentration of replacement mutations in the CDRs, which conventionally would indicate a role for Ag selection. The V{sub H}3 and V{sub H}4 genes in combination with C{epsilon} also harbored extensive somatic mutations. From these findings in splenic B lymphocytes, and those of a previous study of blood lymphocytes, it seems that preferential usage of V{sub H}5 genes and extensive somatic hypermutation are characteristic of B cells synthesizing IgE in patients with allergic disease. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  17. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796-0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707-0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history. PMID:27314052

  18. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells.

    PubMed

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning; Dam, Svend; Lorentzen, Andrea; Miehe, Michaela; Jabs, Frederic; Jakob, Thilo; Plum, Melanie; Spillner, Edzard

    2016-04-01

    TH2-biased immunity to parasites and allergens is often associated with increased levels of antigen-specific and high affinity IgE. The role in reacting against minute amounts of target structures and to provoke severe anaphylactic reactions renders IgE a mechanistically outstanding isotype. IgE represents the least abundant serum antibody isotype and exhibits a variety of peculiarities including structure, extensive glycosylation and effector functions. Despite large progress in antibody technologies, however, the recombinant access to isotypes beyond IgG such as IgE still is scarce. The capacity of expression systems has to meet the complex structural conformations and the extensive posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for biological activity. In order to provide alternatives to mammalian expression systems with often low yield and a more complex glycosylation pattern we established the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the rIgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype. PMID:26943931

  19. IgE response to two new allergen proteins of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant).

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-12-01

    A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent. PMID:26455782

  20. IgE response to two new allergen proteins of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant).

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-12-01

    A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent.

  1. Total serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lajevardi, Vahideh; Ghiasi, Maryam; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Mohtasham, Sima; Ansari, Mahsa; Hedayat, Kosar; Nassiri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves the skin, nails and joints. With regard to the role of the immune system in psoriasis, the current study compared serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis with control group. Current case-control study was conducted in Dermatology clinic of Razi hospital, Tehran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2012. Fifty-eight patients with psoriasis e referred to the clinic were assigned as patient group and 58 healthy subjects with matched age and sex as a control group. Patient's history, family history and demographic characteristics such as age and sex, duration and severity of disease using PASI, were collected and entered into a form. Consent form was obtained from participants. Serum IgE concentrations of both study groups were measured by electrochemiluminescence assay in the laboratory A total number of 58 patients with psoriasis, mean age of 44.15 (19-76 years) and 58 controls with matched age and sex were studied. Mean average of serum IgE concentration in the control group was 115.13 versus 200/06 concentration in patients group (P=0.16). Serum IgE concentration in 22.4% of patients versus 17.2% in controls was greater than normal concentration (P=0.48). No significant correlation was between serum IgE concentration and disease severity using PASI (P=0.11, r=0.21), neither a significant correlation with disease duration, age and gender. According to the present study, serum IgE concentrations are not greater in patients with psoriasis. IgE concentration is also not associated with the severity of psoriasis based on the PASI score, therefore, the role of IgE in psoriasis can be considered insignificant as some previous studies indicate.

  2. RARE ASSOCIATION OF HYPER IgE SYNDROME WITH CERVICAL RIB AND NATAL TEETH

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B; Gomathy, N

    2009-01-01

    Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by a triad of cutaneous abscesses, mostly caused by Staphylococus aureus; pneumonia; and raised IgE levels. Nonimmunological associations include course facial features, multiple bone fractures, joint hyperextensibility, and retained primary dentition. Patients require long-term antibiotic therapy. We report here a classical case of HIES with rare associations of natal teeth, bilateral cervical ribs, and conductive deafness. The patient was being treated with monteleukast and dapsone. PMID:20101342

  3. Metal dusting

    SciTech Connect

    Edited by K. Natesan

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was held soon after the September 11th incident under a climate of sorrow and uncertainty among the people of the world, in particular the Workshop participants and their host organizations. With considerable help from the partiicpants, the Workshop was conducted as planed and we had excellent participation in spite of the circumstances. A good fraction of the attendees in the Workshop were from abroad and from several industries, indicating the importance and relevance of the subject for the chemical process industry. Degradation of structural metallic alloys by metal dusting has been an issue for over 40 years in the chemical, petrochemical, syngas, and iron ore reduction plants. However, the fundamental scientific reasons for the degradation of complex alloys in high carbon activity environments are not clear. one of the major parameters of importance is the variation in gas chemistry in both the laboratory experiments and in the plant-service environments. the industry has questioned the applicability of the laboratory test data, obtained in low steam environments, in assessment and life prediction for the materials in plant service where the environments contain 25-35% steam. Several other variables such as system pressure, gas flow velocity, incubation time, alloy chemistry, surface finish, and weldments, were also identified in the literature as to having an effect on the initiatino and propagation of metal dusting attack. It is the purpose of this Workshop to establish a forum in which the researchers from scientific and industrial laboratories, alloy manufacturers, end users, and research and development sponsors can exchange information, discuss different points of view, prioritize the issues, and to elaborate on the trends in industry for the future. We believe that we accomplished these goals successfully and sincerely thank the participants for their contributions.

  4. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU. PMID:26028921

  5. IgE adjuvant effect caused by particles - immediate and delayed effects.

    PubMed

    Granum, B; Gaarder, P I; Løvik, M

    2001-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are reported to increase the specific IgE response to ovalbumin (OVA) and pollen. Evidence has been provided that the particle core contributes to this adjuvant activity. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of well-defined simple particles, polystyrene particles (PSP), on the production of allergen-specific IgE in a mouse model. The IgE adjuvant effect of PSP was investigated in experiments using intranasal (i.n.) instillation, intratracheal (i.t.) instillation or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Delayed and cumulative adjuvant effects were investigated by giving mice i.p. injections with PSP 1-3 days, or on 4 consecutive days before OVA, respectively. The levels of allergen-specific and total IgE were measured. Irrespectively of immunisation route and protocol, OVA in combination with PSP elicited increased levels of both allergen-specific and total IgE when compared with OVA alone. Therefore, in the experimental model, particles were found to augment the specific IgE response to an allergen even when the allergen was introduced several days after the particles. These findings imply that individuals exposed to particulate air pollution at one point of time may develop an increased reaction towards allergens inhaled later that day or even several days after the particle exposure. PMID:11164617

  6. Increased IgE antibody responses in rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Zetterstroem, O.N.; Nordvall, S.L.; Bjoerksten, B.A.; Ahlstedt, S.; Stelander, M.

    1985-05-01

    Raised serum IgE levels were found in a high proportion of rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke twice daily 5 days a week for 8 wk in a Dontenville-type smoking machine. Levels above 1 ng/ml of IgE were found in nine of 20 animals exposed to cigarette smoke and in five of 20 rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes with 1.45% phenylmethyloxidiazole added for possible protection against the effects of the smoke. None of the 20 control rats exhibited similarly increased serum IgE. Exposure to tobacco smoke did not significantly affect the serum concentrations of IgM and IgG. The development of specific IgE and IgG antibodies was also influenced by tobacco smoke exposure. Rats exposed to ovalbumin aerosol developed increased levels of IgG and IgE antibodies, whereas no effect on the development of antibody titers was found in rats immunized by the subcutaneous route. This study demonstrates that exposure to tobacco smoke increases serum IgE levels and enhances sensitization via the airways by a local effect, thus supporting the mucosal theory of atopy.

  7. Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit A.; Peczuh, Mark W.; Kumar, Challa V.; Rusling, James F

    2014-01-01

    Severity of peanut allergies is linked to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in blood, but diagnostics from assays using glycoprotein allergen mixtures may be inaccurate. Measuring IgEs specific to individual peptide and carbohydrate epitopes of allergenic proteins is promising. We report here the first immunoarray for IgEs utilizing both peptide and carbohydrate epitopes. A surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) microarray was equipped with peptide and β-xylosyl glycoside (BXG) epitopes from major peanut allergen glycoprotein Arachis hypogaea h2 (Ara-h2). A monoclonal anti-IgE antibody was included as positive control. IgEs were precaptured onto magnetic beads loaded with polyclonal anti-IgE antibodies to enhance sensitivity and minimize non-specific binding. As little as 0.1 attomole (0.5 pg/mL) IgE was detected from dilute serum in 45 min. IgEs binding to Ara-h2 peptide and BXG were quantified in 10 μL of patient serum and correlated with standard ImmunoCAP values. PMID:25259443

  8. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly "maladaptive" immune response develop in evolution and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms. PMID:27225312

  9. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  10. Identification of Critical Amino Acids in the IgE Epitopes of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 and the Application of Glutamic Acid as an IgE Blocker

    PubMed Central

    Deus-de-Oliveira, Natalia; Felix, Shayany P.; Carrielo-Gama, Camila; Fernandes, Keysson V.; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; Machado, Olga L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The allergenicity of Ricinus communis L. (castor bean, Euphorbiaceae) is associated with components of its seeds and pollen. Castor bean allergy has been described not only in laboratory workers, but also in personnel working in oil processing mills, fertilizer retail, the upholstery industry and other industrial fields. In the present study, we describe the critical amino acids in the IgE-binding epitopes in Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, two major allergens of R. communis. In addition, we also investigate the cross-reactivity between castor bean and some air and food allergen extracts commonly used in allergy diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings The IgE reactivity of human sera from atopic patients was screened by immune-dot blot against castor bean allergens. Allergenic activity was evaluated in vitro using a rat mast cell activation assay and by ELISA. Cross-reactivity was observed between castor bean allergens and extracts from shrimp, fish, gluten, wheat, soybean, peanut, corn, house dust, tobacco and airborne fungal allergens. We observed that treatment of rat and human sera (from atopic patients) with glutamic acid reduced the IgE-epitope interaction. Conclusions/Significance The identification of glutamic acid residues with critical roles in IgE-binding to Ric c 3 and Ric c 1 support the potential use of free amino acids in allergy treatment. PMID:21738671

  11. [Clinical research of specific IgE and IgG4 antibody in allergic children. Correlation specific IgE antibody to specific IgG4 antibody to food allergen].

    PubMed

    Koya, N; Suzuki, S; Hara, M; Nagata, K; Tateno, A; Moroi, T; Iikura, Y

    1989-06-01

    We analysed the correlation specific IgE antibodies to specific IgG4 antibodies to food allergens in 150 asthmatic children by Multiple Factor Analysis-Type II and examined the role of both antibodies. The following results were obtained. 1) Of soybean, there was the stronger influence power between specific IgE and IgG4 antibody than the other 2 food allergens. 2) IgE antibody to soybean had the strong influence power to IgG4 antibodies to egg white and cow's milk and IgG4 antibody to soybean had same influence power to IgE antibodies to egg white and cow's milk. So, the specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies to soybean may be play the role of "the bride" between specific IgE antibody group and specific IgG4 antibody group of food allergens.

  12. Translation of CODEV Lens Model To IGES Input File

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, T. D.; Carlin, B. B.

    1986-10-01

    The design of modern optical systems is not a trivial task; even more difficult is the requirement for an opticker to accurately describe the physical constraints implicit in his design so that a mechanical designer can correctly mount the optical elements. Typical concerns include setback of baffles, obstruction of clear apertures by mounting hardware, location of the image plane with respect to fiducial marks, and the correct interpretation of systems having odd geometry. The presence of multiple coordinate systems (optical, mechan-ical, system test, and spacecraft) only exacerbates an already difficult situation. A number of successful optical design programs, such as CODEV (1), have come into existence over the years while the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) has allowed a number of firms to install "paperless" design systems. In such a system, a part which is entered by keyboard, or pallet, is made into a real physical piece on a milling machine which has received its instructions from the design system. However, a persistent problem is the lack of a link between the optical design programs and the mechanical CAD programs. This paper will describe a first step which has been taken to bridge this gap. Starting with the neutral plot file generated by the CODEV optical design program, we have been able to produce a file suitable for input to the ANVIL (2) and GEOMOD (3) software packages, using the International Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) interface. This is accomplished by software of our design, which runs on a VAX (4) system. A description of the steps to be taken in transferring a design will be provided. We shall also provide some examples of designs on which this technique has been used successfully. Finally, we shall discuss limitations of the existing software and suggest some improvements which might be undertaken.

  13. Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Crater wall dust avalanches in southern Arabia Terra.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10.3, Longitude 24.5 East (335.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  14. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  15. Long-term falls in antibodies to dust mite and pollen allergens in patients with asthma or hay fever.

    PubMed

    Rawle, F C; Burr, M L; Platts-Mills, T A

    1983-09-01

    'Spontaneous' improvement in, or alteration of, allergic symptoms is a common occurrence, and the immunological basis is of interest in attempts to develop effective specific therapy. In the present study we measured levels of serum antibodies to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in patients diagnosed as having house-dust-allergic asthma up to 40 years previously. The results show a progressive fall in both IgG and IgE antibodies to antigen P1 and RAST binding to crude D. pteronyssinus extract. By contrast changes in total serum IgE were not marked. Within each of the groups of patients diagnosed 20, 30 and 40 years previously, 70% no longer suffered severe symptoms. However, the absence of detectable IgE antibody in serum was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for loss of symptoms. A group of patients who had spontaneously recovered from hay fever had significantly lower IgG and IgE antibody for the major grass pollen allergen Rye I and also lower total IgE than current hay fever sufferers. In neither hay fever nor asthma was there evidence to link spontaneous improvement in symptoms with an increase in IgG antibodies.

  16. Inhibition of IgE binding to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants enhances diagnostic selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Holzweber, F; Svehla, E; Fellner, W; Dalik, T; Stubler, S; Hemmer, W; Altmann, F

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy diagnosis by determination of allergen-specific IgE is complicated by clinically irrelevant IgE, of which the most prominent example is IgE against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) that occur on allergens from plants and insects. Therefore, CCDs cause numerous false-positive results. Inhibition of CCDs has been proposed as a remedy, but has not yet found its way into the routine diagnostic laboratory. We sought to provide a simple and affordable procedure to overcome the CCD problem. Methods Serum samples from allergic patients were analysed for allergen-specific IgEs by different commercial tests (from Mediwiss, Phadia and Siemens) with and without a semisynthetic CCD blocker with minimized potential for nonspecific interactions that was prepared from purified bromelain glycopeptides and human serum albumin. Results Twenty two per cent of about 6000 serum samples reacted with CCD reporter proteins. The incidence of anti-CCD IgE reached 35% in the teenage group. In patients with anti-CCD IgE, application of the CCD blocker led to a clear reduction in read-out values, often below the threshold level. A much better correlation between laboratory results and anamnesis and skin tests was achieved in many cases. The CCD blocker did not affect test results where CCDs were not involved. Conclusion Eliminating the effect of IgEs directed against CCDs by inhibition leads to a significant reduction in false-positive in vitro test results without lowering sensitivity towards relevant sensitizations. Application of the CCD blocker may be worthwhile wherever natural allergen extracts or components are used. PMID:24107260

  17. Mast cells and IgE in defense against venoms: Possible "good side" of allergy?

    PubMed

    Galli, Stephen J; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Tsai, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    Physicians think of mast cells and IgE primarily in the context of allergic disorders, including fatal anaphylaxis. This 'bad side' of mast cells and IgE is so well accepted that it can be difficult to think of them in other contexts, particularly those in which they may have beneficial functions. However, there is evidence that mast cells and IgE, as well as basophils (circulating granulocytes whose functions partially overlap with those of mast cells), can contribute to host defense as components of adaptive type 2 immune responses to helminths, ticks and certain other parasites. Accordingly, allergies often are conceptualized as "misdirected" type 2 immune responses, in which IgE antibodies are produced against any of a diverse group of apparently harmless antigens, as well as against components of animal venoms. Indeed, certain unfortunate patients who have become sensitized to venoms develop severe IgE-associated allergic reactions, including fatal anaphylaxis, upon subsequent venom exposure. In this review, we will describe evidence that mast cells can enhance innate resistance to reptile or arthropod venoms during a first exposure to such venoms. We also will discuss findings indicating that, in mice which survive an initial encounter with venom, acquired type 2 immune responses, IgE antibodies, the high affinity IgE receptor (FcɛRI), and mast cells can contribute to acquired resistance to the lethal effects of both honeybee venom and Russell's viper venom. These findings support the hypothesis that mast cells and IgE can help protect the host against venoms and perhaps other noxious substances. PMID:26666482

  18. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression. PMID:27398157

  19. IgE Immunoadsorption Knocks Down the Risk of Food-Related Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Dahdah, Lamia; Ceccarelli, Stefano; Amendola, Silvia; Campagnano, Pietro; Cancrini, Caterina; Mazzina, Oscar; Fiocchi, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    The effects of an immunoadsorption procedure, specifically designed to remove immunoglobulin E (IgE), on food-induced anaphylaxis have never been evaluated. We evaluate the effects of IgE removal on the allergic thresholds to foods. A 6-year-old boy with anaphylaxis to multiple foods and steroid-resistant unstable allergic asthma displayed serum IgE levels of 2800 to 3500 kU/L. To lower IgE serum concentrations, which could be overridden by a high dose of omalizumab, 1.5 plasma volumes were exchanged in 8 apheresis sessions. During the procedure, serum IgE levels fell to 309 kU/L. After the procedure, the threshold of reactivity to baked milk increased from 0.125 to 5 g of milk protein (full tolerance) after the first session, and the threshold of reactivity to hazelnut increased from 0.037 to 0.142 g of protein after the first session, 0.377 g after the eighth, and 1.067 g (full tolerance) after the first administration of omalizumab. Immediately after the sixth IgE immunoadsorption, we started omalizumab therapy. In the next 40 days, the threshold of reactivity to hazelnut increased to 7.730 (full tolerance). Asthma control was obtained, treatment with montelukast was stopped, and fluticasone was tapered from 500 to 175 μg/day. The boy became partially or fully tolerant to all the tested foods, and quality of life was improved. IgE immunoadsorption, used to establish the starting basis for omalizumab administration, is able to increase the tolerance threshold to foods. PMID:26620068

  20. Seasonal split influenza vaccine induced IgE sensitization against influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Takuji; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Suzuki, Eitaro; Miyata, Akiko; Okada, Kenji; Ihara, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Although anaphylaxis is an extremely rare vaccine-associated adverse event, it occurred in young children following administration of the 2011/12 seasonal split influenza vaccine, which contained 2-phenoxyethanol as the preservative. These children had high levels of IgE antibodies against influenza vaccine components. We herein investigated why these children were sensitized. One hundred and seventeen series of serum samples were obtained immediately before, and one month after the first and second immunizations with the HA split vaccine of 2011/12. Forty-two sequential serum samples were collected in the acute and convalescent phases (2 and 4 weeks) after natural infection with H1N1 Pdm in 2009. IgE antibodies developed following the vaccination of young children with seasonal split vaccines, whereas no significant IgE response was observed following natural infection with H1N1 Pdm 2009. The prevalence of IgE antibodies was not influenced by outbreaks of H1N1 Pdm. Repeated immunization with the HA split vaccine induced IgE sensitization against the influenza vaccine irrespective of the H1N1, H3N2, or B influenza subtypes. The reasons why anaphylaxis only occurred in recipients of the influenza vaccine containing 2-phenoxyethanol are still being investigated, and the size distribution of antigen particles may have shifted to a slightly larger size. Since the fundamental reason was IgE sensitization, current split formulation for the seasonal influenza vaccine needs to be reconsidered to prevent the induction of IgE sensitization.

  1. Identification of IgE sequential epitopes of lentil (Len c 1) by peptide microarray immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Vereda, Andrea; Andreae, Doerthe A.; Lin, Jing; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Ibañez, Maria Dolores; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lentils are oftentimes responsible for allergic reactions to legumes in Mediterranean children. Though the primary sequence of the major allergen, Len c 1 is known, the location of the IgE binding epitopes remains undefined. Objective We sought to identify IgE-binding epitopes of Len c 1 and relate epitope binding to clinical characteristics. Methods 135 peptides corresponding to the primary sequence of Len c 1 were probed with sera from 33 lentil-allergic individuals and 15 non-atopic controls by means of microarray immunoassay. Lentil-specific IgE, Skin Prick Tests and clinical reactions to lentil were determined. Epitopes were defined as overlapping signal above inter- and intra-slide cut-offs and confirmed by inhibition assays using a peptide from the respective region. Hierarchical clustering of microarray data was used to correlate binding patterns with clinical findings. Results The lentil-allergic patients specifically recognized IgE-binding epitopes located in the C-terminal region, between peptide 107 and 135. Inhibition experiments confirmed the specificity of IgE binding in this region, identifying different epitopes. Linkage of cluster results with clinical data and lentil specific IgE levels displayed a positive correlation between lentil-specific IgE levels, epitope recognition and respiratory symptoms. Modeling based on the three-dimensional structure of a homologous soy vicilin suggests that the Len c 1 epitopes identified are exposed on the surface of the molecule. Conclusion Several IgE-binding sequential epitopes of Len c 1 have been identified. Epitopes are located in the C-terminal region, and are predicted to be exposed on the surface of the protein. Epitope diversity is positively correlated with IgE levels, pointing to a more polyclonal IgE response. PMID:20816193

  2. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail. PMID:18850281

  3. Evaluation of the relationship between IgE level and skin superinfection in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alyson B; Yousef, Ejaz; Hossain, Jobayer

    2010-01-01

    Increased Th2 polarity weakens the innate immune response and predisposes children with atopic dermatitis (AD) to skin superinfection. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between IgE level and bacterial superinfection in children with AD. A medical chart review was performed on 103 children with AD to assess the association between IgE level and skin superinfection. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between categorized IgE level and the presence of bacterial superinfection after adjusting for cofounding variables including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and food allergy. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare pre- and postskin superinfection median IgE levels in a subset of patients. Compared with children with an IgE level of <300 IU/mL, children with an IgE level of >1001 IU/mL were 66.00 times more likely to have a skin superinfection (p = 0.003) and children with an IgE level between 301 and 1000 IU/mL were 12.38 times more likely to have a skin superinfection (p < 0.001). After controlling for cofounding variables including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy, children with an IgE level of >1001 IU/mL were 71.89 times more likely to have a skin superinfection (p = 0.018) and children with an IgE level between 301 and 1000 IU/mL were 8.79 times more likely to have a skin superinfection (p < 0.001) when compared with children with an IgE level of <300 IU/mL. There was a significant increase in IgE levels from baseline in 13 children treated for a skin superinfection (p = 0.001). IgE level is associated with Staphylococcus aureus superinfection in children with AD.

  4. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Shu; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Xiangying, Deng; Zuan, Lim Yok; Jones, Leigh Ann; Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; de Vries, Victor C.; Dolpady, Jayashree; Aina, Hoi; Joseph, Sabrina; Narayanan, Sriram; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Puthia, Manoj; Wong, Glenn; Xiong, Huizhong; Poidinger, Michael; Urban, Joseph F.; Lafaille, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE+ B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias toward the plasma cell (PC) fate, and dependence on sequential switching for the production of high-affinity IgE. We show here that IgE+ GC B cells are unfit to undergo the conventional GC differentiation program due to impaired B cell receptor function and increased apoptosis. IgE+ GC cells fail to populate the GC light zone and are unable to contribute to the memory and long-lived PC compartments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that direct and sequential switching are linked to distinct B cell differentiation fates: direct switching generates IgE+ GC cells, whereas sequential switching gives rise to IgE+ PCs. We propose a comprehensive model for the generation and memory of IgE responses. PMID:24218137

  5. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ε26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ε26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6 hours after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ε26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  6. Effects of Bordetella pertussis components on IgE and IgG1 responses.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, K

    1983-01-01

    The effect of dermonecrotic toxin (DNT), fimbrial hemagglutinin (FHA), K-agglutinogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis on the production of IgE and IgG1 antibodies to hen egg albumin (Ea) was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The IgE antibody contents were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in the skin of Lewis rats, while the IgG1 antibody contents were determined by PCA reactions on the skin of mice using sera that had been heated for 3 hr at 56 C to destroy the IgE antibodies. Among the B. pertussis components tested, pertussigen was the most effective adjuvant for increasing the IgE and IgG1 antibodies to Ea. LPS also moderately increased both types of antibodies, and FHA slightly increased the IgG1 titers. When LPS was given 5 days before Ea, it suppressed both IgE and IgG1 titers while FHA had only slight adjuvant action on both type of antibodies. When each of the components was tested for its ability to modify the adjuvant action of pertussigen, it was found that only DNT interfered significantly with the adjuvanticity of pertussigen when given on the day of immunization with Ea. When the components were given 5 days before Ea, DNT produced significant suppression of only the IgG1 response. LPS, FHA, and K-agglutinogen did not significantly affect the adjuvant action of pertussigen. PMID:6321910

  7. Self-reactive IgE exacerbates interferon responses associated with autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Henault, Jill; Riggs, Jeffrey M; Karnell, Jodi L; Liarski, Vladimir M; Li, Jianqing; Shirinian, Lena; Xu, Linda; Casey, Kerry A; Smith, Michael A; Khatry, Deepak B; Izhak, Liat; Clarke, Lorraine; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel; Petri, Michelle; Clark, Marcus R; Mustelin, Tomas; Kolbeck, Roland; Sanjuan, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Canonically, immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediates allergic immune responses by triggering mast cells and basophils to release histamine and type 2 helper cytokines. Here we found that in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), IgE antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a type of cell of the immune system linked to viral defense, which led to the secretion of substantial amounts of interferon-α (IFN-α). The concentration of dsDNA-specific IgE found in patient serum correlated with disease severity and greatly potentiated pDC function by triggering phagocytosis via the high-affinity FcɛRI receptor for IgE, followed by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated sensing of DNA in phagosomes. Our findings expand the known pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation beyond those found in allergy and demonstrate that IgE can trigger interferon responses capable of exacerbating self-destructive autoimmune responses.

  8. Identification of rice proteins recognized by the IgE antibodies of patients with food allergies.

    PubMed

    Goliáš, Jaroslav; Humlová, Zuzana; Halada, Petr; Hábová, Věra; Janatková, Ivana; Tučková, Ludmila

    2013-09-18

    Similarity among food allergens is a great problem affecting the specificity of diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. We have observed that 80% of patients with food (including wheat) and pollen allergies have increased IgE antibodies against rice proteins. By immunoblotting, we documented that boiling decreased solubility and IgE reactivity of PBS-extracted rice and wheat proteins, yet in SDS extracts this reactivity was only slightly changed. The sera of patients highly positive on the IgE immunoblot and positive in basophil activation and skin prick test with boiled rice components were used for characterizing the IgE-binding proteins separated by 1D or 2D electrophoresis. Using mass spectrometry, we identified 22 rice SDS soluble proteins. Six of them were new thermostable potential rice allergens: glutelin C precursor, granule-bound starch synthase 1 protein, disulfide isomerase-like 1-1 protein, hypothetical protein OsI_13867, putative acid phosphatase precursor 1, and a protein encoded by locus Os02g0453600. All of the identified rice proteins differed from known wheat allergens, except proteins belonging to the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family. Furthermore, we would suggest that in patients with high IgE reactivity to wheat and rice components, the IgE immunoblot and skin prick test with boiled rice proteins could be beneficial before diet recommendation.

  9. IgE antibody levels to ingested soya protein determined in a normal adult population.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, B F

    1982-01-01

    Levels of soy protein-specific IgE were measured in a normal adult population (seventy-four males, and fifteen females) who ingested soya-containing and control diets during two 4-week periods. Increases in soya-specific IgE were observed for some individuals following ingestion of the soya-containing diet, and for the female group the increase in soya-specific IgE was statistically significant (P = 0.02). The increase of soya-specific IgE was small and led to lower levels than that associated with adverse effects. The increase in soya-specific IgE in the female group was accompanied by a significant increase (P = 0.02) in total immunoglobulin A. Changes in the level of soy-specific haemagglutinating antibody, soya-specific IgG, IgA and IgM as measured by ELISA and the immunoconglutinin titre could not be related to ingestion of the soya-containing diet.

  10. Liver X receptors control IgE expression in B cells.

    PubMed

    Heine, Guido; Dahten, Anja; Hilt, Kerstin; Ernst, Dennis; Milovanovic, Milena; Hartmann, Björn; Worm, Margitta

    2009-05-01

    B lymphocytes play a fundamental role in the development of IgE-dependent allergic immune reactions. Upon appropriate activation, IgE class switch recombination is initiated in B cells, followed by terminal differentiation to IgE-secreting plasmablasts. This process is controlled by different nuclear receptors, including receptors for vitamin D, retinoids, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands. In this study, we show constitutive expression of the nuclear liver X receptor (LXR)alpha and LXRbeta in peripheral human B cells. Activation of LXRs reduced secreted IgE (-68% +/- 11) in CD40 and IL-4 activated B cells. The production of other isotypes, including IgG, IgM, IgA and B cell homeostatic parameters were not significantly altered by LXR activation. We identified inhibitory action of LXR activation on IgE production involving reduced phosphorylation of JNK and increased membrane CD23 expression (38% +/- 11). The biological significance of our findings was validated by showing that systemic treatment of type I-sensitized BALB/c mice with LXR ligands reduced the serum concentrations of Ag-specific IgE in a dose-dependent manner (maximum, -52% +/- 14). Thus, our data indicates that LXRs are involved in the control of IgE secretion by differentiating B cells. PMID:19380774

  11. Autoimmune Hepatitis in Brazilian Children: IgE and Genetic Polymorphisms in Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Léa Campos; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Marin, Maria Lucia Carnevale; Schneidwind, Karina Rosa; Frade, Amanda Farage; Kalil, Jorge; Miura, Irene Kasue; Pugliese, Renata Pereira Sustovich; Danesi, Vera Lucia Baggio; Porta, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients present hypergammaglobulinemia, periportal CD8+ cytotoxic T cell infiltration, and cirrhosis. Autoantibody profile defines AIH types 1 and 2 in addition to strong association with HLA-DRB1. We previously detected increased IgE serum levels and sought to compare clinical and histological features according to IgE levels in AIH (n = 74, ages 1–14 years) patients. Additionally, we typed 117 patients and 227 controls for functional polymorphisms of IL4, IL13, IL5, and IL4RA genes involved in IgE switching and eosinophil maturation that might contribute to overall genetic susceptibility to AIH. Serum IgE levels were high in 55% of AIH-1, but only in 12% of AIH-2 (P = 0.003) patients. Liver IgE was present in 91.3% of AIH-1 patients. The A alleles at both IL13 rs20541 and IL4RA rs1805011 were associated with AIH-1 (P = 0.024, OR = 1.55 and P < 0.0001, OR = 2.15, resp.). Furthermore, individuals presenting homozygosis for the A allele at IL4RA rs1805011 and HLA-DRB1∗03 and/or ∗13 allele had sixfold greater risk to develop the disease (OR = 14.00, P < 0.001). The novel association suggests an additional role for IgE-linked immune response genes in the pathogenesis of AIH. PMID:26693492

  12. Immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE with increased direct Sμ to Sε recombination.

    PubMed

    Wesemann, Duane R; Magee, Jennifer M; Boboila, Cristian; Calado, Dinis Pedro; Gallagher, Michael P; Portuguese, Andrew J; Manis, John P; Zhou, Xiaolong; Recher, Mike; Rajewsky, Klaus; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Alt, Frederick W

    2011-12-19

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) replaces initially expressed Cμ (IgM) constant regions (C(H)) exons with downstream C(H) exons. Stimulation of B cells with anti-CD40 plus interleukin-4 induces CSR from Cμ to Cγ1 (IgG1) and Cε (IgE), the latter of which contributes to the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. Although Cε CSR can occur directly from Cμ, most mature peripheral B cells undergo CSR to Cε indirectly, namely from Cμ to Cγ1, and subsequently to Cε. Physiological mechanisms that influence CSR to Cγ1 versus Cε are incompletely understood. In this study, we report a role for B cell developmental maturity in IgE CSR. Based in part on a novel flow cytometric IgE CSR assay, we show that immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE versus IgG1 through a mechanism involving increased direct CSR from Cμ to Cε. Our findings suggest that IgE dysregulation in certain immunodeficiencies may be related to impaired B cell maturation.

  13. Experiences of specific IgE in asthma due to diisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Keskinen, H; Tupasela, O; Tiikkainen, U; Nordman, H

    1988-11-01

    The specific IgE antibodies were studied with the Phadebas RAST technique in 35 patients with asthma due to diisocyanates. Two had been sensitized to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 17 to methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and 16 to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). In each case the diagnosis was confirmed with a bronchial provocation test (BPT). The asthmatic reaction was immediate in 17 cases, of which three had also a late reaction (dual). Eighteen patients reacted only with a late reaction. Seven (20%) had specific IgE to diisocyanates. All RAST-positive patients had an immediate asthmatic reaction. None of the late reactors and referents had positive RASTs. RAST inhibition tests with 94-100% inhibition confirmed the specificity of the method. There was cross-reactivity between different diisocyanates, however. The patients with positive RAST to diisocyanates had a higher level of total IgE than the RAST negative group and the referents.

  14. Human IgE binding to the glycosidic moiety of bovine kappa-casein.

    PubMed

    Pizzano, Rosa; Nicolai, Maria A; Manzo, Carla; Giannattasio, Matteo; Addeo, Francesco

    2005-10-01

    IgE ability for recognizing milk proteins was assayed in the serum of an adult atopic patient who outgrew cow milk allergy in early childhood. A number of protein species included in casein from bovine milk were detected by human IgE in immunoblotting experiments. Comparing these results with those obtained from an analysis using antibody preparations specifically directed toward the different casein fractions, IgE-reactive bands were identified as isoforms of kappa-casein. IgE-reactive protein was not present in neither bovine cheese, regardless of cheese-making technology and time ripening, nor milk from any other dairy animal, such as ewe, goat, and water buffalo. Chemical deglycosylation of protein bands immobilized onto nitrocellulose proved that the glycosidic moiety of bovine kappa-casein was principally involved in IgE recognition.

  15. Factors associated with Culicoides Obsoletus complex spp.-specific IgE reactivity in Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Schurink, Anouk; van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Ducro, Bart J; Tijhaar, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common allergic skin disease in horses, caused by biting insects of the Culicoides spp. In The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex are the most important midges involved in IBH. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify associations between several endogenous (host) and exogenous (environmental) factors and immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity against Obsoletus complex-derived whole body extract or seven recombinant allergens, measured by ELISA. Data from 143 Icelandic horses and 177 Shetland ponies were analysed using multivariable models. In addition, the relationship between IgE reactivity and severity of clinical signs in IBH-affected horses was examined. Positive correlations were found between Obsoletus complex-specific IgE and severity of clinical signs. Disease status (IBH affected or control), breed and the interaction between IBH status and breed were significantly associated with IgE reactivity against several Obsoletus complex allergens. Significantly greater IgE reactivity was seen in IBH-affected horses compared to controls. The differences in IgE values between cases and controls were most pronounced in Icelandic horses. Shetland pony controls had significantly greater IgE reactivity compared to Icelandic horse controls, while differences in IgE values comparing Shetland pony cases and Icelandic horse cases were not significant. Severity of clinical signs and IgE reactivity in IBH-affected horses against several Obsoletus complex allergens appeared to be related. Consideration of the factors associated with Obsoletus complex-specific IgE in horses might further improve interpretation and accuracy of IgE ELISA test results within these breeds, although further research is required.

  16. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    MedlinePlus

    ... much dust. Dust particles collect in fabrics and carpets. If you can, get rid of fabric or ... are covered in cloth. Replace wall-to-wall carpet with wood or other hard flooring. Since mattresses, ...

  17. Diisocyanates, occupational asthma and IgE antibody: implications for hazard characterization.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Basketter, David A

    2014-10-01

    Sensitization of the respiratory tract by chemicals resulting in rhinitis and asthma is an important occupational health issue. Occupational asthma is associated with significant morbidity and can be fatal. Tests for the identification and characterization of chemicals with the potential to cause sensitization of the respiratory tract are lacking. In spite of sustained interest there are no validated or widely accepted methods available, and this presents toxicologists with a considerable challenge. One important constraint on the development of appropriate testing strategies has been uncertainty and controversy about the immunological mechanisms through which chemicals may induce sensitization of the respiratory tract. By analogy with protein respiratory allergy it is legitimate to consider that IgE antibody-dependent mechanisms may play a pivotal role. However, although many aspects of chemical respiratory allergy are consistent with reactions caused by IgE antibody, uncertainty remains because among patients with occupational asthma caused by chemical respiratory allergens there are commonly a proportion, and sometimes a significant proportion, of subjects that lack detectable IgE antibody. Here we consider the relevance of IgE antibody responses for the development of a chemical respiratory allergy to diisocyanates. A case is made that IgE antibody responses are, either directly or indirectly, closely associated with occupational asthma to the diisocyanates (and to other chemical respiratory allergens). As such the argument is advanced here that IgE antibody represents an appropriate readout for the characterization of chemical respiratory allergens, and that uncertainty about mode of action should no longer represent a hurdle in the development of suitable test methods.

  18. Nanocrystalline diamond impedimetric aptasensor for the label-free detection of human IgE.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dinh T; Vermeeren, Veronique; Grieten, Lars; Wenmackers, Sylvia; Wagner, Patrick; Pollet, Jeroen; Janssen, Kris P F; Michiels, Luc; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-02-15

    Like antibodies, aptamers are highly valuable as bioreceptor molecules for protein biomarkers because of their excellent selectivity, specificity and stability. The integration of aptamers with semiconducting materials offers great potential for the development of reliable aptasensors. In this paper we present an aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor using a nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film as a working electrode for the direct and label-free detection of human immunoglobulin E (IgE). Amino (NH(2))-terminated IgE aptamers were covalently attached to carboxyl (COOH)-modified NCD surfaces using carbodiimide chemistry. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to measure the changes in interfacial electrical properties that arise when the aptamer-functionalized diamond surface was exposed to IgE solutions. During incubation, the formation of aptamer-IgE complexes caused a significant change in the capacitance of the double-layer, in good correspondence with the IgE concentration. The linear dynamic range of IgE detection was from 0.03 μg/mL to 42.8 μg/mL. The detection limit of the aptasensor reached physiologically relevant concentrations (0.03 μg/mL). The NCD-based aptasensor was demonstrated to be highly selective even in the presence of a large excess of IgG. In addition, the aptasensor provided reproducible signals during six regeneration cycles. The impedimetric aptasensor was successfully tested on human serum samples, which opens up the potential of using EIS for direct and label-free detection of IgE levels in blood serum.

  19. Identification of IgE binding to Api g 1-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Elvira; Aÿ, Bernhard; Boisguerin, Prisca; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta; Volkmer, Rudolf

    2010-11-01

    Celery is a frequent cause of food allergy in pollen-sensitized patients and can induce severe allergic reactions. Clinical symptoms cannot be predicted by skin prick tests (SPTs) or by determining allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Our aim was to identify specific IgE binding peptides by using an array technique. For our study, the sera of 21 patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) to celery, as well as the sera of 17 healthy patients were used. Additionally, all patients underwent skin tests along with determinations of specific IgE binding. The major allergen of celery Api g 1.0101 (Apium graveolens) was synthesized as an array of overlapping peptides and probed with the patients' sera. We developed an improved immunoassay protocol by investigating peptide lengths, peptide densities, incubation parameters, and readout systems, which could influence IgE binding. Sera of celery-allergic patients showed binding to three distinct regions of Api g 1.0101. The region including amino acids 100 to 126 of Api g 1.0101 is the most important region for IgE binding. This region caused a fivefold higher binding of IgE from the sera of celery-allergic patients compared to those of healthy individuals. In particular, one peptide (VLVPTADGGSIC) was recognized by all sera of celery-allergic patients. In contrast, no binding to this peptide was detected in sera of the healthy controls. Our improved assay strategy allows us to distinguish between celery-allergic and healthy individuals, but needs to be explored in a larger cohort of well-defined patients.

  20. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2). PMID:22993721

  1. Fournier gangrene associated with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome).

    PubMed

    Hori, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Osanai, Hiroaki; Hori, Masako

    2008-04-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome) who developed Fournier gangrene due to infectious multiple atheromas of the scrotal skin that progressed to the right groin and thigh. The patient required surgical debridement and subsequent skin grafting. This is a rare case of Fournier gangrene associated with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome). When a patient without diabetes mellitus has repeated infections and atopic-like dermatitis, Job syndrome should be considered. PMID:18380833

  2. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Arman; DeCourcey, Joseph; Larbi, Nadia Ben; Loughran, Sinéad T.; Walls, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E.

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells resulted in reduction of IgE secretion. •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 also leads to the accumulation of IgE in the cell. •Immuno-fluorescence staining shows co-localisation of IgE and syntaxin-4 in U266 cells. •Findings suggest a critical requirement for syntaxin-4 in IgE secretion from plasma cells. -- Abstract: The humoral immune system provides a crucial first defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens via the secretion of antigen specific immunoglobulins (Ig). The secretion of Ig is carried out by terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes called plasma cells. Despite the key role of plasma cells in the immune response, the mechanisms by which they constitutively traffic large volumes of Ig out of the cell is poorly understood. The involvement of Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the regulation of protein trafficking from cells has been well documented. Syntaxin-4, a member of the Qa SNARE syntaxin family has been implicated in fusion events at the plasma membrane in a number of cells in the immune system. In this work we show that knock-down of syntaxin-4 in the multiple myeloma U266 human plasma cell line results in a loss of IgE secretion and accumulation of IgE within the cells. Furthermore, we show that IgE co-localises with syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells suggesting direct involvement in secretion at the plasma membrane. This study demonstrates that syntaxin-4 plays a critical role in the secretion of IgE from plasma cells and sheds some light on the mechanisms by which these cells constitutively traffic vesicles to the surface for secretion. An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients.

  3. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  4. Middle East Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... (nadir) camera. Here only some of the dust over eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey can be discerned. The dust is much more obvious ... October 18, 2002 - A large dust plume extends across Syria and Turkey. project:  MISR category:  ...

  5. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  6. Dust in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  7. Immunoassay of specific IgE: use of a single point calibration curve in the modified radioallergosorbent test.

    PubMed

    Williams, P B; Dolen, W K; Koepke, J W; Selner, J C

    1992-07-01

    Interest in immunoassay standardization has prompted development of specific IgE assays reporting results related to the international IgE reference. To examine the single point calibration curve employed in the modified RAST assay (MRT) to convert MRT counts to IgE units, independent dilutions of a 25 kU/L total IgE reference and nine allergic sera (three each for short ragweed, cat, and timothy) were made in horse serum and assayed. In a log-log plot, the single point curve was, by definition, linear over its entire range; the dilution curve was curvilinear because of reagent system saturation, which was at 7 kU/L. Curves were not parallel (P less than .001). Allergen-specific dilution curves showed saturation points at values similar to or less than the total IgE system. The linear portions of these curves paralleled the total IgE dilution curve but not the single point curve. This lack of parallelism would have resulted in varying magnitudes of error in estimation of IgE antibody levels in the upper and lower assay ranges, and would imply a lower detection limit for IgE than that which the assay actually has. Modified RAST assay is not appropriate in research or a clinical situation in which accurate quantitative results are needed. Modified RAST assay would furthermore be an inappropriate means of assigning units to proposed reference preparations for standardization.

  8. IgE is expressed on, but not produced by, fetal cells in the human placenta irrespective of maternal atopy

    PubMed Central

    EKSTRÖM, E SVERREMARK; NILSSON, C; HOLMLUND, U; PLOEG, I VAN DER; SANDSTEDT, B; LILJA, G; SCHEYNIUS, A

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic diseases in children has increased during the last decades. Atopic symptoms usually appear early in life. This implies an early priming for atopic disease, possibly even at the fetal level. We therefore compared the presence and production of IgE in the local in utero environment during pregnancy in atopic and non-atopic women. Eighty-six women were included in the study. Fifty women were demonstrated to be atopics, based on clinical symptoms of atopic disease together with a positive Phadiatop and/or skin prick test. Placentas from these term pregnancies were obtained. Slices covering the full thickness of the placenta were cut clockwise around the umbilical cord and were analysed with immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, numerous IgE+ cells, located primarily in the fetal villous stroma, were detected in a majority of the investigated placentas irrespective of the atopy of the mother or maternal or fetal total serum IgE levels. The placental IgE could not be demonstrated to be bound to IgE receptors, but was shown to be bound to fetal macrophages, possibly via FcγRI. No evidence was found for local fetal IgE production, although cells producing epsilon transcripts were occasionally detected in the decidua. We describe here the novel finding of numerous IgE+ cells in the human placenta, suggesting an hitherto unknown role for IgE in a successful pregnancy outcome, irrespective of whether or not the mother is atopic. PMID:11876750

  9. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  10. Control of IgE responses. III. IL-6 and IFN-alpha are isotype-specific regulators of peak BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Kleiner, G I; Chice, S M; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G

    1993-03-01

    The ability of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GmCSF) to regulate peak benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses was investigated. These responses were induced in BALB/c mice by ip injection of BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH; 10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel on Days 0, 21, and 42. On Day 44, or on Days 43, 44, and 45, mice were injected sc with varying doses of cytokine or anti-cytokine antibody. On Day 46, the numbers of BPO-specific AFC (IgM, IgG1, IgE and IgA) in spleen were determined ex vivo in enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. Among the cytokines tested, only IL-6 suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses in an isotype-specific fashion (60-90%). However, treatment of mice with anti-IL-6 also suppressed these responses, suggesting that IL-6 can either suppress or increase peak antigen specific IgE responses, depending upon its concentration. Among the cytokines tested, only IFN-alpha increased BPO-specific IgE AFC responses in an isotype-specific fashion. Since treatment with anti-IFN-alpha suppressed these responses, it appears that IFN-alpha is required to maintain peak antigen-specific IgE AFC responses. IL-4 or IFN-gamma nonspecifically suppressed responses of all isotypes. Treatment with anti-IL-4 also suppressed IgE responses, suggesting that this cytokine is required to maintain peak antigen specific IgE responses. Treatment with anti-IFN-gamma increased IgE responses, indicating that IFN-gamma suppresses peak antigen-specific IgE responses.

  11. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  12. Determination of insulin specific IgE in serum of diabetic patients by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Falholt, K.

    1982-04-01

    A solid-phase assay system for quantitative measurement of insulin specific IgE has been developed. Insulin specific IgE and IgG are bound to insulin covalently coupled to Sepharose particles. After a washing procedure which removes unbound immunoglobulins, /sup 125/I-anti-human IgE-rabbit globulin is added to the Sepharose to determine the amount of bound IgE. The use of standardized /sup 125/I-anti-human-IgE-globulin permits quantitation against a calibration curve of IgE and expression as units/ml. No cross-reactivity of IgG was found. Insulin specific IgE was determined in the sera of diabetic patients. Patients treated with procine or mixed species purified insulin (monocomponent MC) did not differ significantly from a non-diabetic control group, whereas serum samples taken from patients treated with crystallized insulin preparations showed a significantly higher level of insulin specific IgE (p < 0.05). Twenty-four patients with generalized insulin allergy and eight patients with immunological insulin resistance also had considerably higher values of IgE antibodies than the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.005, respectively). No correlation was found between the concentration of insulin specific IgE and IgG in individual sera and the level of insulin specific IgE was independent of the total IgE. In all cases of allergy elicited by purified insulin (monocomponent MC), it was ascertained that the diabetic patients in question had received less pure insulin during earlier treatment.

  13. IgE anti-respiratory syncytial virus antibodies detected in serum of pediatric patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Mandal, Mira; Joks, Rauno; Norowitz, Levana T; Weaver, Diana; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H; Kohlhoff, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children, and is a public health concern, as is the increase in pediatric asthma. Respiratory viral infections may trigger asthma exacerbations. However, it remains unknown whether RSV infection may have a specific association with asthma. Total serum IgE, and IgE- and IgG-anti-RSV Ab responses were studied in older asthmatic compared with non-asthmatic children (M/F, mean age: 14) (N=30, N=43, respectively). We found: (1) total serum IgE was higher in asthmatic compared with non-asthmatics (P<0.001); (2) total serum IgE did correlate with IgE anti-RSV Abs (P<0.001), and with IgG anti-RSV Abs (P=0.008) in all subjects; (3) total serum IgE levels did correlate with IgE anti-RSV in asthmatics (P=0.047), but not in non-asthmatics (P=0.13); (4) IgE anti-RSV Abs did correlate with IgG anti-RSV Abs in all subjects (P=0.001); (5) IgE- and IgG-anti RSV Abs were higher in asthma compared with no asthma (P=0.003; <0.001, respectively); (6) there was a significant association between age and IgE anti-RSV in non-asthma (P=0.008), but not in asthma (P=0.64). Our findings indicate that IgE-anti-RSV Ab responses may play important roles in RSV infection and asthma.

  14. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Hernández, Hermes Fundora; Barroso, Jesús Callol; Sanchez-Martinez, Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram) was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis. PMID:19032790

  15. Teacher Perceptions of School Climate and the Implementation of Individually Guided Education (IGE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Edgar A.; And Others

    This study investigated teacher perceptions of the climate in 545 individually Guided Education (IGE) elementary schools, using the Organizational Climate Index as a research tool. The schools were categorized according to degree and length of implementation and according to location (rural, suburban, urban, and inner city). The following…

  16. A locus regulating total serum IgE maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Amelung, P.J.; Panhuysen, C.I.M.; Postma, D.S. |

    1994-09-01

    Familial aggregation of allergy has been demonstrated in numerous past studies. However, allergy is a complex disorder which is not inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. Total serum IgE levels correlate with the clinical expression of allergy and asthma and can be utilized as a quantitative measure of the allergic phenotype. We studied 92 families from Northern Holland ascertained through a parent with asthma who were originally studied between 1962-1970. Since there is a large number of candidate genes on chromosome 5q, families were genotyped for markers in this region. These genes either directly or indirectly regulate IgE production and the activation and proliferation of cellular elements that are involved in inflammation associated with allergy and asthma. They include IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and GM-CSF. Segregation analyses revealed recessive inheritance of `high` levels with a mean for the `low` phenotype of 1.51 (32 IU) and 2.52 (331 IU) for the `high` phenotype. Linkage of log IgE with markers on 5q was tested using the sib-pair and the LOD score methods with the genetic model obtained from the segregation analyses. These results provide evidence for a locus controlling IgE levels near the cytokine gene cluster on 5q. This region appears critical in susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  17. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  18. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

  19. Conduct of the Study: Phase I of the IGE Evaluation Project. Working Paper No. 258. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopp, Pamela M.; And Others

    This paper is one of a group that describes the research methodology for an evaluation of individually guided education (IGE) in American elementary schools. The paper covers the first phase activities from solicitation of participants (April 1977) through preparation of final data tapes for the structural equations analysis (September 1978).…

  20. 1971-72 Directory of IGE/Multiunit Elementary Schools in the United States of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning.

    This directory is intended to help persons identify the locations of innovative educational centers implementing IGE/multiunit school concepts in the U.S.A. Over 500 centers in 18 States are identified. Schools are listed alphabetically by district in each State with school addresses and telephone numbers, the names and addresses of school…

  1. Proteomic analysis of wheat proteins recognized by IgE antibodies of allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Sotkovský, Petr; Hubálek, Martin; Hernychová, Lenka; Novák, Petr; Havranová, Marie; Setinová, Iva; Kitanovicová, Andrea; Fuchs, Martin; Stulík, Jirí; Tucková, Ludmila

    2008-04-01

    Wheat belongs to six major food allergens inducing IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction manifesting as cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory symptoms. Although cereals are a staple food item in most diets, only a few wheat proteins causing hypersensitivity have been identified. To characterize wheat allergens, salt-soluble wheat extracts were separated by 1-DE and 2-DE and IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting using sera of patients with allergy to ingested wheat. Proteins, frequently recognized by IgE on 2-DE were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and QTOF and their spectrum was completed by 1-DE and LCQ(DECA) nLC-MS/MS IT technique. Using all three techniques we identified 19 potential wheat allergens such as alpha-amylase inhibitors, beta-amylase, profilin, serpin, beta-D-glucan exohydrolase, and 27K protein. Employing newly developed ELISA, levels of IgE Abs against Sulamit wheat extract and alpha-amylase inhibitors type 1 and 3 were quantified and shown to be significantly elevated in sera of allergic patients compared to those of healthy controls. The level of IgE Abs against alpha-amylase inhibitor type 3 was lower, slightly above the cut-off value in the majority of patients' sera. Our findings contribute to the identification of wheat allergens aimed to increase the specificity of serum IgE and cell activation diagnostic assays.

  2. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens.

  3. Multiple IgE recognition on the major allergen of the Parietaria pollen Par j 2.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valeria; Costa, Maria Assunta; Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; La Grutta, Stefania; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between IgE antibodies and allergens is a key event in triggering an allergic reaction. The characterization of this region provides information of paramount importance for diagnosis and therapy. Par j 2 Lipid Transfer Protein is one of the most important allergens in southern Europe and a well-established marker of sensitization in Parietaria pollen allergy. The main aim of this study was to map the IgE binding regions of this allergen and to study the pattern of reactivity of individual Parietaria-allergic patients. By means of gene fragmentation, six overlapping peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their IgE binding activity was evaluated by immunoblotting in a cohort of 79 Parietaria-allergic patients. Our results showed that Pj-allergic patients display a heterogeneous pattern of IgE binding to the different recombinant fragments, and that patients reacted simultaneously against several protein domains spread all the over the molecule, even in fragments which do not contain structural features resembling the native allergen. Our results reveal the presence of a large number of linear and conformational epitopes on the Par j 2 sequence, which probably explains the high allergenic activity of this allergen.

  4. IgE and non-IgE mediated allergic disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Morton, S; Palmer, B; Muir, K; Powell, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To ascertain the prevalence of IgE and non-IgE mediated allergic disorders in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
METHODS—49 SLE cases (all satisfying at least four "Revised ARA Criteria") and 98 healthy, age, and sex matched controls (randomly selected through two urban general practices and one rural general practice) were interviewed by telephone to screen for a history of allergy. Subjects with a history of allergic rhinitis, asthma or atopic eczema then underwent skin prick testing to confirm underlying IgE mediated disease.
RESULTS—Analysis of the data by conditional logistic regression revealed no significant difference in frequency of allergic disorders in SLE cases and controls (odds ratio (OR) 0.92, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.45, 1.86). In addition a subgroup analysis of subjects with IgE mediated/associated atopic disorders, showed that cases and controls were at a similar risk of having these conditions (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.41, 1.96).
CONCLUSIONS—This study suggests that people with SLE are not at an increased risk of IgE mediated/associated allergic disorders, in contrast with previous reports.

 Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; allergy PMID:9924207

  5. Treatment of cashew extracts with Aspergillopepsin reduces IgE binding to cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cashew nuts can cause serious and sometimes life threatening reactions in people that suffer from food allergies. These reactions are mediated by immunoglobulin E binding (IgE) to allergenic cashew proteins. Enzymes from Aspergillus fungal species are used in many industrial and pharmaceutical appli...

  6. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cashew nuts are included in a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergies. IgE binding to allergens within the nuts can cause allergic reactions that can be severe. Foods containing cashew nuts must be labeled to prevent accidental exposure to people who suffer from allergy to cashew nuts....

  7. Effect of d-amino acids on IgE binding to peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D-amino acids are formed when L-amino acids are exposed to heat. The objective was to determine the existence of D-amino acids in roasted peanut and their effect on IgE binding. Raw and roasted peanut protein extracts were hydrolyzed in 6 N HCL under vacuum. The hydrolysates were then analyzed for D...

  8. Mite antigen in house dust: relationship with different housing characteristics in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, R T; Verhoeff, A P; Brunekreef, B; Van Wijnen, J H

    1994-09-01

    As part of a case-controlled study on the relationship between home dampness and respiratory symptoms of children, the concentration of the major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p I) in floor dust and mattress dust in 516 dwellings in the Netherlands was measured. A checklist, completed by the investigators, was used to obtain information on home and occupant characteristics, which may have an impact on the Der p I concentration in house dust. The geometric mean mite antigen concentrations were 2370 ng Der p I/g floor dust for the living room, 2201 ng Der p I/g floor dust for the bedroom and 5075 ng Der p I/g mattress dust. In 86% of the houses the maximum concentration was higher than 2000 ng Der p I/g dust, that is regarded as representing a risk for genetically predisposed individuals for the development of specific IgE to house dust mite allergen. In 55% of the houses the maximum concentration exceeded 10,000 ng Der p I/g dust, regarded as a risk factor for acute attacks of asthma for mite allergic patients. The Der p I concentrations in dust from carpeted floors were six to 14 times higher than in dust from floors with a smooth floor covering. Higher Der p I concentrations in floor dust were also significantly associated with increasing age of the dwelling and of the floor covering, with an increasing number of occupants, and with the absence of floor insulation. For mattress dust, the age of the mattress, the presence of an outer cavity wall and mechanical ventilation were important factors. Older mattresses had higher levels, and mattress dust from bedrooms with solid brick outer walls had higher levels than that from bedrooms with outer cavity walls. Mattresses in homes with continuous mechanical ventilation had almost twice lower levels than mattresses in homes with natural ventilation. There was a tendency towards higher Der p I concentrations in dust in homes with reported or observed signs of dampness. The Der p I concentrations in dust

  9. Mapping of murine IgE epitopes involved in IgE-Fc epsilon receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Schwarzbaum, S; Nissim, A; Alkalay, I; Ghozi, M C; Schindler, D G; Bergman, Y; Eshhar, Z

    1989-06-01

    The generation of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies has permitted the identification of various serological epitopes on the IgE molecule. The relationship of the sites on IgE recognized by such antibodies to the Fc epsilon receptor (Fc epsilon R) interaction site has been determined using cross-inhibition studies. However, interpretation of this type of experiment is limited by problems of steric hindrance. Thus, to accomplish precise mapping on the IgE molecule of the Fc epsilon R interaction site and the binding sites of various anti-IgE mAb, we employed site-directed mutagenesis of the IgE heavy chain gene. To this end we have constructed and expressed a recombinant murine constant epsilon heavy chain (C epsilon) gene bearing a (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetic acid (NP)-binding VH region. Several site-specific mutants in the C epsilon 3 and C epsilon 4 domains of this recombinant C epsilon gene were prepared and expressed by transfection into the light chain-producing J558L myeloma cell line. The resulting IgE antibodies were tested for binding to mast cells and to various anti-IgE mAb. The mutants produced include a proline to histidine point mutant at amino acid residue 404 in the C epsilon 3 domain, a mutant with a truncated C epsilon 4 domain, a mutant with a 45 amino acid deletion in the carboxy end of C epsilon 3, and a chimeric human C epsilon in which the human C epsilon 3 was replaced by the homologous mouse C epsilon 3 domain. These mutants have permitted the localization, to the C epsilon 3 domain, of the epitopes recognized by the 84.1C and 95.3 anti-IgE mAb. The 84.1C mAb recognizes a site on IgE which is identical or very close to the Fc epsilon R binding site, and 95.3 recognizes a site on IgE which is related, but not identical to the Fc epsilon R binding site. The antigenic determinant recognized by the 51.3 mAb, which is inefficient at blocking the IgE-Fc epsilon R interaction, has been mapped to the C epsilon 4 domain. When tested for binding to

  10. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Holahan, Heather M; Frydman, Alexandra S; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  11. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  12. Systemic Reactions to Dust Mite Subcutaneous Immunotherapy: A 3-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiang; Huang, Nan; Li, Wenjing; Hu, Lintao; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Yin; Xiang, Ning; Liu, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of allergen specific immunotherapy-related systemic reactions (SRs) varies among different studies, and many factors are likely to contribute to SRs. This study aims to investigate the incidence, characteristics, and risk factors of SRs to standardize dust mite-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in Central China. Methods All patients receiving standardized dust mites (100-100,000 SQ-U/mL; Alutard SQ, Hørsholn, Denmark) immunotherapy were followed up. Recorded data included demographics, diagnosis, patient status, pulmonary function testing results before and after each injection, allergen dosage, and details of SRs. Results From June 2011 to August 2014, a total of 208 patients received 4,369 injections; 27 (13.0%) patients experienced 48 (1.1%) systemic reactions. Most of the SRs were grade 2 reactions (n=30, 62.5%), followed by grade 1 (n=11, 22.9%), grade 3 (n=7, 14.6%), and no fatal reactions occurred. Forty-six SRs (95.8%) occurred within 30 minutes. Higher SR rates were associated with high concentration extracts (100,000 SQ-U/mL), injections with concomitant local reactions (LRs), children, asthma and high sensitivity (skin prick test 3+/4+ and/or sIgE≥17.5 kUA/L) (P<0.05). The estimated odds of SRs increased in children (OR=6.57; 95% CI: 1.88-22.97, P=0.003), asthmatic patients (OR=4.10; 95% CI: 1.72-9.80, P=0.002), and injections with LRs (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.33-4.36, P=0.004). Conclusions The incidence of SRs to dust mite SCIT was low, and multiple factors were associated with the increased incidence of SRs. Children, asthmatics and patients with concomitant LR may be prone to develop SRs. PMID:27334780

  13. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  14. Association Between PTPN22 Polymorphisms and IgE Responses to Staphylococcal Superantigens in Chronic Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Palikhe, Sailesh; Kim, Seung Hyun; Pham, Le Duy; Ye, Young Min; Park, Hae Sim

    2015-05-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase-22 (PTPN22) gene encodes lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp), an inhibitor of T cell activation. A polymorphism of the PTPN22 gene has been found to be associated with chronic urticaria (CU). We investigated the associations between PTPN22 gene polymorphisms and CU characteristics, including serum specific IgE antibodies response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). CU patients (n=409) and normal healthy controls (n=388) were enrolled in the present study. Serum specific IgE to TSST-1 and SEA were measured by ImmunoCAP®. Five PTPN22 single nucleotide polymorphisms, -1123G>C, 1858C>T, 13145A>G, 14943C>T, and 20628A>G, were genotyped. There were no significant differences in genotype or haplotype frequencies of these polymorphisms between the 2 groups. CU patients carrying the GG genotype at 20628A>G (P=0.035) or haplotype 3 [GGG] (P=0.047) had a significantly higher prevalence of serum specific IgE to TSST-1 compared to non-carriers. Similarly, CT/TT genotype at 14943C>T had a significantly higher prevalence of serum specific IgE to SEA (P=0.045). The findings suggest that the PTPN22 gene polymorphisms at 20628A>G and 14943C>T may enhance serum specific IgE responses to TSST-1 and SEA, which may contribute to CU pathogenesis. PMID:25749762

  15. Prenatal exposure to household pets influences fetal IgE production

    PubMed Central

    Aichbhaumik, Niladri; Zoratti, Edward M.; Strickler, Ronald; Wegienka, Ganesa; Ownby, Dennis R.; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2013-01-01

    Background Early life pet exposure may protect against allergic sensitization during childhood. Few studies have evaluated the effect of prenatal pet exposure on potential neonatal markers of allergic risk. Objective To investigate whether maternal exposure to pets affects cord blood IgE levels in a population-based, general risk, ethnically mixed birth cohort. Methods Pet keeping during pregnancy was ascertained from women residing in a defined area of Wayne County Michigan and recruited from five staff model obstetric clinics. Maternal venous blood was analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE along with cord blood total IgE from 1049 infants. Results Compared to infants from households with no cats or dogs kept indoors during pregnancy, infants whose homes had either cats or dogs had significantly reduced mean cord IgE levels [0.34 IU/ml (95%CI 0.30–0.38) vs. 0.24 IU/ml (0.20–0.27) p = 0.025]. Similar effects were apparent in cat-only households [0.21 IU/ml (0.16–0.27), p = 0.020] and dog-only households [0.24 IU/ml (0.19–0.29), p = 0.045]. There was no effect on results when excluding mothers who reported avoiding pets due to allergy-related concerns. Conclusion Mothers with either cats or dogs in their home during pregnancy deliver children with lower cord blood IgE levels compared to mothers who do not live with these pets, supporting the hypothesis that pet exposure influences immune development in a manner that is protective for atopy and is operant even before birth. PMID:18702655

  16. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wai, Christine Y Y; Leung, Nicki Y H; Ho, Marco H K; Gershwin, Laurel J; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S C; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.

  17. Structural characterization and IgE epitope analysis of arginine kinase from Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hai-Yan; Cao, Min-Jie; Maleki, Soheila J; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Su, Wen-Jin; Yang, Yang; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is reported to be the pan-allergen of shellfish. However, there is limited information on its IgE epitopes and structural characteristics. In this study, AK from Scylla paramamosain was purified and characterized. The purified AK is a glycoprotein with the molecular weight of 40 kDa and it demonstrates cross-reactivity with the related allergens present in other shellfish. The cDNA of S. paramamosain AK was cloned, which encodes 357 amino acid residues. Nine linear epitopes and seven conformational epitopes were predicted following bioinformatics analysis. In addition, the entire recombinant AK (rAK) and three partial recombinant AKs (rAK1, rAK2, and rAK3) were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The proteins of rAK1, rAK2 and rAK have strong IgE reactivity with the pooled sera from crab allergic patients, while rAK3 has significantly weaker IgE reactivity, which indicates that the IgE epitopes of AK are mainly distributed in the regions of rAK1 and rAK2. Furthermore, three experimental linear epitopes (epitope 1: AA 127-141, epitope 2: AA 141-155, and epitope 3: AA 211-225) were discovered in the region of rAK1 and rAK2 using synthetized overlapping peptides. The experimental linear epitopes were mapped onto the protein homology model of AK. Meanwhile, in the IgE-binding assays of the sera from nine crab allergic patients, only three sera reacted with the denatured, linear AK as shown by Western-blotting, eight sera reacted with the native, folded AK by both dot-blotting and ELISA, which indicates that the conformational IgE epitopes of S. paramamosain AK may be more predominant.

  18. Allergy to house dust mites in primary health care subjects with chronic or recurrent inflammatory states of respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Paszkowski, Jacek; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent respiratory tract disorders are a frequent problem in general practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of hypersensitivity to house dust mites in respiratory tract diseases in general practice patients. We tried to assess the influence of determined risk factors exposure on development of respiratory tract allergy. Patients from family practitioners surgeries with chronic or recurrent respiratory tract symptoms who had no diagnosis of allergy were recruited to the study (n = 89). All patients responded to a questionnaire focused on history of symptoms, atopic conditions in family and exposure to determined environmental factors like dwelling conditions, obstetrician history, diet in the first year of life. All patients underwent skin prick test with common inhalant allergens. Families of the patients were asked to participate in the study. Families who agreed to take part also responded to the questionnaire and underwent skin tests. In patients and their families blood samples were taken to determine total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to mites allergens. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming of patients' bedroom carpets and mattresses to determine house dust mites allergens concentration. Data on 30 complete patients family sets of their brotherhood, mother and father were collected. Total and specific serum IgE antibodies were determined by disc enzyme-immunoassay (Analco). Mites allergens concentration in dust was measured by simple Acarex strip test (Nexter). The results of the assays (positive skin tests and/or elevated levels of specific IgE) showed allergy to house dust mites in 24 of 89 study patients from general practitioners surgeries (27%). The prevalence of chronic rhinitis, recurrent bronchitis, chronic or recurrent cough, wheezing, dyspnoea was higher in allergic than in nonallergic subjects. Patients with the diagnosis of allergy to house dust mites had usually worse dwelling conditions. Especially

  19. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations. PMID:26433526

  20. DUST FORMATION IN MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Ioka, Kunihito; Nozawa, Takaya E-mail: kunihito.ioka@kek.jp

    2014-07-01

    We examine dust formation in macronovae (as known as kilonovae), which are the bright ejecta of neutron star binary mergers and one of the leading sites of r-process nucleosynthesis. In light of information about the first macronova candidate associated with GRB 130603B, we find that dust grains of r-process elements have difficulty forming because of the low number density of the r-process atoms, while carbon or elements lighter than iron can condense into dust if they are abundant. Dust grains absorb emission from ejecta with an opacity even greater than that of the r-process elements, and re-emit photons at infrared wavelengths. Such dust emission can potentially account for macronovae without r-process nucleosynthesis as an alternative model. This dust scenario predicts a spectrum with fewer features than the r-process model and day-scale optical-to-ultraviolet emission.

  1. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. PMID:27288851

  2. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro. PMID:25053052

  3. Interstellar Dust Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2004-01-01

    A viable interstellar dust model - characterized by the composition, morphology, and size distribution of the dust grains and by the abundance of the different elements locked up in the dust - should fit all observational constraints arising primarily from the interactions of the dust with incident radiation or the ambient gas. As a minimum, these should include the average interstellar extinction, the infrared emission from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), and the observed interstellar abundances of the various refractory elements. The last constraint has been largely ignored, resulting in dust models that require more elements to be in the dust phase than available in the ISM. In this talk I will describe the most recent advances towards the construction of a comprehensive dust model made by Zubko, Dwek, and Arendt, who, for the first time, included the interstellar abundances as explicit constraints in the construction of interstellar dust models. The results showed the existence of many distinct models that satisfy the basic set of observational constraints, including bare spherical silicate and graphite particles, PAHs, as well as spherical composite particles containing silicate, organic refractories, water ice, and voids. Recently, a new interstellar dust constituent has emerged, consisting of metallic needles. These needles constitute a very small fraction of the interstellar dust abundance, and their existence is primarily manifested in the 4 to 8 micron wavelength region, where they dominate the interstellar extinction. Preliminary studies show that these models may be distinguished by their X-ray halos, which are produced primarily by small angle scattering off large dust particles along the line of sight to bright X-ray sources, and probe dust properties largely inaccessible at other wavelengths.

  4. Sensitive label-free electrochemical analysis of human IgE using an aptasensor with cDNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Yu; Wu, Kuan-Ying; Su, Hsiu-Li; Hung, Huan-Yi; Hsieh, You-Zung

    2013-01-15

    In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive label-free aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor, featuring a highly specific anti-human immunoglobulin E (IgE) aptamer as a capture probe, for human IgE detection. Construction of the aptasensor began with the electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto a graphite-based screen-printed electrode (SPE). After immobilizing the thiol-capped anti-human IgE aptamer onto the AuNPs through self-assembly, we treated the electrode with mercaptohexanol (MCH) to ensure that the remaining unoccupied surfaces of the AuNPs would not undergo nonspecific binding. We employed a designed complementary DNA featuring a guanine-rich section in its sequence (cDNA G1) as a detection probe to bind with the unbound anti-human IgE aptamer. We measured the redox current of methylene blue (MB) to determine the concentration of human IgE in the sample. When the aptamer captured human IgE, the binding of cDNA G1 to the aptamer was inhibited. Using cDNA G1 in the assay greatly amplified the redox signal of MB bound to the detection probe. Accordingly, this approach allowed the linear range (coefficient of determination: 0.996) for the analysis of human IgE to extend from 1 to 100,000pM; the limit of detection was 0.16pM. The fabricated aptasensor exhibited good selectivity toward human IgE even when human IgG, thrombin, and human serum albumin were present at 100-fold concentrations. This method should be readily applicable to the detection of other analytes, merely by replacing the anti-human IgE aptamer/cDNA G1 pair with a suitable anti-target molecule aptamer and cDNA.

  5. Operational Dust Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  6. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  7. Temperature of cometary dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Th.; Weidlich, U.

    1988-05-01

    The variation of dust temperature with heliocentric distance for a comet is calculated using the optical constants of an astronomically important silicate. The silicate, described by Drane (1985), is assumed to be similar to cometary dust. The temperatures of cometary dust grains are determined by the energy balance between the absorbed sunlight and emitted thermal radiation, and equilibrium temperatures of dust grains for different radii and heliocentric distances are compared. Deviations between computed and observed temperatures are attributed to variations in the chemical composition of the ablated grains.

  8. Increased serum IgE concentrations during infection and graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S A; Rogers, T R; Perry, D; Hobbs, J R; Riches, P G

    1984-01-01

    Serum IgE concentrations estimated in 25 bone marrow transplant recipients during episodes of infection or graft versus host disease, or both, were raised not only in some patients with acute graft versus host disease but also in many patients with infection. Raised values were not seen in chronic graft versus host disease. The routine estimation of serum IgE in bone marrow transplant recipients had minimal value because of the lack of specificity of the IgE response. PMID:6368605

  9. Bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone (VMP regimen) as the initial treatment for IgE multiple myeloma: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Komiya, Yusuke; Hoshino, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Patients with IgE multiple myeloma have poor prognosis. Due to the rarity of this condition, no standard treatment has been developed. As the VMP regimen (bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone) has been reported to be highly effective in the treatment of other types of myeloma, we treated a patient with newly diagnosed IgE myeloma using the VMP regimen. Her myeloma responded well to VMP regimen. The results of this case report thus suggest that physicians may consider VMP regimen for use as the initial treatment for IgE myeloma.

  10. Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, in Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE≥400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  11. Abnormal humoral immune response to Staphylococcus aureus in patients with Staphylococcus aureus hyper IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matter, L; Wilhelm, J A; Roth, F; Schopfer, K

    1986-11-01

    Patients with the S. aureus hyper IgE syndrome (SAHIGES) have an abnormal IgE response to cell wall and surface antigens of S. aureus. In this paper we describe the detection of IgE antibodies to soluble antigens of staphylococci (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) and qualitative abnormalities of the IgG response to soluble S. aureus antigens in patients with SAHIGES. These findings may be of pathogenetic importance and help to delineate SAHIGES from other diseases. PMID:3815899

  12. Human immune response to allergens of house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. IV. Occurrence of natural autologous anti-idiotypic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saint-Remy, J M; Lebecque, S J; Lebrun, P M; Jacquemin, M G

    1988-01-01

    IgG isolated from the plasma of seven individuals hypersensitive to the common house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DPT) was exhaustively adsorbed onto insolubilized DPT. The unbound fraction was found by radioimmunoassay to contain antibodies recognizing the variable region of both anti-DPT IgG and IgE antibodies. This recognition was idiotype (Id)-specific as it persisted after passage over insolubilized polyclonal IgG of unrelated specificity. Most of these anti-Id IgG carried the internal image of the initial antigen in that they competitively inhibited the binding of anti-DPT antibodies to DPT. Immunoadsorption of anti-Id IgG onto insolubilized anti-DPT IgG antibodies from the same individual completely eliminated their reaction with anti-DPT IgG but not with anti-DPT IgE, suggesting that idiotopes included in the antigen-binding site of specific IgG and IgE antibodies were not identical. Anti-Id IgG recognizing idiotopes located outside the antigen-binding site (bystander idiotopes) were also completely removed by passage over insolubilized anti-DPT IgG; in this case the reaction of the anti-Id IgG with both anti-DPT IgG and anti-DPT IgE was inhibited, indicating that, for a given individual, bystander idiotopes were shared between anti-DPT antibodies pertaining to these two isotypes.

  13. Quasar Dust Factories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Massimo; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    We show that quasars are naturally copious producers of dust, assuming only that the quasar broad emission lines (BELs) are produced by gas clouds that are part of an outflowing wind. These BEL clouds have large initial densities (ne ˜109 - 1011 cm-3) so that as they expand quasi-adiabatically they cool from an initial T = 104 K to a dust-capable T = 103 K, and reduce their pressures from ˜0.1 dyn cm-2 to ˜ 10-3 -10-5 dyn cm-2.. This places the expanded BEL clouds in the (T,P) dust forming regime of late-type giants extended atmospheres, both static and pulsing. The result applies whether the clouds have C/O abundance ratio greater or lower than 1. Photo-destruction of the grains by the quasar UV/X-ray continuum is not important, as the BEL clouds reach these conditions several parsecs from the quasar nucleus, well below the dust evaporation temperature. This result offers a new insight for the strong link between quasars and dust, and for the heavy obscuration around many quasars. It also introduces a new means of forming dust at early cosmological times, and a direct mechanism for the injection of such dust in the intergalactic medium. Since dust at high z is found only by observing quasars, our result allows far less dust to be present at early epochs, since dust only need be present where a quasar is, rather than the quasar illuminating pre-existing dust which would then need to be present in all galaxies at high z. See astro-ph/0202002 or ApJ 576, L107 (2002).

  14. The Nature of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    The STARDUST mission is designed to collect dust the coma of comet Wild 2 and to collect interstellar dust on a second set of collectors. We have a reasonable idea of what to expect from the comet dust collection because the research community has been studying interplanetary dust particles for many years. It is less clear what we should expect from the interstellar dust. This presentation discusses what we might expect to find on the STARDUST interstellar dust collector.

  15. Control of IgE responses. II. Isotype specific suppression of peak hapten specific IgE antibody forming cell responses in BPO-KLH sensitized mice after oral administration of muramyldipeptide or murabutide.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Chice, S M; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G

    1993-01-01

    Muramyldipeptide (MDP) and murabutide (MB), a pyrogen free derivative of MDP, suppressed BPO specific IgE antibody forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo. To induce IgE responses, BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in alum on days 0 and 21, or on days 0, 21 and 42. On day 44, mice were fed (gavage) or injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with MDP or MB (0.1-500 mg/kg). Mice were killed on days 45-70, and the numbers of BPO specific IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA antibody forming cells (AFC) in lymphoid organs determined in ELISPOT assay. With either immunization schedule, oral treatment with MDP or MB on day 44 suppressed BPO specific IgE AFC responses within 48 h (65-100%). With both molecules, the suppression was IgE isotype specific, dose dependent and transient. The suppression was also route specific since it was obtained only when MDP or MB was given by gavage, and not when injected s.c. These results show that peak antigen specific IgE responses can be suppressed in vivo, in isotype specific fashion, by a clearly defined class of molecules, one of which, MB, is a candidate for clinical studies in man. Pharmacologic agents of this type may be suitable for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic suppression of IgE and, hence, in the therapy of IgE mediated diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other atopic diseases.

  16. Dust devils on Mars.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Gierasch, P J

    1985-10-11

    Columnar, cone-shaped, and funnel-shaped clouds rising 1 to 6 kilometers above the surface of Mars have been identified in Viking Orbiter images. They are interpreted as dust devils, confirming predictions of their occurrence on Mars and giving evidence of a specific form of dust entrainment.

  17. Pathfinder Spies Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This set of images from NASA's 1997 Pathfinder mission highlight the dust devils that gust across the surface of Mars. The right image shows the dusty martian sky as our eye would see it. The left image has been enhanced to expose the dust devils that lurk in the hazy sky.

  18. Dust resuspension without saltation.

    PubMed

    Loosmore, Gwen A; Hunt, James R

    2000-01-01

    Wind resuspension (or entrainment) provides a source of dust and contaminants for the atmosphere. Conventional wind erosion models parameterize dust resuspension flux with a threshold velocity or with a horizontal abrasion flux; in the absence of abrasion the models assume dust flux is transient only. Our experiments with an uncrusted, fine material at relative humidities exceeding 40% show a long-term steady dust flux in the absence of abrasion, which fits the approximate form: F(d) = 3.6(u*)(3), where F(d) is the dust flux (in mug/m(2) s), and u* is the friction velocity (in m/s). These fluxes are generally too small to be significant sources of dust in most models of dust emission. However, they provide a potential route to transport contaminants into the atmosphere. In addition, dust release is substantial during the initial transient phase. Comparison with field data suggests that the particle friction Reynolds number may prove a better parameter than u* for correlating fluxes and understanding the potential for abrasion.

  19. Dust resuspension without saltation

    PubMed Central

    Loosmore, Gwen A.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Wind resuspension (or entrainment) provides a source of dust and contaminants for the atmosphere. Conventional wind erosion models parameterize dust resuspension flux with a threshold velocity or with a horizontal abrasion flux; in the absence of abrasion the models assume dust flux is transient only. Our experiments with an uncrusted, fine material at relative humidities exceeding 40% show a long-term steady dust flux in the absence of abrasion, which fits the approximate form: Fd = 3.6(u*)3, where Fd is the dust flux (in μg/m2 s), and u* is the friction velocity (in m/s). These fluxes are generally too small to be significant sources of dust in most models of dust emission. However, they provide a potential route to transport contaminants into the atmosphere. In addition, dust release is substantial during the initial transient phase. Comparison with field data suggests that the particle friction Reynolds number may prove a better parameter than u* for correlating fluxes and understanding the potential for abrasion. PMID:20336175

  20. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.

  1. Exercise-induced bronchocontriction, skin sensitivity, and serum IgE in children with eczema.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J F; Cogswell, J J; Joseph, M C; Cochrane, G M

    1976-01-01

    Forty-two children with eczema were studied for exercise-induced astham (EIA), skin sensitivity to prick testing, blood eosinophil count, and immunoglobulins. 29 had a fall in peak expiratory flow rate after exercise greater than 20% and of these, 23 had symptoms of wheezing. 13 of the eczematous children showed a fall of less than 20%. The children with EIA showed greater cutaneous sensitivity (p less than 0.001) and a higher total serum IgE (p less than 0.025). 3 of the group with a fall of less than 20% had allergic rhinitis with skin sensitivity to grass pollen. The remaining 10 had no clinical evidence of allergic disease, other than eczema and skin sensitivity, and total IgE fell within the normal range. It is suggested that in a proportion of chilren with eczema there is little evidence of reaginic allergy. PMID:1015843

  2. Anti-timothy IgE formation: suppression with antigen D-dGl conjugates.

    PubMed

    Malley, A; Deppe, L

    1980-01-01

    Antigen D fragments (AgD1 and AgD2) and chemically synthesized quercetin-glutathione were conjugated to the synthetic polypeptide copolymer of D-glutamic acid and D-lysine (dGL). These conjugates were tested at varying epitope densities to determine their ability to suppress a secondary anti-antigen B IgE response. The data showed that all of the conjugates used with epitope densities of 5-20 groups per dGL produced significant dose-dependent suppression of a secondary IgE response. The duration of the observed suppression was short (about 30 days), but could be extended by additional treatment with the conjugate prior to the loss of unresponsiveness.

  3. Hypersensitivity to P. officinalis pollen: correlation of IgE with skin testing methods.

    PubMed

    Cvitanović, S; Grbić, D; Zekan, L; Boban, M; Vrdoljak, E; Parpura, V; Petrović, S; Marusić, M

    1989-01-01

    Fifty pollinosis patients, who have reported contact with P. officinalis, were tested for skin sensitivity with P. officinalis pollen extract. Intracutaneous testing and the skin prick method were employed and their sensitivity verified with regard to serum concentrations of specific IgE antibodies determined with the RAST method. Two criteria of the skin prick method evaluation were employed. The intracutaneous method correlated best with RAST. In contrast to intracutaneous testing, the skin prick method did not produce any false-positive results; however, due to a few false-negative cases observed, it appeared that in borderline-negative cases the skin prick method would require determination of serum IgE antibodies to reach a clear-cut diagnosis.

  4. Organic dust in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Recent space infrared telescopes, Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and AKARI have made significant progress in our understanding of organic dust in the Universe. In this review, we discuss recent observations with these space telescopes of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features in the near to mid-infrared, which come from very small organic dust, and the absorption features from 3 to 7 µm, which characterize large organic dust. They provide us with a new view of organic dust in galaxies. We also briefly discuss latest AKARI observations of H2O and CO2 ices in 2.5-5 µm in the Large Magellanic Cloud in comparison with observations in our Galaxy, which suggests the importance of dust surface chemistry in the formation of organic matters in the Universe.

  5. Interstellar Dust Scattering Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. D.

    2004-05-01

    Studies of dust scattering properties in astrophysical objects with Milky Way interstellar dust are reviewed. Such objects are reflection nebulae, dark clouds, and the Diffuse Galactic Light (DGL). To ensure their basic quality, studies had to satisfy four basic criteria to be included in this review. These four criteria significantly reduced the scatter in dust properties measurements, especially in the case of the DGL. Determinations of dust scattering properties were found to be internally consistent for each object type as well as consistent between object types. The 2175 Å bump is seen as an absorption feature. Comparisons with dust grain models find general agreement with significant disagreements at particular wavelengths (especially in the far-ultraviolet). Finally, unanswered questions and future directions are enumerated.

  6. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  7. High IgE in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is complexed with anti-IgE autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Millauer, N; Zuercher, A W; Miescher, S M; Gerber, H A; Seitz, M; Stadler, B M

    1999-01-01

    This study presents data on more than 300 RA and allergic patients analysed for their serum levels of anti-immunoglobulin isotype autoantibodies and IgE. We observed high levels of IgE in sera of RA and allergic patients. Interestingly, we measured significantly higher specific IgE levels against Alternaria but not against nine other allergens in the RA compared with the allergic group. As expected, anti-IgG autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors (RF)) of different isotypes were detected in sera from RA patients only. However, we found increased titres of complexed anti-IgE autoantibodies in all RF+ groups and in the allergic group. These findings may explain why despite elevated IgE levels a decreased prevalence of allergic diseases in RA patients has been observed. PMID:9933440

  8. Prevalence of IgE reactivities in mold-allergic subjects to commercially available fungal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Horner, W Elliott; Armstrong, Maricelis; El-Dahr, Jane; McCants, Marjorie; Reese, Gerald; Kobernick, Aaron K; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2008-01-01

    Fungi are important aeroallergens. However, fungal allergen sources of consistent quality for clinical testing are not readily available. Because some allergens have been identified as enzymes, we assessed the prevalence of IgE reactivity to commercially available fungal enzymes. The purpose of this study was to determine IgE antibody reactivity by radioallergosorbent assay (RAST) to commercially available fungal enzymes in mold-allergic individuals. Sera from 20 subjects with symptoms of respiratory allergies and skin test reactivity to 2 or more fungal allergens (4 conidial [imperfecti] fungi and/or 8 basidiomycetes) were selected. Controls were six atopic individuals with neither history of fungal allergy nor skin test reactivity to fungi. Seventeen commercial fungal enzymes were used as antigens to evaluate the subjects' IgE antibody reactivity by RAST. Sera from most fungus-allergic individuals showed substantial IgE antibody reactivity to enzymes; control sera showed little or no reactivity. The mean reactivity to all commercial enzymes of all subjects tested was RAST > or = 3% with only one exception. The most reactive fungal enzymes were invertase (bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cellulase (Trichoderma viride), and glucosidase (brewers yeast, S. cerevisiae) with mean binding of 14.6, 9.5, and 8.8%, respectively. Using RAST results with a combination of four enzymes from S. cerevisiae (brewers yeast glucosidase, bakers' yeast maltase, invertase, and invertase V), a sensitivity of 100% was shown for detecting mold-allergic patients. The studies suggest that fungal enzymes may be useful source materials for the identification of fungal allergens and may also provide readily available source materials to produce improved diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.

  9. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  10. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D-amino acids (D-aas) are reported to bind to IgE antibodies from people with allergy and asthma. The objectives of this study were to determine if D-aas bind or inhibit IgE binding to peanut allergens, and if they are more effective than L-amino acids (L-aas) in this respect. Several D-aa cocktails...

  11. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  12. Acute Eosinophilic Myocarditis and Hyper IgE in HIV Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thawabi, Mohammad; Habib, Mirette; Shaaban, Hamid; Shamoon, Fayez

    2014-01-01

    Context: Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare cause of myocarditis. It is manifested histopathologically by diffuse or focal myocardial inflammation with eosinophilic infiltration, often in association with peripheral blood eosinophilia. Patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), especially those with lower CD4 counts, can occasionally have hyperimmunoglobulinemia E (Hyper IgE) and eosinophilia. Case Report: We report a case of a 29-year-old patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who had a persistent elevation of eosinophil counts and elevated IgE levels for a year prior to admission. He was presented to our emergency department with chest pain and laboratory tests revealed peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated troponins. Coronary angiogram showed nonobstructive coronary artery disease. He then underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging which was consistent with an infiltrative myocarditis. After being put on steroid therapy, his peripheral eosinophilia resolved and his cardiac symptoms improved. Conclusion: Our case highlights that eosinophilia and Hyper IgE in HIV patients has the potential to contribute to end-organ damage. PMID:25077083

  13. The amyloid fold of Gad m 1 epitopes governs IgE binding

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Rosa; Martínez, Javier; Castro, Ana; Pedrosa, María; Quirce, Santiago; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Gasset, María

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are polymeric structural states formed from locally or totally unfolded protein chains that permit surface reorganizations, stability enhancements and interaction properties that are absent in the precursor monomers. β-Parvalbumin, the major allergen in fish allergy, forms amyloids that are recognized by IgE in the patient sera, suggesting a yet unknown pathological role for these assemblies. We used Gad m 1 as the fish β-parvalbumin model and a combination of approaches, including peptide arrays, recombinant wt and mutant chains, biophysical characterizations, protease digestions, mass spectrometry, dot-blot and ELISA assays to gain insights into the role of amyloids in the IgE interaction. We found that Gad m 1 immunoreactive regions behave as sequence-dependent conformational epitopes that provide a 1000-fold increase in affinity and the structural repetitiveness required for optimal IgE binding and cross-linking upon folding into amyloids. These findings support the amyloid state as a key entity in type I food allergy. PMID:27597317

  14. Evidence for two unlinked loci regulating total serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Levitt, R C; Panhuysen, C I; Postma, D S; Taylor, E W; Amelung, P J; Holroyd, K J; Bleecker, E R; Meyers, D A

    1995-01-01

    Studies investigating the genetic control of total serum IgE levels are of major importance in understanding basic pathophysiologic mechanisms in atopy and asthma, since IgE levels predict onset and correlate with the clinical expression of these disorders. Previous analysis of data from 92 families, ascertained through a parent with asthma, showed evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels with linkage to chromosome 5q. Since there was significant residual familial correlation in the one-locus segregation analysis, two-locus segregation and linkage analyses were performed. Segregation analyses provided evidence for a second major locus unlinked to the locus on 5q. Utilization of this two-locus model corroborates the previous evidence for linkage between this trait and markers on 5q31-q33. The LODs for the most informative marker D5S436 increased from 3.00 at 10% recombination to 4.67 at 9% recombination, when the two-locus model was used. Additional linkage studies are needed to map this second locus. These results demonstrate the importance of performing multilocus segregation and linkage analyses for quantitative traits that are related to the phenotype of a complex disorder. This approach has given further insight into the genetics of allergy and asthma by providing evidence for a two-locus model. PMID:7668269

  15. Evidence for two unlinked loci regulating total serum IgE levels

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.; Taylor, E.W.

    1995-08-01

    Studies investigating the genetic control of total serum IgE levels are of major importance in understanding basic pathophysiologic mechanisms in atopy and asthma, since IgE levels predict onset and correlate with the clinical expression of these disorders. Previous analysis of data from 92 families, ascertained through a parent with asthma, showed evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels with linkage to chromosome 5q. Since there was significant residual familial correlation in the one-locus segregation analysis, two-locu segregation and linkage analyses were performed. Segregation analyses provided evidence for a second major locus unlinked to the locus on 5q. Utilization of this two-locus model corroborates the previous evidence for linkage between this trait and markers on 5q{sub 31}-q{sub 33}. The LODs for the most informative marker D5S436 increased from 3.00 at 10% recombination to 4.67 at 9% recombination when the two-locus model was used. Additional linkage studies are needed to map this second locus. These results demonstrate the importance of performing multilocus segregation and linkage analyses for quantitative traits that are related to the phenotype of a complex disorder. This approach has given further insight into the genetics of allergy and asthma by providing evidence for a two-locus model. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The amyloid fold of Gad m 1 epitopes governs IgE binding.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rosa; Martínez, Javier; Castro, Ana; Pedrosa, María; Quirce, Santiago; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Gasset, María

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are polymeric structural states formed from locally or totally unfolded protein chains that permit surface reorganizations, stability enhancements and interaction properties that are absent in the precursor monomers. β-Parvalbumin, the major allergen in fish allergy, forms amyloids that are recognized by IgE in the patient sera, suggesting a yet unknown pathological role for these assemblies. We used Gad m 1 as the fish β-parvalbumin model and a combination of approaches, including peptide arrays, recombinant wt and mutant chains, biophysical characterizations, protease digestions, mass spectrometry, dot-blot and ELISA assays to gain insights into the role of amyloids in the IgE interaction. We found that Gad m 1 immunoreactive regions behave as sequence-dependent conformational epitopes that provide a 1000-fold increase in affinity and the structural repetitiveness required for optimal IgE binding and cross-linking upon folding into amyloids. These findings support the amyloid state as a key entity in type I food allergy. PMID:27597317

  17. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao) and Dianthus superbus (Qumai). Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments. PMID:21961957

  18. Comparison of VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays for detection of specific IgE antibodies in allergic children.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung Hyun; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    In vitro determination of specific IgE antibodies in serum is the most frequently used method, besides the skin test, for diagnosing allergies. Standardized and reproducible assays of specific IgE antibodies contribute to the quality of diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. This study compared the results and performance characteristics of the Pharmacia CAP system and a new specific IgE method using the VIDAS Stallertest (manufactured by bioMériux). To evaluate their clinical efficiency, the results of the CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were compared with skin prick test (SPT) results. After allergic patients completed SPTs, serum samples were collected and CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were performed to determine specific IgEs for Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, cockroach, and alternaria. For egg and milk, we measured only the correlation between the 2 in vitro assays. When SPT was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the CAP assay was a little higher in respect to all inhalant allergens. There were significant correlations between the results of VIDAS Stallertest and CAP assays for IgE antibodies to inhalant and food allergens. This study indicates that the VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays are feasible and replicable for measuring allergen-specific IgE. PMID:16081590

  19. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    PubMed

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (<25th, 25-75th, and >75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels.

  20. [Radioimmunologic determination of total IgE and allergen-specific IgE-antibodies in diffuse neurodermitis].

    PubMed

    Pürschel, W; Zeidler, U; Kuse, M

    1975-10-01

    Total IgE levels in sera of 165 patients with atopic dermatitis and 79 patients with dermatoses as well as normal control patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (Phadebas, Pharmacia). Although the mean value for patients with atopic dermatitis was found far above the mean value for normal controls, 38% of patients showed total IgE serum levels within the normal range. Highest IgE serum levels were observed in patients with the generalized form of the disease and in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. No direct correlation however, to severity of disease could be found. In a series of 50 patients prick tests were compared to total IgE serum levels and to levels of allergen specific antibodies determined by radioallergosorbent-test (RAST). Extracts of grass pollens and of animal dandruff were used. There was complete agreement between results of skin testing and RAST in at least 80%. While cross reactions were common with grass pollen extracts in RAST, there was no cross-over with animal dandruff. No correlation was found between titer of allergen specific antibody and severity of skin lesions. IgE specific antibody could be detected in 48% of patients with normal total IgE serum levels and in 82% of patients with elevated values. PMID:1201945

  1. Polyclonal IgE increase after HgCl2 injections in BN and LEW rats: a genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sapin, C; Hirsch, F; Delaporte, J P; Bazin, H; Druet, P

    1984-01-01

    An autoimmune disease and a dramatic increase in total serum IgE concentration are observed in BN rats that are chronically injected with HgCl2. In contrast, LEW rats do not develop the characteristic glomerulonephritis and are very "low IgE responders". In this study, we examined the genetic control of total serum IgE increase after HgCl2 injection in F1 and F2 hybrids, in both backcrosses between LEW and BN rats, and in LEW.1N congenic rats. Genetic analysis was performed using peak IgE concentrations expressed as log microgram/ml. A high IgE phenotype was found to be dominant. Eighty-five percent of F2 variance was due to genetic factors (VG) while only 15% of this variance was caused by environmental factors (VE). From observations in F2 hybrids and backcrosses, estimations of additive variance (VA) and dominance variance (VD) were made following three different methods. Genetic control by about four loci is demonstrated. One of these genes is RT1-linked. This gene contributes to 25% of the phenotypic difference observed between BN and LEW rats. No correlation was found between the peak total IgE level and autoimmune disease based on IgG deposition in spleen and/or kidney.

  2. Red meat allergic patients have a selective IgE response to the α-Gal glycan.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, D; Tran, T A T; Sánchez-Vidaurre, S; Cirkovic Velickovic, T; Starkhammar, M; Hamsten, C; van Hage, M

    2015-11-01

    Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) is a mammalian carbohydrate with significance in a novel type of food allergy. Patients with IgE against α-Gal report severe allergic symptoms 3-6 h after consumption of red meat. We investigated whether IgE from red meat allergic patients recognizes other mammalian glycans than α-Gal or glycans from the plant kingdom and insects of importance in allergy. We found that none of the 24 red meat allergic patients investigated had an IgE antibody response against the other abundant mammalian glycan N-glycolylneuraminic acid or against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants from plant or venom sources (nCup a 1, nArt v 1, and MUXF3). Deglycosylation of an α-Gal-containing protein, bovine thyroglobulin, significantly reduced the IgE response. In conclusion, we show that red meat allergic patients have a selective IgE response to the α-Gal glycan found in red meat. Other common glycans reactive in allergic disease are not targets of red meat allergic patients' IgE.

  3. IL-6 mediated isotype specific suppression of hapten specific IgE in serum of BPO-KLH sensitized mice: role of IFN alpha in maintainance of hapten specific IgE responses.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Miller, H; Chice, S M; Durkin, H G

    1994-04-01

    The ability of IL-6 or IFN alpha or antibodies to these cytokines to regulate serum levels of hapten specific immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG1, IgE, IgA) was studied in BPO-KLH (benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) sensitized BALB/c mice at the peak of a hapten specific IgE antibody forming cell (AFC) response. To induce peak IgE responses, mice were injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel (alum) on days 0, 21, and 42. On day 44, mice were injected s.c. with IL-6 (100-1000 U), IFN alpha (1000-10,000 U), anti-IL-6 (100-1000 neutralizing units [NU]), or anti-IFN alpha (1000-10,000 NU). On day 46, levels of BPO specific IgM, IgG1, IgE and IgA in serum were determined (ELISA). Data are expressed as micrograms/ml. IL-6 suppressed BPO specific IgE in serum in isotype specific fashion (to > 90%), increasing IgA (approximately 3 fold), and leaving IgM and IgG1 unchanged. Since removal of endogenous IL-6 with anti-IL-6 increased serum IgE, and suppressed IgG1 (approximately 50%), with IgM and IgA unchanged, this suggests that IL-6 is an isotype specific suppressor of peak IgE responses and as such may be useful in the therapeutic management of atopic disease. IFN alpha treatment increased serum IgE levels (60%), and potentiated IgA responses (> 30 fold), with IgM and IgG1 unchanged. Since removal of endogenous IFN alpha with anti-IFN alpha decreased IgE levels (approximately 50%), increasing IgA, with IgM and IgG1 unchanged, this suggests a role for IFN alpha as an isotype specific helper of peak IgE responses and in maintenance of IgA responses.

  4. Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes are the sites of first appearance of IgE bearing B lymphocytes and hapten specific IgE antibody forming cells in BPO-KLH sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Chice, S M; Heusser, C; Athanassiades, T J; Durkin, H G

    1992-01-01

    Antigen specific IgE responses originate in gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of mice sensitized with benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) in alum, regardless of the route (intraperitoneal [i.p.], oral [gavage], subcutaneous [s.c.], intramuscular [i.m.] or intravenous [i.v.]) used for immunization. When BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in alum, B lymphocytes bearing membrane bound IgE (sIgE+B cells) first appeared simultaneously in Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) on day 8. BPO specific IgE antibody forming cells (AFC) also appeared in PP on day 8, but were not found in MLN until day 10. On day 8, no sIgE+B cells or IgE AFC were found in bone marrow (BM) or other lymphoid organs. The appearance of sIgE+B cells and IgE AFC in PP and MLN was transient; these cells were no longer detected in PP on days 14 and 24, respectively, or in MLN on days 14 and 36, respectively. sIgE+B cells and IgE AFC did not appear in spleen until day 12, where they were detected through day 70. Although sIgE+B cells were never found in BM, IgE AFC appeared in BM on day 18, where they were detected through day 70. No sIgE+B cells or IgE AFC were found in other lymph nodes (OLN) on days 0-70. Boosting did not induce the reappearance of sIgE+B cells or IgE AFC in PP, the reappearance of sIgE+B cells in MLN, the appearance of sIgE+B cells in BM, or the appearance of sIgE+B cells or IgE AFC in OLN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  6. Electrostatic dust detector

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2006-05-02

    An apparatus for detecting dust in a variety of environments which can include radioactive and other hostile environments both in a vacuum and in a pressurized system. The apparatus consists of a grid coupled to a selected bias voltage. The signal generated when dust impacts and shorts out the grid is electrically filtered, and then analyzed by a signal analyzer which is then sent to a counter. For fine grids a correlation can be developed to relate the number of counts observed to the amount of dust which impacts the grid.

  7. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for each of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  8. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for ease of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  9. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal.

  10. Dust in the Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 24, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), acquired this true-color image of a large cloud of dust blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea. The dust storm has persisted in the region for at least a week. In this image, the brownish dust plume appears to originate about 260 miles (400 km) east of Algiers, Algeria, and is blowing toward the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy. SeaWiFS flies aboard the OrbView-2 Satellite. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE

  11. Systemic and mucosal IgE antibody responses of horses to infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, Charles E; Lawson, April L; Coles, Gerald C; Wilson, A Douglas

    2014-01-17

    Infection of horses with Anoplocephala perfoliata induces a severe inflammatory reaction of the caecal mucosa around the site of parasite attachment adjacent to the ileocecal valve. Lesions show epithelial erosion or ulceration of the mucosa with infiltration by eosinophils, lymphocytes and mast cells leading to oedema, gross thickening and fibrosis of the caecal wall. Despite this evidence of an inflammatory reaction to A. perfoliata within the mucosa of the caecum there is little information about the nature of the local immune response to A. perfoliata. An ELISA which assays serum IgG(T) antibodies to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens has been developed as a diagnostic test. However, the specificity of the ELISA remains sub-optimal and the role of other isotypes in the immune response to A. perfoliata has not been reported. This study measured IgA, IgE and IgG(T) antibody responses to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens in sera of 75 horses presented for slaughter. The prevalence of A. perfoliata infection, as confirmed by the presence of parasites in the terminal ileum, caecum or proximal colon, was 55%. A. perfoliata-specific IgG(T) and IgE antibodies were significantly elevated in infected horses compared to controls; IgA antibodies were also detected but did not differ between infected and control horses. Diagnosis by serum IgG(T) ELISA had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 80%, by comparison the serum IgE ELISA had a sensitivity of just 44% with a specificity of 82% and therefore did not provide an improved diagnostic test. Western blots with sera from infected horses demonstrated IgE-binding to at least 10 separate components of excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens. A similar pattern was also found with IgG(T). Around 30% of horses had high levels of serum IgE which bound fucose-containing carbohydrate antigens on the parasite surface but this was unrelated to the presence of A. perfoliata infection. Immunoperoxidase staining detected

  12. Genome-Wide Scan on Total Serum IgE Levels Identifies FCER1A as Novel Susceptibility Locus

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Elke; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Mempel, Martin; Klopp, Norman; Gohlke, Henning; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Heinrich, Joachim; Novak, Natalija; Bieber, Thomas; Krämer, Ursula; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Bauer, Carl Peter; Herbarth, Olf; Koletzko, Sibylle; Prokisch, Holger; Mehta, Divya; Meitinger, Thomas; Depner, Martin; von Mutius, Erika; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam; Cookson, William; Kabesch, Michael; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Illig, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    High levels of serum IgE are considered markers of parasite and helminth exposure. In addition, they are associated with allergic disorders, play a key role in anti-tumoral defence, and are crucial mediators of autoimmune diseases. Total IgE is a strongly heritable trait. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we tested 353,569 SNPs for association with serum IgE levels in 1,530 individuals from the population-based KORA S3/F3 study. Replication was performed in four independent population-based study samples (total n = 9,769 individuals). Functional variants in the gene encoding the alpha chain of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FCER1A) on chromosome 1q23 (rs2251746 and rs2427837) were strongly associated with total IgE levels in all cohorts with P values of 1.85×10−20 and 7.08×10−19 in a combined analysis, and in a post-hoc analysis showed additional associations with allergic sensitization (P = 7.78×10−4 and P = 1.95×10−3). The “top” SNP significantly influenced the cell surface expression of FCER1A on basophils, and genome-wide expression profiles indicated an interesting novel regulatory mechanism of FCER1A expression via GATA-2. Polymorphisms within the RAD50 gene on chromosome 5q31 were consistently associated with IgE levels (P values 6.28×10−7−4.46×10−8) and increased the risk for atopic eczema and asthma. Furthermore, STAT6 was confirmed as susceptibility locus modulating IgE levels. In this first GWAS on total IgE FCER1A was identified and replicated as new susceptibility locus at which common genetic variation influences serum IgE levels. In addition, variants within the RAD50 gene might represent additional factors within cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q31, emphasizing the need for further investigations in this intriguing region. Our data furthermore confirm association of STAT6 variation with serum IgE levels. PMID:18846228

  13. Neuropeptide-mediated regulation of hapten-specific IgE responses in mice. II. Mechanisms of substance P-mediated isotype-specific suppression of BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses induced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carucci, J A; Herrick, C A; Durkin, H G

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that substance P (SP), injected into benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) sensitized mice at the peak of the benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE response, suppressed these responses in isotype-specific fashion within 48 h. These studies also showed that SP, but not neurotensin (NT), serotonin (5-HT), somatostatin (SOM) or gastrin, suppressed BPO-specific memory IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses induced in vitro, also in isotype-specific fashion. To investigate the mechanisms by which SP suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses were induced in vitro, these responses were induced by culturing spleen cells from BPO-KLH sensitized mice for 5 days with BPO-KLH with or without whole SP, amino terminal SP (SP 1-4: Arg-Lys-Pro-Lys), or carboxy terminal SP (SP 8-11: Phe-Gly-Leu-Met). In some experiments, the SP receptor antagonist (D-Pro2, D-Phe7, D-Trp9)-SP (D-SP) was included in culture. In other experiments anti-interferon monoclonal antibody (anti-IFN gamma mAb) was in culture. Whole SP and SP 8-11, but not SP 1-4, suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses induced in vitro. The suppression obtained was IgE isotype-specific and dose-dependent. Inclusion of SP receptor antagonist (D-Pro2, D-Phe7, D-Trp9)-SP inhibited suppression of BPO-specific memory IgE AFC responses by SP or SP 8-11. The SP-mediated suppression of BPO-specific memory IgE responses appeared to involve interferon gamma (IFN gamma).

  14. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  15. 1983 Transatlantic Dust Event

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization (prepared in 2001) shows dust being blown westward over the Atlantic from northern Africa in early 1983, from aerosol measurements taken by Nimbus 7's TOMS instrument. Saharan du...

  16. The ISPM dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, L. D.; Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Schwehm, G.; Zook, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The ISPM Dust Experiment observes particulate matter with masses between 10 to the minus 19th power and 10 to the minus 10th power kg in the solar system; investigates its physical and dynamical properties as a function of ecliptic latitude and heliocentric distance; and studies its interaction with solar radiation, the solar wind, and the interplanetary magnetic field. Measurement of the three dimensional spatial distribution of cosmic dust particles and their dynamics allows the relative significance of their probable sources (comets, asteroids and interstellar dust) to be determined. An instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles is used. It is a multicoincidence detector with a sensitivity 100,000 times higher than that of previous experiments. The instrument weighs 3.750 kg, consumes 2.0 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 8 bit/sec in spacecraft tracking mode.

  17. Dusts and Molds

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dust can result in sensitization. Symptoms include chills, fever, cough, chest congestion, fatigue, and shortness of ... grain and forage products. Symptoms include cough, fever, chills, body aches, and fatigue. These symptoms appear from ...

  18. Dust mite (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  19. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  20. Dust and Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... dust, the most common non-spherical aerosol type, from pollution and forest fire particles. Determining aerosol characteristics is a ... higher, indicating the relative abundance of small pollution particles, especially over the Atlantic where the aerosol optical ...

  1. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  2. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  3. Suppression of dust mite allergy by mucosal delivery of a hypoallergenic derivative in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ai, Chunqing; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Ding, Junrong; Ren, Chengcheng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Allergic asthma caused by house dust mite (HDM) is becoming a public health problem. Specific immunotherapy is considered to be the only curative treatment, but it is always associated with IgE-mediated side effects in the therapy process. A few studies showed that the disruption of allergen IgE epitopes could reduce IgE reactivity and thus reduce allergenic activity. In this study, a hypoallergenic derivative of the major HDM allergen Der p2 was constructed by genetic engineering. This derivative was confirmed to have a considerably reduced IgE reactivity compared with Der p2. For its application in vivo, recombinant Lactococcus lactis (LL-DM) was engineered to deliver the Der p2 derivative to the intestinal mucosal surface. Oral administration of LL-DM significantly alleviated Der p2-induced airway inflammation, as shown by reduced inflammatory infiltration and a reduction in Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage. This protective effect was associated with an up-regulation of specific IgG2a and a decrease in IL-4 level in the spleen which may affect specific IgE response. Moreover, the levels of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were markedly increased in mice fed with LL-DM, suggesting that LL-DM can inhibit allergic responses via the induction of regulatory T cell. Our results indicate that the Der p2 derivative is a promising therapeutic molecule for specific immunotherapy and recombinant lactic acid bacteria could be developed as a promising treatment or prevention strategy for allergic diseases.

  4. Ares Vallis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 May 2004 When it was operating in the Ares/Tiu Valles region of Chryse Planitia, Mars, in 1997, Mars Pathfinder detected dust devils that passed over and near the lander. From orbit, no images of dust devils at the Mars Pathfinder site have yet been acquired, but this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime dust devil near the rim of a 610-meter (670 yards)-diameter impact crater in the same general region as the Mars Pathfinder site. This scene is near 19.6oN, 32.9oW, in part of the Ares Vallis system. The dust devil in this case is not making a streak, as dust devils tend to do in some regions of Mars. The dark feature to the right (east) of the dust devil is its shadow. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  5. Hebes Chasma Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in Hebes Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 286.6 East (73.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Pallene dust torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiss, M.; Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Sun, K. L.; Seiler, M.; Sachse, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Spahn, F.

    2014-12-01

    The tiny moon Pallene (diameter < 5 km, semi-major axis 212,000 km) orbits between Saturn's moons Mimas and Enceladus. The ISS cameras on board the Cassini spacecraft have detected a faint dust torus along its inclined orbit (Hedman, 2009). The source of the torus is believed to be the moon itself, where dust particles are ejected from the surface by micrometeoroid bombardment. Here we present in-situ dust measurements of the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) on-board the spacecraft Cassini which confirm a dust torus of micrometer-sized particles along the orbit of Pallene. The cross-section of the torus has been modeled with a double-Gaussian distribution, resulting in a radial and vertical full width at half maximum of 2300 km and 270 km and a maximum particle density of n = 2.7 10-3 m-3. Additionally, the data show an enhancement of larger particle in the torus in comparison to the background E-ring size distribution. The radial mean position of the torus is radially shifted outwards by around 1200 km in all flybys. This could point to a systematic larger semi-major axes of the dust particles (in comparison to Pallene) or a possible heliotropic appearance of the torus (all flybys in anti-solar direction).

  7. Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. PMID:25656803

  8. [Influence of serum levels of vitamin D on IgE response in schoolchildren with asthma in poor communities].

    PubMed

    Egea, Eduardo; Garavito, Gloria; Fang, Luis; Mendoza, Dary Luz; Escamilla, José Miguel; De Los Ríos, Elsie; Dennis, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: El asma es una enfermedad frecuente en el mundo y la vitamina D (Vit-D) se ha asociado con la presencia y severidad de esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Establecer la asociación entre los niveles de Vit-D y la respuesta IgE en escolares con asma residentes de cuatro ciudades colombiananas. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles en 1340 escolares (687 asmáticos y 653 controles) de comunidades en extrema pobreza de Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta y Montería. Se midieron las concentraciones séricas de Vit-D, IgE total e IgE específica anti Dermatofagoides farinae, Periplaneta americana y Ascaris lumbricoides (AL). Resultados: Los controles reportaron concentraciones mayores de Vit-D [61.9 ± 28.4 ng/mL] que los casos [53 ± 23.3 ng/mL] (p<0.05). La IgE total fue mayor en los casos (p<0.05). Solo IgE anti-AL mostró una diferencia clara: controles, densidad óptica 0.27 ± 0.25; casos 0.22 ± 0.24 (p<0.05). La Vit-D presentó diferencias entre casos y controles en cada población. Conclusiones: No se pudo demostrar la asociación entre deficiencia de Vit-D y asma, dado que la IgE total estuvo elevada en los pacientes y en los controles. Los resultados sugieren que la Vit-D influye en la respuesta IgE específica en niños asmáticos pobres en zonas endémicas para helmintiasis.

  9. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  10. Human tonsillar IgE biosynthesis in vitro. I. Enhancement of IgE and IgG synthesis in the presence of pokeweed mitogen by T-cell irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, K.; Manzara, T.; Harbeck, R.J.; Kirkpatrick, C.H.

    1982-02-01

    A study of the events regulating human IgE biosynthesis in vitro was undertaken with tonsillar lymphocytes. IgG synthesis was also studied to evaluate the specificity of our observations. T-cell irradiation significantly enhanced synthesis of IgE by pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated B cells from 12 of 18 donors and IgG in all 18 donors. This enhancement was the result of de novo immunoglobulin synthesis, since the amount of IgE and IgG spontaneously released from lysed and lysed-and-cultured mononuclear cells was significantly less than that detected in the cell cultures, and the augmentation was completely ablated by the treatment of the cells with cycloheximide or mitomycin C. Enhancement was also dependent on the presence of PWM; T-cell irradiation did not enhance IgE synthesis in unstimulated cultures. Moreover, this enhancement was also observed in the co-cultures of B cells and allogeneic irradiated T cells. These observations suggest that radiosensitive T cells exert a suppressive activity that contributes to regulation of human IgE and IgG synthesis and that the suppressor function as well as the helper function can overcome allogeneic disparities.

  11. Interstellar and Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, John S.

    1997-01-01

    'Interstellar dust' forms a continuum of materials with differing properties which I divide into three classes on the basis of observations: (a) diffuse dust, in the low-density interstellar medium; (b) outer-cloud dust, observed in stars close enough to the outer edges of molecular clouds to be observed in the optical and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum, and (c) inner-cloud dust, deep within the cores of molecular clouds, and observed only in the infrared by means of absorption bands of C-H, C=O, 0-H, C(triple bond)N, etc. There is a surprising regularity of the extinction laws between diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. The entire mean extinction law from infrared through the observable ultraviolet spectrum can be characterized by a single parameter. There are real deviations from this mean law, larger than observational uncertainties, but they are much smaller than differences of the mean laws in diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. This fact shows that there are processes which operate over the entire distribution of grain sizes, and which change size distributions extremely efficiently. There is no evidence for mantles on grains in local diffuse and outer-cloud dust. The only published spectra of the star VI Cyg 12, the best candidate for showing mantles, does not show the 3.4 micro-m band which appreciable mantles would produce. Grains are larger in outer-cloud dust than diffuse dust because of coagulation, not accretion of extensive mantles. Core-mantle grains favored by J. M. Greenberg and collaborators, and composite grains of Mathis and Whiffen (1989), are discussed more extensively (naturally, I prefer the latter). The composite grains are fluffy and consist of silicates, amorphous carbon, and some graphite in the same grain. Grains deep within molecular clouds but before any processing within the solar system are presumably formed from the accretion of icy mantles on and within the coagulated outer-cloud grains. They should contain a mineral

  12. Interstellar and Cometary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, John S.

    1997-12-01

    'Interstellar dust' forms a continuum of materials with differing properties which I divide into three classes on the basis of observations: (a) diffuse dust, in the low-density interstellar medium; (b) outer-cloud dust, observed in stars close enough to the outer edges of molecular clouds to be observed in the optical and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum, and (c) inner-cloud dust, deep within the cores of molecular clouds, and observed only in the infrared by means of absorption bands of C-H, C=O, 0-H, C(triple bond)N, etc. There is a surprising regularity of the extinction laws between diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. The entire mean extinction law from infrared through the observable ultraviolet spectrum can be characterized by a single parameter. There are real deviations from this mean law, larger than observational uncertainties, but they are much smaller than differences of the mean laws in diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. This fact shows that there are processes which operate over the entire distribution of grain sizes, and which change size distributions extremely efficiently. There is no evidence for mantles on grains in local diffuse and outer-cloud dust. The only published spectra of the star VI Cyg 12, the best candidate for showing mantles, does not show the 3.4 micro-m band which appreciable mantles would produce. Grains are larger in outer-cloud dust than diffuse dust because of coagulation, not accretion of extensive mantles. Core-mantle grains favored by J. M. Greenberg and collaborators, and composite grains of Mathis and Whiffen (1989), are discussed more extensively (naturally, I prefer the latter). The composite grains are fluffy and consist of silicates, amorphous carbon, and some graphite in the same grain. Grains deep within molecular clouds but before any processing within the solar system are presumably formed from the accretion of icy mantles on and within the coagulated outer-cloud grains. They should contain a mineral

  13. Population differences in cutaneous methacholine reactivity and circulating IgE concentrations.

    PubMed

    Buckley, C E; Larrick, J W; Kaplan, J E

    1985-12-01

    We evaluated the incidence of allergic and vasomotor symptoms, serum IgE concentrations, and the cutaneous responses to allergens and/or methacholine in 229 Waorani Indians residing at 300 m altitude near the headwaters of the Amazon River, 39 Tibetans residing at 4000 m in the Himalayas, and 84 healthy subjects residing at 150 m in the piedmont region of North Carolina. The Waorani Indians had a high level of intestinal parasitism, an intermediate level of parasitism occurs in Tibetans, and parasitism is rare in the control population. One Waorani Indian (less than 1%), six Tibetans (15%), and 59 North Carolina subjects (88%) had a past history of allergic or vasomotor symptoms. The prevalence of positive epicutaneous allergen skin tests among the Waorani was 40 in 2910 tests and was significantly less (chi-squared = 184.5; p less than or equal to 0.0001) than the 151 in 1344 incidence in the North Carolina subjects. Large highly significant differences (p less than or equal to 0.0001) were detected between the geometric mean IgE concentrations (international unit per milliliter) and methacholine-induced cutaneous flare responsiveness (millimeter) elicited, respectively, in comparisons between the Waorani Indians (9806 IU/ml; less than 1.0 mm), Tibetans (2930 IU/ml; 2.06 mm), and North Carolina subjects (108 IU/ml; 4.49 mm). Differences in methacholine sensitivity were small and not significant. A highly significant inverse relationship (r = -0.50, p less than or equal to 0.0001) was detected between the circulating IgE concentrations and the methacholine-induced cutaneous flare responsiveness in this cross-cultural, cross-environmental comparison of three populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4067133

  14. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ramavovololona; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Methods Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated in 1 and 2 dimensions and IgE and IgG reactivities detected upon immunoblotting. Results When exploring the sensitization profile of Malagasy allergic patients to maize and rice pollen, it appears that a high proportion of these patients consulting during grass pollinating season were sensitized to both pollen as revealed by skin prick testing (62 vs. 59%) and IgE immunoblotting (85 vs. 40%). Several clinically relevant allergens were recognized by patients’ serum IgE in maize and rice pollen extracts. Conclusion The high levels of maize and rice pollen sensitization should be related, in this tropical region, to a specific environmental exposure including i) a proximity of the population to the allergenic sources and ii) a putative exacerbating effect of a highly polluted urban atmosphere on pollen allergenicity. Cross-reactivities between wild and cultivated grasses and also between rice and maize pollen are involved as well as some specific maize sensitizations. The presence of dense urban and peri-urban agriculture, in various African regions and worldwide, could be a high environmental risk factor for people sensitive to maize pollen. PMID:25870739

  15. IgE in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Schuyler, Alexander J; Erwin, Elizabeth A; Commins, Scott P; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of allergy implied an abnormal response to an otherwise benign agent (eg, pollen or food), with an easily identifiable relationship between exposure and disease. However, there are syndromes in which the relationship between exposure to the relevant allergen and the "allergic" disease is not clear. In these cases the presence of specific IgE antibodies can play an important role in identifying the relevant allergen and provide a guide to therapy. Good examples include chronic asthma and exposure to perennial indoor allergens and asthma related to fungal infection. Finally, we are increasingly aware of forms of food allergy in which the relationship between exposure and the disease is delayed by 3 to 6 hours or longer. Three forms of food allergy with distinct clinical features are now well recognized. These are (1) anaphylactic sensitivity to peanut, (2) eosinophilic esophagitis related to cow's milk, and (3) delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. In these syndromes the immunology of the response is dramatically different. Peanut and galactose α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are characterized by high- or very high-titer IgE antibodies for Ara h 2 and alpha-gal, respectively. By contrast, eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by low levels of IgE specific for milk proteins with high- or very high-titer IgG4 to the same proteins. The recent finding is that patients with alpha-gal syndrome do not have detectable IgG4 to the oligosaccharide. Thus the serum results not only identify relevant antigens but also provide a guide to the nature of the immune response. PMID:27264001

  16. PKU-related dysgammaglobulinaemia: the effect of diet therapy on IgE and allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Riva, E; Fiocchi, A; Agostoni, C; Biasucci, G; Sala, M; Banderali, G; Luotti, D; Giovannini, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of diet on the development of immunoallergic signs and symptoms in children with phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated. Immunological indices of 58 children with PKU treated with diets were compared to the immunological indices of 58 healthy (non-PKU) children. In the PKU group, 39 children had been placed on diet therapy within the first month of life; 19 children had been placed on diet therapy after 6 months of age. Total circulating lymphocytes; CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ circulating lymphocytes; and serum IgA, IgM, IgG and total IgE levels were measured for each child. Skin prick tests were performed for common inhalant and food allergens. Every 3 months over the 2-year period of this study, the signs and symptoms of eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma were recorded. The PKU group had lower IgG levels (p = 0.004) and higher total IgE levels (p = 0.0001) than the control group. Significantly lower IgE levels were found in children started on diet therapy within the first month of life compared with those started on diet therapy after 6 months of age (p = 0.0001). Allergic sensitization was significantly more frequent in the PKU group (24/58 vs 13/58, z = 2.00, p < 0.05), but no significant difference in the incidence of eczema and allergic rhinitis was found. Asthma was less frequent in the PKU group than in the control group (5/58 vs 14/58, z = 2.09, p < 0.05). Thus, diet appeared to prevent the development of immunoallergic signs and symptoms.

  17. Prostaglandins E2 signal mediated by receptor subtype EP2 promotes IgE production in vivo and contributes to asthma development

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuhan; Zhao, Chunyan; Wang, Wei; Jin, Rong; Li, Qian; Ge, Qing; Guan, Youfei; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) has been shown to enhance IgE production by B cells in vitro. The physiological and pathological relevance of this phenomenon and the underlying molecular mechanism, however, remain to be elucidated. B cells from wild type and EP2-deficient mice were compared in culture for their responses to PGE2 in terms of IgE class switching and production. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma models were used to evaluate the impact of EP2-deficiency on IgE responses and the development of asthma. PGE2 promoted IgE class switching, generation of IgE+ cells and secretion of IgE by B cells stimulated with LPS+IL4. These effects were much attenuated as a consequence of EP2 deficiency. Consistent with the in vitro data, EP2-deficient mice showed a markedly suppressed IgE antibody response and developed less pronounced airway inflammation in the OVA-induced asthma model. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that PGE2, in an EP2-depedent manner, enhanced STAT6 activation induced by IL-4, thereby promoting the expression of IgE germline and post switch transcripts and the transcription of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Collectively, these data support an important regulatory role of the PGE2-EP2-STAT6 signaling pathway in IgE response and allergic diseases. PMID:26852804

  18. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  19. IgE expression on the surface of B1 and B2 lymphocytes in experimental murine schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, F L; Aguiar, A M; Borojevic, R; El-Cheikh, M C

    2005-07-01

    In a previous study we monitored the distribution and phenotype expression of B1 cells during the evolution of experimental murine schistosomiasis mansoni and we proposed that the B1 cells were heterogeneous: a fraction which originated in the spleen and followed the migratory pathway to mesenteric ganglia, while the other was the resident peritoneal B1-cell pool. In the present study, we have addressed the question of whether these two B1-lymphocyte populations are involved in the production of the late Ig isotype IgE, which is present in high levels in schistosomal infection. Lymphocyte expression of surface markers and immunoglobulins were monitored by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Both in the spleen and mesenteric ganglia, the B1 and B2 cells were induced to switch from IgM to IgE in the early Th2-dominated phase of the disease, with an increase of IgE in its later phases. Conversely, peritoneal B1-IgM+ switched to the remaining IgE+ present in high numbers in the peritoneal cavity throughout the disease. We correlated the efficient induction of the expression of late Ig isotypes by B1 cells with high levels of inflammatory cytokines due to the intense host response to the presence of worms and their eggs in the abdominal cavity. In conclusion, B1 cells have a different switch behavior from IgM to IgE indicating that these cell sub-populations depend on the microenvironment.

  20. Comparison of specific IgE antibodies to wheat component allergens in two phenotypes of wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Young-Hee; Hwang, Eui-Kyung; Jin, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jeong Min; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Ye, Young-Min; Palacin, Arantxa; Salcedo, Gabriel; Lee, Soo-Young; Park, Hae-Sim

    2013-11-01

    Specific IgE to gliadin was proposed as a marker for wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis, while Tri a 14 was found to induce IgE response in baker's asthma. We evaluated whether these components could be used for discriminating phenotypes of wheat allergy. Twenty-nine patients who were wheat-induced anaphylaxis and/or urticaria (n=21, group I) and baker's asthma (n=8, group II) were enrolled. The prevalence of serum specific IgE to Tri a 14 was higher in group II (25%) than in group I (4.8%), while the serum specific IgE to gliadin was significantly higher in group I (70%) than in group II (12.5%). The cutoff value for predicting the baker's asthma using the ratio of serum specific IgE to Tri a 14 to gliadin was 742.8 optical density×1,000/(kU/L) with high sensitivity and specificity. These findings suggest that Tri a 14/gliadin may be a potential marker for predicting baker's asthma.

  1. Confirmation of a predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Koyano, Satoru; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-04-01

    Some GM crops including MON863 corn and stack varieties contain Cry3Bb1 protein. Cry3Bb1 is very important from the standpoint of assessing the safety of GM crops. In this study Cry3Bb1 was assessed from the standpoint of possible binding to IgE from allergy patients. First, an ELISA that was improved in our laboratory was used to test serum samples from 13 corn allergy patients in the United States with recombinant Cry3Bb1 expressed in Escherichia coli, and serum samples from 55 patients in Japan with various food allergies were also assayed. Two samples from the Japanese allergy patients were suspected of being positive, but Western blotting analysis with purified Cry3Bb1 indicated that the binding between IgE and Cry3Bb1 was nonspecific. Ultimately, no specific binding between IgE and recombinant Cry3Bb1 was detected. Next, all proteins extracted from MON863 corn and non-GM corn were probed with IgE antibodies in serum samples from the corn allergy patients by Western blotting, but the staining patterns of MON863 and non-GM corn were similar, meaning that unintended allergic reactions to MON863 are unlikely to occur. Our study provides additional information that confirms the predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 in people with existing food allergies.

  2. Variable Region Identical IgA and IgE to Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Manifest Specificity Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Nakouzi, Antonio; Pohl, Mary Ann; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and found that these differed in specificity from each other. The IgE and IgA paratopes were probed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 15N-labeled peptide mimetics of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen (Ag). IgE was found to cleave the peptide at a much faster rate than V region-identical IgG subclasses and IgA, consistent with an altered paratope. Both IgE and IgA were opsonic for C. neoformans and protected against infection in mice. In summary, V-region expression in the context of the ϵ constant (C) region results in specificity changes that are greater than observed for comparable IgG subclasses. These results raise the possibility that expression of certain V regions in the context of α and ϵ C regions affects their function and contributes to the special properties of those isotypes. PMID:25778397

  3. Influence of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia on total IgE levels in Gabonese patients co-infected with Loa loa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Moussavou Boussougou, M N; Ovono-Abessolo, F; Owono-Medang, M; Kombila, M

    2014-03-01

    Mansonella (M.) perstans filariasis is widely found in Africa, including Gabon where Loa loa is also endemic. This study reports the total IgE titres according to different bioclinical forms of single or co-infection with L. loa and M. perstans in 138 patients and 20 healthy controls. The median parasite density was significantly higher in cases of loiasis. IgE titres were higher in patients with microscopic dual-infection and in the group of patients with occult loiasis plus M. perstans microfilaraemia (8425 [5292-20,679]KUI/L and 6304 [1045-10,326]KUI/L, respectively), compared to individuals with either microfilaraemic Loa loa (3368 [1414-7074]KUI/L) or Mansonella (4370 [1478-7334]KUI/L) single infections (p<0.01). IgE levels were positively correlated with M. perstans microfilaraemia (rho=0.27; p<0.01). Compared to single infections, dual M. perstans-L. loa infection induces very high total IgE titres. Studies correlating IgE titres and clinical symptoms are needed to confirm the involvement of this immunoglobulin in the pathological processes during filariasis. PMID:24280145

  4. Dust measurements in tokamaks (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, D. L.; Yu, J. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Moyer, R. A.; Muller, S. H.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rosenberg, M.; Smirnov, R. D.; West, W. P.; Boivin, R. L.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; Hyatt, A. W.; Wong, C. P. C.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C. H.; Solomon, W. M.; Ratynskaia, S.

    2008-10-15

    Dust production and accumulation present potential safety and operational issues for the ITER. Dust diagnostics can be divided into two groups: diagnostics of dust on surfaces and diagnostics of dust in plasma. Diagnostics from both groups are employed in contemporary tokamaks; new diagnostics suitable for ITER are also being developed and tested. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g., between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In the DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering is able to resolve particles between 0.16 and 1.6 {mu}m in diameter; using these data the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in two-dimension with a single camera or three-dimension using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is challenging. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, precharacterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase in carbon line (CI, CII, C{sub 2} dimer) and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  5. Determining inert content in coal dust/rock dust mixture

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Ward, Jr., Jack A.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the inert content of a coal dust and rock dust mixture uses a transparent window pressed against the mixture. An infrared light beam is directed through the window such that a portion of the infrared light beam is reflected from the mixture. The concentration of the reflected light is detected and a signal indicative of the reflected light is generated. A normalized value for the generated signal is determined according to the relationship .phi.=(log i.sub.c `log i.sub.co) / (log i.sub.c100 -log i.sub.co) where i.sub.co =measured signal at 0% rock dust i.sub.c100 =measured signal at 100% rock dust i.sub.c =measured signal of the mixture. This normalized value is then correlated to a predetermined relationship of .phi. to rock dust percentage to determine the rock dust content of the mixture. The rock dust content is displayed where the percentage is between 30 and 100%, and an indication of out-of-range is displayed where the rock dust percent is less than 30%. Preferably, the rock dust percentage (RD%) is calculated from the predetermined relationship RD%=100+30 log .phi.. where the dust mixture initially includes moisture, the dust mixture is dried before measuring by use of 8 to 12 mesh molecular-sieves which are shaken with the dust mixture and subsequently screened from the dust mixture.

  6. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  7. Sensitization by subcutaneous route is superior to intraperitoneal route in induction of asthma by house dust mite in a murine mode

    PubMed Central

    Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz Mangueira; de Almeida, Francine Maria; Brüggemann, Thayse Regina; Kalil, Jorge; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Arantes-Costa, Fernanda Magalhães; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To develop a new experimental model of chronic allergic pulmonary disease induced by house dust mite, with marked production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the airways and remodeling, comparing two different routes of sensitization. Methods The protocol lasted 30 days. BALB/c mice were divided into six groups and were sensitized subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with saline (negative control), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 50 or 500mcg in three injections. Subsequently they underwent intranasal challenge with Der p or saline for 7 days and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last challenge. We evaluated the titration of specific IgE anti-Der p, eosinophilic density in peribronchovascular space and airway remodeling. Results Both animals sensitized intraperitoneally and subcutaneously produced specific IgE anti-Der p. Peribronchovascular eosinophilia increased only in mice receiving lower doses of Der p. However, only the group sensitized with Der p 50mcg through subcutaneously route showed significant airway remodeling. Conclusion In this murine model of asthma, both pathways of sensitization led to the production of specific IgE and eosinophilia in the airways. However, only the subcutaneously route was able to induce remodeling. Furthermore, lower doses of Der p used in sensitization were better than higher ones, suggesting immune tolerance. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this model in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but it can already be replicated in experiments to create new therapeutic drugs or immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26761554

  8. Conveyor dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbeck, L.

    1999-11-01

    In the past, three different approaches have been used to control dust arising at conveyor load zones. They are: Dust Containment consists of those mechanical systems employed to keep material inside the transfer point with the main material body. Dust Suppression systems increase the mass of suspended dust particles, allowing them to fall from the air stream. Dust Collection is the mechanical capture and return of airborne material after it becomes airborne from the main material body. Previously, these three approaches have always been seen as separate entities. They were offered by separate organizations competing in the marketplace. The three technologies vied for their individual piece of the rock, at the expense of the other technologies (and often at the expense of overall success). There have been considerable amounts of I`m better selling, as well as finger pointing at the other systems when problems arose. Each system claimed its own technology was the best, providing the most effective, most cost-efficient, most maintenance-free solution to fugitive material.

  9. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  10. Dust Growth by RF Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Churton, B.; Samarian, A. A.; Coueedel, L.

    2008-09-07

    The effect of the dust particle growth by RF sputtering on glow discharge has been investigated. It has been found that the growth of dust particles modifies the electrical characteristics of the discharge. In particularly, the absolute value of the self-bias voltage decreases during the particle growth due to the electron losses on the dust particles. To find the correlation between the dust growth and the self bias evolution, dust particles have been collected at different times. The dust particle growth rate is found to be linear.

  11. Control of IgE responses. 4. Isotype-specific suppression of peak BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses and of BPO-specific IgE in serum by muramyldipeptide or murabutide after administration to mice by gavage.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Carucci, J A; Chice, S M; Smith, M C; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G

    1993-01-01

    Muramyldipeptide (MDP) and murabutide (MB) suppressed hapten-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo. IgE responses were induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection with benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel (Alum) on days 0, 21 and 42. On day 44, mice were fed (gavage) or injected subcutaneously with varying concentrations of MDP or MB (0.1-500 mg/kg). The mice were killed on days 45-70, and the numbers of BPO-specific IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA AFC in various lymphoid organs were determined in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. In addition, levels of BPO-specific IgE in serum were determined by ELISA. Data are expressed as AFC/10(7) cells or as micrograms/ml. Feeding with MDP or MB on day 44 suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses and serum levels of BPO-specific IgE within 48 h (day 46) (65-100% and approximately 50% decrease, respectively). With both molecules, the suppression was IgE isotype-specific, dose-dependent and transient. The suppression was also route-specific since it was obtained only when MDP or MB were given by gavage, and not when injected subcutaneously. These results show that peak antigen-specific IgE responses can be downregulated in vivo, in isotype-specific fashion, by a clearly defined class of molecules, MDP and MB, one of which, MB, is a candidate for clinical studies in man. The mechanism of suppression probably involves the modulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and mucosal immunity. The clinical implications are that pharmacologic agents of this type may be suitable for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic downregulation of IgE and, hence, in the therapy of IgE-mediated diseases in man such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other atopic diseases.

  12. Dust density measurements in 3D dust clouds by tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, Andre

    2014-10-01

    Dusty plasmas usually consist of (micron-sized) dust particles trapped in a gaseous discharge plasma. Volume-filling dust clouds can be generated in the laboratory by thermophoretic levitation of the particles against gravity or under the microgravity conditions of parabolic flights. In these discharges, the dust density is typically so high that together with the high charge on the particles, the dust charge density can compete with the ion and electron (charge) density indicating a regime of charge depletion. Here, we present a technique that allows to measure the spatially resolved 3D dust density in such dusty discharges. For that purpose, the dust cloud is transilluminated by a homogeneous light source and the transilluminated cloud is measured under different angles in a tomographic-like manner. This allows to reconstruct the full 3D dust density within the discharge volume and further to deduce the force balance for the dust component. Supported by DLR 50 WM 1138.

  13. IL-1, IL-4 production and IgE levels in acute and chronic fasciolosis before and after triclabendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Allam, A F; Osman, M M; el-Sayed, M H; Demian, S R

    2000-12-01

    IL-1 generation by mononuclear phagocytes, IL-4 production by Th2 lymphocytes and IgE levels in serum were measured in eight patients with acute fasciolosis and seven patients in the chronic stage of the disease before and after triclabendazole treatment. Results were compared with those of a control group of ten individuals. The monocytes and lymphocytes from patients with acute and chronic fasciolosis produced significantly lower levels of IL-1 and IL-4 respectively, particularly in the chronic phase of the disease, as compared to the control. A significant increase in IgE level in both acute and chronic fasciolosis was observed. The level was significantly higher in acute as compared to chronic cases. After treatment with triclabendazole IL-1, IL-4 and IgE levels moved towards the control indicating obvious improvement in the immunological responses of the patients.

  14. Clinical and radiological signs of ABPA associated with airways infection with Aspergillus in the absence of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Sunzini, F; Barbato, C; Canofari, C; Lugari, L; Perricone, R; Bergamini, A

    2016-09-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus that mainly affects patients with asthma. For diagnosis, elevated serum IgE level are needed according to Greenberger and Patterson criteria. We report a case of 43 years-old woman who developed ABPA with productive cough, fever and radiological findings of multiple confluent areas of consolidation in both upper lobes. Laboratory tests showed elevated peripheral eosinophil counts (9.3 x 10(3)/ml). In bronchial washing A. galactomannans and A. Fumigatus were isolated, although we found normal levels of serum IgE, and the absence of serum IgG and IgE antibodies to Aspergillus and A. galactomannans. In conclusion, clinical and radiological signs of ABPA can be associated with Aspergillus infection also in the absence of a specific serum antibody reaction. PMID:27608478

  15. IL-1, IL-4 production and IgE levels in acute and chronic fasciolosis before and after triclabendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Allam, A F; Osman, M M; el-Sayed, M H; Demian, S R

    2000-12-01

    IL-1 generation by mononuclear phagocytes, IL-4 production by Th2 lymphocytes and IgE levels in serum were measured in eight patients with acute fasciolosis and seven patients in the chronic stage of the disease before and after triclabendazole treatment. Results were compared with those of a control group of ten individuals. The monocytes and lymphocytes from patients with acute and chronic fasciolosis produced significantly lower levels of IL-1 and IL-4 respectively, particularly in the chronic phase of the disease, as compared to the control. A significant increase in IgE level in both acute and chronic fasciolosis was observed. The level was significantly higher in acute as compared to chronic cases. After treatment with triclabendazole IL-1, IL-4 and IgE levels moved towards the control indicating obvious improvement in the immunological responses of the patients. PMID:11198376

  16. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    PubMed

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.

  17. Big Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 January 2004 Northern Amazonis Planitia is famous for its frequent, large (> 1 km high) dust devils. They occur throughout the spring and summer seasons, and can be detected from orbit, even at the 240 meters (278 yards) per pixel resolution of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle instruments. This red wide angle image shows a plethora of large dust devils. The arrow points to an example. Shadows cast by the towering columns of swirling dust point away from the direction of sunlight illumination (sun is coming from the left/lower left). This December 2004 scene covers an area more than 125 km (> 78 mi) across and is located near 37oN, 154oW.

  18. Dust properties from scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, C.; Pagani, L.; Min, M.; Poteet, C.; Whittet, D.; Cambrésy, L.

    2016-05-01

    Dust grains evolve during the life cycle of the interstellar matter. From their birth places to dense molecular clouds, they grow by coagulation and acquire ice mantles, mainly composed of water. These morphological changes affect their optical properties. However, it remains a highly degenerate issue to determine their composition, size distribution, and shape from observations. In particular, using wavelengths associated to dust emission alone is not sufficient to investigate dense cold cores. Fortunately, scattering has turned out to be a powerful tool to investigate molecular clouds from the outer regions to the core. In particular, it is possible to quantify the amount of dust aggregates needed to reproduce observations from 1.25 to 8 μm.

  19. Saharan Dust over Senegal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Airborne African dust regularly reaches northeastern South America and the Caribbean. Westward dust transport from the Sahara across the central Atlantic has been a common occurrence this spring, with major events visible in both satellite images and photographs. Cap Vert, the westernmost point of Senegal, is dimly visible beneath the dust mass (center); the Arquipelago dos Bijagos in Guinea Bissau lies opposite the mouth of the sediment-laden Rio Corubal. This photo (ISS004-E-12080) was taken by the crew of the International Space Station on May 18, 2002, using a digital camera with a 35-mm lens. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. Dust control for draglines

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  1. Effect of in vitro irradiation and cell cycle-inhibitory drugs on the spontaneous human IgE synthesis in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Del Prete, G.F.; Vercelli, D.; Tiri, A.; Maggi, E.; Rossi, O.; Romagnani, S.; Ricci, M.

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro effects of radiation, diterpine forskolin (FK), and hydrocortisone (HC) on the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by peripheral blood B-lymphocytes from atopic patients were investigated. Without affecting cell viability, in vitro irradiation inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion de novo IgE synthesis in vitro by B cells from all patients examined with a mean 40% reduction of in vitro IgE product after treatment with 100 rads. In contrast, the in vitro IgE production by the U266 myeloma cell line was unaffected, even by irradiation with 1600 rads. The addition to B cell cultures from atopic patients of FK consistently resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous IgE production in vitro. The addition to cultures of 10(-5) and 10(-6) molar concentrations of HC was also usually inhibitory, whereas lower HC concentrations were uneffective or even enhanced the spontaneous in vitro IgE synthesis. When 10(-6) molar concentrations of both HC and FK were combined in culture, a summation inhibitory effect on the spontaneous IgE synthesis was observed. In contrast, neither FK nor HC had inhibitory effect on the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by the U266 myeloma cell line. The spontaneous in vitro IgE synthesis by B cells from patients with Hodgkin's disease, demonstrating high levels of serum IgE, was strongly reduced or virtually abolished after patients underwent total nodal irradiation to prevent the spread of the disease. In addition, the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by B cells from atopic patients was markedly decreased or abolished by in vivo administration of betamethasone.

  2. The relevance of tick bites to the production of IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; James, Hayley R.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Workman, Lisa J.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Fahy, John V.; Nganga, Lucy W.; Ronmark, Eva; Cooper, Philip J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat, which is related to serum IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Most of these patients had tolerated meat for many years previously. The implication is that some exposure in adult life had stimulated the production of these IgE antibodies. Objectives To investigate possible causes of this IgE antibody response, focusing on evidence related to tick bites, which are common in the region where these reactions occur. Methods Serum assays were carried out using biotinylated proteins and extracts bound to a streptavidin ImmunoCAP. Results Prospective studies on IgE antibodies in three subjects following tick bites showed an increase in IgE to alpha-gal of twenty-fold or greater. Other evidence included i) a strong correlation between histories of tick bites and IgE to alpha-gal (χ2=26.8, p<0.001), ii) evidence that these IgE antibodies are common in areas where the tick Amblyomma americanum is common, and iii) a significant correlation between IgE antibodies to alpha-gal and IgE antibodies to proteins derived from A. americanum (rs=0.75, p<0.001). Conclusion The results presented here provide evidence that tick bites are a cause, or possibly the only cause, of IgE specific for alpha-gal in this area of the United States. Both the number of subjects becoming sensitized and the titer of IgE antibodies to alpha-gal are striking. Here we report the first example of a response to an ectoparasite giving rise to an important form of food allergy. PMID:21453959

  3. A sensitive assay for the detection of IgE bound to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, in the form of immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Pree, Ines; Reisinger, Jürgen; Bohle, Barbara; Frantal, Sophie; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2009-06-30

    Allergen-IgE immune complexes, in which the IgE paratopes are occupied by allergen, remain undetected in standard IgE-detection assays which are based on capturing specific IgE by allergens.We describe an assay for the detection of immune complexes consisting of IgE bound to one of the most frequent environmental allergens, the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. This assay is based on a Bet v 1-specific monoclonal antibody, Bip 1, which binds to an epitope on Bet v 1 that is distinct from the epitopes recognized by allergic patients' IgE. IgE-immune complexes formed with sera from birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 46) were undetectable with solid phase-bound allergen but could be captured by Bip 1 immobilized to nitrocellulose membranes or ELISA plates and traced with radioactively or enzymatically labelled anti-human IgE antibodies. The levels of IgE complexed with Bet v 1 measured in our assays were highly correlated with the amounts of non-complexed allergen-specific IgE as determined by the ImmunoCAP assay which is based on solid phase-bound IgE (r = 0.95; p < 0.01). Bet v 1-specific IgE could even be detected at serum dilutions below the cut off of the ImmunoCAP system (i.e., 0.35 kUA/L). We have thus developed a robust and sensitive assay for the detection and quantification of Bet v 1-IgE immune complexes which should be useful to measure allergen-bound IgE in human body fluids and in in vitro experiments.

  4. Netherton's syndrome: a syndrome of elevated IgE and characteristic skin and hair findings.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Smith, J G; Wong, S W; deShazo, R D

    1995-01-01

    Netherton's syndrome is a rare symptom complex characterized by greatly elevated IgE levels with atopic manifestations, an ichthyotic skin disorder (ichthyosis linearis circumflexa and/or congenital lamellar ichthyosis), and the characteristic hair abnormality trichorrhexis invaginata. It may be confused with atopic dermatitis but does not respond to topical corticosteroid treatment. Netherton's syndrome is therefore of considerable importance to allergists. In this article we report the results of the clinical and immunologic evaluation of a previously unreported patient who responded to treatment with 12% ammonium lactate lotion and management of his allergic disease. Furthermore, we have reviewed the English literature and compared the findings in our patient with those of 43 other reported patients. Our patient shared the features of other previously reported patients with this disorder. We conclude that this disease should be included among the other disorders with elevated IgE. Patients may benefit from evaluation and treatment of their allergic symptoms and topical skin treatment with ammonium lactate.

  5. The Low Affinity IgE Receptor (CD23) Is Cleaved by the Metalloproteinase ADAM10*

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, George A.; Blumenkron, Fernando; Yeung, Nolan; Zhou, Pei; Williams, Jason; Grammer, Amrie C.; Petrovich, Robert; Lipsky, Peter E.; Moss, Marcia L.; Werb, Zena

    2008-01-01

    The low affinity IgE receptor, Fc∊RII (CD23), is both a positive and negative regulator of IgE synthesis. The proteinase activity that converts the membrane-bound form of CD23 into a soluble species (sCD23) is an important regulator of the function of CD23 and may be an important therapeutic target for the control of allergy and inflammation. We have characterized the catalytic activity of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) 10 toward human CD23. We found that ADAM10 efficiently catalyzes the cleavage of peptides derived from two distinct cleavage sites in the CD23 backbone. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and a specific prodomain-based inhibitor of ADAM10 perturb the release of endogenously produced CD23 from human leukemia cell lines as well as primary cultures of human B-cells. Expression of a mutant metalloproteinase-deficient construct of ADAM10 partially inhibited the production of sCD23. Similarly, small inhibitory RNA knockdown of ADAM10 partially inhibited CD23 release and resulted in the accumulation of the membrane-bound form of CD23 on the cells. ADAM10 contributes to CD23 shedding and thus could be considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic disease. PMID:17389606

  6. The low affinity IgE receptor (CD23) is cleaved by the metalloproteinase ADAM10.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, George A; Blumenkron, Fernando; Yeung, Nolan; Zhou, Pei; Williams, Jason; Grammer, Amrie C; Petrovich, Robert; Lipsky, Peter E; Moss, Marcia L; Werb, Zena

    2007-05-18

    The low affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRII (CD23), is both a positive and negative regulator of IgE synthesis. The proteinase activity that converts the membrane-bound form of CD23 into a soluble species (sCD23) is an important regulator of the function of CD23 and may be an important therapeutic target for the control of allergy and inflammation. We have characterized the catalytic activity of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) 10 toward human CD23. We found that ADAM10 efficiently catalyzes the cleavage of peptides derived from two distinct cleavage sites in the CD23 backbone. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and a specific prodomain-based inhibitor of ADAM10 perturb the release of endogenously produced CD23 from human leukemia cell lines as well as primary cultures of human B-cells. Expression of a mutant metalloproteinase-deficient construct of ADAM10 partially inhibited the production of sCD23. Similarly, small inhibitory RNA knockdown of ADAM10 partially inhibited CD23 release and resulted in the accumulation of the membrane-bound form of CD23 on the cells. ADAM10 contributes to CD23 shedding and thus could be considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic disease.

  7. Allergen-induced inflammation and the role of immunoglobulin E (IgE).

    PubMed

    Fendrick, A M; Baldwin, J L

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of common allergic disorders such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis has increased significantly in the past 30 years. The impact of these atopic diseases on the patient and the health care system is considerable: Allergic disorders are associated with a high degree of morbidity, which can profoundly impact patient quality of life and health care resource use. Existing strategies to treat allergic disorders beyond simple allergen avoidance focus on diminishing or eliminating the recurrent and/or persistent signs and symptoms that characterize the allergic response. A new strategy has been developed that uses antibodies directed against immunoglobulin E (IgE) to prevent it from binding to cells bearing its receptors and thus neutralizing the allergic response before it begins. These new agents reduce allergic responses in atopic individuals and improve their symptoms while reducing rescue medication and corticosteroid use in patients with allergic asthma or seasonal allergic rhinitis. Thus, anti-IgE antibodies represent proof that IgE plays a central role in allergic reactions and that anti-IgE therapy is a potentially effective treatment for allergic disease.

  8. Reduction in IgE reactivity of Pacific mackerel parvalbumin by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Shiomi, Kazuo; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-09-01

    Parvalbumin, a major fish allergen, has been reported to be highly thermostable. However, little is known as to whether parvalbumin is stable at more than 100°C. Thermostability of the Pacific mackerel parvalbumin was examined by subjecting heated (20-140°C) muscle extracts to SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. As judged by SDS-PAGE and western blotting with the anti-parvalbumin antiserum recognizing the primary structure, the parvalbumin was not degraded even under severe heating conditions. However, western blotting analysis with the monoclonal antibody recognizing the stereoscopic structure revealed that the parvalbumin undergoes conformational changes in a heating load-dependent manner. Importantly, the IgE reactivity of the parvalbumin determined by ELISA using patient sera was also reduced in a heating load-dependent manner; complete loss of IgE reactivity was induced by heating at 140°C. This study showed that the allergenicity of the Pacific mackerel parvalbumin is considerably less thermostable than assumed for other fish parvalbumins. PMID:27041301

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis and IgE binding properties of peanut seed and testa (skin).

    PubMed

    White, Brittany L; Gökce, Emine; Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Muddiman, David C; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

    2013-04-24

    To investigate the protein composition and potential allergenicity of peanut testae or skins, proteome analysis was conducted using nanoLC-MS/MS sequencing. Initial amino acid analysis suggested differences in protein compositions between the blanched seed (skins removed) and skin. Phenolic compounds hindered analysis of proteins in skins when the conventional extraction method was used; therefore, phenol extraction of proteins was necessary. A total of 123 proteins were identified in blanched seed and skins, and 83 of the proteins were common between the two structures. The skins contained all of the known peanut allergens in addition to 38 proteins not identified in the seed. Multiple defense proteins with antifungal activity were identified in the skins. Western blotting using sera from peanut-allergic patients revealed that proteins extracted from both the blanched seed and skin bound significant levels of IgE. However, when phenolic compounds were present in the skin protein extract, no IgE binding was observed. These findings indicate that peanut skins contain potentially allergenic proteins; however, the presence of phenolic compounds may attenuate this effect. PMID:23534881

  10. Total IgE detection in paired cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L d; Livramento, J A

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), the presence of Taenia solium metacestodes in tissues, is the most frequent and severe parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We investigated the presence of total IgE by an automated chemiluminescence assay in 53 paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with NC (P) and in 40 CSF samples from individuals with other neurological disorders as the control group (C). Total IgE concentration ranged from 1.2 to 6.6 IU/ml (mean = 1.4 IU/ml, standard deviation-sd = 1.1 IU/ml) in 28.3% of CSF samples from the P group, a value significantly higher than for the C group ( pound1.0 IU/ml). The serum samples from the P group showed concentrations ranging from 1. 0 to 2330.0 IU/ml (mean = 224.1 IU/ml, sd = 452.1 IU/ml), which were higher than the normal value cited by the manufacturer (<100.0 IU/ml) in 32.1% of the samples. A significant difference was observed in CSF samples from the P and C groups (p = 0.005) and in serum samples from the P group compared to the normal value (p = 0. 005), with sera showing more frequent abnormal results.

  11. Tikhonravov Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located within a small crater inside Tikhonravov Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.6, Longitude 37.1 East (322.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in a small canyon within a crater rim northeast of Naktong Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 7.1, Longitude 34.7 East (325.3 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Lycus Sulci Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches occur on the slopes of Lycus Sulci near Olympus Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.1, Longitude 220.4 East (139.6 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    This region of dust avalanches is located in and around a crater to the west of yesterday's image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.7, Longitude 32.7 East (327.3 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Combustibility determination for cotton gin dust and almond huller dust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been documented that some dusts generated while processing agricultural products, such as grain and sugar (OSHA, 2009), can constitute combustible dust hazards. After a catastrophic dust explosion in a sugar refinery in 2008, OSHA initiated action to develop a mandatory standard to comprehen...

  16. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  17. Targeting HER2/neu with a fully human IgE to harness the allergic reaction against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Tracy R.; Leuchter, Richard K.; Quintero, Rafaela; Helguera, Gustavo; Rodíguez, José A.; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Schultes, Birgit C.; Nicodemus, Christopher F.

    2013-01-01

    Breast and ovarian cancer are two of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women in the United States. Overexpression of the HER2/neu oncoprotein has been reported in patients affected with breast and ovarian cancers, and is associated with poor prognosis. To develop a novel targeted therapy for HER2/neu expressing tumors, we have constructed a fully human IgE with the variable regions of the scFv C6MH3-B1 specific for HER2/neu. This antibody was expressed in murine myeloma cells and was properly assembled and secreted. The Fc region of this antibody triggers in vitro degranulation of rat basophilic cells expressing human FcεRI (RBL SX-38) in the presence of murine mammary carcinoma cells that express human HER2/neu (D2F2/E2), but not the shed (soluble) antigen (ECDHER2) alone. This IgE is also capable of inducing passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in a human FcεRIα transgenic mouse model, in the presence of a cross-linking antibody, but not in the presence of soluble ECDHER2. Additionally, IgE enhances antigen presentation in human dendritic cells and facilitates cross-priming, suggesting that the antibody is able to stimulate a secondary T-cell antitumor response. Furthermore, we show that this IgE significantly prolongs survival of human FcεRIα transgenic mice bearing D2F2/E2 tumors. We also report that the anti-HER2/neu IgE is well tolerated in a preliminary study conducted in Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus) monkeys. In summary, our results suggest that this IgE should be further explored as a potential therapeutic against HER2/ neu overexpressing tumors, such as breast and ovarian cancers. PMID:22127364

  18. Dust Devils Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in November 2004, shows a group of three large afternoon dust devils occurring within several kilometers of each other in northwestern Amazonis. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and was obtained with a spatial resolution of 12 meters (13 yards) per pixel. This scene is located near 36.2oN, 157.6oW. Sunlight illuminates the dust devils from the left.

  19. Dust clouds of Sagittarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, D. F.

    1982-03-01

    The development of knowledge of the exact nature of the dust clouds in the southern Milky Way galaxy is traced. First observation of the clouds were made by Herschel in 1784, and identification came with Barnard in 1916. The region around Barnard 86 is reviewed, noting the presence of the cluster NGC 6520 and NGC 6523, which is an area of a wide and dark dust lane backed by a blue nebulosity. Further attention is given to the blue objects NGC 6589, and NGC 6590, the Trifid nebula M20, the H II region NGC 6559 and IC 1274-5, and the six hot stars in the Sagittarius constellation.

  20. Dust Devils Whip by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1120 (February 26, 2007), the navigation camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured one of the best dust devils it's seen in its three-plus year mission. The series of navigation camera images were put together to make a dust devil movie.

    The dust devil column is clearly defined and is clearly bent in the down wind direction. Near the end of the movie, the base of the dust devil becomes much wider. The atmospheric science team thinks that this is because the dust devil encountered some sand and therefore produced a 'saltation skirt,' an apron of material that is thrown out of the dust devil because it is too large to be carried up into suspension.

    Also near the end of the movie the dust devil seems to move faster across the surface. This is because Spirit began taking pictures less frequently, and not because the dust devil sped up.

  1. Antigen Transfer from Exosomes to Dendritic Cells as an Explanation for the Immune Enhancement Seen by IgE Immune Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Frida; Heyman, Birgitta; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    IgE antigen complexes induce increased specific T cell proliferation and increased specific IgG production. Immediately after immunization, CD23+ B cells capture IgE antigen complexes, transport them to the spleen where, via unknown mechanisms, dendritic cells capture the antigen and present it to T cells. CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, binds IgE antigen complexes and internalizes them. In this study, we show that these complexes are processed onto B-cell derived exosomes (bexosomes) in a CD23 dependent manner. The bexosomes carry CD23, IgE and MHC II and stimulate antigen specific T-cell proliferation in vitro. When IgE antigen complex stimulated bexosomes are incubated with dendritic cells, dendritic cells induce specific T-cell proliferation in vivo, similar to IgE antigen complexes. This suggests that bexosomes can provide the essential transfer mechanism for IgE antigen complexes from B cells to dendritic cells. PMID:25330118

  2. Saharan Dust Cloud

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of the entire continent, was expected to produce dramatic sunsets and possibly a light coating of red-brown dust on vehicles from Florida ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  3. Nickel refinery dust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel refinery dust ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  4. Stellar Ontogeny: From Dust...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the process of star formation. Infrared and radio astronomy, particularly microwave astronomy is used to provide information on different stages of stellar formation. The role of dust and gas which swirl through the interstellar regions of a galaxy and the collapse of a cloud in star formation are also presented. (HM)

  5. From dust to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    After initially challenging the dirty-ice theory of interstellar grains, Fred Hoyle and the present author proposed carbon (graphite) grains, mixtures of refractory grains, organic polymers, biochemicals and finally bacterial grains as models of interstellar dust. The present contribution summarizes this trend and reviews the main arguments supporting a modern version of panspermia.

  6. Dust-Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Marelene Rosenberg

    2005-02-22

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: a)studies of grain charging and applications; b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  7. Dust Devil Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, C. E.; Escarguel, A.; Horton, W.; Arnas, C.; Couedel, L.; Benkadda, S.

    2013-12-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The horizontal toroidal flow and vertical velocity field are driven by the vertical temperature gradient instability of gravity waves. The critical temperature gradient is derived and the associated eigenmodes for simple models are given. The nonlinear dynamics in the vertical/horizontal flows drive the toroidal flow through a parametric decay process. Methods developed for triboelectric charging of dust are used to compute the electric polarization vector from the charging of the sand particles. Elementary comparisons are made with the data from dust devil observations and research and simulations by Farrell et al. 2004, 2006. The parameters for a proposed Dust Devil laboratory experiment at Aix-Marseille University are presented. Following R. L. Miller et al. JGR 2006 estimates are made of the overall contribution to the mid-latitude aerosol layer in the atmosphere that acts to moderate global climate temperature increases through a negative feedback loop. The problem has an analog in terms of the heating of the boron or beryllium coated steel vacuum vessel walls in tokamaks where the core plasma plays the role of the sun and has a temperature (~ 10keV ) that exceeds that of the core of the sun.

  8. Let There Be Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Christopher F.

    2011-09-01

    Most of the ordinary matter in the universe is hydrogen and helium. In galaxies such as ours, heavier elements make up only about 1% of the mass, and about half of this is tied up in small particles, termed dust grains, that range in size from a nanometer to a fraction of a micrometer. Interstellar dust contains an appreciable fraction of the carbon and most of the refractory elements, such as magnesium, silicon, and iron. Because these particles are comparable in size to the wavelength of light, they are very effective at absorbing it. As a result, the Milky Way is much fainter in the night sky than it would otherwise be. This absorbed light is reradiated, but because the dust in the interstellar medium is so cold - about 20° above absolute zero - it is radiated at very long wavelengths, at around 200 μm. Such radiation can be observed only from space, and the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory was designed to do just that. On page 1258 of this issue, Matsuura et al. (1) present Herschel observations showing that substantial amounts of dust are created in the aftermath of a supernova, the titanic explosion that terminates the life of a massive star.

  9. Dust devil dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  10. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Dust That's Worth Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Images taken of interstellar space often display a colorful canvas of portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dispersed throughout the images are interstellar clouds of dust and gas--remnants ejected from stars and supernovae over billions and billions of years. For more than 40 years, astronomers have observed that interstellar dust exhibits a consistent effect at a spectral wavelength of 2,175 angstroms, the equivalent of 5.7 electronvolts in energy on the electromagnetic spectrum. At this wavelength, light from stars is absorbed by dust in the interstellar medium, blocking the stars light from reaching Earth. The 2,175-angstrom feature, which looks like a bump on spectra, is the strongest ultraviolet-visible light spectral signature of interstellar dust and is visible along nearly every observational line of sight. Scientists have sought to solve the mystery of what causes the 2,175-angstrom feature by reproducing the effect in the laboratory. They speculated a number of possibilities, including fullerenes (buckyballs), nanodiamonds, and even interstellar organisms. However, none of these materials fits the data for the unique spectral feature. Limitations in the energy and spatial resolution achievable with electron microscopes and ion microprobes--the two main instruments used to study samples of dust--have also prevented scientists from finding the answer. A collaborative effort led by Livermore physicist John Bradley and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used a new-generation transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoscale ion microprobe to unlock the mystery. The Livermore group includes physicists Zu Rong Dai, Ian Hutcheon, Peter Weber, and Sasa Bajt and postdoctoral researchers Hope Ishii, Giles Graham, and Julie Smith. They collaborated with the University of California at Davis (UCD), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington University's Laboratory for Space Sciences in St. Louis, and NASA's Ames

  12. Dust That's Worth Keeping

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-25

    Images taken of interstellar space often display a colorful canvas of portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dispersed throughout the images are interstellar clouds of dust and gas--remnants ejected from stars and supernovae over billions and billions of years. For more than 40 years, astronomers have observed that interstellar dust exhibits a consistent effect at a spectral wavelength of 2,175 angstroms, the equivalent of 5.7 electronvolts in energy on the electromagnetic spectrum. At this wavelength, light from stars is absorbed by dust in the interstellar medium, blocking the stars light from reaching Earth. The 2,175-angstrom feature, which looks like a bump on spectra, is the strongest ultraviolet-visible light spectral signature of interstellar dust and is visible along nearly every observational line of sight. Scientists have sought to solve the mystery of what causes the 2,175-angstrom feature by reproducing the effect in the laboratory. They speculated a number of possibilities, including fullerenes (buckyballs), nanodiamonds, and even interstellar organisms. However, none of these materials fits the data for the unique spectral feature. Limitations in the energy and spatial resolution achievable with electron microscopes and ion microprobes--the two main instruments used to study samples of dust--have also prevented scientists from finding the answer. A collaborative effort led by Livermore physicist John Bradley and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used a new-generation transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoscale ion microprobe to unlock the mystery. The Livermore group includes physicists Zu Rong Dai, Ian Hutcheon, Peter Weber, and Sasa Bajt and postdoctoral researchers Hope Ishii, Giles Graham, and Julie Smith. They collaborated with the University of California at Davis (UCD), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington University's Laboratory for Space Sciences in St. Louis, and NASA's Ames

  13. Fingerprints in the Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a spectacularly dusty spring view from April 7, 2001 (middle). The left-hand and middle images are from Terra orbits 2967 and 6928, respectively, and extend from central Manchuria near the top to portions of North and South Korea at the bottom. They are approximately 380 kilometers in width.

    Asia's desert areas are prone to soil erosion, as underground water tables are lowered by prolonged drought and by industrial and agricultural water use. Heavy winds blowing eastward across the arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the April 2001 storm blew across the Pacific Ocean and were carried as far as North America. The minerals transported in this manner are believed to provide nutrients for both oceanic and land ecosystems.

    According to the Xinhua News Agency in China, nearly one million tons of Gobi Desert dust blow into Beijing each year. During a similar dust outbreak last year, the Associated Press reported that the visibility in Beijing had been reduced the point where buildings were barely visible across city streets, and airline schedules were significantly disrupted. The dust has also been implicated in adverse health effects such as respiratory discomfort and eye irritation.

    The image on the right is a higher resolution MISR nadir-camera view of a portion of the April 7, 2001 dust cloud. It covers an area roughly 250 kilometers wide by 470 kilometers high. When viewed at full magnification, a number of atmospheric wave features, like the ridges and valleys of a fingerprint, are apparent. These are probably induced by surface topography, which can disturb the wind flow. A few small cumulus clouds are also visible, and are casting shadows on the thick lower dust layer.

    Analyses of images such as these constitute one phase of MISR

  14. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy.

  15. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui

    2016-01-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  16. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  17. Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Manijeh; Maiga, Bakary; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Troye-Blomberg, Marita

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  18. Reuyl Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 May 2002) The Science The rugged, arcuate rim of the 90 km crater Reuyl dominates this THEMIS image. Reuyl crater is at the southern edge of a region known to be blanketed in thick dust based on its high albedo (brightness) and low thermal inertia values. This thick mantle of dust creates the appearance of snow covered mountains in the image. Like snow accumulation on Earth, Martian dust can become so thick that it eventually slides down the face of steep slopes, creating runaway avalanches of dust. In the center of this image about 1/3 of the way down is evidence of this phenomenon. A few dozen dark streaks can be seen on the bright, sunlit slopes of the crater rim. The narrow streaks extend downslope following the local topography in a manner very similar to snow avalanches on Earth. But unlike their terrestrial counterparts, no accumulation occurs at the bottom. The dust particles are so small that they are easily launched into the thin atmosphere where they remain suspended and ultimately blow away. The apparent darkness of the avalanche scars is due to the presence of relatively dark underlying material that becomes exposed following the passage of the avalanche. Over time, new dust deposition occurs, brightening the scars until they fade into the background. Although dark slope streaks had been observed in Viking mission images, a clear understanding of this dynamic phenomenon wasn't possible until the much higher resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed the details. MOC images also showed that new avalanches have occurred during the time MGS has been in orbit. THEMIS images will allow additional mapping of their distribution and frequency, contributing new insights about Martian dust avalanches. The Story The stiff peaks in this image might remind you of the Alps here on Earth, but they really outline the choppy edge of a large Martian crater over 50 miles wide (seen in the context image at right). While these aren

  19. IgE, allergies and helminth parasites: a new perspective on an old conundrum.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G

    1996-08-01

    This paper analyses the association between infection with helminth parasites, the elevated production of IgE and the expression of allergies. Interpretations of this interaction have taken place in a scientific environment whose most secure element is the immunochemistry of allergic reactions resulting in a substantial body of literature that has sought a biological role for allergic reactivity in protective immunity directed against helminth parasites. While the association between helminth infections and elevated levels of IgE, mast cells and eosinophils is well established, a functional role for allergic reactions in protection against helminths has eluded experimental proof. Instead of this hypothesis, it is proposed that allergic reactivity is rarely present in helminth-infected individuals because allergic reactions do not function to regulate helminth infections. Data from many sources are used to establish that the 'normal' state of all mammals is to be infected with helminth parasites from shortly after birth until well into adulthood. Only in the last 100 years or so have people living in areas of high development with sophisticated water and sewage systems been able to escape helminth infection. Allergies are as conspicuously present in these human populations as they are absent in populations that are still regularly exposed to helminths. Furthermore, in populations with endemic helminthoses there is little overt expression of allergic pathology that could be connected to the acquisition or elimination of helminth parasites. Based on these observations, it is suggested that endemic helminthoses activate the Th2 system, particularly at mucosal surfaces, to provide a different level of immunological homeostasis than currently occurs in developed societies. Under these conditions, mast cells, eosinophils and IgE rarely participate in reactions that we would recognize as 'allergic', although their participation in the control of helminth infections is

  20. Relationship between omalizumab pharmacokinetics, IgE pharmacodynamics and symptoms in patients with severe persistent allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Philip J; Tannenbaum, Stacey; Gautier, Aurelie; Jimenez, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Omalizumab, a subcutaneously administered anti-IgE antibody, is effective for moderate-to-severe persistent allergic asthma. The aims were to (i) describe the population pharmacodynamics of free IgE with a mechanism-based, nonlinear, omalizumab–IgE binding model; (ii) deduce a target-free IgE suppression level by correlation with clinical outcomes; and (iii) check the adequacy of current approved dosing tables and explore potential doses and regimens beyond. METHODS Concentration data (omalizumab, free and total IgE) were obtained from 1781 patients aged 12–79 years, in four sparsely sampled randomized, placebo-controlled studies and 152 subjects in a richly sampled single-dose study. NONMEM predictive performance across the range of bodyweights (39–150 kg) and baseline IgE (19–1055 IU ml−1) was checked by simulation. Predicted free IgE levels were correlated with time-averaged patient diary clinical outcomes. RESULTS The model accurately predicted observed omalizumab, free and total IgE concentrations. Free IgE concentrations correlated well with clinical signs and symptoms, allowing a target concentration of 14 ng ml−1, at the midpoint of 4-week clinical observation periods, to be set for determining the dose and regimen for omalizumab. CONCLUSIONS The omalizumab–IgE binding model is predictive for free IgE and demonstrates a nonlinear time-dependent relationship between free IgE suppression and clinical outcomes in asthma. Although currently approved dosing tables are close to optimal, it should be possible to treat patients with higher levels of baseline IgE if higher doses can be administered. PMID:19660004

  1. Dust Mitigation for Martian Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Blakeley Shay

    2011-01-01

    One of the efforts of the In-Situ Resource Utilization project is to extract oxygen, fuel, and water from the Martian air. However, the surface of Mars is covered in a layer of dust, which is uploaded into the atmosphere by dust devils and dust storms. This atmospheric dust would be collected along with the air during the conversion process. Thus, it is essential to extract the dust from the air prior to commencing the conversion. An electrostatic precipitator is a commonly used dust removal technology on earth. Using this technology, dust particles that pass through receive an electrostatic charge by means of a corona discharge. The particles are then driven to a collector in a region of high electric field at the center of the precipitator. Experiments were conducted to develop a precipitator that will function properly in the Martian atmosphere, which has a very low pressure and is made up . of primarily carbon dioxide.

  2. Assessment of IgE and IgG4 Binding Capacities of Cow's Milk Proteins Selectively Altered by Proteases.

    PubMed

    Charcosset, Alexandre; Adel-Patient, Karine; Dupont, Christophe; Bernard, Hervé

    2016-05-01

    Specific IgE and IgG4 have been reported to play key roles in the context of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA), but the persistence of their epitopes in milk hydrolysates has not been evaluated. Using sera from 32 CMA patients, 6 CMA patients treated by epicutaneous therapy (CM-treated), and 4 CM-tolerant peanut allergic patients, we analyzed the IgE and IgG4 binding capacities related to major milk allergens in processed milk. Different proteases (plasmin, chymosin, α-chymotrypsin, or pepsin) were used progressively and selectively to hydrolyze β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and casein (CN) in milk. We then showed that proteases differentially affect IgE or IgG4 immunoreactivities of CN and β-LG and also that we could not relate IgE and/or IgG4 levels or specificities to milk hydrolysates to the clinical status of the patients. PMID:27015440

  3. Participative Decision Making in IGE/MUS-E Schools. Technical Report No. 356 (Parts 1 and 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerlinger, Constance M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of the Instructional Improvement Committee's (IIC) involvement in decision making, the representation of teachers on the IIC, and the effectiveness of the Instruction and Research (I&R) Unit in Individually Guided Education/Multiunit Elementary (IGE/MUS-E) schools. The theoretical base for…

  4. Influence of thermal processing on IgE reactivity to lentil and chickpea proteins.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Varela, Alejandro; Guillamón, Eva; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodriguez, Julia; Burbano, Carmen

    2009-11-01

    In the last years, legume proteins are gaining importance as food ingredients because of their nutraceutical properties. However, legumes are also considered relevant in the development of food allergies through ingestion. Peanuts and soybeans are important food allergens in Western countries, while lentil and chickpea allergy are more relevant in the Mediterranean area. Information about the effects of thermal-processing procedures at various temperatures and conditions is scarce; therefore, the effect of these procedures on legume allergenic properties is not defined so far. The SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting patterns of chickpeas and lentils were analyzed before and after boiling (up to 60 min) and autoclaving (1.2 and 2.6 atm, up to 30 min). The results indicated that some of these treatments reduce IgE binding to lentil and chickpea, the most important being harsh autoclaving. However, several extremely resistant immunoreactive proteins still remained in these legumes even after this extreme treatment.

  5. Molecular editing of cellular responses by the high-affinity receptor for IgE.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Leach, Sarah; Liu, Wenhua; Ralston, Evelyn; Scheffel, Jörg; Zhang, Weiguo; Lowell, Clifford A; Rivera, Juan

    2014-02-28

    Cellular responses elicited by cell surface receptors differ according to stimulus strength. We investigated how the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) modulates the response of mast cells to a high- or low-affinity stimulus. Both high- and low-affinity stimuli elicited similar receptor phosphorylation; however, differences were observed in receptor cluster size, mobility, distribution, and the cells' effector responses. Low-affinity stimulation increased receptor association with the Src family kinase Fgr and shifted signals from the adapter LAT1 to the related adapter LAT2. LAT1-dependent calcium signals required for mast cell degranulation were dampened, but the role of LAT2 in chemokine production was enhanced, altering immune cell recruitment at the site of inflammation. These findings uncover how receptor discrimination of stimulus strength can be interpreted as distinct in vivo outcomes.

  6. Genome-wide Association Study and Admixture Mapping Reveal New Loci Associated with Total IgE Levels in Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Levin, Albert M.; Campbell, Catarina D.; Eng, Celeste; Huntsman, Scott; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Mohajeri, Kiana; O'Roak, Brian J.; Hu, Donglei; Mathias, Rasika A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Lurmann, Fred; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Lenoir, Michael A.; Thyne, Shannon M.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Borrell, Luisa N.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Sen, Saunak; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Mack, Steven J.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Eichler, Evan E.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Williams, L. Keoki; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a key mediator of allergic inflammation and is frequently elevated in allergic disorders. Objective To identify genetic variants associated with IgE levels in Latinos. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and admixture mapping of total IgE levels in 3,334 Latinos from the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study. Replication was evaluated in 454 Latinos, 1,564 European Americans, and 3,187 African Americans from independent studies. Results We confirmed associations of six genes identified by previous GWAS and identified a novel genome-wide significant association of a polymorphism in ZNF365 with total IgE (rs200076616, p=2.3x10−8). We next identified four admixture mapping peaks (6p21.32-p22.1, 13p22-31, 14q23.2, and 22q13.1) where local African, European, and/or Native American ancestry was significantly associated with IgE levels. The most significant peak was 6p21.32-p22.1, where Native American ancestry was associated with lower levels of IgE (p=4.95x10−8). All but 22q13.1 were replicated in an independent sample of Latinos, and two of the peaks were replicated in African Americans (6p21.32-p22.1 and 14q23.2). Fine mapping of 6p21.32-p22.1 identified six genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in Latinos, two of which replicated in European Americans. Another SNP was peak-wide significant within 14q23.2 in African Americans (rs1741099, p=3.7x10−6), and replicated in non-African American samples (p=0.011). Conclusion We confirmed genetic associations at six genes, and identified novel associations within ZNF365, HLA-DQA1, and 14q23.2. Our results highlight the importance of studying diverse, multi-ethnic populations to uncover novel loci associated with total IgE levels. PMID:25488688

  7. Dust Growth in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Tsytovich, V. N.

    2002-12-01

    Dust formation in space is important in diverse environments such as dust molecular clouds, proto-planetary nebulae, stellar outbursts, and supernova explosions. The formation of dust proceeds the formation of stellar objects and planets. In all these environments the dust particles interact with both neutral and plasma particles as well as with (ultraviolet) radiation and cosmic rays. The conventional view of grain growth is one based on accretion by the Van der Waals and chemical forces [Watson and Salpeter [14] considered in detail both theoretically and numerically (Kempf at all [6],Meaking [7]( and confirmed recently by micro-gravity experiments Blum et all [2]). The usual point of view is that the dust grow is occurring in dust molecular clouds at very low temperatures ~ (10 - 30)° K and is a slow process - dust grows to a size of about 0.1 μm in 106 - 109 years. This contradicts recent observations of dust growing in winds of C-stars in about 10 years and behind the supernova SN1987A shock in about 500 days. Also recent observation of star formation at the edge of irradiated dust clouds suggests that new plasma mechanism operates in star formation. Dusty plasma mechanisms of agglomeration are analyzed as an explanation of the new astrophysical observation. New micro-gravity experiments are proposed for observing the plasma mechanisms of dust agglomeration at gas pressures substantially higher than used in ([2]. Calculations for the growth rates of dust agglomeration due to plasma mechanisms are presented. It is shown that at large neutral gas densities the dust plasma attraction provides an explanation of dust grow in about 10 days observed in H-star winds. Ionization by cosmic rays and by radioactive dust can provide the dust attraction necessary for forming dust clumping observed in molecular clouds and the fractal plasma clumping can enhance the time to reach the gravitational contraction phase operating at the final stage of star formation. A new

  8. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV.

  9. A Protein Allergen Microarray Detects Specific IgE to Pollen Surface, Cytoplasmic, and Commercial Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time

  10. Interstellar Dust Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Lazarian, A.; Vaillancourt, John E.

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar polarization at optical-to-infrared wavelengths is known to arise from asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. This effect provides a potentially powerful probe of magnetic field structure and strength if the details of the grain alignment can be reliably understood. Theory and observations have recently converged on a quantitative, predictive description of interstellar grain alignment based on radiative processes. The development of a general, analytical model for this radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory has allowed specific, testable predictions for realistic interstellar conditions. We outline the theoretical and observational arguments in favor of RAT alignment, as well as reasons the "classical" paramagnetic alignment mechanism is unlikely to work, except possibly for the very smallest grains. With further detailed characterization of the RAT mechanism, grain alignment and polarimetry promise to not only better constrain the interstellar magnetic field but also provide new information on the dust characteristics.

  11. Modeling Europa's dust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B. S.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Jupiter's moon Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we simulate possible Europa plume configurations, analyze particle number density and surface deposition results, and estimate the expected flux of ice grains on a spacecraft. Due to Europa's high escape speed, observing an active plume will require low-altitude flybys, preferably at altitudes of 5-100 km. At higher altitudes a plume may escape detection. Our simulations provide an extensive library documenting the possible structure of Europa dust plumes, which can be quickly refined as more data on Europa dust plumes are collected.

  12. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  13. [House dust mite allergy].

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy. PMID:22477664

  14. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  15. [House dust mite allergy].

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  16. Dust Devil Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark squiggles and streaks created by passing spring and summer dust devils near Pallacopas Vallis in the martian southern hemisphere.

    Location near: 53.9oS, 17.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  17. Transport of Dust Particles in Tokamak Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pigarov, A Y; Smirnov, R D; Krasheninnikov, S I; Rognlien, T D; Rozenberg, M

    2006-06-06

    Recent advances in the dust transport modeling in tokamak devices are discussed. Topics include: (1) physical model for dust transport; (2) modeling results on dynamics of dust particles in plasma; (3) conditions necessary for particle growth in plasma; (4) dust spreading over the tokamak; (5) density profiles for dust particles and impurity atoms associated with dust ablation in tokamak plasma; and (6) roles of dust in material/tritium migration.

  18. A Dust Devil Playground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02185 A Dust Devil Playground

    Dust Devil activity in this region between Brashear and Ross Craters is very common. Large regions of dust devil tracks surround the south polar region of Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -55.2N, Longitude 244.2E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. Ths paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  20. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  1. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  2. Biochemical and structural analysis of the IgE binding sites on ara h1, an abundant and highly allergenic peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Shin, D S; Compadre, C M; Maleki, S J; Kopper, R A; Sampson, H; Huang, S K; Burks, A W; Bannon, G A

    1998-05-29

    Allergy to peanut is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the high prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Ara h1, an abundant peanut protein, is recognized by serum IgE from >90% of peanut-sensitive individuals. It has been shown to belong to the vicilin family of seed storage proteins and to contain 23 linear IgE binding epitopes. In this communication, we have determined the critical amino acids within each of the IgE binding epitopes of Ara h1 that are important for immunoglobulin binding. Surprisingly, substitution of a single amino acid within each of the epitopes led to loss of IgE binding. In addition, hydrophobic residues appeared to be most critical for IgE binding. The position of each of the IgE binding epitopes on a homology-based molecular model of Ara h1 showed that they were clustered into two main regions, despite their more even distribution in the primary sequence. Finally, we have shown that Ara h1 forms a stable trimer by the use of a reproducible fluorescence assay. This information will be important in studies designed to reduce the risk of peanut-induced anaphylaxis by lowering the IgE binding capacity of the allergen.

  3. [The clinical picture is the most important reason to screen for the presence of allergen-specific IgE in children].

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M

    2007-10-13

    The presence of allergen-specific IgE in serum is associated with sensitization, but the clinical relevance depends on the patient's history. It supports the diagnosis of an acute allergic response to inhalation or food allergens. The presence of allergen-specific IgE in the serum is not necessary for the diagnosis of asthma, perennial rhinitis or eczema; since allergen avoidance has no beneficial effect in these chronic allergic diseases, one should be critical about the relevance of testing for allergen-specific serum IgE. Screening tests for the presence of allergen-specific serum IgE are frequently used in children; a screening test consists of either 5 inhalant or 5 food allergens and if the test is positive, the laboratory will determine the specific IgE for each of the 5 allergens present in the test. This carries the risk of over-diagnosis if the clinical indication is not clear-cut. Furthermore, in children sensitized to grass pollen, the panel of inhalation and food allergens present in screening tests may lead to serological cross-reactivity with wheat; this increases the number of positive screening tests for food allergens without having clinical relevance. In conclusion, the use of screening tests for the presence of allergen-specific serum IgE should be looked at critically since it may unnecessarily increase the number of allergen-specific IgE tests.

  4. Effects of multiple oral dosing on IgE synthesis in mice: oral sensitization by albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) containing lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Restum-Miguel, N; Prouvost-Danon, A

    1985-01-01

    The IgE antibody response was studied in DBA/2 mice; the mice were pretreated orally with albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Jackalbumin) and subsequently immunized subcutaneously with Jackalbumin mixed with ovalbumin (OA) and a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The allergenicity of Jackalbumin was evaluated by its capacity to induce a specific IgE response which was measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and by degranulation of washed peritoneal mast cells following antigen challenge (Jackalbumin or OA). Antibody against the crude extracts and anti-lectin (FIISP) IgE responses were also tested by PCA. After being fed eight doses of 1 mg Jackalbumin, DBA/2 mice became immunized: i.e. specific IgE antibody responses were observed and the peritoneal mast cells became sensitized. An increase in IgE response was verified in mice that were pre-fed and subsequently immunized. The results indicated that: the albumin extracts from Jack seeds, containing lectins, can be allergenic by the oral route; multiple oral doses with these extracts can induce an enhancement of the IgE response on subsequent subcutaneous immunization; antigenically, Jackalbumin does not seem to cross-react with OA; the lectins contained in the albumin fraction from Artocarpus seeds were also shown to be allergenic; the IgE titres showed an inverse correlation to the degree of purification of the lectin used for PCA challenge. PMID:3972438

  5. Complementarity between microarray and immunoblot for the comparative evaluation of IgE repertoire of French and Italian cypress pollen allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Shahali, Y; Nicaise, P; Brázdová, A; Charpin, D; Scala, E; Mari, A; Sutra, J P; Chollet-Martin, S; Sénéchal, H; Poncet, P

    2014-01-01

    Cypress pollen represents the primary cause of respiratory allergies in Mediterranean areas. Patients allergic to Cupressus sempervirens pollen (Cups) (CPA) can be discriminated on the basis of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to a basic 14 kDa protein (BP14) or to high-molecular-weight (HMW) glycoproteins only. Specific IgE repertoires of two differentially exposed CPA cohorts, French and Italian, were investigated using an IgE microarray system (some known major allergens from several allergenic sources) and individual IgE immunoblotting (IB) of whole Cups pollen extract separated by SDS-PAGE (all allergens from one allergenic source: cypress pollen). The prevalence of sensitization to BP14 was higher in French (37 %) than in Italian patients (17 %) and major differences were observed in IgE reactivities to lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Thirty percent of the Italian CPA (4 % in the French group) had specific IgE against the Parietaria pollen LTP, independently of IB subgroups. Regarding peach LTP sensitization, all Pru p 3+ Italian CPA (10 %) were in the HMW+ subgroup, while Pru p 3+ French CPA (20 %) were all included in the BP14+ subgroup. BP14 sensitization is likely a marker of Cups exposure and is, in French CPA, significantly correlated to Pru p 3 sensitization. The IgE immunoblot and microarray are complementary tools that highlight differences in the subtle sensitization profile between groups of patients in comparative studies.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study for Levels of Total Serum IgE Identifies HLA-C in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yatagai, Yohei; Sakamoto, Tohru; Masuko, Hironori; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Yamada, Hideyasu; Iijima, Hiroaki; Naito, Takashi; Noguchi, Emiko; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Imoto, Yoshimasa; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Konno, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively). SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10−10). Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups. PMID:24324648

  7. Effects of multiple oral dosing on IgE synthesis in mice: oral sensitization by albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) containing lectins.

    PubMed

    Restum-Miguel, N; Prouvost-Danon, A

    1985-03-01

    The IgE antibody response was studied in DBA/2 mice; the mice were pretreated orally with albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Jackalbumin) and subsequently immunized subcutaneously with Jackalbumin mixed with ovalbumin (OA) and a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The allergenicity of Jackalbumin was evaluated by its capacity to induce a specific IgE response which was measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and by degranulation of washed peritoneal mast cells following antigen challenge (Jackalbumin or OA). Antibody against the crude extracts and anti-lectin (FIISP) IgE responses were also tested by PCA. After being fed eight doses of 1 mg Jackalbumin, DBA/2 mice became immunized: i.e. specific IgE antibody responses were observed and the peritoneal mast cells became sensitized. An increase in IgE response was verified in mice that were pre-fed and subsequently immunized. The results indicated that: the albumin extracts from Jack seeds, containing lectins, can be allergenic by the oral route; multiple oral doses with these extracts can induce an enhancement of the IgE response on subsequent subcutaneous immunization; antigenically, Jackalbumin does not seem to cross-react with OA; the lectins contained in the albumin fraction from Artocarpus seeds were also shown to be allergenic; the IgE titres showed an inverse correlation to the degree of purification of the lectin used for PCA challenge.

  8. Modeling Europa's Dust Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring the properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we adjust the ejection model by Schmidt et al. [2008] to the conditions at Europa. In this way, we estimate properties of a possible, yet unobserved dust component of the Europa plume. For a size-dependent speed distribution of emerging ice particles we use the model from Kempf et al. [2010] for grain dynamics, modified to run simulations of plumes on Europa. Specifically, we model emission from the two plume locations determined from observations by Roth et al. [2014] and also from other locations chosen at the closest approach of low-altitude flybys investigated in the Europa Clipper study. This allows us to estimate expected fluxes of ice grains on the spacecraft. We then explore the parameter space of Europa dust plumes with regard to particle speed distribution parameters, plume location, and spacecraft flyby elevation. Each parameter set results in a 3-dimensional particle density structure through which we simulate flybys, and a map of particle fallback ('snowfall') on the surface of Europa. Due to the moon's high escape speed, a Europa plume will eject few to no particles that can escape its gravity, which has several further consequences: (i) For given ejection velocity a Europa plume will have a smaller scale height, with a higher particle number densities than the plume on Enceladus, (ii) plume particles will not feed the diffuse Galilean dust ring, (iii) the snowfall pattern on the surface will be more localized about the plume location, and will not induce a global m = 2 pattern as seen on Enceladus, and (iv) safely observing an active plume will require low altitude flybys, preferably at 50

  9. Dust Telescopes and Active Dust Collectors: Linking Dust to Their Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, K. J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.; Postberg, F.

    2010-12-01

    Cosmic dust particles from remote sites and times are treasures of information. By determining the dust particles' source and their elemental properties, we can learn about the environments, where they were formed and processed. Born as stardust in the cool atmospheres of giant stars or in novae and supernovae explosions, the particles are subsequently modified in the interstellar medium. Interplanetary dust that originates from comets and asteroids represents even more processed material at different stages of Solar System evolution. Interstellar and interplanetary dust particles from various sources can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. The newly developed instruments Dust Telescope and Active Dust Collector are able to determine the origin of dust particles and provide their elemental composition. A Dust Telescope is a combination of a Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) [1] together with an analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of induced electric signals when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. A modern DTS can measure dust particles as small as 0.2 µm in radius and dust speeds up to 100 km/s. Large area chemical analyzers of 0.1 m2 sensitive area have been tested at a dust accelerator and it was demonstrated that they have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to >100 [2]. The advanced Dust Telescope is capable of identifying interstellar and interplanetary grains, and measuring their mass, velocity vector, charge, elemental and isotopic compositions. An Active Dust Collector combines a DTS with an aerogel or other dust collector materials, e.g. like the ones used on the Stardust mission. The combination of a DTS with a dust collector provides not only individual trajectories of the collected particles but also their impact time and position on the collector which proves essential to

  10. Circumstellar Dust in Symbiotic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, T.; Kotnik-Karuza, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the near-IR photometry, ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code. A compact circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel shows the presence of an equatorially enhanced dust density during minimum obscuration. Obscuration events are explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust. The mass loss rates are significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras but in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.

  11. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

    2007-10-09

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ν has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  12. Laboratory studies of interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are a form of primitive extraterrestrial material. In spite of the formidable experimental problems in working with particles that are too small to be seen with the naked eye, it has proven possible to obtain considerable information concerning their properties and possible origins. Dust particles collected in the stratosphere were reviewed. These particles are the best available samples of interplanetary dust and were studied using a variety of analytical techniques.

  13. Dust emissions in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Sweeten, J B; Parnell, C B; Etheredge, R S; Osborne, D

    1988-11-01

    Dust emissions were measured at three Texas cattle feedlots on 15 occasions in 1987 to determine concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and dust with 10 microns or less aerodynamic particle size (PM-10). Net feedlot dust concentrations (downwind minus upwind) ranged from 15.7 to 1,700.1 micrograms per m3 and averaged 412.4 +/- 271.2 micrograms per m3, which is about 37 per cent less than was determined in feedlot dust research in California approximately 17 years earlier. Upwind concentrations averaged 22 per cent of the downwind concentrations. Feedlot dust concentrations were generally highest in early evening and lowest in early morning. Using the Wedding and Andersen-321A PM-10 samplers, the PM-10 dust concentrations were 19 and 40 per cent, respectively, of mean TSP concentrations in direct comparisons. There was good correlation between PM-10 and TSP concentrations. Although dust concentrations decreased with increasing moisture, the correlation coefficients were relatively low. Odor intensity appeared to increase with decreasing net dust concentrations, perhaps due to moisture influences. Mean particle sizes of feedlot dust were 8.5 to 12.2 microns on a particle volume basis and 2.5 to 3.4 microns on a population basis. Respirable dust (below 2 microns) represented only 2.0 to 4.4 per cent of total dust on a particle volume basis. Under conditions of these experiments, the feedlots often exceeded both state and federal (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standards for TSP concentrations and for PM-10 concentrations measured using the Andersen-321A sampler. However, feedlots were below the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards when the Wedding PM-10 sampler was used for measuring dust emissions.

  14. Circumstellar dust in symbiotic novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, Tomislav; Kotnik-Karuza, Dubravka

    2015-08-01

    Physical properties of the circumstellar dust and associated physical mechanisms play an important role in understanding evolution of symbiotic binaries. We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the long-term near-IR photometry, infrared ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. Pulsation properties and long-term variabilities were found from the near-IR light curves. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code which solves the radiative transfer. No changes in pulsational parameters were found, but a long-term variations with periods of 20-25 years have been detected which cannot be attributed to orbital motion.Circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel showed the presence of an optically thin CS dust envelope and an optically thick dust region outside the line of sight, which was further supported by the detailed modelling using the 2D LELUYA code. Obscuration events in RR Tel were explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust leading to the formation of a compact dust shell. HM Sge showed permanent obscuration and a presence of a compact dust shell with a variable optical depth. Scattering of the near-IR colours can be understood by a change in sublimation temperature caused by the Mira variability. Presence of large dust grains (up to 4 µm) suggests an increased grain growth in conditions of increased mass loss. The mass loss rates of up to 17·10-6 MSun/yr were significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras and in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.Despite the nova outburst, HM Sge remained enshrouded in dust with no significant dust destruction. The existence of unperturbed dust shell suggests a small influence of the hot component and strong dust shielding from the UV flux. By the use

  15. 22 Protein-Protein Interactions Determine IgE Reactivity to Polygalacturonase From Cupressus sempervirens Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Shahali, Youcef; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Mari, Adriano; Charpin, Denis; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Background In a recent proteomic study, we identified in Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, Cups) pollen grains, 2 proteins at 43 and 60 kDa, homologous to already known Cupressaceae polygalacturonase (PG) proteins. The 60-kDa PG is suspected to be a multi-protein complex including the 43-kDa PG and one or more proteins with lectin-like properties Objective In the present study, cypress pollen PGs were further characterized and the molecular basis of their allergenicity including the presence of specific IgE directed against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) were investigated. Methods Cups pollen PBS extracts were characterized using 2- and double one-dimensional electrophoresis followed by IgE immunoblotting. The IgE reactivity to carbohydrate- versus peptide-specific determinants was investigated using both bromelain inhibition and Con A-binding assays. Pollen proteins were also prefractionated in their native forms using size exclusion chromatography. The presence of multi-protein complexes were investigated by using 2-D blue native (BN)-PAGE/SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Results Upon bromelain inhibition assay, we revealed that 70% of tested patients displayed CCD-specific IgE to the 43-kDa PG while its isoenzyme of 60 kDa appeared to be exclusively recognized for its peptide-specific determinants. The specific binding of the Con A lectin to the 43-kDa PG, and not to the 60-kDa isoenzyme, demonstrated the presence of exposed mannose-containing oligosaccharides only on the 43-kDa protein. This fact reflects fundamental differences between specific IgE-binding epitopes involved in the recognition of the 43-kDa and 60-kDa proteins making these 2 cypress pollen PGs immunologically distinguishable. The present results suggest that in the 60-kDa protein complex, the CCDs of the 43-kDa PG are not exposed due to the binding of a lectin-like protein exhibiting peptidic IgE reactive epitopes recognized by 25% of tested patients. Conclusion The current

  16. Comparative binding of soluble fragments (derCD23, sCD23, and exCD23) of recombinant human CD23 to CD21 (SCR 1-2) and native IgE, and their effect on IgE regulation.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Sandra Lyn; Jaeger, Christiane; Ferrara, Claudia; Fingeroth, Joyce; Van De Venter, Maryna; Oosthuizen, Vaughan

    2011-01-01

    IgE, responsible for type I hypersensitivities, is regulated by interactions between its receptor, CD23, and co-receptor CD21. To examine comparative binding of recombinant human CD21 SCR 1-2 and native human IgE to CD23 plus the effect of CD23 on IgE production, we engineered recombinant soluble human CD23 fragments; (1) derCD23, (2) sCD23 and (3) exCD23, formed in vivo by proteolysis. SPR analysis revealed a progressive increment in affinity of soluble fragments for IgE, upon increasing length of CD23 "stalk" domain, exCD23>sCD23>derCD23. Soluble CD23 fragments and their oligomeric state are shown to fine-tune the immune response. Oligomers appear more important in enhancing IgE synthesis and monomers lacking the tail residues fail to bind CD21 yet bind membrane IgE and down-regulate IgE synthesis. Co-ligation of membrane IgE and CD21 through soluble CD23 monomers is disturbed. This study supports anti-allergic therapies involving stabilizing membrane CD23, or preventing shedding of soluble CD23. PMID:21889131

  17. Carbon in comet dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The association of Halley particle results with data from existing meteoritic materials that can be analyzed in the laboratory is discussed. Comet samples must exist in present collections of meteoritic materials and the Halley results provide clues for identifying them. Although it is not presently possible to positively identify cometary meteorites or cometary interplanetary dust (IDP) samples, it is possible to determine which materials are similar to Halley dust and which ones are distinctly unlike Halley. The properties of these existing Halley-compatible samples provide insight into the possible properties of cometary material. Positive identification of meteoritic comet samples or direct samples returned from a comet nucleus would of course revolutionize our ability to study carbonaceous matter in comets. Modern analytical techniques are very powerful and it is possible to perform elemental, chemical, mineralogical and even limited isotopic analysis on micron-size particles. There is an important synergism between the laboratory studies of collected samples and astronomical data from comets and interstellar grains. To fully interpret results there must be convincing methods for associating a particular class or classes of meteoritic material with comets. Ultimately this will be done by direct comet sample return such as the Rosetta mission under development by ESA. At the present time the only links that can be made involve comparison with sample properties and measurable properties of comets. Unfortunately there is at present no known unique property of cometary dust that allows its absolute identification in the laboratory. The results from Halley encounters and observation do provide much new information on cometary grains. The Halley grain compositions, density, size distribution and scattering properties all provide a basis for future investigations. Other Halley properties such as the presence of polyoxymethylene and the 3.4um emission feature could

  18. Dust and Ocean Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Adding iron to the diet of marine plant life has been shown in shipboard experiments to boost the amount of carbon-absorbing phytoplankton in certain parts of the world's oceans. A new study promises to give scientists their first global picture of the extent of these unique 'iron-limited' ocean regions, an important step in understanding how the ocean's biology controls the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and the ocean. The new study by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory was presented at the American Geophysical Union's annual meeting in San Francisco on Friday, Dec. 15, 2000. Oceanic phytoplankton remove nearly as much carbon from the atmosphere each year as all land-based plants. Identifying the location and size of nutrient-limited areas in the open ocean has challenged oceanographers for nearly a century. The study pinpointed iron-limited regions by seeing which phytoplankton-rich areas of the world's oceans were also areas that received iron from wind-blown dust. In this map, areas with high levels of chlorophyll from phytoplankton and high levels of dust deposition (high correlation coefficients) are indicated in dark brown. Dust deposition was calculated by a 3-year modelled climatology for the years 1996-1998. The chlorophyll measurements are from 1998 observations from the SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) instrument on the OrbView-2 satellite. 'Global, satellite-based analyses such as this gives us insight into where iron deposition may be limiting ocean biological activity,' says lead author David Erickson of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Computer Science and Mathematics Division. 'With this information we will be able to infer how the ocean productivity/iron deposition relationship might shift in response to climate change.' Map Source: David Erickson, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Computer Science and Mathematics Division

  19. Dust coagulation in ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  20. Migration of Asteroidal Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Using the Bulirsh Stoer method of integration, we investigated the migration of dust particles under the gravitational influence of all planets, radiation pressure, Poynting Robertson drag and solar wind drag for equal to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4. For silicate particles such values of correspond to diameters equal to about 40, 9, 4, 2, and 1 microns, respectively [1]. The relative error per integration step was taken to be less than 10sup-8. Initial orbits of the particles were close to the orbits of the first numbered mainbelt asteroids.

  1. North Polar Dust Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-334, 18 April 2003

    This composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle daily global images shows a north polar dust storm on March 7, 2003. Similar late summer storms occurred nearly every day from late February well into April 2003; these were also seen in late summer in 1999 and 2001. The white features at the top of the image are the water ice surfaces of the north polar residual cap. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  2. Lunar Dust 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

  3. Der p 5 Crystal Structure Provides Insight into the Group 5 Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.; Gosavi, R; Krahn, J; Edwards, L; Cuneo, M; Glesner, J; Pomes, A; Chapman, M; London, R; Pedersen, L

    2010-01-01

    Group 5 allergens from house dust mites elicit strong IgE antibody binding in mite-allergic patients. The structure of Der p 5 was determined by x-ray crystallography to better understand the IgE epitopes, to investigate the biologic function in mites, and to compare with the conflicting published Blo t 5 structures, designated 2JMH and 2JRK in the Protein Data Bank. Der p 5 is a three-helical bundle similar to Blo t 5, but the interactions of the helices are more similar to 2JMH than 2JRK. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains three dimers of Der p 5 that are not exactly alike. Solution scattering techniques were used to assess the multimeric state of Der p 5 in vitro and showed that the predominant state was monomeric, similar to Blo t 5, but larger multimeric species are also present. In the crystal, the formation of the Der p 5 dimer creates a large hydrophobic cavity of {approx}3000 {angstrom}{sup 3} that could be a ligand-binding site. Many allergens are known to bind hydrophobic ligands, which are thought to stimulate the innate immune system and have adjuvant-like effects on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses.

  4. Immunotherapy for house dust mite sensitivity: where are the knowledge gaps?

    PubMed

    Biagtan, Mark; Viswanathan, Ravi; Bush, Robert K

    2014-12-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) are found in the environments where human habitation exists. Their density is dependent on environmental relative humidity; therefore, higher populations are present in areas of the world with higher humidity levels, e.g., coastal areas and tropics. To date, 24 HDM allergens have been identified. Many of these represent digestive enzymes since HDM feces are the major source of allergen exposure. IgE- medicated sensitization to HDM allergens is an important factor in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases since it is the most common aeroallergen detected by skin testing or in vitro IgE assays. Sensitization to HDM allergens often occurs early in life and appears to play an important role in the progression from allergic rhinitis to asthma (the so-called Allergic March) in children. HDM sensitization is also associated with asthma across all age groups. Efforts to control environmental exposure to HDM allergens have often proven to be unsuccessful. While medications can improve symptoms, only immunotherapy currently provides disease-modifying effects in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Several systemic reviews and meta-analysis indicate that both subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma for HDM sensitivity. In this report, we review recent studies and the evidence for the use of HDM SCIT and SLIT. Fundamental gaps in knowledge are identified which could lead to improved approaches to HDM allergy. PMID:25354663

  5. Flying Through Dust From Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    How can we tell what an asteroid is made of? Until now, weve relied on remote spectral observations, though NASAs recently launched OSIRIS-REx mission may soon change this by landing on an asteroid and returning with a sample.But what if we could learn more about the asteroids near Earth without needing to land on each one? It turns out that we can by flying through their dust.The aerogel dust collector of the Stardust mission. [NASA/JPL/Caltech]Ejected CluesWhen an airless body is impacted by the meteoroids prevalent throughout our solar system, ejecta from the body are flung into the space around it. In the case of small objects like asteroids, their gravitational pull is so weak that most of the ejected material escapes, forming a surrounding cloud of dust.By flying a spacecraft through this cloud, we could perform chemical analysis of the dust, thereby determining the asteroids composition. We could even capture some of the dust during a flyby (for example, by using an aerogel collector like in the Stardust mission) and bring it back home to analyze.So whats the best place to fly a dust-analyzing or -collecting spacecraft? To answer this, we need to know what the typical distribution of dust is around a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) a problem that scientists Jamey Szalay (Southwest Research Institute) and Mihly Hornyi (University of Colorado Boulder) address in a recent study.The colors show the density distribution for dust grains larger than 0.3 m around a body with a 10-km radius. The distribution is asymmetric, with higher densities on the apex side, shown here in the +y direction. [Szalay Hornyi 2016]Moon as a LaboratoryTo determine typical dust distributions around NEAs, Szalay and Hornyi first look at the distribution of dust around our own Moon, caused by the same barrage of meteorites wed expect to impact NEAs. The Moons dust cloud was measured in situ in 2013 and 2014 by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment

  6. Dust Devils Seen by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Annotated

    At the Gusev site recently, skies have been very dusty, and on its 421st sol (March 10, 2005) NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit spied two dust devils in action. This pair of images is from the rover's rear hazard-avoidance camera. Views of the Gusev landing region from orbit show many dark streaks across the landscape -- tracks where dust devils have removed surface dust to show relatively darker soil below -- but this is the first time Spirit has photographed an active dust devil.

    Scientists are considering several causes of these small phenomena. Dust devils often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars. Warmed soil and rocks heat the layer of atmosphere closest to the surface, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. Another possibility is that a flow structure might develop over craters as wind speeds increase. As winds pick up, turbulence eddies and rotating columns of air form. As these columns grow in diameter they become taller and gain rotational speed. Eventually they become self-sustaining and the wind blows them down range.

    One sol before this image was taken, power output from Spirit's solar panels went up by about 50 percent when the amount of dust on the panels decreased. Was this a coincidence, or did a helpful dust devil pass over Spirit and lift off some of the dust?

    By comparing the separate images from the rover's different cameras, team members estimate that the dust devils moved about 500 meters (1,640 feet) in the 155 seconds between the navigation camera and hazard-avoidance camera frames; that equates to about 3 meters per second (7 miles per hour). The dust devils appear to be about 1,100 meters (almost three-quarters of a mile) from the rover.

  7. Dust acoustic dressed soliton with dust charge fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.

    2010-06-15

    Modeling of dust acoustic solitons observed in dusty plasma experiment [Bandyopadhyay et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 065006 (2008)] using the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation showed significant discrepancies in the regime of large amplitudes (or high soliton speed). In this paper, higher order perturbation corrections to the standard KdV soliton are proposed and the resulting dressed soliton is shown to describe the experimental data better, in particular, at high soliton speed. The effects of dust charge fluctuations on the dust acoustic dressed soliton in a dusty plasma system are also investigated. The KdV equation and a linear inhomogeneous equation, governing the evolution of first and second order potentials, respectively, are derived for the system by using reductive perturbation technique. Renormalization procedure is used to obtain nonsecular solutions of these coupled equations. The characteristics of dust acoustic dressed solitons with and without dust charge fluctuations are discussed.

  8. Pallene dust torus observations by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiß, M.; Srama, R.; Sun, K.-L.; Seiler, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Kempf, S.; Spahn, F.

    2014-04-01

    The ISS cameras on-board the Cassini spacecraft have detected a faint dust torus along the orbit of Pallene [1]. It is believed that the source of the torus is the moon Pallene itself, where dust particles are ejected from its surface by micrometeoroid bombardment. Here, we present in-situ dust measurements of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on-board of the spacecraft Cassini which confirm the existence of a dust torus of micrometer-sized particles along the orbit of Pallene. The cross-section of the torus has been modeled by a double-Gaussian distribution, resulting in a radial and vertical full width at half maximum of 2300 km and 270 km, respectively, and a maximum particle density of n = 2.7 · 10-3m-3.

  9. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  10. Analytical criteria for performance characteristics of IgE binding methods for evaluating safety of biotech food products.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Ree, Ronald van; Poulsen, Lars K; Bannon, Gary A

    2008-10-01

    There is detailed guidance on how to perform bioinformatic analyses and enzymatic degradation studies for genetically modified crops under consideration for approval by regulatory agencies; however, there is no consensus in the scientific community on the details of how to perform IgE serum studies. IgE serum studies are an important safety component to acceptance of genetically modified crops when the introduced protein is novel, the introduced protein is similar to known allergens, or the crop is allergenic. In this manuscript, we describe the characteristics of the reagents, validation of assay performance, and data analysis necessary to optimize the information obtained from serum testing of novel proteins and genetically modified (GM) crops and to make results more accurate and comparable between different investigations. PMID:18727951

  11. An immunostimulatory DNA sequence from a probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum inhibits IgE production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noritoshi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shimosato, Takeshi; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki; Saito, Tadao

    2006-04-01

    The immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) BL07 (5'-GCGTCGGTTTCGGTGCTCAC-3') was identified from the genomic DNA of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum BB536. ODN BL07 stimulated B-lymphocyte proliferation and induced interleukin-12 (IL-12) production in macrophage-like J774.1 cells. ODNs BL07 and BL07S (modified with phosphorothioate backbone) significantly inhibited immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and stimulated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-12 production, but did not affect IL-4 secretion in murine splenic cells of ovalbumin-primed BALB/c mice. These ODNs also significantly inhibited production of IgE in purified murine B cells in the presence of IL-4 and anti-CD40. The results suggest the potential of ODNs BL07 and BL07S in preventing IgE-related immune responses and the possible involvement of ODN BL07 in the antiallergic efficacy of B. longum BB536.

  12. Analytical criteria for performance characteristics of IgE binding methods for evaluating safety of biotech food products.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Ree, Ronald van; Poulsen, Lars K; Bannon, Gary A

    2008-10-01

    There is detailed guidance on how to perform bioinformatic analyses and enzymatic degradation studies for genetically modified crops under consideration for approval by regulatory agencies; however, there is no consensus in the scientific community on the details of how to perform IgE serum studies. IgE serum studies are an important safety component to acceptance of genetically modified crops when the introduced protein is novel, the introduced protein is similar to known allergens, or the crop is allergenic. In this manuscript, we describe the characteristics of the reagents, validation of assay performance, and data analysis necessary to optimize the information obtained from serum testing of novel proteins and genetically modified (GM) crops and to make results more accurate and comparable between different investigations.

  13. Dust on the Move

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06763 Dust on the Move

    This dust avalanche is located on the rim material of an unnamed crater to the east of Tikhonravov Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 15.0N, Longitude 43.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in paired examinations of serum and synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis and reactive synovitis of local origin.

    PubMed

    Hrncír, Z; Tichý, M; Sims, J; Salavec, M; Vavrina, J

    1977-12-15

    Levels of IgE were examined in pairs of serum and synovial fluid of the knee joint in a series of 78 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), reactive synovitis during osteoarthrosis, and after injury. The IgE levels in synovial fluid were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in all groups; in RA, they were in significant correlation (r=0.6208, p less than 0.0001) and in direct linear regression to the levels in serum. In 5 patients of the whole series, however, the IgE levels in serum were lower by one order of magnitude as compared with synovial fluid. Serum levels of IgE in RA were in significant correlation and in direct linear regression to the titres of rheumatoid factors according to the latex-fixation test (r=0.3688, p=0.0249) and the haemagglutination test with sheep red cells (r=0.3721, p=0.0235).

  15. Serum IgE concentration and other immune manifestations of treatment with gold salts are linked to the MHC and IL4 regions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kermarrec, N.; Blanpied, C.; Druet, P.

    1996-01-01

    A subset of patients with rheumatoid arthritis occasionally develops skin reactions and glomerulonephritis and exhibits an increase in serum IgE concentration when treated with gold salts. Brown-Norway (BN) rats injected with aurothiopropanolsulfonate (ATPS) also manifest an autoimmune glomerulonephritis and increased serum IgE concentration, whereas Lewis (LEW) rats are resistant to complications. Here, we show linkage between responses to ATPS in a (BN x LEW) F2 cohort and the major histocompatibility complex (RT1) on rat chromosome 20 and between markers in the region of IL4 and other candidate genes on rat chromosome 10. Recently, human serum IgE concentration has been reported to be linked to the IL-4 region. Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that homologous genes could be implicated in ATPS manifestations in the rat and in the regulation of IgE levels in the human. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Low-dose intragastric administration of Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) does not induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Haas, H; Herzig, K H; André, S; Galle, J; Gronow, A; Gabius, H J

    2001-04-01

    Native Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) poses a potential health threat, when ingested with improperly cooked red kidney beans. Since PHA triggers human basophilic granulocytes in culture to rapidly release considerable amounts of interleukin-(IL-)4 and IL-13, key cytokines for inducing immunoglobulin E (IgE) production, the question was addressed whether this lectin can evoke in vivo IgE production. IgE-low-responder (Sprague-Dawley) rats received PHA (6 mg/rat/day) intragastrically by gavage over a period of 10 days. Up to day 35, there was no IgE induction regardless of whether the animals were boostered subcutaneously with PHA or not, indicating that PHA cannot be regarded as a general IgE inducer in rats. PMID:11788794

  17. Innate Immune Responses in House Dust Mite Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity. PMID:23724247

  18. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. PMID:21955446

  19. Different natural killer (NK) receptor expression and immunoglobulin E (IgE) regulation by NK1 and NK2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, E; Akdis, M; Bilgic, S; Disch, R; Falk, C S; Blaser, K; Akdis, C; Deniz, G

    2005-01-01

    Many studies concerning the role of T cells and cytokines in allergy have been performed, but little is known about the role of natural killer (NK) cells. Accordingly, the expression of co-stimulatory, inhibitory and apoptosis receptors, cytokine profiles and their effect on immunoglobulin isotypes were investigated in polyallergic atopic dermatitis (AD) patients with hyper immunoglobulin E (IgE) and healthy individuals. AD patients showed significantly decreased peripheral blood NK cells compared to healthy individuals. Freshly isolated NK cells of polyallergic patients spontaneously released higher amounts of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-γ compared to healthy individuals. NK cells were differentiated to NK1 cells by IL-12 and neutralizing anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and to NK2 cells by IL-4 and neutralizing anti-IL-12 mAb. Following IL-12 stimulation, NK cells produced increased levels of IFN-γ and decreased IL-4. In contrast, stimulation of NK cells with IL-4 inhibited IFN-γ, but increased IL-13, production. The effect of NK cell subsets on IgE regulation was examined in co-cultures of in vitro differentiated NK cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or B cells. NK1 cells significantly inhibited IL-4- and soluble CD40-ligand-stimulated IgE production; however, NK2 cells did not have any effect. The inhibitory effect of NK1 cells on IgE production was blocked by neutralization of IFN-γ. Except for CD40, NK cell subsets showed different expression of killer-inhibitory receptors and co-stimulatory molecules between the polyallergic and healthy subjects. These results indicate that human NK cells show differences in numbers, surface receptor and cytokine phenotypes and functional properties in AD. PMID:15807855

  20. Downstream class switching leads to IgE antibody production by B lymphocytes lacking IgM switch regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Franklin, Andrew; Boboila, Cristian; McQuay, Amy; Gallagher, Michael P; Manis, John P; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine; Alt, Frederick W

    2010-02-16

    Ig heavy chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) replaces the IgH C mu constant region exons with one of several sets of downstream IgH constant region exons (e.g., C gamma, C epsilon, or C alpha), which affects switching from IgM to another IgH class (e.g., IgG, IgE, or IgA). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates CSR by promoting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within switch (S) regions flanking the donor C mu (S mu) and a downstream acceptor C(H) (e.g., S gamma, S epsilon, S alpha) that are then joined to complete CSR. DSBs generated in S mu frequently are joined within S mu to form internal switch region deletions (ISD). AID-induced ISD and mutations have been considered rare in downstream S regions, suggesting that AID targeting to these S regions requires its prior recruitment to S mu. We have now assayed for CSR and ISD in B cells lacking S mu (S mu(-/-) B cells). In S mu(-/-) B cells activated for CSR to IgG1 and IgE, CSR to IgG1 was greatly reduced; but, surprisingly, CSR to IgE occurred at nearly normal levels. Moreover, normal B cells had substantial S gamma1 ISD and increased mutations in and near S gamma1, and levels of both were greatly increased in S mu(-/-) B cells. Finally, S mu(-/-) B cells underwent downstream CSR between S gamma1 and S epsilon on alleles that lacked S mu CSR to these sequences. Our findings show that AID targets downstream S regions independently of CSR with Smu and implicate an alternative pathway for IgE class switching that involves generation and joining of DSBs within two different downstream S regions before S mu joining.

  1. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    PubMed

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  2. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  3. Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O.

    2008-09-07

    Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

  4. Prevention of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Airways Disease in Mice through Immune Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Agua-Doce, Ana; Graca, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic airways disease is a consequence of a Th2 response to an allergen leading to a series of manifestations such as production of allergen-specific IgE, inflammatory infiltrates in the airways, and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR). Several strategies have been reported for tolerance induction to allergens leading to protection from allergic airways disease. We now show that CD4 blockade at the time of house dust mite sensitization induces antigen-specific tolerance in mice. Tolerance induction is robust enough to be effective in pre-sensitized animals, even in those where AHR was pre-established. Tolerant mice are protected from airways eosinophilia, Th2 lung infiltration, and AHR. Furthermore, anti-CD4 treated mice remain immune competent to mount immune responses, including Th2, to unrelated antigens. Our findings, therefore, describe a strategy for tolerance induction potentially applicable to other immunogenic proteins besides allergens. PMID:21818308

  5. Chimeras of Bet v 1 and Api g 1 reveal heterogeneous IgE responses in patients with birch pollen allergy

    PubMed Central

    Gepp, Barbara; Lengger, Nina; Bublin, Merima; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterization of IgE-binding epitopes of allergens and determination of their patient-specific relevance is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of allergy. Objective We sought to assess the contribution of specific surface areas of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to binding IgE of individual patients. Methods Four distinct areas of Bet v 1 representing in total 81% of its surface were grafted onto the scaffold of its homolog, Api g 1.0101, to yield the chimeras Api-Bet-1 to Api-Bet-4. The chimeras were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. IgE binding of 64 sera from Bet v 1–sensitized subjects with birch pollen allergy was determined by using direct ELISA. Specificity was assessed by means of inhibition ELISA. Results rApi g 1.0101, Api-Bet-1, Api-Bet-2, Api-Bet-3, and Api-Bet-4 bound IgE from 44%, 89%, 80%, 78%, and 48% of the patients, respectively. By comparing the amount of IgE binding to the chimeras and to rApi g 1.0101, 81%, 70%, 75%, and 45% of the patients showed significantly enhanced IgE binding to Api-Bet-1, Api-Bet-2, Api-Bet-3, and Api-Bet-4, respectively. The minority (8%) of the sera revealed enhanced IgE binding exclusively to a single chimera, whereas 31% showed increased IgE binding to all 4 chimeras compared with rApi g 1.0101. The chimeras inhibited up to 70% of IgE binding to rBet v 1.0101, confirming the specific IgE recognition of the grafted regions. Conclusion The Bet v 1–specific IgE response is polyclonal, and epitopes are spread across the entire Bet v 1 surface. Furthermore, the IgE recognition profile of Bet v 1 is highly patient specific. PMID:24529686

  6. New Regulatory Roles of Galectin-3 in High-Affinity IgE Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bambouskova, Monika; Polakovicova, Iva; Halova, Ivana; Goel, Gautam; Draberova, Lubica; Bugajev, Viktor; Doan, Aivi; Utekal, Pavol; Gardet, Agnes; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) in mast cells initiates activation events that lead to degranulation and release of inflammatory mediators. To better understand the signaling pathways and genes involved in mast cell activation, we developed a high-throughput mast cell degranulation assay suitable for RNA interference experiments using lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery. We tested 432 shRNAs specific for 144 selected genes for effects on FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation and identified 15 potential regulators. In further studies, we focused on galectin-3 (Gal3), identified in this study as a negative regulator of mast cell degranulation. FcεRI-activated cells with Gal3 knockdown exhibited upregulated tyrosine phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase and several other signal transduction molecules and enhanced calcium response. We show that Gal3 promotes internalization of IgE-FcεRI complexes; this may be related to our finding that Gal3 is a positive regulator of FcεRI ubiquitination. Furthermore, we found that Gal3 facilitates mast cell adhesion and motility on fibronectin but negatively regulates antigen-induced chemotaxis. The combined data indicate that Gal3 is involved in both positive and negative regulation of FcεRI-mediated signaling events in mast cells. PMID:26929198

  7. Reactivity of IgE antibodies with crustacea and oyster allergens: evidence for common antigenic structures.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L

    1987-08-01

    IgE-antibody reactivity to oysters and crustacea of sera from six oyster-sensitive, seven oyster- and crustacea-sensitive, and 12 crustacea-sensitive subjects was investigated. All six subjects with a history of only oyster sensitivity had minimal RAST reactivity (ratios 2 to 5) to extracts of raw or boiled oysters. Three of the seven oyster- and crustacea-sensitive subjects and six of the 12 crustacea-sensitive, oyster-tolerant or unexposed subjects had elevated RAST ratios to oyster (14 to 41). Generally, elevated oyster RAST correlated with skin prick test reactivity to oyster but not with total serum IgE levels. The oyster RAST values of the 19 crustacea-sensitive subjects (with or without oyster sensitivity) correlated with crustacea RAST reactivity (crab RAST, most significant; shrimp RAST, least significant). Rabbit antisera to crustacea extracts detected precipitating antigens present in extracts of raw or boiled oysters. Significant inhibition of the oyster RAST was obtained with oyster or crustacea extracts. These studies suggest that in the diagnosis of oyster sensitivity the RAST may not be useful and that oyster and crustacea contain common antigenic structures.

  8. Case Report About Fatal or Near-Fatal Hypersensitivity Reactions to Cetuximab: Anticetuximab IgE as a Valuable Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Benoît; Mariotte, Delphine; Moldovan, Cristian; Grellard, Jean-Michel; Vergnaud, Marie-Claude; Laroche, Dominique; Gervais, Radj

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions are a classic side effect of cetuximab. We report the cases of three patients who developed life-threatening hypersensitivity to cetuximab, which could have been predicted by assessing the concentration of serum anticetuximab immunoglobulin (Ig)E. The anticetuximab IgE concentration could be an interesting test to predict which patients are at risk of experiencing severe hypersensitivity reactions to cetuximab.

  9. Case Report About Fatal or Near-Fatal Hypersensitivity Reactions to Cetuximab: Anticetuximab IgE as a Valuable Screening Test

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Benoît; Mariotte, Delphine; Moldovan, Cristian; Grellard, Jean-Michel; Vergnaud, Marie-Claude; Laroche, Dominique; Gervais, Radj

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions are a classic side effect of cetuximab. We report the cases of three patients who developed life-threatening hypersensitivity to cetuximab, which could have been predicted by assessing the concentration of serum anticetuximab immunoglobulin (Ig)E. The anticetuximab IgE concentration could be an interesting test to predict which patients are at risk of experiencing severe hypersensitivity reactions to cetuximab. PMID:25089092

  10. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  11. Suppression of the benzylpenicilloyl- (BPO) specific IgE formation with isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Blaser, K; Nakagawa, T; de Weck, A L

    1980-07-01

    In vivo effects of actively produced or passively administered isologous anti-idiotypic antisera (aId) on the benzylpenicilloyl- (BPO) specific IgE and IgG formation in BALB/c mice have been studied. Isologous anti-BPO aId were raised in BALB/c mice by immunization with purified anti-BPO antibodies isolated from ascites induced with BPO-bovine gamma-globulin in the same mouse strain. Mice producing isologous anti-BPO aId exhibited long-term suppression of BPO-specific IgE and IgG antibody responses induced by BPO-ovalbumin (BPO-OVA) in aluminum hydroxide. Simultaneously, they produced increased amounts of anti-BPO aId after each challenge with the BPO-OVA antigens. Passive administration of isologous anti-BPO aId into syngeneic mice previously sensitized with BPO-OVA caused depression of BPO-specific IgE antibody levels for 2 to 3 weeks. When anti-BPO IgE had again reached its previous level, passively administered aId had decreased to the level of untreated mice. Passive administration of anti-BPO aId also depressed the primary anti-BPO IgE formation for 2 to 3 weeks. In all these experiments the IgE antibody formation against the carrier proteins used for BPO-antigens was not affected. These results show that IgE and IgG antibodies share major idiotypic determinants and that IgE production is accessible to regulation by aId.

  12. Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.

  13. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Satinover, Shama M.; Hosen, Jacob; Mozena, Jonathan; Borish, Larry; Lewis, Barrett D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions. Objective We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb. Methods Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens. Results Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal. Conclusion We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb. PMID:19070355

  14. Early recovery from cow's milk allergy is associated with decreasing IgE and increasing IgG4 binding to cow's milk epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Savilahti, Emma M.; Rantanen, Ville; Lin, Jing S.; Karinen, Sirkku; Saarinen, Kristiina M.; Goldis, Marina; Mäkelä, Mika J.; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Savilahti, Erkki; Sampson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Background Dynamics and balance of allergen specific IgE, IgG4 and IgA binding may contribute to the development of tolerance in cow's milk allergy. Profiling of antibody binding to cow's milk protein epitopes may help in predicting natural history of allergy. Objective To investigate differences in IgE, IgG4 and IgA binding to cow's milk epitopes over time between patients with early recovery or with persisting cow's milk allergy. Methods We studied serum samples at the time of diagnosis (mean age 7 months), one year later and at follow-up (mean age 8.6 years) from 11 patients with persisting IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy at age 8-9 years, and 12 patients who recovered by age 3 years. We measured the binding of IgE, IgG4 and IgA antibodies to sequential epitopes derived from five major cow's milk proteins with a peptide microarray-based immunoassay. We analyzed the data with a novel image processing method together with machine learning prediction. Results IgE epitope binding patterns were stable over time in patients with persisting cow's milk allergy, whereas binding decreased in patients who recovered early. Binding patterns of IgE and IgG4 overlapped. Among patients who recovered early, the signal of IgG4 binding increased while that of IgE decreased over time. IgE and IgG4 binding to a panel of αs1-, αs2-, β-and κ-casein regions predicted outcome with significant accuracy. Conclusions Attaining tolerance to cow's milk is associated with decreased epitope binding by IgE and a concurrent increase in corresponding epitope binding by IgG4. PMID:20462631

  15. Adjuvant activity of diesel-exhaust particulates for the production of IgE antibody in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Muranaka, M.; Suzuki, S.; Koizumi, K.; Takafuji, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ikemori, R.; Tokiwa, H.

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence rate of allergic rhinitis caused by pollen has strikingly increased in Japan in the last three decades. The number of diesel cars in use has also rapidly increased in the country. This fact urged us to study the effects of particulates emitted from diesel cars on the production of IgE antibody. The primary IgE antibody responses in mice immunized with intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OA) mixed with diesel-exhaust particulates (DEP) were higher than those in the animals immunized with OA alone. This effect of DEP on the production of IgE antibody in mice was also demonstrated when mice were immunized with repeated injections of dinitrophenylated-OA. In addition, persistent IgE-antibody response to major allergen of Japanese cedar pollen (JCPA), a most common pollen causing allergic rhinitis in Japan, was observed in mice immunized with JCPA mixed with DEP but not in the animals immunized with JCPA alone. The results do indicate that the adjuvant activity of DEP can not be excluded as a possible cause of the associated change in the number of diesel cars and allergic rhinitis caused by pollen in Japan.

  16. Characterization and crystallization of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with the bovine β-lactoglobulin allergen

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, Merja Jänis, Janne; Jylhä, Sirpa; Kallio, Johanna M.; Hakulinen, Nina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Takkinen, Kristiina; Rouvinen, Juha

    2008-01-01

    The high-resolution mass-spectrometric characterization, crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with bovine β-lactoglobulin are reported. A D1 Fab fragment containing the allergen-binding variable domains of the IgE antibody was characterized by ESI FT–ICR mass spectrometry and crystallized with bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. X-ray data suitable for structure determination were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.0, b = 100.6, c = 168.1 Å. The three-dimensional structure of the D1 Fab fragment–BLG complex will provide the first insight into IgE antibody–allergen interactions at the molecular level.

  17. IgE sensitization to the nonspecific lipid-transfer protein Ara h 9 and peanut-associated bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Arkwright, Peter D; Summers, Colin W; Riley, Beverley J; Alsediq, Najla; Pumphrey, Richard S H

    2013-01-01

    Allergen component analysis is now available in many laboratories. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between peanut allergen IgE components and severity of clinical reactions in patients with a history of peanut allergy. Data and sera collected from 192 patients within the Manchester Allergy Research Database and Serum Bank were used in this retrospective study. Sensitization to peanut specific IgE and Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 8 peanut IgE components, as measured by fluoroenzyme immunoassay, was not associated with anaphylaxis. In contrast, sensitization to the lipid-transfer protein Ara h 9 was significantly more prevalent in patients with peanut-associated bronchospasm (26% versus 9% of patients), even after adjusting for potential confounding effects of age, gender, and severity of concomitant chronic atopic diseases. Patients who were sensitized to Ara h 9 were more likely to have ingested rather than just have had skin contact with peanut and have a more rapid onset of symptoms. These results are consistent with observations that sensitization to heat and protease resistant lipid-transfer protein components of hazelnut, grains, and fruit is predictive of anaphylaxis.

  18. [Two cases of allergies due to Anisakis simplex, positive to specific IgE for Ani s 12 allergen].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuri; Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Lee, Min; Shinohara, Rie; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of immediate allergies to Anisakis after ingestion of seafood. In case 1, after ingestion of flatfish, sea bream and mackerel, wheals and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 5 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum strongly reacted to Ani s 12. In case 2, after ingestion of flatfish and yellowtail, pruritus and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 6 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum reacted to Ani s 1, 4, 6 and 12. In both cases, skin prick tests were negative for suspected seafoods. These data suggests the possibility Ani s 12 is a major allergen of Anisakis allergy besides Ani s 1, 2 and 7. Ani s 12 is an allergen that was first reported in 2011. The reactivity of Ani s 12 specific IgE with ELISA may become useful for the diagnosis of Anisakis allergy.

  19. [Effects of Celosia argentea and Cucurbita moschata extracts on anti-DNP IgE antibody production in mice].

    PubMed

    Imaoka, K; Ushijima, H; Inouye, S; Takahashi, T; Kojima, Y

    1994-05-01

    We have already reported that the Perilla frutescens extract (PFE) suppressed anti-DNA IgE antibody production in mice. In this study, we prepared extracts of Celosia argentea L. (CAE) and Cucurbita moschata Duch (CME), which are Chinese herbal medicines like Perilla frutescens, and examined the effects on anti-DNP antibody responses in mice. To examine the effects of CAE & CME on primary antibody responses, CAE & CME were intraperitoneally injected the day before primary immunization of DNP-ovalbumin. Anti-DNP antibody production was markedly suppressed. Then, we examined the effects on secondary antibody responses. CEA & CME were injected only the day before secondary immunization. Anti-DNP IgE production was markedly suppressed, but IgG responses were not affected. It was also found that mitogenic activity occurred in CAE & CME dose dependently in vitro. These effects of CAE & CME were superior to that of PFE. These results suggest that CAE & CME may be more useful than PFE for the suppression of IgE antibody in certain allergic disorders.

  20. Carbon Nanofibers Have IgE Adjuvant Capacity but Are Less Potent Than Nanotubes in Promoting Allergic Airway Responses

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Mari; Marioara, Calin Daniel; Løvik, Martinus

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the possible health impact of nanoparticles. The main objective of this study was to investigate the allergy-promoting capacity of four different carbon nanofiber (CNF) samples in an injection and an airway mouse model of allergy. Secondly, the potency of the CNF was compared to the previously reported allergy-promoting capacity of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the airway model. Ultrafine carbon black particles (ufCBP) were used as a positive control. Particles were given together with the allergen ovalbumin (OVA) either by subcutaneous injection into the footpad or intranasally to BALB/cA mice. After allergen booster, OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were measured. In the airway model, inflammation was determined as influx of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages) and by mediators (MCP-1 and TNF-α present in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF)). CNF and CNT both increased OVA-specific IgE levels in the two models, but in the airway model, the CNT gave a significantly stronger IgE response than the CNF. Furthermore, the CNT and not the CNF promoted eosinophil lung inflammation. Our data therefore suggest that nanotube-associated properties are particularly potent in promoting allergic responses. PMID:24024193

  1. Evaluation of IgE Antibodies to Omalizumab (Xolair®) and Their Potential Correlation to Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Dana L; Nakamura, Gerald R; Lowman, Henry B; Fischer, Saloumeh Kadkhodayan

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab (Xolair®) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to human immunoglobulin E (IgE). Omalizumab is used to treat IgE-mediated diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and moderate to severe allergic asthma. In pre-marketing clinical trials in patients with asthma, anaphylaxis was reported in 3 of 3,507 (0.1%) patients. In post-marketing spontaneous reports, the frequency of anaphylaxis attributed to omalizumab use was estimated to be at least 0.2% of patients based on an estimated exposure of about 57,300 patients from June 2003 through December 2006. To better understand the risk of anaphylaxis in patients with allergic asthma receiving omalizumab, a post-marketing pharmacosurveillance study was initiated in 2009. As part of this study, an assay was developed to detect antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Serum samples from patients in the study were evaluated using this assay. Our results indicated that there was no observable correlation between either anaphylaxis or skin test reactivity and the presence of antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Here, we discuss the development of this assay as well as the results of the immunogenicity assessment.

  2. IgE responsiveness to Dermatophagoides farinae in West Highland white terrier dogs is associated with region on CFA35.

    PubMed

    Roque, Joana Barros; O'Leary, Caroline Ann; Duffy, David Lorenzo; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Latter, Melanie; Mason, Kenneth; Vogelnest, Linda; Shipstone, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity against environmental allergens, commonly including Dermatophagoides farinae, is associated with atopic diseases in both humans and dogs. We have recently identified a family of clinically healthy West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) with high-serum D. farinae-IgE levels. In this study, we investigated the genetic mechanism controlling IgE responsiveness in dogs by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix V2 Dog SNP array in 31 high-IgE and 24 low-IgE responder WHWTs. A gene-dropping simulation method, using SIB-PAIR software, showed significant allelic association between serum D. farinae-specific IgE levels and a 2.3-Mb area on CFA35 (best empirical P = 1 × 10(-5)). A nearby candidate gene, CD83, encodes a protein which has important immunological functions in antigen presentation and regulation of humoral immune responses. We sequenced this gene in 2 high-IgE responders and 2 low-IgE responders and identified an intronic polymorphic repeat sequence with a predicted functional effect, but the association was insufficient to explain the GWAS association signal in this population (P = 1 × 10(-3)). Further studies are necessary to investigate the significance of these findings for IgE responsiveness and atopic disease in the dog.

  3. Ara h 6 complements Ara h 2 as an important marker for IgE reactivity to peanut.

    PubMed

    Koid, Audrey E; Chapman, Martin D; Hamilton, Robert G; van Ree, Ronald; Versteeg, Serge A; Dreskin, Stephen C; Koppelman, Stef J; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The similarities of two major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, in molecular size, amino acid sequence, and structure have made it difficult to obtain natural Ara h 6 free of Ara h 2. The objectives of this study were to purify natural Ara h 6 that is essentially free of Ara h 2 and to compare its IgE reactivity and potency in histamine release assays to Ara h 2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the highly purified allergen (<0.01% Ara h 2) revealed a single 14.5 kD band, and the identity of Ara h 6 was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ara h 6 showed a higher seroprevalence in chimeric IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 54) but a weaker biological activity in basophil histamine release assays than Ara h 2. Purified Ara h 6 will be useful for diagnostic IgE antibody assays as well as molecular and cellular studies to investigate the immunological mechanisms of peanut allergy. PMID:24328145

  4. Antigen-dependent transition of IgE to a detergent-insoluble form is associated with reduced IgE receptor-dependent secretion from RBL-2H3 mast cells.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, J; Oliver, J M

    1990-07-01

    In mast cells, basophils, and the RBL-2H3 tumor mast cell model, crosslinking cell surface IgE-receptor complexes by multivalent ligands activates a signal transduction pathway that leads to the secretion of histamine, serotonin, and other inflammatory mediators. Receptor crosslinking in RBL-2H3 cells also changes cell surface morphology and increases F-actin assembly. Previously, Robertson et al. demonstrated that crosslinked IgE-receptor complexes become associated with the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction (the "cytoskeleton") of RBL-2H3 cells and raised the possibility that receptor-cytoskeletal association may be a required step in the stimulation of secretion. The studies reported here confirm by flow cytometry that crosslinking cell surface IgE by antigen induces the association of the crosslinked complexes with the detergent-insoluble fraction. Dose-response studies, also reported here, indicate that the detergent insolubility of the complexes does not correlate with secretion. Thus, secretion increases with antigen concentration to a maximum beyond which more antigen causes less, not more, secretion. There is little residual detergent-insoluble IgE at the concentrations of antigen that promote optimal secretion, whereas the association of IgE with the detergent-insoluble fraction is maximal at the high antigen concentrations that result in reduced secretion. The addition of monovalent hapten to reduce the amount of crosslinking caused by high concentrations of antigen increases secretion and simultaneously reduces the association of IgE with the detergent-insoluble fraction. Dihydrocytochalasin B, an inhibitor of antigen-stimulated actin polymerization, also increases the rate and extent of secretion and simultaneously delays the association of crosslinked IgE-receptor complexes with the detergent-insoluble fraction. From these data, we propose that the association of crosslinked IgE receptors with the detergent-insoluble fraction of RBL-2H3 cells increases

  5. Considerations when collecting coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Olechiw, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    There are several applications in the handling of coal in which capturing coal dust is important. They are in pulverizing operations at belt conveyor transfer points and pneumatic conveying receivers. In each case the processing and handling of coal generates considerable dust which is suspended in the air. Health and safety, environmental considerations and good housekeeping practices dictate that the suspended coal dust be captured, contained and transferred for re-use or disposal. It is no longer acceptable practice to expose operating personnel to breathing dust (OSSA regulations). In addition particulate emissions are being more closely regulated both in total mass and particle size (PM-10 legislation). In general dusty environments reduce the efficiency of operating equipment by fouling bearings and rollers, increasing friction, clogging air filters and increasing wear and tear on equipment and energy costs. Of paramount concern is the fact that spontaneous combustion can occur where coal dust accumulates on horizontal surfaces.

  6. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  7. Dust properties of NGC 2076

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, D. K.; Pandey, S. K.; Kembhavi, Ajit

    1998-05-01

    We present multiband CCD surface photometry of NGC 2076, an early-type galaxy with a broad dust lane. We investigate the wavelength dependence of the dust extinction and derive the apparent extinction law. The extinction varies linearly with inverse wavelength with a ratio of total to selective extinction R_V = 2.70+/-0.28. The smaller value of R_V relative to the Galactic value implies that the size of `large' dust grains, responsible for extinction, is smaller than that in our Galaxy. We calculate the dust mass from total extinction, as well as from the color excess. We use IRAS data on FIR emission to determine the dust temperature, star formation rate and star formation efficiency. Based on observations taken from VBO, Kavalur, India

  8. Petal-like CdS nanospheres-based electrochemiluminescence aptasensor for detection of IgE with gold nanoparticles amplification.

    PubMed

    Cao, Juntao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    A facile label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor was designed for sensitive detection of human immunoglobulin E (IgE) using petal-like CdS nanospheres and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) as sensing platform. To construct the aptasensor, petal-like CdS nanospheres as ECL emitter were firstly synthesized and immobilized on the chitosan-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. Chitosan was coated on the CdS/CS/GCE again with two coating numbers to produce a stable ECL signal and facilitate subsequent AuNPs immobilization. The construction of aptasensor was achieved after IgE aptamer was adsorbed onto the AuNPs. The detection of IgE was performed upon the incubation of the interface with target protein IgE. Under the optimum conditions, the ECL signal decreased depending linearly on the logarithmic value of IgE concentration ranging from 5.0×10(-13) to 1.0×10(-9)M with a regression equation of I=-15254.8-2129.3 logc (R(2)=0.996). The detection limit was experimentally found to be 8.0×10(-14)M. The applicability of the constructed aptasensor was demonstrated in the determination of IgE in human serum samples.

  9. The capacity of interleukin-4 to induce in vitro IgE synthesis by B cells of patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Pastorelli, G; Roncarolo, M G; Peronne, C; Tovo, P A; de Vries, J E

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) has been shown to induce IgE synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of normal donors in vitro. However, induction of PBMC of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) with IL-4 resulted in IgE production in only two out of eight cases tested. PBMC of the first patient that produced IgE in response to IL-4 also secreted normal levels of IL-4 upon activation. PBMC of the second patient secreted very low levels of IL-4 in vitro which may account for the very low serum IgE levels in this patient. Of the other six patients who had very low serum IgE levels and whose PBMC failed to produce IgE in response to IL-4 in vitro, five did not secrete IL-4 upon in vitro activation. The capacity of the T cells to produce IL-4 was intact in the sixth patient. Collectively our data indicate that PBMC of the majority of patients with CVI are defective since they failed to respond appropriately to IL-4 and they failed to produce IL-4, contributing to the view that CVI is a heterogeneous disorder in which a variety of T and B cell defects occur. PMID:2119918

  10. Photoluminescence by Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijh, U. P.

    2005-08-01

    In this dissertation, we report on our study of interstellar dust through the process of photoluminescence (PL). We present the discovery of a new band of dust PL, blue luminescence (BL) with λpeak˜370 nm in the proto-planetary nebula known as the Red Rectangle (RR). We attribute this to fluorescence by small, 3-4-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Further analysis reveals additional independent evidence for the presence of small PAHs in this nebula. Detection of BL using long-slit spectroscopic observations in other ordinary reflection nebulae suggests that the BL carrier is an ubiquitous component of the ISM and is not restricted to the particular environment of the RR. We present the spatial distribution of the BL in these nebulae and find that the BL is spatially correlated with IR emission structures attributed to aromatic emission features (AEFs), attributed to PAHs. The carrier of the dust-associated photoluminescence process causing the extended red emission (ERE), known now for over twenty five years, remains unidentified. We constrain the character of the ERE carrier by determining the wavelengths of the radiation that initiates the ERE -- λ < 118 nm. We note that under interstellar conditions most PAH molecules are ionized to the di-cation stage by photons with E > 10.5 eV and that the electronic energy level structure of PAH di-cations is consistent with fluorescence in the wavelength band of the ERE. In the last few chapters of the dissertation we present first results from ongoing work: i) Using narrow-band imaging, we present the optical detection of the circum-binary disk of the RR in the light of the BL, and show that the morphology of the BL and ERE emissions in the RR nebula are almost mutually exclusive. It is very suggestive to attribute them to different ionization stages of the same family of carriers such as PAH molecules. ii) We also present a pure spectrum of the BL free of scattered light, resolved into seven

  11. E ring dust sources: Implications from Cassini's dust measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, Frank; Albers, Nicole; Hörning, Marcel; Kempf, Sascha; Krivov, Alexander V.; Makuch, Martin; Schmidt, Jürgen; Seiß, Martin; Miodrag Sremčević

    2006-08-01

    The Enceladus flybys of the Cassini spacecraft are changing our understanding of the origin and sustainment of Saturn's E ring. Surprisingly, beyond the widely accepted dust production caused by micrometeoroid impacts onto the atmosphereless satellites (the impactor-ejecta process), geophysical activities have been detected at the south pole of Enceladus, providing an additional, efficient dust source. The dust detector data obtained during the flyby E11 are used to identify the amount of dust produced in the impactor-ejecta process and to improve related modeling [Spahn, F., Schmidt, J., Albers, N., Hörning, M., Makuch, M., Seiß, M., Kempf, S., Srama, R., Dikarev, V.V., Helfert, S., Moragas-Klostermeyer, G., Krivov, A.V., Sremčević, M., Tuzzolino, A., Economou, T., Grün, E., 2006. Cassini dust measurements at Enceladus: implications for Saturn's E ring. Science, in press]. With this, we estimate the impact-generated dust contributions of the other E ring satellites and find significant differences in the dust ejection efficiency by two projectile families - the E ring particles (ERPs) and the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Together with the Enceladus south-pole source, the ERP impacts play a crucial role in the inner region, whereas the IDP impacts dominate the particle production in the outer E ring, possibly accounting for its large radial extent. Our results can be verified in future Cassini flybys of the E ring satellites. In this way poorly known parameters of the dust particle production in hypervelocity impacts can be constrained by comparison of the data and theory.

  12. Dust in fusion plasmas: theory and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Mendis, D. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Rudakov, D.; Tanaka, Y.; Rognlien, T. D.; Soboleva, T. K.; Shukla, P. K.; Bray, B. D.; West, W. P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C. H.

    2008-09-07

    Dust may have a large impact on ITER-scale plasma experiments including both safety and performance issues. However, the physics of dust in fusion plasmas is very complex and multifaceted. Here, we discuss different aspects of dust dynamics including dust-plasma, and dust-surface interactions. We consider the models of dust charging, heating, evaporation/sublimation, dust collision with material walls, etc., which are suitable for the conditions of fusion plasmas. The physical models of all these processes have been incorporated into the DUST Transport (DUSTT) code. Numerical simulations demonstrate that dust particles are very mobile and accelerate to large velocities due to the ion drag force (cruise speed >100 m/s). Deep penetration of dust particles toward the plasma core is predicted. It is shown that DUSTT is capable of reproducing many features of recent dust-related experiments, but much more work is still needed.

  13. Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E; Velte, Cathy A; Spooner, Christina E; Munroe, Melissa E; Farris, A Darise; Nelson, Michael R; Engler, Renata J M; James, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.2 to 8.7]; P < 0.0001). Individuals 18 to 29 years of age were less likely to report an AE than individuals aged 30 years or older (OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.22 to 0.43]; P < 0.0001). No significant effects were observed for African, European, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian ancestry after correcting for age and sex. Additionally, 103 AEs were large local reactions (LLRs), whereas 53 AEs were systemic reactions (SRs). In a subset of our cohort vaccinated 2 to 12 months prior to plasma sample collection (n = 75), individuals with LLRs (n = 33) had higher protective-antigen (PA)-specific IgE levels than matched, unaffected vaccinated individuals (n = 50; P < 0.01). Anti-PA IgE was not associated with total plasma IgE, hepatitis B-specific IgE, or anti-PA IgG in individuals who reported an AE or in matched, unaffected AVA-vaccinated individuals. IP-10 was also elevated in sera of individuals who developed LLRs (P < 0.05). Individuals reporting SRs had higher levels of systemic inflammation as measured from C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). Thus, LLRs and SRs are mediated by distinct pathways. LLRs are associated with a vaccine-specific IgE response and IP-10, whereas SRs demonstrate increased systemic inflammation without a skewed cytokine profile. PMID:27280620

  14. Peanut oral immunotherapy modifies IgE and IgG4 responses to major peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Lin, Jing; Kulis, Michael; Fu, Zhiyan; Steele, Pamela H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Gimenez, Gustavo; Bardina, Ludmilla; Sampson, Hugh A.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Background Peanut-allergic subjects have highly stable pathologic antibody repertoires to the immunodominant B cell epitopes of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1-3. Objective We used a peptide microarray technique to analyze the effect of treatment with peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) on such repertoires. Methods Measurements of total peanut-specific IgE (psIgE) and psIgG4 were made with CAP-FEIA. We analyzed sera from 22 OIT subjects and 6 controls and measured serum specific IgE and IgG4 binding to epitopes of Ara h 1-3 using a high-throughput peptide microarray technique. Antibody affinity was measured using a competitive peptide microarray as previously described. Results At baseline, psIgE and psIgG4 diversity were similar between subjects and controls, and there was broad variation in epitope recognition. After a median 41 months of OIT, polyclonal psIgG4 increased from a median 0.3 mcg/mL (IQR 0.1-0.43) at baseline to 10.5 mcg/mL (3.95-45.48) (p<0.0001) and included de novo specificities. PsIgE was reduced from a median baseline of 85.45 kUA/L (23.05-101.0) to 7.75 kUA/L (2.58-30.55) (p<0.0001). Affinity was unaffected. Although the psIgE repertoire contracted in most OIT-treated subjects, several subjects generated new IgE specificities even as the total psIgE decreased. Global epitope-specific shifts from IgE to IgG4 binding occurred, including at an informative epitope of Ara h 2. Conclusion OIT differentially alters Ara h 1-3 binding patterns. These changes are variable between subjects, not observed in controls, and include a progressive polyclonal increase in IgG4, with concurrent reduction in IgE amount and diversity. PMID:23199605

  15. Serum antibody to Sarcoptes scabiei and house dust mite prior to and during infestation with S. scabiei.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S

    2000-07-01

    In this study, serum antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (SS), Dermatophagoides farinae (DF), and D. pteronyssinus (DP) were determined in 19 healthy, random-source dogs prior to infestation with scabies then again during a primary infestation, cure and challenge infestation with scabies. Prior to scabies infestation, serum of 11 dogs contained faintly detectable amounts of IgE and/or IgG to proteins in SS extract, probably resulting from sensitization to dust mites that share cross-reactive antigenic epitopes with SS. After becoming infested with scabies, the response to SS antigens became stronger with antibodies appearing to more antigens as the scabies infestation progressed. Three of the newly recognized proteins were 170, 155 and 142/133kD and could be used in a diagnostic test since antibodies to them appeared during the primary infestation. In addition, during the primary infestation, 14 of 15 dogs developed IgE to 1-11 new SS proteins in addition to an increase in IgE binding to those proteins recognized prior to infestation. Overall, the strongest antibody responses (IgE and IgG) were exhibited during cure of the first infestation, when dead mites were still present in the stratum corneum. As expected, the antibody response was strong and rapid during challenge when the infestation self-cured. The immunogenic SS proteins identified by serum antibody binding during challenge, when the hosts self-cured, are candidates for inclusion in a vaccine. These candidate proteins are 200, 185, 170, 155, 142/133, 112, 97, 74, 57, 45/42, 32 and 22kD. Some of the proteins in SS that exhibited new or increased antibody binding during the experiment also had IgE and IgG binding to proteins with similar molecular weights in DF and DP extracts. These results illustrate the difficulties involved in understanding and interpreting serum antibody for developing a serological test for the diagnosis of scabies, isolating relevant SS antigens that could be included in a

  16. Agglomeration of Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Annaratone, B. M.; Arnas, C.; Elskens, Y.

    2008-09-07

    The agglomeration of the matter in plasma, from the atomic level up to millimetre size particles, is here considered. In general we identify a continuous growth, due to deposition, and two agglomeration steps, the first at the level of tens of nanometres and the second above the micron. The agglomeration of nano-particles is attributed to electrostatic forces in presence of charge polarity fluctuations. Here we present a model based on discrete currents. With increasing grain size the positive charge permanence decreases, tending to zero. This effect is only important in the range of nanometre for dust of highly dispersed size. When the inter-particle distance is of the order of the screening length another agglomeration mechanism dominates. It is based on attractive forces, shadow forces or dipole-dipole interaction, overcoming the electrostatic repulsion. In bright plasma radiation pressure also plays a role.

  17. Dust interferometers in plasmas.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, M; Nosenko, V; Thomas, H M

    2016-03-01

    An interferometric imaging technique has been proposed to instantly measure the diameter of individual spherical dust particles suspended in a gas discharge plasma. The technique is based on the defocused image analysis of both spherical particles and their binary agglomerates. Above a critical diameter, the defocused images of spherical particles contain stationary interference fringe patterns and the fringe number increases with particle diameters. Below this critical diameter, the particle size has been measured using the rotational interference fringe patterns which appear only on the defocused images of binary agglomerates. In this case, a lower cutoff limit of particle diameter has been predicted, below which no such rotational fringe patterns are observed for the binary agglomerates. The method can be useful as a diagnostics for complex plasma experiments on earth as well as under microgravity conditions. PMID:27078284

  18. Protective effects of a recombinant fragment of human surfactant protein D in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mamta; Madan, Taruna; Waters, Patrick; Parida, Shreemanta K; Sarma, P Usha; Kishore, Uday

    2003-05-01

    Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a carbohydrate pattern recognition immune molecule. It can interact with a range of pathogens, stimulate immune cells and manipulate cytokine profiles during host's immune response. SP-D has also been shown to interact, via its carbohydrate recognition domains, with glycoprotein allergens of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Derp), inhibiting specific IgE isolated from mite-sensitive asthmatic patients from binding these allergens, and blocking subsequent histamine release from sensitized basophils. In the present study, we have examined the protection offered by various doses of intranasal administration of a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity to Derp allergens which showed characteristic high levels of specific IgE antibodies, peripheral blood eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltrates and a Th2 cytokine response. Treatment of Derp mice with rhSP-D led to significant reduction in Derp-specific IgE levels, blood eosinophilia and pulmonary cellular infiltration. The levels of IL-4 and IL-5 were decreased, while those of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were raised in the supernatant of the cultured splenocytes, indicating a Th2 to Th1 polarization. These results suggest that SP-D has a protective role in the modulation of allergic sensitization and in the development of allergic reactions to Derp allergens and highlight potential of the rhSP-D as a therapeutic for pulmonary hypersensitivity. PMID:12706535

  19. COLLIDING DECIMETER DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Deckers, J.; Teiser, J.

    2013-06-01

    Collisional evolution is a key process in planetesimal formation and decimeter bodies play a key role in the different models. However, the outcome of collisions between two dusty decimeter bodies has never been studied experimentally. Therefore, we carried out microgravity collision experiments in the Bremen drop tower. The agglomerates consist of quartz with irregularly shaped micrometer-sized grains and the mean volume filling factor is 0.437 {+-} 0.004. The aggregates are cylindrical with 12 cm in height and 12 cm in diameter, and typical masses are 1.5 kg. These are the largest and most massive dust aggregates studied in collisions to date. We observed rebound and fragmentation but no sticking in the velocity range between 0.8 and 25.7 cm s{sup -1}. The critical fragmentation velocity for split up of an aggregate is 16.2 {+-} 0.4 cm s{sup -1}. At lower velocities the aggregates bounce off each other. In this velocity range, the coefficient of restitution decreases with increasing collision velocity from 0.8 to 0.3. While the aggregates are very weak, the critical specific kinetic energy for fragmentation Q{sub {mu}=1} is a factor of six larger than expected. Collisions of large bodies in protoplanetary disks are supposed to be much faster and the generation of smaller fragments is likely. In planetary rings, collision velocities are of the order of a few cm s{sup -1} and are thereby in the same range investigated in these experiments. The coefficient of restitution of dust agglomerates and regolith-covered ice particles, which are common in planetary rings, are similar.

  20. Lunar Dust: Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt. Mark J.; Feighery, John

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. Near term plans to revisit the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond, places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it's potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. The same hold true for assessing the risk it may pose for toxicological health problems if inhaled. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program's Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. This work further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it's characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost. The paper also presents a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware.

  1. Iron Speciation in Urban Dust

    SciTech Connect

    E Elzinga; Y Gao; J Fitts; R Tappero

    2011-12-31

    An improved understanding of anthropogenic impacts on ocean fertility requires knowledge of anthropogenic dust mineralogy and associated Fe speciation as a critical step toward developing Fe solubility models constrained by mineralogical composition. This study explored the utility of micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy ({mu}-XAS) in characterizing the speciation of Fe in urban dust samples. A micro-focused beam of 10 x 7 {micro}m made possible the measurement of the Fe K edge XAS spectra of individual dust particles in the PM5.6 size fraction collected in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Spectral analysis indicated the presence of mixtures of Fe-containing minerals within individual dust particles; we observed significant magnetite content along with other Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide minerals which could not be conclusively identified. Our data indicate that detailed quantitative determination of Fe speciation requires extended energy scans to constrain the types and relative abundance of Fe species present. We observe heterogeneity in Fe speciation at the dust particle level, which underscores the importance of analyzing a statistically adequate number of particles within each dust sample. Where possible, {mu}-XAS measurements should be complemented with additional characterization techniques such as {mu}-XRD and bulk XAS to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Fe speciation in dust materials. X-ray microprobes should be used to complement bulk methods used to determine particle composition, methods that fail to record particle heterogeneity.

  2. Radar Detection of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, J.

    2003-04-01

    As primordial building material of complexes like our own solar system, dust is centrally important in the evolution of such planetary systems. Circumstellar dust can be sensed associated with Young Stellar Objects, IR excess stars and forms the ejecta of red giants, carbon-rich stars and supernovae. Interstellar dust can be cumulatively sensed over astronomically long sight-lines by the extinction, scattering and polarisation of starlight. The direct detection of interstellar dust (ISD) particles flowing into the solar system is important because such observations can directly probe the local cloud interstellar dust environment and can sense discrete stellar sources. The Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR) is a facility designed to measure the trajectories of dust impacting the Earth's atmosphere: the continuously operating radar is able to archive a large (˜ 10^6) data-base of dust trajectories and so is able to map the inflow directions of interstellar material into the solar system. Such Earth-based mapping of ISD dynamics complements the in-situ impact detections by space missions such as Ulysses and Stardust.

  3. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  4. Dust ablation in Pluto's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Based on measurements by dust detectors onboard the Pioneer 10/11 and New Horizons spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Edgeworth Kuiper Belt (EKB) has been be estimated to be on the order of 5 ṡ 103 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 μm. Dust particles are produced by collisions between EKB objects and their bombardment by both interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. Dust particles of EKB origin, in general, migrate towards the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag but their distributions are further sculpted by mean-motion resonances as they first approach the orbit of Neptune and later the other planets, as well as mutual collisions. Subsequently, Jupiter will eject the vast majority of them before they reach the inner solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto atmosphere is on the order of 200 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that volatile rich particles can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in narrow layers. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles by comparing the altitude of the deposition layers to the observed haze layers.

  5. Dust Storm in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Along historic Route 66, just southeast of the little town of Amboy, California, lies a dried-up lake. Dry lakebeds are good sources of two things: salt and dust. In this image, the now-parched Bristol Lake offers up both. On April 12, 2007, dust storms menaced the area around Amboy. To the northwest, near Newberry Springs, California, dust hampered visibility and led to a multi-car collision on Interstate 40, killing two people and injuring several others. The same day, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of a dust storm in the dry remains of Bristol Lake. Many small dust clouds boil up from the ground surface, casting their shadows to the northwest. A bright white cloud floating over the dust also throws its shadow onto the ground below. East of the dust storm are salt works that stand out from the surrounding landscape thanks to their straight lines and sharp angles. Dark ground surfaces alternate with mined white salt in a network of stripes. When lakes evaporate, chemicals that had been dissolved in the water stay behind, making dry lake beds an ideal place to find heavy concentrations of minerals, including salt. Besides the salt works, something else appears in stark contrast to this arid place. Lush green fields of irrigated crops appear in the east. Besides their color, their orderly arrangement reveals their human-made origin.

  6. Ulysses dust measurements near Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Grün, E; Zook, H A; Baguhl, M; Fechtig, H; Hanner, M S; Kissel, J; Lindblad, B A; Linkert, D; Linkert, G; Mann, I B

    1992-09-11

    Submicrometer- to micrometer-sized particles were recorded by the Ulysses dust detector within 40 days of the Jupiter flyby. Nine impacts were recorded within 50 Jupiter radii with most of them recorded after closest approach. Three of these impacts are consistent with particles on prograde orbits around Jupiter and the rest are believed to have resulted from gravitationally focused interplanetary dust. From the ratio of the impact rate before the Jupiter flyby to the impact rate after the Jupiter flyby it is concluded that interplanetary dust particles at the distance of Jupiter move on mostly retrograde orbits. On 10 March 1992, Ulysses passed through an intense dust stream. The dust detector recorded 126 impacts within 26 hours. The stream particles were moving on highly inclined and apparently hyperbolic orbits with perihelion distances of >5 astronomical units. Interplanetary dust is lost rather quickly from the solar system through collisions and other mechanisms and must be almost continuously replenished to maintain observed abundances. Dust flux measurements, therefore, give evidence of the recent rates of production from sources such as comets, asteroids, and moons, as well as the possible presence of interstellar grains.

  7. House dust allergy and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Wayne R.

    2012-01-01

    HDM allergy is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. In many countries childhood asthma is predominantly found in HDM-allergic children with their probability of developing disease being proportional to their IgE antibody titers and the early development of Th2 responses. While the pathogenesis is complex and increasingly linked to infection the immunologically-based allergen immunotherapy and anti-IgE antibody therapy are highly beneficial. Immunotherapy could be a short-term treatment providing lifelong relief but the current regimens depend on repeated administration of allergen over years. Immunological investigations point to a contribution of responses outside the Th2 pathway and multiple potential but unproven control mechanisms. Over half of the IgE antibodies are directed to the group 1 and 2 allergens with most of remainder to the group 4, 5, 7 and 21 allergens. This hierarchy found in high and low responders provides a platform for introducing defined allergens into immunotherapy and defined reagents for investigation. PMID:22894952

  8. Chemical constituents of fugitive dust.

    PubMed

    Van Pelt, R Scott; Zobeck, Ted M

    2007-07-01

    Wind erosion selectively winnows the fine, most chemically concentrated portions of surface soils and results in the inter-regional transport of fugitive dust containing plant nutrients, trace elements and other soil-borne contaminants. We sampled and analyzed surface soils, sediments in transport over eroding fields, and attic dust from a small area of the Southern High Plains of Texas to characterize the physical nature and chemical constituents of these materials and to investigate techniques that would allow relatively rapid, low cost techniques for estimating the chemical constituents of fugitive dust from an eroding field. From chemical analyses of actively eroding sediments, it would appear that Ca is the only chemical species that is enriched more than others during the process of fugitive dust production. We found surface soil sieved to produce a sub-sample with particle diameters in the range of 53-74 microm to be a reasonably good surrogate for fugitive dust very near the source field, that sieved sub-samples with particle diameters <10 microm have a crustal enrichment factor of approximately 6, and that this factor, multiplied by the chemical contents of source soils, may be a reasonable estimator of fugitive PM(10) chemistry from the soils of interest. We also found that dust from tractor air cleaners provided a good surrogate for dust entrained by tillage and harvesting operations if the chemical species resulting from engine wear and exhaust were removed from the data set or scaled back to the average of enrichment factors noted for chemical species with no known anthropogenic sources. Chemical analyses of dust samples collected from attics approximately 4 km from the nearest source fields indicated that anthropogenic sources of several environmentally important nutrient and trace element species are much larger contributors, by up to nearly two orders of magnitude, to atmospheric loading and subsequent deposition than fugitive dust from eroding

  9. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  10. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... US Border Regions US Southwest Locations Abandoned Mines Agricultural Runoff Airplanes and Air Travel Algae Blooms Animal ... Links from MedlinePlus (National Library of Medicine) Air Pollution Asthma Valley Fever More Links Dust Control On ...

  11. Triton's streaks as windblown dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

  12. Monitoring of peanut-allergic patients with peanut-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Borici-Mazi, Rozita; Mazza, Jorge A; Moote, David W; Payton, Keith B

    2008-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects approximately 1% of the population. Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are gold standard for diagnosis. Serum peanut-specific IgE (PN-IgE) is used in clinical practice as an additional diagnostic and monitoring tool. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features of a peanut-allergic patient's cohort and determine the optimum frequency of measuring PN-IgE to predict the outcome of future peanut challenges. Retrospective chart review was performed of peanut-allergic patients followed up and serially tested for PN-IgE with a qualitative antibody fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay performed at the Immunology Laboratory, London Health Sciences Center, from 1997 to 2004. One hundred eighteen patients (median age at first reaction to peanut, 1.5 years; median baseline PN-IgE, 18.75) were reviewed. Younger age at first reaction and first PN-IgE measurement predicted slower decline of PN-IgE values (p < 0.001 and p = 0.044). At 2 and 5 years post-initial measurement, 12.9 and 66%, respectively, of all patients had a significant decrease of PN-IgE values. Twenty percent of the patients experienced elevation of PN-IgE levels during follow-up. For most patients with significant history of reaction to peanuts and positive skin-prick test, it is probably adequate to measure serum PN-IgE levels every 3-5 years to screen for development of tolerance and predict the outcome of future peanut challenges. More frequent measurements might be considered in older patients with lower initial PN-IgE levels.

  13. Reactivity of IgE to the allergen hyaluronidase from Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) venom.

    PubMed

    Justo Jacomini, Débora Laís; Gomes Moreira, Susana Margarida; Campos Pereira, Franco Dani; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto Braga, Márcia Regina

    2014-05-01

    To date, there are no allergenic extracts or components available in Brazil to diagnosis and treatment of patients with venom allergy from social wasp (Vespidae Family; Polistinae Subfamily) despite of the great number of existing species. We evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Hyal recombinant protein (Pp-Hyal-rec) which was expressed in an insoluble form in comparison with the allergenic native protein (Pp-Hyal-nat) for recognition of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the serum of allergic patients to venom of the endemic social wasp Polybia paulista from São Paulo State, Brazil. Hyal cDNA from the venom of the social wasp P. paulista (Pp-Hyal) (GI: 302201582) was cloned into the expression vector pET-28a in Escherichia coli DE3 (BL21) cells. Solubilization and purification of Pp-Hyal-rec from inclusion bodies were performed using Ni(2+) affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA-Agarose) under denaturing conditions. Both the native (Pp-Hyal-nat) and the recombinant (Pp-Hyal-rec) purified allergens were used for Western blotting to assess the levels of Pp-Hyal-IgE specific in the serum of 10 patients exclusively reactive to the venom of the social wasp P. paulista. The immune sera specifically recognized the band corresponding to the Pp-Hyal-rec protein (40 kDa) at a higher intensity than the native allergen (39 kDa). The sera recognized other proteins in P. paulista crude venom extract to a lesser extent, likely corresponding to other venom allergens such as phospholipase (34 kDa), Antigen 5 (25 kDa), and proteases. The recognition pattern of the immune sera to the Pp-Hyal-rec allergen strongly suggests that this recombinant antigen could be used for developing a diagnostic allergy test as well as for specific immunotherapy (IT).

  14. Is the Determination of Specific IgE against Components Using ISAC 112 a Reproducible Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aranguren, Rubén; Lizaso, María T.; Goikoetxea, María J.; García, Blanca E.; Cabrera-Freitag, Paula; Trellez, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ImmunoCAP ISAC 112 is a fluoro-immunoassay that allows detection of specific IgE to 112 molecular components from 51 allergenic sources. We studied the reliability of this technique intra- and inter- assay, as well as inter-batch- and inter-laboratory-assay. Methods Twenty samples were studied, nineteen sera from polysensitized allergic patients, and the technique calibrator provided by the manufacturer (CTR02). We measured the sIgE from CTR02 and three patients' sera ten times in the same and in different assays. Furthermore, all samples were tested in two laboratories and with two batches of ISAC kit. To evaluate the accuracy of ISAC 112, we contrasted the determinations of CTR02 calibrator with their expected values by T Student test. To analyse the precision, we calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) of the 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, and to analyse the repeatability and the reproducibility, we calculated the intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to each allergen. Results The results obtained for CTR02 were similar to those expected in 7 of 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, whereas in 8 allergens the results showed significant differences. The mean CV obtained in the CTR02 determinations was of 9.4%, and the variability of sera from patients was of 22.9%. The agreement in the intra- and inter-assay analysis was very good to 94 allergens and good to one. In the inter-batch analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 82 allergens, good to 14, moderate to 5 allergens, poor to one, and bad to 1 allergen. In the inter-laboratory analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 73 allergens, good to 22, moderate to 6 and poor to two allergens. Conclusion The allergen microarray immunoassay, ISAC 112, is a repeatable and reproducible in vitro diagnostic tool for determination of sIgE beyond the own laboratory. PMID:24516646

  15. Simulations of Mineral Dust Content With CHIMERE-Dust Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmechtig, C.; Marticorena, B.; Menut, L.; Bergametti, G.

    2006-12-01

    Simulations of the mineral dust cycle have been performed whith CHIMERE-Dust model over a domain that includes North Africa, the Mediterranean basin and the North Tropical Atlantic Ocean (10S-60N and 90W-90E) with a 1°x1° resolution using the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) meteorological fields for two years, 2000 and 2001. As a validation, we compare the simulated dust concentration fields with photometric data from the AERONET network. From the comparisons between the simulated and measured aerosol optical depth for several stations of the Mediterranean basin, the model appears to reproduce correctly the intensity and occurrences of the dust events. Over Western Africa, the results are not as satisfying since some of the most intense dust events observed on the continent and downwind are not captured by the model. In addition, the simulated events are generally underestimated compared to the measured ones. It appears that these differences in the model performances are connected to the origin of the dust plumes. For example, dust plumes coming from Libya are well simulated while dust plumes originating from the Bodélé depression not as frequent as intense as the observations suggest. Soil properties in these two regions are comparable and typical of very erodible surfaces. We thus focused on the comparison between the ECMWF 10m wind speed fields and 10m wind speed measured at the meteorological stations located in both areas. We noticed that over Libya, the measured and ECMWF 10m wind speed are in very good agreement, while the meteorological model does not reproduce the extrema of the measured wind speed in the Bodélé depression. We found that a crude empirical correction of the 10m wind field in the Bodélé Depression significantly improve the simulations in terms of occurrence and of intensity.

  16. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  17. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  18. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  19. How much dust does Enceladus eject?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha; Srama, Ralf; Postberg, Frank; Schmidt, Juergen

    2016-07-01

    There is an ongoing argument how much dust per second the ice volcanoes on Saturn's ice moon eject. By adjusting their plume model to the dust flux measured by the Cassini dust detector during the close Enceladus flyby in 2005, Schmidt et al. (2008) obtained a total dust production rate in the plumes of about

  20. How much dust does Enceladus eject?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha; Southworth, Benjamin; Schmidt, Juergen; Srama, Ralf; Postberg, Frank

    2016-04-01

    There is an ongoing argument how much dust per second the ice volcanoes on Saturn's ice moon eject. By adjusting their plume model to the dust flux measured by the Cassini dust detector during the close Enceladus flyby in 2005, Schmidt et al. (2008) obtained a total dust production rate in the plumes of about

  1. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  2. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  3. IRAS observations of asteroid dust bands and cometary dust trails

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of data from the infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) resulted in the discovery of bands of dust surrounding the inner solar system, consisting of asteroid collision debris (Low et al., 1984). Narrow trails of dust were also discovered tracking the orbits of a number of short-period comets (Sykes et al., 1986). Pairs of dust bands are the product of individual collisional events in the asteroid belt. A dynamical model is developed that shows how the orbits of debris from such collisions evolve to form a band pair. A model of the surface-area evolution of such bands is also developed which, coupled with asteroid collision theories, indicates that some of the observed dust bands are the consequence of the disruption of approx.10 km diameter asteroids within the last approx.10/sup 7/ years. Observations of other bands are consistent with more ancient disruptions of much larger asteroids, which resulted in the formation of the Koronis and Themis asteroid families. Cometary dust trails consist of particles hundreds of microns and larger in diameter, ejected at low velocities (m/s) from the parent comet, and spreading out ahead and behind the comet's position along its orbital path, the initial stages in the evolution of meteor streams. Preliminary results from a survey of dust trails in the IRAS data indicate the presence of a large number of previously unobserved short-period comets.

  4. Development of an electrostatic dust detector for tungsten dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, D.; Hammond, K.; Roquemore, L.; Skinner, C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Next-step fusion reactors, such as ITER, are expected to have large quantities of dust that will present hazards that have yet to be encountered in current fusion devices. To manage the amount of dust within the reactors a real-time dust detector must be implemented to ensure that dust does not reach hazardous levels. An electrostatic device that accomplishes this has already been tested on NSTX and Tore Supra [1,2]. We will present modifications of this device to improve its ruggedness to withstand the conditions that will be present in ITER. The detector consists of two tungsten wires wrapped around a macor cylinder that are biased at 100-300 V. Incident dust causes a measurable transient short circuit. Initial results have demonstrated the detection of tungsten particles. We will also present a potential method of electrostatic cleaning of residual dust from the detector.[4pt] [1] C. H. Skinner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81, 10E102 (2010)[0pt] [2] H. Roche et al., Phys. Scr., T145, (2011).

  5. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  6. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  7. Twisted dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.

    2012-08-15

    We examine linear dust acoustic waves (DAWs) in a dusty plasma with strongly correlated dust grains, and discuss possibility of a twisted DA vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). For our purposes, we use the Boltzmann distributed electron and ion density perturbations, the dust continuity and generalized viscoelastic dust momentum equations, and Poisson's equation to obtain a dispersion relation for the modified DAWs. The effects of the polarization force, strong dust couplings, and dust charge fluctuations on the DAW spectrum are examined. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the DAW can propagate as a twisted vortex beam carrying OAM. A twisted DA vortex structure can trap and transport dust particles in dusty plasmas.

  8. Characterization of indoor home vacuum dust allergens and serum based allergen specific IgE levels in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study was conducted in the Detroit, Michigan area during fall to early winter 2006-2007. Children from 9-13 years of age were recruited into a cross-sectional study to examine biological markers of exposure, effects, and susce...

  9. The Martian dust cycle: A proposed model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of study of martian dust storms, many of their characteristics and associated processes remain enigmatic, including the mechanisms for dust raising, modes of settling, and the nature of dust deposits. However, observations of Mars dust, considerations of terrestrial analogs, theoretical models, and laboratory simulations permit the formulation of a Martian Dust Cycle Model, which consists of three main processes: (1) suspension threshold, (2) transportation, and (3) deposition; two associated processes are also included: (4) dust removal and (5) the addition of new dust to the cycle. Although definitions vary, dust includes particles less than 4 to approx. 60 microns in diameter, which by terrestrial usage includes silt, loess, clay, and aerosolic dust particles. The dust cycle model is explained.

  10. Down-modulation of antigen-induced activation of murine cultured mast cells sensitized with a highly cytokinergic IgE clone.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Mariko; Kurimune, Yuki; Yamada, Keiko; Hyodo, Nao; Natsuhara, Mayuko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that several IgE clones can activate mast cells during the sensitization phase even in the absence of antigen. They were found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release, histamine synthesis, chemotaxis, adhesion, and accelerated maturation of mast cells, although it remains unknown whether antigen-induced responses can be affected by differences of IgE clones. We compared two IgE clones, which were different in the capacity to activate mast cells during sensitization, in terms of potentials to affect antigen-induced degranulation and cytokine releases using IL-3-dependent murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs). Antigen-induced degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were augmented, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone IgE-3, which did not induce phosphorylation of JNK and cytokine release in the absence of antigen, whereas those were significantly rather decreased, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone SPE-7, one of the most potent cytokinergic IgE clones, which intensively induced phosphorylation of JNK. This attenuated response with SPE-7 was accompanied by decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cellular proteins including Syk upon antigen stimulation. SP600125, which is known to inhibit JNK, restored the levels of antigen-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in BMMCs sensitized with higher concentrations of a clone SPE-7 when it was added before sensitization. Treatment with anisomycin, a potent activator of JNK, before IgE sensitization significantly suppressed antigen-induced degranulation. These findings suggest that differences of sensitizing IgE clones can affect antigen-induced responses and activation of JNK during sensitization might suppress antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

  11. A human monoclonal IgE antibody that binds to MGL_1304, a major allergen in human sweat, without activation of mast cells and basophils.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaori; Hiragun, Makiko; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kan, Takanobu; Kawaguchi, Tomoko; Yanase, Yuhki; Tanaka, Akio; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Hide, Michihiro

    MGL_1304, a major allergen in human sweat for patients with atopic dermatitis and/or cholinergic urticaria, is secreted from Malassezia globosa on human skin. The amounts of MGL_1304 and IgE against MGL_1304 are evaluated by the histamine release test using basophils or mast cells sensitized with serum containing IgE against MGL_1304, and enzyme linked sorbent assay (ELISA) using MGL_1304 and anti-MGL_1304 antibodies. Here, we identified a human monoclonal IgE (ABS-IgE) that binds to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) and MGL_1304 with high affinity (KD = 1.99 nM) but does not release histamine from basophils and mast cells. An ELISA using ABS-IgE as a standard IgE revealed that the amount of IgE against MGL_1304 (1000 U/ml) in the standard sera of patients with AD, employed in our previous report, is 32 ng/ml. A sandwich ELISA using ABS-IgE as a detection antibody showed approximately 10 times lower detection limit for MGL_1304 than ELISA in which MGL_1304 is directly bound to an ELISA plate. Moreover, ABS-IgE prevented histamine release from mast cells and basophils by neutralizing MGL_1304 not only in a free form in solution, but also on FcεRI expressed on the cell surface without cell activation. ABS-IgE may be used both to quantify the amount of MGL_1304 and anti-MGL_1304 IgE, and possibly for the treatment of diseases caused/aggravated by type I allergy to MGL_1304. PMID:26541454

  12. Label-free electrochemical IgE aptasensor based on covalent attachment of aptamer onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid/chitosan nanocomposite modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Khezrian, Somayeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Teymourian, Hazhir; Hallaj, Rahman

    2013-05-15

    A simple, sensitive and label-free aptamer-based biosensor for the detection of human immunoglobulin E (IgE) is developed using the electrochemical transduction method. A special immobilization interface consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid/chitosan nanocomposite (MWCNTs/IL/Chit) is utilized to improve the conductivity and performance characteristics of the biosensor as well as to increase the loading amount of aptamer DNA sequence. A 5'-amino-terminated aptamer is covalently attached onto MWCNTs/IL/Chit modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode via a linker of glutaraldehyde (GA). Methylene blue (MB) is used as an electrochemical indicator which is intercalated into the aptamer through the specific interaction with its guanine bases. In the absence of IgE, MB bound to the aptamer produces a strong differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) signal. But when IgE exists, the intercalated MB releases from the aptamer, resulting an obviously decreased DPV signal. This phenomenon can be applied for human IgE detection. The peak current of MB linearly decreases with the concentration of IgE over a range of 0.5-30 nM with a detection limit of 37 pM. By using Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme, the excellent specificity of this sensing system for the detection of IgE is also demonstrated. Finally, the proposed aptasensor is successfully used to IgE analysis in human serum sample. The obtained result is well agreed with the value obtained by the standard ELISA method. The herein described approach is expected to promote the exploitation of aptamer-based biosensors for protein assays in biochemical and biomedical studies.

  13. A human monoclonal IgE antibody that binds to MGL_1304, a major allergen in human sweat, without activation of mast cells and basophils.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaori; Hiragun, Makiko; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kan, Takanobu; Kawaguchi, Tomoko; Yanase, Yuhki; Tanaka, Akio; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Hide, Michihiro

    MGL_1304, a major allergen in human sweat for patients with atopic dermatitis and/or cholinergic urticaria, is secreted from Malassezia globosa on human skin. The amounts of MGL_1304 and IgE against MGL_1304 are evaluated by the histamine release test using basophils or mast cells sensitized with serum containing IgE against MGL_1304, and enzyme linked sorbent assay (ELISA) using MGL_1304 and anti-MGL_1304 antibodies. Here, we identified a human monoclonal IgE (ABS-IgE) that binds to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) and MGL_1304 with high affinity (KD = 1.99 nM) but does not release histamine from basophils and mast cells. An ELISA using ABS-IgE as a standard IgE revealed that the amount of IgE against MGL_1304 (1000 U/ml) in the standard sera of patients with AD, employed in our previous report, is 32 ng/ml. A sandwich ELISA using ABS-IgE as a detection antibody showed approximately 10 times lower detection limit for MGL_1304 than ELISA in which MGL_1304 is directly bound to an ELISA plate. Moreover, ABS-IgE prevented histamine release from mast cells and basophils by neutralizing MGL_1304 not only in a free form in solution, but also on FcεRI expressed on the cell surface without cell activation. ABS-IgE may be used both to quantify the amount of MGL_1304 and anti-MGL_1304 IgE, and possibly for the treatment of diseases caused/aggravated by type I allergy to MGL_1304.

  14. Extra-intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: related to high total IgE levels and atopic sensitization?

    PubMed

    Vara, Ellen Johanne; Valeur, Jørgen; Hausken, Trygve; Lied, Gülen Arslan

    2016-08-01

    Objective We have previously found that high levels of total IgE, but not atopic sensitization, was a significant predictor for functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of extra-intestinal symptoms in IBS patients, and explore their relation to total IgE levels and atopic sensitization. Materials and methods Seventy-one patients with functional GI complaints were included. Severity of GI symptoms, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain was evaluated using the following questionnaires: IBS-Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS), Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), FibroFatigue Scale (FFS), and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) for musculoskeletal pain. Levels of total IgE and specific IgE-antibodies were analyzed. Results Fatigue and musculoskeletal pain were demonstrated in 78.9 and 43.7% of the patients, respectively. IBS-SSS scores were significantly correlated with fatigue scores and musculoskeletal pain. Patients with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain had significantly higher IBS-SSS scores than patients without fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in IBS patients compared to a healthy control group from a previous study. However, neither total IgE nor atopic sensitization was significantly associated with extra-intestinal symptoms. Conclusions IBS, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain were significantly associated. Total IgE levels were higher in IBS patients than healthy controls, but not related to intestinal or extra-intestinal symptom severity. Atopy was not associated with any of the co-morbidities. Thus, the clinical significance of high IgE levels in IBS remains unclear and further studies are warranted to explore a common underlying mechanism for the co-morbid triad of IBS, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain.

  15. The Interaction Between Prenatal Exposure to Home Renovation and Reactive Oxygen Species Genes in Cord Blood IgE Response is Modified by Maternal Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinho; Shin, Youn Ho; Kim, Kyung Won; Suh, Dong In; Yu, Ho-Sung; Kang, Mi-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Shin; Hong, Seo Ah; Choi, Kil Yong; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although home renovation exposure during childhood has been identified as a risk factor for the development of allergy, there is limited information on the association between prenatal exposure to home renovation and cord blood (CB) IgE response. The aims of this study were to identify the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on CB IgE levels, and to investigate whether this exposure interacts with neonatal genes and whether the effect can be modified by maternal atopy. Methods This study included 1,002 mother-neonate pairs from the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). Prenatal environmental factors were collected using a questionnaire. The levels of CB IgE were measured by the ImmunoCAP system, and DNA was extracted from CB. Results Exposure to home renovation during the prenatal period was associated with significantly higher levels of CB IgE only in neonates from atopic mothers, and the effect of renovation exposure on CB IgE levels persisted from 31 months before birth. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to home renovation increased the risk of CB IgE response interacting with polymorphisms of NRF2 and GSTP1 genes only in neonates from atopic mothers. Conclusions Maternal atopy modified the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on CB serum IgE response as well as the interaction between the exposure and neonatal genes involved in the oxidative stress pathway. These findings suggest that the genetically susceptible offspring of atopic mothers may be more vulnerable to the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on the development of allergy. PMID:26540500

  16. Evaluation of an in vitro method for the measurement of specific IgE antibody responses: the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay.

    PubMed

    Dearman, R J; Skinner, R A; Deakin, N; Shaw, D; Kimber, I

    2005-01-15

    The evaluation of allergenic potential is a key parameter in the safety assessment of novel proteins, including those expressed in genetically modified crops and foodstuffs. The majority of allergic reactions to food proteins are immediate type hypersensitivity reactions in which the principal biological effector is IgE antibody; the accurate measurement of specific IgE antibody is therefore a critical factor in experimental systems designed to characterize protein allergenic potential. Due to the presence of much higher concentrations of other immunoglobulin isotypes, the assessment of specific serum IgE antibody poses substantial technical challenges. We have examined the utility of the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell line for the measurement of murine IgE responses. RBL cells were sensitized with mouse monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody and challenged with DNP-albumin conjugates with various hapten substitution ratios (SR). Polyclonal anti-OVA IgE antisera were also assessed for activity in the RBL assay. Results were compared with titers measured in homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay. Marked degranulation of RBL cells was induced by conjugates with SRs of between 16 and 32, whereas conjugates with lower SRs (of 10 or 3) failed to elicit significant serotonin release. All conjugates were able to induce mast cell degranulation in vivo in a PCA assay. Anti-OVA antisera with PCA titers of 1/32 to 1/64 failed to stimulate RBL cell degranulation, whereas high titer antibody (1/2048 to 1/4096 by PCA) induced a positive RBL cell response. Successful stimulation of RBL cell degranulation requires not only appropriate epitope densities but also high affinity antibody. These data indicate that this assay is inappropriate for the routine analysis of specific polyclonal IgE antibody responses such as those that are induced by exposure to complex protein allergens.

  17. Dust in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of a commercial computer software package, "Dust," to enhance mathematical learning in the classroom. Samples of mathematics problems presented in this game which is a simulation of an adventure in outer space are presented. (CW)

  18. Wormhole shadows in rotating dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgami, Takayuki; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2016-09-01

    As an extension of our previous work, which investigated the shadows of the Ellis wormhole surrounded by nonrotating dust, in this paper we study wormhole shadows in a rotating dust flow. First, we derive steady-state solutions of slowly rotating dust surrounding the wormhole by solving relativistic Euler equations. Solving null geodesic equations and radiation transfer equations, we investigate the images of the wormhole surrounded by dust for the above steady-state solutions. Because the Ellis wormhole spacetime possesses unstable circular orbits of photons, a bright ring appears in the image, just as in Schwarzschild spacetime. The bright ring looks distorted due to rotation. Aside from the bright ring, there appear weakly luminous complex patterns by the emission from the other side of the throat. These structure could be detected by high-resolution very-long-baseline-interferometry observations in the near future.

  19. Atmospheric dust and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

  20. Laser Doppler dust devil measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Jeffreys, H. B.; Kaufman, J. W.; Weaver, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning laser doppler velocimeter (SLDV) system was used to detect, track, and measure the velocity flow field of naturally occurring tornado-like flows (dust devils) in the atmosphere. A general description of the dust devil phenomenon is given along with a description of the test program, measurement system, and data processing techniques used to collect information on the dust devil flow field. The general meteorological conditions occurring during the test program are also described, and the information collected on two selected dust devils are discussed in detail to show the type of information which can be obtained with a SLDV system. The results from these measurements agree well with those of other investigators and illustrate the potential for the SLDV in future endeavors.

  1. Iron speciation in urban dust

    SciTech Connect

    Elzinga, E.J.; Fitts, J.; Gao, Y.; Tappero, R.

    2011-08-01

    An improved understanding of anthropogenic impacts on ocean fertility requires knowledge of anthropogenic dust mineralogy and associated Fe speciation as a critical step toward developing Fe solubility models constrained by mineralogical composition. This study explored the utility of micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy ({mu}-XAS) in characterizing the speciation of Fe in urban dust samples. A micro-focused beam of 10 x 7 {mu}m made possible the measurement of the Fe K edge XAS spectra of individual dust particles in the PM5.6 size fraction collected in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Spectral analysis indicated the presence of mixtures of Fe-containing minerals within individual dust particles; we observed significant magnetite content along with other Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide minerals which could not be conclusively identified. Our data indicate that detailed quantitative determination of Fe speciation requires extended energy scans to constrain the types and relative abundance of Fe species present. We observe heterogeneity in Fe speciation at the dust particle level, which underscores the importance of analyzing a statistically adequate number of particles within each dust sample. Where possible, {mu}-XAS measurements should be complemented with additional characterization techniques such as {mu}-XRD and bulk XAS to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Fe speciation in dust materials. X-ray microprobes should be used to complement bulk methods used to determine particle composition, methods that fail to record particle heterogeneity. Keywords - Urban dust; Iron; Speciation; Micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  2. Photoelectric Charging of Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sickafoose, A.; Colwell, J.; Horanyi, M.; Robertson, S.; Walch, B.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed on the photoelectric charging of dust particles which are either isolated or adjacent to a surface that is also a photoemitter. We find that zinc dust charges to a positive potential of a few volts when isolated in vacuum and that it charges to a negative potential of a few volts when passed by a photoemitting surface. The illumination is an arc lamp emitting wavelengths longer than 200 nm and the emitting surface is a zirconium foil.

  3. Grain dust and the lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  4. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  5. Exozodiacal Dust Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backman, D. E. (Editor); Caroff, L. J. (Editor); Sandford, S. A. (Editor); Wooden, D. H. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to understand what effect circumstellar dust clouds will have on NASA's proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission's ability to search for terrestrial-sized planets orbiting stars in the solar neighborhood. The workshop participants reviewed the properties of TPF, summarized what is known about the local zodiacal cloud and about exozodiacal clouds, and determined what additional knowledge must be obtained to help design TPF for maximum effectiveness within its cost constraint. Recommendations were made for ways to obtain that additional knowledge, at minimum cost. The workshop brought together approximately 70 scientists, from four different countries. The active participants included astronomers involved in the study of the local zodiacal cloud, in the formation of stars and planetary systems, and in the technologies and techniques of ground- and space-based infrared interferometry. During the course of the meeting, 15 invited talks and 20 contributed poster papers were presented, and there were four working sessions. This is a collection of the invited talks, contributed poster papers, and summaries of the working sessions.

  6. The Student Dust Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Bagenal, F.; Finley, T.; Christensen, F.; Holland, G.; Bryant, C.; Bunch, N.; Neeland, M.; Chanthawanich, T.; Fernandez, A.; Hoxie, V.; Jenkins, A.; Vaudrin, C.; Krauss, E.; Krauss, O.; Crayton, J.; James, D.; Krauss, C.; Mitchell, C.; Colgan, M.; Grogan, B.; Christofferson, J.

    2005-12-01

    This talk will describe the scientific goals, the technical, and the human challenges of the Student Dust Counter (SDC) experiment for the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) organized a team of students to design, fabricate, test, calibrate, and fly SDC, one of seven science instruments onboard New Horizons. The student team was responsible for all phases of this development under the supervision of LASP professionals. Both undergraduate and graduate students worked on this project, representing a variety of disciplines, including Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, Physics, Journalism, and Business. The SDC project is part of the EPO effort of the New Horizons mission. Though it is a student project, the requirements for passing all standard NASA milestones for reviews were identical to other experiments. The students performed at a professional level and SDC was delivered on time and within budget. It is now integrated to the spacecraft awaiting the scheduled launch in January of 2006. To date, SDC provided a group of about 20 students an opportunity to learn first hand how to build instruments, and graduate with years of experience in space exploration.

  7. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    PubMed

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment. PMID:9542605

  8. Allergy to guinea pigs: II Identification of specific allergens in guinea pig dust by crossed radio-immunoelectrophoresis and investigation of the possible origin.

    PubMed

    Walls, A F; Newman Taylor, A J; Longbottom, J L

    1985-11-01

    An extract of dust from the air-vent filters of a room housing guinea pigs was analysed by quantitative immunoelectrophoretic procedures and compared with extracts of various materials derived from guinea pigs. Crossed radio-immunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) of the dust, performed with sera from twenty asthmatic patients who were positive by skin testing and RAST to guinea pig extracts, identified fourteen IgE-binding constituents. Although responses varied, most sera reacted with four particular allergens, antigens 2, 3, 10 and Sl. The numbers of allergens recognized by individual patients correlated with the RAST score, but not with total serum IgE. All seventeen dust constituents detected by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (and all four major allergens), were also present in extracts of guinea pig dander, fur, saliva and urine; several of these components were absent in an epithelial extract, and there were even less in preparations of shaved pelt, serum or faeces. None of the dust extract antigens were detected in materials used in animal husbandry, dust samples from rooms without guinea pigs, or a D. pteronyssinus extract. These findings suggest that inhalant allergens may be derived predominantly from material shed from the guinea pig coat after contamination with saliva, and possibly to a lesser extent, urine. PMID:2416489

  9. Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devalapalli, A.P.; Lesher, A.; Shieh, K.; Solow, J.S.; Everett, M.L.; Edala, A.S.; Whitt, P.; Long, Renee R.; Newton, N.; Parker, W.

    2006-01-01

    To probe the potential role of Th1 versus Th2 reactivity underlying the hygiene hypothesis, intrinsic levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated antibodies in the serum of wild rodents were compared with that in various strains of laboratory rodents. Studies using rat lung antigens as a target indicated that wild rats have substantially greater levels of autoreactive, polyreactive immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not autoreactive, polyreactive IgM than do laboratory rats, both on a quantitative and qualitative basis. Increased levels of serum IgG and IgE were observed in both wild rats and wild mice relative to their laboratory-raised counterparts, with the effect being most pronounced for IgE levels. Further, wild rats had greater intrinsic levels of both Th1- and Th2-associated IgG subclasses than did lab rats. The habitat (wild versus laboratory raised) had a more substantial impact on immunoglobulin concentration than did age, strain or gender in the animals studied. The presence in wild rodents of increased intrinsic, presumably protective, non-pathogenic responses similar to both autoimmune (autoreactive IgG, Th1-associated) and allergic (IgE, Th2-associated) reactions as well as increased levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated IgG subclasses points toward a generally increased stimulation of the immune system in these animals rather than a shift in the nature of the immunoreactivity. It is concluded that, at least to the extent that feedback inhibition is a controlling element of immunoreactivity, an overly hygienic environment may affect the threshold of both types of immune responses more so than the balance between the different responses.

  10. Evidence for Mendelian inheritance of serum IgE levels in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white families

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, F.D.; Holberg, C.J.; Halonen, M.; Morgan, W.J.; Wright, A.L.; Taussig, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Considerable evidence is available suggesting a significant genetic component in the pathogenesis of asthma, but the mechanism of inheritance is not well understood. The main objective of this study was to assess if total serum IgE level, a known intermediate phenotype for asthma, is under the control of a major autosomal gene. The authors studied nuclear families participating in the Tucson Children`s Respiratory Study in Tucson and originally selected because they belonged to a health maintenance organization. One hundred twenty-five Hispanic and 673 non-Hispanic White nuclear families were eligible; 50 Hispanic families (with 191 subjects) and 241 non-Hispanic White families (with 886 subjects) were included. Prevalence of asthma, hay fever, and parental smoking was similar among eligible families who were included and those who were not. Segregation analyses using regressive models for continuous traits showed that the best fit to the data was given by a model of Mendelian codominant inheritance of a major autosomal gene associated with higher serum IgE level. Log-likelihood for this model was not significantly different from that of the best-fitting ({open_quotes}unrestricted{close_quotes}) model (P=.3) and was significantly better than log-likelihood for a dominant model (P<.0001) and a recessive model (<.0001). An environmental model showed significant departure (P<.0001) from the unrestricted model. Tests for genetic heterogeneity showed no significant difference between the two ethnic groups. The data strongly suggests that total serum IgE levels are controlled by a major autosomal codominant gene. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Gene Encoding Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines Is Associated with Asthma and IgE in Three Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Candelaria; Tsai, Yuhjung J.; Grant, Audrey V.; Rafaels, Nicholas; Gao, Li; Hand, Tracey; Stockton, Maria; Campbell, Monica; Mercado, Dilia; Faruque, Mezbah; Dunston, Georgia; Beaty, Terri H.; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Ponte, Eduardo V.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Watson, Harold; Schleimer, Robert P.; Caraballo, Luis; Nickel, Renate G.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma prevalence and severity are high among underserved minorities, including those of African descent. The Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines is the receptor for Plasmodium vivax on erythrocytes and functions as a chemokine-clearing receptor. Unlike European populations, decreased expression of the receptor on erythrocytes is common among populations of African descent, and results from a functional T-46C polymorphism (rs2814778) in the promoter. This variant provides an evolutionary advantage in malaria-endemic regions, because Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines-negative erythrocytes are more resistant to infection by P. vivax. Objectives: To determine the role of the rs2814778 polymorphism in asthma and atopy as measured by total serum IgE levels among four populations of African descent (African Caribbean, African American, Brazilian, and Colombian) and a European American population. Methods: Family-based association tests were performed in each of the five populations to test for association between the rs2814778 polymorphism and asthma or total IgE concentration. Measurements and Main Results: Asthma was significantly associated with the rs2814778 polymorphism in the African Caribbean, Colombian, and Brazilian families (P < 0.05). High total IgE levels were associated with this variant in African Caribbean and Colombian families (P < 0.05). The variant allele was not polymorphic among European Americans. Conclusions: Susceptibility to asthma and atopy among certain populations of African descent is influenced by a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines. This genetic variant, which confers resistance to malarial parasitic infection, may also partially explain ethnic differences in morbidity of asthma. PMID:18827265

  12. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, −173 G to C and −794 CATT5–8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The −173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF −794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the −173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the −794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen

  13. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, -173 G to C and -794 CATT5-8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The -173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF -794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the -173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the -794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen-specific IgE

  14. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  15. IgE Mediates Killing of Intracellular Toxoplasma gondii by Human Macrophages through CD23-Dependent, Interleukin-10 Sensitive Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Mazier, Dominique; Moynet, Daniel; Thiolat, Denis; Malvy, Denis; Mossalayi, M. Djavad

    2011-01-01

    Background In addition to helminthic infections, elevated serum IgE levels were observed in many protozoal infections, while their contribution during immune response to these pathogens remained unclear. As IgE/antigen immune complexes (IgE-IC) bind to human cells through FcεRI or FcεRII/CD23 surface molecules, the present study aimed to identify which functional receptor may be involved in IgE-IC interaction with human macrophages, the major effector cell during parasite infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Human monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with Toxoplasma gondii before being incubated with IgE-IC. IgE receptors were then identified using appropriate blocking antibodies. The activation of cells and parasiticidal activity were evaluated by mediator quantification and direct counting of infected macrophages. RNAs were extracted and cell supernatants were also collected for their content in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and nitrites. Sera from symptomatic infected patients were also tested for their content of IgE, IL-10 and nitrites, and compared to values found in healthy donors. Results showed that IgE-IC induced intracellular elimination of parasites by human macrophages. IgE-mediated effect was FcεRI-independent, but required cross-linking of surface FcεRII/CD23, cell activation and the generation of nitric oxide (NO). Although TNF-α was shown to be produced during cell activation, this cytokine had minor contribution in this phenomenon while endogenous and exogenous IL-10 down-regulated parasite killing. Inverse relationship was found between IL-10 and NO expression by infected human macrophages at both mRNA and mediator levels. The relationship between these in vitro data and in vivo levels of various factors in T. gondii infected patients supports the involvement of CD23 antigen and IL-10 expression in disease control. Conclusion Thus, IgE may be considered as immune mediator during antiprotozoal activity of

  16. What are the main environmental exposures associated with elevated IgE in Cuban infants? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venero-Fernández, Silvia J; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Mora-Faife, Esperanza de la C; García-García, Gladys; del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a key role in allergy disease pathogenesis, but little is known about the environmental factors associated with higher IgE levels in infants. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for elevated serum total IgE infants living in Havana. Methods Eight hundred and seventy-seven infants provided blood samples. Data on allergic disease symptoms and a wide range of exposures were collected. Results The median IgE was 35IU/ml (interquartile range 13–96). The risk of having an IgE level above the median was higher for children who had been breastfed for 4 months or more (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.61) and for children who reported cockroaches in their home (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03–1.63). The risk was lower for children whose mother was in paid employment (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54–0.97 compared with those who did not), for children living in homes where gas and electricity were used for cooking (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.32–0.62 compared with electricity only) and for children with domestic pets at birth (OR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00). There was no association between paracetamol use and serum IgE levels. Conclusions Associations between gas fuel use and maternal employment indicate that IgE levels in early life are lower in children who may be living in relative affluence. The discrepancy in the effect of early exposure to pets or cockroaches may reflect differences in these allergens, or be confounded by relative affluence. Further investigation of this cohort will determine how these effects translate into the expression of allergic disease in later life. Objectif Les immunoglobulines E (IgE) jouent un rôle clé dans la pathogenèse de la maladie allergique, mais on sait peu sur les facteurs environnementaux associés à des taux plus élevés d'IgE chez les nourrissons. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque pour un taux élevé d'IgE s

  17. What are the main environmental exposures associated with elevated IgE in Cuban infants? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venero-Fernández, Silvia J; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Mora-Faife, Esperanza de la C; García-García, Gladys; del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a key role in allergy disease pathogenesis, but little is known about the environmental factors associated with higher IgE levels in infants. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for elevated serum total IgE infants living in Havana. Methods Eight hundred and seventy-seven infants provided blood samples. Data on allergic disease symptoms and a wide range of exposures were collected. Results The median IgE was 35IU/ml (interquartile range 13–96). The risk of having an IgE level above the median was higher for children who had been breastfed for 4 months or more (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.61) and for children who reported cockroaches in their home (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03–1.63). The risk was lower for children whose mother was in paid employment (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54–0.97 compared with those who did not), for children living in homes where gas and electricity were used for cooking (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.32–0.62 compared with electricity only) and for children with domestic pets at birth (OR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00). There was no association between paracetamol use and serum IgE levels. Conclusions Associations between gas fuel use and maternal employment indicate that IgE levels in early life are lower in children who may be living in relative affluence. The discrepancy in the effect of early exposure to pets or cockroaches may reflect differences in these allergens, or be confounded by relative affluence. Further investigation of this cohort will determine how these effects translate into the expression of allergic disease in later life. Objectif Les immunoglobulines E (IgE) jouent un rôle clé dans la pathogenèse de la maladie allergique, mais on sait peu sur les facteurs environnementaux associés à des taux plus élevés d'IgE chez les nourrissons. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque pour un taux élevé d'IgE s

  18. Serum IgE, tumor epidermal growth factor receptor expression, and inherited polymorphisms associated with glioma survival.

    PubMed

    Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John K; Wiemels, Joe; Miike, Rei; Patoka, Joe; Moghadassi, Michelle; McMillan, Alex; Kelsey, Karl T; Aldape, Kenneth; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Parsa, Andrew T; Sison, Jennette D; Prados, Michael D

    2006-04-15

    In population-based glioma patients, we examined survival in relation to potentially pertinent constitutive polymorphisms, serologic factors, and tumor genetic and protein alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MDM2, and TP53. Subjects were newly diagnosed adults residing in the San Francisco Bay Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Area during 1991 to 1994 and 1997 to 1999 with central neuropathology review (n = 873). Subjects provided blood for serologic studies of IgE and IgG to four herpes viruses and constitutive specimens for genotyping 22 polymorphisms in 13 genes (n = 471). We obtained 595 of 697 astrocytic tumors for marker studies. We determined treatments, vital status, and other factors using registry, interview, medical record, and active follow-up data. Cox regressions for survival were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, study series, resection versus biopsy only, radiation, and chemotherapy. Using a stringent P < 0.001, glioma survival was associated with ERCC1 C8092A [hazard ratio (HR), 0.72; 95% confidence limits (95% CL), 0.60-0.86; P = 0.0004] and GSTT1 deletion (HR, 1.64; 95% CL, 1.25-2.16; P = 0.0004); glioblastoma patients with elevated IgE had 9 months longer survival than those with normal or borderline IgE levels (HR, 0.62; 95% CL, 0.47-0.82; P = 0.0007), and EGFR expression in anaplastic astrocytoma was associated with nearly 3-fold poorer survival (HR, 2.97; 95% CL, 1.70-5.19; P = 0.0001). Based on our and others' findings, we recommend further studies to (a) understand relationships of elevated IgE levels and other immunologic factors with improved glioblastoma survival potentially relevant to immunologic therapies and (b) determine which inherited ERCC1 variants or other variants in the 19q13.3 region influence survival. We also suggest that tumor EGFR expression be incorporated into clinical evaluation of anaplastic astrocytoma patients.

  19. Effect of walnut (Juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific IgE induction in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals.

  20. Relationships of bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine to serum IgE, lung function, symptoms, and diagnoses in 11-year-old New Zealand children.

    PubMed

    Burrows, B; Sears, M R; Flannery, E M; Herbison, G P; Holdaway, M D

    1992-09-01

    The relationship of bronchial responsiveness (BR), assessed by methacholine challenge, to serum IgE, baseline ventilatory function, and symptoms or diagnoses suggesting an atopic disorder were examined in 522 11-year-old New Zealand children. BR was assessed by the presence or absence of a PC20 25 mg/ml or less and by calculating a continuous index of the decline of the FEV1 during the methacholine test. The latter facilitated multivariate analyses and revealed significant relationships to predictor variables even in those considered "nonresponsive" by PC20 criteria. There was a close relationship of BR to the baseline FEV1/vital capacity ratio, seen even in patients with known asthma, but this relationship was seen only in subjects with at least moderate levels of serum IgE. There was a less close relation of BR to percent predicted FEV1, but this persisted even after accounting for the FEV1/vital capacity ratio and was present regardless of the level of serum IgE. Reported asthma was associated with increased BR independent of all other factors, but other diagnoses and symptoms contributed relatively little to the prediction of BR once the serum IgE and lung function were taken into account. The overall results are compatible with the concept that IgE is a critical factor in the development of bronchial responsiveness in childhood.